Maintworld 1/2017

You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

1/<strong>2017</strong> www.maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

Ethernet for<br />

the Process<br />

Industry PAGE<br />

12<br />


While we’re known for our world-class motion control products, Moog’s ability to<br />

maximize your machine uptime doesn’t stop there. Moog Industrial Services provides<br />

products, services and total support that match your specific O&M needs and<br />

machinery challenges.<br />

Download “Lessons Learned” by a Moog maintenance<br />

expert at info.moog.com/mw.<br />


Ensure like-new performance<br />

with new, authentic Moog<br />

replacement products that meet<br />

today’s technical specifications.<br />


Rely on high-quality servo repair<br />

for less unplanned downtime.<br />


Work with responsive, locallybased<br />

Moog teams who speak your<br />

language and know your industry<br />

and equipment.<br />



Tailor a program for total confidence<br />

that maintenance is always available.<br />


Stay productive with quick and<br />

convenient on-site commissioning,<br />

set-up and diagnostics for total<br />

peace of mind.<br />


Gain motion control expertise<br />

and effectively manage installation<br />

and troubleshooting.<br />

©2016 Moog Inc. All rights reserved.<br />


A New Dimension<br />

in HMI/SCADA<br />

Introducing the world’s first 3D Holographic<br />

Machine Interface. ICONICS has redefined “HMI”<br />

in this era of the Industrial Internet of Things by<br />

integrating its automation software with Microsoft’s<br />

HoloLens. This groundbreaking technology allows<br />

users to superimpose real-time information over a<br />

real world production environment or facility, reducing<br />

downtime and increasing operational efficiency.<br />

Experience it for yourself at Hannover Messe!<br />

Visit ICONICS in Hall 7, Stand C40<br />

Celebrating 30 Years of Automation Software<br />

www.iconics.com<br />



Text: Kai Portman<br />

The Changing Face<br />

of Maintenance<br />

VISITING 20 plus Industry and Maintenance events each year in all<br />

continents has given me a chance to see first-hand the changing face of<br />

Maintenance.<br />

Years ago maintenance was conceived as a blue collar toolbox kind<br />

of a job. Nowadays, it is understood that maintenance is a fundamental<br />

part of the working and planning of industry itself. The beauty and at<br />

the same time complexity of it is that it is probably the only area of expertise<br />

that runs through all areas of industry.<br />

Maintenance professionals and engineers are<br />

more and more involved in high-level decision<br />

making procedures in organisations, and it is<br />

universally recognized that calculating failure<br />

mode in order to prevent it, is of utmost importance<br />

within the mechanics of industry itself.<br />

In regards to condition monitoring, the technology<br />

behind it has made quantum leaps in the<br />

past years. From smart bearings to 3D-mapping,<br />

from complex IT programs to smart communication.<br />

Having said this, the work concept in the field has become more<br />

of analysing rather finding fault as the latter has already been brought<br />

to light thanks to technology.<br />

At trade shows around the world, I have found that the message is<br />

the same and it almost seems that people are focusing on a common<br />

goal: advancement in digital technology. At the events of the EFNMS,<br />

SMRP and GSMP the topics of the conferences in these past years<br />

have been orientating also in this same direction, and the associations<br />

themselves as regulatory bodies within the sphere of maintenance<br />

have shown support for this.<br />

What I have personally noticed during my expo-travels, especially<br />

in Europe, is a hype for industry 4.0, IoT and Cloud communication.<br />

I must say that I feel very lucky to be living in such an exciting era<br />

for industry and to have the opportunity to experience it first-hand<br />

with my travels. Thus, I hope our publication will help reflect this period<br />

in time and share it with all you readers.<br />

At trade shows around the world, I have found<br />

that the message is the same and it almost<br />

seems that people are focusing on a common<br />

goal: advancement in digital technology.<br />

Kai Portman<br />

<strong>Maintworld</strong>-magazine<br />

34<br />

Packaging<br />

and bottling<br />

equipment manufacturers<br />

will often design equipment<br />

with shock absorption<br />

to the specifications that<br />

meet safety and industry<br />

requirements.<br />

6 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>

IN THIS ISSUE 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />

12<br />

It can be more difficult for<br />

plants in process industries to<br />

adopt and benefit from many<br />

advances, such as industrial<br />

Ethernet and IP technologies.<br />

52<br />

The goal of vibration<br />

diagnostics is to receive<br />

the information about<br />

the current machine<br />

condition and decide if<br />

the condition is good,<br />

or if some repairs or<br />

adjustments need to be<br />

made.<br />

6 Editorial<br />

8<br />

12<br />

16<br />

20<br />

24<br />

How to Thrive in the Oil and Gas<br />

Industry<br />

Ethernet for the Process<br />

Industry<br />

Leveraging OPC UA to Help Meet<br />

Site Security Requirements<br />

Mixed Reality of IIoT<br />

Using Nodeset Files to Exchange<br />

Information: A Case in MDIS<br />

26<br />

30<br />

32<br />

34<br />

38<br />

Industrial Communication in the<br />

Context of Industry 4.0 and IoT<br />

Cardan Shaft Measurement –<br />

Working in Confined Spaces<br />

Leveraging Planned Outages at<br />

Power Plants<br />

Small Cost, Big Savings<br />

in Packaging and Bottling<br />

Industries<br />

The parallel paths of<br />

maintenance and lubrication<br />

42<br />

44<br />

48<br />

52<br />

Reliability and Maintenance<br />

Management Beliefs –Part 3<br />

Extracting Maximum Economic<br />

Value from Ageing Assets<br />

Building the Foundation<br />

for a Successful Ultrasound<br />

Programme<br />

When Vibration Fails to Work<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland tel. +358 29 007 4570 Publisher<br />

Omnipress Oy, Mäkelänkatu 56, 00510 Helsinki, tel. +358 20 6100, toimitus@omnipress.fi, www.omnipress.fi Editor-in-chief<br />

Nina Garlo-Melkas tel. +358 50 36 46 491, nina.garlo@omnipress.fi, Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales Director, tel. +358 358<br />

44 763 2573, ads@maintworld.com Subscriptions and Change of Address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members<br />

tilaajapalvelu@media.fi Printed by Painotalo Plus Digital Oy, www.ppd.fi Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN<br />

1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 7


How to Thrive in the Oil<br />

and Gas Industry<br />

Don’t just wait for an increase in oil prices to achieve profitability. Oil and gas leaders<br />

need to act on technology innovations to make a difference in <strong>2017</strong> and beyond.<br />


Bentley Systems, Inc.,<br />

Richard.irwin@<br />

bentley.com<br />

8 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />

IN TODAY’S market climate companies<br />

operating in the oil and gas industry<br />

should take advantage of the proliferation<br />

of sensors, big data and analytical techniques,<br />

coupled with the advancements<br />

in asset performance modelling, reality<br />

modelling, and 3D visual operations.<br />

The oil and gas industry has always<br />

strived to reduce costs, improve performance,<br />

and eliminate risk. The last<br />

few years however, have seen the community<br />

hit by a series of blows with serious<br />

consequences. With declining oil<br />

production, plummeting oil prices and a<br />

dramatic cutback in spending, things appeared<br />

bleak. Yet there are still technologies,<br />

processes, and applications available<br />

that allow producers to innovate and<br />

become agile and forward-looking, even<br />

in tough times. Instead of waiting for oil<br />

prices to recover in order to start spending,<br />

some oil and gas CIOs and COOs<br />

are working together to take advantage<br />

of digital advancements to help them<br />

achieve operational excellence.<br />

Integrated Planning and<br />

Operations<br />

Ideally in any business, efficiency and<br />

performance can only be improved if<br />

everyone works together, but this is<br />

sometimes harder in practice than it<br />

first seems. In the oil and gas industry,<br />

it would be ideal if exploration were in<br />

touch with what is happening in production;<br />

if production were working with<br />

operations; if operations were synchronizing<br />

with the inspection team and so<br />

on. In other words, a seamless connected<br />

environment used to manage different<br />

business functions and pinpoint inefficiencies.<br />

For instance, Emerson Process Management,<br />

a supplier of products, services,<br />

and solutions that improve processrelated<br />

operations across many industries,<br />

created a data control centre that<br />

brought together groups from disparate<br />

departments across multiple locations


Despite the downturn, there<br />

are many opportunities for<br />

growth<br />

to one central hub using state-of-the-art<br />

technologies around communications,<br />

conferencing, analytics, and more. The<br />

integrated operations centre is called<br />

iOps and leverages Bentley’s AssetWise<br />

Operational Analytics application. The<br />

iOps centre helps clients simulate business<br />

conditions and make decisions in<br />

a matter of minutes rather than days or<br />

weeks. The predictive operational analytics<br />

software on the connected servers<br />

provides the centre’s clients with an<br />

array of readily-mapped inputs within<br />

user-driven dashboards for full visibility.<br />

Operational Performance<br />

Monitoring Creates Clarity<br />

With the Internet of Things (IoT) adding<br />

more to a world already overloaded<br />






Converge<br />

operational,<br />

information,<br />

and engineering<br />

technologies for a<br />

greater understanding of<br />

asset performance.<br />

with data, from wearable technology to<br />

self-driving cars, asset-intensive industries<br />

are quickly jumping on board and<br />

embracing this revolution. With so much<br />

data flying around, the problem is how to<br />

capture it and use it to your advantage.<br />

Applications that help optimize the use<br />

of assets give user groups the ability<br />

to see a holistic view of the day-to-day<br />

running of the operation, from production<br />

performance against targets, KPIs,<br />

chemical usage and spend, corrosion<br />

levels, maintenance plans, inventory and<br />

more. It also gives the operational or integrity<br />

management leader the information<br />

and support they need to make the<br />

right decision.<br />

More importantly, engineers won’t<br />

need specialized data analysts to carry<br />

out analyses. Saving time on data manipulation<br />

is based on any user, from a<br />

wellhead engineer to a CFO, creating<br />

dashboards tailored to what they want<br />

to see for their role, while the embedded<br />

analytics does the job for them in the<br />

background.<br />

Reduce Costs and Operational<br />

Risk with Improved Asset<br />

Reliability and Integrity<br />

Although spending has been drastically<br />

reduced, cost reduction and risk are still<br />

at the top of any CIO’s list. Now the focus<br />

is on the remaining assets and optimizing<br />

them to gain the best performance,<br />

reduce failures, and maintain availability.<br />

Key to this is reliability and maintenance<br />

to extend the life of aging assets<br />

safely and reliably. Having a programme<br />

in place for inspections, maintenance,<br />

integrity, and performance will significantly<br />

reduce risk and associated operating<br />

costs, while increasing the life of assets<br />

that would normally be replaced.<br />

Asset reliability and integrity management<br />

cover a wide variety of areas,<br />

from risk-based inspections analysis<br />

and safety integrity management to<br />

condition-based monitoring with dynamic<br />

measurement points, asset health<br />

indexing, and, in the same system,<br />

reliability-centred maintenance, maintenance<br />

task analysis, and root cause<br />

analysis. With these strategies in place, it<br />

is easier to identify and predict the failure<br />

of assets that pose the greatest risk<br />

to the operation. Identification leads to<br />

controlled and proactive inspection and<br />

maintenance practices that are crucial<br />

in running an efficient and productive<br />

operation.<br />

Deliver More Insight with<br />

Advanced Analytics<br />

Advanced analytics provides more depth<br />

to the levels of insight by doing more<br />

complex analysis from wider sources of<br />

data, as well as visualization and data<br />

mining. With the power to predict, it<br />

adds an extra level to not only what happened<br />

and why, but when will it happen<br />

again. For instance, predictions can help<br />

with calculating production against<br />

chemical costs, the corrosion levels of a<br />

pipe in terms of when it will need replacing<br />

and the subsequent maintenance<br />

required. The next logical step from this<br />

form of logic is prescriptive analytics –<br />

not only predicting an outcome, but also<br />

what is the best action to take next with<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 9


sight into the performance and efficiency<br />

of any operation. What is often forgotten<br />

is the information on the assets themselves.<br />

Asset lifecycle information management<br />

provides structured control of<br />

asset information and managed change<br />

from cradle to grave, ensuring engineers,<br />

maintenance and operations always have<br />

accurate information.<br />

Knowing what and where assets are<br />

located exactly, what condition they are<br />

in, how they are performing and what is<br />

their remaining life is critical to knowing<br />

you have control over your operation<br />

with line of sight. Maintaining a<br />

seamless information stream between<br />

asset data, documents, organizations,<br />

requirements, people, and processes;<br />

asset lifecycle information management<br />

assures information integrity. For example,<br />

BP sees asset information becoming<br />

increasingly important and valuable<br />

within the business. By using cuttingedge<br />

technology solutions BP expects to<br />

provide new understanding of how to derive<br />

value from data. This will help drive<br />

standardisation and project execution<br />

efficiency that will be driven out across<br />

the enterprise rather than each project<br />

working on their own.<br />

Incorporate asset design data with designs to help risk based inspections.<br />

Display all of your operational data and more on a single dashboard and explore deeper.<br />

the most advantageous outcome. With<br />

machine learning, this becomes a reality.<br />

Machine learning involves doing the<br />

tasks engineers perform but with the<br />

ability to make the right decision from<br />

a variety of options. By using historical<br />

condition data from assets (corrosion,<br />

vibration, and so on) as well as current<br />

conditions (for example, temperature,<br />

pressure, turbidity), machine learning<br />

can sort through large data sets and<br />

identify patterns or connections, predict<br />

outcomes based on knowledge, and<br />

make predictions and recommendations<br />

to decision makers on the best course of<br />

action to take.<br />

Asset Lifecycle Information<br />

Management Leads to Agility<br />

and Value<br />

With so many assets producing so much<br />

data around the world, this information<br />

can be used to provide much more in-<br />

The Digital Transformation<br />

Has Already Started<br />

Advances in analytics, generated data,<br />

and hardware can lead to significant<br />

advantages across all areas of the oil and<br />

gas spectrum when it comes to leading<br />

the digital innovation charge, culminating<br />

in the ‘digital oilfield.’ Key to this is<br />

the convergence of operational technology<br />

(OT) and information technology<br />

(IT) for improved decision-making.<br />

While this is a step forward, converging<br />

engineering technology (ET) will provide<br />

more significant improvements to asset<br />

performance. With asset-related information<br />

linked to the digital engineering<br />

model, it facilitates efficient modifications<br />

and renovations. Before and during<br />

design, functional definitions and requirements<br />

define expected asset behaviour.<br />

With model data being used more<br />

often in the oil and gas industry, often<br />

in separate locations, it makes sense to<br />

incorporate them into the whole system<br />

for improved visibility.<br />

Engineering data (models that are in<br />

the form of networks, schematics, catalogues,<br />

3D designs, and so on) are not<br />

a static view, but can be a continuously<br />

evolving living thing, as assets change<br />

over time in terms of functions and repairs.<br />

Engineering modelling data is the<br />

‘digital twin’ of the physical asset. These<br />

digital representations of the physical<br />

asset allow producers to understand,<br />

predict and optimize the performance of<br />

their assets and their business. With real-time<br />

information from the OT laid on<br />

top of the models, they can then navigate<br />

and display all information relating to<br />

that asset or process, only recommending<br />

an engineer for inspections purposes<br />

if necessary, and all done remotely. The<br />

true value of convergence lies in reduced<br />

asset downtime and maintenance costs,<br />

which will only become more accelerated<br />

with the inclusion of machinelearning<br />

technology.<br />

You don’t have to wait for an upturn in<br />

demand and oil prices. Change can only<br />

take place if you embrace the technology<br />

that is already out there and available.<br />

10 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>

Successful reliability<br />

programs have one thing<br />

in common…<br />

a strong condition monitoring team.<br />

As a condition monitoring<br />

professional or manager, you may be<br />

faced with starting a condition monitoring<br />

program or<br />

iLearnReliability<br />

tasked to get a program back on<br />

<br />

track. There is a lot to know; multiple technologies,<br />

monitoring practices, analysis, fault-reporting<br />

and trending, not to mention proper corrective and<br />

routine maintenance to reduce the likelihood of faults from<br />

reoccurring. Where can you start? Where can you learn what you<br />

need, that is economical in respect to time and expense? And where<br />

can you get training that is practical, going further than just filling you<br />

with facts and figures?<br />

iLearnReliability <br />

[Condition Monitoring]<br />

iLearnReliability [Condition Monitoring] is an<br />

All-In-One subscription based, training system<br />

that teaches your team everything needed to become champions at condition<br />

monitoring, and will provide the necessary guidance to setup or revitalize your plant’s<br />

condition monitoring program.<br />


www.mobiusinstitute.com/iLRcm<br />

Toll Free North America: (877) 550-3400, Worldwide: (+1) 615-216-4811<br />



Ethernet<br />

for the Process<br />

Industry<br />

Today’s process industries share many challenges with hybrid and discrete industries,<br />

such as increasing global competition. While users are looking to latest automation<br />

technologies to help address challenges, it can be more difficult for plants<br />

in process industries to adopt and benefit from many advances, such as industrial<br />

