Cognitive Bias Syndrome
The Odyssey Project Research Funding Proposal
Syndrome theory is
one of several
that explain certain
pattern of African
looks to expand these
Rick Wallace, Ph.D.
Collective Dominative Cognitive Bias Syndrome Theory
Over the past 20 years, I have invested more than 48.000 hours into research that
could explain the unique and highly ambiguous state of African Americans as a
collective — with more than over 26,000 hours in the last decade alone. After
reviewing multitudinous studies and an exorbitant amount of empirical data
concerning the unit of analysis (The African American collective), I have
developed the Collective Dominative Cognitive Bias theory, which was an
extension of my initial theory of Collective Cognitive-Bias Reality Syndrome
(Dissertation forthcoming). The Collective-Bias Reality Syndrome is an influential
cognitive process in which the cognitive distortions of a group of people (In this
case, African Americans) think, process stimuli, form habits and behave based
predominately on those distortions — through a systematic process of deviated
rationalization — creating a reality that is antithetical to that which they desire
most — economic, social and political liberation. The Collective Dominative
Cognitive Bias theory explains the manner in which Collective-Bias Reality
Syndrome is so dominant that it becomes impossible for African Americans to
maintain cognitive equilibrium through either cognitive process, assimilation or
Normally, when an individual encounters a new intellectual or emotional stimulus,
they identify and engage this stimulus through a process known as assimilation,
which uses the existing schema or schemata to deal with the new object or situation
in a manner in which they maintain cognitive or psychological equilibrium
(McLeod, 2009). However, when an individual’s schema is unsuccessful in helping
them to effectively process new objects and situations, the person enters a state of
disequilibrium, which can be immensely unpleasant. When disequilibrium is
reached, a process known as accommodation begins. Accommodation takes place
when the existing schemas fail to work, and the cognitive structure must be
changed to accommodate the new information. Unfortunately, my initial studies
reveal that the majority of African Americans struggle in both areas of cognitive
and social development. To explain these specific struggles, I developed the
Cognitive Assimilation Deficiency Theory and the Cognitive Accommodation
While Piaget’s theory of schema in cognitive development focuses on the
development of infants and children, I believe that it is applicable here, based on
what I refer to as cognitive impedance, a condition in which any of a number of
variables have contributed to the lack of cognitive progression in the development,
functionality and refinement of thought. While there will have to be certain
adjustments made as far as interpretation and scope, I believe Piaget’s model is
most effective in defining and communicating the psychosocial challenges that
many African Americans are facing daily. However, I will also be looking to
develop a new model and theory that will be exclusive to the African American
experience. This model will take into consideration certain unique variables that are
not currently accounted for in any other model.
During my initial research, I was able to identify no less than 10 dynamic
components that served as contributors to the incessant state of oppression and
dysfunctionality that has become stereotypical, based on its prevalence in African
American society and culture. While institutional racism could be easily identified
(Alexander, 2010) (Anderson, 1994) (Bruda, 1995) (Anderson, 1994) (Burrell,
2010) (Unknown, 2014), it could not explain, in totality, the lack of progress of
African Americans more than 100 years post-slavery (Now, 150 years). In specific,
there were questions that demanded answers and explanations concerning the
collective attitude of African Americans towards work, property, and wealth
(Unknown, 2014) (Desilver, 2013). The physical and systemic mechanisms that
contributed to the perpetual poverty, social dysfunctionality, vacant self-esteem
(Akbar, 1996) (DeGruy, 2005) (Fanon, 1952), self-hatred (Akbar, 1996), violence
(DeGruy, 2009), consumerism and numerous other behaviors and attitudes, which
can be categorized as destructive, could be identified, anatomized and countered;
however, it has proven to be significantly more challenging to develop a lucid
perspicacity of the attitudes of African Americans that create the vacuum of
vulnerability that makes them highly susceptible, and even complicit to the
nefarious machinations that have been implemented through institutional racism.
