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  • Page 2 and 3: UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN., THIS DISSERT
  • Page 4 and 5: DEDICATIONThis thesis is dedicated
  • Page 6 and 7: ACKNOWLEDGMENTI would like to expre
  • Page 8 and 9: Prof. 0 Tomori, the staff of WHO na
  • Page 10 and 11: KFDKUNLIMAC-ELISAMHCmRNAMAFMVENANKV
  • Page 12 and 13: Title of DissertationTABLE OF CONTE
  • Page 15 and 16: 3.4.6 Enzyme immuno assay for the d
  • Page 17 and 18: xv4.3.3 Gender distribution of pati
  • Page 19 and 20: 24 A table showing the level ofcros
  • Page 21 and 22: ABSTRACTDengue viruses (DENs) and W
  • Page 23 and 24: 1.1 INTRODUCTIONCHAPTER ONEArboviru
  • Page 25 and 26: CHAPTER TWO2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1
  • Page 27 and 28: TABLE 1: MEMBERS OF THE FLAVIVIRIDA
  • Page 29 and 30: approximately 1O.5kb. Virions conta
  • Page 31 and 32: precludes infection by the oral rou
  • Page 33 and 34: extracellular virions respectively.
  • Page 35 and 36: complex- specific and group- reacti
  • Page 37 and 38: cleavage at the NS1/2A site, but th
  • Page 39 and 40: dispersal of Flaviviruses could be
  • Page 41 and 42: threshold. The time interval betwee
  • Page 43 and 44: that, in susceptible vertebrate cel
  • Page 45 and 46: 2.3.1RECOMBINATION OF GENETIC MATER
  • Page 47 and 48: ., by capillary leakage, thrombocyt
  • Page 49 and 50: v »infected cells. Also, lysis or
  • Page 51 and 52: its first major epidemic of dengue
  • Page 53 and 54:

    sporadic outbreaks (CDC, 2001). In

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    genotype 111, which had been presen

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    immune responses by eliciting neutr

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    hydrophilicity and antigenicity. Ho

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    392.3.9 HOST GENETIC FACTORS THAT M

  • Page 63 and 64:

    2.3.12 TREATMENT OF DENGUE VIRUS IN

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    heterogeneity among strains isolate

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    45Dogs are susceptible to infection

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    48where 22% of children and 61% of

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    Experimental inoculation of pregnan

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    sonicated prior to inoculation. The

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    encoding the prM and E proteins wit

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    56template yields full-length messe

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    58TABLE 2: THE ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN

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    3.3 SERUM SAMPLES COLLECTION:About

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    3.4 SEROLOGYThe IgM capture ELlSA (

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    aliquoted in lml amount in cryovial

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    covered and incubated overnight at

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    3.4.5.2 DILUTION METHODOne of these

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    environment. Aedes aegypti has been

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    3.5.5 VIRUS ISOLATION FROM FIELD-CA

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    color was obtained. Flask that beca

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    a) The extraction of RNA from the c

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    3.6.2.3.3 Mixture of reactants for

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    Condition of amplification:I Cycle

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    3.6.3 REVERSE-TRANSCRIPTION POLYMER

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    833.6.3.3 The procedure of RT-PCR f

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    3.6.4 IDENTIFICATION OF AMPLIFICATI

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    "r~-TABLE 7: TITRATION or ANTIGEN A

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    TABLE 8: TITRATION OF ANTIGEN AND M

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    4.2 PATTER."I OF DENGUE VIRUS INFEC

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    TABLE 10: DENGUE VIRUS INFECTIONS I

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    4.2.2 SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DENG

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    tD SEASON (SEPTTODECEMBER) --',19%H

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    4.23 AGE DISTRIBUTION OF PATIENTS W

  • Page 123 and 124:

    4.2.4 GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF I'ATIE

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    4.2.5 THE PREVALENCE OF DEN JgG ANT

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    90 r-----------------------~-------

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    4.3 IgM CAPTURE ELlSA FOR WEST NiLE

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    10.90.80.7(/lW;:)...J~ 0.5ci 0.400.

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    TABLE 18:SEASONAL PATTERN OF WNV Ig

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    TABLE 19: MONTHLY DISTRIBUTION OF W

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    TABLE 20: AGE DISTRIBUTION OF WNV I

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    TABLE 21:GENDER DISTRIIlUTION OF WN

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    TABLE 22: THE PREVALENCE OF WNV IgG

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    4.4. THE PREVALENCE OF YELLOW FEVER

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    COLD HARMATTANSEASON35%HOT DRY SEAS

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    .._-~._--TABLE 24: SHOWING THE LEVr

  • Page 149 and 150:

    1~74.7 DILUTION OF DEN POSITIVE IgM

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    4.8 VECTOlUAL STUDIES ON MOSQUITO V

  • Page 153 and 154:

    :.~. , ,, ,'\"i,,~;"'~'.,0,';i~! ,.

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    --_._-~._,--_._-------TABLE 26: THE

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    Figure 12: SEMI NESTED peR WITH AED

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    4.8.2.2 RT·PCR FOR WNV IN CULEX MO

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    139, '"i., ',"Figure 15:RT-PCR ON C

  • Page 163 and 164:

    "Figure 16; RT-rcn ON WNV POSITIVE

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    CHAPTER FIVE5.0 DISCUSSION AND CONC

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    antibody positive hy MAC-ELlSA on a

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    elationship between the prevalence

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    status (that is having previous den

  • Page 173 and 174:

    WNV RNA were C~ll[;htprcdomiuan.ly

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    patient is not uncommon if it could

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    eports (Gublcr 1997, 1998b), which

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    detection is a serologic method tha

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    November. This is because mosquito

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    Ben-Nathan, D. and Feuerstein, G. (

  • Page 185 and 186:

    Cantilc, c. Di Guardo, G. E.; Leni,

  • Page 187 and 188:

    --~------.,Chomczynski, P. and Sacc

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    Edelman, R.; Wasserman, S. S.; Bodi

  • Page 191 and 192:

    Gannendia, A.E.; Van kruningen, HJ.

  • Page 193 and 194:

    Gubler, D. Iand'Irent, D.W.(1994):

  • Page 195 and 196:

    Hammon , W. McD.( 1969): Observatio

  • Page 197 and 198:

    Innis., B.L.; Nisalak, A; Nimmannit

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    Koonin, E. V. (1993;): Computer-ass

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    179Leitmeyer, K. C.; Vaughn, D. W.;

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    Marberg, K; Goldblum, N.; Sterk, V.

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    Monath T P (1994) Dengue: the risk

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    Paradoa, Preze. M. 1.; TrujiIlo, Y.

  • Page 209 and 210:

    Rice, C. M.and Strauss, J. H. (1990

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    Shi, P.Y.; Kanfman, E.B.; Ren, P.;

  • Page 213 and 214:

    Sumiyoshi, H.; Tignor, G. H. and Sh

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    infection with some arboviruses. Tr

  • Page 217 and 218:

    Webster, L.T. (1993): Inherited and

  • Page 219 and 220:

    APPENDI X I:INOCULATION OF MICE WIT

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    APPENDIX 2PREPARATION OF REAGENTS1.

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    •17. Preparation of PrimersPrimer

  • Page 225:

    APPENDIX 4IgM EUSA RESULTS AFTER Ti

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