Maintworld Magazine 3-4/2022

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3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

The Future of<br />

Work - Yuval<br />

Noah Harari<br />

p 12<br />

Virtual Reality<br />

in Global<br />

Maintenance<br />

Training<br />

p 35<br />

Reducing<br />

Emissions<br />

from Source<br />

Points p 8



After a long period of COVID-19 restrictions, the networking world is<br />

approaching a normal situation. This issue of <strong>Maintworld</strong> magazine is<br />

distributed at Ecomondo, the green technology expo in Italy. We have also<br />

seen several other events and fairs organized in almost normal circumstances<br />

all over Europe. The statistics from event organizers show that the number of visitors<br />

at fairs in <strong>2022</strong> has dropped about 30%-40% from the “normal” figures. Organizers<br />

assume that the event industry will be back to traditional business figures in five years.<br />

The big thing for EFNMS is the upcoming Euromaintenance event in Rotterdam,<br />

the Netherlands, which will take place between 17-19th of April 2023 (https://www.<br />

euromaintenance.net/). There has been a long break after Euromaintenance 2018,<br />

which was held in Antwerp, Belgium. Euromaintenance 2023 in Rotterdam will again<br />

bring the top players in the maintenance industry together – again with excellent<br />

conference content and combined with the Maintenance NEXT exhibition.<br />

As we know, there are dark clouds in the sky concerning the situation in Europe –<br />

we can all see the rising energy prices and the uncertainty of international business.<br />

The interest in improving energy efficiency is rising, and professional maintenance is<br />

an effective part of energy efficiency and a circular economy. Most probably during the<br />

coming winter, we will see and develop new, innovative ways to save energy and get the<br />

most out of the materials and tools we are using. To ensure and support this, we must<br />

further improve cooperation between countries and business organizations.<br />

On a personal level, this means that we must be patient and tolerate a few negative<br />

things. At the same time, we must get back on track with external activities. In Finland’s<br />

military history, we have a saying that goes “do not lie down under fire” – stand up and<br />

continue. We have seen that people and organizations are not very determined and<br />

focus-oriented in a new situation. Now more than ever, we need to be fast and focused<br />

on improving things, make new innovations, and be open to new ideas and contacts.<br />

Global and European-level networking is needed, and it is vital for companies and<br />

personal development. To get the most out of networking, we need to understand with<br />

whom and for what we need to connect. To help this kind of thinking, EFNMS has<br />

been working with an EFNMS-survey, which will be launched in mid-November <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

The results of this survey will be reported during the Euromaintenance 2023 event<br />

in Rotterdam. Those answering the survey will get a survey-report after the survey<br />

is finalized in mid-March 2023. More information is coming later via the EFNMS<br />

webpage and other media.<br />

Hope to see you at the latest in Rotterdam in April 2023!<br />

Now more than<br />

ever, we need<br />

to be focused<br />

on improving<br />

things and<br />

being open<br />

to new ideas<br />

and contacts.<br />

Jaakko Tennilä<br />

Executive Director / Board member<br />

Finnish maintenance society, Promaint / EFNMS, European Federation of National Maintenance Societies<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland, tel. +358 29 007 4570 Publisher Omnipress Oy, Väritehtaankatu 8,<br />

4. kerros, 01300 Vantaa, tel. +358 20 6100, omnipress.fi Editor-in-chief Juha Peltonen, tel. +358 50 554 6426, juha.peltonen@media.fi Producer Mia Heiskanen,<br />

tel. +358 40 615 5058, mia.heiskanen@media.fi Advertisements Tanja Lukkarinen, Customer Manager, tel. +358 40 529 3628, tanja.lukkarinen@media.fi<br />

Layout Menu Meedia, www.menuk.ee Subscriptions and change of address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members tilaajapalvelu@media.fi<br />

Printed by Reusner, www.reusner.ee Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).

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Automation is not<br />

a one-off event but<br />

a cascade of disuption.<br />

12<br />

AI<br />

and robotics will change<br />

almost every profession, says<br />

the best-selling author Yuval<br />

Noah Harari<br />

2 Editorial<br />

8<br />

Reducing emissions<br />

from source points<br />

12<br />

What Will the Future of Work<br />

Be Like?<br />

18<br />

22<br />

Condition monitoring<br />

secures transition to carbonneutral<br />

energy<br />

Avoid the Dangers of<br />

Failing Steam Traps<br />

24<br />

26<br />

28<br />

32<br />

35<br />

Why Is Industry 5.0<br />

A Good Thing<br />

For Manufacturing<br />

Testing through digital glasses<br />

Air Quality - a breathtaking<br />

challenge<br />

Steps to Create a Reliable<br />

Manufacturing Culture<br />

An elevator that transports<br />

to virtual reality<br />

28<br />

Monitoring air pollutant<br />

emissions is in sharp<br />

focus for a range of<br />

industries.<br />

4 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

In this<br />

issue<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong><br />

36<br />

=<br />

40<br />

42<br />

46<br />

49<br />

Energy Cyber Security in the Nordics<br />

EFNMS - Finnish Maintenance Society,<br />

Promaint<br />

Automation of Mobile Machines<br />

Call for Maintenance Development<br />

Work and safety development<br />

at the nuclear power plant<br />

46<br />

In<br />

the future, mobile machines<br />

will be electrified<br />

and highly automated.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 5

In Short<br />

World Economy Study predicts by 2025,<br />

digital technologies will create over<br />

12 million more jobs than they eliminate.<br />

New career pathways<br />

A study by MIT and Boston University found that the negative impact of automation on the job<br />

market can be offset by new tasks as “all technologies create productivity effects that contribute<br />

to labor demand.” This is corroborated by a World Economic Forum study that predicts by 2025,<br />

digital technologies will create at least 12 million more jobs than they eliminate, as people with<br />

the right skills will be needed to program, maintain and repair them.<br />

THESE EMERGING, specialized roles also provide<br />

workers with safer and more fulfilling career<br />

pathways as automation and robotics have not<br />

resulted in any mass workforce reductions among<br />

factory floor workers. Instead, these workers have<br />

been redeployed or transferred to serve other<br />

production needs or upskilled to perform specialized<br />

roles. It is not uncommon to convert assembly<br />

operators and testers to line-compliance auditors or<br />

robotics technicians. By filling the jobs created by<br />

automation, employers can level the playing field<br />

for people with disabilities and other disadvantages.<br />

For example, the use of robotics can eliminate the<br />

“ability to lift” requirement, making a job more<br />

accessible.<br />


The World Economic Forum’s Platform for Shaping the Future<br />

of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning brings together<br />

global stakeholders to accelerate the adoption of transparent and<br />

inclusive AI, so the technology can be deployed in a safe, ethical and<br />

responsible way.<br />

• The Forum created a toolkit for human resources to promote<br />

positive and ethical human-centred use of AI for organizations,<br />

workers and society.<br />

• The Forum’s Empowering AI Leadership: AI C-Suite<br />

Toolkit provides practical tools to help companies better<br />

understand the ethical and business impact of their AI<br />

investment. The Model AI Governance Framework features<br />

responsible practices of leading companies from different<br />

sectors that organizations can adopt in a similar manner.<br />

www.weforum.org/platforms/shaping-the-future-of-artificial-intelligence-and-machine-learning<br />

www.weforum.org/projects/human-centred-artificial-intelligence-for-human-resources<br />

Swedish Steel Prize 2023 - Call for entries<br />


Swedish Steel Prize 2023 – the steel industry’s<br />

most prestigious international award – now<br />

for the 21st time celebrating innovative steel<br />

solutions.<br />

The Swedish Steel Prize recognizes those who<br />

fully utilize the potential of steel to improve not<br />

only their business or industry, but also society.<br />

“The Swedish Steel Prize is a celebration of<br />

innovation and good engineering,” explains Eva<br />

Petursson, Chair of the Swedish Steel Prize Jury<br />

and Head of SSAB’s Research and Innovation. “We<br />

are looking for solutions that push the limits of<br />

steel and with a sustainable or digital twist.”<br />

The Swedish Steel Prize is open to any<br />

individual, company or institution and is awarded<br />

to the method or product that best displays how<br />

the properties of the chosen grade of steel has<br />

contributed to a significant innovation.<br />

For the full rules, to read about previous<br />

finalists and to apply, applicants can go to www.<br />

steelprize.com/apply. All applications must be<br />

received before the deadline of January 18, 2023<br />

for consideration.<br />

6 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

2027<br />

The<br />

Global Logistics Automation Market size was<br />

estimated at USD 54.57 billion in 2021, USD 59.91 billion<br />

in <strong>2022</strong>, and is projected to grow at a CAGR 9.95 % to reach<br />

USD 96.47 billion by 2027.<br />

Save<br />

the dates<br />

for 2023<br />


Automation and Test in Europe<br />

Conference and Exhibition<br />

Antwerpen, Belgium<br />

17. - 19.4.2023<br />




Industrial Maintenance and Asset<br />

Management European Congress<br />

Rotterdam, Netherlands<br />

17 - 19.4.2023<br />

ABB expands condition<br />

monitoring with<br />

Samotics partnership<br />

ABB AND SAMOTICS, a leading provider of electrical signature analysis technology,<br />

have entered a strategic partnership to provide enhanced condition monitoring services<br />

by delivering greater insight into machine health and energy efficiency.<br />

ABB will integrate Samotics’ plug-and-play monitoring solution known as SAM4 into<br />

its digital portfolio. The technology is complementary to the ABB Ability Condition<br />

Monitoring service for powertrains, a sensor-based solution that analyses the health<br />

and performance of rotating equipment. Samotics’ SAM4 technology will expand ABB’s<br />

application of asset health monitoring for motor-driven industrial equipment as it does<br />

not rely on mounting sensors in the field.<br />

ABB and Samotics say developing a system that uses both datasets will provide<br />

industrial operators with a more detailed view of asset health so that they can make<br />

better decisions to optimize maintenance, boost reliability and reduce downtime. ABB<br />

plans to roll out Samotics technology to customers before the end of <strong>2022</strong> as part of its<br />

growing service portfolio for rotating equipment.<br />


International Industrial<br />

Maintenance Exhibition<br />

Dortmund, Germany<br />

24. - 26.5.2023<br />

SIMIEX<br />

International Industrial<br />

Maintenance Exhibition<br />

Porto, Portugal 31.5 – 3.6.2023<br />


Maintec is the UK's premier event<br />

for the maintenance engineering<br />

and asset management community<br />

Birmingham, UK 6. - 8.7.2023<br />



Leading Machinery and<br />

Technology Event for<br />

Manufacturing and<br />

Supporting Industries<br />

Bangkok, Thailand 21. - 24.6.2023<br />

We estimate the size of the Enterprise<br />

Automation market at just shy of $10<br />

billion in <strong>2022</strong>, with a forecast 5-year CAGR<br />

of approximately 14.8%.<br />

Enterprise Automation Market Analysis: <strong>2022</strong>-26 by Alan Pelz-Sharpe,<br />

Matt Mullen, and Dan Lucarini, Deep Analysis.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 7

