Pottery In Australia Vol 15 No 1 Autumn 1976

Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

COVER: Lollis by Hiroe Swen, Pastoral Gallery, 1975, 26 cm x 19 cm.

Ligbt turquoise, 1285· C., electric kiln.


Editor Margot Staples

President Beryl Barton

Adele Salmon Janet Mansfield

Shirley Moule Derek Smith

Margaret Tuckson

Business Manager Barbara Austin

State Correspondents

Connie Drldan (Vic)

Jean Robins (WA)

Ron Rowe (SA)

Margaret McNaught (Old)

Penny Smith (Tas)

PI.ue .ddr.,s all corr .. "ondence to

The Editor 0' "Pottery In Australle"

48 Burton Street, OerllnghufSt, N.S.W. 2010

re/ephone: 31-3151

Notice to Subscribers

POllery in Australia is published twice annually, in Spring and Autumn. Tbe annual subscription

is $A4, $US6, UK £Stg.2.50, Canada $6, including postage. Renewal notices will be sent

when due. These are stamped "Subscriptions now due". No further issues will be forwarded

until new subscription is received. New subscription application form printed at the back of

the magazine to help NEW subscribers. When forwarding subscriptions, if not using printed

form, please advise name, full address and date, in BLOCK LEITERS. State which issue required

when commencing subscription. Please address all correspondence to:

The Editor, 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst, 20 I O.

AU material published in POl/ery in A ustralia is the copyright of the Potters' Society of Australia.

Requests for permission to reprint must be made to the Editor.

No responsibility is accepted by Pol/ery in A ustralia for tbe content of articles nor for claims

made by advertisers.

Advertising Rates: Full page $65

Half page $35

One third page $25

Plus block and setting costs

Articles and photographs for inclusion in

POltery in Australia should reach the Editor

by 15th March for tbe Autumn issue and

15th August for tbe Spring issue, for selection

by the Editorial Committee.




VOL. 15 No. 1 1976

Two Dollars


Editor visits Ch ina p. 2

An Australian Potter looks at New Ch ina's

Ceramics Ivan McMeekin p. 3

The Potteries of Shihwan Dennis O'Hoy p. 7

Wares of Yching Margot Staples p. 15

Bryan Newman in Australia Janet Mansfield p. 18

Thoroughly Modern Milling (Part One)

Stephen Harrison p. 23

A Day in Izcuchaca May Davis p. 30

The Use of the Computer for Ceramic Glaze

Calculation H. J. McWhinnie p. 31

Recent Work p. 35

" Qu inja" Trevor Woods p. 43

Hydraulically Operated Potters' Wheel

Janet Barriskill p. 47

West Australian Clay Body Test Michael Kusnik p. 51

Insulation, Refractories and Kiln Design

Maxwell J. Murray p. 52

Half a Year Onwards-A Brief Review of

the Potters' Society of Australia . p. 66

Book Reviews p. 67

Exhibition Reviews p. 68

Exhibitions and Competitions p. 73

News p. 75


In September 1975 ten Australian potters visited China as the guests of the

Ministry of Light Industry. We spent a month touring the pottery and porcelain

centres and were able as well to see ivory carving, silk weaving and embroidery,

inlay and fan-making. We visited museums and took part in a number of seminars

with Chinese craftsmen and technicians.

One of the tasks of the museums, as the Chinese see it, is to illustrate how

the past may serve the present. In the great porcelain centre of Chingdechen the

museum is deliberately used as a place of inspiration for local designers. The

Shanghai museum which was established in 1952 displays archeological finds.

Since the Cultural Revolution in the late sixties, archeological studies have been

vIgorously pursued.

In the early fifties, the small craft workshops became collectives, and many

new factories were established. Conditions for craftsmen in the new workplaces

became healthier and more comfortable. In the factories we visited the excellent

lighting and pleasant surroundings impressed us all. Continuing efforts are being

made to eliminate hand work by resort to machines. Perhaps many traditional

techniques will be lost because of this. However, 1 believe that there is a policy

of preserving knowledge of traditional techniques so that the past will continue to

serve in the development of new products.

The information contained in the three articles in this issue on the potteries

of China sets out information which warrants the attention of our readers.




Ivan McMeekin

In the twenty-six years that have elapsed since the 1946-1949 Liberation War the

main part of Chinese industry has changed over from the use of traditional Chinese

crafts and technology to the use of what is basically Western industrial technology.

For artist-craftsmen like ourselves there were many aspects of the traditional

crafts and technology of great value and interest, not only practical aspects but

philosophical and aesthetic ones as well. With our great admiration of Sung

achievements in mind, in a vague and illogical way we expected to find Sung

techniques still extant, when probably they disappeared many centuries ago, and

it seemed were nowhere to be seen in today's modern factories.

At lirst this was a bitter disappointment, but gradually it became evident

that some of the artistically important aspects of the traditional techniques were

still there, but in a modern form that made them difficult to see. Simplicity and

directness of technique can still be seen in many places. They can be seen in the

selection, processing and blending of raw materials: there are still usually only

two materials used in porcelain bodies, porcelain stone and kaolin. The processing

and blending was done with an almost nonchalant simplicity that was staggering.

They can also be seen in glaze application which is still done, using beautifully

thought out methods of application to raw ware. Other important aspects were the

willing commitment to a high skill level, and generally the extent of personal

commitment to the work. Also that people were able to enjoy doing their work

well without harassment and the greedy emphasis on speed and production that

often mars the atmosphere of our own factories.

The two forming methods almost universally used were the same as those

used in our own industry : slip-casting and jolJeying - and in the refractories

industry, pressing. Only at Yching in the tea-pot factory and large jar factory have

hand forming methods survived virtually unchanged.

In firing the change was not pronounced. The old climbing or bank kilns

(called by the Chinese potters "dragon kilns" ) are often still there, but are disused.

Their place has been taken by Western-style tunnel kilns, adapted to local conditions.

One of the most astonishing sights we saw was a hand-fired coal-burning

tunnel kiln for porcelain! . . . something far beyond our industrial capacity for skill,

application, and reliability. The majority of tunnel kilns seen, however, were oilfired

by pressurised burners, much in the same way as our own are. Reasons given

for the change to tunnels were quite conclusive. In the first place the tunnel is a

very much more efficient unit; secondly the firing of the "dragon kiln" was

strenuous and exacting, and an adminsitration seeking to improve the working

conditions of the people would naturally look for a more acceptable way of firing.

Thirdly-an irrefutable argument-the supply of wood-fuel became exhausted, the

last kilns to go out of service being those near canals which enabled them to get

fuel from farther afield.

However, I feel we should not presume that the same ugly shortcomings of

our own industry will not automatically appear, because Chinese potters have

adopted some of our techniques. Our own industry has been bugged by our inability

to understand the activity as an ART, and by our industrial commercial values

which are inimical to art in any case. We should remember that this particular art


is theirs, and was introduced into the West only a few centuries ago. Their long

experience and greater understanding of it will, I feel, lead them along a different

path, and the introduction of Western technology should be seen as a stage in the

revitalisation of their industry, that they and we agree had sunk to a low ebb prior

to 1949. They are adapting the industry-or the art if you wish-to the new aims

of an idealistic socialist structure, the aims of a people determined to take their

rightful place in the human community.

The Museum Collections

The collections we saw had been formed since 1949, and comprised mainly

excavated pieces. To the student of Chinese ceramics these collections were of the

greatest interest as the often irrefutable provenance of a piece (provenance in this

application meaning what it is, where, and when it was made), formed on archeological

grounds, enables us to revise our ideas about the things we already know

of, and, rather more interesting, a number of wares new to us in the West, or at

most only slightly known, have been excavated and studied.

Following in more or less chronological order are some of the discoveries

that were new to me:

1. There was a greater variety of wares produced in Neolithic or pre-historic

times than 1 had envisaged, and, of course, the Neolithic culture co-existed with

the early dynasties such as Shang. One of the most interesting early wares, almost

unknown in the West, is the Blackware made in Shantung province and elsewhere

in the coastal region. The collections in Shanghai, Nanking, and Peking contained

examples of this ware. It is a beautifully made, burnished, black earthenware. The

largest number of Neolithic wares are in the Peking Palace collection.

2. There were then no major surprises until the end of the Han dynasty, that is

the commencement of the period known to Western scholars as the Six Dynasties,

and which is often thought of as the Chinese equivalent of our Dark Ages, a period

of some four hundred years (A.D. 221 to A.D. 588) between the end of Han and

(disregarding the short Sui Dynasty) the commencement of Tang. It was a

confused period of unrest, but also of stimulation, change and achievement in art.

It was during this period that the ware we call celadon emerged and developed.

Celadons had been made in Han times, but it was only during the Six Dynasties

that the ware started to disclose its unique character.

These early celadons have been known in the West as Yueh celadons, Yueh

being a kingdom at that time occupying what is now, in broad terms, the province

of Chekiang. However, these new Chinese collections and studies make it cle


Neolithic: black earthenware stem-cup.

Ming: blue and white porcelain bowl

te-chen, and 1 was astonished at the number of well-known Southern Sung wares

that were made in that centre. The best of the Yingch'ing or Ch'ingpai wares it

seems all came from Ching-te-chen (there were of course other centres making

this ware), also several similar wares that have puzzled collectors for some time,

like the ivory coloured ware in the Ting style. Chinese scholars believe that the

potters who fled south at the collapse of Northern Sung were responsible for the

sudden development of Ching-te-chen as a major centre in Southern Sung times.

This makes the phenomenal development of porcelain there during Ming times

much easier to understand.

4. An interesting little fact emerged in relation to the so-called "green Chun" ware.

I had often wondered whether these pots were the result of some chance variation

in firing conditions or glaze ingredients in the production of the usual blue Chun.

But 1 found that this was not the case, that they were made at a place called

Lin J u, some fifty miles to the west-south-west of Chun Chou. Another interesting

little fact emerged in relation to Chun wares and that is that the name is pronounced

like a combination of June and doin' (short for doing) , i.e., Jooen.

5. It seems also that we need to revise our ideas about the Northern celadons.

A number of pieces which 1 would have described without hesitation as Northern

celadons were attributed to the Lung Ch'uan centre in Chekiang province.