Ethernet and IP technologies.<br />


President & Executive<br />

Director, ODVA, Inc.<br />

Contact:<br />

Adrienne Meyer,<br />

ODVA, Inc.<br />

(ameyer@odva.org)<br />

WITH AN AGING installed base of process<br />

automation systems and the need for<br />

additional capacity to meet consumer demand<br />

in emerging economies, the previous<br />

norms are about to change. It is projected<br />

that the process industries will invest<br />

over 100 billion US dollars globally in<br />

new control systems for process automation,<br />

split equally between modernization<br />

and new installations. As a result, many<br />

users in process industries will be looking<br />

to develop new strategies for maintaining<br />

cost-effective, sustainable production<br />

capacity. To achieve all of the business<br />

results needed, these strategies must take<br />

into account the efficient integration of<br />

the plant’s network infrastructure into<br />

the existing business applications.<br />





12 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>


Moreover, these strategies call for<br />

a network architecture that provides<br />

the best integration, not only within<br />

the process plant but also with external<br />

systems. Unfortunately, the diverse and<br />

often complex nature of field devices<br />

in process plants has made integration<br />

complicated because users have needed<br />

to deploy a range of specialty process<br />

fieldbuses in the network architecture.<br />

This fact, combined with the often extreme<br />

nature of applications in process<br />

industries – extreme plant size, hazardous<br />

areas, climate, environmental<br />

hazards, or remoteness – have made<br />

it difficult for users to realize all the<br />

benefits possible from process integration.<br />

However, standard Ethernet and<br />

IP technologies – already proven in<br />

hybrid and discrete industries – stand<br />

to change this situation for the process<br />

industries.<br />

Convergent, Compatible and<br />

Scalable OPI<br />

ODVA envisions an approach to the optimization<br />

of process integration (OPI)<br />

that will be convergent, compatible,<br />

scalable and open for users and their<br />

suppliers. The approach will simplify exchange<br />

of configuration, diagnostic and<br />

production data between field devices<br />

and higher-level systems such as supervisory<br />

control and data acquisition systems<br />

(SCADA). In addition, plant asset<br />

management (PAM) and secure remote<br />

access of field installations will be enabled<br />

and plant-to-enterprise communication<br />

simplified. This, together with<br />

the proven benefits and cost advantages<br />

of commercially available, off-the-shelf<br />

Ethernet and Internet technologies will<br />

help businesses improve productivity<br />

and competitiveness.<br />

ODVA has a broad overall approach<br />

to OPI based on the three principle<br />

domains of the industrial ecosystem –<br />

production, enterprise and power grid.<br />

The focal point of OPI is the production<br />

domain and the process plant. This approach<br />

is characterized by the need for<br />

the integration of field and functional<br />

safety devices with the control systems,<br />

along with the business value of providing<br />

process information from the field<br />

to enterprise systems. The foundation<br />

of OPI is an interoperability framework<br />

achieved through a unified communication<br />

system using standard Ethernet and<br />

Internet technologies. This framework<br />

also covers other requirements particularly<br />

relevant to applications in the process<br />

industries such as intrinsic safety<br />

and configuration of field devices with a<br />

large number of parameters.<br />

ODVA’s plan for OPI leverages its core<br />

competency in information and communication<br />

technologies. These are grounded<br />

in ODVA’s media-independent Common<br />

Industrial Protocol (CIP) and in<br />

EtherNet/IP, its network technology<br />

which is based on standard, unmodified<br />

Ethernet and Internet technologies. For<br />

OPI between field devices and industrial<br />

control systems or ICS, often referred to<br />

as DCS or PAC, ODVA seeks to include<br />

objects, services and device profiles in<br />

EtherNet/IP that are optimized for applications<br />

in the process industries and<br />

permit the transparent and seamless<br />

exchange of production, logistics, configuration<br />

and diagnostic information.<br />

In the long term, ODVA envisions physical<br />

layer implementations that allow for<br />

the integration of devices on Ethernet<br />

that are intrinsically safe and networkpowered.<br />



The production domain in process<br />

plants – where the tight integration of<br />

field devices with industrial control<br />

systems is required – is the focal point<br />

of OPI. Although integration of field<br />

devices is essential, plant engineers have<br />

not been provided with standard ways<br />

to facilitate this integration. Originally,<br />

process plants relied on 4-20 mA analogue<br />

signals for transmitting process<br />

values to and from field devices. More<br />

recently, these analogue signals have<br />

been often replaced with digital communication<br />

technologies in the form of specialized<br />

process automation fieldbuses.<br />

However, these fieldbuses traditionally<br />

require specialist training, knowledge<br />

and tools to integrate with higher-level<br />

networks and, in many cases, have not<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 13


Industrial Enterprise Domain<br />

Financial and Cost<br />

Accounting<br />

Utilities and Material Cost,<br />

Demand and Delivery<br />

Business Planning<br />

and Analytics<br />

Utility<br />

Energy<br />

Cost<br />

Manufacturing Execution Systems<br />

Supervisory Control and<br />

Data Acquisition Systems<br />

Utility<br />

Energy<br />

Price<br />

Field Facility<br />

& Energy<br />

Infrastructure<br />

Systems<br />

Batch ProcessesProcess Plant Continuous Processes<br />

Industrial<br />

Control Systems<br />

Industrial<br />

Control Systems<br />

Plant<br />

Asset<br />

Management<br />

Systems<br />

Energy<br />

Production<br />

& Delivery<br />

Systems<br />

Field Devices<br />

Hazardous Production Area<br />

(IS classified Ex Zone)<br />

Safety Instrumented Systems<br />

Process Plant<br />

Power Grid Domain<br />

Industrial Production Domain<br />

been designed for the transmission of<br />

large amounts of data available from<br />

today’s instrumentation. Remote access<br />

is also complicated, requiring additional<br />

hardware in the form of gateways to allow<br />

remote access connections to the<br />

plant and its field devices, industrial control<br />

systems, and interrelated systems<br />

using IP-based technologies.<br />

An Evolved Approach to OPI<br />

ODVA, with its expertise in standard<br />

information and communication technologies<br />

for industrial automation, combined<br />

with its large community of device<br />

vendors, who make and sell EtherNet/<br />

IP-compliant products for industrial<br />

automation, can provide the process<br />

industries with an evolved approach to<br />

OPI that is:<br />

• Convergent in its long term approach<br />

to support the deployment<br />

of standard Ethernet and Internet<br />

technologies in the process industries<br />

across all domains of the industrial<br />

ecosystem;<br />

• Compatible by enabling users to<br />

integrate new devices and systems<br />

with their installed base while evolving<br />

their automation architecture<br />

to complement the architecture for<br />

supervisory and enterprise systems;<br />

• Scalable from simple field devices<br />

to complex systems of automation<br />



equipment in the enterprise environment;<br />

and<br />

• Open by virtue of its use of multivendor,<br />

interoperable standards<br />

managed by an independent, vendor-neutral<br />

organization<br />

Despite wider acceptance and use of<br />

Ethernet and IP technologies in process<br />

automation, there are still gaps between<br />

the field, control and enterprise levels.<br />

Plus, different control systems favour<br />

different fieldbuses. OPI will ease this<br />

situation by providing users with a<br />

unified communication solution that<br />

includes the information and communication<br />

standards for the objects, services<br />

and profiles needed.<br />

Learn more about ODVA’s vision for<br />

the Optimization of Process Integration<br />

by downloading the full vision white<br />

paper and connecting with ODVA for<br />

updates on technical releases. To learn<br />

more about ODVA’s technical work on<br />

OPI, visit www.odva.org/OPI.<br />

About ODVA<br />

Founded in 1995, ODVA is a global association<br />

whose members comprise the<br />

world’s leading automation companies.<br />

ODVA’s mission is to advance open,<br />

interoperable information and communication<br />

technologies in industrial<br />

automation. ODVA recognizes its media<br />

independent network protocol, the<br />

Common Industrial Protocol or “CIP” –<br />

and the network adaptations of CIP –<br />

EtherNet/IP, DeviceNet, CompoNet<br />

and ControlNet – as its core technology<br />

and the primary common interest<br />

of its membership. ODVA’s vision is to<br />

contribute to the sustainability and<br />

prosperity of the global community by<br />

transforming the model for information<br />

and communication technology in the<br />

industrial ecosystem. For future interoperability<br />

of production systems and the<br />

integration of the production systems<br />

with other systems, ODVA embraces the<br />

adoption of commercial-off-the-shelf<br />

(COTS) and standard, unmodified Internet<br />

and Ethernet technologies as a guiding<br />

principle wherever possible. This<br />

principle is exemplified by EtherNet/IP<br />

– the world’s number one industrial Ethernet<br />

network. For more information<br />

about ODVA, visit odva.org.<br />

14 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>

The Industrial Interoperability Standard<br />

Much more than a protocol …<br />

That is why it’s mandatory for Industrie 4.0<br />

OPC UA is a framework for Industrial Interoperability<br />

➞ Modeling of data and interfaces for devices and services<br />

➞ Integrated security by design with confi gurable access rights for data and services –<br />

validated by German BSI security experts<br />

➞ Extendable transport protocols: Client/Server and Publisher/Subscriber and roadmap for TSN<br />

➞ Scalable from sensor to IT Enterprise & Cloud<br />

➞ Independent from vendor, operating system, implementation language and vertical markets<br />

Join our OPC-booth at<br />

Hanover Fair: Hall 9, A 11<br />

Information models of different branches are mapped onto OPC UA to make them interoperable with<br />

integrated security. The OPC Foundation closely cooperates with organizations and associations from<br />

various branches:<br />

TM<br />

Verband für Automatische<br />

Datenerfassung, Identifikation und Mobilität<br />

OPC Unified Architecture<br />

Interoperability for Industrie 4.0 and the Internet of Things<br />

IoT<br />

4.0<br />

Industrie<br />

M2M<br />

1<br />

OPC DAY<br />

EUROPE <strong>2017</strong><br />

IT meets Automation<br />

May 30 th /31 hosted by<br />

Microsoft Center Copenhagen<br />

© fotolia.com, Sergii Figurnyi<br />

Download of<br />

Technology brochure:<br />

opcfoundation.org/<br />

resources/brochures/<br />



Leveraging OPC UA<br />

to Help Meet Site<br />

Security Requirements<br />

Today’s industrial control systems leverage the latest OPC Unified Architecture (UA)<br />

standards, which provide cross-platform interoperability between software applications<br />

and devices. This allows for the vendor-independent exchange of real-time,<br />

alarm and condition, historical, and many other types of data.<br />

16 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>



Kepware Tecnologies,<br />

tony.paine@kepware.com<br />

only the applications, devices, and users<br />

who are authorized to interact with the<br />

system are allowed to do so. In addition,<br />

this removes the possibility for non-authorized<br />

applications, devices, and users<br />

to impact the operation of the system or<br />

gain access to critical data.<br />

setup and managed. OPC UA’s client/<br />

server architecture also bodes well with<br />

a defense-in-depth strategy, as UA-aware<br />

applications can act as an intermediary<br />

between different layers within a site<br />

and limit the amount of information that<br />

can be exposed or manipulated.<br />

DUE TO THE CRITICALITY of Industrial<br />

Control Systems (ICS) and the desire<br />

to make process and business information<br />

available to anyone, anywhere,<br />

and at any time, the information that is<br />

exchanged between interested parties<br />

must meet the security requirements<br />

of the site. The OPC UA standards are<br />

designed to meet these security requirements<br />

while maintaining the level of<br />

flexibility and control that site administrators<br />

expect.<br />

Security Objectives<br />

Before we discuss how OPC UA can meet<br />

site security requirements, lets review<br />

the security objectives that apply to industrial<br />

control systems. These include:<br />

• Auditability: This provides traceability<br />

on all actions performed within<br />

a system, with the goal of logging<br />

which user performed what action<br />

and when—as well as any attempts<br />

that have been made to compromise<br />

the system.<br />

• Authentication: An ICS is comprised<br />

of hardware, software applications,<br />

and users. Each component<br />

must be able to prove its identity<br />

in order to be considered a trusted<br />

party.<br />

• Authorization: Even though a party<br />

may be trusted, components should<br />

be given the minimum access needed<br />

to perform their functions.<br />

• Availability: This ensures the ICS is<br />

fully operational by limiting factors<br />

that may impact its execution.<br />

• Confidentiality: The information<br />

exchanged between trusted parties<br />

must be hidden from those that are<br />

not trusted or have no reason to view<br />

the information. This requires that<br />

the sender and receiver of information<br />

must be able to encrypt and decrypt<br />

the data they exchange.<br />

• Integrity: The information exchanged<br />

between trusted parties<br />

must not be modifiable.<br />

By meeting each of these security objectives,<br />

a site will be able to ensure that<br />

Security Threats<br />

Though not comprehensive of all possible<br />

threats, some that have plagued ICS<br />

over the years are as follows:<br />

• Compromising User Credentials<br />

• Eavesdropping<br />

• Malformed Messages<br />

• Message Alteration/Spoofing<br />

• Message Flooding<br />

• Message Replay<br />

• Profiling<br />

• Session Hijacking<br />

By implementing a security strategy for<br />

a site, an administrator can thwart the<br />

above threats and achieve the security<br />

objectives needed to protect critical infrastructure.<br />

Site Security<br />

Most sites will incorporate a Cyber Security<br />

Management System (CSMS) to<br />

address security-related requirements.<br />

These requirements may range from<br />

the adoption of security policies around<br />

physical and electronic boundaries, auditing,<br />

and preventative and response<br />

procedures. In order to address the<br />

threats discussed earlier, a security risk<br />

assessment will be initiated and appropriate<br />

security measures will be implemented.<br />

A good implementation will<br />

follow a “defense–in-depth” strategy,<br />

where there will be multiple layers of<br />

protection. This may include a combination<br />

of firewalls, intrusion detection/<br />

prevention systems (IDS/IPS), patchmanagement<br />

systems, and IT rules for<br />

what is allowed and what is not allowed<br />

within the context of the system.<br />

OPC UA can adapt to a site’s CSMS<br />

by allowing the administrator complete<br />

control on how communications are<br />

OPC UA Security Architecture<br />

To mitigate against security threats, OPC<br />

UA has a multi-tier design that consists<br />

of an application layer, communications<br />

layer, and a transport layer.<br />

The majority of OPC functionality is<br />

handled within the context of the application<br />

layer i.e. where clients and servers<br />

process UA information—operations like<br />

reading, writing, and browsing items. It<br />

is also where UA provides management<br />

for authentication and user authorization<br />

through the concept of a session between<br />

a client and server instances.<br />

The secure channel that makes up<br />

the communications layer provides the<br />

functionality that allows for application<br />

authentication, confidentiality, and integrity.<br />

It does this by utilizing an appropriate<br />

level of encryption and decryption<br />

to maintain confidentiality of communication<br />

messages, by signing messages<br />




to ensure the integrity of data, and by<br />

utilizing digital certificates that provide<br />

application authentication. The resulting<br />

secured data is then passed on to the<br />

transport layer for further processing.<br />

The transport layer handles the actual<br />

sending and receiving of the data<br />

over a communications infrastructure.<br />

The transport mechanism used (such as<br />

OPC UA Binary or XML Web Services<br />

via HTTP) impacts the implementation<br />

of the secured channel managed by the<br />

communications layer.<br />

How It Works<br />

Every OPC UA application has a unique<br />

digital (X.509) certificate assigned to it<br />

per installation that is referred to as an<br />

application instance certificate. This<br />

certificate is comprised of a public key<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 17