My initial hypothesis suggested that the behavior of blacks was inextricably
connected with their thought processes (Ajzen, 1991) (Copland, 2011). This initial
hypothesis has been graduated to the theory of collective cognitive-bias reality
syndrome, explaining the perpetual dysfunctionality that operates in a cyclical
dynamic in which counterproductive and destructive behavior literally serves as a
catalyst of counter-progressive momentum. Extant psychological and sociological
theories, such as Dr. Joy DeGruy’s Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome (DeGruy,
2005), offer substantial insight into the complex dynamic that functions as an
underwriting mechanism for ill-advised behavior, despite access to resources and
efficacious strategies. DeGruy, along with Howard Stevenson, Ph.D. have provided
lucidity to another psychosocial phenomenon that is prevalent in the black
collective — violence (DeGruy, 2009; Stevenson, 2015; Stevenson, 2006).
To further exacerbate the complexity of my study of the influence of cognitive
biases and cognitive distortions, was the ouroboric theme of multigenerational
trauma. It seems that trauma is one of the primary catalyst to the development of
cognitive biases, and more importantly, cognitive distortions (DeGruy, 2005) was
the presence of unresolved trauma. What was discovered through the anatomization
of the construct of trauma as a primary influencer was quite extraordinary (Kahane-
Nissenbaum, 2011; Kardiner, 1941; Kellermann, 2001; Kolk B. A., 2001; Kolk B.
V., 2014). In answering the question of why African Americans who are 150 years
removed from legalized, chattel slavery, have yet to find their social and economic
equilibrium, we found that a great deal of the dysfunctionality of African
Americans is inextricably connected to unresolved trauma that has been
intergenerationally transmitted — physically, psychologically & genetically
(DeGruy, 2005; Kahane-Nissenbaum, 2011; Kellermann, 2001). This led into other
fascinating fields of research on trauma, including epigenetics (Combs-Orme,
2013; Petronis, 2010; Schmidt, Holsboer, & Rein, 2011; Staff, Epigenetics:
Fundamentals, 2015; Wallace R. , 2016)
Due to the multi-variable components associated with the behavioral sciences, a
substantial portion of the research will be focused on the collection, organization
and analysis of qualitative data; however, the need for more precise and statistical
analysis, as well as the need to understand the thought processes and the
perceptional reality of the target group in a more precise manner, refining the
foundational question, dictates that a certain amount of quantitative research also be
conducted during Phase II of this ongoing research project.
Qualitative & Quantitative Research Matrix (78 Weeks)
Use existing data analysis to refine the question:
What are the top three influencing variables that
render Africa Americans ineffective in improving
their quality of life?
— During this time, we will also extract all
quantitative data to be used during the
deductive part of the research in the later
stages of the project
Conduct literature review — studying what others
have written about the specific topic or focus and unit
and of analysis — examining studies associated with
the topic of the focus of this project, drawing up an
analytical report that synthesizes and integrates the
existing research into the expanding study.
— Noting numerical data and its implications
in testing existing and developing concepts,
constructs, hypotheses and theories.
Determine the size of the sample size.
Choose the qualitative methodology, which will
likely be a combination of Ethnography,
Phenomenology, Grounded Theory and Case Study
— This is the point in which specific
methodologies and modalities of
quantitative values will be considered. In
addition to the use of surveys, there will be
certain scales developed and used, as well
as the use of available statistical data
associated with the unit of analysis.
Collect data through several data collection
methodologies, including direct observation,
participant observation, interviews document analysis
Analyze the data that has been collected to this point
through methodologies, such as coding, descriptive
statistics, narrative analysis, content analysis and
Write the research report on the qualitative
investigation, considering the primary audience.
Beginning the transition from a qualitative focus to a
quantitative approach for the purpose of providing
statistical significance to the hypotheses and theories
being set forth. This is where the process of proving
or disproving these theories will begin. This is also
the point in which theories will be expanded and
redefined based on what the statistics bear out.
Begin studies and surveys that have been developed
internally or through a third party service.
— Analyze and assess the data juxtaposed to
qualitative data and subsequent theories.