6. Of great interest but not necessarily a surprise were the Yuan Dynasty

porcelains decorated in underglaze blue.

7. Another interesting fact to emerge in relation to Ming blue and white was that

many of the wares which we describe as "export wares" were also distributed on

the Chinese home market. Sherds picked up in Soochow, and several pieces in the


collections indicated this. It seems we should make a study of fMing blue and

white made for the general Chinese populace of that dynasty. I feel that these

would prove to be very beautiful wares, and in many ways preferable to the

rather straight-laced, over-decorated Imperial wares.


It may be wondered why there are no examples mentioned of work by

individual artist-potters making either utensils or sculptural pieces other than

representational figures. The reason is simple: we saw none, and the impression I

formed is that they do not exist in China.

It is my own view that the individual artist-potter is a phenomenon appearing

at a particular stage of industrial, economic, or cultural development. In our own

case he appears towards the end of the nineteenth century after some one hundred

and fifty years of ceramic industrialisation, quite largely, it seems, as a result of

deep dissatisfaction with industrial pots and industrial/commercial values and

concepts in general. The Chinese and Japanese ideas which Leach brought back

to England in 1920 were grafted onto this already existing movement and have

influenced it profoundly. But to expect to find potters similar to our own artistpotters

in a culture as different from our own as China is, and at such a different

stage of its history, is at best, parochial.

For over a thousand years the making of pots in China has been seen as a

major art form. It still is. Chinese potters are eclectic. There have been many

examples in the past of their welcoming, enjoying, and digesting foreign influences

to produce a new valid and lovely idiom of their own as a result. It is my view

that they are today at the start of another such cycle.

To have been able to see it at first hand was an indelible experience which,

hopefully, may initiate such a cycle in ourselves.

Ivan McMeekin led the delegation of ten Australian potters who visited China as

guests of the Ministry oj Light Industry in that country in September 1975. Cj.

Editorial this issue.

HOW TO DETECT GAS LEAKS. David Medlin, whose article "Low Cost Stoneware Kiln"

appeared in Vol. 14, No.2, has sent this correction to the procedure for checking gas leaks.

DO NOT USE A LIGHTED TAPER, this could be dangerous.

"Propane gas is not toxic and is odourless, but . an . odorant has been added to give

it a distinctive smell similar to onions. If the dIstInctIve odour has been detected an

immediate cbeck sbould be made for leaks. Brush a mixture of two parts household

detergent to one part water on the suspected leak; if it bubbles, immediately turn off the

Propane gas cylinder valve and tighten or repair tbe equipment.

If Propane gas is leaking do not strike matches or operate any electrical appliances in

the vicinity. Remove all sources of ignition and open all doors and windows. Do not attempt

to relight Propane gas until all traces of odour have disappeared. Turn on again and check

the suspected leak witb detergent and water.

Remember Propane gas is heavier than air and will remain in open containers, cellars

and confined spaces for a considerable time."



Dennis 0 ' oy

Senior Lecturer-Ceramics, Bendigo Institute of Technology.

After some weeks in the People's Republic of China and having visited Peking

and several other important centres, we travelled south to Kwangchou which was

to serve as our base for visiting the local potteries and particularly those of

Shihwan. Whilst at Kwangchou we also hoped to discover the tiny village from

which my father and his grandfather before him, had set out for Australia last


Better known in the western world as Canton, Kwangchou is the largest city

in Kwangtung Province. It is quite heavily industrialised but thanks to its subtropical

climate is plentifully endowed with parks and street-trees. By now we

had become used to the crowds of people and, as in all Chinese cities, to the sea

of bicycles with bells challenging the blaring horns of vehicular traffic.

High on a hill well away from the noise of the city stands the impressive red

Five Storey Pagoda, built in the Ming Period (1368-1644) and now a museum of

Chinese ceramics. It has an excellent collection. The lower floors are used to

display wares produced at the nearby pottery centre of Shih wan and the higher

levels, historical wares. The Shihwan ceramic collection was obviously extensive.

Outside of China the Camoes Museum in Macau houses a smaller collection of

Shihwan ceramics.

There are numerous small potteries around Kwangchou, particularly in or

near the many villages. On a trip to Ts'ung hua, a hot spring resort some 80 km

north of Kwangchou, we passed scores of kilns along the roadside. The kilns

varied considerably with beehive kilns having corbelled arches, vertical doublechambered

kilns and small intermittent tunnel-kilns. However, most of these kilns

were used to produce bricks for local requirements and building projects. At the

hot springs the distinctive lamp posts and balustrades with designs of dragons,

phoenixes and plants were all ceramic. There were also ceramic rubbish receptacles

glazed white, blue and green lining all the streets. All of these were Shihwan

ceramic wares, and could be found even at distant Kweilin.


Shihwan (Shekwan) is located south-west of Kwangchou on a bank of a

tributary of the Sui Kiang (West River). To get there from Kwangchou one must

first travel some 30 km to Fa-shan, a city of 240,000 inhabitants and then 9 km

to Shihwan. On approaching Shihwan it was obvious we were near a pottery town

as the extensively cultivated fields gave way to scarred low rolling hills which had

been dug for centuries for ceramic materials. Rising along the crests of other hills

were the long climbing kilns dominated only by the towering smoking chimneys

of the potteries. The long kilns which are really tunnels, are built on slopes at an

angle approaching twenty degrees, varying from the foot of the hill to the top.

The kilns are covered by tiled roofs which rise in step-like sections up the slope.

The fences and walls around many houses and garden plots are made from

structured piles of brown jars, pots and kiln saggars-all "wasters" from the kilns.

The history of Shih wan pottery can be traced as far back to the Southern

Sung Dynasty 1127-1279. The current pottery and porcelain products are

extensive - ranging from articles for daily use, building materials, decorative

objects using glazes, figures and animal modelling.


Shihwan has long been noted for figure modelling, as seen in the lively,

colourfully-glazed didactic temple decorations of the past. At the neighbouring city

of Fo-shan, the Fo-shan Ancestral Temple is richly decorated w'th these figures.

Similar examples can be seen in the temples of Hong Kong and Macau, and even

at the Joss House at Breakfast Creek, Brisbane, which was built entirely with

materials brought to Australia by the early immigrant Chinese pioneers.

Shihwan has a population of 23,000 people, of which 8,000 are pottery

workers. There are 14 pottery and porcelain factories divided into the following


I. Industrial pottery and porcelain.

2. Architectural pottery and porcelain.

3. Domestic, daily use pottery and porcelain.

4. Art pottery and porcelain.

Shihwan Art Pottery and Porcelain Factory

When we arrived at our first pottery, the Shihwan Art Pottery and Porcelain

Factory, we were welcomed by Comrade Chan, representing the Revolutionary

Committee and the Workers. Comrade Chan explained that this was the only

"Art" pottery in Shihwan, and was established by 30 families in 1952 as a cooperative

with 100 workers. Prior to forming the co-operative, the families had

worked on an individual basis. In 1958 the co-operative was re-organized as the

Shihwan Art Pottery and Porcelain Factory, now employing 530 workers. The

art pottery produces basically four types of articles:-

I. Figures, contemporary motifs of soldiers and peasants, and traditional themes.

2. Animals, also along traditional lines.

3. Decorative glazes wares.

4. Small bonsai wares.

During the tour of the pottery we were particularly interested in the manufacturing

stages of the figures. I n the design studio the craftsmen were modelling

fine clay figures of lions, bears, roosters, figures on oxen and armed revolutionaries.

After the clay models had been made, pl aster moulds, often comprising several

complicated sections and pieces, were cast. The figures were then slip cast and

later, upon removal from the moulds, the various parts were joined and fettled.

After drying, underglaze colours and stains were painted onto the figures and the

glazes applied together with additional colours where required.

Away from the modelling and casting rooms, in another building taking

advantage of a hill, was the wood fired dragon (lung) kiln. We entered the

building through a circular doorway above a flight of steps, before coming to

the long tunnel kiln stretching beyond us. The kiln was (internal) 50 metres

long, 1.7 metres high and 1.6 metres wide. The pieces to be fired (in saggars) are

stacked into the kiln through loading openings in the sides. The roof of the kiln

had many strategically-placed small openings through which splinters of wood

could be fired so the temperature could progress up the inside of the kiln at

1360°C. Through years of firing the inside had developed a rich lining of ash

glaze. Once in 1938 there were thirty hill kilns in Shihwan. Many of these have

now disappeared to be replaced by more modern continuous oil-fired kilns, as

China has developed her own oil fields.

Above this dragon-kiln at the top of the hill along a flat site, was an oilfired

continuous kiln measuring 16 metres long, 1.8 metres wide and 1.9 metres

high. The kiln had a total of nine small firing chambers, and the glazed figures

were set on small refractory trays and mechanically pushed along through the



Chimneys of other kilns

dominate a large

hill-kiln at Shihwan.

A garden fence of

sandy-bodied unglazed

dishes (kiln wasters) .


Glazed didactic figures

at Shihwan decorate the

Fo-shan Ancestral



kiln. In another building a larger continuous oil-fired kiln was nea ing completion

and would eventually replace the wood-fired one.

More than 60 varieties of glazes are used at this pottery, d vided into high

firing glazes over 1300°C, and low temperature glazes under l300°C: Many have

been influenced by the Sung-

Entrance to the building

housing the dragon (lullg)

kiln. Shihwan AP and PF.

Young boys during

school vacation helping

build a new continuous

oil-fired tunnel-kiln,

Shihwan Porcelain


A countryside pottery at

San Pu. The brown

glazed jars have simple

incised lines through the


1 1


Making the clay figure

model at the Shih wan Art

Pottery and Porcelain


Applying underglaze colours

to vitreous figures,

Shihwan Art Pottery and

Porcelain Factory.

Selecting brown glazed

spouted jars and cooking

dishes, Shihwan.


accompanied us through our stay in China as a representative of the China

Travel Service.

Our rout took us again through the countryside of Fo-shan and Shihwan.

Further on I was struck by the similarity of the countryside to that of Victoria or

N.S.W. around the Divide. There were even vast stands of familiar gum trees,

the only difference being the terraced slopes and rice paddies.