OIL&GAS<br />

Reducing emissions<br />

from source points -<br />

necessary than ever<br />

The occurrence of unwanted<br />

emissions is a headache for the<br />

process industry because of the<br />

loss of raw materials, safety risks<br />

and environmental damage.<br />



8 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

OIL&GAS<br />

Examples of stem seal leakage - Source: ITIS<br />

In order to reduce such emissions, it is important<br />

to develop a valve testing system<br />

that allows the most common stem seals to<br />

be tested and compared.<br />

POTENTIAL LEAKS usually occur at so-called<br />

source points: seals either in or between pipes and/<br />

or vessels. Valves are an example of this. A valve<br />

consists of an upper part and a valve body with an<br />

orifice. By means of a spindle, a valve is manually or<br />

mechanically moved to position 'open' and 'position<br />

closed', respectively This means that the product<br />

flow is proportional to the size of the valve opening.<br />

An estimated 60% of unwanted emissions are<br />

due to valves, and are mainly caused by decreasing<br />

by loss of compression. A compressible stem seal<br />

seals when a certain surface pressure is applied<br />

to it by means of a gland bush. The stem seal is<br />

thereby pressed radially but deflects in an axial direction,<br />

and this movement causes it to seal.<br />

So the question is, why does this compression<br />

rate decrease?<br />

To answer this, endurance tests were carried<br />

out by ITIS in Goes The Netherlands. Director<br />

Colin Zegers explains the choice for that specific<br />

location.<br />

“We have test bunkers here in which, among<br />

other things, valves and sealing materials can be<br />

tested for leaks. This testing is done using the socalled<br />

sniffer-pressure method in accordance with<br />

internationally recognised standards.”<br />

A compression stem packing of the valve could<br />

contain five or six rings of gaskets, all of which are<br />

60%<br />

10% 15%<br />

normally fitted and pressed on at the same time.<br />

The top gasket ring then appears to perform its<br />

sealing role well, but the same is not true, or is less<br />

true, for the remaining rings.<br />

“The idea is that each ring is basically compressed<br />

by 30% before the next one is installed.<br />

That way you get an optimal distribution of forces<br />

across rings. If you only pre-compress some of the<br />

rings, which is obviously a lot faster, then they have<br />

to do all the work; the rest is just 'padding'. The less<br />

the precompression, the harder the packing rings<br />

5%<br />

10%<br />

Valves Tanks Relief Valves Flanges Pumps<br />

Figure: Sources of<br />

fugitive emissions in<br />

the process industry<br />

(source: European<br />

Sealing Association)<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 9

OIL&GAS<br />

have to be tightened, and then, due to deformation<br />

of the rings, at some point it has to stop”, Zegers<br />

explains.<br />

THE TESTS are always conducted under the<br />

same pressure and temperature conditions. The<br />

stem seals are assembled in the same way and<br />

tightened with the same force. By placing special<br />

pressure sensors on the valve, the force required<br />

to tighten gasket pusher bolts can be measured,<br />

ensuring optimal sealing action.<br />

“By mounting so-called smart positioners<br />

on the control valves, it becomes possible to<br />

measure the number and size of the valve movements,<br />

often in combination with the pressures<br />

and temperatures of the process. To make the<br />

whole thing even 'smarter', insofar as possible,<br />

sensors for measuring and predicting emissions<br />

are linked to the positioners already in place.”<br />

It has been established empirically that the<br />

force of tightening the gland bush, the type of<br />

stem seal and the number of turns are interrelated.<br />

Furthermore, a gasket is found to relax<br />

immediately after tightening - decrease in prepressure<br />

- resulting in loss of bolt tension. This<br />

has a negative impact on the leak proofing of the<br />

valve. Several factors influence this.<br />

“Consider the make and type of stem seal,<br />

alignment, tolerances, roughness and temperature.<br />

After relaxation, the axial force is too low,<br />

the upper ring is tightened, but cannot tolerate<br />

this and deforms, resulting in a (partial) drop in<br />

surface pressure and leakage reoccurs. The reason<br />

for this relaxation has not been established<br />

at this time; further research will have to be<br />

done into this.”<br />

WHEN CHOOSING a particular brand and type of<br />

stem seal, factors such as pressure, temperature,<br />

type of gasket material in relation to the product<br />

and the maximum allowable leakage value must<br />

all be considered. The tests carried out show that<br />

dynamic valve seals leak under certain conditions,<br />

despite the fact that the process conditions specified<br />

by the manufacturer are met.<br />

Often, such values are not or not sufficiently<br />

substantiated by independent tests. What also does<br />

not help is the fact that there is as yet no standard or<br />

regulation for stem seals. In his role as team leader<br />

of the project, Zegers is currently writing a standard<br />

procedure for the best stem seal testing method.<br />

The aim is to standardise as much as possible<br />

per stem seal type and material, the method of<br />

assembly and the required compression. It is also<br />

important to unambiguously standardise the<br />

relationship between the force of tightening the<br />

pusher, the type of gasket and the number of tightening<br />

torques, so that everyone starts working in a<br />

uniform way and the results of those findings are<br />

interchangeable.<br />

“Currently, the claims made by manufacturers<br />

of stem seals are uncommitted and not verified<br />

against a standard. Fortunately, the ESA and<br />

many other stakeholders agree we need standardisation.<br />

In this way test reports<br />

will lead into increased<br />

product responsibility,”<br />

Zegers says.<br />

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS are the totality<br />

of unwanted and often irregular<br />

emissions of gases and/or vapours from<br />

equipment operating at overpressure.<br />

This contributes to environmental<br />

pollution and climate change as a function<br />

of the "global warming potential" of the<br />

substances involved. Scientific sources<br />

estimate that in the United States alone,<br />

125,000 tonnes are unintentionally<br />

released into the atmosphere every year.<br />

Fugitive Emission is basically the loss of<br />

useful resources. Thus, it makes sense<br />

from both a circular and purely<br />

economic point of view to minimise<br />

these emissions. This is done through<br />

good plant installation and<br />

maintenance practices.<br />

10 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

OIL&GAS<br />

Interreg project Circular Maintenance<br />

IN THIS PROJECT, several public and private partners are working together, led by the (Dutch)<br />

Knowledge and Innovation Centre Maintenance Process Industry (KicMPi) and the Belgian Maintenance<br />

Association (BEMAS), to reduce the material footprint of the process industry in the<br />

south of the Netherlands and Flanders, while at the same time achieving economic benefits. The<br />

project is supported by Interreg Flanders-Netherlands, a European program that finances crossborder<br />

projects for smart, green and inclusive growth. It is funded from the European Regional<br />

Development Fund (ERDF).<br />

The project has been delayed because of corona but more significantly because of its complexity.<br />

"As the project ends at the end of this year, we are looking into whether we can continue<br />

the studies and if so, in what way. Given the many thousands of tonnes of fugitive emissions<br />

annually, this is by no means an unnecessary luxury," says Zegers.<br />

A scanning system that tracks on-site valves that start showing leakage behaviour in the<br />

near future would therefore be ideal. In that regard, Zegers has good news.<br />

"Currently, a prototype test system is being built and tested in-house at ITIS as a kind of<br />

spin-off from the Interreg project. Unfortunately, due to the patent applications, I cannot and<br />

may not say more about that at the moment."<br />

The Interreg project officially ends on 31 December <strong>2022</strong>. During the closing event on 15<br />

November, the results achieved will be shown and preliminary conclusions shared. To learn<br />

more visit www.circulaironderhoud.eu.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 11


What Will the<br />

Future of Work<br />

Be Like?<br />

12 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>




AI and robotics will change almost<br />

every profession, the historian,<br />

philosopher and best-selling author<br />

Yuval Noah Harari told the Nordic<br />

Business Forum audience in Helsinki.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 13


Harari was one of the most anticipated<br />

speakers in NBF Helsinki<br />

and he started his speech by reminding<br />

of one important fact<br />

about the job market in 2050—nobody<br />

knows what it’s going to be<br />

like. The only thing we can be certain of is that it will<br />

be completely different from what we know today.<br />

“Many jobs of today will disappear by 2050.<br />

The big question is, what will this do to the job<br />

market and human society?”<br />


MATION IS NOTHING NEW. Harari reminded the<br />

audience that automation has been around<br />

since the start of the industrial revolution. The<br />

challenge with it has never been the complete<br />

disappearance of jobs but rather adapting to<br />

the new jobs and the job market. Humans had<br />

a hard time learning how to adapt to the power<br />

of the steam engine and electricity. In the past,<br />

we’ve seen that when old jobs go, new jobs are<br />

created, and the same thing is likely to happen<br />

in the future. The fact is though that the technologies<br />

driving innovation today, such as AI,<br />

robotics, and bioengineering, are even more<br />

powerful.<br />

“We can not afford any more failed experiments.<br />

If we don’t get it right this time, the<br />

result will be a complete annihilation of humankind.”<br />

To get it right, the key question is what humans<br />

will be doing in 2050 and what kinds of<br />

jobs and tasks will be taken over by computers<br />

and robots? Harari reminded the audience<br />

that this question is not a theoretical question<br />

about the future but a very practical question<br />

about today. The key is to stay relevant.<br />

Harari told that<br />

nobody knows what<br />

the job market will be<br />

like in 2050.<br />

14 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>



require new skills and new attitudes like<br />

unlearning, relearning and processing information.<br />

According to Harari it means people<br />

need the ability to unlearn previous skills and<br />

approaches. The most important skill of the<br />

21st century will not be specific skills such as<br />

learning code, but the ability to master new<br />

skills and to move from one profession to another<br />

throughout our lives. We will also need<br />

to learn how to tell the difference between reliable<br />

and unreliable information.<br />

For thousands of years, the model was linear.<br />

First you learn, then you work. This model<br />

is now becoming irrelevant. As more and more<br />

activities move online, people in their sixties<br />

and seventies will still need to adapt. With<br />

virtual reality VR, they may even need to learn<br />

Automation has<br />

been around since<br />

the start of the industrial<br />

revolution.<br />

Yuval Noah Harari is a historian,<br />

philosopher, author, and lecturer<br />

at the Department of History<br />

at the Hebrew University of<br />

Jerusalem. As a writer, his bestknown<br />

works include Sapiens:<br />

A Brief History of Humankind,<br />

Homo Deus: A Brief History of<br />

Tomorrow, and 21 Lessons for<br />

the 21st Century.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 15


how to walk and talk again in the VR world. As<br />

more jobs move into VR, those who can’t learn<br />

these skills will be left behind.<br />

“We’ll have big changes by 2025, bigger<br />

changes by 2035 and an even bigger revolution<br />

in 2045. Old jobs will disappear, new jobs<br />

will emerge, but the new jobs too will quickly<br />

change and vanish. People will have to retrain<br />

and reinvent themselves not just once but<br />

again and again and this will create psychological<br />

pressure.”<br />

The jobs which will be done by computers<br />

will depend on what humans want them to do.<br />

Do we want them to be more intelligent than<br />

us? If that’s the case, is it enough for computers<br />

to gain intelligence to take on certain tasks<br />

– such as driverless cars? Or do we want empathy,<br />

relationship or friendship? If so, that’s<br />

not possible to automate. What we want is not<br />

someone who can solve problems for us, but<br />

someone who can feel things.<br />

Harari pointed out that AI does not have<br />

any emotions of its own, but it can learn to<br />

recognize these patterns in human beings.<br />

Computers may outperform people in recognizing<br />

human emotions because they don’t<br />

have any emotions of their own.<br />


some people are naturally raising the question<br />

of consciousness. On this, he is skeptical.<br />

“We shouldn’t confuse intelligence with consciousness.<br />

Contrary to what we see in science fiction<br />

films, there is no reason to think that as computers<br />

gain intelligence they will gain consciousness.”<br />

Consciousness is the ability to feel emotions.<br />

Intelligence is the ability to solve problems.<br />

Over the past half-century, we have seen<br />

a dramatic increase in computer intelligence.<br />

At the same time, we’ve seen precisely zero<br />

change in computer consciousness. Harari<br />

reminded the audience that there might be<br />

Nordic Business Forum<br />

gathered over 7,000<br />

business leaders from<br />

50 countries to Helsinki<br />

in September.<br />

16 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>


Challenge the assumptions of today<br />

When it comes to automation, society has made assumptions that can be<br />

shown to be untrue. Harari raised some interesting points.<br />


MANUAL SKILLS. In reality, it is intellectual professions such as doctors<br />

that are better suited for automation than for example nurses.<br />


LIGENCE. When it comes to identifying human emotions, computers may<br />

be better than humans. Understanding if someone is angry is about processing<br />

information from e.g. body language and expression. At its heart,<br />

this is the process of data processing which is one thing that AI excels at.<br />

