PDF Lesson 2: Structure of the Mammalian Heart - Cary Academy


PDF Lesson 2: Structure of the Mammalian Heart - Cary Academy

Name:_______________Date: _______________Binder #: ____________Lesson 2: Structure of the Mammalian HeartBackground Reading:OverviewThe heart is the main organ of the human circulatory system as it is the muscle that pumps bloodthrough the circulatory system. By doing so, it provides cells with the substances needed for theirsurvival such as nutrients, oxygen, etc. The human heart is roughly the size of a man’s fist andhas a mass of 300 grams. The heart is located in the middle of the chest, behind the breastbone,between the lungs, in the pericardial cavity within the rib cage. The heart is enclosed within thepericardium which is a two layer fluid filled sac that protects the heart.1.) Using this information, go to the “Visible Human Viewer”,http://www.dhpc.adelaide.edu.au/projects/vishuman2/ and take a coronal photoof a male across where the heart lies within the human body. Using this image, practice findingthe heart, rib cage, lungs, breast bone, pericardium, and spine. Describe to a classmate whereeach of these items are located in your image.Coronal View:joselyn_todd, All Right Reserved, © 2006 Page 1 10/22/2006

Name:_______________Date: _______________Binder #: ____________2.) Next, label Figure 1 (heart, rib cage, lungs, breast bone, pericardium, and spine) afterusing the Visible Human Viewer.Figure 1. Coronal section of a male near the heart created using the “Visible Human Viewer”-http://www.dhpc.adelaide.edu.au/projects/vishuman2/ . This figure is associated with the Vodcastcalled “Podcast/Vodcast 3.”Structure of the Human HeartThe heart is a hollow, muscular organ made of four chambers with multiple arteries (arteries arethe blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood) and veins (veins are the blood vessels that carryunoxygenated blood) connected to the heart. The top of the heart is called the base. Thepointed tip of the heart is called the apex. As seen in Figure 2, the right, top chamber of the heartis called the right atrium. The right, lower chamber is called the right ventricle. The left topchamber of the heart is called the left atrium, and the left bottom chamber is called the leftventricle. The two sides of the heart are separated by the thick walled septum. In between theright atrium and right ventricle is the tricuspid valve. Between the left atrium and the left ventricleis the bicuspid valve which is also called the mitral valve.Unoxygenated blood from the upper and lower body enters into the heart through the inferiorvena cava and the superior vena cava and enters into the right atrium. Once it enters into theright atrium it is pumped into the right ventricle and the tricuspid valve. Once the blood is in theright ventricle it is forcefully pumped out into the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary valve(not seen in Figure 2). The pulmonary valve prevents the blood from back flowing into the rightventricle. The blood moves through the pulmonary artery into the right and left lungs where it isoxygenated. The oxygenated blood returns to the heart through the right pulmonary veins andleft pulmonary veins. The blood enters into the left atrium and then is pumped into the leftventricle through the mitral valve (bicuspid valve). This valve prevents blood from back flowinginto the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts to push the blood through the aortic valve intothe aorta. Once blood is in the aorta it travels here to the rest of the body’s cells via arteries andeventually capillaries.joselyn_todd, All Right Reserved, © 2006 Page 2 10/22/2006

Name:_______________Date: _______________Binder #: ____________Review: Blood flow goes from the upper and lower body → into the superior/anterior vena cava→ into the right atrium → through the tricuspid valve → into the right ventricle → through thepulmonary valve → into the pulmonary artery → out to the lungs → and then back into the heartvia the pulmonary vein → into the left atrium → through the mitral valve (tricuspid valve) → intothe left ventricle → through the aortic valve → into the aorta → and then out to the rest of thebody and the cycle is continued.Figure 2. Diagram of the human heart. Associated with the vodcast, “Anatomy of the HumanHeart, Podcast/Vodcast 4.”joselyn_todd, All Right Reserved, © 2006 Page 3 10/22/2006

Name:_______________Date: _______________Binder #: ____________In Figure 3, describe to a friend wear the various structures of the heart are located. You canalso do this with an anatomical model. To also help you with learning the structures of the heartyou can watch the vodcast, “Anatomy of the Human Heart.”Figure 3. Unlabeled image of the human heart.Word Bank (You may use a word more than once.)Left Venticle Pulmonary Artery Mitral ValveTricuspid Superior Vena Cava Pulmonary ValveAorta Right Atrium Left AtriumAortic Valve Right Ventricle Inferior Vena CavaPulmonary VeinResources:• Interactive sheep heart: http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio202/cyberheart/anthrt.htm• Multimedia Heart Presentation: “Overview of the Heart”http://www.fda.gov/hearthealth/healthyheart/healthyheart.htmljoselyn_todd, All Right Reserved, © 2006 Page 4 10/22/2006

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