We had to cross several large rivers by ferry and whilst waiting for the boat

at San Pu, the opportunity arose for a quick look at another village pottery. It

was by the river, where all the materials and wares could be transported. Stacked

around the yard were the characteristic unglazed sandy grey clay wares and

common brown glazed jars and pots. Similar looking wares, together with the

green glazed types mentioned earlier, although much older, can be found throughout

Australia where there were Chinese settlements last century. These wares are

much sought after by collectors and very high prices are paid for them. The vivid

green glaze on these tiles, garden ware, ginger jars and pots are derived from the

addition of metallic copper in the form of filings. The brown glaze consists of

fine river-mud, rice-straw ash and some lime.

We arrived at the district capital of Toi-shan from which many Chinese had

left long ago for Victoria and in particular for the Bendigo gold fields. We passed

yet another pottery in the town with brown glazed ovoid shaped jars stacked

high. Leaving Toi-shan we eventually found my father's old village surrounded

by fields and dominated by a high brick tower, typical of the fortifications used

to ward off bandits or to protect the villagers during periods of strife. Passing the

tower we walked along a narrow lane-way. The neat grey brick tiled houses were

built close together and without much difficulty we came to the house where my

father and grandfather had once lived. Grandfather had emigrated to the Bendigo

Diggings during the great rushes of the 1850's, and my father left the village late

last century to join him. It did not take long for the villagers to discover our

arrival, and they flocked to the house to see and warmly welcome us.

Two days later the train left Kwangchou Station and carried us back to the

Hong Kong border. The next day a party of Australian potters began their tour

of the Chinese potteries.

Errata: See Vol. 14, No. I, Page 53. Victorian Clay Body Test No. 75/ 3. Total

shrinkage to 2% abs. should be 13.9% not 8.0%.

Page 55, Test No. 75/ 5. Total shrinkage should be 12.8% not 1.28%.


The Potters' Gallery, 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, tel. 31 .3151 ,

now sells BendIgo ovenware clay.



"dragon" kilo.

Red Star



pots waiting

for glaze.

Cooking pots

Star Pottery.

drying, Red



Margot Staples

Photographs by Kevin Crick and Doug Alexander.

Among the most appealing pots produced in China today are the wares of

Yching County. There in the town of Ting Shan potters have been engaged at

their craft for over 2,000 years.

The outstanding pottery of the area is the red, unglazed vitrified ware known

in China as Tse-sa (or purple sand ware) . Modern methods of body production

and firing are used for the red vitrified ware, although the shapes are formed by

traditional hand methods, including press moulding. The clay, a tough material

of medium plasticity and extreme fineness comes from a deposit of shale said to

be found nowhere else. After digging, the clay is weathered for three months or

more and is prepared by a vacuum grinding machine and then vacuum pug-mill,

which is an improvement on the pan mill used previously. The finished pieces

are fired in saggars for ease in kiln packing and protection from soot. They are

passed through a tunnel kiln 44 metres in length with a firing time of 36 hours.

The temperature reaches 1300°C and the atmosphere is oxidising.

The pace of the work is constant but unhurried. The craftsmen sit comfortably

in well-lit work rooms and take great pride in their skills. This is one of

the few places where the potters still mark their ware with their own stamps.

Tea-pots and other useful pieces for the table are produced, as well as flowerpots,

writing-sets (ink-slabs, brush-holders and water pots) , and decorative

pieces. Large flat dishes are made by slabs, the base slab being pressed into a

mould. Round pots such as tea-pots are first formed as cylinders made by the

slab method. The cylinder is beaten into a spherical shape and placed into a

mould. The final shape is produced by inserting the fingers inside and pressing

the clay against the form. The finished pieces are burnished with tbin sections of

buffalo born. They may be decorated by slip applied with a long tapering stick

or inlaid with a clay of another colour. When the pieces are white-hard they may

be carved with a diagonally cut metal tool sharpened on both sides. The ware is

often brushed with water to enable a sweeping cut to be made with the tool held

upright, as a brush.

The Red Star Pottery nearby produces lovely cooking pots and huge slabbuilt

pots for water storage, lotus growing or gold-fish raising. The latter pots

are produced by team work. Slabs are beaten out and cut to the required width

with a stick into which tbree sharpened blades are set at right angles. Bases are

cut and placed on low wooden supports. Two workers are needed to lift the large

slabs. The first is joined to the base in the usual way and its top is tapered so

as to receive the succeeding slab which is slotted to fit over it. With teamwork

a number of pots in different stages can be worked on at once. Tbe potters hold

a wooden form inside and paddle the outside as they move around the pots, to

produce shapes of such regularity as to appear to have been thrown.

In this pottery as elsewhere in China attempts are made to mecbanise production

and here a huge jigger is used to produce basic shapes which are

finished off by hand.

Many of the large pots are decorated with a dragon motif applied in clays

of various colours. The pots are set outside to stiffen and when leather hard

are glazed, using a long spouted container like a watering-can. The inside is


Lining up handle and

spout. The wooden tool is

curved to fit tbe diameter of

the flange exactly.

Engraving a leather-bard


Finisbing off a pressmoulded


Decorating a press-moulded



poured with the required amount of glaze and a pad on a long stick used to

swish it over y missed spots. The outside is then glazed, the potter moving

around the form as he pours because of the size of the pots.

In the grounds of the Red Star Pottery the old dragon (lung) kiln still

stands. Long hours of hard work were needed to fire it. Here as in many other

pottery factories in China tunnel kilns are superseding these old "monsters". To

the Australian potters viewing the town from the top of the dragon kiln, it was a

stirring thought, indeed, that the sherds at our feet were hundreds of years old.

Slab-built pots are shaped

by paddle and anvil, Red

Star Pottery.

Glazing leather-hard POts

with an ash/ clay glaze.

Note implement for catching




Janet Mansfield

English potter, Bryan Newman was brought to Australia by the Craft Board of

the Australia Council. According to many potters here, he has been one of the

most successful of the visiting craftsmen that the Board has sponsored. With

workshops given in all States, potters have had every opportunity to learn

practical technology and some aesthetic assessment of the ceramic art. That Bryan

is an experienced teacher was obvious by the fact that he sustained his enthusiasm

and good will during what must have been an exhausting programme continually

working and travelling.

It is obvious too that Bryan is committed to clay. He says there are jobs in

the pottery to correspond to all one's moods and the facets of one's personality.

Even balancing the books suits a part of his nature although Bryan admits to

being the only potter he knows who can find enjoyment in book-keeping.

Bryan Newman delights in paradox, he likes to keep a flexible attitude to

life and enjoys nearly everything. He finds the silly and ludicrous just as meaningful

as the perfect and sublime maintaining that life is as it should be, just

a little bit crazy with a balance between chaos and order. What he says today,

he may contradict tomorrow, happily changing his ideas and emphasis regularly.

Bryan's work schedule in his own studio allows for plenty of variety. He

will spend three to four months on sculptural work, using slabs and combinations

of slabs and thrown forms, turning in relief to repetition throwing, making one

activity an antidote to the other. He feels the shapes he makes metamorphose,

subtly changing as the working time progresses. He is not pedantic about the

functional aspects of his domestic ware but likes to believe that most of it does

work mechanically. It is more important that a shape pleases him and if it

should have a small defect, well he says, it's like accepting defects in one's


At home, a farm house in Somerset, Bryan works with his wife Julie who

is also a professional potter and who mainly makes domestic ware. For six

months of the year he employs an assistant. His pace of work is very fast using

very few tools believing that they are only an extension of his body which is

more responsive anyway. His record output was 607 saucers in one day and that

included preparing and weighing out all the clay.

Bryan uses two clay bodies. For small pieces he mixes 25% fire clay with

75 % ball clay. For larger work he adds sagger clay to this mix in the proportion

of one part sagger clay to two parts of the other mix. His clays are blended in a

dough mixer and then stored for six weeks to mature before use. Besides being

fast and efficient in his work, Bryan is also neat. He always covers ware boards

with newspaper which keeps them clean and dry. His schedule of work usually

involves three weeks of making and then one and a half weeks glazing to firing.

Bryan normally bisque fires.


He has two kilns, one of 18 cubic feet, do ndraught, which has a David

Etchel! oil burner mounted at the top. The larger kiln, not so old nor yet quite as

reliable has a capacity of 55 cubic feet and is fired with two swirlamiser burners

in conjunction with a I" compressor. Bryan likes to combine dry glazes with

shiny areas of glaze on the one piece. For the dry glazes he uses unwashed ash

with China clay. When using pigments, an amount of china clay is added to




garden of Vic Greenaway's


modify the colour. The glaze recipes that Bryan uses were given to all participants

of his workshops.

For his Australian workshops Bryan took his students through a progressive

series of throwing from bottles with stoppers and storage jars with lids to teapots,

teapots as we know them and teapots only limited by one's imagination. He

found that the students did not have the same technical achievement with their

stoppers and spouts as they could command with the rest of their shapes. In

throwing, he says, potters should experiment extending their materials, making

them so thin that the pot collapses totally. If the collapse is only in one part, then

that is its weak point. Experimenting with really thick handles (even thick to

the point of ridiculousness) as a reaction against the commercially thin handles

that we have been brought up to admire, will provide us with a balance. This

experiment we can apply to other combined or applied pieces such as stoppers

and knobs or lugs. Varying the widths, shapes and levels of rims to alter the

character of the pot, may possibly alter the potter in the trying. The rim, he

says, gives the feeling of weight and section to a pot.

Bryan claims having an intimate relationship with teapots. For good

pouring, the holes between the pot and the spout should be large enough and

numerous enough to enable the spout to be completely filled While pouring, the

spout should be tapered and have a sharp end. His use of the tapered piercer, a

tool for making holes from Podmores caused a run on a Sydney potters' supplier,


the only source in Australia. Bryan constructed many different teapots during

the workshop including the upside down or Christmas Pudding version, one

cylindrical one with severely turned lines, a barrel, a bottle angled at 60° and a

bowl and disc teapot. Some of these combined several different thrown sections

and Bryan has previously made them by combining twelve or more pieces. Some

bandIes were puJled, Bryan dips the clay length into the water instead of his

band and so has no dribbles of water running to his elbows; some handles were

thrown discs, turned and then cut to the desired length.