Final dissertation on the findings, disseminating the
findings of the research, while setting the direction
for the next phase of research process.
To be clear, a significant amount of the quantitative research and analysis will take
place simultaneously with the qualitative examination, being careful to identify
quantitative data as we progress through the qualitative work. We will use our
qualitative assessments to serve as a guide for engaging our quantitative work.
Simply put, will the numbers be there to support the inductive constructs set forth
as part of the qualitative work. Basically, we will be looking to both, explore and
explain. Information will be collected and converted into quantitative data that can
be analyzed statistically. We will investigate and analyze belief systems and
attitudes concerning religion, finances, wealth building, marriage, education,
entrepreneurship, respect and relationships, etc.
The research that I have conducted to this point has been both, “inductive,”
inferring certain theoretical concepts and patterns (of specific attitudes, cognitions
and behaviors) through fastidious observation and analysis of existing data, as well
as “deductive,” testing the boundaries, accuracy and plausibility of extant concepts
and patterns that have been presented as theory through new empirical data. My
research can best be explained as a dual-dichotomy, in that it is the combination of
two distinct scientific dichotomies — inductive and deductive as well as
exploratory and explanatory. While I am constantly pushing the boundaries of
discovery, I also labor to expand the understanding of existing data and theoretical
constructs, which are primarily multi-dimensional — exacerbating the abstract
With this research being fixed in the realm of social sciences, the difficulty of
measuring that which is consistently imprecise, to explain that which is tangible
and measurable does come with its own specific set of challenges; nevertheless,
using a highly detailed and defined approach to achieving an explanation or
etiology that advances the perspicacity of certain self-destructive behaviors allows
me to elucidate that which has been otherwise ambiguous. Using my experience to
map out the time frame matrix for the coming research, I estimate that this project
will require a minimum of five additional years of research (immensely
conservative). I am currently seeking funding for the next 18 months, but I am
willing to accept partnership with a benefactor that is willing to fund the project in
A Substantial portion of my work relies heavily on the evaluation and analysis of
the cognitive functionality associated with the African American experience
(Nemade, Reiss, & Dombeck, 2015; Smith & Craddock, 2011) as expressed in the
foundational principle of cognitive theory. The initial question I sought to answer
from this perspective was: Do cognitive distortions or cognitive biases influence
the social mobility and mental health of African Americans? In essence, I sought to
answer the question of the possibility of a collective psychosis that distorted the
African American reality. What I have discovered is so much more. While the
findings are complex, they have offered a positive outlook, because there is nothing
yet discovered that cannot be efficaciously engaged and overcome. Knowing is half
Due to the exorbitant amount of empirical data that suggests that cognitions impact
perspective, subsequently impacting perceived reality, it was not difficult to
establish the validity of the core postulation that negative cognitions contributed to
the cognitive biases and cognitive distortions that ultimately led to poor choices
and counterproductive behavior of African Americans. The lack of prosocial
behavior within certain social constructs within the black collective could be traced
directly back to poor social paradigms that form the basis for those behaviors,
especially paradigms that impacted axiology, relationships, work, property, group
economics and overall unity.
Some areas of thought and behavior that I have addressed in my research to this
Economic castration and impotence (Anderson, 1994)
Ignorance of the political process — leading to poor participation and in influence
within the political process (Wallace R. , 2011; Watkins, 2000)
The view of filial responsibility and the perception of family as it relates to
priorities and social structure
Violence within inner-city neighborhoods, with a specific focus placed on black
male adolescents, who make up a significant portion of the violence in African
American neighborhoods (DeGruy, 2009; Stevenson, 2006; King, 1997).
The Mis-education of Black Youth in the U.S. (Woodson, 1933; Wallace R. , 2015)
Epigenetic influences on behavior and the proclivity for antisocial behavior.
Epigenesis is the biochemical process through which some genes are expressed and
others remain silent, and it reinforces and explains the powerful impact that the
environment has on human development. Epigenetic effects occur not only though
diet, chemical exposure, and high levels of environmental stress, but also through
chronic poverty and racism (Combs-Orme, 2013).
