Collective Cognitive Dominative Bias Syndrome Theory

rickwalace21

Collective Dominative Cognitive Bias Syndrome theory is one of several theories, including Cognitive Accommodation Deficiency Syndrome and Cognitive Assimilation Deficiency Syndrome that explain certain inexplicable and detrimental behavior pattern of African Americans. The proposed research looks to expand these theories, while identifying effective treatment methodologies!

ABSTRACT

Collective Dominative

Cognitive Bias Syndrome

The Odyssey Project Research Funding Proposal

Collective Dominative

Cognitive Bias

Syndrome theory is

one of several

theories, including

Cognitive

Accommodation

Deficiency Syndrome

and Cognitive

Assimilation

Deficiency Syndrome

that explain certain

inexplicable and

detrimental behavior

pattern of African

Americans. The

proposed research

looks to expand these

theories, while

identifying effective

treatment

methodologies!

Rick Wallace, Ph.D.

Lead Researcher


Collective Dominative Cognitive Bias Syndrome Theory

Over the past 20 years, I have invested more than 48.000 hours into research that

could explain the unique and highly ambiguous state of African Americans as a

collective — with more than over 26,000 hours in the last decade alone. After

reviewing multitudinous studies and an exorbitant amount of empirical data

concerning the unit of analysis (The African American collective), I have

developed the Collective Dominative Cognitive Bias theory, which was an

extension of my initial theory of Collective Cognitive-Bias Reality Syndrome

(Dissertation forthcoming). The Collective-Bias Reality Syndrome is an influential

cognitive process in which the cognitive distortions of a group of people (In this

case, African Americans) think, process stimuli, form habits and behave based

predominately on those distortions — through a systematic process of deviated

rationalization — creating a reality that is antithetical to that which they desire

most — economic, social and political liberation. The Collective Dominative

Cognitive Bias theory explains the manner in which Collective-Bias Reality

Syndrome is so dominant that it becomes impossible for African Americans to

maintain cognitive equilibrium through either cognitive process, assimilation or

accommodation.

Normally, when an individual encounters a new intellectual or emotional stimulus,

they identify and engage this stimulus through a process known as assimilation,

which uses the existing schema or schemata to deal with the new object or situation

in a manner in which they maintain cognitive or psychological equilibrium

(McLeod, 2009). However, when an individual’s schema is unsuccessful in helping

them to effectively process new objects and situations, the person enters a state of

disequilibrium, which can be immensely unpleasant. When disequilibrium is

reached, a process known as accommodation begins. Accommodation takes place

when the existing schemas fail to work, and the cognitive structure must be

changed to accommodate the new information. Unfortunately, my initial studies

reveal that the majority of African Americans struggle in both areas of cognitive

and social development. To explain these specific struggles, I developed the

Cognitive Assimilation Deficiency Theory and the Cognitive Accommodation

Deficiency theory.

While Piaget’s theory of schema in cognitive development focuses on the

development of infants and children, I believe that it is applicable here, based on

what I refer to as cognitive impedance, a condition in which any of a number of

variables have contributed to the lack of cognitive progression in the development,

functionality and refinement of thought. While there will have to be certain

adjustments made as far as interpretation and scope, I believe Piaget’s model is

most effective in defining and communicating the psychosocial challenges that

many African Americans are facing daily. However, I will also be looking to

develop a new model and theory that will be exclusive to the African American

experience. This model will take into consideration certain unique variables that are

not currently accounted for in any other model.


During my initial research, I was able to identify no less than 10 dynamic

components that served as contributors to the incessant state of oppression and

dysfunctionality that has become stereotypical, based on its prevalence in African

American society and culture. While institutional racism could be easily identified

(Alexander, 2010) (Anderson, 1994) (Bruda, 1995) (Anderson, 1994) (Burrell,

2010) (Unknown, 2014), it could not explain, in totality, the lack of progress of

African Americans more than 100 years post-slavery (Now, 150 years). In specific,

there were questions that demanded answers and explanations concerning the

collective attitude of African Americans towards work, property, and wealth

(Unknown, 2014) (Desilver, 2013). The physical and systemic mechanisms that

contributed to the perpetual poverty, social dysfunctionality, vacant self-esteem

(Akbar, 1996) (DeGruy, 2005) (Fanon, 1952), self-hatred (Akbar, 1996), violence

(DeGruy, 2009), consumerism and numerous other behaviors and attitudes, which

can be categorized as destructive, could be identified, anatomized and countered;

however, it has proven to be significantly more challenging to develop a lucid

perspicacity of the attitudes of African Americans that create the vacuum of

vulnerability that makes them highly susceptible, and even complicit to the

nefarious machinations that have been implemented through institutional racism.