Thrown plates, bowls and bottles were demonstrated during the workshop

and Bryan used string to tie freshly thrown bowls and bottles to form lobed

divisions in each piece. Bryan altered the tension of the string to create sharp or

slow curves and also suggested using string soaked in slip or pigment for

heightening the lobed effect.

Bryan doesn't draw his work first, rather lets it all happen in the clay. With

a visual idea in mind he uses ceramic techniques to make a statement. Such a

statement is then the start. Tbis particularly applies to his slab pieces when the

form of a stickle back fish, an Edwardian high rise building or a boat shape

intrigues him enough to explore the form in clay. Inspiration comes from life in

Bryan's case, from his past, from bow he sees the future and how these influence

his life at tbe present. He does go to museums but spends more time looking at

the paintings and sculptures than the pots. He often goes to the Horniman

Museum in South London to see their good collection of masks and musical

instruments. Bryan usually works on several slab pieces at one time enabling him

to "home in" on an idea. Often his first statement he feels is a little stilted. He

relies on the last piece of clay applied to each work to unify and balance the


Slabs are cut from a large block of clay with the use of a wire and sticks.

The sticks are notched at intervals of i-inch, i-inch and i -inch on different sides

to give different thicknesses of slabs. The slabs are then set aside until they are

very firm and will give crisp edges when cut with a scraper. Slabs are joined by

scratching and then wetting the areas to be joined and pressed very firmly

together. Small slab pieces which are applied to the basic form are often pierced

through and then cut diagonally with the scraper to give a fin-like form , strong

at the attachment and very fine at the edge. These forms become even more

dramatic when glazed as the thin areas absorb much less glaze and the whole

effect is heightened.

Although some of Bryan's slab works are in the form of industrial towers,

harbour and river scenes, landscapes and transport systems, he says he is not

making a social comment on man's use of his environment. He feels that many

craftsmen while decrying the polluting effects of industry are only too willing to

enjoy its fruits.

Intending to be a painter, Bryan commenced art studies at Camberwell

School of Art when he was sixteen. After some time there he started to become

more interested in pottery and this interest became a total involvement. He still

sometimes paints for his own pleasure, landscapes mostly in a traditional style.

Although he feels that learning ceramics at art school probably took him longer

to become proficient at the wheel he was able to learn the techniques and

philosophies of various teachers. It can happen that potters who learn as apprentices

become mere satellites of the master potter and often find this hard to


From conducting workshops in all States and also, working at Victor

Greenaway's studio, preparing an exhibition held at the Craft Centre, Melbourne,


Stoneware tea-pots by Bryan Newman_ Exhibited at the Craft Centre, Melbourne.

Bryan imagines that there will possibly be an Australian influence on his future

work. This may be reflected in some of his slab pieces. As he took the train

across the Nullabor from Adelaide to Perth he was deeply impressed by the

forms and colours of the landscapes. He also has at least three resolutions he

plans to adopt on leaving Australia. The first is to strengthen his body (presumably

his clay one), the second is to explore the effects of clay and glaze in the

firing range between I 100°C and 1200°C and the third is to take more holidays.

With such a full and exacting programme behind him now he no doubt will need

the last and I'm sure all the potters who learnt so much from him here will wish

him well and know he will succeed in his first two resolves.

With the layers of the past exerting their influence on us and our hopes and

the uncertainties of the future, now Bryan feels is the time to be an individual.

No particular style or fashion has been impressed upon us and we must work at

our own ideas until they are personal and satisfying.

BRY AN NEWMAN GLAZES--All reduced stoneware.

W9-W14 W9 WI4

Cornish Stone 50 50

Dolomite 20 20

China Clay 25 25

Whiting 5 5

Quartz 15 5

Matt white opaque glaze 1270°C-90°C. Good over slips. Apply medium thick.


11 Potash Feldspar 40

Whiting 15

Ball Clay 5

China Clay 10

Quartz 20

Iron Oxide 9

Black breaking to rust 1260°C-80°C. Useful glaze alone or with other glazes on

top, such as 12 or 31. Apply medium thick.


31 Potash Feldspar 24 24 24

Dolomite 3 3 3

Whiting 5 5 5

Zinc Oxide 1 3 3

China Clay 3 10 1

Quartz 20 15 25

A is white, semi-matt and milky; over II gives a blue.

B is white, semi-matt and milky; over 11 gives a grey.

C is white, semi-matt and milky; over 11 gives a white. .

D is white, semi-matt and milky; over II gives a grey. Apply medium thick.

LSL Potash Feldspar 40

Whiting 20

Ball Clay 15

China Clay 15

Quartz 30

Red Iron Oxide 2t

Green semi-matt glaze 1280°C, good with pigment of 1 Iron Oxide 1 China Clay.

Apply medium thick.

12 Potash Feldspar 20

Whiting 40

Colemanite 4 Gerstley Borate-Australian substitute.

China Clay 80

Yellow Ochre 5

Fairly dry glaze coloured yellow buff or brown depending on thickness 1260°C-

80°C. Apply thinly.

TRAD Wood Ash 3

Feldspar 3

China Clay 2

Puff or pale brown 1260°C-80°C. Apply medium thick.

Al Wood Ash 50 Apple or oak.

China Clay 50

1250°C-80°C. Pale, dry yellow, breaking buff. Apply very thinly.

A2 Wood Ash 50

China Clay 50

Cobalt Oxide 2

Terrible by itself, but with 12 over gives a soft blue. 1250°C-80°C. Apply very


A3 Wood Ash 50

China Clay 50

Nickel Oxide 2

Dry, pinky brown. 1250°C-80°C. Paler with 12 over it. Apply very thinly.










(Part One)

Stephen Harri son

Stephen Harrison, a Sydney potter, lectures part-time at East Sydney Technical College.

A ball mill, owned by the Potters' Society of Australia Is available for use to Members and

Associate Members. Telephone: Sydney 31 3151 .

We've all seen and admired Peter Rushforth's rock glaze tenmokus, and Harry

Davis' fine glazes. The individual qualities of these glazes came from the fact that

they were made from materials that were not pure commercial and iron free

materials, but rather, the opposite -

prospected, collected and processed by the


The word "processed" here means crushed to 200 mesh, and the most common

way of doing this is by ball milling.

Ball mills come in various shapes and sizes from 8 feet diameter down to 4t"

diameter. They essentially comprise a cylindrical jar rotated on its horizontal axis

containing a grinding media of rods, cylinders or balls. When the jar is rotated at

a certain speed, the grinding media will roll up the side and cascade down over

each other to the bottom causing any fine material caught in between to be

reduced in size.

Industry uses many different types of mills but I will concentrate on those

most suitable for studio potters to grind ceramic materials from approximately

YJ a" down to 150-200 mesh size. I have chosen 7'i6" as the maximum particle

size, because, if a larger size material is to be considered then another type of

crusher such as a jaw crusher or a roller crusher will need to be employed to bring

the material down to 1A. 6" or finer. Alternatively a very large ball mill will need

to be used to cope with the larger size rock. Either way this is out of the scope of

the studio potter.

Appropriate material of convenient size may be obtained as dust from under

the crushers of large quarries which produce blue metal for road surfacing or

cement aggregates. Such quarries around Sydney are located at Hornsby (Farley

& Lewers), Prospect (Pioneer Concrete) , Bombo (near Kiama) and Mittagong.

Fig. 1. Large ball mill on "A"


Fig. 2. Small mill jar on

rubber rollers.

The rock from Mittagong is probably the best known to potters for producing the

tea-dust glaze used by the SlUrt workshops for many years.

So--allowing for a starting size of 16 mesh or finer, a mill size of about

5 gallons capacity is probably best. This would have an inside diameter of about

12" and an internal length of 14" approximately. Larger jars (over 12" diameter)

usually have their own axles and run on plumber blocks, mounted on "A" frames


(see Fig. 1). But for small mills, 12" or less, the jar is usually placed on two

rubber coated rollers, one of which is driven, and the other free running (see

Fig. 2). In this case the opening for loading and unloading must be at the end or

co-axial with the cylindrical jar.

The traditional type of jar is made of porcelain, and for this size would need

to be about I" thick. When loaded with charge, balls and water, it weighs between

150 and 200 pounds. This is as heavy as can be lifted onto the rollers and why

any larger jars must be permanently mounted.


Ball mills perform a few functions -

one of them being that of a grinder.

There are two theories as to when the most efficient grinding occurs. As

stated, the action is one of impact and rubbing caused by the cascading of the

balls. This cascading action is determined by the speed of the mill. If the mill is

stationary the balls and charge will lie in the bottom of the jar (see Fig. 3) and

as the speed is increased, the balls will begin to ride up the side of the jar (see

Fig. 4) and eventually will ride the circumference, and at this point the mill is

said to have reached its critical speed (Fig. 5) .

This speed will be different for each mill depending on its diameter. Larger

mills have a low critical speed and as the diameter d.ecreases the critical speed

increases (for a mill of 12" diameter, the critical speed is 77 r.p.m.). The critical

speed then, can be defined as "the lowest possible speed necessary to centrifuge

the media next to the mill lining". The critical speed can be calculated by the

following formula.


Critical speed = ---

y'Rft where R is expressed in feet

It is said that the best speed for grinding is between 64% and 87 % of the

critical speed. This is the range when the balls are cascading over each other. As

the speed is increased towards the upper limit (87% ) the balls tend to ride and

leave the wall of the mill and are projected into the void above the general mass

of the media and come crashing down with considerable force - thus achieving

the greatest impact (Fig. 6 ).


Fig. 3. Mill While

stationary or slowly


Fig. 4. Ball action when

speed j ncreases.

Fig. 5. Ball action at

speeds greater than the

critical speed.

Fig. 6. Ball action at

higher grinding speeds.

Fig. 7. Ball action at

lower grinding speeds.

This type of action is best when grinding or reduci~g particle. size is of

primary importance. It also causes the greatest wear of gnndmg medIa and t~e

lining. At the slower speed, the balls will leave the lining at a much lower pomt

and will then roll down the sloping mass of charge (Fig. 7). In this way the whole

mass of balls is in motion, each rolling over and rubbing against its neighbours.