Common ICS Security Threats<br />

#<br />

? @<br />

!<br />

Compromising User Credentials<br />

When an attacker assumes a user's identity<br />

by obtaining their credentials.<br />

Eavesdropping<br />

When an attacker intercepts confidential<br />

information for personal gain or to leverage<br />

in future attacks.<br />

Malformed Messages<br />

When abnormal communications are sent<br />

with the intent to limit or interrupt the<br />

receiver's availability to authorized users.<br />

Message Alteration/Spoofing<br />

When an attacker manipulates or forges a<br />

message in an effort to perform<br />

unauthorized tasks under an authorized<br />

user’s identity.<br />

Message Flooding<br />

When an attacker sends frequent and large<br />

amounts of communications with the goal<br />

of taking the receiver offline.<br />

Message Replay<br />

When authenticated messages are<br />

captured and re-sent later, allowing an<br />

attacker to perform valid operations at<br />

invalid times.<br />

Profiling<br />

When an attacker applies knowledge<br />

about a particular device or application’s<br />

security vulnerabilities.<br />

Session Hijacking<br />

When an attacker takes over a session from<br />

an authorized user.<br />

that can be shared with other trusted<br />

parties, as well as a private key that is<br />

only known to the application instance.<br />

These keys vary in size, where the longer<br />

the key, the harder it is for a third party<br />

to guess.<br />

When a client application connects<br />

to a server, it creates a secured channel.<br />

Only if an administrator has configured<br />

the client and server to trust each other’s<br />

certificates will the secured channel be<br />

established. This procedure provides application<br />

authentication.<br />

In order to provide the identity of<br />

the user of an application, the client will<br />

next create a session that leverages the<br />

secure channel for communications. Applications<br />

may utilize this user information<br />

to limit or restrict access to certain<br />

operations, thus providing a level of user<br />

authorization.<br />

From here on out, the client will encrypt<br />

all communications it sends to the<br />

server with the server’s public key, and<br />

will sign each message with its own private<br />

key. Upon receiving a message, the<br />

server will test the integrity of the message<br />

by validating the signature against<br />

the client’s public key and decrypt the<br />

message with its own private key. This<br />

ensures that all messages remain confidential<br />

and are not tampered with.<br />



Mitigation of Threats<br />

OPC UA’s secure channel/session model<br />

protects against potential threats in<br />

many ways. First of all OPC UA limits<br />

what actions a client can perform on a<br />

server before it is authenticated. Clients<br />

are limited to obtaining the security and<br />

connection requirements of a server<br />

and creating a secure channel. In the<br />

case of security and connection requirements,<br />

this information seldom changes<br />

after deployment and will require little<br />

processing time on the server. For the<br />

more processor-intensive secure channel<br />

creation, servers should monitor for<br />

repeated failed secure channel creation<br />

requests and intentionally delay the<br />

handling of future requests to minimize<br />

the impact of a potential attack. Servers<br />

should also allow administrators to<br />

limit the number of concurrent connections<br />

it will handle at any given time.<br />

These steps will prevent against message<br />

flooding. An additional benefit of limiting<br />

what an unauthenticated party can<br />

accomplish is that any known security<br />

vulnerabilities that could be compromised<br />

are limited, which minimizes the<br />

server profiling that could be done by an<br />

attacker.<br />

Each message that is exchanged contains<br />

a session ID, secure channel ID,<br />

request ID, timestamp, and sequence<br />

numbers. Since these messages are not<br />

modifiable, applications can validate<br />

these values to ensure that an attacker<br />

has not captured a message to replay at<br />

some point in the future. Clients and<br />

servers also validate each message to<br />

ensure it is of the proper form. Together,<br />

this eliminates the concerns around<br />

message replay and reception of malformed<br />

messages.<br />

Summary<br />

OPC UA provides the industry with interoperability<br />

between software-based applications<br />

and hardware appliances from<br />

various vendors. This interoperability<br />

allows for the exchange of information<br />

that is critical to any industrial control<br />

system, as well as for the overall business.<br />

In order to make optimal operating and<br />

business decisions, the ability to obtain<br />

information from anywhere in the world<br />

is pivotal. Since this will require data to<br />

be transmitted over public domains, it<br />

must be done securely in order to protect<br />

the authenticity, integrity, and confidentiality<br />

of information. OPC UA’s adoption<br />

of today’s widespread IT principles and<br />

techniques makes this possible.<br />

18 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>

When things<br />

just work,<br />

work gets done.<br />

Kepware’s industrial connectivity software provides<br />

secure and reliable data from the shop floor to the top<br />

floor, so you can focus on productivity.<br />

Learn more at kepware.com/MW


The Mixed<br />

Reality of IIoT<br />

If I told you it was possible to use a mixed reality device to control a<br />

manufacturing robot using HMI/SCADA software for the Industrial Internet<br />

of Things (IIoT), would you believe me? Certainly there is a “wow” factor in<br />

being able to do so, but it is a reality today.<br />

TAKE A MOMENT to parse through that<br />

statement and you can appreciate the<br />

multiple technological advancements<br />

that have had to take place to lead to<br />

this opportunity. There is the evolution<br />

of HMI/SCADA and analysis software<br />

to take advantage of the Internet<br />

of Things. There are the continuous<br />

breakthroughs in operating systems, databases and<br />

business intelligence, as well as in augmented/mixed<br />

reality and wearable devices.<br />

This combination of technologies was not thrown together<br />

by coincidence either. It is based on real use cases<br />

from manufacturers who want to be able to leverage<br />

their investment in existing automation systems, while<br />

applying the latest breakthroughs in IoT and wearable<br />

device technology. Such an innovation will be on display<br />

at Hannover Messe <strong>2017</strong> in April, where global automation<br />

software provider ICONICS will demonstrate its<br />

IoT-integrated Holographic Machine Interface (HMI)<br />

and analytics solutions working in collaboration with<br />

Microsoft Azure and a Comau robot.<br />

Let’s take a step back and look at what it has taken to<br />

make this a (mixed) reality.<br />

IIoT Compatibility<br />

Companies looking to enhance their operations by<br />

connecting to the Industrial Internet of Things should<br />

know that there are off-the-shelf solutions available<br />

today. Adding IIoT connectivity helps organizations to<br />

scale operations when necessary, to ensure against IT<br />

hardware obsolescence, and to provide global access<br />

to connected systems. Plus, this can be done without<br />

20 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />


Senior Director of<br />

Global Marketing,<br />

ICONICS, Inc.<br />

requiring any expensive<br />

retrofitting or costly new IT<br />

infrastructure.<br />

Combining low-cost,<br />

small footprint IoT gateways<br />

with proven HMI/<br />

SCADA, analytics, and mobile<br />

technology running in<br />

the cloud gives customers global visibility, scalability,<br />

and reliability. Those gateways connect companies’<br />

core equipment to their preferred cloud platform<br />

(e.g. Microsoft Azure), communicating via the most<br />

popular communication protocols, such as OPC UA,<br />

BACnet, SNMP, and Modbus. However, best-in-class<br />

IoT gateways should provide functionality beyond basic<br />

connectivity – a form of “connected intelligence”, so<br />

to speak. Users should look for included IoT gateway<br />

software that provides additional capabilities such as<br />

data collection, web-based visualization, edge analytics,<br />

alarm management, fault detection and diagnostics,<br />

and energy management to name a few. Such bi-directional<br />

control provides complete contextualization of<br />

an organization’s data, making the previously invisible<br />

knowledge points now visible.<br />

Some customers are not sure where to start, given<br />

the plethora of affordable gateway devices available on<br />

the market today. To assist with this, ICONICS recently<br />

initiated its own IoT Alliance Program for qualified<br />

hardware providers to complement its end-to-end<br />

IoTWorX solution. This alliance program is geared<br />

toward original device manufacturers (ODMs) and offers<br />

end users the ability to select from a number of pretested,<br />

approved devices from preferred providers.


1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 21


Microsoft Software/Hardware Integration<br />

Recently, some of the most interesting developments in cloud<br />

services, business intelligence, machine learning, and data<br />

analysis have come out of Redmond, Washington. Such new<br />

products and services add to Microsoft’s proven legacy of operating<br />

system, desktop productivity, database, and web connectivity<br />

solutions. Gartner has recognized Microsoft as a leader<br />

in its Magic Quadrant for Enterprise Application Platform as<br />

a Service (in 2016), as well as for Infrastructure as a Service (in<br />

2015), so manufacturers are now more readily embracing and<br />

investing in software solutions built on the Microsoft Azure<br />

cloud platform. IoTWorX leverages the Azure IoT Hub for<br />

rich connectivity to things, secure cloud communications, and<br />

built-in real-time visualization and analytics.<br />





Another of Microsoft’s extraordinary technology breakthroughs<br />

is its HoloLens self-contained holographic computer.<br />

HoloLens is an evolution in user interfaces, allowing the<br />

wearer to see and interact with a “mixed reality” of 2D and 3D<br />

holograms superimposed over the real world environment.<br />

“HMI” has been redefined through ICONICS’ development of<br />

a Holographic Machine Interface, which uses HoloLens technology<br />

to perform remote monitoring, asset management, and<br />

predictive maintenance on production equipment.<br />

Robots … and Other Connected Machines<br />

As part of a working relationship with Comau, a business within<br />

the Fiat Chrysler Automotive (FCA) Group, a Comau Racer<br />

3 robot will be featured at Hannover Messe <strong>2017</strong> this spring.<br />

While visiting the Microsoft booth, attendees will be able to interact<br />

with the robot with associated data visualized, analyzed,<br />

and mobilized via high-tech software solutions.<br />

However, as cool as using a HoloLens with integrated HMI/<br />

analytical capabilities to monitor and control a robot over IoT<br />

seems, it is only partially representative of the multiple applications<br />

where these technological breakthroughs can be<br />

applied. Process, factory, and building automation applications<br />

can all benefit from the openness and standardization of IoTconnected<br />

visualization and control. Organizations now have<br />

their pick of easy-to-add IoT gateways with onboard software<br />

that includes energy, building and industrial protocols (including<br />

BACnet, OPC UA, Modbus and Web Services) with the latest<br />

in security measures and the ability to be configured from<br />

anywhere in the world.<br />

Those looking for the latest in HMI/SCADA and analytical<br />

software that integrates with cutting edge technology in a wide<br />

array of applications in multiple industries should pay close attention<br />

to what’s going on at Hannover Messe in April. Because<br />

there’s no denying the (mixed) reality of it all.<br />

22 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>


Sercos = Real-Time + IoT.<br />

That‘s the Sercos ® world.<br />



QR CODE<br />

Scan to read<br />

full version.<br />

Text: VIJAYA RAMA RAJU, Systems Architect, Yokogawa and Paul Hunkar, Consultant, DS Interoperabilityz<br />

Using Nodeset Files to Exchange<br />

Information: A Case in MDIS<br />

Any client that needs to work with an OPC UA Server has to understand the<br />

information model present in the server and discover the instance of the model<br />

to be able to wire up to the correct nodes and<br />

exchange data.<br />

MDIS Companion<br />

OPC UA Specification provides various<br />

ways for clients to get information.<br />

These include:<br />

a. Browsing the address space for the<br />

information required<br />

b. Server Developer and Client Developers<br />

agreeing upon the information<br />

model outside of OPC UA<br />

c. Server Developer providing excel<br />

files or text documents describing<br />

the instances.<br />

However, the methods described above<br />

have serious limitations in the context of<br />

MDIS. These are:<br />

1. The server might not be deployed<br />

by the time the client needs this<br />

information.<br />

2. The MDIS Standard defines Object<br />

Types. Vendors however, are<br />

allowed to, and often do define<br />

Object Types in order to extend or<br />

customize these objects.<br />

3. The instances of objects depend<br />

on each vendor or installation, and<br />

24 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />

providing the instance information<br />

in excel or text files with different<br />

formats cause problematic data<br />

entry issues.<br />

An “Information Model XML Schema”<br />

describes a standard syntax that information<br />

model developers can use<br />

to define their information models in<br />

way a computer program can read. A<br />

file that uses the XML Schema is usually<br />

referred to as a NodesetFile. It is<br />

used extensively for defining industry<br />

standard models such as MDIS. There<br />

are also a number of modelling tools<br />

that generate information models and<br />

provide a description of each model as a<br />

NodesetFile. This method also applies<br />

to instance data, not just models. The<br />

XML Schema can easily be used to serialize<br />

information models directly from<br />

a server (i.e. Import/Export) and there<br />

are multiple ways this feature helps in<br />

the development of clients and servers,<br />

especially in MDIS.<br />

Modelling Tools<br />

Client<br />

Development<br />

Server<br />

Development<br />

Method 1 (Chart 1):<br />

Server vendors and client vendors<br />

implementing MDIS can agree upon<br />

an Information Model (extension and<br />

sub-typed Objects) and exchange this<br />

as an Xml File which can be version<br />

controlled. The server & client vendors<br />

can proceed to develop client and server<br />

extension or sub-types in parallel. When<br />

instance information is available, additional<br />

NodesetFiles can be generated<br />

representing all of the instance information.<br />

The client vendor can process and<br />

configure the client system based on<br />

these NodesetFiles.