My initial hypothesis suggested that the behavior of blacks was inextricably

connected with their thought processes (Ajzen, 1991) (Copland, 2011). This initial

hypothesis has been graduated to the theory of collective cognitive-bias reality

syndrome, explaining the perpetual dysfunctionality that operates in a cyclical

dynamic in which counterproductive and destructive behavior literally serves as a

catalyst of counter-progressive momentum. Extant psychological and sociological

theories, such as Dr. Joy DeGruy’s Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome (DeGruy,

2005), offer substantial insight into the complex dynamic that functions as an

underwriting mechanism for ill-advised behavior, despite access to resources and

efficacious strategies. DeGruy, along with Howard Stevenson, Ph.D. have provided

lucidity to another psychosocial phenomenon that is prevalent in the black

collective — violence (DeGruy, 2009; Stevenson, 2015; Stevenson, 2006).

To further exacerbate the complexity of my study of the influence of cognitive

biases and cognitive distortions, was the ouroboric theme of multigenerational

trauma. It seems that trauma is one of the primary catalyst to the development of

cognitive biases, and more importantly, cognitive distortions (DeGruy, 2005) was

the presence of unresolved trauma. What was discovered through the anatomization

of the construct of trauma as a primary influencer was quite extraordinary (Kahane-

Nissenbaum, 2011; Kardiner, 1941; Kellermann, 2001; Kolk B. A., 2001; Kolk B.

V., 2014). In answering the question of why African Americans who are 150 years

removed from legalized, chattel slavery, have yet to find their social and economic

equilibrium, we found that a great deal of the dysfunctionality of African

Americans is inextricably connected to unresolved trauma that has been

intergenerationally transmitted — physically, psychologically & genetically

(DeGruy, 2005; Kahane-Nissenbaum, 2011; Kellermann, 2001). This led into other


fascinating fields of research on trauma, including epigenetics (Combs-Orme,

2013; Petronis, 2010; Schmidt, Holsboer, & Rein, 2011; Staff, Epigenetics:

Fundamentals, 2015; Wallace R. , 2016)

Due to the multi-variable components associated with the behavioral sciences, a

substantial portion of the research will be focused on the collection, organization

and analysis of qualitative data; however, the need for more precise and statistical

analysis, as well as the need to understand the thought processes and the

perceptional reality of the target group in a more precise manner, refining the

foundational question, dictates that a certain amount of quantitative research also be

conducted during Phase II of this ongoing research project.

Qualitative & Quantitative Research Matrix (78 Weeks)

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

Weeks

1-2

Weeks

2-6

Weeks

6

Weeks

6

Use existing data analysis to refine the question:

What are the top three influencing variables that

render Africa Americans ineffective in improving

their quality of life?

— During this time, we will also extract all

quantitative data to be used during the

deductive part of the research in the later

stages of the project

Conduct literature review — studying what others

have written about the specific topic or focus and unit

and of analysis — examining studies associated with

the topic of the focus of this project, drawing up an

analytical report that synthesizes and integrates the

existing research into the expanding study.

— Noting numerical data and its implications

in testing existing and developing concepts,

constructs, hypotheses and theories.

Determine the size of the sample size.

Choose the qualitative methodology, which will

likely be a combination of Ethnography,

Phenomenology, Grounded Theory and Case Study

Research

— This is the point in which specific

methodologies and modalities of


Phase 5

Phase 6

Phase 7

Phase 8

Phase 9

Weeks

7-20

Weeks

20-35

Weeks

36-40

Weeks

41-60

Weeks

61-72

quantitative values will be considered. In

addition to the use of surveys, there will be

certain scales developed and used, as well

as the use of available statistical data

associated with the unit of analysis.

Collect data through several data collection

methodologies, including direct observation,

participant observation, interviews document analysis

and surveys

Analyze the data that has been collected to this point

through methodologies, such as coding, descriptive

statistics, narrative analysis, content analysis and

semiotic analysis.

Write the research report on the qualitative

investigation, considering the primary audience.