Automation is not<br />

a one-off event but<br />

a cascade of disuption.<br />

several different roads leading to super-intelligence,<br />

and only some of the roads lead to<br />

consciousness.<br />



Some of the skills that we cherish as unique human<br />

abilities may actually be automated rather<br />

easily, whereas other skills that we tend to look<br />

down on may be far more difficult to automate.<br />

Take weddings, for example. On a technical level,<br />

the job of a priest can be automated much easier<br />

than anything else. All that is needed is to repeat<br />

the text and print out a certificate. So why,<br />

Harari asked, do we think car drivers should be<br />

worried, but priests are safe?<br />

Another example comes from health care. According<br />

to Harari it is easier to automate the job of<br />

a doctor than the job of a nurse.<br />

“Doctors mainly gather medical data, analyze<br />

it, provide a diagnosis, and recommend a treatment.<br />

It means the work is mainly about gathering<br />

data and finding patterns in that data. Pattern<br />

recognition and finding patterns is exactly<br />

what AI is doing better than human beings. In<br />

contrast, it is much more difficult to automate<br />

the jobs of a nurse who place bandages on injured<br />

people or give injections to a crying child.<br />

AI is very far from gaining the motor and social<br />

skills necessary to perform such tasks.”<br />

According to Harari AI is nowhere near its<br />

full potential and that is also true for human<br />

beings. “For every euro and minute we spend<br />

developing AI, we should spend at least a euro<br />

and a minute on exploring and developing our<br />

own minds.”<br />

All this requires a lot of mental flexibility,<br />

but the big question is: do we have what it<br />

takes to survive in the 21st century? Coping<br />

with the future of work, Harari believes, will<br />

be difficult in many ways.<br />

“It is stressful to reinvent yourself. If you’re a<br />

truck driver who has been replaced by a computer,<br />

how do you reinvent yourself with any other<br />

job which has not been automated”, he asked.<br />

EVEN IF YOU CAN ADJUST, it might not be a<br />

long-term solution because the job market will<br />

continue to change. Harari pointed out that<br />

the automation is not a one-off event. It will<br />

be a ‘cascade of ever bigger disruption’.<br />

To thrive in the new world, Harari argued<br />

that we will have to unleash the untapped potential<br />

of humankind. Preparing for the future<br />

starts with education today.<br />

“Consider a six-year-old girl, who starts her<br />

first grade in school, she will be 34 in 2050.<br />

What should we teach her today that she will<br />

have the necessary skills for the future job<br />

market,” Harari concluded.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 17

ENERGY<br />

Reliable condition monitoring<br />

secures transition to carbonneutral<br />

energy at Oulun<br />

Energia's biopower plant<br />

Oulun Energia’s Laanila<br />

power plant relies on Valmet’s<br />

condition monitoring, which is<br />

an integral element of the DNA<br />

distributed control system.<br />


The City of Oulu in Finland aims<br />

to become carbon neutral by<br />

2035. This is why the local energy<br />

company Oulun Energia<br />

shares the same goal. While<br />

relinquishing fossil fuels, the<br />

company will also gradually reduce the use of<br />

peat as a source of energy. It will be replaced<br />

with wood pulp and non-recyclable waste<br />

fractions.<br />

The collaboration with<br />

Valmet’s professionals<br />

is seamless”, says<br />

Tim Onnela (right),<br />

who is responsible<br />

for machine condition<br />

monitoring at Oulun<br />

Energia. Tommi<br />

Karsikas (left) is<br />

Valmet’s Senior<br />

application specialist.<br />

18 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

ENERGY<br />


opened for commercial use in 2020, plays an important<br />

role on the path towards carbon neutrality.<br />

Its operations are characterized by optimal<br />

fuel flexibility and the utilization of various side<br />

streams.<br />

The plant serves the energy needs of the<br />

growing city of Oulu. The power plant’s production<br />

capacity is 75 megawatts of electricity<br />

and 175 megawatts of district heat. If necessary,<br />

process steam can be supplied to the industrial<br />

facilities in the nearby Laanila area.<br />

The Laanila plant utilizes a Valmet multifuel<br />

boiler, flue gas treatment plant and plantwide<br />

DNA automation system. A Valmet CFB<br />

Boiler system, which features circulating fluidized<br />

bed technology, is used as the boiler. The<br />

solution’s fuel flexibility is very high. The boiler<br />

at Laanila can burn wood residuals, wood<br />

chips, sawdust, stump chips and peat as well as<br />

solid recovery fuel (SRF) received from Oulun<br />

Our goal was to equip<br />

our modern power<br />

plant with a condition<br />

monitoring system that would<br />

be as functional, reliable and<br />

versatile as possible.<br />


element of the safe and efficient operations of<br />

an energy plant. The maintenance of the Laanila<br />

plant is assisted by Valmet DNA condition<br />

monitoring, which is included in the Valmet<br />

DNA automation system.<br />

“In the procurement phase, our goal was to<br />

equip our modern power plant with a condition<br />

monitoring system that would be as functional,<br />

reliable and versatile as possible. Valmet’s<br />

condition monitoring was the best fit for us,<br />

since it is part of the plant’s automation system.<br />

It is important to ensure seamless information<br />

flow within the system,” says Tim Onnela, who<br />

is in charge of condition monitoring at Oulun<br />

Energia.<br />

One important criterion in the purchase<br />

was to ensure that plant operators can smoothly<br />

use the condition monitoring system alongside<br />

the automation system in day-to-day work<br />

activities. The condition monitoring notifies<br />

operators of any deviations and predicts failure<br />

situations so that problems can be addressed<br />

before they cause major damage.<br />

Valmet prepared for the commissioning of<br />

the condition monitoring system by drawing<br />

up a condition monitoring plan for Oulun<br />

Energia. This involved planning automatic online<br />

measurements, scheduling periodic route<br />

measurements and applying them to the full<br />

scope of the condition monitoring solution.<br />

The commissioning also entailed defining the<br />

alarm limits for the measurements.<br />

Machine condition<br />

information is displayed<br />

in the same<br />

user interface as the<br />

process automation.<br />

Energia’s Rusko waste sorting plant.<br />

In the commissioning phase, the fuel mixture<br />

comprised 70 percent biomass, 15 percent<br />

SRF and the same amount of peat. As the plant<br />

gradually phases out peat, the share of SRF will<br />

increase to 30 percent.<br />

Thanks to Valmet’s flue gas cleaning system,<br />

the plant meets even the strictest emission<br />

requirements. The flue gas condenser included<br />

in the cleaning system generates 55 megawatts<br />

of district heat, which improves that plant’s<br />

energy efficiency and district heat capacity.<br />

The plant’s operation is controlled and monitored<br />

by Valmet DNA. It is an automation,<br />

safety and information management system,<br />

which also includes applications for emission<br />

monitoring and calculating the power plant’s<br />

key figures. The automation system and Valmet<br />

Industrial Internet applications optimize<br />

the plant’s operations in real time.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 19

ENERGY<br />

“The more critical measurements are now covered<br />

by the online condition monitoring, and the<br />

less critical ones will be measured with a portable<br />

analyzer. Online measurements are carried out<br />

multiple times a day, while the interval between<br />

manual measurements can be as long as four<br />

weeks,” Onnela says.<br />

The commissioning of the extensive plantwide<br />

condition monitoring system surprised Onnela<br />

in a good way. One reason behind the success was<br />

Valmet’s expert staff. Some of them were already<br />

familiar to Onnela, so working with them was<br />

effortless.<br />

“The collaboration with Valmet’s professionals<br />

is seamless. If any changes have been needed, the issues<br />

have been addressed immediately. Having support<br />

close at hand is important to us,” Onnela says.<br />

“The cooperation with Oulun Energia has been<br />

a good experience for many reasons, such as the<br />

company’s in-depth condition monitoring expertise<br />

and equipment-related knowledge. Oulun Energia<br />

also sees condition monitoring as an important part<br />

of a modern power plant’s operations that serves<br />

both those maintaining and operating the plant.<br />

The staff are also enthusiastic and willing to develop<br />

new solutions for demanding locations with<br />

Valmet. The collaboration has been extremely<br />

fruitful,” Valmet Automation’s Senior Application<br />

Specialist Tommi Karsikas says.<br />

THE COOPERATION has been pushed forward by<br />

piloting new technologies. Among the most interesting<br />

ones was testing Valmet WVS-100 and<br />

WMM-100 wireless vibration sensors with the<br />

feed screws of the boilers. It would have been<br />

very difficult and costly to install fixed sensors.<br />

The wireless sensors were tested for a period<br />

of six months. Encouraged by the good experiences,<br />

their use was extended, bringing the<br />

plant’s total number of wireless sensors to more<br />

than 100, equaling the number of fixed sensors.<br />

“The quality of Valmet’s wireless sensors is<br />

excellent, and they are fast to deploy,” Onnela<br />

says in praise of the products.<br />

Wireless Valmet WVS-<br />

100 vibration sensors<br />

are used for moving<br />

machines such as silo<br />

discharger motors<br />

and gearboxes. Wired<br />

RVT-120 sensors are<br />

used for the feedwater<br />

pump and other stationary<br />

machines.<br />

20 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

ENERGY<br />

That being said, it is unwise to install wireless<br />

sensors in every location, since they have<br />

batteries that require periodic recharging.<br />

Fixed wired sensors are favored for more critical<br />

points, such as blowers and large pumps.<br />

THE COMMON TASKS of condition monitoring<br />

include entering bearing data in the system<br />

and tuning the alarm limits in the context<br />

of process change related to a change in the<br />

raw material mixture, for example. Valmet’s<br />

condition monitoring system makes these<br />

measures simple.<br />

“Valmet DNA condition monitoring saves<br />

a lot of effort since you do not need to carry<br />

out all measurements manually. Another<br />

benefit is the system’s ability to take the<br />

rotation speed of devices controlled with frequency<br />

converters into account. The system<br />

retrieves the speed data from the automation<br />

system before measurement,” Onnela explains.<br />

The condition monitoring system has<br />

already saved the Laanila plant from significant<br />

trouble by detecting a fault in the<br />

bearing of a district heating pump motor<br />

bearing. If allowed to exacerbate, the issue<br />

could have led to severe equipment failure<br />

and costly repairs. This, too, demonstrated<br />

the importance of daily automatic measurements.<br />

Since the Laanila plant has found the condition<br />

monitoring system to be an excellent<br />

tool, its deployment is also being planned at<br />

the Toppila power plant and Laanila eco power<br />

plant.<br />

Oulun Energia power<br />

plants in figures<br />


Completed in 2020<br />

Fuel power 215 megawatts<br />

Electrical power 70 megawatts<br />

District heat power 175 megawatts<br />


Completed in 2012<br />

Fuel power 53 megawatts<br />


Completed in 1995<br />

Fuel power 315 megawatts<br />

Electrical power 120 megawatts<br />

District heat power 170 megawatts<br />


Completed in 2016<br />

Power 270 kilowatts<br />


Completed in 1948<br />

Electrical power 40 megawatts<br />

Smooth<br />

commissioning<br />

through cooperation.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 21




Avoid the Dangers of<br />

Failing Steam Traps<br />

Failing steam traps and valves can mean serious<br />

trouble for your machines and equipment.<br />

During water hammering,<br />

moving fluids experience<br />

a sudden and powerful<br />

change in momentum,<br />

either changing<br />

direction or completely<br />

stopping, causing a high-pressure shockwave<br />

that spreads through a piping system,<br />

wreaking havoc on subsequent systems.<br />

This shockwave produces a banging<br />

or knocking sound that can be heard immediately<br />

after the shutoff takes place.<br />

This sudden change in direction or<br />

complete stop occurs when an open steam<br />

trap or valve is abruptly closed. When the<br />

valve is closed, the water no longer has<br />

an open route to take, and it either slams<br />

mercilessly into the valve or reverses direction<br />

and flows back into the pump.<br />

The Effects<br />

While it may not seem like much of a<br />

threat on the surface, as the water travels<br />

through the piping, it continues to build<br />

up momentum, and when this force is<br />

suddenly halted, it creates pressure spikes<br />

that can reach an excess of 10 times the<br />

operating pressure of the system.<br />

Water hammer requires swift and immediate<br />

action to prevent damage; failing<br />

to take action can have serious repercussions,<br />

including:<br />

• Pump and flow system damage:<br />

Recurring water hammer and the<br />

resulting force that it generates can<br />

cause considerable damage to other<br />

parts of the entire system, including<br />

pumps, steam traps, and valves.<br />

• Leaks: Over time, water hammer can<br />

damage and degrade the integrity of<br />

parts such as fittings and joints, leading<br />

to leaks.<br />

• Risk of Accidents: The resulting<br />

ruptured pipelines caused by water<br />

hammer can pose a serious threat<br />

22 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong><br />

to the health and safety of your<br />

employees. Uncontrolled leaks<br />

increase the risk of slips, falls,<br />

and electrocution.<br />

• Unscheduled Downtime:<br />

Water hammer and<br />

its damaging effects can<br />

lead to costly repairs and<br />

equipment replacement.<br />

Prevention & Inspection<br />

Several other effective measures for<br />

preventing water hammer include:<br />

• Flushing old systems<br />

• Reducing the operating pressure<br />

• Adding pressure reducers and regulators<br />

in the supply line<br />

• Investing in air chambers for piping<br />

systems<br />

• Installing silent check valves to reduce<br />

the pressure<br />

Investments can also be made into acquiring<br />

inspection instruments: ultrasound<br />

is usually the most suited technology<br />

to inspect steam traps & valves, as<br />

these instruments can be used in any type<br />

of steam traps and inspection can be carried<br />

on while the system is in operation.<br />

Inspecting steam traps and valves with<br />

ultrasound is a simple method that can<br />

help quickly identify failing or defective<br />

steam traps and valves.

