Methods for the specification and verification of business processes ...

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Methods for the specification and verification of business processes ...

Methods for the specification andverification of business processesMPB (6 cfu, 295AA)Roberto Brunihttp://www.di.unipi.it/~bruni02 - Business processesvenerdì 5 ottobre 20121


ClassesWednesday 16:00-18:00 Room N1Friday 11:00-13:00 Room L1Today:Ch.1 of Workflow Management: Models, Methods, and SystemsCh.1 of Business Process Management: Concepts, Languages, Architecturesvenerdì 5 ottobre 20122


Digression...Exercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddoddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddoddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddodd oddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddodd oddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddodd oddoddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddodd oddodd oddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddodd oddodd oddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddodd oddodd oddoddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddodd oddodd oddoddoddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddodd oddodd oddoddoddoddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Digression...oddoddodd oddodd oddodd oddoddoddoddoddExercises: find Eulerian circuits in the graphs above orprove that they cannot exist.3venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Reference frameworkFix the business management contextModel and analyze processesFunctionality of processes management systemsvenerdì 5 ottobre 20124


TerminologyGeneric terms, widely applicable to differentworking situations and companiesWe fix preferred terms when possible, but allowone to use synonyms interchangeably5venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


IssuesRole of work in the societyProcesses and distribution of workPrincipal-contractor relationshipOrganizational structuresProcess management6venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


WorkPeople work to live(or live to work?)We need products to maintain our lives(food, clothing, house, transportation, fun, health)We are not capable to produce all we need(or all we want, or all we are induced to want)because we cannot be skilled enoughWe buy products we cannot make ourselvesvenerdì 5 ottobre 20127


Business unitsPeople organize specialized business units(limited range of products, highly efficient)8venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


MarketProducts are supplied to people via markets(distribution in exchange of money)9venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


New servicesOther work emerge, that would not exist(trading, banks, advertising, transportation,regulations, insurance companies)There are services and products necessary tokeep the organization operating(not making a direct contribution to keep us alive)venerdì 5 ottobre 201210


ComplexityModern society is too complex for people to seehow their work fits in the overall scheme(alienation can become a major social problem)The same scheme applies to large companies:high degree of work specializationcause big picture be lost by employees(why they have to do the things they are told to do)venerdì 5 ottobre 201211


Paradigm shiftAlienation from work can have negative effects onproductivityCompanies can allow employees to know they are workingfor a particular customer(increase motivation, self-esteem, productivity)Shift:from supply-driven economy (scarce means of production)to demand-driven economy (customers are scarce)venerdì 5 ottobre 201212


Organizational paradigmshiftvenerdì 5 ottobre 201213


IssuesRole of work in the societyProcesses and distribution of workPrincipal-contractor relationshipOrganizational structuresProcess management14venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


CaseMany different types of work exist(baking bread, making forniture, design a building,collect surveys to compile a statistic)They have in common the case:one tangible thing produced or modified(bread, forniture, house, diagram)more abstract cases are also possible(a lawsuit, an insurance claim)Synonyms: work, job, product, service, itemvenerdì 5 ottobre 201215


ProcedureWorking on a case is typically discrete in natureEvery case has a beginning and an endEach case can be distinguished from any other caseEach case involves a procedure being performed:the tasks to be carried out and the conditions thatdetermine the order of the tasksvenerdì 5 ottobre 2012Synonyms: process, project16


TaskA task is a logical unit of work that is carried out as asingle wholevenerdì 5 ottobre 201217


KnowledgeSome tasks can be performed by a computer withouthuman interventionExecuting some tasks may require humanintelligence: a judgement or a decision(a bank employee decides about a loan request)Persons need knowledge to execute tasks(their past experience, company guidelines)venerdì 5 ottobre 201218


ResourceA resource is the generic name for a person,machine or group of persons or machines that isresponsible for a task19venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


ActivityAn activity is the performance of a task by aresourceVarious cases may share the same procedure, buteach case may involve different activities to becarried out, depending on case attributes(one insurance claim may involve objections andanother one may not)venerdì 5 ottobre 201220


Cases vs proceduresThe number of procedures in a company is(generally) finite and far smaller than the number ofcases to be handledExample: it is easier to make one hundred skirtswith the same pattern than one hundred skirts usingdifferent patternsExample: off-the-rack is cheaper than made-tomeasurevenerdì 5 ottobre 201221