Beginning the transition from a qualitative focus to a

quantitative approach for the purpose of providing

statistical significance to the hypotheses and theories

being set forth. This is where the process of proving

or disproving these theories will begin. This is also

the point in which theories will be expanded and

redefined based on what the statistics bear out.

Begin studies and surveys that have been developed

internally or through a third party service.

— Analyze and assess the data juxtaposed to

qualitative data and subsequent theories.

Phase 10

Weeks

73-78

Final dissertation on the findings, disseminating the

findings of the research, while setting the direction

for the next phase of research process.

To be clear, a significant amount of the quantitative research and analysis will take

place simultaneously with the qualitative examination, being careful to identify

quantitative data as we progress through the qualitative work. We will use our

qualitative assessments to serve as a guide for engaging our quantitative work.

Simply put, will the numbers be there to support the inductive constructs set forth

as part of the qualitative work. Basically, we will be looking to both, explore and


explain. Information will be collected and converted into quantitative data that can

be analyzed statistically. We will investigate and analyze belief systems and

attitudes concerning religion, finances, wealth building, marriage, education,

entrepreneurship, respect and relationships, etc.

The research that I have conducted to this point has been both, “inductive,”

inferring certain theoretical concepts and patterns (of specific attitudes, cognitions

and behaviors) through fastidious observation and analysis of existing data, as well

as “deductive,” testing the boundaries, accuracy and plausibility of extant concepts

and patterns that have been presented as theory through new empirical data. My

research can best be explained as a dual-dichotomy, in that it is the combination of

two distinct scientific dichotomies — inductive and deductive as well as

exploratory and explanatory. While I am constantly pushing the boundaries of

discovery, I also labor to expand the understanding of existing data and theoretical

constructs, which are primarily multi-dimensional — exacerbating the abstract

elements involved.

With this research being fixed in the realm of social sciences, the difficulty of

measuring that which is consistently imprecise, to explain that which is tangible

and measurable does come with its own specific set of challenges; nevertheless,

using a highly detailed and defined approach to achieving an explanation or

etiology that advances the perspicacity of certain self-destructive behaviors allows

me to elucidate that which has been otherwise ambiguous. Using my experience to

map out the time frame matrix for the coming research, I estimate that this project

will require a minimum of five additional years of research (immensely

conservative). I am currently seeking funding for the next 18 months, but I am

willing to accept partnership with a benefactor that is willing to fund the project in

totality.

A Substantial portion of my work relies heavily on the evaluation and analysis of

the cognitive functionality associated with the African American experience

(Nemade, Reiss, & Dombeck, 2015; Smith & Craddock, 2011) as expressed in the

foundational principle of cognitive theory. The initial question I sought to answer

from this perspective was: Do cognitive distortions or cognitive biases influence

the social mobility and mental health of African Americans? In essence, I sought to

answer the question of the possibility of a collective psychosis that distorted the

African American reality. What I have discovered is so much more. While the

findings are complex, they have offered a positive outlook, because there is nothing

yet discovered that cannot be efficaciously engaged and overcome. Knowing is half

the battle.

Due to the exorbitant amount of empirical data that suggests that cognitions impact

perspective, subsequently impacting perceived reality, it was not difficult to

establish the validity of the core postulation that negative cognitions contributed to

the cognitive biases and cognitive distortions that ultimately led to poor choices

and counterproductive behavior of African Americans. The lack of prosocial

behavior within certain social constructs within the black collective could be traced


directly back to poor social paradigms that form the basis for those behaviors,

especially paradigms that impacted axiology, relationships, work, property, group

economics and overall unity.

Some areas of thought and behavior that I have addressed in my research to this

point include:

Economic castration and impotence (Anderson, 1994)

Ignorance of the political process — leading to poor participation and in influence

within the political process (Wallace R. , 2011; Watkins, 2000)

The view of filial responsibility and the perception of family as it relates to

priorities and social structure

Violence within inner-city neighborhoods, with a specific focus placed on black

male adolescents, who make up a significant portion of the violence in African

American neighborhoods (DeGruy, 2009; Stevenson, 2006; King, 1997).

The Mis-education of Black Youth in the U.S. (Woodson, 1933; Wallace R. , 2015)

Epigenetic influences on behavior and the proclivity for antisocial behavior.

Epigenesis is the biochemical process through which some genes are expressed and

others remain silent, and it reinforces and explains the powerful impact that the

environment has on human development. Epigenetic effects occur not only though

diet, chemical exposure, and high levels of environmental stress, but also through

chronic poverty and racism (Combs-Orme, 2013).