COLUMN<br />

Why Is Industry 5.0<br />

A Good Thing<br />

For Manufacturing<br />

Industry 5.0 is the term for the next step in the evolution of industrial processes.<br />

Industry 4.0 is poised to eke out the maximum efficiency and productivity possible<br />

for industries. The next stage is to introduce a human element to the production,<br />

which was not at all a factor in any of the previous industrial epochs.<br />

Industry 5.0 will put people at the center of operations. This includes customers,<br />

employees, and other individual stakeholders. In the drive for efficiency, the<br />

previous industrial epochs focused on production techniques and processes.<br />

People were not much of a concern in such a dynamic. With production efficiency<br />

peaking with Industry 4.0, the human element is pivotal in moving the<br />

industry forward.<br />

Customers did not have the luxury of purchasing personalized goods at affordable<br />

prices with standardized production. Industry 5.0 will change the paradigm<br />

by bringing affordable yet personalized products to customers. Improving<br />

customer experience in the product purchase journey and post-purchase will<br />

also be central for industry 5.0.<br />

The changes in industry 5.0 will create a space where manufacturing workers<br />

can be creative to better the customer experience. Industry 5.0 focuses on individuals<br />

by moving away from standardized products to custom solutions. Each<br />

item produced will differ from the previous one to accommodate individual<br />

preferences. Manufacturing and operations need to be dynamic to facilitate this<br />

change.<br />

Industry 3.0 and 4.0 dealt with the automation of production processes<br />

where the products and processes were standardized. With industry 5.0,<br />

manufacturers have to move to a whole new level of automation where neither<br />

products nor processes need not be standardized. These changes reflect a whole<br />

range of manufacturing processes from automating demand estimation to automating<br />

maintenance activities.<br />

Two technologies will be vital: 3D printing and collaborative robots. In due<br />

course of time, the cost of 3D printing technology will come down with technical<br />

improvements. This will make it accessible to a wide range of manufacturers<br />

and consumers.<br />

Collaborative robots or cobots are the other major technology critical for industry<br />

5.0. Most industrial robots of the current generation are geared towards<br />

automation and better efficiency. Collaborative robots have different purposes.<br />

They are designed to support human activities in manufacturing facilities. Cobots<br />

will take on the more physically intensive and mundane tasks. This gives<br />

employees the chance to indulge in more creative work to facilitate the custom<br />

requirements of consumers.<br />

Industry 5.0 will also place an increased focus on sustainability in manufacturing.<br />

The leaders in manufacturing realize the harm caused by the manufacturing<br />

industry to the environment. Sustainable manufacturing practices like<br />

the use of renewable sources of energy, carbon capture, use of sustainable materials<br />

will be increasingly relied on. The adoption of sustainable manufacturing<br />

is again putting humans and their well-being at the center of manufacturing<br />