The lower speeds are favoured for larger mills where wear and tear on the grinding

media and lining is kept to a minimum, but the milling time is greatly increased.

A faster speed is generally preferred for small mills, particularly in the case of

studio potters where the mill is only used intermittently and where wear of the

lining and contamination of the product are not such important considerations.

For a mill of 12" diameter, a suitable percentage of critical speed would

be 80% .

Good grinding is said to occur when the angle between the radius to the

point where the outer balls break from the periphery and the vertical is about 54 0 •

This angle is called "the angle of break" (Fig. 8).

The percentage of critical speed and angle of break are theoretical figures

only, and in actual practice it may be found that better milling takes place at

values other than the theoretical ones. But, since calculated curves agree closely

with photographed paths of balls in mills operating at maximum efficiency, it is

believed that variations above and below the theoretical values should be small.

- - ...-==--- -- -tl- - - --

Fig. 8. The angle of break.

Fig. 9. The angle of nip.

Grinding Media

The shape, size, distribution and type of material are all very important

factors in determining efficient grinding.

Shape: The most efficient shapes for grinding media are spherical balls. Many

tests have been made with cylinders, rods and fiat or "natural" shapes. It has been

shown that heavy density ceramic balls can produce the same dispersion in 75%

of the time taken by cylinders. When the ball mill is operated at its correct speed

and when all other conditions are equally correct, the balls follow roughly concentric

and parabolic lines of motion. In doing so, and via their own natural rotary

motion, they subject the material under process to 3 distinct assaults : prepeated

impact, abrasion and shear. The superiority of ball over cylinder can be explained

then, by the obviously greater degree of spin that can be imparted to a ball than

to a cylinder. The processing time taken with fiat or natural shapes falls between


that of the ball and the cylinder. This is probably because the flat "natural" shape

is closer to the ball than the cylinder.

Size: The size of the balls required for any mill will be dependent on the use

of the mill and the particle size of the charge, usually 2 or possibly 3 sizes of balls

are used. The larger size of balls would grind the material when it is first introduced

to the mill and when partly ground, the material will come within the range

of the smaller balls--the larger balls having served their purpose fulfil no real

function for the rest of the milling time. For this reason, the proportion of larger

balls tends to be only 20% and small balls make up the remainder. The ability of

a ball of certain size, to grind a particle of certain size, in proportion to that of

the ball, has a definite ratio and can be expressed by what is called "the angle of

nip" of the ball.

The angle of nip is an important factor relating to the ball action, particularly

in relation to the size of balls and the size of particles to be ground. Anyone who

has operated a roller crusher has seen lumps of materials ride between the rollers

without being ground. Similar action will take place between the balls, if particles

are too large for the balls to grip them (Fig. 9).

The angle between any 2 balls is called the angle of nip. The following

relation has been developed between the angle of nip, , the radius of the ball, R,

and the diameter of the particle, P.



2 P



Theoretical calculations indicate that", is a constant figure and equal to 17°.

Thus, P = 0.0222R.

It has been found that experimental values diller extensively from the

theoretical. This difference is attributed in part to the co-efficient of friction , which

varies greatly with the material to be ground, the mill lining and type of ball.

Thus, for a 12" diameter mill loaded with I" balls, the largest particle that

it is possible to crush would be 0.0111" or 52 mesh. This, I have found to be

untrue in practice. I have a mill of these dimensions and I mill soft material, e.g.,

pumice from 16 mesh to about 150-200 mesh in 3 hours, and hard material,

syenite, from 30 mesh to 150-200 mesh in 3 hours.

Perhaps, friction can account for the difference, but whatever the reason I'm

sure that if the materials were introduced at 52 mesh then milling time could be

halved. But the effort to collect, crush and sieve the material down to 52 or say

60 mesh by hand-which is the only technique available to most potters- unless

you're lucky enough to have access to a rock crusher-makes it worth running

the ball mill an extra hour or two, because, as I have said before power consumption,

mill wear and contamination of the charge are the least important considerations.

Tests in a mill charged with 400 Ibs. of white [rit showed the relation of ball

size to milling time.

Ball Size

Milling ;nme

1 i" 4 hours

2" 8 hours

U" 9 hours

3" II! hours

Still other tests on a 100 lb. mill showed that 90% o[ the material was

ground sufficiently fine in 3 hours to pass through a 200 mesh screen, but four


and a half hours were required to grind 99% of the material in order to pass it

through a 200 mesh screen. Thus t of the time was required to grind 'li 1 of the

frit. An increase in the proportion of smaller balls would have aided in decreasing

the mWing time.

When balls have worn down to an unusable size (and for a 12" mill this

would be half their original size-or less) or have chipped or otherwise lost their

spherical shape then the equivalent weight of new 1" balls should be added to

replace them. In cases where 2 sizes of balls are employed then the new balls

should be added as the larger size.

Materials for Balls: Traditionally, French flints were used as grinding media

(and still are in some industries) but lately dense porcelain has all but replaced

them for most uses. Dense porcelain has a specific gravity of beween 3.3 to 3.6,

and obviously the greater the density and hardness of the balls, then the greater

their ability to crush the charge. This is why recently, sintered alumina or

corundum baJJs have become popular in industry for certain applications, for they

have a specific gravity of 3.97 and a theoretical hardness of 9 on Moh's scale as

compared to approximately 7 (Moh) for flint.

The drawback here is that they are so hard and dense that they tend to wear

porcelain jars excessively, particularly if run near the upper limit. They are recommended

for use in rubber lined jars where they cause virtually no wear. Although,

they have been in use at the University of N.S.W. for quite some time in a porcelain

jar, and I am assured by Ivan McMeekin that they have not caused excessive wear,

this could be because the mill there is run nearer the lower limit.

Loading: The relative amounts of balls, charge, water and air space are very

important, and are usually expressed as percentages of the volume of the jar.

The average volume of the balls is usually about 55 % of the volume of the

jar, but can be between 45 % -60%. When spherical objects are stacked up there is

an air space between them and in practice this is found to be about 40% of the

total volume occupied by the spheres. So, 40% of 55 % is about 22%. In

practice, it has been found that if this space is filled with charge, the best results

are obtained. (Consequently, the real volume of balls is 33% of the volume of

the jar (see Fig. 10). )

The amount of water needed to give best grinding has been found to be about

20% of the volume of the jar. This leaves an air space of 35 % , or about one-third.

The amount of water plays an important role in achieving good results. If there

is too little when the material to be ground starts to be broken up, its surface area

will increase radically and the slip will become thicker. If the slip becomes too

thick, it will act as a cushion between the cascading balls and milling will be

Fig. 10. Relative volume of air,

water, balls and charge.


suspended and no more reduction in particle size of the charge will occur no

matter how long the mill is kept running. On the other hand, if there is too much

water, slippage will occur and good ball action will not be achieved, so mill output

will be low.


Ball mills can be used as blungers and are very efficient for this purpose,

although a very large sized mill is needed to make it economical if the main

throwing body is to be produced in this way. I have a t-ton sized mill for grinding

feldspar and silica for the body and blunging the porcelain body. A small fivegallon

jar is not suitable for this purpose except in special circumstances. For

example, I've blunged a body containing an irony shale to break up and finely

mix the iron thus giving a very bright orange coloured body. 1 found I could not

achieve this in the ordinary blunger.

I've also used the small mill for blunging small quantities of porcelain body

while testing recipes-6t kilos can be blunged at one time. 1 t hours is ample

time for this, so three charges can be blunged easily in a day allowing discharging

time because the mill does not have to be cleaned thoroughly between charges if

the same material is being milled. If a different material is to be introduced the

mill must be scrupulously cleaned.

When being used as a blunger, the mill is best loaded with less balls -

approximately 35 % to 40% and the air space left can be much less or almost

eliminated, thus greatly increasing the volume attainable to the charge and water.


When the mill is to be emptied this is best done by sieving the opening with a

coarse i" sieve and inverting the jar over a large bucket, then rinsing the jar out

and repeating the process. I use this technique for the plastic jar. But the 5-gallon

porcelain jar, when filled with balls, water, and charge is too heavy for most

people to lift so it is best to take out the balls and put them in a bucket half-filled

with clean water then into another bucket half-filled with clean water and then

into a suitable bowl or bucket for storage, until they are placed back into the mill.

After this procedure, the balls will be quite clean and the first washing bucket will

contain about 5 % of the original charge. This is enough to make it worthwhile

keeping, and after decanting the sediment can be returned to the charge for drying.

The jar now will be only about 30% full and can be lifted by a reasonably strong

person, and the charge poured out into a bucket. If it is still too heavy, the charge

can be ladled out into the bucket. After emptying, the jar must be rinsed and

sponged clean before the balls are put back. This is particularly important if a

different material is to be ground next. I'm told by a friend who works in industry

operating ball mills, that if all the charge is not removed-particularly the ultra fine

section-it will double the milling time or halve the mill output of the next

charge. So they pump the jar empty using compressed air. This also prevents

materials like feldspar from settling as hard as a rock in the bottom of the jar

before it can be removed-un'ortunately not many potters have access to compressed

air-so other ways are available to overcome this. Cardew suggests adding

10% China Clay to give better suspension properties. When grinding igneous type

rocks the milling action increases the temperature and pressure in the jar and some

of the alkali materials are released by the grinding. This causes the ph to rise.

I've found that the best way to overcome this is by adding a very small amount of

diluted HCI acid. This will counteract the high alkalinity of the suspension and

return it to neutral, so that, although the material will still settle while unloading


occurs it is very easily stirred up again before it can form a solid rocklike mass in

the bottom. The only problem is that the acid tends to attack the fine brass sieve

lawn and may eventually cause it to wear away sooner than it otherwise wouldbut

even if it does, it's well worth it as far as I'm concerned-and I'm sure anyone

else who has had to try to mix a glaze that "settles" will agree.

If the mill has been used to grind a material with a high iron content after

cleaning, it may still have a discolouration of iron in the pores of the porcelainno

amount of washing will remove this. The easiest and quickest way is to charge

the mill with a couple of kilos of white quartz sand and run the mill for a couple

of hours. This will clean the lining and balls thoroughly. The usual discharging

and washing operation must then be carried out before the mill is recharged.