The negative impact of serial forced displacement and benign neglect on the

physical and mental health of African Americans

The impact of negative mass propaganda in the development of a poor self-image

and the subsequent inferiority complex — leading to self-hatred of a significant

portion of the African American population (Burrell, 2010) (Berneys, 1928).

This work addresses the plight of the African American people and the definitive

role of negative or biased cognitions on the social mobility and overall mental health

of the unit of analysis — the African American collective. For the purpose of lucidity,

it is paramount to ensure that there is a clear understanding of the term African

American when considering the group as a unit of analysis within the scope of

scientific research. The diversity of the African diaspora makes identifying a specific

sub-group, such as African Americans, a daunting task. While one could argue that

every American is an African American, based on the scientific data that confirms

that all of humanity descended from and can be traced back to East-Central Africa;

however, the use of such a holistic and inclusive perspective that is grounded in the

history of humankind and the transmission of cultural ethos would be considered

immensely uncommon in Western culture and in the realm of Western thought as it

pertains to the science of psychology and most Western psychological models.

The mono-cultural hegemony of a western dichotomous logic serves to partition

humanity into convenient subgroups that are definable primarily based on external

appearances — with the culture often using these superficial micro variations to


foster generalizations about each group — one of multitudinous cultural and political

mechanisms through which the complex dynamic of cognitive fragmentation,

cognitive biases and cognitive distortions become an influential variable expressed

as frustration and regressive behavior. These ethnic generalizations are a significant

part of the dynamic that victimizes African Americans specifically.

When referring to African Americans in this body of work, it is necessary that we

acknowledge the cultural tendencies in emphasizing the subgroup as a race of people

— taking a more holistic and congruent approach to defining African Americans as

those who have an identifiable connection to the slavery experience, while sharing

physiological, spiritual and historical connections to the continent of Africa —

influencing a highly complex constellation of values, mores, traditions customs,

practices and cultural paradigms that heavily influence their perspective of their

experiences in America — subsequently shaping the manner in which they respond

to their circumstances (Staff, 2003).

It is important to point out that among this group of African Americans, there will be

some who will enthusiastically identify with the continent of Africa and there will be

others who will vigorously fight to distance themselves from any association with

Africa — with both being influenced by the cognitions that form their cultural

paradigms.

Over the past 40 years there has been a well-documented dilemma that has

expressed itself along social, cultural, economic and political lines. The plight of

African Americans has been cataloged in explicit detail. When it comes to the

financial and economic challenges, Dr. Claud Anderson has contributed a couple of

volumes that illuminate various challenges that plague the black community.

According to Dr. Anderson, on the eve of the Civil War, quasi-free blacks owned

less than one half of one percent of the aggregated wealth in the United States, and

155 years later, blacks still own less than one percent of the wealth in the United

States (Anderson, 1994). 1 In his book, Black Labor, White Wealth, Dr. Anderson

goes into an in-depth explanation of what transpired over the course of the 100 plus

years since the emancipation of black slaves in the United States. While it is clear

that there have been external forces that have contributed to the economic

castration and social immobility of blacks in America, the question persists as to

whether blacks have exhibited a certain level of complicity in the perpetuation of

their economic woes.

One of the alleged culprits of the supposed self-inflicted economic castration in the

black community is the strong proclivity of blacks to practice consumerism beyond

their means. According to a written and published work by Tingba Muhammad, of

the NOI Research Group, not only has consumerism played an immense role in the

progression of the economic impotence of the black collective in America, but the

1

Anderson, Claud, Powernomics: The National Plan to Empower Black America, Powernomics

Corporation of America, Inc. 2001


natural inclination of blacks to engage in consumerism at an exorbitant level can be

traced back to slavery (Muhammad, 2014). 2

What makes consumerism so important when evaluating the enigmatic dilemma that

blacks are facing in the United States, is the fact that consumerism in one of the

primary streams of revenue that supports the development and sustainment of the

white, wealthy, elite economic infrastructure in America. With the natural hostility

that exists between the white and black races, consumerism plays a major role is

sustaining the significant economic advantage that whites have over blacks in this

country (Anderson, 1994). The wealth gap is important because the wealth provides

the power and influence that is consistently used to emasculate any attempt of blacks

to elevate themselves, subsequently leading to the conclusion that by participating in

consumerism, blacks are, in essence financing their own demise.