Economy of scaleThe cost per case fall as the number of casesincreasesStrategy: keep the number of procedures small andmake the number of cases that each can perform ashigh as possibleProfit, after all, is the ultimate objective(not necessarily the best one)venerdì 5 ottobre 201222


ExampleInsurance companies want to keep the number ofclaims as low as possible, but this is generally afactor they cannot controlThey can try to keep low the number of procedures,but the risk is to make them too much complex(a unique procedure to handle all cases is possiblein principle, but inefficient in practice)Ideal situation: a small number of good procedures,with a lot of cases to be handled by each of themvenerdì 5 ottobre 201223


Different examplesWhat about tailor-made suits?one case per process?What about architects and houses?design from scratch for each case?24venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Not so different?Tailors and architects can exploit standardapproaches for each caseTailor process: take customer’s measurement, showa number of patterns, modify the chosen pattern,choose the fabric, draw the patternObservation: tasks can be highly dependent oncasesvenerdì 5 ottobre 201225


One-of-a-kind processesThe first stage in tackling the case is thedesign of its specific processEven in this case, standard tasks can befrequently found that are used to compile manyspecific processesvenerdì 5 ottobre 201226


IssuesRole of work in the societyProcesses and distribution of workPrincipal-contractor relationshipOrganizational structuresProcess management27venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


PrincipalMost people’s work is assigned or outsourced tothem by other people: their principals(they can be company departments or firms)We can divide principals in two forms:boss and customerAssignments ordered by bosses are related towork for customers(directly in case of production process,indirectly for support and managerial processes)venerdì 5 ottobre 201228


ActorsA person who is assigned a task is calledcontractor, or also resource(assignments can be carried out by machinesand computer applications as well as by people)An actor can be a principal or a contractor, orplay both roles at the same time(contractors may redirect work to third parties)venerdì 5 ottobre 201229


ContractA contract exists between a principal and acontractor about the case to be performed(deadline for completion, price to be paid)A communication protocol can be establishedbetween a principal and a contractorto exchange informationvenerdì 5 ottobre 201230


Protocol examplePrincipalContractorspecificationquoteassignmentconfirmationordercompletion31venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Contract tree exampletransport from A to ZPrincipaltransport from A to Qtransport from Q to ZContractorPrincipalContractortransport from A to Dtransport from D to QContractorContractor32venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


IssuesRole of work in the societyProcesses and distribution of workPrincipal-contractor relationshipOrganizational structuresProcess management33venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


venerdì 5 ottobre 201234


OrganizationalstructureAn organizational structure establishes howthe work, authorities and responsibilities aredivided up amongst its staff(roles and functions)A single person can fulfill several roles, togetheror along timevenerdì 5 ottobre 201235


Most relevant forms oforganizational structureHierarchical: structured as a tree, internalnodes are individual roles or functions, leavesare staff or departments, branches are authorityrelationships (independent of cases)Matrix: add (dynamic) functional dimension(each person can have one or more functionalbosses, known as project leaders)venerdì 5 ottobre 2012Network: autonomous actors collaborate tosupply products or services36


IssuesRole of work in the societyProcesses and distribution of workPrincipal-contractor relationshipOrganizational structuresProcess management37venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


What is all aboutEach product that a companyprovides to the marketis the outcome of a numberof activities performedBusiness processes are aboutactivities understanding,correlation, organizationand improvement38venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


AwarenessProcess management systems support andencourage communication between employeesand make their activities more controllable39venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Narrowing the gapOrganizational business aspectsvenerdì 5 ottobre 201240Information technology


EnactmentActivities can be performed by employeesmanually or by the help of information systemsOther activities can be enactedautomatically by information systemsSome activities can triggeror inhibit other activities41venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Process orientationroots (1990’s)Seminal book advocatingthe radical redesign of the businessprocess of a company as opposedto evolutionary improvementsA business process is a collection of activitiesthat take one or more kinds of input andcreate an output that is of value to the customer- Hammer & Champy (1993)venerdì 5 ottobre 201242


KeywordsHammer & Champy: collection, input, outputvenerdì 5 ottobre 201243


How vs WhatThe main innovation is the shift of focus on thebusiness logic of the process (how work is done),instead of the product perspective (what is done)venerdì 5 ottobre 201244


Process orientationroots (1990’s)The transformation that occurs in the processshould add value to the input and create anoutput that is more useful and effective to therecipient either upstream or downstreamA process is a set of linked activities that take an inputand transform it to create an output.- Johansson et al. (1993)venerdì 5 ottobre 201245