activities.<br />

About the Author<br />


founder and CEO of Limble CMMS.<br />

Limble is a mobile CMMS software<br />

that takes the stress and chaos<br />

out of maintenance by helping<br />

managers organize, automate,<br />

and streamline their maintenance<br />

operations.<br />

24 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>




Leak Detection<br />

Bearing Condition Monitoring<br />

Bearing Lubrication<br />

Steam Traps & Valves<br />

Electrical Inspection<br />


CAT & CAT II Ultrasound Training<br />

Onsite Implementation Training<br />

Application Specific Training<br />


Free support & license-free software<br />

Online Courses<br />

Free access to our Learning Center<br />

(webinars, articles, tutorials)<br />


www.uesystems.com<br />

info@uesystems.com<br />




Simon Lemin with<br />

VR-Glasses.<br />

On-site inspection of<br />

plants and components is a<br />

challenge in pandemic times.<br />

Smart glasses can make it<br />

easier to check plants and<br />

components remotely.<br />

Plant and component<br />

testing through<br />

digital glasses<br />


The global market for inspection,<br />

repair, and maintenance (IRM) will<br />

grow from nearly $43 billion in <strong>2022</strong><br />

to more than $73 billion by 2029. This<br />

is the conclusion of an analysis by Fortune<br />

Business Insights, a global market research<br />

and consulting services company. And this<br />

is despite pandemic-related restrictions. To<br />

meet this need, operators and manufacturers<br />

are increasingly using remote inspections and<br />

smart glasses.<br />

The intelligent data glasses are used in<br />

the development, maintenance, troubleshooting,<br />

and training of technical systems<br />

and equipment. In this process, an on-site inspector<br />

with smart glasses is in contact with<br />

remote experts via the Internet. They follow<br />

the inspection step by step on a computer<br />

screen and guide the inspector. This not only<br />


Head of Instrumentation, Control and Electrical Division<br />

Head of Inspection Body “Energietechnik”<br />

TÜV SÜD Energietechnik GmbH Baden-Württemberg<br />


Director of Industry Service Division<br />

TÜV SÜD Greater China<br />

ensures compliance with pandemic-related<br />

walk-through bans. Companies also save on<br />

travel time and costs, and it is easier to involve<br />

experts from a wide range of disciplines.<br />

They are available online at shorter notice, so<br />

downtimes are reduced. It is also a plus for climate<br />

protection.<br />

TÜV SÜD uses the technology for production<br />

monitoring, acceptance testing, site<br />

acceptance testing, and training and fur-<br />

26 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>


TÜV SÜD Inspector during visual inspection of the oil pressure<br />

adjustment of an emergency power generator.<br />

ther education. The HMT-1 model from the US<br />

manufacturer RealWear is used, equipped with<br />

the SHARE app from the German software<br />

manufacturer oculavis GmbH. In addition to the<br />

visual connection, all experts involved also exchange<br />

tutorials, manuals, or circuit diagrams.<br />

The wearer is guided via a movable screen on<br />

the edge of the glasses and forwards videos<br />

and photos in turn - in real time. If necessary,<br />

the experts review the material again.<br />

The data glasses are robust and durable<br />

and can also be used in noisy machine rooms<br />

or damp or dusty industrial halls - even under<br />

protective glasses and helmets or hearing protection.<br />

They can also be connected to a hearing<br />

protector. The microphone can be muted, or<br />

noise cancellation can be activated. To enable<br />

the wearer to use both hands for inspection, the<br />

glasses offer a voice-controlled user interface.<br />

All this reduces occupational risks for employees.<br />

Smart glasses require a fast and stable internet<br />

with a recommended bandwidth of 4Mbit/s<br />

(up/down). All inspection data must be stored<br />

under high security requirements in accordance<br />

with the General Data Protection Regulation<br />

(GDPR). TÜV SÜD uses its own servers for this<br />

“Operators and<br />

manufacturers are<br />

increasingly using remote<br />

inspections and smart<br />

glasses.”<br />

TÜV SÜD Inspector observing mechanical integrity of fastening bolts.<br />

TÜV SÜD<br />

Inspector<br />

using VR-<br />

Glasses in<br />

combination<br />

with PSA.<br />

purpose, which are certified in accordance with<br />

the international standard ISO/IEC 27001 - Information<br />

Security Management. Before a RI<br />

is initiated, the customer must allow video and<br />

audio transmission. On site, a data protection<br />

officer should be involved for approval, and privacy<br />

measures such as face blurring should be<br />

defined.<br />

TÜV SÜD was commissioned by a Chinese<br />

manufacturer to assess the quality of its valves<br />

for use in nuclear and thermal power plants.<br />

Due to travel restrictions, only employees of<br />

TÜV SÜD Greater China were present on site.<br />

Via smart glasses, they called in electrical engineers,<br />

mechanical engineering experts, and<br />

specialists in nondestructive testing and leak<br />

tightness as well as seam welding. The team<br />

succeeded in successfully assessing the valves<br />

within the tight time frame. This saved the company<br />

seven round-trip intercontinental flights of<br />

11 hours each, as well as 20 tons of CO2.<br />

Smart glasses make it easier to check plants<br />

and components remotely – on site, one expert<br />

is enough, remotely, a multidisciplinary team<br />

can easily be integrated. Prerequisites include a<br />

stable network connection and high data protection<br />

requirements.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 27


Air quality -<br />

Nothing is more fundamental<br />

to life than air quality. In a<br />

lifetime, about 300 million<br />

liters of air pass through the<br />

average person’s lungs. If that person<br />

walks along a busy city street today, he<br />

will inhale around 20 million particles<br />

with each lungful.<br />

Scientists were aware of the impact<br />

of air pollution as far back as the seva<br />

breathtaking<br />

challenge<br />



Air quality is in sharp<br />

focus for a range of<br />

industries. Monitoring<br />

air pollutant emissions<br />

is essential for many<br />

reasons.<br />

enteenth century. Now, as more of us<br />

live in cities, we are closer than ever to<br />

pollution sources, and their detrimental<br />

impact on the environment and our<br />

health has reached a crisis point.<br />

Toxic air is now a significant environmental<br />

risk for every sector. As its<br />

impact has seeped into everyday life,<br />

it is no longer just a concern for heavy<br />

industry. It affects commuters, vehicles,<br />

28 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>


and equipment too, so it is unsurprising<br />

that governments around the world are<br />

introducing increasingly strict legislation<br />

on tackling air pollution to protect<br />

their citizens.<br />


TIVE CONCERN, bringing the issue into<br />

sharp focus for a range of industries.<br />

The most damaging but best-understood<br />

pollutants are tiny particles of<br />

black carbon, nitrates, sulfates, ammonia,<br />

or mineral dust. Often produced<br />

by power plants and heavy industries,<br />

these pollutants can, in effect, cannibalize<br />

the equipment and workers used in<br />

these industries.<br />

It is now generally understood that<br />

these particles will not only damage<br />

the lungs but enter the bloodstream.<br />

From there, they can increase the risk<br />

of a wide number of health conditions,<br />

meaning businesses have a moral imperative<br />

to monitor the air quality on<br />

their sites and protect the people who<br />

work there.<br />

Uncontrolled air quality can lead<br />

to other, more immediate health risks.<br />

Some environments may see high<br />

concentrations of toxic gases, such as<br />

carbon monoxide, in the air, which pose<br />

a more immediate risk to work safety.<br />

Other pollutants may present an explosion<br />

risk or cause corrosion to equipment<br />

which presents a significant risk<br />

of asset damage in addition to health<br />

and safety concerns.<br />

Between the increased risk to workers,<br />

machinery, and other assets, and<br />

the rapidly shifting legislative landscape,<br />

the business case for improving<br />

air quality is now open-and-shut.<br />

Before this can happen, however, the<br />

state of the air must be more closely<br />

monitored.<br />

MONITORING EMISSIONS from stationary<br />

sources of pollution, such as power<br />

stations, manufacturing plants, and<br />

other industrial facilities, is essential<br />

for a whole host of reasons. Industry<br />

accounts for over 24 % of global greenhouse<br />

gas emissions, so ascertaining the<br />

concentration of various gasses emitted<br />

and subsequently allowing relevant<br />

authorities to check whether the site<br />

is complying with its legal obligations<br />

remains essential. For example, efforts<br />

to reduce methane emissions could<br />

yield a rapid decline in the rate of global<br />

warming.<br />

Leakage and venting from the energy<br />

sector remain significant sources<br />

of harmful emissions, but our gas detection<br />

filters continue to contribute<br />

to a real-world solution. The science is<br />

unequivocal: we are going in the wrong<br />

direction.<br />

A considerable portion of climate<br />

change or global warming can be attributed<br />

to our reliance on industrial<br />

activities. It has been claimed that factories<br />

are to blame for up to two-thirds<br />

of the pollution that has caused climate<br />

change.<br />

24 % of global<br />

greenhouse gas<br />

emissions are caused<br />

by industry.<br />

Did you know?<br />


single detector location requiring the<br />

gas cloud to interact with the sensor.<br />


catalytic, electrochemical, solid state,<br />

and infrared (IR). An IR detector consists<br />

of one or more infrared sources.<br />

THE PROBLEM REQUIRES determined<br />

political engagement and action at a<br />

local and national level, but action is<br />

required to ensure it remains a priority.<br />

Thanks to campaigns, the growing<br />

availability of low-cost air-quality monitors<br />

and increased awareness of local<br />

air quality could help to change that.<br />

Proper communication with the<br />

business community has also been<br />

sorely lacking. Market leaders want information<br />

on how and what they can do<br />

about it. Any new air quality information<br />

system needs to be based on what<br />

people are exposed to in their localities,<br />

including real-time variations.<br />

Industrial plant owners who must<br />

abide by specific regulatory frameworks<br />

invest in measuring equipment to report<br />

what and how much is coming out<br />

of the stack.<br />


SIONS, there are many measuring technologies.<br />

The logical first step toward<br />

resolving this air crisis would be to<br />

make much more real-time air quality<br />

data available to the public and increase<br />

air quality data transparency, as well<br />

as initiatives to educate people on the<br />

long-term consequences of breathing<br />

in polluted air. People can take various<br />

precautions to safeguard themselves<br />

and others if they know the severity of<br />

the pollution they are inhaling.<br />


OF GAS DETECTORS: point detectors and<br />

area detectors. IR gas detectors compare<br />

the amount of light at a specific<br />

wavelength where Hydrocarbon molecules<br />

absorb light (the sample) with<br />

light at a wavelength where no absorption<br />

occurs (the reference). When the<br />

light passes through a hydrocarbon gas,<br />

the intensity at the sample wavelength<br />

will drop, while the intensity at the reference<br />

wavelength will be unaffected.<br />

The ratio of the two signals is proportional<br />

to the gas concentration.<br />

An IR detector consists of one or<br />

more infrared sources, one or more<br />

infrared detectors and precision optical<br />

filters to separate the sample and reference<br />

wavelengths from the background<br />

light. It also requires a light path open<br />

to the atmosphere so gas can diffuse<br />

into the light beam.<br />

Due to the dependence of the absorbance<br />

on the wavenumber, different<br />

gas components can be distinguished<br />

using the absorption spectrum.<br />

Gas detection systems have been<br />

deployed extensively in the process<br />

industry to detect and mitigate gas<br />

releases and minimize their potential<br />

consequences. Detection mechanisms<br />

differ between chemicals, and consideration<br />

must be given to selecting the<br />

right technology for each application,<br />

along with practical installation, commissioning,<br />

and maintenance considerations.<br />


an alarm for the operator based on high<br />

readings from gas detectors. However,<br />

with the industry push to incorporate<br />

safety gas sensors into shutdown systems,<br />

the need to design, calibrate and<br />

commission these sensors correctly to<br />

reduce nuisance trips is increasingly<br />

essential.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 29


Steps to Create a Reliable<br />

Manufacturing Culture<br />



What is reliability and<br />

how to measure it? First<br />

you have to agree on what<br />

reliability is, the benefits<br />

of improving it, and how it<br />

will be measured.<br />

In highly automated manufacturing,<br />

the first focus is often on<br />

equipment reliability. This is<br />

because if equipment is operating<br />

without any problems, you are<br />

making your product. If it is not,<br />

you are not making any product.<br />


ING CULTURE, you must agree to work in<br />

a close partnership between Operations<br />

and Maintenance, including stores and<br />

engineering. This should start with a<br />

common manufacturing mission that<br />

clearly expresses this. Then you need to<br />

design and implement all work management<br />

processes with the agreed upon<br />

mission statement as a guideline.<br />

A manufacturing mission statement<br />

between Operations and Maintenance<br />

should be worked out between the parties<br />

and could be:<br />

“In an equal partnership between Operations<br />

and Maintenance we shall safely<br />

deliver continuously improved manufacturing<br />

reliability.”<br />

The maintenance organization’s mission<br />

statement would then be:<br />

“In an equal partnership between Operations<br />

and Maintenance we shall safely<br />

deliver continuously improved equipment<br />

reliability.”<br />

The operation organization’s mission<br />

statement would then be:<br />

“In an equal partnership between Operations<br />

and Maintenance we shall safely<br />

deliver continuously improved operating<br />

process reliability.”<br />

32 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong><br />

The product of<br />

maintenance<br />

is not service, it is<br />

reliable equipment.<br />

This will express a culture change from<br />

Operations and Maintenance working<br />

in silos to growing into equal partners.<br />

As a consequence, lost production shall<br />

not be recorded by each department<br />

because it often leads to a blame game.<br />

Instead, triggers are set to select what<br />

to do Root Cause Problem Elimination<br />

(RCPE) on. In this process you do not<br />

ask who; instead, you ask why. This is just<br />

one of many changes you need to make<br />

to accomplish a reliable manufacturing<br />

culture.<br />

It also changes the common view that<br />

the maintenance organization delivers<br />

service to the Operations organization.<br />

Instead, the maintenance organization<br />

delivers equipment reliability. That makes<br />

sense because the product of maintenance<br />

is not service, it is reliable equipment.<br />

YOU MUST AGREE on common lagging


towards the common lagging indicators.<br />

For the Maintenance organization,<br />

these could include Average<br />

Vibration Level Trend, Preventive<br />

Maintenance Compliance, % Planned<br />

Work, % Schedule Compliance and<br />

more.<br />

THE MAJOR BENEFITS include safety<br />

and increased throughput of quality<br />

volume products. Studies by IDCON<br />

and other organizations including<br />

BEMAS in Belgium and University<br />

of Dayton show that there is a strong<br />

correlation between safety and reactive<br />

maintenance.<br />

The example below shows that<br />

companies that reported 64% reactive<br />

maintenance had an OSHA<br />

Recordable Incident Rate (RIR) of<br />

4.36 while companies reporting 9%<br />

reactive maintenance had an OSHA<br />

RIR of 0.11.<br />

Reactive Maintenance<br />

Causes More Safety<br />

Incidents<br />


the value of improved OMR. In addition<br />

to being a safety and physical asset,<br />

it also benefits the revenue side<br />

of the Maintenance organization.<br />

Creating an OMR-driven organization<br />

does not require much capital<br />

work. Necessary investments include<br />

education, training, and outside support<br />

to help you do better with what<br />

you already have.<br />

Outside support is needed. Many<br />

organizations are in a gridlock and<br />

need an outside neutral coach to get it<br />

done within a reasonable time frame.<br />

You need to estimate the value of<br />

an improved OMR as an input to the<br />

business case you will develop and<br />

present it to decision makers. We advise<br />

to not estimate too much. Even<br />

if the potential to increase OMR is<br />

7%, instead show the value of 1% improved<br />

OMR.<br />

When you agree on the mission and<br />

the necessity to improve OMR, some<br />

suggested steps include:<br />

• Educate, train, and explain the<br />

benefits and what the future will<br />

look like.<br />

• Assess how good you are and how<br />

good you can become.<br />

• Develop an action plan for the<br />

next five years.<br />

• Appoint a coach that can not only<br />

teach, but who can also provide<br />

On-the-Job training/coaching<br />

with key people such as managers,<br />

Planners and Frontline Leaders.<br />

The solution is to develop a clear and<br />

simple priority guide. Keep it simple<br />

and use only two priorities: Job must<br />

be done now; latest date completed.<br />

Define together what constitutes<br />

emergencies and how long different<br />

situations can be in the backlog.<br />

or results indicators. Often, the Maintenance<br />

organization is measured by<br />

budget and costs while Operations is<br />

measured by produced quality volume.<br />

Instead, your common lagging indicators<br />

should be:<br />

1. SAFETY<br />




Reactive<br />

Maintenance<br />

OSHA Recordable<br />

Incident Rate<br />

(per 200,00 hrs)<br />

Top 25% Middle 50% Bottom 25%<br />

9% 30% 64%<br />

0.11 1.16 4.36<br />

Each department can have their own<br />

leading indicators to drive performance<br />

There is a correlation between safety and reactive maintenance.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 33