The negative impact of serial forced displacement and benign neglect on the
physical and mental health of African Americans
The impact of negative mass propaganda in the development of a poor self-image
and the subsequent inferiority complex — leading to self-hatred of a significant
portion of the African American population (Burrell, 2010) (Berneys, 1928).
This work addresses the plight of the African American people and the definitive
role of negative or biased cognitions on the social mobility and overall mental health
of the unit of analysis — the African American collective. For the purpose of lucidity,
it is paramount to ensure that there is a clear understanding of the term African
American when considering the group as a unit of analysis within the scope of
scientific research. The diversity of the African diaspora makes identifying a specific
sub-group, such as African Americans, a daunting task. While one could argue that
every American is an African American, based on the scientific data that confirms
that all of humanity descended from and can be traced back to East-Central Africa;
however, the use of such a holistic and inclusive perspective that is grounded in the
history of humankind and the transmission of cultural ethos would be considered
immensely uncommon in Western culture and in the realm of Western thought as it
pertains to the science of psychology and most Western psychological models.
The mono-cultural hegemony of a western dichotomous logic serves to partition
humanity into convenient subgroups that are definable primarily based on external
appearances — with the culture often using these superficial micro variations to
foster generalizations about each group — one of multitudinous cultural and political
mechanisms through which the complex dynamic of cognitive fragmentation,
cognitive biases and cognitive distortions become an influential variable expressed
as frustration and regressive behavior. These ethnic generalizations are a significant
part of the dynamic that victimizes African Americans specifically.
When referring to African Americans in this body of work, it is necessary that we
acknowledge the cultural tendencies in emphasizing the subgroup as a race of people
— taking a more holistic and congruent approach to defining African Americans as
those who have an identifiable connection to the slavery experience, while sharing
physiological, spiritual and historical connections to the continent of Africa —
influencing a highly complex constellation of values, mores, traditions customs,
practices and cultural paradigms that heavily influence their perspective of their
experiences in America — subsequently shaping the manner in which they respond
to their circumstances (Staff, 2003).
It is important to point out that among this group of African Americans, there will be
some who will enthusiastically identify with the continent of Africa and there will be
others who will vigorously fight to distance themselves from any association with
Africa — with both being influenced by the cognitions that form their cultural
Over the past 40 years there has been a well-documented dilemma that has
expressed itself along social, cultural, economic and political lines. The plight of
African Americans has been cataloged in explicit detail. When it comes to the
financial and economic challenges, Dr. Claud Anderson has contributed a couple of
volumes that illuminate various challenges that plague the black community.
According to Dr. Anderson, on the eve of the Civil War, quasi-free blacks owned
less than one half of one percent of the aggregated wealth in the United States, and
155 years later, blacks still own less than one percent of the wealth in the United
States (Anderson, 1994). 1 In his book, Black Labor, White Wealth, Dr. Anderson
goes into an in-depth explanation of what transpired over the course of the 100 plus
years since the emancipation of black slaves in the United States. While it is clear
that there have been external forces that have contributed to the economic
castration and social immobility of blacks in America, the question persists as to
whether blacks have exhibited a certain level of complicity in the perpetuation of
their economic woes.
One of the alleged culprits of the supposed self-inflicted economic castration in the
black community is the strong proclivity of blacks to practice consumerism beyond
their means. According to a written and published work by Tingba Muhammad, of
the NOI Research Group, not only has consumerism played an immense role in the
progression of the economic impotence of the black collective in America, but the
Anderson, Claud, Powernomics: The National Plan to Empower Black America, Powernomics
Corporation of America, Inc. 2001
natural inclination of blacks to engage in consumerism at an exorbitant level can be
traced back to slavery (Muhammad, 2014). 2
What makes consumerism so important when evaluating the enigmatic dilemma that
blacks are facing in the United States, is the fact that consumerism in one of the
primary streams of revenue that supports the development and sustainment of the
white, wealthy, elite economic infrastructure in America. With the natural hostility
that exists between the white and black races, consumerism plays a major role is
sustaining the significant economic advantage that whites have over blacks in this
country (Anderson, 1994). The wealth gap is important because the wealth provides
the power and influence that is consistently used to emasculate any attempt of blacks
to elevate themselves, subsequently leading to the conclusion that by participating in
consumerism, blacks are, in essence financing their own demise.