KeywordsHammer & Champy: collection, input, outputJohansson et al.: upstream, downstream, linkedvenerdì 5 ottobre 201246


Process orientationroots (1990’s)Processes as structured, measured setsof activities designed to produce aspecific output for a particular marketA process is a specific ordering of work activities acrosstime and space, with a beginning and an end, andclearly defined inputs and outputs: a structure for action.- Davenport (1993)venerdì 5 ottobre 201247


KeywordsHammer & Champy: collection, input, outputJohansson et al.: upstream, downstream, linkedDavenport: structure, ordering, time, space, begin, endvenerdì 5 ottobre 201248


More from DavenportUnless designers or participants can agree on theway work is and should be structured, it will bevery difficult to systematically improve, or effectinnovation in, that workWhereas an organization’s hierarchical structure istypically a slice-in-time view of responsibilities andreporting relationships, its process structure is adynamic view of how the organization deliversvaluevenerdì 5 ottobre 201249


More from DavenportFurthermore, while we cannot measure or improvehierarchical structure in any absolute sense,processes that are clearly structured are amenableto measurement in a variety of dimensions havecost, time, output quality, and customer satisfactionWhen we reduce cost or increase customersatisfaction, we have bettered the process itselfvenerdì 5 ottobre 201250


More from DavenportProcesses also need clearly defined owners to beresponsible for design and execution.Process ownership must be seen as an additional oralternative dimension of the formal organizationalstructure that, during periods of radical processchange, takes precedence over other dimensionsof structure.Otherwise process owners will not have the poweror legitimacy needed to implement process designsthat violate organizational charts and normsvenerdì 5 ottobre 201251


KeywordsHammer & Champy: collection, input, outputJohansson et al.: upstream, downstream, linkedDavenport: structure, ordering, time, space, begin,end, dynamic, measurement, ownervenerdì 5 ottobre 201252


More from DavenportIn service industries it is nearly impossible todistinguish between innovative new servicesoffered to the customers and the innovativeprocesses that enable themFollowing a structured process is generally a goodthing, and there is nothing inherently slow orinefficient about acting along process linesvenerdì 5 ottobre 201253


Process orientationroots (1990’s)Most processes are cross-functional,spanning the ‘white space’ between the boxeson the organization chart. Some processesresult in a product or service that is received byan organization's external customer.We call these production processes.Other processes produce products that are invisible to theexternal customer but essential to the effectivemanagement of the business.We call these support processesvenerdì 5 ottobre 201254- Rummler & Brache (1995)


General applicabilityThe approach can be applied to both large andsmall processes: to the entire set of activities thatserves customers, or only to answering a letter ofcomplaint.The larger the process, however, the greater thepotential for radical benefitKey generic business processes include productdevelopment, customer order fulfillment, andfinancial asset managementvenerdì 5 ottobre 201255


Typical processes inmanufacturing firmsOperational: product development, customeracquisition, customer requirements identification,manufacturing, integrated logistics, ordermanagement, post-sales serviceManagement: performance monitoring, informationmanagement, asset management, human resourcemanagement, planning and resource allocationvenerdì 5 ottobre 201256


Primary processProduce company’s products(production processes)Customer-oriented, even if sometimes thecustomer is not known in advanceGenerate income for the companyExamples: raw materials purchase, service sale,design and engineering, distribution57venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Secondary processSupport primary processes(support processes)Examples: machinery purchase and maintenance,personnel management (recruitment and selection,training, work appraisal, payrolls, dismissal),financial administration, marketingvenerdì 5 ottobre 201258


Tertiary processDirect and coordinate primary and secondary ones(managerial processes)Fix objectives, allocated resources andpreconditions for the managers of other processesExamples: maintenance of contracts withfinanciers and other stakeholdersvenerdì 5 ottobre 201259


1, 2, 3orders,components,raw materialsproductionproducts,services60venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


1, 2, 3orders,components,raw materialsproductionproducts,servicesreturnresourcesafter useprovideresourcessupport60venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


1, 2, 3orders,components,raw materialsproductionproducts,servicesreturnresourcesafter useprovideresourcessupportresourcesdisposal ofresources60venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


1, 2, 3orders,components,raw materialsproductionproducts,servicesreturnresourcesafter usesupportresourcesprovideresourcesincome reportsmeans to buyresourcesmanagerialdisposal ofresources60venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


1, 2, 3orders,components,raw materialsproductionproducts,servicesreturnresourcesafter useprovideresourcesassignments,purchasing budgetsincome reportssupportresourcesincome reportsmeans to buyresourcesmanagerialdisposal ofresources60venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