How to get started<br />

Step 1. Educate and inform<br />

It is important to first agree on<br />

the right things to do, and after<br />

that decide how you are going<br />

to take each step on your journey<br />

towards a reliable culture.<br />

Therefore, you should focus on<br />

the right things to do and to get<br />

feedback and agreement on these<br />

things. It is easier to get agreement<br />

on the right things to do<br />

then how to do them in detail.<br />

Step 2. CBP Current<br />

Best Practices Assessment<br />

It is likely that many employees<br />

already know what to do, but you<br />

need to get an objective view to find<br />

the gaps between how good your<br />

organization is and how good it can<br />

become.<br />

Before you start a journey, it is<br />

necessary to know where you are<br />

when you start and where you are<br />

going. All of our successful initiatives<br />

have included a Current Best<br />

Practices (CBP) assessment followed<br />

by developing, documenting<br />

and communicating the implementation<br />

plan. This is done together<br />

with owners that are assigned to<br />

each improvement subject that has<br />

been identified during the CBP assessment.<br />

Step 3. Implement<br />

There are seldom any surprises<br />

as to what needs to be done. The<br />

CPB assessment serves as the<br />

tool to educate, increase awareness,<br />

and bring the organization<br />

together in a reliable culture. Improvements<br />

will not be sustainable<br />

unless the CBP assessment is<br />

repeated every 12 to 18 months.<br />

These reassessments drive the<br />

improvement work and keep it<br />

alive. If repeated safety assessments<br />

are not done, safety will<br />

not improve—it will decline.<br />

The most common reliability<br />

and maintenance processes that are<br />

identified to improve upon are:<br />

• Preventive Maintenance content<br />

and execution. Content is<br />

not right or up to date and consequently<br />

not executed.<br />

• Work Management, where prioritization,<br />

description of work,<br />

Planning and Scheduling are<br />

weak.<br />

• The Bill of Material is very incomplete<br />

causing difficulty to<br />

plan efficiently and makes inventory<br />

of spares impossible to do<br />

right.<br />

• Roles of Planners, Frontline<br />

Leaders, Operations-Maintenance<br />

Coordinators and Reliability<br />

Engineers are unclear and not<br />

followed.<br />

Success requires:<br />

• Long-term, consistent, visible, and<br />

caring leadership. Too many initiatives<br />

are started and not finished<br />

About the Author<br />


expert within Reliability and<br />

Maintenance. He started his<br />

career in the Swedish merchant<br />

marine where he started developing<br />

fundamentals of his Results<br />

Oriented Reliability and Maintenance<br />

Management concept. He<br />

founded IDCON INC in Raleigh<br />

North Carolina, USA 1985. IDCON<br />

is now a TRM company.<br />

before they are changed or<br />

replaced. Leadership needs to<br />

include the plant manager.<br />

• The right people to drive the<br />

change. Include the frontline<br />

organization.<br />

• Well-developed and documented<br />

and followed processes.<br />

• Repeated assessments to drive<br />

and sustain improvement. <br />

In this article, we define reliability<br />

as the ability of a manufacturing<br />

process line, or equipment, to perform<br />

up to its designed capacity.<br />

Overall Manufacturing Reliability<br />

(OMR) or Overall Production Reliability<br />

(OPR) means that it covers<br />

both Operations and Maintenance.<br />

34 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>


An elevator that<br />

transports to<br />

virtual reality<br />



Kone has been training<br />

maintenance field workers<br />

in VR environments since<br />

2017. Now the company is<br />

transferring the product<br />

development of elevators<br />

and escalators to virtual<br />

environments.<br />

The elevator company Kone has<br />

started its transition to the<br />

metaverse. Kone has recently<br />

harnessed VR environments<br />

for the product development of<br />

elevators and escalators, as well as for the<br />

innovation of maintenance procedures,<br />

maintenance documentation, and risk<br />

management.<br />

The results are promising. “Almost<br />

100 Kone employees have participated<br />

in testing the applications before implementation.<br />

What is particularly gratifying<br />

is that, based on feedback, people feel<br />

that they are able to get their work done<br />

better with the help of VR applications,”<br />

says Kone's specialist Sanni Siltanen.<br />

Sanni Siltanen worked as Kone's<br />

product development specialist until<br />

September <strong>2022</strong>. She joined DIMECC<br />

Oy on October 5, <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 35


There is cooperation in Kone’s maintenance<br />

development, especially between the branches<br />

in Finland, India, and China. The planning of<br />

product development, maintenance procedures,<br />

and maintenance documentation in a virtual<br />

environment enables a new kind of cooperation<br />

between Kone's branches in different parts of<br />

the world.<br />

“All parties get to see the real-scale model of<br />

the elevator or escalator in virtual reality. This<br />

adds enormous value. Previously, this would have<br />

required flying people to the physical prototype.”<br />


recent years. For example, the quality and price<br />

of VR glasses are starting to reach a reasonable<br />

level from an investment perspective.<br />

“VR glasses reached a sufficient technical<br />

level a few years ago. VR does not completely<br />

replace traditional teaching methods, but for<br />

example in the training of field workers, such as<br />

installation and maintenance, it has proved to be<br />

a good solution,” Siltanen says.<br />

Designing in a<br />

virtual environment<br />

considerably reduces the<br />

need for prototypes. It<br />

saves time and money.<br />

Siltanen emphasizes that, like all new technology,<br />

the introduction of VR applications must<br />

be carefully planned so that it genuinely generates<br />

added value.<br />

“It is important to remember that VR technology<br />

is used by people who have a job to do. The maintenance<br />

developer's goal is to think of the best possible<br />

maintenance procedure. The goal of technical documentation<br />

is to make instructions that serve the field<br />

worker. The job of risk management, on the other<br />

hand, is to check the documentation and consider its<br />

possible risks.”<br />

“So, it is necessary to consider whether the VR<br />

environment serves the task. There is the threat that<br />

introducing new technology will only increase work,<br />

Siltanen reminds.”<br />

When maintenance procedures for a new elevator<br />

model are in development, three to five experts participate<br />

in the VR environment.<br />

“Three people are already quite many when we<br />

are operating in a virtual elevator shaft. The spaces<br />

become cramped quickly. Not all workers should be<br />

in a VR environment, but rather, for example, the<br />

maintenance procedure will be reviewed in a VR environment<br />

in Hyvinkää and monitored through a video<br />

connection from India,” says Siltanen.<br />

Virtual cooperation between Kone's different<br />

branches has shown that VR environments make it<br />

The introduction of<br />

VR applications must<br />

be carefully planned<br />

so that it genuinely<br />

generates added<br />

value.<br />

easier to document maintenance instructions for<br />

Kone's elevators and escalators.<br />

The planning of maintenance instructions will be<br />

quicker when every expert has access to a shared environment<br />

regardless of time and place.<br />

“All kinds of communication become more effective<br />

when the work is done in a shared environment.<br />

There is no need for so many exchanged e-mails, cell<br />

phone photos, or notebook notes that are sent back<br />

and forth,” Siltanen says.<br />

At the same time, the person working on the final<br />

version of the maintenance documentation receives<br />

illustrative instructions, for example, on using pictures<br />

in instructions.<br />

“In a VR environment, we can record a video or<br />

picture of changing a component. We have experimented<br />

with a model in which the pictures taken in<br />

the VR environment serve as a model for the person<br />

who illustrates the documentation. In the future,<br />

images can be transferred from the VR environment<br />

directly to the eventual instructions,” Siltanen says.<br />

In product development, changes in the need for<br />

new elevators and escalators are noticed more easily<br />

in the virtual world than before. It speeds up product<br />

development and saves money.<br />

“Product design that is done in a virtual environment<br />

considerably reduces the need for prototypes.<br />

36 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>


It saves time and money and improves the installation<br />

and maintainability of elevators and escalators,” Siltanen<br />

says.<br />

In elevator product development and the planning<br />

of maintenance procedures, numerous factors related<br />

to spatial visualization and work positions need to be<br />

solved: will the hatch open in the space reserved for it,<br />

will the tool fit in the desired space, and can the maintenance<br />

worker’s hand reach to support the component<br />

that they are changing while turning the screw at the<br />

same time.<br />

In the past, it was only possible to prove this by<br />

building a real-scale prototype since the visualization<br />

of the space and dimensions may remain incomplete in<br />

the CAD model.<br />


experiential way of designing new products than traditional<br />

CAD modeling<br />

“Typically, in 3D model-based design, a certain space<br />

remains too tight, although the intention was for the<br />

tool and hand to fit through it. These have previously<br />

only been noticeable in the physical prototype. Now the<br />

VR environment makes it possible to take the user into<br />

consideration in a completely new way,” Siltanen says.<br />

“Instead of designers looking at 3D models on a<br />

computer screen, they get the real-scale experience of<br />

the device and the space reserved for it. So, VR increases<br />

the designer's certainty about the functionality of the<br />

solutions,” Siltanen continues.<br />

Kone developed ways of utilizing VR applications in<br />

cooperation with the University of Tampere in the HU-<br />

MOR project (HUMan Optimized x Reality).<br />

5 facts about VR<br />

observed by Kone<br />

1. RESEARCH, product development, and the<br />

development of maintenance documentation<br />

are quicker when cooperation between different<br />

branches of a globally operating company<br />

becomes easier in VR environments.<br />

2. WHEN THE WORK is done in a modeled and<br />

real-scale environment, needs for change are<br />

detected faster than in CAD design.<br />

3. SIGNIFICANTLY reduces the need for physical<br />

prototypes, which saves time and money.<br />

4. THE MAINTAINABILITY and installation of<br />

the elevators will improve<br />


higher quality. Instructions are produced faster<br />

than before.<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 37


Interaction at the<br />

center of everything<br />

New technology-mediated<br />

cooperation is still based<br />

on human interaction.<br />

Whether it is an augmented<br />

reality (AR) or a virtual<br />

reality (VR) application, its benefits are<br />

only revealed when the digital environment<br />

enables better ways to work than<br />

the physical world.<br />

Human interaction is a key subject of<br />

study in the entire industrial metaverse.<br />

However, there is still plenty of work to<br />

be done in order to improve the interaction<br />

in the very basic features.<br />

“Many VR environments do not yet<br />

enable genuine collaboration and interaction<br />

or the modification of objects in<br />

that environment. In order to get the<br />

most out of a virtual environment, it<br />

must enable, for example, reading documents<br />

and text editing,” says Markku<br />

Turunen, professor of interactive technology<br />

at the University of Tampere.<br />

“We are researching, among others,<br />

different text input solutions based on<br />

speech recognition, and what kind of<br />

38 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong><br />

tools are needed for a VR environment<br />

to enable collaboration,” Turunen continues.<br />

VR environments are currently at<br />

their peak in development work in<br />

which the goal is, for example, to study<br />

how a person operates in a physical<br />

environment or with machines and devices.<br />

Research in virtual reality enables<br />

a new way of monitoring and analyzing<br />

a person performing various tasks.<br />

“The ability of the virtual environment<br />

to record people's activities is<br />

one of the most significant possibilities<br />

Many VR<br />

environments<br />

do not yet enable<br />

genuine collaboration<br />

and interaction or<br />

the modification<br />

of objects in that<br />

environment.<br />

of new technology. For example, human<br />

movements and the direction of<br />

their gazes can be recorded precisely<br />

and analyzed afterward in completely<br />

new ways,” Turunen estimates.<br />

Physiological measurements are also<br />

often combined with the research.<br />

“Typically, for example, heart rate<br />

variability is monitored, which can<br />

be used to deduce when a person was<br />

nervous and when they were calm. Information<br />

from virtual reality offers a<br />

rich source for data analysis,” Turunen<br />

estimates.<br />

Augmented reality and virtual reality<br />

applications are the first step toward<br />

the industrial metaverse. The next big<br />

leap will be the digital world’s seamless<br />

connection to the physical world.<br />

“This will happen through digital<br />

twins. That is, through genuine digital<br />

twins in which the physical world affects<br />

the digital one and vice versa. This<br />

is still very rare today, but it will be the<br />

next big leap in the development of the<br />

industrial metaverse,” Turunen says.

ENERGY<br />

Energy<br />

Cyber Security<br />

in the Nordics<br />

The Nordic countries<br />

provide a unique<br />

environment for research.<br />


Impact<br />

Most of us have<br />

seen concepts<br />

such as trolling,<br />

blackouts and<br />

cyberattacks<br />

regularly pop<br />

up in the news. The digitalization of<br />

many key societal functions brings<br />

along new challenges, directly related<br />

to societal security. This requires new<br />

skills for governments, companies, as<br />

well as individuals on how to manage<br />

the technical, social and cyber dimensions.<br />

This makes the system vulnerable<br />

to new kinds of threats. Future grids<br />

will be more interactive with all levels<br />

of users, and even smart homes might<br />

be used for sabotaging the grid in such<br />

systems.<br />

This is why Nordic Energy Research,<br />

together with the Nordic<br />

Transmission System Operators<br />

(TSOs), developed the Nordgrid<br />

program initiative, calling for intersciences<br />

collaboration on a Nordic<br />

level on this topic.<br />

Thanks to mutual trust between<br />

the Nordic countries, the region<br />

provides a unique environment for<br />

research of critical areas of national<br />

security, such as critical infrastructure<br />

and national defence.<br />

R<br />

E<br />

D<br />

I<br />

S<br />

E<br />

T<br />

Prosumer<br />

EVs<br />

TSO<br />

DSO<br />

Industry<br />

Smart cities<br />

Attacks<br />

• ICT<br />

• Behaviour<br />

• Power grid<br />

Figure : Illustration of the REDISET project<br />

The REDISET-project (Resilient Digital Sustainable Energy Transition) is a newly started,<br />

inter-Nordic collaboration with partners from Finland, Sweden and Norway. Here, the<br />

aim is to provide social-cyber-technical knowledge to support the sustainable rollout of a<br />

future, digital electricity system. The specific focus is on providing more understanding of<br />

the variables and threats to the Nordic energy system to support the transmission system<br />