OPC UA Server<br />

Nodest Extraction<br />

Client Development<br />

Method 2 (Chart 2):<br />

If the Server is readily available, the<br />

actual configuration of the server can<br />

be extracted. Since OPC UA servers include<br />

type information, the extraction<br />

includes custom type information as<br />

well as any instance information. The<br />

generation of an extracted NodesetFile<br />

can be done with a standard third party<br />

tool. These tools can run on a separate<br />

machine and only need access to the UA<br />

Server. The client can use the exported<br />

NodesetFiles to generate any configuration,<br />

including all instance data.<br />

Client Configuration<br />

The nodeset format, since it is defined<br />

in the specification, allows the same tool<br />

to be used for importing configuration<br />

information from different server vendors.<br />

It allows for easy determination<br />

of changes in models. Tools can be built<br />

that actually provide detailed configuration<br />

for the client system. Yokogawa as<br />

part of the pilot project for MDIS built<br />

tools that include generating logic for<br />

interlock handling, mapping of MDIS<br />

types to existing Yokogawa Centum and<br />

UGS types, generation of Centum logic<br />

and assignment of standard faceplates<br />

to these types. These tools made use of<br />

Smart Parts, which is a standard feature<br />

in Centum systems.<br />

The tools allow for easy extension for<br />

new types, just by configuring the additional<br />

sub-type or extension in a configuration<br />

file; any additional logic could<br />

be generated. The tool only needs to be<br />

validated for a single instance of a custom<br />

type, i.e. that the configured logic is correct,<br />

and all instances will work correctly.<br />

Providing the Nodeset configuration and<br />

tools to import the industry standard format<br />

greatly reduced configuration time<br />

as well as testing time. The end user can<br />

be assured that no data entry errors exist,<br />

and that configuration errors do not<br />

exist. If the designed logic for the given<br />

type needs to be changed, a single change<br />

and a quick regeneration will correct it<br />

for all instances. Yokogawa saw that it<br />

took only a few minutes to generate a<br />

complete configuration for its UGS OPC<br />

UA Client including Centum logic.<br />

Conclusion<br />

The usage of Nodeset Files simplifies the<br />

exchange of information models and the<br />

configuration of clients and servers. It<br />

has the capability to decouple the development<br />

of client and server. It also has<br />

the ability to overcome the ever-present<br />

late changes and testing pressure that<br />

results from them in-server. End user<br />

can be assured that configuration is correct<br />

and it can minimize the testing of<br />

systems.<br />

eltherm – Specialist for electrical heat tracing systems<br />

Trace heating for all industrial applications<br />

Turnkey heat tracing solutions from Engineering to Commissioning<br />

Secure, reliable systems for high process temperatures<br />

and hazardous areas<br />

Customised energy saving and monitoring systems<br />

International operating company with<br />

40 years technology experience<br />

High quality and flexibility<br />

Own production site<br />

Visit us at<br />

maintenance Dortmund,<br />

Messe Westfalenhallen<br />

Dortmund/Germany,<br />

29 & 30 March <strong>2017</strong>, stand F 09<br />

Products include:<br />

heating cables and tapes – heating mats and jackets – heated hoses<br />

measurement and control systems – accessories<br />

eltherm GmbH<br />

Ernst-Heinkel-Str. 6-10, 57299 Burbach, Germany<br />

Phone: +49 27 36/ 44 13-0<br />

E-Mail: info@eltherm.com<br />





in the Context<br />

of Industry 4.0<br />

and IoT<br />

The blending of the digital world<br />

with the physical thanks to the<br />

Internet heralds the start of the<br />

intelligent factory era. Flexibility,<br />

efficient use of resources,<br />

improved ergonomics, and<br />

integrating customers and<br />

business partners into the<br />

business and value creation<br />

processes, are all features of<br />

this blending process.<br />


Managing Director of<br />

Sercos International,<br />

p.lutz@sercos.de<br />

INFORMATION and communication<br />

technologies play a key role in implementing<br />

Industry 4.0 concepts.<br />

Cyber-physical systems such as sensors,<br />

actuators, embedded computers, smartphones<br />

and machines are connected<br />

to one another and exchange data both<br />

between themselves and outside of the<br />

factory work floor. Today’s automation<br />

networks and fieldbus systems<br />

26 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />

must therefore not only guarantee that<br />

machines and facilities can carry out<br />

production with safety, precision and efficiency,<br />

but they must also help towards<br />

establishing a universal solution for<br />

integrating different IT systems on different<br />

rungs of the organizational ladder<br />

within a factory.<br />

The fourth industrial revolution will<br />

result in dramatic upheavals within<br />

the industry similar to those we have<br />

already experienced in the private sector<br />

when introducing the Internet and<br />

mobile communication. One can expect<br />

flexibility from Industry 4.0 in production<br />

processes that has never before<br />

been available. Processes will become<br />

more energy and resource efficient. The<br />

machines are therefore able to influence<br />

production/planning systems or stock<br />

management directly. It also means that<br />

manufacturers can be contacted directly<br />

when their products experience gradual<br />

wear and tear so that condition monitoring<br />

and preventative maintenance<br />

can be started, therefore minimizing<br />

dead time and optimizing productivity.<br />

When we have a closer look at today’s<br />

situation, we recognize that an increasing<br />

number of manufacturers are using<br />

Industrial Ethernet solutions to implement<br />

new machine concepts and to<br />

connect systems. The advantages over<br />

traditional fieldbus systems are obvious.<br />

There is sufficient bandwidth available<br />

to transmit safety-critical data as well as


IT protocols via a common medium in<br />

addition to fast real-time data transmission.<br />

In addition, users and manufacturers<br />

benefit from the use of standardized<br />

Ethernet hardware, such as passive and<br />

active infrastructure components.<br />

However, a uniform standard remains<br />

a dream: There is a large number<br />

of competing communication<br />

solutions and although they all use the<br />

widespread Ethernet technology, they<br />

specify different protocols and profiles<br />

in the superimposed ISO/OSI layers.<br />

Thus, devices that support different<br />

Industrial Ethernet standards are not<br />

compatible or interoperable with each<br />

other. Moreover, most devices that<br />

support different real-time Ethernet<br />

protocols cannot coexist in a common<br />

network, thereby losing the advantages<br />

of a common network standard. Most<br />

real-time Ethernet solutions use the<br />

network on an exclusive basis, meaning<br />

that only devices of one’s “own” protocol<br />

can be operated on the network. Devices<br />

that support other real-time Ethernet<br />

protocols, as well as standard Ethernet<br />

protocols, can be connected only via<br />

gateways or special switches. Other<br />

protocols can only be transmitted over<br />

the network by tunnelling them over the<br />

underlying real-time protocol, which<br />

can significantly harm the functioning<br />

and performance of a system. The future<br />

Ethernet IEEE 802.1 TSN (Time Sensitive<br />

Networks) standard will eventually<br />

make time-controlled transmission of<br />

real-time critical messages via standard<br />

Ethernet components possible. Most<br />

likely, this Ethernet TSN technology will<br />

have a significant impact on improving<br />

the heterogeneous landscape of realtime<br />

Ethernet dialects.<br />

Important Role of OPC UA<br />

OPC UA plays a very important role in<br />

advancing the convergence of IT and automation<br />

technology, thus enabling the<br />

consistent exchange of information from<br />

the corporate level down to the control<br />

or field level. From a technical perspective,<br />

OPC UA is characterized by the fact<br />

that it contains both, mechanisms for<br />

data exchange and an information model<br />

which allows the structure and semantics<br />

of the information exchanged to be<br />

defined. This technology can not only be<br />

integrated into devices on any platform<br />

with various programming languages,<br />

but systems of any degree of complexity<br />

can be fully described with it. In addition,<br />

the OPC UA technology is standardized<br />

on an international basis and has<br />

very wide acceptance from manufacturers<br />

and users worldwide.<br />

However, although OPC UA is in fact<br />

a communication standard that extends<br />

from the enterprise level down to the<br />

control & field level, it has two key limitations.<br />

One is that OPC UA can use or<br />

replace existing fieldbus and Industrial<br />

Ethernet systems only where there are<br />

no specialized and sophisticated timeand<br />

deterministic-communication<br />

requirements. The other limitation is<br />

that OPC UA only defines how data are<br />

described and exchanged. The actual<br />

meaning of the data, which is generally<br />

understood and defined as semantics, is<br />

not defined.<br />

A very promising approach is therefore<br />

to combine and map the existing<br />

real-time Ethernet protocols and the<br />

respective profiles with OPC UA. In doing<br />

so, process and device data are made<br />

available not just locally via the respective<br />

real-time network but also via any<br />

superordinate network infrastructure,<br />

e.g. the Internet or Intranet, via OPC<br />

UA, in a uniform and cross-manufacturer<br />

manner. Thus, not only is data exchange<br />

between the machine periphery<br />

and superordinate IT systems simplified,<br />

but the requirements of Industry<br />



4.0 with respect to semantic interoperability<br />

are also supported.<br />

In this scenario, real-time capabilities<br />

of OPC UA are not required, as the<br />

real-time performance is guaranteed<br />

by the respective underlying real-time<br />

network. Of course, application scenarios<br />

are possible in which a real-time<br />

capability of OPC UA is necessary,<br />

for example in machine-to-machine<br />

communication or in the linking of<br />

process-related machine periphery via<br />

OPC UA. For this, the so-called OPC UA<br />

publisher-subscriber protocol extension<br />

in combination with the future Ethernet<br />

TSN standard is positioned.<br />

In order to apply OPC UA in a consistent<br />

way down to the field level, without<br />

affecting the performance and realtime<br />

characteristic of the underlying real-time<br />

network, the real-time networks<br />

need to be capable of supporting the<br />

multi-protocol capability, meaning that<br />

real-time protocols and IP based protocols<br />

can coexist and at the same time can<br />

run independent of each other.<br />

If these requirements are fulfilled,<br />

today’s bus systems in combination with<br />

technologies such as OPC UA and Ethernet<br />

TSN can make a significant contribution<br />

to the further convergence of<br />

information and automation technologies.<br />

Let’s make it happen.<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 27

Road Map to Operational<br />

Readiness and Asset<br />

Performance<br />

Ensure a Safe, Reliable, and Compliant Operation<br />

Achieve business goals with a risk-based approach to asset management. Bentley will help get you there.<br />

Leveraging 30 years in design and visualization innovations, Bentley is at the forefront of engineering software.<br />

Combining 2D/3D plant models and point clouds with engineering information and asset performance management,<br />

Bentley delivers an enterprise platform to manage assets throughout their entire lifecycle.<br />

The visual workflow supports both greenfield and brownfield operations; bridging the gap between CAPEX and OPEX<br />

and enabling a sustainable business strategy for operational excellence and safety.<br />

© <strong>2017</strong> Bentley Systems, Incorporated. Bentley, the “B” Bentley logo, and AssetWise are either registered or unregistered trademarks or service marks of Bentley<br />

Systems, Incorporated or one of its direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiaries. Other brands and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.

Assess risk based on failure severity, likelihood scores,<br />

and confidence assessment.<br />

Visually navigate assets.<br />

Enterprise Platform for Asset Integrity, Reliability,<br />

and Performance:<br />

• Reality and geospatial context<br />

• Asset lifecycle information management<br />

• Asset strategy development<br />

• Risk-based inspections<br />

• Reliability-centered maintenance<br />

• System reliability<br />

• Asset health indices and dashboards<br />

• Risk assessment and work prioritization<br />

• ISO 55000 implementation<br />

• Change and configuration management<br />

• Operational analytics<br />

• Enterprise interoperability<br />

Learn more at www.bentley.com/AssetWise<br />

Or call 1-800-BENTLEY



Working in Confined Spaces<br />

Winter Grün Markier-technologie GmbH produces, at their site in Wilnsdorf, machines<br />

specially designed for making road markings. In addition to this, trucks are fitted<br />

with special installations<br />

and equipped according to<br />

customer requirements.<br />


PRUFTECHNIK Condition Monitoring GmbH.<br />

ONE OF THE company’s special installations<br />

is a Unimog, which is fitted with<br />

a high-pressure water pump made by<br />

Hammelmann. With the help of highly<br />

specialized spraying tools, water pressure<br />

of up to 2500 bar generated by this<br />

pump is used to remove rubber abrasion<br />

from runways at airports, to establish a<br />

defined traction on roadway surfaces or<br />

to remove roadway markings.<br />

The image shows the output<br />

side of the gearbox for the<br />

auxiliary drive. The cramped<br />

conditions are clearly visible.<br />

A Cardan shaft is guided to the highpressure<br />

pump on the gearbox output<br />

side. This shaft then drives the highpressure<br />

pump at the required speed.<br />

Actually cardan shafts should not balance<br />

any angular offsets. If they do so,<br />

the offset has to take place in a narrowly<br />

limited angle range.<br />

Unimog platform with the driver's cab raised. The high pressure pump is visible at the rear.<br />

The deflection angle ß must be the same at<br />

both universal joints of the Cardan shaft.<br />

30 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>


Objective of the alignment:<br />

Deflection angle ß1 = ß2<br />

There are two methods for measuring<br />

the Cardan shaft: one with the Cardan<br />

shaft disassembled and one with the<br />

Cardan shaft mounted.<br />

The first check measurements<br />

showed that measurement with the<br />

Cardan shaft mounted is not possible as<br />

the spatial conditions simply do not allow<br />

for the Cardan shaft rotation mechanism<br />

to be mounted and be rotated<br />

congruently.<br />

The measuring procedure with the<br />

Cardan shaft removed was thus the only<br />

option available. Removal of the Cardan<br />

shaft in this design is very quick. The<br />

possibility of straightforward disassembly<br />

of multiple components was taken<br />

into account during Werner-Grün’s development<br />

of this design.<br />

Laser set-up on the gearbox output<br />

shaft. The laser has already been set up<br />

to record the measurement values.<br />

Receiver on the high<br />

pressure pump. The<br />

sensor head is mounted<br />

on a rotation mechanism.<br />

Only the angular error is<br />

recorded.<br />

Principle schema of the design. Laser with<br />

holder and on the opposite side of the<br />

receiver, mounted on the motor shaft.<br />

The laser is now positioned centrally<br />

on the gearbox output side and set up.<br />

In this regard the laser must be placed<br />

exactly in the gap in the structure so<br />

that the laser can map out a measuring<br />

circuit of 90°. A smaller rotation range<br />

would indeed be possible but this would<br />

significantly impair the accuracy of the<br />

measurement.<br />

The “Intelli-Point” measuring procedure<br />

patented by PRUFTECHNIK is<br />

used to take the measurements. In this<br />

context, the lasers and receivers are positioned<br />

together at different points. An<br />

angle display with an additional pointer<br />

shows the congruence of the sensors<br />

and also checks whether the relative<br />

angular difference always remains the<br />

same.<br />

All measurements are repeated in<br />

order to rule out potential measurement<br />

errors. The measurement values are<br />

compared against each other using the<br />

“measurement table”. The measurement<br />

values are checked for potential discrepancies<br />

by means of quality analysis.<br />

Conclusion:<br />

Following the procedure explained<br />

above makes it very easy to measure potential<br />

errors or excessive strain on the<br />

body on-site and in a very straightforward<br />

manner. Subsequent corrections<br />

can also be carried out. The focus is now<br />

shifting towards even more demanding<br />

projects involving trucks. Moreover,<br />

some new features, which are also to be<br />

measured, will soon be available.<br />

Measurement results in the overall view. The maximum alignment error is 0.2°. The unit is within the specified tolerances.<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 31