Dry Grinding

I've not had much experience with dry milling but I understand it is best to

run the mill 10% slower than for wet milling. This is because the friction factor

is so much higher for dry milling and the balls carry farther up the wall of the jar

before cascading. If you run your mill at the upper limit, like I do, then if the mill

is loaded for dry milling, the charge may ride the lining and not cascade at all -

thus very little grinding will occur and the mill lining may suffer excessive wear.

Also, if dry milling the volume of balls can be dropped to between 35 % -45 %.

Dry milling is normally only used when the material being ground is water soluble

or if it is thought that the milling process will break down the internal bonds of

the material releasing solubles. A good example of this is Nepheline Syenite.

Milling Rock

The time required for milling rocks varies greatly and is dependent on:­

hardness of the rock,

starting size of the rock dust,

the way the mill is charged,

speed of the mill,

the type of grinding media and its shape and size.

After the charge has been ground sufficiently fine it then has to be sieved.

I use only 60 mesh just to eliminate any pieces of chipped balls or any of the

original charge that might have got caught in the gap between the lid and the jar

and so missed out being ground. Once sieved the usual procedure is to leave it to

settle. The water is decanted and it is finally put on a drying bed. I've found that

the technique of hanging slip up in filter cloth bags to dry in the wind is virtually

useless for clay slip or any fairly plastic material-but for non-plastics, this method

is excellent. After sieving and setting the slip is poured into a bucket lined with

filter cloth and when almost full , the edges of the cloth are gathered up and tied.

The "bag" of slip is then hung up in a place that is outside in the wind, but

sheltered from the rain. I've found this technique to be twice as fast for drying as

on a drying bed.

I hope these notes are of some use to anyone interested in obtaining a ball

mill . There are a few small and large ones turning up on the second hand market

each year. But new, they are completely uneconomical. So, for the next issue, I

hope to have ready what r plan as a second part of this article--"How to build a

small ball mill---


May Davis

The saga of Harry and May Davis in Peru is always worth some space in POTIERY IN

AUSTRALIA. The Davises are setting up a pottery in Izchucaca in order to train locals as

potters, giving them employment and so preventing the drift to the cities and inevitable

unemployment. Part of a newsletter from May is reproduced.

Harry up at 5.30 (candle-light) and I get a cup of tea in bed. At 6.00 he's out

working on a jigger for crucible making and planning the work for the day. At

7.00 the workers arrive. Javier is to make maketas (unglazed hanging flower pots).

Maximo tries to pump up a flat tyre, but the pump won't work, even for Harry.

Harry and I have breakfast of porridge, tea and rolls. The latter have got

stale and are rock-hard but by holding over steam till they are soggy aud then

toasting in a flame they are fine. 1 sweep through, wash-up and boil water to fill

the filter. 7.45 I leave with three men to get clay. We go to the local petrol pump

first to borrow a pump. "It's out of order." We hail a passing truck with the same

request and get the same answer. 1 get suspicious, but it is probably all true as a

passing bus stops, and they carry compressed air, so the tyre is fixed . A stop in

the village for me to get eggs from a scruffy man with six dogs. (Everyone has

dogs as protection against thieves, though the professional thieves poison the dogs

first.) The matter of change for my 100 sole note is difficult. Ten eggs come to

35 soles (1 sole = 1 U.K. penny or 2 N.Z. cents). He has 65 soles but he can't

do the sum and daren't trust me. He spends ten minutes finding 100 soles in change

from the neighbours which he gives to me. I then pay him back 35 soles. (Note

the tyre and eggs have taken at least five times as long as they would have done

elsewhere. Small but typical examples.) On the way back I go to the bank for

change. There is a man in front of me cashing a cheque. On receiving the money

he hands a 50 sole note back to the clerk, who says "thank you" and puts it in

his breast pocket. They behave as though this tipping was a normal transaction.

I give the men money to get a drink, as it is hard work getting the clay. The drink

is chicha, alcoholic, home-made from maize or the berries of the pepper tree

(schinus molle) . It is sold from an open bucket at 2 cents a glass. Back by 9.30,

Harry says "For God's sake make some tea." He is feeling awful as we went last

week to get bracing for the kiln from a mine above Huancavelica, at J 4,000 feet.

It took three days, two travelling, and the height gave Harry soroche (altitude

sickness) , and on top of that we replenished our water containers from what we

thought would be a high safe stream and it was lethal! We both had two days of

vomiting and diarrhoea. Sr Quispe the mason, with Marcial to fetch and carry, is

building an adobe lean-to at the end of the kiln to house the kiln furniture. Javier

is throwing as is also Jesus, who is making candle-sticks, an idea of his own, and

we hope a good line for local consumption. Milche and Maximo are putting

blunged clay out in cloths to stiffen. Although the rainy season has just begun

(some rain every day) the air is still so dry that we can stiffen the equivalent of a

filter press-full every 24 hours, using nothing but calico bags spread out on dry

earth. Marcial wants a cure for stomach-ache. I give him digestive aids, safe and

harmless. Harry is deciding which tree to cut down for the window-lintel in the

adobe lean-to, then he goes back to working on the jigger. 1 1.00 a.m., the house

vibrates. It is the oil-burning steam-train, half-an-hour late, I can just see the

carriages over the trees with a man sitting on each roof ready to apply the manual


akes. I get lunch and put another pan of water in the filter, but see a crisis

looming, as fuel (leadless petrol) for our camping stove was unobtainable last

visit to Huancayo, and we have only one week's supply in consequence. Lunch is

soup made of left-over potatoes and carrots and a meat cube. Quinoa (a proteinrich

cereal) with onions and tomatoes, and broad beans. Pawcaw for dessert. The

beans are locally grown, and most pods have only one bean in them, some two

and occasionally three, not more. I do not know if this is deterioration of the seed,

the soil or the climate. 12.40 we rest, but Harry is up at 1.00 though I stay longer.

In the afternoon we have a visit from a local man who has a Lima friend with

him, a business man. For the second time we are asked why we don't make fake

Inca antiques. A gulf becomes apparent between us when we are literally unable

to get across to him why we would never do this ... "but" he says, and this to

him is an uncounterable final argument, "there is money in it!" (There is too!)

We light our candles at 6.00 and go to bed at 8.30.

We wish to thank all those who have given us financial support, and also the

many who offered actual help. Alas this was usually in terms of "I have no skills,

only a willing pair of hands" and one reason why we are here is that Izcuchaca

is full of idle, unskilled hands, we don't need any more! We are not appealing for

funds this time. I hope to write again next year with another report on progress

both practical and financial ... so for now, all the best to you all.



Harold J. McWhinnie

J have developed, as part of a National Endowment for the Arts Grant, several

programmes that will calculate and analyse glaze computation problems. This

article will describe two such problems as recently submitted by studio potters.

The computer programmes themselves are written in Fortrand. I just take

the programme which seems to best fit the glaze which I wish to analyse. Each

chemical is identified as a variable and when working from a glaze batch formula,

I place into the programme the necessary molecular equivalents which are divided

into each gram amount. The programme will also unify the formula by dividing

each amount by the sum of our RO factors.

In analysing a glaze, I also programme up to 20 variations on the basic

formula and compute molecular formulas for each of these. I then can select more

than one glaze to test depending upon the specific problem that I wish to solve.

By doing this, I am able to select the more promising solutions to the specific

problem under study. An example is the several solutions that were attempted to

solve the problems with Dennis Caribbean Blue Gloss that I have selected for

discussion in this article.

The following is the batch recipe for Dennis Caribbean Blue, a cone 10

reduction glaze which fires to a glossy burnt orange colour.


( I) Balch formula

Custer feldspar·




Tin oxide




(2) Molecular formula

KaO 0.55

CaO 0.14

SnO 0.10




36.0 grams

36.0 grams

10.0 grams

15.0 grams

02.0 grams

01.0 grams

02.0 grams

02.0 grams

Si0 2


The above glaze fired to cone 10 on Oden Heights stoneware clay becomes

very dry while on porcelain clay fired to a rather nice satin-matt with an ivory

colour. It was decided to remove amounts of flint in order to adjust the melting

point of the glaze.

Our computer analysis of the molecular formula indicated too much Si0 2

although the originator of the glaze did attempt to compensate for the Si0 2 with

the addition of amounts of boric acid. The alternatives which this glaze presented

was to either add more B2 or take out some of the Si02. We decided on the latter


The new formula is as follows:-

KaO 0.55 A1 2 0 : 1 Si0 2 Batch formula

CaO 0.20 .50 5.00 Custer feldspar 36.0

SnO 0.10 Flint 10.0

TiO 0.05 Whiting 15.0

Ben 0.05 Tin Oxide 2.0

0.05 Bentonite 1.0

rtmenite -- Ilmenite 2.0

1.00 Rutile 2.0

The above glaze flowed very well, had good colour, and produced some very

nice ivory pink qualities on white porcelain clay while producing the rutile blues

on the stoneware. Interaction with the iron in the clay body will produce the blue

tones on Oden Heights stoneware clays.

We next tried two more variations on the same glaze formula.

Glaze C

Custer 36

Flint 5

Borax 10

Whiting 15

Tin 2

Bentonite I

Ilmenite 2

Rutile 2

"For Australian potters the material custer feldspar has the following ultimate analysis:

-molecular weight 618, AI . 0 3 content 1.06, SiO. content 7.05. Select your nearest potash

spar with above factors.


This glaze with even less SiO t flowed even better than glaze B, again fired b.

dusty pink gloss on porcelain and a moonlight blue on stoneware.

Glaze D

Custer 36

Flint 20

Borax 10

Whiting 15

Tin 2

Bentonite 1

Ilmenite 2

Rutile 2

This glaze increased the Si0 2 content and did not flow so well on the stoneware,

but still produced the pearl ivory glaze on the porcelain.

The following glaze problem was recently sent to me for a computer analysis.