It is the point of this work to not only present evidence that blacks are complicit in

their economic castration, through consumerism and a number of other fallible

financial practices, including failure to invest, the failure to build an organized group

economic infrastructure and the failure to practice group economics, but also to

present pragmatic and empirical evidence that a substantial portion of the behavior

associated with these erroneous and unsound practices can be attributed to cognitive

distortions that have served to develop faulty paradigms that guide the decisions and

behaviors of blacks in all nine areas of human activity: economics, education,

entertainment, labor, law, politics, religion, sex and war (Welsing, 1990).

The cultural dilemmas that plague the black community are multitudinous and stem

from a form of individualism that facilitates a level of acrimony, disruptiveness and

divisiveness. The schismatic factions that exist within the black community are

increasing at an exponential rate. Walter Williams, a professor of economics at

George Mason University, presents his thesis on the black dilemma in short form,

presenting a hypothesis that attributes the problems of the black collective to culture

more than racism (Williams, 2015). 3 One area in black culture that Williams

highlights is the disintegration of the black family nucleus, with only 35 (currently

closer to 25 percent) percent of black children being raised in a two-parent

household. This particular statistic is immensely relevant when considering the

existing data that is available confirming that growing up without both parents,

places youth at a significant disadvantage to those who have both parents in the

home. According to a study conducted by the University of Wisconsin and The

University of Ohio, on average, children who grow up spending some or all of their

2

Muhammad, Tingba, Wasteful Black Consumerism: Set in Motion by Slavery, NOI Research

Group, 2014

3

Williams, Walter, Most Serious Problems for Blacks Rooted in Culture, Not Racism, The Citizen,

2015


time away from one of their parents are worse off than children who are raised with

both parents in the home (Kirby, 2015).

In addition to studying the link between cognitive distortions and behavior in African

Americans, I will give careful consideration to external influencers, such as negative

propaganda, cultural experiences, economic castration, unemployment, disrespect

(especially as it relates to adolescent males), miseducation, the school-to-prison

pipeline, mass incarceration and the attack on the African American family nucleus.

The next phase of my research will extend existing theories, with substantial

attention given to Cognitive Assimilation Deficiency Syndrome and Cognitive

Accommodation Deficiency Syndrome. A substantial amount of effort will be

invested in bearing out effective modalities for efficaciously addressing these

negative forces in a way that will increase the functionality and mobility of African

Americans that will allow them to successfully engage their current state of

poverty, oppression and fragmentation.

When studying the intergenerational transmission of trauma, which includes

psychological, physical and genetic components, the vast majority of work on

human group subjects was conducted on Jewish Holocaust survivors. What stood

out the most was the amount of money and effort the first generation (those who

actually experienced the Holocaust) invested in research and studies to understand

how they were effected, and to determine how they would reduce the generational

impact. Because of their investments, they are experiencing exceptional

improvements in the mental health and performance of the third generation, or the

second generation removed. African Americans are currently in their sixth

generation removed, and I believe that one of the reasons that we have failed to

progress is the lack of interest in understanding how we were impacted by slavery,

in order to determine how we can overcome it — allowing subsequent generations

to step out of the chains of mental slavery.

Most of the research into the black dilemma has been funded by educational

institutions and government agencies, with very little funding coming from the

private sector within the African American community. This lack of interest in

understanding and effectively engaging our trauma-related issues has sentenced us

to perpetual suffering.

As you can imagine research is not without cost, and following is the research

budget for the next 18 months.


The Odyssey Project Research Budget for Next 18 Months

Description Category Projected Cost Actual Cost Difference Actual Cost Overvi

CD+R for Storing Data Supplies $50 $50

Dragon Medical Practice Dictation Software Equipment $75 $75

Duplication Services (Reports) Gifts and Charity $250 $250

Editorial Assistant Research Services $1,120 $1,120

ISR Services (Surveys) Research Services $15,000 $15,000

Lead Researcher Salary Personnel Expenses $150,000 $150,000

Mac Book Pro (Laptop) Equipment $2,705 $2,705

Model & Scale Development Research Services $15,000 $15,000

NUDIST 4.0 Analytic Software Equipment $375 $375

Office Supplies Supplies $2,500 $2,500

Periodicals, Journals & Books Resource Material $3,800 $3,800

Program Development & Implementation Research Services $25,000 $25,000

Periodicals, Publication Journals Costs & Books Dissemination Costs $2,475 $2,475