Many of the world’s most efficient power plants are<br />

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Plants (CCGT) incorporating<br />

gas and steam turbines. These turbines present<br />

demanding motion control challenges, which affect<br />

machine performance, safety, reliability and supply of<br />

power to customers.<br />

Gas valve-actuator assembly undergoes<br />

factory acceptance test.<br />


Moog Inc.,<br />

sbeddick@moog.com<br />

POWER PLANT operators are looking for<br />

ways to keep turbines running at peak<br />

performance. Some of the most important<br />

ways to accomplish this in a power<br />

plant are to make the most of planned<br />

outages and reduce the risk of unplanned<br />

downtime. Many industries can<br />

benefit from some practical approaches<br />

to the strategic use of long-life upgrades,<br />

retrofits and exchange programmes.<br />

Why is motion control<br />

important?<br />

In the turbine system, the hydraulically<br />

actuated fuel gas control valve is the primary<br />

interface between a complex control<br />

system and the mechanical portion<br />

of the plant. From a safety perspective, it<br />

is vital to ensure a rapid closing time for<br />

the main valve actuator in the case of an<br />

emergency shutdown to avoid collateral<br />

damage to the turbine.<br />

The motion control system affects:<br />

• The power output of the turbine<br />

and the revenue stream<br />

• Energy efficiency that equates to<br />

profitability (i.e., 80 percent of the<br />

32 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />

cost of running plants is fuel)<br />

• Emissions level, which is both a<br />

cost and compliance issue since<br />

improperly calibrated equipment<br />

can cause a plant to exceed its<br />

emission allowance<br />

• A safe, controlled shutdown, which<br />

protects human life and property<br />

The challenge for power plants is keeping<br />

motion control systems operating at<br />

a high level in spite of around-the-clock<br />

operations in rugged environments. Turbine<br />

OEMs have recommended planned<br />

maintenance schedules that help plant<br />

operators to minimize downtime and<br />

ensure optimized energy output. All repairs<br />

and maintenance of critical components,<br />

such as actuators and servo valves,<br />

need to be scheduled during an outage<br />

along with thousands of other maintenance<br />

tasks involving numerous vendors<br />

and complex scheduling.<br />

Maximizing maintenance<br />

budgets during plant outages<br />

As an original supplier of fuel control<br />

valves for General Electric (GE) 7FA turbines,<br />

Moog routinely works with power<br />

plants to ensure that the actuators and<br />

valves can be refurbished to “as new”<br />

condition during very tight outage windows.<br />

With experience in advanced material<br />

gleaned from many years of developing<br />

products for demanding environments<br />

ranging from aerospace to downhole<br />

oil exploration, Moog developed a<br />

long-life actuator as an upgrade offering.<br />

When GE introduced a new technology<br />

called Advanced Gas Path (AGP), the<br />

maintenance interval was extended from<br />

48,000 to 64,000 hours. Moog had the<br />

long-life product but needed to work<br />

closely with its partner Emerson to develop<br />

a process valve upgrade that is part<br />

of the gas valve assembly.<br />

Over the life of the equipment, an<br />

OEM will use data on the performance of<br />

products and capabilities, such as failure<br />

analysis, to understand how to increase<br />

reliability for a long service life. Engineers<br />

identified several key improvements<br />

to ensure that the gas valve actuator<br />

would operate reliably for 64,000<br />

hours, even in harsh conditions:<br />

• Low pressure dual elastomeric seal<br />

design to eliminate galling on the<br />

piston rod<br />

• New buffer seal for more durability<br />

• Harder rod surface through proprietary<br />

aerospace coating that replaces<br />

chrome plating for extended<br />

life<br />

• Hard, dense chrome coating added<br />

to cylinder bore surface<br />

Likewise, Emerson, which manufactures<br />

the EAB process valve, engineered<br />

a retrofit to extend scheduled maintenance<br />

intervals in two key areas:<br />

• The bonnet is machined to receive<br />

a Stellite alloy insert, eliminat-


Process valve tagged for shipment to<br />

Emerson IVS repair facility.<br />

ing the traditional coating that can<br />

degrade over time<br />

• A live-loaded packing system<br />

replaces the original manually<br />

adjustable configuration to ensure<br />

the integrity of the packing seal for<br />

extended operating periods<br />

Recently, Moog introduced a new Gas<br />

Control Valve Assembly 64 K Upgrade<br />

for General Electric 7FA turbines. It was<br />

the first offering able to extend the maintenance<br />

interval of gas control equipment<br />

from the typical 48,000 hours of<br />

operation to 64,000 hours.<br />

To complete the 64 K Upgrade package,<br />

the actuator and process valve are<br />

returned to “zero-hour” condition. The<br />

actuator receives a factory overhaul, and<br />

the process valve undergoes a Fisher<br />

Encore repair performed at an Emerson<br />

IVS repair facility. The integrated<br />

assembly overhaul is a 100 percent<br />

OEM repair. This process ensures the<br />

turbine’s valves are returned to as-new<br />

specifications and performance, resetting<br />

the inspection clock to hour zero.<br />

For turbine plants with the Advanced<br />

Gas Path Technology, the benefits of<br />

synchronizing major inspection periods<br />

means managers will never find themselves<br />

trying to overhaul gas valves when<br />

they have a much smaller outage window.<br />

Of course, many operators see the<br />

benefits of the extended life even if they<br />

have the 48,000 maintenance interval<br />

due to high confidence in the reliability<br />

of the assembly.<br />

Exchange programmes help<br />

leverage planned outage<br />

Risks during a scheduled outage are<br />

eliminated through the so-called Advanced<br />

Exchange Programme, which<br />

offers a turbine owner rebuilt gas control<br />

valves that arrive prior to the start<br />

date of an outage. This allows managers<br />

to remove the used valves and install<br />

the rebuilt valves in sequence, saving<br />

money and time. When considering the<br />

complexity of an outage and all of the<br />

tasks a maintenance manager must juggle,<br />

having a spare actuator assembly on<br />

hand when needed can help prevent the<br />

cost of an extended outage or unplanned<br />

downtime.<br />

One example of a power plant that<br />

effectively used its outage is a combined<br />

cycle power plant in the Southeastern<br />

U.S. that began planning for an extended<br />

outage months in advance.<br />

The plant’s managers had 21 days<br />

for the inspection of each combustion<br />

turbine and 18 days per steam turbine.<br />

Managers had to refurbish fuel gas and<br />

steam control valve assemblies during<br />

these outages. To maintain reliability,<br />

the plant had to return the equipment to<br />

as-new condition. The plant managers<br />

wanted OEM repairs and upgrades, and<br />

the timeframe to perform the repairs<br />

within the inspection window left no<br />

margin for error. If power was offline<br />

even for a single day, everyone knew the<br />

lost revenue would be significant. Moog<br />

service technicians proposed a service<br />

plan that included a combination of<br />

spares, repairs and exchange units to<br />

meet the plant’s inspection schedules.<br />

For the combustion turbine units,<br />

the plant purchased one spare set of<br />

actuators. These served dual roles as a<br />

rotatable set during planned outages and<br />

emergency spares during forced outages.<br />

Technicians used the power plant’s<br />

spares and a set of Moog’s exchange<br />

units complete with process valves. At<br />

the end of the preventative maintenance<br />

outage, technicians returned the plant’s<br />

spare set to the site and replaced the<br />

Moog set in the exchange pool inventory.<br />

The plant managers and service<br />

technicians determined that the steam<br />

turbines’ actuators and valves could be<br />

repaired within the allotted time, too.<br />

The plant’s managers coordinated the<br />

repair and removed the steam process<br />

valves from the actuators and sent the<br />

actuators to Moog for repair. After completing<br />

the actuator repairs, technicians<br />

conducted a final acceptance test and<br />

sent the actuators to the power station<br />

with a two-year warranty. The plant<br />

reassembled the valve to the actuator,<br />

installed the assembly, and tested it for<br />

commissioning.<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 33




in Packaging and<br />

Bottling Industries<br />

Conveyors and assembly processes are widely used across many industries.<br />

As automation continues its upward trend, markets like PET bottling, food and<br />

beverage, and general packaging, which see many sudden stops and starts are<br />

seeing an increased need for shock absorbers to safely control and dampen the<br />

kinetic energy produced throughout the production line.<br />


Project & Application<br />

Manager, ITT Endine<br />

Europe,<br />

dieter.klaiber@itt.com<br />

MOTION CONTROL technologies can<br />

be utilized in all areas of conveyance,<br />

whether linear or rotational motion. In<br />

facilities that use systems like diverter<br />

gates, conveyor stops, pick and place, and<br />

overhead pushers, shock absorbers are<br />

central to maintaining machine reliability<br />

by dissipating the energy and reducing<br />

wear. Shock absorbers are relatively lowcost<br />

components to purchase, install and<br />

maintain as compared to the equipment<br />

they protect, and they provide additional<br />

savings to a facility by preventing machine<br />

downtime, safety concerns and potential<br />

quality issues. Investing in shock<br />

absorbers that are engineered to your<br />

facility’s unique needs and equipment<br />

cycle counts—and maintaining the shock<br />

34 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />

absorbers and surrounding equipment<br />

as suggested by the user manual—is a<br />

small overall cost and time commitment<br />

for a facility that results in huge overall<br />

savings.<br />

Small Cost, Big Savings<br />

Shock absorbers are key to maximizing<br />

a material handling system’s speed<br />

and load, making the machine more<br />

efficient and cost effective. A customengineered<br />

shock absorber can save the<br />

manufacturer valuable design time and<br />

solve multiple problems economically.<br />

In certain applications like the beverage<br />

bottling industry, conveyor systems are<br />

required to quickly bring a product to a<br />

stop at regular intervals along a conveyor<br />

line in order to be cleaned, filled, sorted<br />

and packaged. The high rate of speed of<br />

the conveyor transport, coupled with the<br />

rapid deceleration of a sudden stop could<br />

result in problems for the product and<br />

the conveyor equipment if the energy is<br />

not properly absorbed throughout. It is<br />

important to custom engineer the shock<br />

absorber to the specific industry, application,<br />

machinery load and product produced.<br />

If the initial design of machinery<br />

involves the implementation of shock<br />

absorbers, it can mean high reliability<br />

and cycle time for a facility, while ensuring<br />

quality.<br />

Maintaining the shock absorber on a<br />

regular interval ensures efficiency, avoids<br />

unexpected failures and reduces costs.<br />

Shock absorbers are adjustable based<br />

on the specific operating condition and<br />

maintaining, adjusting and replacing<br />

them accordingly is an additional step in<br />

the safe and optimal maintenance of your<br />

total assembly equipment. The shock<br />

absorber is a relatively cheap component<br />

within the larger, more expensive machine<br />

system. Lower impact forces from<br />

the motion, results in less bounce and<br />

more control over the motion. As shocks<br />

reduce the impact forces on equipment,<br />

replacing shock absorbers on schedule is<br />

an inexpensive step that will ultimately<br />

save significant long-term maintenance<br />

costs by preventing downtime and po-


In PET bottle plants, shock absorbers<br />

are required to maintain the highest<br />

cycle rate possible while preventing<br />

damage to the bottle moulds.<br />

“A packaging systems manufacturer<br />

incorporated custom-engineered shock<br />

absorbers to minimize component failure and<br />

optimize cycle rates.”<br />



tential quality issues. Dissipating the<br />

energy and force applied to equipment<br />

parts keeps machines reliable, ensures<br />

consistency, quality output and reduces<br />

overall wear on the equipment overtime.<br />

The installation and proper maintenance<br />

of a high-class but inexpensive hydraulic<br />

shock absorber can mean big savings in<br />

overall time and costs.<br />

Providing Added Safety<br />

Increased productivity demands are<br />

placed on everyone in the facility, the<br />

managers, machine operators and packagers.<br />

This increased demand on staff<br />

translates to increased demand on the<br />

equipment as packaging and bottling<br />

facilities operate their assembly processes<br />

above recommended speeds, with<br />

uneven loads and in harsh environments<br />

that the original equipment may not be<br />

designed to accommodate. This puts excess<br />

strain on equipment and conveyor<br />

systems and endangers the health and<br />

welfare of employees. As machines run<br />

faster and longer, the concern for safety<br />

and the need for emergency stops is<br />

critical.<br />

Packaging and bottling equipment<br />

manufacturers will often design equipment<br />

with shock absorption to the<br />

specifications that meet safety and<br />

industry requirements. However, when<br />

it comes to application, the end-user<br />

inevitably cranks up the speed because<br />

they want to run the machine faster to<br />

increase throughput. Shock absorbers<br />

manage the impact, or kinetic energy, of<br />

the pieces that are moving (KE = ½ m<br />

V2). Therefore, a small increase in speed<br />

means a significant increase in energy<br />

causing unplanned and unnecessary<br />

wear on the machinery and shock absorber.<br />

With the machine running faster<br />

than it should and the shocks calibrated<br />

to run at lower speeds, safety issues are<br />

presented for equipment operators. In<br />

some cases, shock absorbers aren’t designed<br />

into machinery in the first place,<br />

causing additional wear and equipment<br />

fatigue.<br />

Shock absorbers can, and often are<br />

a retrofit solution. Ideally though, they<br />

would be designed upfront to meet the<br />

requirements of the equipment and be<br />

installed before the original equipment<br />

is used, whilst working alongside the<br />

end-user to set realistic expectations for<br />

run-time, cycle and maintenance. Custom<br />

shock absorbers can help curb safety<br />

concerns by ensuring the extra daily<br />

force is being dissipated appropriately<br />

instead of being pushed through machine<br />

components, avoiding failures, and<br />

equipment can be slowed and stopped<br />

safely, if an emergency does happen.<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 35