1, 2, 3orders,components,raw materialsproductionproducts,servicesreturnresourcesafter useprovideresourcesassignments,purchasing budgetsincome reportssupportresourcesincome reportsmeans to buyresourcesmanagerialobjectives,capitaldisposal ofresources60performance,profitvenerdì 5 ottobre 2012


KeywordsHammer & Champy: collection, input, outputJohansson et al.: upstream, downstream, linkedDavenport: structure, ordering, time, space, begin,end, dynamic, measurement, ownerRummler & Brache: production, support, managerialvenerdì 5 ottobre 201261


Summing up62venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DefinabilityProcesses must have clearly defined boundaries,input and outputvenerdì 5 ottobre 201263


StructuredProcesses wrap up a collection of tasks64venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


OrderedProcess tasks are ordered according to theirposition in time and space65venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a partial order?(S, ⊑)66venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a partial order?(S, ⊑)S is a set66venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a partial order?(S, ⊑)S is a set⊑ is a binary relation included in S × S66venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a partial order?(S, ⊑)S is a set⊑ is a binary relation included in S × S⊑ is reflexive66venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a partial order?(S, ⊑)S is a set⊑ is a binary relation included in S × S⊑ is reflexive∀x ∈ S we have x ⊑ x66venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a partial order?(S, ⊑)S is a set⊑ is a binary relation included in S × S⊑ is reflexive∀x ∈ S we have x ⊑ x⊑ is transitive66venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a partial order?(S, ⊑)S is a set⊑ is a binary relation included in S × S⊑ is reflexive∀x ∈ S we have x ⊑ x⊑ is transitive∀x, y, z ∈ S, if x ⊑ y and y ⊑ z, then x ⊑ z66venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a partial order?(S, ⊑)S is a set⊑ is a binary relation included in S × S⊑ is reflexive∀x ∈ S we have x ⊑ x⊑ is transitive∀x, y, z ∈ S, if x ⊑ y and y ⊑ z, then x ⊑ z⊑ is anti-symmetric66venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a partial order?(S, ⊑)S is a set⊑ is a binary relation included in S × S⊑ is reflexive∀x ∈ S we have x ⊑ x⊑ is transitive∀x, y, z ∈ S, if x ⊑ y and y ⊑ z, then x ⊑ z⊑ is anti-symmetric∀x, y ∈ S, if x ⊑ y and y ⊑ x, then x = y66venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a total order?67venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a total order?(S, ⊑) is a partial order andvenerdì 5 ottobre 201267


DigressionWhat is a total order?(S, ⊑) is a partial order and∀x, y ∈ S we have x ⊑ y or y ⊑ xvenerdì 5 ottobre 201267


ExercisesAre the following pairs partial / total orders?(Nat,


ExercisesAre the following pairs partial / total orders?(Nat,


ExercisesAre the following pairs partial / total orders?(Nat,


ExercisesAre the following pairs partial / total orders?(Nat,


ExercisesAre the following pairs partial / total orders?(Nat,


ExercisesAre the following pairs partial / total orders?(Nat,


ExercisesAre the following pairs partial / total orders?(Nat,


DigressionWhat is a linear extension of a partial order?69venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


DigressionWhat is a linear extension of a partial order?Let (S, ⊑) be a partial order and (S, ≼) a total ordervenerdì 5 ottobre 201269


DigressionWhat is a linear extension of a partial order?Let (S, ⊑) be a partial order and (S, ≼) a total order(S, ≼) is a linear extension of (S, ⊑) ifvenerdì 5 ottobre 201269


DigressionWhat is a linear extension of a partial order?Let (S, ⊑) be a partial order and (S, ≼) a total order(S, ≼) is a linear extension of (S, ⊑) if∀x, y ∈ S we have that x ⊑ y implies x ≼ yvenerdì 5 ottobre 201269


DigressionWhat is a linear extension of a partial order?Let (S, ⊑) be a partial order and (S, ≼) a total order(S, ≼) is a linear extension of (S, ⊑) if∀x, y ∈ S we have that x ⊑ y implies x ≼ y(or equivalently, ⊑ is included in ≼)venerdì 5 ottobre 201269


ExercisesS = {a, b, c, d, e, f}a ⊑ b ⊑ d ⊑ f a ⊑ c ⊑ e ⊑ f c ⊑ dWhich of the following are linear extensions?(we write, e.g., abc for a ≼ b ≼ c)70venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