It is the point of this work to not only present evidence that blacks are complicit in
their economic castration, through consumerism and a number of other fallible
financial practices, including failure to invest, the failure to build an organized group
economic infrastructure and the failure to practice group economics, but also to
present pragmatic and empirical evidence that a substantial portion of the behavior
associated with these erroneous and unsound practices can be attributed to cognitive
distortions that have served to develop faulty paradigms that guide the decisions and
behaviors of blacks in all nine areas of human activity: economics, education,
entertainment, labor, law, politics, religion, sex and war (Welsing, 1990).
The cultural dilemmas that plague the black community are multitudinous and stem
from a form of individualism that facilitates a level of acrimony, disruptiveness and
divisiveness. The schismatic factions that exist within the black community are
increasing at an exponential rate. Walter Williams, a professor of economics at
George Mason University, presents his thesis on the black dilemma in short form,
presenting a hypothesis that attributes the problems of the black collective to culture
more than racism (Williams, 2015). 3 One area in black culture that Williams
highlights is the disintegration of the black family nucleus, with only 35 (currently
closer to 25 percent) percent of black children being raised in a two-parent
household. This particular statistic is immensely relevant when considering the
existing data that is available confirming that growing up without both parents,
places youth at a significant disadvantage to those who have both parents in the
home. According to a study conducted by the University of Wisconsin and The
University of Ohio, on average, children who grow up spending some or all of their
Muhammad, Tingba, Wasteful Black Consumerism: Set in Motion by Slavery, NOI Research
Williams, Walter, Most Serious Problems for Blacks Rooted in Culture, Not Racism, The Citizen,
time away from one of their parents are worse off than children who are raised with
both parents in the home (Kirby, 2015).
In addition to studying the link between cognitive distortions and behavior in African
Americans, I will give careful consideration to external influencers, such as negative
propaganda, cultural experiences, economic castration, unemployment, disrespect
(especially as it relates to adolescent males), miseducation, the school-to-prison
pipeline, mass incarceration and the attack on the African American family nucleus.
The next phase of my research will extend existing theories, with substantial
attention given to Cognitive Assimilation Deficiency Syndrome and Cognitive
Accommodation Deficiency Syndrome. A substantial amount of effort will be
invested in bearing out effective modalities for efficaciously addressing these
negative forces in a way that will increase the functionality and mobility of African
Americans that will allow them to successfully engage their current state of
poverty, oppression and fragmentation.
When studying the intergenerational transmission of trauma, which includes
psychological, physical and genetic components, the vast majority of work on
human group subjects was conducted on Jewish Holocaust survivors. What stood
out the most was the amount of money and effort the first generation (those who
actually experienced the Holocaust) invested in research and studies to understand
how they were effected, and to determine how they would reduce the generational
impact. Because of their investments, they are experiencing exceptional
improvements in the mental health and performance of the third generation, or the
second generation removed. African Americans are currently in their sixth
generation removed, and I believe that one of the reasons that we have failed to
progress is the lack of interest in understanding how we were impacted by slavery,
in order to determine how we can overcome it — allowing subsequent generations
to step out of the chains of mental slavery.
Most of the research into the black dilemma has been funded by educational
institutions and government agencies, with very little funding coming from the
private sector within the African American community. This lack of interest in
understanding and effectively engaging our trauma-related issues has sentenced us
to perpetual suffering.
As you can imagine research is not without cost, and following is the research
budget for the next 18 months.