Shock absorbers maximize<br />

a material handling system’s<br />

speed and load, while increasing<br />

efficiency and cutting costs.<br />

Decreasing Downtime<br />

No Matter the Industry<br />

With today’s tight time constraints and<br />

ambitious production goals, shutting<br />

down a production line altogether can<br />

prove very expensive. For industries like<br />

packaging, food and beverage and PET<br />

bottling, machinery and its components<br />

also need to withstand environments<br />

like frequent wash down and high temperatures,<br />

while operating at a high cycle<br />

rate. As shock absorbers protect against<br />

excess force and prevent additional<br />

wear and tear, they can help minimize<br />

component failure and help machines<br />

operate at their highest capacity. Designing<br />

shock absorbers into the equipment<br />

is key in meeting unique requirements,<br />

whether a bottling facility requires specific<br />

location sensors or a food packaging<br />

plant needs components that operate<br />

in small spaces and unique wash-down<br />

environments. Downtime due to component<br />

failure is minimized, allowing<br />

equipment to operate at design conditions.<br />

For example, a packaging systems<br />

manufacturer produces a variety of machines<br />

that package food products such<br />

as deli and sausage products. One of<br />

these packaging machines was specifically<br />

used to package poultry products.<br />

During operation, this machine needs to<br />

withstand the wet and messy environment<br />

of poultry packaging, including<br />

frequent wash down. As a market leader,<br />

the company needed this machine to<br />

operate at the fastest cycle rate in the<br />

industry. This means that each machine<br />

36 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />

must process 15 to 18 birds per minute.<br />

The machine was designed with shock<br />

absorbers installed at the end-of-stroke<br />

position on a pneumatic rodless cylinder<br />

used for a shuttle operation and<br />

at-the-end of cycle position as a positive<br />

stop for a pivot. Unfortunately, the<br />

pre-installed shock absorbers could not<br />

withstand the high cycle rate or harsh<br />

environment.<br />

ITT Enidine worked with the company<br />

to design a special shock absorber<br />

that would withstand the cycle rate,<br />

processing environment and frequent<br />

wash down. The solution was customengineered<br />

to have a substantially higher<br />

capacity and a smaller envelope than<br />

pre-installed, competing shock absorbers.<br />

With the new solution, downtime<br />

due to component failure was minimized<br />

and the packaging machines operated at<br />

optimal cycle rates. Because of this productivity<br />

increase, the company maintained<br />

its market position and increased<br />

sales annually. Packaging machines are<br />

excellent candidates for shock absorption<br />

technology, which control air cylinders<br />

and help machines operate at their<br />

highest capacity.<br />

Ensuring Quality and<br />

Reliability<br />

Shock absorbers can improve the overall<br />

quality of equipment by meeting the<br />

necessary environmental needs, like extreme<br />

heat or cold, production speed and<br />

uneven loading. Custom engineering of<br />

a shock absorber for each unique application<br />

will allow that shock absorber to<br />

work specific to that application. Regular<br />

equipment maintenance, including<br />

replacement of shock absorber, is key to<br />

keeping machinery running at its highest<br />

potential to ensure quality and reliability<br />

throughout the production process.<br />

In PET bottle plants, shock absorbers<br />

can create efficiencies and protect equipment<br />

in applications like blow moulding,<br />

case packing, carton forming or<br />

container labelling. The machines that<br />

are used to create today’s PET bottles—<br />

typically made of a high-gloss, crack<br />

resistant plastic known as Polyethylene<br />

Terephthalate (PET)—have the highest<br />

production rates in the industry and are<br />

referred to as blow moulding machines.<br />

The equipment consists of multiple<br />

“clam shell” moulds placed around a vertical<br />

axis, rotated in a horizontal plane.<br />

The rotated plane creates centrifugal<br />

force to move the plastic material within<br />

the mould cavity, creating the bottle<br />

shape. Shock absorbers are required to<br />

maintain the highest cycle rate possible<br />

while preventing damage to the opening<br />

and closing of the clamshell.<br />

In cases like PET bottle plants, shock<br />

absorbers are central to ensuring quality<br />

and reliability. By scheduling maintenance<br />

and proper replacement parts,<br />

facilities will see an increase in performance<br />

and durability in applications<br />

that encounter uneven loading, bending<br />

or harsh environments. Ultimately,<br />

this equipment protection results in<br />

increased safety, efficiency and product<br />

quality, while decreasing downtime and<br />



The parallel paths<br />

of maintenance<br />

and lubrication<br />

For maintenance programmes, the decades-long migration from Breakdown to<br />

Planned to Predictive strategies represents significant, albeit slow-paced, progress.<br />

It is interesting to note, however, that by comparison, this progress did not filter<br />

down equally to lubrication programmes. A look at the first two strategy phases<br />

- Breakdown and Planned – shows a close analogy between corresponding<br />

maintenance and lube processes.<br />


CRL, SDT International,<br />

tom@sdthearmore.com<br />

OVER THE BETTER part of forty years,<br />

maintenance departments transitioned<br />

from a breakdown strategy to planned,<br />

task driven, interventions based on time<br />

in service. Replacing reactive firefighting<br />

with planned tasks reduced waste<br />

and extended life. Further evolution to<br />

a predictive model delivered even more<br />

value. This transition happened for<br />

maintenance in general, but did lubrication<br />

processes keep pace?<br />

Most lube programmes evolved beyond<br />

the reactive breakdown strategy<br />

phase, to employ a planned approach.<br />

Lubricating bearings on a prescribed<br />

schedule, dictated by time in service<br />

made more sense than waiting for<br />

failure to happen. A transition from<br />

Planned to Predictive rarely happens.<br />

Technology –<br />

A Catalyst for Change<br />

Technology breakthroughs often serve<br />

as a catalyst for change. This change is<br />

happening now in lubrication. The shift<br />

from Breakdown (grease that screaming<br />

bearing) to Planned Lubrication (grease<br />

with a set amount on a set date) to Predictive<br />

Lubrication, (lubrication on condition)<br />

is real, and driven by innovative<br />

ultrasound instruments that help lube<br />

techs grease bearings correctly.<br />

It is generally quoted that over 40<br />

percent of bearings (some say up to 80<br />

percent) are killed by inadequate lubrication.<br />

Logically this must lead to the<br />

conclusion that Breakdown and Planned<br />

lubrication processes sometimes fail.<br />

Advances in ultrasound technology<br />

now provide the maintenance world<br />

with an enhancement to the Planned<br />

strategy and an equivalent to Predictive<br />

strategies; namely, on-condition lubrication.<br />

There are three key problems with<br />

the existing planned strategy – we don’t<br />

know:<br />

1. when the bearing needs lubrication<br />

2. how much lubricant is needed<br />

3. that the lubricant we just injected<br />

did the job<br />

The current lube process is generally<br />

based upon a series of assumptions.<br />

First, the quantity of grease to inject<br />

into a bearing is approximated from its<br />

dimensions using this formula:<br />

Outer diameter (mm) x width (mm) x<br />

0.005 grams<br />

For example, a bearing with an outer<br />

diameter of 180mm and a width of<br />

40mm, has a theoretical grease quantity<br />

of 36 grams.<br />



The trickier part is to then derive a relubrication<br />

frequency. Once again, a series<br />

of approximations and calculations<br />

involving the operational conditions of<br />

the bearing, its size and rotational speed<br />

provide an estimate of this.<br />

The problem is to apply the correction<br />

factors to suit every operating condition<br />

that a bearing may find itself in. Applying<br />

the two extremes for a correction<br />

factor might produce on the one hand a<br />

38 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>

!<br />

!<br />

!<br />

• Say what you’re going to do<br />


g to do<br />

relubrication interval of 5,333 hours and<br />

on the other hand 6 minutes! How can a<br />

machine manufacturer provide recommendations<br />

that account for every operating<br />

condition in the world?<br />

• Say what you’re going to do<br />

On-condition Lubrication<br />

Using Ultrasound<br />

Alternatively, on-condition lubrication<br />

using ultrasound provides data that<br />

eliminates these three problems by giving<br />

the lube tech<br />

1. A sound to assess<br />

2. Condition Indicators with alarms<br />

to measure<br />

3. A dynamic history of the health of<br />

every bearing in the programme<br />

In a Planned maintenance strategy,<br />

ultrasound will tell you when to stop<br />

injecting grease. In the Predictive strategy,<br />

an ultrasound measurement alerts<br />

the lube tech when and if lubrication is<br />

needed at all. The grease quantity and<br />

interval calculations become only guidelines.<br />

Measurement of friction using<br />

ultrasound is the driving and controlling<br />

parameter.<br />

Ultrasound “hears” friction, so the<br />

trained lube tech acquires valuable information<br />

on the frictional state of that<br />

bearing.<br />

As a rule, “to fail to prepare is to prepare<br />

to fail”. So many mistakes occur<br />

before the grease gun even reaches the<br />

lubrication point. Organizational tasks<br />

like lubrication management, storage,<br />

and contamination control are essential<br />

and their need cannot be over-emphasised.<br />

Likewise, the lubrication task<br />

itself must also be preceded by preparation.<br />

Preparation Information Essentials:<br />

1. Which lubricant do I use for this<br />

bearing?<br />

2. What is the calculated maximum<br />

amount?<br />

3. How frequently should we check<br />

this bearing?<br />

This task is best managed with software.<br />

Combining preparation with friction<br />

measurement software provides a<br />

smooth, seamless integration between<br />

the condition assessment and the lubrication<br />

function.<br />

A measurement and lubricant database<br />

is created for each bearing. The<br />

database controls the sensor type, the<br />

lubricant type and the calculated maximum<br />

quantity.<br />

How much grease does your grease<br />

gun dispense? If the answer is, “I don’t<br />

know”, then calibrate your grease guns.<br />

Minimise variables that cause errors.<br />

Ensure that the majority of grease guns<br />

used deliver the same amount.<br />

“Patience is a virtue” applies to lubrication.<br />

Build in a waiting time between<br />

each injection of grease to ensure that<br />

the impact of that injection is detectable.<br />

This prevents over-lubrication<br />

and allows you to spot failures such as<br />

blocked and broken grease tubes.<br />

A database Tree and Lube Surveys,<br />

similar to ones used for condition assessment,<br />

is now created. These surveys,<br />

loaded into your ultrasound data collector,<br />

guide you to a precise lubrication.<br />

In Survey Mode, the ultrasonic instrument<br />

guides the lube tech from point to<br />

point and measurement data is the reference<br />

to lubricate the bearing. With the<br />

reference stored, the detector prompts<br />

the technician to begin adding grease.<br />

After the waiting time, another measurement<br />

dictates the next action.<br />

• Say what you’re going to do<br />

Planned vs. Predictive<br />

Approach<br />

To assist the lube tech, the ultrasound<br />

meter’s built-in algorithms compare<br />

each successive reading and suggests the<br />

technician either add more grease at a<br />

controlled rate, or decides to stop.<br />

The integration of ultrasoundassisted<br />

lubrication can be deployed in<br />

either a Planned or Predictive strategy.<br />

In a Planned strategy, ultrasound guides<br />

the lube process, however the calendar<br />

still dictates the intervals between lube<br />

tasks. This time-based approach does<br />

not take full advantage of ultrasonic<br />

conditional data to trigger the lube<br />

process. Progressive lubrication programmes<br />

want to get to that stage.<br />

A successful migration from Planned<br />

to Predictive lube tasks is earmarked by<br />

message changes. “Inspect Bearings and<br />

Grease as Necessary” is replaced with<br />

“Take Ultrasound Readings and Grease<br />

ULTRASONICALLY Based on Need.”<br />

The result becomes a history for each<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 39


Maintenance<br />

Breakdown<br />

“Firefighting”<br />

Only fixing things when<br />

they break.<br />

Planned<br />

Scheduled maint. tasks on<br />

a calandar based system.<br />

Predictive<br />

Scheduled maint. tasks<br />

based on asset health.<br />

30 year<br />

timeline<br />

Lubrication<br />

Breakdown<br />

The method at this<br />

time was:<br />

“Grease it because<br />

it’s loud.”<br />

Planned<br />

“Grease it because<br />

it’s due.”<br />

Lubrication is based<br />

on a calendar<br />

schedule<br />

Predictive<br />

This graphic illustrates how maintenance processes continued to evolve from Planned to Predictive, while parallel evolution for<br />

lubrication stalled at the Planned stage.<br />

bearing with the latest bearing condition<br />

data always available to listen to or<br />

analyse for the presence of early-stage<br />

bearing defects.<br />

It is important to show that this new<br />

lubrication strategy is working. That<br />

means developing some performance<br />

indicators.<br />

The data collector records the number<br />

of shots of grease applied during the<br />

lube process and the database knows<br />

how much grease is in a shot. Calculating<br />

grease consumption therefore,<br />

becomes a simple task for this software;<br />

and the corresponding consumption reports<br />

are meaningful and useful. Showing<br />

a reduction in grease consumption<br />

along with a measurable improvement<br />

in machine reliability is a great way to<br />

prove that your programme is working.<br />

“None of this is particularly new,” you<br />

might say. To some this is old news. But<br />

for others, this is science fiction. One<br />

great success is documented from a<br />

mine in South Africa.<br />

Prior to implementing a Predictive ultrasound<br />

lubrication programme, they<br />

identified 945 grease points; all lubricated<br />

on a time-based schedule. After implementation,<br />

the number of bearings<br />

needing lubrication quickly reduced.<br />

They used to pump all 945 bearings full<br />

of grease, every month. This reduced on<br />

average to only 19 bearings each week.<br />

At the start of the programme, the<br />

plant purchased 22 18kg drums of<br />

grease each month. Within one month<br />

that dropped to 17 drums and within<br />

6 months, it was below 10 drums. The<br />

average amount of grease bought for<br />

the subsequent 6 months reduced to 6<br />

drums. Instead of wastefully pumping<br />

bearings full of grease, the technicians<br />

now devote their time to monitoring<br />

bearing condition. Furthermore, while<br />

huge savings accrued due to lower<br />

grease consumption, it is recognised<br />

that 95 percent of the bearings are operating<br />

at the lowest possible friction<br />

levels. This highly effective lube programme<br />

is delivering longer equipment<br />

life and reliability.<br />

There are very few organizations, if<br />

any, which benefit from a Breakdown<br />

maintenance strategy. Likewise, the concept<br />

of the squeaky bearing getting the<br />

grease is a dinosaur concept. If a bearing<br />

is greased because it is screaming, the<br />

damage is done; its lifecycle is already<br />

jeopardized. The migration from a Breakdown<br />

approach to a Planned approach<br />

represents beneficial evolution for both<br />

maintenance and lube processes.<br />

The next step forward, from Planned<br />

to Predictive, already happened for<br />

most maintenance departments. It<br />

was a competitive necessity. But lube<br />

programmes lagged, instead opting for<br />

antiquated OEM recommendations that<br />

insist lube tasks be triggered by timebased<br />

events rather than condition.<br />

The same competitive advantages<br />

enjoyed by maintenance, also exist for<br />

lubrication programmes. As they play<br />

catch up, more success stories like our<br />

South African mine will appear. These<br />

success stories will be driven by innovative<br />

technology advancements from<br />

progressive ultrasound manufacturers.<br />

Indeed, ultrasound-assisted lubrication<br />

is the driving force that will realign<br />

these two reliability strategies back to<br />

their parallel path.<br />

40 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>

Be a LUBExpert<br />

®<br />


Poor greasing practices are<br />

a leading cause of bearing failure.<br />

Many lube departments re-grease on a wasteful<br />

calendar-based schedule. This leads to over and<br />

under greased bearings that fail to deliver their<br />

engineered value.<br />

LUBExpert tells us when to grease...<br />

and when to stop.<br />

Grease reduces friction in bearings. Less friction<br />

means longer life. LUBExpert alerts you when<br />

friction levels increase, guides you during<br />

re-lubrication, and prevents over and under<br />

lubrication.<br />

Grease Bearings Right<br />

Right Lubricant<br />

Right Location<br />

Right Interval<br />

Right Quantity<br />

Right Indicators<br />

Ultrasound Soluons<br />



Reliability and Maintenance<br />

Management Beliefs<br />

Excellent leadership is an essential success factor for lasting results for any<br />