This glaze consisted of tbe following formula :

A. Neph. Syenite 158.5 grams

Magnesium carbonate 84.97 grams


11.20 grams


61.80 grams


84.97 grams

The desired cone level for this glaze was cone 8 and my correspondent's

problem was that this glaze which had worked for many years at that temperature

suddenly started to craze very badly. This occurred when she changed her source

for feldspar.

Upon analysis her glaze was found to have the following molecular formula:

KaO 0.34 AI 2 0 :! Si0 2

MgO 0.46 0.62 4.23




The cause of her problem would seem to be too much Si0 2 for cone 7-8

glazes and we suggested the following solution:

A. Remove 61 grams of flint

B. Remove 61 grams of EPK

We fired glaze A at cone 10 with good results, a nice satin-matt on Cedar

Heights stoneware and a white glaze on porcelain. So for cone 10 the formula was

correct but my correspondent fires at cone 7-8 so we continued with our adjustments.

Her new formula should read as follows :

B. Neph. Syenite 158.5 grams

Magnesium carbonate 84.97 grams


11.20 grams


23.97 grams

Her molecular formula should be :









Si0 2



This adjustment brought the A1 2 0 a content down to an acceptable range for

cone 8 but we also reduced the silica content a little too much so a further adjustment

was made with the final form ula as glaze C.

We tested the above formula and found the absence of EPK caused the glaze

to "bead up"; also very strong crazing was encountered on the glaze before firing.

Glaze B crazed on stoneware but had a rather nice greenish satin-matt effect

on Cedar Heights. It tended to "bead up" on porcelain when fired to cone 10.







Si0 2




Neph. Syenite 158.5 grams

Magnesium carbonate 84.97 grams


11.20 grams


53.97 grams

At cone 10 this variation also produced a very stony beaded texture due to

no EPK. As a result of these explorations the following glaze was made and tested.

Final Glaze

Neph. Syenite

158.5 grams

Magnesium carbonate 84.9 grams


11.2 grams


23.9 grams


20.0 grams

This glaze formula is one example of the kind of computer analyses which we

can perform here at the University of Maryland.

Harold McWhinnie is Associate Professor of Ceramics at the University of Maryland,

College Park, Maryland, 20742, U.S.A. He has recently received a grant from the National

Endowment for the Arts to develop a data bank for ceramic glazes at the University.

Hopefully th is will be a system whereby glazes can be classified and sorted and then

retrieved in terms of specific characteristics. In addition he has developed a computer

programme which generates over 12,000 cone 8-12 glazes. These glazes will form the

basis for the data bank and he hopes to make this available to students and artists in the

future. He would be interested in conducting research on similar glaze problems for

potters in Australia. He would need to have not only the glaze formulas but ultimate

analyses for the specific raw materials especially sources of feldspar either soda or potash.

NATIONAL FUNCTIONAL POTIERY AWARD in Adelaide (see Exhibitions and Competitions

this issue). The award is sponsored by Bob Mickan who runs ~he. "Pug Mill", the

Adelaide agent for Walkers Clay, in conjunction with the Craft ASSOCIation of S.A., who

will be responsible for aU preselection of the work. The aim of the award IS to promote a

higher standard of functional pottery in Australia. A single piece or set may he deemed

winner, adjudged on functional design, finish, originality and technique. The judge or judges

will be selected just prior to the opening of the award. It will be a selling exhibition and

33t% will be taken out by Aldgate Crafts. Craftsmen not invited formally can enter by first

sending slides of work which will be judged by the exhibition'S committee of the Craft

Association of South Australia, P.O. Box 17, SI. Peters, S.A. 5069. Closing date: Two weeks

prior to opening date.




Porcelain form, 18 em x 16 em

Maequarie Galleries. Sydney 1975


RECENT WORK (continued)


Porcelain form, 16 em x 32 em

First Prize, Faenza 1975


Slip-decorated pot, 48 em x 52 em

Gold Medal, Faeoza 1975


RECENT WORK (continued)


Wine set, feldspar and iron glaze

Potters' Gallery, Sydney J 975


RECENT WORK (continued)


Stoneware 50 em in height

Craft Association of W.A.

Exhibition of 1976



Stoneware. iron glaze. hI. 61 cm

1976 Festival of Arts Exhibition. Adelaide


RECENT WORK (continued)


Salt-glazed stoneware


RECENT WORK (continued)


Draped and coiled drum, 40 cm diameter

Unglazed stoneware, iron and copper rubbed in

Goat Parchment head, lashed with clay and leather thonging



--------;----------- - -

RECENT WORK (continued)


Porcelain incised, 11 em x 9 em

Truffles Gallery, Victoria


RECENT WORK (continued)

VIC GREENAWAY Plate, 38.1 cm , white porcelain, blue decoration Narek Gallery


Trevor Woods

When, last year, we established our pottery 8 km west of Burleigh Heads on the

Gold Coast of Queensland, we chose to call it "Quinja" an Aboriginal word

meaning "ash".

We had a background of a Studio Ceramics course at the Brisbane Technical

College and a long affiliation with the Queensland Potters' Association. In May

1973 I took a few days' leave from the drawing office in Brisbane and my wife

Sybil and I headed for Queensland's Sunshine Coast. We spent a day with the

Everetts at the Montville Pottery and drove away with wild radical dreams. Our

family was largely grown up and off our hands-why not throw caution to the

four winds? Seven years short of superannuation, why not resign my architectural

position and establish a pottery and school in the geographical centre of the Gold

Coast, where we had a family interest in a 10-acre rural site?

We returned to Brisbane from our holiday to find Harry Ashburner contemplating

the possihility of resigning his position as an electrical engineer, to pot full

time, and our planning took on added zest.

We planned a partnership on a time basis where Harry, Sybil and I would be

responsible for sharing the routine duties of running the business with each

responsible for limited production of functional stoneware on behalf of the


We would establish an on-site gallery for the sale of ware produced by

members of the partnership. We would conduct classes. As our partnership duties

would be of a limited nature, time would be available and each of us would be

free to produce and sell our own work without restriction. We were convinced

that, in order to make a living, it would be necessary to concentrate largely on the

making of functional stoneware and, as we each had a strong leaning towards this

type of ware, there was little difficulty in the decision to restrict our production

accordingly. Non-functional ware would represent a very small percentage of our

output. September the sixth, 1974, with our bridges burned by job resignation and

horne sale, Sybil and I and teen-aged son moved into a large caravan on the

Quinja site armed with council building plan approval and surrounded by acres

of six-foot-tall grass.

Six months later we moved into completed living quarters with the adjoining

pottery struc res ready for fitting out and equipping. Home and pottery we had

designed, each to complement the other, with face brick finishes externally and

internally throughout, with stained timber finishes and ceilings the only painted

surfaces. The roof is tiled and concrete, tiles and bricks were selected as floor

finishes. Building materials throughout were chosen with low maintenance a major


We had planned the pottery to provide for a work flow aimed at reducing

unproductive steps to a minimum. Benches and shelves are all on brick plinths

and so remain dry footed during the weekly hosing of the floors which slope and

drain to central floor wastes. Windows extend from 9" above floor level to ceiling

height, generally in 6' wide banks and provide extensive cross ventilation and

natural lighting. Night illumination is provided by thirty fluorescent tubes each of

forty watts.

AU power points are remote controlled from cords hung from ceiling switches

as a safety precaution. A small neon on the plug-in plate indicates whether the


point is switched on or off. A bonus side effect resulted from the ceiling switches

as the walls adjacent to the power points do not become clay spattered. Clay

storage (about 5 tonnes) is just inside an external door which can be reached by

delivery trucks. A wedging table is adjacent, 25" high and topped wit reinforced

concrete. Height and topping material each were happy decisions, e former

suiting Sybil's 5' height as well as our tall male students, whilst the concrete top

is easily cleaned without fear of surface damage. The pugmill, also adjacent to

the clay store, is secured to the lower level of a split-level bench which reduces

the physical effort involved in operating the hopper lever, whilst the high section

accommodates the clay supply at the most convenient level for feeding the mill.

Clay re-cycling is carried out in an area immediately outside the external door to

the clay room and redeemed clay travels only a few steps to be milled ready

for use.

Centred in the studio area and forming the hub to clay preparation, throwing

wheels and glazing area, is a tile topped island bench with stainless steel sink and

lever action tap. At the end of the bench a shadow board carries all turning tools,

ribs, cutting cords, etc. The convenience of running water at the centre of most

major activities we now tend to take for granted.

Two studio wheels occupy the voids between the arms of a bench shaped like

an "En. We often say we couldn't afford an "E" type Jag. but given the option,

we'd choose an "E" type bench. Anyone setting up a studio with one wheel might

well be advised to plug for a "U" type. Our HE" type is 23" high, level with the

wheel heads which makes ware boards, bats, tools and clay placed on it, all within

easy reach.

We made seventy-five ware boards from i" masonite reinforced with two

pieces of pine. They are very light yet do not sag. The reinforcing pieces raise

the boards above bench surfaces providing a sure grip and easy handling. As a

ware board fills with ware it is transferred to six-feet high racks behind. The

racks have solid timber ends to which slats were glued and nailed at 3" centres

top to bottom. The slats serve as runners for the ends of the ware boards and

allow for very flexible height adjustment between boards. Similar racking is provided

in the kiln room and the boards contribute greatly to efficient handling of

ware. They are even carried in and out of the kiln. The glaze area accommodates

bulk supplies of feldspar, kaolin, etc., under benches and oxides, etc., in shelves

above. Beam balance, glaze test pots, etc., are also stored in this area and tengallon

plastic bins placed on the floor serve as glaze containers.





1JG.,I.J..,c. , ,1UCJt. e 'IL Y. -


The "Quinja" partners at work. Greenware lines the wall.