The Odyssey Project Research Budget for Next 18 Months
Description Category Projected Cost Actual Cost Difference Actual Cost Overvi
CD+R for Storing Data Supplies $50 $50
Dragon Medical Practice Dictation Software Equipment $75 $75
Duplication Services (Reports) Gifts and Charity $250 $250
Editorial Assistant Research Services $1,120 $1,120
ISR Services (Surveys) Research Services $15,000 $15,000
Lead Researcher Salary Personnel Expenses $150,000 $150,000
Mac Book Pro (Laptop) Equipment $2,705 $2,705
Model & Scale Development Research Services $15,000 $15,000
NUDIST 4.0 Analytic Software Equipment $375 $375
Office Supplies Supplies $2,500 $2,500
Periodicals, Journals & Books Resource Material $3,800 $3,800
Program Development & Implementation Research Services $25,000 $25,000
Periodicals, Publication Journals Costs & Books Dissemination Costs $2,475 $2,475
Questionnaire Forms Supplies $150 $150
Report Materials & Supplies Supplies $300 $300
Research Assistant Personnel Expenses $64,361 $64,361
Travel Expenses Travel $25,000 $25,000
Video/DVD (Rental) Equipment $530 $530
Total $308,691 $0 $308,691
Intrastate and Interstate travel will be necessary to accomplish a number of the goals
of the research, including on-site and field interviews, field observation and onlocation
research. The expenses proposed here are an estimation of travel costs for
the next 18 months, and the estimation does not include international travel.
The research assistant will be a psychology or sociology major with at least a fouryear
university degree. He/she will accompany the primary investigator during life
history interviews to provide assistance in comprehending collected data. In addition,
he/she will provide commentary, explanations, and observations to facilitate the
primary investigator’s participant observation. During the first phase of the project,
the research assistant will work forty hours a week and occasional overtime as
needed. During phases two and three, the assistant will stay with the investigator
overnight in the field when necessary.
As the research director, I will direct and oversee the clinical research function of
the project. I will also be responsible for functioning as the lead researcher —
making the final analysis, conjectures and predictions based on the collected and
generated data. I will also create research studies, standards and guidelines for the
research and programs. It will also be my responsibility to ensure that all standards
and good clinical practices are adhered to. The median for a Research Director is
$157,063, and while I am one of several psychosocial researchers with the range to
take on this task, I am willing to take a cut in what would be fair market pay in
order to ensure that the research is completed.
Mac Book Pro (Laptop)
A laptop computer will be necessary for recording observations, thoughts, and
analysis during the research project.
NUDIST 4.0 Software
NUDIST 4.0 Software, “Non-numerical, Unstructured Data, Indexing, Searching,
and Theorizing,” is necessary for cataloging, indexing, and managing field notes
both during and following the field research phase. The program will assist in
cataloging themes that emerge during the life history interviews. It is the most
widely used of all analytic software programs.
All entry categories designated as supplies are considered to be basic supplies that
are necessary to facilitate the research throughout its duration.
Research services refer to professional third-party services that provide integral
services, such as research-program development, research-specific surveys and
program administration. This category also includes research model and scale
The following sources are a short list of sources and references consulted as a part
of the preliminary research for this project, as well as references consulted during
previous research through which extant theories were generated.
Ajzen, I. (1991). “The Theory of Planned Behavior,” Organizational Behavior and Human
Decision Processes (50). Icek Ajzen, 179-211.
Akbar, N. (1996). Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery. Tallahasee, FL: Mind
Productions & Associates, Inc.
Alexander, M. (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the age of
Colorblindness. New York City : New York Press.
Anderson, C. (1994). Black Labor, White Wealth. Bethesda, MD: Powernomics
Corporation of America.
Berneys, E. (1928). Propaganda . Brooklyn, NY: IG Publishing.
Bruda, J. (1995). Henry Kissinger's 1974 Plan for Food Control Genocide. Schiller
Burrell, T. (2010). Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority. New York:
Christian, M. (1991). An African-Centered Perspective on White Supremacy. Xavier
University College of Black Studies, 268.