improvement initiative an organization undertakes. As a leader you need to<br />

create an organization of disciples that will follow you to make your vision,<br />

or future organization, a reality.<br />



Founder and CEO of<br />

IDCON INC.,<br />

Raleigh NC, USA,<br />

info@idcon.com<br />

AS A LEADER it is very important to develop<br />

and communicate your beliefs to<br />

your organization. In this column I will<br />

share three beliefs that I hope can serve<br />

as a guideline to develop your own beliefs<br />

for the benefit of your organisation.<br />

The holistic system with its<br />

processes and elements can be<br />

supported by other tools and<br />

supporting processes.<br />

A holistic overview of the reliability and<br />

maintenance management system, processes,<br />

elements, tools and supporting<br />

processes can be described in the models<br />

below:<br />

The System<br />

The market drives the production plan,<br />

all maintenance work requiring shut<br />

down of equipment must be coordinated<br />

with the production plan for best time to<br />

be executed. When maintenance work<br />

is planned and then scheduled you have<br />

set the process that people work in correctly<br />

so they can execute work much<br />

more safely and more cost effectively. To<br />

plan work efficiently you must have access<br />

to an up to date technical database<br />

including Bills of Materials (BOM) and<br />

other information. After work is completed<br />

it should be recorded as to what<br />

was completed, parts and material used,<br />

update information to BOM and other<br />

valid information. The recorded information<br />

shall be used to continuously<br />

improve utilising Root Cause Problem<br />

Elimination (RCPE). However, most<br />

organizations do not work in this “Circle<br />

of Continuous Improvement” they work<br />

too much in the “Circle of Despair”. This<br />

means that they React to problems at<br />

short notice and bypass the planning and<br />

scheduling of work. Repairs made will<br />

therefore be of low quality. Because of<br />

this, failures will be Repeated and it will<br />

be necessary to Return to do the work<br />

again and the circle Repeats itself. To get<br />

out of this “Circle of Despair” you must<br />

set up the processes for Prevention,<br />

Condition Monitoring, Prioritization,<br />

Planning of work, and Scheduling of<br />

work, Execution of Work, Recording of<br />

executed work, and how to do RCPE.<br />

The Processes<br />

An example of a process is Planning and<br />

Scheduling, or the Work Management<br />

Process. It contains several steps and<br />

starts with Work Request then Priority<br />

of Request etc. as seen in the picture<br />

below.<br />

Within the process called Planning<br />

and Scheduling each step consists of a<br />

number of elements. E.g. the best practice<br />

within the work request process<br />

is that the request is not a work order<br />

and shall be done using the Computerized<br />

Maintenance Management System<br />

(CMMS), the requested priority shall<br />

be done according to a priority guideline<br />

agreed to between operations and<br />

maintenance. The object identity shall<br />

be clearly described verbally and with<br />

equipment number, etc. These elements<br />

are what we call the right things to do.<br />

The Tools and Supporting Processes<br />

The tools can be used to improve the<br />

processes in the holistic system. To avoid<br />

confusion and the “programme of the<br />

month ailment”, it is very important that<br />

tools are not mixed up with the holistic<br />

system. To be successful you must have<br />

a very well established holistic system<br />

including its processes. Tools such as 5S,<br />

Six Sigma, Reliability Centred Maintenance<br />

(RCM) etc. are good and very useful<br />

when used in the right environment.<br />

Implementation of only a tool will only<br />

result in temporary non-sustainable<br />

improvements. The holistic system and<br />

processes must be in place to support<br />

sustainability and continuous improvement.<br />

Always Explain What, Why<br />

and How<br />

People do not mind change, but they do<br />

not like to be changed. Any improvement<br />

initiative is a selling process. You<br />

need to have a clear vision of what the<br />

improvement initiative entails and why<br />

it is necessary to do it. You might have a<br />

clear idea of how it is going to be done,<br />

but after explaining the “what” and the<br />

“why” it is effective to ask people involved<br />

in the improvement initiative to<br />

come up with ideas on how they think<br />

it can be done. Focus first on getting an<br />

agreement on “The right things to do”<br />

then discuss how to do it. It is easier for<br />

people to agree on the right things to do<br />

than on how to do these things.<br />

Many organizations put too much<br />

emphasis on change management and<br />

make this more complicated than necessary.<br />

We often hear “We already do this”<br />

and this might be true. Most organizations<br />

do most of the elements of best reliability<br />

and maintenance practices, but<br />

most can do these elements much better.<br />

Of course there might be an element of<br />

change with some people, but as most<br />

42 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>


of the improvements we talk about here<br />

are common sense and nothing new, the<br />

change management element should not<br />

be neglected but also not overdone.<br />

It can also help to describe, “What<br />

good looks like” and present a picture of<br />

what the future will look like. That is:<br />

• Production Reliability<br />

improved by 3 percent<br />

• Maintenance cost down by<br />

15 percent<br />

• Very few maintenance people<br />

on late shift (24/7 operation)<br />

• Majority of basic equipment<br />

done by trained operators<br />

• And so on<br />

Execution is Key to Success<br />

The elements of a maintenance management<br />

system have not changed much<br />

since the 1960s. Technology such as<br />

computerized maintenance management<br />

systems and predictive maintenance<br />

tools have changed dramatically<br />

and are today much better and much<br />

more affordable. Since the 1970s industries<br />

have moved away from fixed-time<br />

overhauls and replacements of equipment<br />

components to much more condition-based<br />

maintenance.<br />

It should be obvious that an improvement<br />

plan is executed, but many plans<br />

are never implemented to completion<br />

before a new initiative starts. I have seen<br />

so many excellent plans and Power Point<br />

presentations followed by no action.<br />

The time it takes to develop a best<br />

practices document, define roles for<br />

the team members involved to lead the<br />

project, educate the team members, and<br />

agree on a common repeatable assessment<br />

methodology and strategy documents<br />

might be 5 percent of the total<br />

effort. To get acceptance from those who<br />

are going to implement might be 10 percent<br />

of total effort, the remaining 85 percent<br />

is On-The-Job training and coaching.<br />

Often the time is spent more on<br />

development etc. and almost no time is<br />

spent on supporting execution through<br />

On-The-Job training and coaching.<br />

The only major difference I have seen<br />

between the best performers and the<br />

lagging organizations is that the best<br />

performers execute well-defined best<br />

practices. Most organizations know what<br />

they need to do, but they do not consistently<br />

execute the best practices better<br />

and better.<br />

1/<strong>2017</strong> maintworld 43


Text: NINA GARLO-MELKAS, <strong>Maintworld</strong>-magazine<br />

Extracting Maximum<br />

Economic Value from<br />

Ageing Assets<br />

More than 40 maintenance professionals<br />

from chemical production plants in<br />

Benelux joined Mainnovation last<br />

month to discuss challenges facing their<br />

industry. The key message of the event<br />

was straightforward: maintenance is an<br />

increasingly critical factor for industrial<br />

companies. More attention must,<br />

however, be devoted now to extending<br />

service life of ageing plants and to<br />

technological modernisation.<br />

44 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>


Mark Haarman, Managing Partner of<br />

consultancy company Mainnovation N.V.<br />

THE KEY TOPIC of the special event was<br />

ageing assets. The subject is important<br />

because industry in the western countries<br />

is ageing rapidly. Not so much in<br />

terms of employees, but in terms of<br />

production assets. Moreover, the phenomena<br />

is not only facing the chemicals<br />

industry, but other industries as well,<br />

including the pharmaceutical and food<br />

and beverage sectors of western economies.<br />

– Many plants especially in the chemicals<br />

industry in western countries were<br />

built after World War II, and after 40-50<br />

years of operation they are now rapidly<br />

approaching the end of their service life.<br />

This is the new challenge faced by many<br />

modern-day maintenance managers,<br />

says Mark Haarman, Managing Partner<br />

of consultancy company Mainnovation<br />

N.V. of the Netherlands.<br />

Mainnovation specialises in Maintenance<br />

& Asset Management. The company<br />

has developed a so-called VDMXL<br />

methodology for Value Driven Maintenance<br />

and Asset Management, which<br />

explains how to extract maximum economic<br />

value from an existing plant, fleet<br />

or infrastructure using a professional<br />

management approach. Now, with the<br />

firm having successfully staged its first<br />

a sector-specific event with focus on the<br />

chemicals sector, it plans to organise similar<br />

happenings this autumn for professionals<br />

operating in the pharmaceutical<br />

and food and beverage industries as well.<br />

Learning from Good Examples<br />

Several case examples were introduced<br />

in the event’s presentations by representatives<br />

of major chemicals businesses.<br />

These included industry leader<br />

BASF from Germany, maintenance organisation<br />

Sitech from the Netherlands,<br />

and EVAL Europe N.V. – Belgium-based<br />

division of Japanese chemicals company<br />

Kuraray, which specialises in the production<br />

of various barrier materials. Each<br />

company presented examples of how<br />

they have themselves managed to compete<br />

against ageing assets in the highly<br />

competitive global chemicals market.<br />

– We started with chemicals companies<br />

because the challenges of ageing<br />

assets is quite notable in the industry.<br />

The event also marked a kick-off start<br />

to building a new maintenance network<br />

for the sector, which will give its companies<br />

the opportunity to learn from each<br />

Discover<br />

the hidden<br />

treasure in<br />

Maintenance<br />

Discover<br />

the hidden<br />

treasure in<br />

Maintenance<br />

There is value hidden in every maintenance organization. All companies have the potential to further improve, either by reducing<br />

costs, improve safety, work on the lifetime extension of machinery or by smart maintenance solutions that improves uptime. The<br />

question is where maintenance managers should be looking to fi nd these areas of improvement and where they need to start.<br />

You will fi nd the answer to this question at Mainnovation. With Value Driven Maintenance ® and the matching tools like the VDM<br />

Control Panel, the Process Map and our benchmark data base myVDM.com, we will help you to discover the hidden treasure in<br />

your company.<br />

Do you want to discover the hidden treasure in your maintenance organization?<br />

Go to www.mainnovation.com<br />



other, Haarman says.<br />

Haarman adds that the core message,<br />

which stood out from all presentations,<br />

was similar: to survive in the globalizing<br />

industry, we must increase the competitive<br />

strength of our ageing assets.<br />

– The challenge confirms that maintenance<br />

is an increasingly critical factor<br />

for industry. It also means that maintenance<br />

managers of industrial companies<br />

need to start replacing old technologies<br />

with modern solutions.<br />

Maintenance departments of the future<br />

must be drivers of improvement.<br />

This means that if a company is faced<br />

with ageing assets maintenance management<br />

is not enough – the company<br />

must also focus on asset management.<br />

– To stay competitive with ageing assets,<br />

chemical companies need to get<br />

more economic value from their existing<br />

plants. This can be done through<br />

uptime improvement, cost reduction,<br />

higher safety levels and/or lifetime extension,<br />

writer of the book “Value Driven<br />

Maintenance & Asset Management<br />

(VDMXL)”, Haarman, highlights.<br />

Evolution of Assets<br />

So what does the challenge of ageing<br />

assets mean in practice for a chemicals<br />

plant manager? Ultimately it brings out<br />

the need for a broader view on assets operated<br />

by chemical companies.<br />

Fig. 4.5<br />

– Maintenance managers need to<br />

change their business model. This requires<br />

another way of working, applying<br />

new best practices like asset portfolio<br />

management, brown field project management<br />

and predictive maintenance<br />

with big data. These best practices are<br />

incorporated in our VDMXL –model.<br />






Due to ageing assets the maintenance<br />

market in western countries is estimated<br />

to grow by as much as 20 percent in<br />

the coming years. This despite the swift<br />

increase of robotics and plant automatization,<br />

Industrial Internet of Things and<br />

digitalisation i.e. factors that have been<br />

viewed as potential threats to many industrial<br />

professions in the future.<br />

Haarman also specifies that the challenges<br />

related to ageing assets in industry<br />

are not only tied to technical aging but<br />

the commercial aging of plants as well.<br />

– Is the plant still producing a product<br />

that is in demand or does the company<br />

have to modernise the plant to be able<br />

to produce products that customers<br />

want to buy? The maintenance manager<br />

of tomorrow not only needs to look at<br />

technical ageing but also commercial<br />

and economic ageing.<br />

So what should the chemicals industry<br />

do to succeed better? Haarman<br />

notes that the first thing that chemical<br />

companies should start doing in to start<br />

measuring the performance of their<br />

Maintenance & Asset Management<br />

organisation. For this to be possible,<br />

Mainnovation is building on its already<br />

extensive database, which includes over<br />

1,000 industrial companies of which<br />

some 150 are chemical companies.<br />

– We have developed a VDMXL<br />

benchmarking platform with 12 Key<br />

Performance Indicators with which<br />

chemical companies can compare themselves<br />

with industry peers. By benchmarking<br />

the KPIs one sees directly how<br />

competitive the Maintenance & Asset<br />

Management organization is.<br />

Via the company’s new platform<br />

chemicals companies can obtain various<br />

data related to Maintenance & Asset<br />

Management. This includes information<br />

on technical availability, maintenance<br />

budgets, capital expenditures and<br />

planning compliances.<br />

VDMXL Competence Model<br />

46 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />

© Mainnovation 2


A Grease Caddy can be<br />

attached to a grease gun<br />

for easy lubrication.<br />

Building the Foundation for<br />

a Successful Ultrasound<br />

Programme<br />

Ultrasound is a key technology used by maintenance professionals all over the<br />

world. Its many applications and quick learning curve are adding to the popularity,<br />

but to get the maximum out of an ultrasonic inspection tool, companies need to invest<br />