ExercisesS = {a, b, c, d, e, f}a ⊑ b ⊑ d ⊑ f a ⊑ c ⊑ e ⊑ f c ⊑ dWhich of the following are linear extensions?(we write, e.g., abc for a ≼ b ≼ c)abcdef70venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


ExercisesS = {a, b, c, d, e, f}a ⊑ b ⊑ d ⊑ f a ⊑ c ⊑ e ⊑ f c ⊑ dWhich of the following are linear extensions?(we write, e.g., abc for a ≼ b ≼ c)abcdefacbedf70venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


ExercisesS = {a, b, c, d, e, f}a ⊑ b ⊑ d ⊑ f a ⊑ c ⊑ e ⊑ f c ⊑ dWhich of the following are linear extensions?(we write, e.g., abc for a ≼ b ≼ c)abcdefabcedfacbedf70venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


ExercisesS = {a, b, c, d, e, f}a ⊑ b ⊑ d ⊑ f a ⊑ c ⊑ e ⊑ f c ⊑ dWhich of the following are linear extensions?(we write, e.g., abc for a ≼ b ≼ c)abcdefabcedfacebdfacbedf70venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


ExercisesS = {a, b, c, d, e, f}a ⊑ b ⊑ d ⊑ f a ⊑ c ⊑ e ⊑ f c ⊑ dWhich of the following are linear extensions?(we write, e.g., abc for a ≼ b ≼ c)abcdefabcedfacebdfacbedfacefbd70venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


ExercisesS = {a, b, c, d, e, f}a ⊑ b ⊑ d ⊑ f a ⊑ c ⊑ e ⊑ f c ⊑ dWhich of the following are linear extensions?(we write, e.g., abc for a ≼ b ≼ c)abcdefabcedfabdcefacebdfacbedfacefbd70venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


LinkedProcess activities are linked along a value-addedchainvenerdì 5 ottobre 201271 59 58


CustomerThe process output has a recipient72venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


MeasurabilityThe process output can be evaluated73venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


OwnershipThere is one responsible for the performance andcontinuous improvement of the processvenerdì 5 ottobre 201274


Cross-functionalityA process can span several functions within andacross the organizational structure in which it isembedded75venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Some definitions76venerdì 5 ottobre 2012


Business processDefinition: a business process consists of a setof activities that are performed in coordination in anorganizational and technical environment.These activities jointly realize a business goal.Each business process is enacted by a singleorganization, but it may interact with businessprocesses performed by other organizations.- Weskevenerdì 5 ottobre 201277


Business processmanagementDefinition: business process managementincludes concepts, methods, and techniques tosupport the design, administration, configuration,enactment, and analysis of business processes.- Weskevenerdì 5 ottobre 201278


Business processmanagementThe basis of business process management is theexplicit representation of business processes withtheir activities and the execution constraintsbetween themBusiness processes can then be subject toanalysis, improvement, and enactmentvenerdì 5 ottobre 201279


Business processmanagement systemDefinition: business process managementsystem is a generic software system that is drivenby explicit process representations to coordinatethe enactment of business processes.- Weskevenerdì 5 ottobre 201280


Business process modelDefinition: business process model consists of aset of activity models and execution constraintsbetween them.- Weskevenerdì 5 ottobre 201281


Business processinstanceDefinition: business process instancerepresents a concrete case in the operationalbusiness of a company, consisting of activityinstances.- Weskevenerdì 5 ottobre 201282


Model and instancesEach business process model acts as a blueprintfor a set of business process instancesEach activity model acts as a blueprint for a set ofactivity instancesvenerdì 5 ottobre 201283


Model and instancesEach business process model acts as a blueprintfor a set of business process instancesEach activity model acts as a blueprint for a set ofactivity instancesvenerdì 5 ottobre 201283


Abuse of notationIf no confusion is possible, the term businessprocess is used to refer to either business processmodels or business process instancesAnalogously, the term activity is used to refer toeither activity models or activity instancesvenerdì 5 ottobre 201284


Process-drivensoftwareBusiness process models are the main artefact forimplementing business processesThis implementation can be done by organizationalrules and policies, but it can also be done bybusiness process management (software) systemIn this case the software system is driven byexplicit process representationsvenerdì 5 ottobre 201285


Process representationsVisual representations: diagrams and charts(few conventions, intuitive)Languages: precise syntax(process dialects, XML)Models: precise semantics(Petri nets, YAWL)venerdì 5 ottobre 201286

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