Combs-Orme, T. (2013). Epigenetics and The Social Work Imperative. University of
Tennessee, College of Social Work.
Copland, A. (2011). Cognitive Behavioral Theory. The Center for Cognitive and
DeGruy, J. (2005). Post Traumatic Syndrome: America's Legacy of Enduring Injury and
Healing. Portland, OR: Uptone Press.
DeGruy, J. (2009). The African American Adolescence Respect Scale: The Measure of
Prosocial Attitude. The University of Portland, 1-3.
Desilver, D. (2013). Black Incomes are Up, But Wealth Isn't. pew Research Center.
Fanon, F. (1952). Black Skin, White Mask. London: Pluto Press.
Kahane-Nissenbaum, M. C. (2011). Exploring Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma
in Third Generation Holocaust Survivors. University of Pennsylvania Scholarly
Kardiner, A. (1941). The Traumatic Neurosis of War. New York: Hoeber.
Kellermann, N. P. (2001). Transmission of Holocaust Trauma - An Integrative View.
Israel Journal of Psychiatry, 256-267.
King, A. E. (1997). Understanding Violence Among Young African American Males: An
Afrocentric Perspective. Journal of Black Studies, 79-86.
Kirby, J. (2015). Single Parent . The Ohio State University.
Kolk, B. A. (2001). Exploring the Nature of Traumatic Memory: Combining Clinical
Knowledge with Laboratory Methods. Trauma and Cognitive Science Haworth
Kolk, B. V. (2014). The Body Keeps the Score. New York: Penguin Publishers.
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology.
Muhammad, T. (2014). Wasteful Black Cosumerism: Set in Motion by Slavery. Nation of
Islam Research Group.
Nemade, R., Reiss, N. S., & Dombeck, M. (2015). Cognitive Theories of Major
Depression - Aaron Beck - Depression: Major Depression & Unipolar Varieties .
Petronis, A. (2010). Epigenetics as a Unifying Principle in the Aetiology of Complex
Traits and Diseases. Nature, 721-727.
Schmidt, U., Holsboer, F., & Rein, T. (2011). Epigenetics Aspects of Post Traumatic
Stress Disorder. Max Planck Institute of Psychology.
Smith, D. J., & Craddock, N. (2011). Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Different of the
Same? The British Journal of Psychology.
Staff, E. (2003). Psychological Treatment of Ethnic Minority Populations. Society of
Indian Psychologists, 13-18.
Staff, E. (2015). Epigenetics: Fundamentals. What is Epigenetics, 1.
Stevenson, H. C. (2006). Parents' Ethnic-Racial Socialization Practices: A Review of
Research and Directions for Future Study. American Psychological Association, 1-
Stevenson, H. C. (2015). Development of the Teenager Experience of Racial Socialization
Scale: Correlates of Race-Related Socialization Frequency from the Perspective of
Black Youth. The Journal of Black Psychology.
Unknown. (2014). African Americans: From Segregation to Modern Institutional
Discrimination and Modern Racism. New York: Sage Publications.
Wallace, R. (2011). Benign Neglect and Planned Shrinkage. Brookly History.
Wallace, R. (2015). The Miseducation of Black Youth in America: The Final Move on the
Grand Chessboard. Etteloc Publishing.
Wallace, R. (2016). Epigenetics & Psychology: The Genetic Intergenerational
Transmission of Trauma. The Odyssey Project.
Watkins, B. (2000). Fantasy, Decay, Abandonment, Defeat and Disease: Community
Disintegration in Central Harlem 1960-1990. New York, NY: Columbia
Weaver, I. (2015). Epigenetics in Pyschology. The NOBA Project.
Welsing, F. C. (1990). The Isis Papers. New York: Third World Press.
Williams, W. (2015). Most Serious Problems fro Blacks Rooted in Culture, Not Racism.
Woodson, C. G. (1933). History as a Weapon: The Mis-education of the Negro. Seven
Woodson, C. G. (1933). The Mis-education of the Negro. New York: Seven Treasures