Questionnaire Forms Supplies $150 $150

Report Materials & Supplies Supplies $300 $300

Research Assistant Personnel Expenses $64,361 $64,361

Travel Expenses Travel $25,000 $25,000

Video/DVD (Rental) Equipment $530 $530

Total $308,691 $0 $308,691


Budget Justification


Travel Expenses

Intrastate and Interstate travel will be necessary to accomplish a number of the goals

of the research, including on-site and field interviews, field observation and onlocation

research. The expenses proposed here are an estimation of travel costs for

the next 18 months, and the estimation does not include international travel.

Research Assistant

The research assistant will be a psychology or sociology major with at least a fouryear

university degree. He/she will accompany the primary investigator during life

history interviews to provide assistance in comprehending collected data. In addition,

he/she will provide commentary, explanations, and observations to facilitate the

primary investigator’s participant observation. During the first phase of the project,

the research assistant will work forty hours a week and occasional overtime as

needed. During phases two and three, the assistant will stay with the investigator

overnight in the field when necessary.

Research Director

As the research director, I will direct and oversee the clinical research function of

the project. I will also be responsible for functioning as the lead researcher —

making the final analysis, conjectures and predictions based on the collected and

generated data. I will also create research studies, standards and guidelines for the

research and programs. It will also be my responsibility to ensure that all standards

and good clinical practices are adhered to. The median for a Research Director is

$157,063, and while I am one of several psychosocial researchers with the range to

take on this task, I am willing to take a cut in what would be fair market pay in

order to ensure that the research is completed.

Mac Book Pro (Laptop)

A laptop computer will be necessary for recording observations, thoughts, and

analysis during the research project.

NUDIST 4.0 Software

NUDIST 4.0 Software, “Non-numerical, Unstructured Data, Indexing, Searching,

and Theorizing,” is necessary for cataloging, indexing, and managing field notes

both during and following the field research phase. The program will assist in

cataloging themes that emerge during the life history interviews. It is the most

widely used of all analytic software programs.

Supplies

All entry categories designated as supplies are considered to be basic supplies that

are necessary to facilitate the research throughout its duration.


Research Services

Research services refer to professional third-party services that provide integral

services, such as research-program development, research-specific surveys and

program administration. This category also includes research model and scale

development.

The following sources are a short list of sources and references consulted as a part

of the preliminary research for this project, as well as references consulted during

previous research through which extant theories were generated.

Bibliography

Ajzen, I. (1991). “The Theory of Planned Behavior,” Organizational Behavior and Human

Decision Processes (50). Icek Ajzen, 179-211.

Akbar, N. (1996). Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery. Tallahasee, FL: Mind

Productions & Associates, Inc.

Alexander, M. (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the age of

Colorblindness. New York City : New York Press.

Anderson, C. (1994). Black Labor, White Wealth. Bethesda, MD: Powernomics

Corporation of America.

Berneys, E. (1928). Propaganda . Brooklyn, NY: IG Publishing.

Bruda, J. (1995). Henry Kissinger's 1974 Plan for Food Control Genocide. Schiller

Institute, 1.

Burrell, T. (2010). Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority. New York:

Smiley Books.

Christian, M. (1991). An African-Centered Perspective on White Supremacy. Xavier

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Combs-Orme, T. (2013). Epigenetics and The Social Work Imperative. University of

Tennessee, College of Social Work.

Copland, A. (2011). Cognitive Behavioral Theory. The Center for Cognitive and

Behavioral Science.

DeGruy, J. (2005). Post Traumatic Syndrome: America's Legacy of Enduring Injury and

Healing. Portland, OR: Uptone Press.


DeGruy, J. (2009). The African American Adolescence Respect Scale: The Measure of

Prosocial Attitude. The University of Portland, 1-3.

Desilver, D. (2013). Black Incomes are Up, But Wealth Isn't. pew Research Center.

Fanon, F. (1952). Black Skin, White Mask. London: Pluto Press.

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Grand Chessboard. Etteloc Publishing.

Wallace, R. (2016). Epigenetics & Psychology: The Genetic Intergenerational

Transmission of Trauma. The Odyssey Project.

Watkins, B. (2000). Fantasy, Decay, Abandonment, Defeat and Disease: Community

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University.

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