operators in constructing a secure and resilient future energy system.<br />

40 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

ENERGY<br />


FOR DIALOGUE and practices that would<br />

be difficult elsewhere in Europe. The<br />

total budget of the project is 1.6 million<br />

euros. Country-specific coordination<br />

takes place through Business Finland in<br />

Finland, where the project is also part of<br />

its Smart Energy program, the Swedish<br />

Energy Agency in Sweden, and Statnett<br />

in Norway.<br />

The REDISET consortium comprises<br />

TSOs (Fingrid, Svenska Kraftnät and<br />

Statnett), Distribution System Operators<br />

(DSOs) and research institutions in<br />

the Nordic countries. Together, they will<br />

be responsible for implementing new<br />

energy strategies that emphasise electrification,<br />

closer cooperation and digitalisation.<br />

A similar Nordic consortium<br />

hasn’t been formed before.<br />


RESPONSIBLE for the scientific contribution.<br />

The main coordinator is the KTH<br />

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) led<br />

by professor Sonja Berlijn. The VEBIC<br />

research and innovation platform of<br />

the University of Vaasa, led by Director<br />

Suvi Karirinne and Assistant Professor<br />

Petra Berg, heads the Finnish interdisciplinary<br />

research team. The Norwegian<br />

Defense Research Establishment (FFI)<br />

and The Norwegian SmartGrid Center,<br />

comprises the Norwegian research team<br />

and is coordinated by senior researcher<br />

Karina Barnholt Klepper (FFI).<br />

The project also includes business<br />

partners like Gambit Oy in Vaasa and<br />

other need owners, who will contribute<br />

to the project by participating in the scientific<br />

and technical reference group.<br />

THE PARTNER COMPOSITION and interdisciplinarity<br />

of the project introduces<br />

a “positive challenge” on how to<br />

bring together and synthesise different<br />

fields of expertise. Therefore, many<br />

interactive workshops and collaboration<br />

between the work packages are<br />

planned.<br />

The project introduces socio-cultural<br />

and socio-technical perspectives<br />

to a highly technology-focused topic.<br />

Understanding the social and cultural<br />

implications will be emphasised in<br />

the future as energy sources become<br />

increasingly multiplied and variable,<br />

energy systems complex, energy interdependencies<br />

and flexibility needs increase.<br />

Thus, it is expected that energy<br />

system decision-making must move<br />

from a national to transnational level,<br />

while it still needs to maintain regional<br />

and municipal interests.<br />

ONE IMPORTANT AIM is also to provide<br />

an understanding of the effects<br />

of future energy system solutions on<br />

gender equality and diversity. New<br />

solutions need to be considered and<br />

work for the entire population, being<br />

sustainable for humans, wildlife and<br />

environment. This baseline relates to<br />

the consortium's core group connection<br />

to the Nordic Energy Equality<br />

Network (NEEN), which promotes<br />

gender equality and diversity in the<br />

Nordic countries.<br />

The REDISET project output can<br />

help decision makers in identifying<br />

risks and taking a holistic approach<br />

to informed decisions.<br />

Interested? Go to uwasa.fi

EFNMS<br />




Finnish Maintenance<br />

Society, Promaint<br />

aims to raise the image<br />

of the maintenance<br />

The Finnish Maintenance Society, Promaint<br />

works hard to bring maintenance into the<br />

minds of people and the society.<br />

42 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

EFNMS<br />

Jaakko Tennilä, Executive Director<br />

of Promaint, graduated with<br />

a Master's degree in electrical<br />

engineering. After graduating, Tennilä<br />

found his way into maintenance in the<br />

Veitsiluoto Paper Mill in the northern part<br />

of Finland in the mid 80’s. Since then, his<br />

career has been closely tight to the management<br />

level of industrial maintenance<br />

services and projects.<br />

– In the early stages of my career, maintenance<br />

was quite a traditional type of field.<br />

Factories had their own large maintenance<br />

departments, where the work was mainly<br />

reparation maintenance. Earlier on, in the<br />

70's, factories still had factory service departments<br />

with extensive responsibilities;<br />

from gate control to occupational health<br />

care and maintenance of the technical side,<br />

Tennilä recalls.<br />

During the following decade, the competitive<br />

situation began to intensify in the<br />

industry in general. In addition to that, society<br />

and economic<br />

markets were shaken<br />

more widely, which<br />

gradually led to the<br />

outsourcing of maintenance<br />

services.<br />

– The driving factor<br />

for outsourcing<br />

was the rationalization of the business. The<br />

process industry, for example, sought costeffectiveness<br />

by transferring the services<br />

of internal maintenance units to external<br />

service networks.<br />

In the 21st century the situation<br />

changed again and, according to Tennilä,<br />

the maintenance industry started to<br />

seek technical and production efficiency<br />

through different types of new operating<br />

models. The challenges faced by the<br />

service providers increased and new<br />

operators entered the paper industry, as<br />

in other sectors. At the same time, equipment<br />

suppliers started to produce their<br />

own maintenance service alongside service<br />

networks.<br />

THE MARKET CRASH that began in the US in<br />

2008 created an increasingly new need to<br />

develop efficiency. The field of the industry<br />

was fragmented and there were many different<br />

ways to operate. In the paper industry,<br />

for example, production had been driven<br />

down and uniform practices were still being<br />

sought after 2010.<br />

– In the energy industry, there is still a<br />

lot of outsourcing of maintenance work.<br />

Through service agreements, companies in<br />

various sectors acquired special expertise or<br />

resources for larger projects from external<br />

service providers. On the other hand, outsourced<br />

maintenance work has also been<br />

reclaimed in the process industry, and services<br />

are thus carried out through our own<br />

companies, Tennilä says.<br />


maintenance is technological advances –<br />

most of all the new digital solutions. There<br />

are many new and different types of software<br />

solutions and more are being developed all<br />

the time. Tennilä sees not only advantages<br />

but also challenges in the situation. Therefore,<br />

there is a is a strong need for Promaint<br />

to raise the awareness of the maintenance,<br />

as the digitalization and the transformation<br />

of work affect the attractiveness of the sector<br />

within the labor market.<br />

– Abundant supply and rapid development<br />

are not necessarily a good thing, as<br />

new systems may be incompatible with existing<br />

systems. Exploitation of new features<br />

may be incomplete<br />

and may cause uncertainty<br />

in use.<br />

According to<br />

Tennilä, another<br />

trend is the fact that<br />

maintenance tasks<br />

are transferred to<br />

production line operators.<br />

– For example, if the line stops at the factory,<br />

the personnel can take auxiliary maintenance<br />

measures, he says.<br />

The maintenance sector is a big employer<br />

in Finland. Promaint estimates that the<br />

sector employs close to 200,000 people in<br />

all industries in total.<br />

Digitalization<br />

amends the job<br />

description.<br />


employed mainly mechanical workers,<br />

but now the work is increasingly automation<br />

and information technology. According<br />

to Tennilä, the number of employees in<br />

basic maintenance has therefore decreased<br />

clearly and there is no change of direction<br />

in sight. However, concerns are raised about<br />

the difficulty of acquiring new basic technology<br />

experts.<br />

– In Finland, the degree of automation<br />

in industry has traditionally been high,<br />

but basic technology does not disappear<br />

even though technology is developing.<br />

That's why the concern is starting to be<br />

about the new workforce, as the basics experts<br />

drop out.<br />

– Basic work is often perceived as dirty,<br />

heavy and challenging. As an industry,<br />

we are trying to emphasize that maintenance<br />

is a versatile activity and offers an<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 43

EFNMS<br />

opportunity to learn new things and develop<br />

within the field and advance careerwise.<br />

INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH has been carried<br />

out that shows countries spend around 9 % of<br />

their GDP on various maintenance tasks. In Finland<br />

that amount is EUR 23-25 billion per year.<br />

According to Tennilä, the share of industrial<br />

maintenance is estimated at around 3.5-4 billion<br />

and the share of property maintenance is<br />

approximately 8 billion a year.<br />

The amount of money spent on maintenance<br />

is insufficient, as unfinished maintenance work<br />

is a major problem in the structures of society,<br />

both in Finland and elsewhere in Europe.<br />

– According to public assessment, there is<br />

approximately EUR 35-50 billion worth of maintenance<br />

work waiting to be done in roads, real<br />

estate and elsewhere. This is visible to consumers<br />

as mold in schools, buildings in demolition<br />

condition, and a poor road network, Tennilä<br />

points out.<br />

Most alarming is the old water supply<br />

network, which outside the major cities is<br />

repaired yearly by only a minor portion of<br />

installed network. For consumers, a network<br />

in such a poor condition may cause problems<br />

in the quality of water purity. In the case of<br />

industry, there are no precise estimates of the<br />

amount of maintenance debt. But it can be<br />

estimated that after 2008 the amount spent on<br />

industrial structures has been insufficient. It<br />

is also not reasonable to replace unperformed<br />

maintenance work with massive investments,<br />

but by developing technologies and skills.<br />

However, the challenge is to value the maintenance<br />

industry.<br />

– Someone has to keep the structures in order,<br />

even if it's not always a tempting job. When<br />

it comes to distributing public development<br />

money, it is difficult for the sector to come out.<br />

Looks like we are always at the end of the queue,<br />

says Tennilä, insisting that the maintenance sector<br />

should be given the value it deserves.<br />


SPREADS the word about the field, for example<br />

through magazines and publications. Tennilä<br />

says that Promaint does cooperation with the<br />

educational institutions and aims to start school<br />

tours again to inform the students about the<br />

field and its employment possibilities. The association<br />

is also present on fairs.<br />

– We aim to influence in activities that<br />

touch the sector and connect people interested<br />

in the field. Our members are active in<br />

events and building networks through which<br />

we have the opportunity to influence the industry,<br />

Tennilä says.<br />

The most important task of the Finnish Maintenance<br />

Society is to keep the industry in the<br />

consciousness of people and decision makers.<br />

Promaint is also active internationally and a<br />

member of the European Federation of National<br />

Maintenance Societies (EFNMS). There is a lot<br />

of co-operation within the EFNMS member network,<br />

for example in the development of industry<br />

standards and training.<br />

Promaint celebrates its 50th<br />

anniversary during <strong>2022</strong><br />

The founding meeting of the factory service association was held on<br />

January 28, 1972. In the following 50 years, the association's name has<br />

been updated a couple of times.<br />

“The association has gone through many adventures and experiments<br />

over the decades, left a lasting mark on our industry and influenced<br />

the development of operations in the form of publications, training and<br />

events. However, as the most important achievement, we want to highlight<br />

the network of experts that we have been able to create nationally<br />

and internationally. We have gained the energy to carry out our own<br />

mission from this network, which has already grown up in part, and is<br />

even out of date in part. The festive year <strong>2022</strong> is packed full of different<br />