in standardized Certification Training.<br />

48 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong>



European Training<br />

Manager, UE Systems<br />

Europe,<br />

peterb@uesystems.com<br />

THERE IS a lot one can do with an Ultrasonic<br />

inspection instrument. Leak detection<br />

is just one of its basic applications:<br />

listen to the leak, pinpoint it and fix it.<br />

Finding vacuum leaks, however, requires<br />

more experience and knowledge. The<br />

same goes for creating reports on detected<br />

and repaired leaks to include savings,<br />

costs, LPM losses and the carbon<br />

footprint.<br />

More recently, ultrasound has become<br />

the primary choice when it comes<br />

to optimizing a lubrication programme.<br />

UE Systems Grease Caddies are designed<br />

specifically to perform conditionbased<br />

lubrication. There is a lot more<br />

however: creating a lubrication programme<br />

using data management software<br />

like DMS or correctly setting up a<br />

dB baseline for bearings can make a huge<br />

difference in your asset’s lifetime.<br />

Maintenance professionals can also<br />

use ultrasound for an efficient steam<br />

traps & valves inspection, with the right<br />

accessories and procedures. Ultrasound<br />

can even pick up certain electrical failures<br />

- do you know you can identify a<br />

specific electrical failure by making a<br />

sound recording with the ultrasonic<br />

instrument, and analysing it on special<br />

sound analysis software such as Spectralyzer?<br />

There is a lot ultrasound can do for<br />

a maintenance programme. To get the<br />



maximum out of it, training is fundamental.<br />

Well-trained inspectors will<br />

be able to explore all of the potential of<br />

ultrasonic inspection instruments. And<br />

from a management perspective, having<br />

qualified engineers working with standard<br />

procedures is a safe road to success.<br />

Ultrasound<br />

Certification Training<br />

UE Systems offers two options for Ultrasound<br />

Certification Training – Level<br />

I and Level II – meeting the requirements<br />

of the American Society for Nondestructive<br />

Testing (ASNT) Recommended<br />

Practice, SNT-TC-1A and in accordance<br />

with ISO 18436-8, the standard<br />

for condition monitoring and diagnosis<br />

of machines. These are 32-hour courses,<br />

consisting on a mix of theory and handson<br />

practice, covering all application<br />

areas of ultrasound, operation, test procedures<br />

& how to use the software.<br />

Topics Covered<br />

These are the topics covered by a Level I<br />

Ultrasound Training course:<br />



An Ultrasonic<br />

Instrument is<br />

the perfect tool<br />

to inspect<br />

and lubricate<br />

your bearings!<br />

ULTRAPROBE ® 15000<br />

For Inspection<br />

Detect early bearings failures<br />

Easily create a bearings route<br />

Trend your bearings condition<br />

Set alarms for early failures<br />

Make sound recordings of<br />

your bearings for analysis<br />

GREASE CADDY ® 401<br />

For Lubrication<br />

Listen to your bearings and<br />

know when to stop lubricating<br />

Avoid over-lubrication:<br />

the cause of over 60% of<br />

bearing failures<br />

Receive alarms when your<br />

bearings need lubrication<br />

Start a lubrication program<br />

Windmolen 20, 7609 NN Almelo, The Netherlands<br />

info@uesystems.eu | www.uesystems.eu | Tel. +31 546 725 125


With the<br />

correct training,<br />

inspectors can<br />

create reports<br />

on identified<br />

compressed air<br />

leaks.<br />

Learning how to<br />

analyse sound<br />

spectrum will<br />

help inspectors<br />

detecting early<br />

failures.<br />

50 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />

• All aspects of airborne/structure<br />

borne ultrasound technology<br />

• Effective mechanical analysis,<br />

leak detection and electrical inspections<br />

• Compressed air leak surveys, condition-based<br />

lubrication, steam<br />

trap inspections, bearing analysis<br />

and electrical inspections<br />

• How to improve asset availability<br />

and company profitability<br />

• How to enhance recording and<br />

reporting skills through a data<br />

management software and special<br />

analysis software<br />

• How to reduce and save on energy<br />

consumption<br />

Maintenance professionals who wish to<br />

take their ultrasound programme even<br />

further can attend a Level II course,<br />

which will give them deeper knowledge<br />

on inspection techniques and procedures:<br />

• Sound theory & ultrasound principles<br />

• Advanced leak detection: pressure<br />

leaks, vacuum leaks, reporting<br />

and costs analysis, developing a<br />

compressed air programme/procedures<br />

• Electrical inspection: inspection<br />

methods, spectral analysis, developing<br />

an electrical inspection<br />

programme<br />

• Valve inspection: configure instruments,<br />

software for ABCD<br />

record keeping and reporting,<br />

review of compressors<br />

• Steam traps: software for steam<br />

trap record keeping, data logging<br />

and steam cost analysis, review<br />

procedures<br />

• Bearings: monitoring, trending<br />

and lubrication, set up alarm<br />

groups and trend reports, developing<br />

a bearing detection / lubrication<br />

programme<br />

How to achieve Ultrasound<br />

Level I/Level II Certification<br />

Normally the training courses consist<br />

of open enrolment sessions, which are<br />

scheduled in advance. UE Systems has<br />

available trainings all over the world,<br />

in different languages, offering more<br />

than 80 annual courses worldwide.<br />

On-site Level I training is also a possibility;<br />

in case a company wishes to train a<br />

whole maintenance team at their own<br />

facility.<br />

In order to achieve the official certification,<br />

one must pass the general,<br />

specific and practical examinations with<br />

a score of 80 percent or more.<br />

Level II certification can only be obtained<br />

after getting the Level I certification.<br />

The complete agenda for the training<br />

sessions provided by UE Systems can be<br />

found at:<br />

United States:<br />

www.uesystems.com/training/<br />

Europe: (training sessions available<br />

in English, French, German, Spanish and<br />

Polish)<br />

www.uesystems.eu/training-agenda<br />

Application & Implementation<br />

Training<br />

Besides certification courses, UE Systems<br />

also provides other training solutions<br />

regarding the use of ultrasound in<br />

maintenance and reliability activities:<br />

On-site introduction training<br />

• Typically, ½ or 1-day course<br />

• Operation of the equipment &<br />

software<br />

• Where it can and where it cannot<br />

be used<br />

On-site implementation training<br />

• Typically, 2 or 2½ days (but can<br />

be customized)<br />

• Custom tailored training depending<br />

on the application interests<br />

• Hands-on orientated training to<br />

help setup a maintenance programme<br />

• Setup of test cases & evaluation<br />






Application specific training<br />

• Typically 1-day course<br />

• Application specific subjects:<br />

– Steam trap inspection courses<br />

– Leak auditing courses<br />

– Electrical inspection courses<br />

– Bearing inspection,<br />

optimizing lubrication pro<br />

gramme courses<br />

When companies want to achieve excellence<br />

in their maintenance programmes<br />

and get the maximum possible return on<br />

their investment, training their technicians<br />

is fundamental. A well-trained<br />

maintenance team will bring huge savings<br />

in money & energy spending and<br />

will keep the company’s assets always in<br />

top-condition, reducing downtimes and<br />

maintenance costs. Ultrasound technology<br />

together with training is a sure bet<br />

for any company and will prove its benefits<br />

and results in short time.

More Uptime.<br />

Better Returns.<br />

Strategy Management<br />

Zero tolerance for unexpected failures.<br />

Your assets are the value delivery engine of your business. Their most<br />

important function is to operate as engineered for their intended design<br />

life. With predictable performance and predictable results. Maximizing the<br />

return on your capital employed (ROCE), allowing you to bank more of your<br />

turnover. Being less sensitive to uncontrollable external factors such as<br />

commodity price fluctuations, macroeconomics, or monetary policies.<br />

Nexus Global Strategy Management implementations typically result<br />

in a 15%-40% reduction in operational costs with a 5%-10% increase in<br />

capacity utilization while maintaining or improving the risk tolerance of<br />

the business.<br />

Download our whitepaper and learn more at<br />

www.nexusglobal.com/bankonuptime<br />

+31.30.799.5050<br />




Fails to Work<br />

In some cases the use of<br />

applied diagnostics fails<br />

to give you the expected<br />

end result. For instance,<br />

a company may buy<br />

a system for vibration<br />

diagnostics and offer<br />

proper training on the<br />

device to its staff, but<br />

still the anticipated results<br />

from it use, such as<br />

reduced costs and less<br />

unexpected shutdowns,<br />

are just not forthcoming.<br />

Why is this so?<br />

52 maintworld 1/<strong>2017</strong><br />


Adash,<br />

eva.gerda@adash.cz<br />

THERE ARE a few factors, which may<br />

cause applied diagnostics to not be efficient.<br />

In this article we will have a look<br />

on what can go wrong.<br />

Vibration diagnostics needs<br />

proper knowledge<br />

The goal of vibration diagnostics is to<br />

receive the information about the current<br />

machine condition and decide if the<br />

condition is good, or if some repairs or<br />

adjustments need to be made.<br />

First of all, it is crucial to train the<br />

maintenance staff that uses the vibration<br />

diagnostics equipment. Vibration<br />

diagnostics is definitely a scientific discipline.<br />

However, this does not mean that<br />

the person using a vibration meter needs<br />

to have a deep knowledge of its theory!<br />

Obviously, when we train the maintenance<br />

staff that will be responsible for<br />

data collection and basic data trending,<br />

they don’t need knowledge of advanced<br />

data analysis such as orbits or similar issues.<br />

It is important to provide the appropriate<br />

level of knowledge and training.<br />

However, the person using an advanced<br />

vibration analyzer should have<br />

advanced knowledge. It is not enough to<br />

buy an expensive professional analyzer<br />

when we do not have anybody who can<br />

understand the measured data.<br />

Vibration evaluation is very similar<br />

to X-ray photo evaluation in medicine.


Some things are obvious and visible to<br />

almost anyone, but a more advanced<br />

evaluation depends on the doctor’s experience<br />

and knowledge.<br />

You can probably see that it would be<br />

not be wise to set up automatic standards<br />

for X-ray photo evaluation. With<br />

vibration diagnostics it is the same, the<br />

procedures and some limit values can be<br />

recommended, but the vibration diagnostician<br />

needs to make the final decision<br />

and evaluate the reading.<br />

Failing Communication<br />

between Maintenance Staff<br />

and the Diagnostic Team<br />

There are different organizational structures<br />

in different companies. The following<br />

scheme however, is common: vibration<br />

diagnosticians collect and evaluate<br />

the data and the mechanical maintenance<br />

staff take care of the repairs and other<br />

machine treatments. If the communication<br />

and data transmission between those<br />

two teams does not work properly, it unavoidably<br />

leads to poor results.<br />

maintenancenext<strong>2017</strong>-210x145-UK-hr.pdf 1 23-2-<strong>2017</strong> 15:04:46<br />

Whatever the structure in your company<br />

looks like, the communication and<br />

understanding of data is essential. If decision-makers<br />

do not have sufficient information,<br />

they obviously cannot make<br />

the right decision. Correct advanced<br />

vibration analysis is worthless if it just<br />

stays in the hands of those who cannot<br />

take any further steps or decisions.<br />

Moreover, the reports about machine<br />

condition should be accessible throughout<br />

the whole company for everybody<br />

who is responsible for the machines.<br />

Those reports should ideally include recommendations<br />

for further actions and<br />

deadlines when those actions need to be<br />

taken by.<br />

Proper Customer Service<br />

is Missing<br />

Customer service provided after purchasing<br />

the product is essential. When<br />

you buy an expensive professional analyzer<br />

it is necessary to be able to contact<br />

somebody who will answer your questions<br />

and provide you with sufficient<br />

information and training. Different<br />

systems have different functions and<br />

controls. It is important to know how the<br />

purchased system works and to be able<br />

to send questions directly to the producer<br />

and to get an answer. Unfortunately,<br />

contact details for the producer are not<br />

always available nowadays.<br />

The Human Factor<br />

The human factor is definitely one of<br />

the main influences on vibration diagnostics<br />

efficiency. The best situation is<br />

if when the person who is responsible<br />

for diagnostics is also the person who is<br />

interested in it. Vibration diagnostics is a<br />

fascinating field and a personal interest<br />

can fundamentally increase its efficiency.<br />

The more the person knows and cares<br />

about the machines, the better the diagnostics<br />

results are. If diagnostics tasks<br />

are given to a person who already has<br />

plenty of work under his or her responsibility<br />

(usually electricians) without<br />

increasing their salary, the results will be<br />

poor, or totally nonexistent.<br />

Register<br />

for a free visit<br />


Visit Maintenance NEXT in Rotterdam Ahoy from 11 to 13 April <strong>2017</strong>. The technology and<br />

maintenance expo in the Benelux, building on today’s and tomorrow’s maintenance industry.<br />

Go to www.maintenancenext.nl for an overview of all participants and the programme.<br />

@MaintenanceNEXT<br />

Strategic partners<br />



Wrong System Purchased<br />

A top-quality, but inappropriate system<br />

is sometimes purchased by companies.<br />

When the decision of purchasing a new<br />

diagnostic product relies solely on the<br />

economic department, who only has<br />

the list of the required functions, the<br />

wrong decision may be made. Only a<br />

person with the appropriate knowledge<br />

can make a decision for the right solution.<br />

Moreover, you should consider the<br />

achievable skills of your staff properly<br />

before purchasing a system. You will not<br />

achieve expected results from purchasing<br />

an advanced system for somebody<br />

who will never learn how to use it.<br />

Wrong Application<br />

It is necessary to use the vibration measurement<br />

devices according to rules,<br />

which ensure correct signal transmission<br />

between the inspected machine<br />

and the measuring device. If not, we can<br />

get an incorrect reading; even an experienced<br />

diagnostician is unable to read<br />

the information that is simply not there.<br />

For example, measuring places are very<br />

important; we need to select the correct<br />

places and also prepare them properly.<br />

The best solution is to use measurement<br />

pads and glue them to the measuring<br />

points. This ensures good transmission<br />

of the signal and repeatability of the<br />

measurements.<br />

Insufficient Communication<br />

with External Service Provider<br />

All of the reasons above describe the<br />

situation when the company itself takes<br />

care of the diagnostics applied. The other<br />

option is to hire an external company<br />

providing diagnostic services. In some<br />

cases this could definitely be a good solution,<br />

especially in cases when we know<br />

we are not able to ensure all the factors,<br />

which are mentioned above. However,<br />

in this case all the issues are also not<br />

automatically solved. In this case the<br />

communication between the factory and<br />

diagnostics service company together<br />

with its correct interpretation are essential.<br />

Both groups needs to work as partners<br />

and discuss the finding and recommended<br />

solutions. Recommended steps<br />

by a service company should be taken,<br />

otherwise the services are worthless.<br />

There is one disadvantage when hiring<br />

an external service company, which cannot<br />

be reduced easily and that is the fact<br />

that they don’t know the machinery park<br />

as well as the employees of the company<br />

itself. The factory employees must say<br />

and report what they experience and see<br />

on their machinery to reduce this factor.<br />

A typical example of bad communication<br />

is a situation when the maintenance staff<br />

carried out a machine repair and nobody<br />

informed the external company about<br />

that repair. Then the external service<br />

company stares at the new measurement<br />

and vainly tries to find the reason<br />

for machine condition change.<br />

Conclusion<br />

You may think that all the reasons listed<br />

above sound quite obvious. However, in<br />

practice we see that it is not so easy to<br />

fulfill them all. Unfortunately, the listed<br />

mistakes can lead to the wrong judgment<br />

that the vibration diagnostics methods<br />

themselves are not working. The company<br />

may blame the method for not working<br />

as they imagined, but in this case the<br />

problem is only the bad application of<br />

the method. Correctly applied vibration<br />

diagnostics is definitely worth doing and<br />

it is a very effective part of a predictive<br />

maintenance programme.<br />

54 maintworld 3/2016 1/<strong>2017</strong>



Vibrio, Vibrio Ex<br />

VA3 Pro<br />

VA4 Pro<br />

A3716 On line<br />


www.adash.com<br />


P R O V E N Q U A L I T Y<br />





• Laser shaft and geometric alignment<br />

• Portable vibration analysis and field balancing<br />

• Online Condition Monitoring<br />

• Worldwide training, services and support<br />


Find out how we boost uptime.<br />

Made in Germany<br />

Global Presence<br />

Qualified Support<br />

Quality Service<br />

PRÜFTECHNIK Dieter Busch AG<br />

Oskar-Messter-Str. 19-21<br />

85737 Ismaning<br />

Tel.: +49 89 99616-0<br />

info@pruftechnik.com<br />


Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!