events”, says JAAKKO TENNILÄ, the Executive Director of Promaint.<br />

44 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

P<br />

The foundational elements of maintenance & reliability management<br />

will never change. But the way technology can deliver value to asset<br />

management programs is changing faster than ever.<br />

The Grain combines its expertise in industrial asset management<br />

and data science to enhance the performance and reliability of your<br />

assets by building customized, accessible and scalable AI solutions.<br />

F<br />

It is our mission to facilitate day-to-day work of maintenance<br />

practitioners, reliability engineers and operators.<br />

We embed the power of advanced analytics to accelerate the process<br />

of learning by combining signal data, maintenance logs or any other<br />

operating context information to predict the asset behavior, add<br />

new insights enabling you to prepare the right actions at the right<br />

time. We believe that blending artificial and human intelligence is<br />

key to exponential performance of your assets.<br />

Welcome to the age of prescriptive maintenance.<br />

Want to be part of it?<br />

Find out more on www.thegrain.pro/innovators or call +32 3 376 33 50<br />

Industrial AI applications





Electrification and<br />

Automation of<br />

Mobile Machines<br />

Call for Maintenance<br />

Development<br />

Machine suppliers are<br />

looking for ways to replace<br />

fossil fuel power sources.<br />

In the future, mobile machines<br />

will be electrified<br />

and highly automated.<br />

Electrification is expected<br />

to reduce the need for<br />

maintenance. However,<br />

modelling and simulation<br />

are needed, as well as more<br />

information on field experience<br />

to avoid pitfalls and understand<br />

the benefits throughout the value chain.<br />

The value chains in modern society<br />

involve mobile work machines. Such<br />

value chains include, for instance,<br />

mining and construction, forestry,<br />

material handling, and port operations.<br />

These value chains also face the<br />

global demands for sustainability, and<br />

machinery suppliers are challenged to<br />

46 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>


contribute to their customers´ efforts to<br />

decarbonize their operations. Replacing<br />

fossil-fuel-based power sources with<br />

electrical ones seems to offer a solution<br />

for this. Further solutions are provided<br />

by digital technology and sensors that<br />

will enable automatic and autonomous<br />

functions and change work procedures<br />

and value creation mechanisms.<br />

Electrification<br />

and automation<br />

impact the maintenance<br />

domain.<br />

tonomous machinery. In some machine<br />

types, electrified machines have already<br />

been commonplace for years, but the increasing<br />

capabilities of battery-electric<br />

machines enable increased flexibility<br />

of operations when compared to cablesupplied<br />

electric machines or previous<br />

machine generations. The increased<br />

flexibility offers new opportunities for<br />

optimization of operations and provides<br />

the basis for developing autonomous<br />

operations.<br />

Finland aims to be the best place<br />

for developing mobile machines<br />

through efficient and effective collaboration<br />

between industry and research.<br />

The SIX cluster contributes to<br />

the achievement of company-specific<br />

and sector-wide ‘digital green’ goals.<br />

In our SIX cluster project the focus is<br />

in autonomous operations, electrifica-<br />


forerunners of electricity in mobility.<br />

Similar development is also expected to<br />

take place for mobile machines (MM).<br />

However, MMs can be configured for<br />

several purposes during the work cycle,<br />

and it carries a tool or an end effector<br />

which requires power at the same or<br />

even higher level than the drivetrain.<br />

MM is often a part of a work process,<br />

and its operation has to be adjusted to<br />

the workflow. An interesting question<br />

then is how to align the recharging and<br />

maintenance needs of the machinery<br />

with the operational and performance<br />

criteria.<br />

Electrification is also a key enabler<br />

in the transformation towards increasingly<br />

automated and eventually aution<br />

and in data-intensive lifecycle<br />

services.<br />

ELECTRIC VEHICLES in general have<br />

fewer moving parts, do not need oil and<br />

filter changes and have regenerative<br />

braking systems that reduce the wear<br />

and tear components. Grosso et al.<br />

(2021) have estimated that the maintenance<br />

cost for electric vehicles is at<br />

least 30% lower than that of conventional<br />

vehicles. However, the literature<br />

also provides examples on increasing<br />

maintenance costs of novel machine<br />

types that are often more complex to<br />

operate and maintain compared to the<br />

previous machine generations (Hane<br />

Hagström, 2021). There is limited<br />

literature on how electrification and<br />

automation will transform the maintenance<br />

of MM fleets. For example,<br />

there are optimal charging profiles for<br />

electric vehicles, which could affect<br />

maintenance planning if the owner<br />

wants to maximize battery life. A swappable<br />

battery structure would reduce<br />

the downtime caused by recharging,<br />

but the same outcome might also be<br />

achievable with more efficient batteries<br />

and faster recharging solutions.<br />

In addition to electrification, the<br />

development towards higher levels of<br />

automation changes the practices for<br />

how the machines will be maintained.<br />

Access of maintenance workers to areas<br />

where automated machines operate<br />

may be restricted, making it important<br />

to predictively optimize maintenance<br />

work to avoid disturbances to the operations.<br />

An increasing level of autonomy<br />

also requires the use of technology that<br />

enables sufficient situational awareness,<br />

including sensors, data processing<br />

and connectivity - all of which need to<br />

be considered in maintenance planning.<br />

These new technologies will also require<br />

new skills from the maintenance<br />

personnel. System level management of<br />

maintenance activities is needed to ensure<br />

that not only the machines but also<br />

the supporting infrastructure perform<br />

reliably.<br />


will also impact the maintenance needs<br />

of MMs, and novel maintenance strategies<br />

have to be developed. The close<br />

collaboration with the partners in the<br />

SIX cluster offered the possibility to<br />

discuss the industrial state of the art<br />

as well as future needs and common<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 47


Figure The roadmap towards efficient electrified and autonomous fleet maintenance.<br />

visions of participants. Participatory<br />

methods like World Café rely on collaborative<br />

action and one of its strengths<br />

is its creation of an opportunity to share<br />

lived experiences and to create dialogue.<br />

Due to the COVID-19 restrictions, remote<br />

collaboration tools were applied<br />

in our World Café workshop. In the<br />

workshop, views on life cycle service<br />

business, availability performance,<br />

scheduling of machine operation and<br />

traffic, and IT architecture to support<br />

the operation in the field were collected.<br />

The outcome was summarized<br />

in a roadmap (Figure 1).<br />


ELECTRIFIED their machines and implemented<br />

swappable battery technology<br />

in their MMs. Electrification<br />

introduces novel needs for real-time<br />

data collection (e.g. status and health<br />

of the battery) and for modelling and<br />

Autonomous<br />

operations<br />

require information<br />

sharing.<br />

forecasting (e.g. lifetime expectation<br />

of the batteries). Autonomous operations<br />

call for real-time location data<br />

and information on the environment,<br />

surroundings, and safety. Electrification<br />

is expected to reduce maintenance:<br />

the components are expected<br />

to be service free, but this expectation<br />

needs to be proven in the field.<br />

However, more information is needed<br />

to understand the failure modes and<br />

ageing behaviour.<br />

Autonomous operations also require<br />

efficient information sharing<br />

between different actors, e.g. in port<br />

terminal operations, and collaborative<br />

scheduling between the organisations<br />

responsible for operations,<br />

services and maintenance. In some<br />

cases, it could also be possible to carry<br />

out minor maintenance or service<br />

tasks during the recharging. The benefits<br />

arise on the system level - and<br />

success is possible only if the issues<br />

dealing with the data ownership can<br />

be solved.<br />

An autonomous mobile work<br />

machine needs an automated MROsystem<br />

(maintenance, repair, and<br />

operations) which will enable MM<br />

fleet to be managed automatically or<br />

autonomously and to be optimized<br />

to production process demands. This<br />

will include consumable and spare<br />

and wear part usage prediction and<br />

fleet maintenance, maintenance timing<br />

based on machine condition and<br />

production planning.<br />


Grosso, M. et al. (2021) How will vehicle automation and electrification affect the automotive maintenance, repair sector?,<br />

Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Volume 12.<br />

Hane Hagström M. et al. (2020) Evaluating the effectiveness of machine acquisitions and design by the impact on maintenance cost – a case study,<br />

IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp. 25-30.<br />

48 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

SAFETY<br />

Nuclear power plant<br />

maintenance benefits from<br />

participatory development<br />

of work and safety<br />




How can work in nuclear power plants<br />

be developed so that human activity<br />

is a stronger part of safety work? The<br />

solution can be found in modeling and<br />

inclusive work development.<br />

The safe, smooth operation of nuclear power plants<br />

requires competent maintenance. Maintenance provides<br />

situational awareness; it enables the personnel<br />

responsible for the operation of the plant to see the<br />

“big picture” of the plant’s technical status. Maintenance<br />

ensures that the plant's numerous electrical, automation<br />

and mechanical systems and its components and equipment<br />

work as planned. It repairs faults, performs servicing tasks in<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 49

SAFETY<br />

accordance with the annual plan and<br />

larger tasks during annual outages.<br />

Maintenance also compiles the lessons<br />

learnt from previous maintenance<br />

shutdowns.<br />


strict, systematic safety practices and<br />

methods and adhere to guidelines, all of<br />

which are the result of decades of work<br />

and lessons learnt. The functionality of<br />

safety management systems is regularly<br />

assessed, and safety culture evaluated.<br />

The nuclear power operations are<br />

highly technology oriented. In recent<br />

decades, the safety work in nuclear<br />

power plants has increasingly focused<br />

on the role of people in safety, too. The<br />

nuclear sector is facing changes such<br />

as aging personnel and technology, the<br />

modernization of equipment, and new<br />

ways of organizing work in its power<br />

plants. The technology-oriented, regulatory<br />

environment sets conditions for<br />

the development of work and safety. It<br />

also creates challenges for developing<br />

systematic ways of evaluating and developing<br />

work so that personnel can be<br />

considered part of safety improvement.<br />

Safety research and the experience of<br />

different industries has taught us that<br />

many decision-making situations are so<br />

complex that they cannot be solved by<br />

only one person. To resolve problematic<br />

situations, the views of many different<br />

entities and a wide range of experts are<br />

needed.<br />

Especially in large organizations, it is<br />

often the case that the ideas or plans of<br />

the neighboring unit are not known, or<br />

that views or operating methods differ.<br />

There may be challenges in terms of coordination<br />

and the flow of information,<br />

also between different levels of organization.<br />

Operational staff may feel that<br />

the middle or senior management do<br />

not understand their everyday activities,<br />

or top management may wonder<br />

why changes are not taken on. Views<br />

cannot always be verified in everyday<br />

situations, or procedures are not always<br />

sufficiently collaboratively refined.<br />


VATING STAFF and of developing skills<br />

and working practices are needed. Systematic<br />

practices and skills to develop<br />

work and safety in an inclusive manner<br />

are important. Participatory development<br />

is already used in the nuclear sector<br />

to jointly process the results of safety<br />

culture or job satisfaction surveys or to<br />

plan changes in work. However, sometimes<br />

the cooperation between different<br />

departments or hierarchical levels needs<br />

more in-depth development. It is particularly<br />

useful to access tacit knowledge,<br />

in-depth knowledge of processes brought<br />

about by experience, the various factors<br />

affecting operational events, and ways in<br />

which to solve disruptions or faults. Tacit<br />

knowledge is knowledge that is difficult<br />

to put into words. In decision-making<br />

situations, it is highly beneficial to exemplify<br />

this kind of information and make it<br />

more concrete and visible through joint<br />

discussions.<br />



modeling work processes is an effective<br />

way of improving maintenance work<br />

in a nuclear power plant in an inclusive<br />

manner. Its research project modeled<br />

three work processes: repair-<br />

ing faults, planning modifications, and<br />

component and system health reporting.<br />

This process involved people from different<br />

maintenance units and organizational<br />

levels. Operational personnel (assemblers),<br />

engineers, line management<br />

representatives, and occupational safety<br />

and health staff participated in a total of<br />

six workshops in 2019–2021. The workshops<br />

provided coaching in the method,<br />

and the groups were facilitated in using<br />

it. This joint work produced many development<br />

proposals, which were passed<br />

on for the organization to implement.<br />

They concerned increasing the common<br />

understanding through, for example,<br />

functioning guidelines, the physical work<br />

environment, and clarifying meeting<br />

practices.<br />

50 maintworld 3-4/<strong>2022</strong>

SAFETY<br />

The results were positive. Modeling<br />

the work processes strengthened the<br />

personnel's shared understanding of<br />

the everyday work tasks and what areas<br />

require improvement. People were able<br />

to voice their own intuitions and even<br />

weak doubts about the goals or arrangements<br />

of work. For example, it emerged<br />

that the objectives or importance of<br />

some key work processes had been<br />

obscured. It was important for the actors<br />

that the objectives were discussed<br />

openly. Addressing the strengths and<br />

successes of cooperation was particularly<br />

useful, which also made it easier to<br />

raise more controversial issues.<br />


openness, joint resolution of challenges,<br />

and clarification of complex or vague issues.<br />

The results show that participatory<br />

development methods can be a means of<br />

moving the culture of action in a more<br />

positive and solution-based direction.<br />

Participatory development methods<br />

can complement traditional safety<br />

practices and support the recognition<br />

and handling of weak signals to promote<br />

more proactive safety management.<br />

It is advisable to use participatory<br />

methods to reduce disruption,<br />

improve the quality and fluency of<br />

work, or promote cooperation and<br />

the flow of information. Especially in<br />

safety-critical areas, it is important<br />

to ensure that staff have a common<br />

understanding of work processes and<br />

their impacts on each other. This need<br />

is emphasized in change situations: for<br />

example, in organizational reforms /<br />

re-organization or when a new technical<br />

device is introduced.<br />

Joint development can be experienced<br />

as laborious and time-consuming,<br />

but its value is reflected in<br />

reduced friction in cooperation, and<br />

in being able to raise issues more constructively.<br />

Human Factors<br />

is embedded in<br />

nuclear industry<br />

safety management<br />


is a key approach in the science<br />

and practice of human factors<br />

(HF). The application of HF<br />

in safety practices is mandatory<br />

in the nuclear power industry. It<br />

is required by both the International<br />

Atomic Energy Association<br />

(IAEA) and national authorities.<br />

HF strives to improve the performance<br />

and safety of the systems<br />

and the well-being of the<br />

personnel. The starting point is<br />

to understand people's capacity<br />

and limitations, the variety in<br />

human performance, and to utilize<br />

this knowledge in the design and<br />

development of work, equipment,<br />

and work environments, as well as<br />

in leadership and organizational<br />

development.<br />



increased, and the use of the term<br />

has become clearer and more<br />

common. It is important to understand<br />

the topic in a holistic and<br />

solution-oriented manner. HF is a<br />

broader issue than mere individual<br />

performance or human activity<br />

under special observation or control.<br />

The goal is that organizational<br />

factors and technology create<br />

the conditions for people to succeed<br />

in their work. For this to be<br />

possible, we must first understand<br />

the characteristics associated with<br />

human activity, then find the best<br />

practices to support human activity<br />

at the workplace.<br />

An essential aim of HF is to understand<br />

the background factors that<br />

influence the realization of safety:<br />

How is work best organized,<br />

led, and managed?<br />

How is safety assured during<br />

changes? How are everyday<br />

operations understood?<br />

What helps people succeed in<br />

daily work? Are there specific<br />

concerns about work ability or<br />

safety?<br />

What hinders people from<br />

succeeding in everyday work<br />

tasks?<br />

3-4/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 51

The Uptimization Experts.<br />

The Uptimization Experts.<br />

The Uptimization Experts.<br />











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