The kiln room houses a 3t c.f. electric kiln, used for some bisque firing,

together with a 63 c.f. (approx. 45 c.L setting space) four-burner, down-draught,

oil-fired kiln. We built the latter ourselves. Materials costs were in the vicinity of

$1,800, of which $1 ,200 was provided by the Crafts Board of the Australia

Council in the form of a cultural grant. Dense fire bricks were used almost

exclusively. Air is provided by an industrial blower and the grade of oil is


Bisque firings, we have had eight to date, have been completed using four

pot burners (firing cycle 14 hours-960°C-oil cost $10) . The first three glost

firings were completed using four pot burners (firing cycle 21 hours-1280°C-oil

cost $20). 1 an endeavour to reduce the length of the firing we decided to switch

from pots to . ts at 950°C. The result over five further glost firings has been a

qualified success (17 hours-1280°C-oil $20). We are happy with the 17-hour

cycle but there are a number of other aspects we feel call for improvement and

we are currently planning modifications in an endeavour to reach temperature on

pot burners alone, as with the first three firings but within the 17-hour jet schedule.

We conduct regular classes and the school area adjoins the studio area.

Classes are limited to 10 students (the pottery being equipped with ten wheels).

Each student is allotted a section of racking slatted to take ware boards in a

manner similar to the studio racking. Pigeon holes (twelve) are provided in the

school area for personal effects during class. The school area is also equipped with

reinforced concrete wedging table, hand-building tables, stools, etc., and students

have their own glazing area and glaze bins although they use the same glazes as


Quinja Gallery, open from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m., six days a week, adjoins the

stud io area without visual barrier b ~tween the two but all other areas arc screened

from the gallery.


A wood-fired and an oil-fired raku kiln have been built and fired in the service

area behind the pottery where bulk oil tanks, etc., are also located. Off the covered

area leading from the pottery to the living quarters are change rooms and store

room accommodating reserve stock, packing cartons, etc.

In our teaching programme we cater for beginners and advanced students.

Emphasis on design, both in form and function, is being stressed in the practical

application of techniques introduced and practised during the year. We now have

forty students enrolled.

So it is that, at a time in life when many people are starting to think of

retirement, we are finding something which began as a hobby, then became an

obsession, and is now a very satisfying way of li fe.

DEREK SMITH'S WORK CHOSEN FOR JAPAN. Tbe Chunichi International Ceramic

Exhibition bas taken place in Japan for some years. 11 is promoted by the Japanese daily

paper "The Chunichi Shimbun" of Nagoya and is arranged witb the co-operation of the

Japanese Foreign Ministry and the Japanese Association for Cultural Affairs. For 1976's

edition the Committee of tbe 4th Exhibition and Ibe director of the "Chunichi Shimbun"

asked the Municipal Administratio~ of Faenza, as organiser .of tbe Jnternatio~ al Competition

of Contemporary ArtistIC CeramICS, to start a co-operauon for the secllon of foreIgn

ceramists in the Japanese Exhibition. It was agreed that the foreign section is formed only

by works coming from the International Competition of Faenza.

Derek Smilh one of the Australian gold medal winners at Faenza, 1975, has had his

"Discoid Form" 'cbosen for Japan. The Museum of Ceramics, Faenza. has also loaned

Derek's work "Slab Form No. 4". The Japanese Exhibition will begin in the first half of

May 1976 in Nagoya; it will move to Tokyo, then 10 Osaka and will close in Kanasawa in



~-------------~ -~ --- --



Janet Barriskill

In the days when the availability of commercially made wheels was very limited

my f ther, Alfred Patten, came up with the idea of making an hydraulic type

whee . In his opinion it would perform equally well as an electrically powered

wheel ith these added advantages:

(a) greater flexibi lity of control with smooth speed change;

(b) infinite number of speeds between zero and maximum;

(c) would take unlimited amount of clay with no fear of stopping or damage to


(d) quiet operation with automatic lubrication by transmission oil;

(e) would lend itself ideally to foot operation.

He had in his possession several hydraulic outfits (war disposals from gun turrets

of armoured cars) and in 1960 the ideas came to fruition and the completed

wheel certainly exceeded all expectations.

The outside specifications of this wheel were made to my own requirements.

I h d specifically asked for a "stand up" wheel at a comfortable height and with

eas of foot operation. The casing was made from sheet metal with a copper work

tray. release lever was fitted to free the belt to the shaft to enable the wheel

head tb be "free wheeled" if required.

I "-ave since had a second wheel designed. It has been suggested that several

wheels could be operated in a line using the one hydraulic system. For the seated

position a separate stool is used and a foot pedal is at a comfortable position on

the rig ; a corresponding foot rest is on the left. An added feature is an alternate

foot dal at floor level to enable one to stand to operate if one wishes. The

Inside wheel showing hydraulic motor

driving wheel head and foot-operated

control valve.

Outside housing of electric motor and

constant delivery pump.





Diagrammatic arrangement of parts.

L (Variable speed).




outside casing used is marine ply. The electric motor, oil tank and hydraulic

pump are housed in a separate brick box outside my workshop.


(a) Constant delivery pump draws transmission oil from the reservoir at constant

quantity and pressure.

(b) Oil is delivered directly to the foot operated speed control valve which in

turn delivers the right quantity and pressure of oil to the hydraulic m r to

drive the wheel head at the desired speed.

(c) When the wheel head is driven at speeds less than the maximum sp the

excess oil is automatically returned by the by-pass pipes to the oil reservoir.

HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT-Refer to diagram.

A. Oil reservoi r.

B. Constant delivery pump.

C. 1 h.p. electric motor directly coupled to constant delivery pump.

D. Foot operated speed control valve.

E. Hydraulic motor driving wheel head.

Note: All parts of the hydraulic circuit can be housed within the oa inet

under the wheel head or alternatively the oil reservoir, electric motor and d6l.ivery

pump may be housed in a separate cabinet away from the machine.



You are invited to partiCipate in a newly created biennial

ceramic exhibition. A Purchase Award of $1000 wi ll be

given by the Mayfair Company. Selected entries will be

displayed in a selling exhibition to be held at the

Australian Design Centre, Melbourne, October 11-0ctober 24,


Application Forms and further information

may be obtained from:

Exhibitions Officer

Crafts Council of Australia

27 King Street, Sydney 2000

Ph 296261



Michael Kusn ik

Michael Kusnik is Lecturer in Ceramics, Department of Art and Design, W.A. Institute of


Michael Kusnik has tested a commercial stoneware body for Pottery in Australia.

Michael writes, "The sophisticated local potters make their own clay bodies using

local raw materials. We have highly plastic china clays as well as a number of

goo · sedimentary clays in W.A. Many local potters make almost any type of

ceramic body, e.g., white and red earthenwares, stoneware, translucent porcelain,

as well as cooking ware body based on cordierite. Local brick and tile manufacture.

s supply the coarser types of clays for schools, etc. In my evaluation I left

out tterburg Limits because from my experience the values are useless to potters.

I agree then the Atterburg Limits are useful figures for construction engineers."


Name on label: Paper Collar Stoneware Body No.2.

Pac aging: Plastic Bags.

Nominal weight: 15 kilos.

Supplier: Meg Sheen Art Supply Shop.

Unfired properties

Moistur~ content as purchased-20.5% wet basis.

Residu on 14 mesh-3.0% of dry weight

36 -4.0%

80 -4.2%

200 -8.1%

ge Wet to Dry-5.0% of wet length

Dry to Cone 9-5.3 % of wet length

Dry m Ius of rupture-5130 kPa (mean of 12 rods)

Firing behaviour

% Water Absorption

Orton Con No. Oxidised Reduced

06 20.6 Not done

03 14.5 Not done

4 9.8 Not done

9 Not done 1.5

Manufacturer's recommended range- 900°C biscuit

1260°C-1280°C glost


Very light pink


Light tan

Brown (reduced)

Estimate of workability

1. Very plastic clay, throws easily, never tires (no fatigue).

2. Easy to throw, dry and fire.

3. Good all purpose clay for beginners and professionals.

4. Contains a few larger particle (pyrites) which on firing bleed and leave

unsightly pinholes.




Maxwell J. Murray

Max Murray works with the C.S.I.R.C. in Melbourne.

Refractory materials now available permit ceramic kilns to be constructed with

much greater insulating efficiency than was possible in the past. In order t make

use of these new materials and techniques, potters and kiln builders should have

a working knowledge of the materials and calculations used in kiln design. In this

article I will firstly describe the properties of refractory insulation and the W4y in

which these properties are determined and presented. Secondly, some of the more

common materials which are available in Australia have been categorized and

listed according to their application and properties. Thirdly, the aspects hich

influence the choice and design of a kiln are considered, and lastly the calculations

involved in designing a kiln are set out in detail.

I would like here to clarify differences between the terms "insulation" and


Insulation is used to describe any material which will resist the passage of

heat and includes not only ceramic materials but also foamed plastics. per.

aluminium foil. etc.

Refractories is the term aplied to construction materials which satisfactorily

withstand high temperatures and generally only refers to ceramic material In the

past, refractories were often not good insulators and it has heen in this area that

modern materials have been developed possessing both good insulating properties

and resistance to high temperatures.

Manufacturers of refractory materials test their products in order to de ermine

the limiting properties of the product. These properties then are our guidelines in

the selection of a refractory material for a specific application.

Let us now consider what some of these properties are and how t · are



The refractoriness, or resistance to temperature, of a material is determined

by the P.C.E. (Pyrometric Cone Equivalent) test. A sample of test material is

prepared in the shape of a pyrometric cone and is placed in a kiln together with

a number of known pyrometric cones, the values of which co er a range of

temperatures. The cones are heated until the test material cone softens sufficiently

to bend under its own weight. The test material is compared with the pyrometric

cones nearest to it in behaviour. Sometimes material may not correspond just to

one cone and may be described as having a PCE value between two cones.

Refractory structures rarely fail by melting; before this can occur they are

more likely to collapse. Many kilns and ovens are quite large structures in their

own right and the refractories used in these structures, particularly in an arched

roof. have to support very high loads. For this reason another test was developed

to give an indication of strength at high temperatures. The R. U.L. (Refractoriness

Under Load) test is carried out by heating a sample of test material while it is

compressively loaded with known weights. The temperature and movement taking

place in the sample are measured until a reduction of more than 5 per cent in the

original length is registered. The temperatur~ at which collapse commences and


----~-------- - - -

at I per cent deflection intervals up to 5 per cent are used as an indication of the

material's R. U.L. value.

Another test which is used as a measure of the stability of a material to

repeated heating is the Determination 0/ Permanent Linear Change on Reheating.

This test is carried out by accurately measuring a refractory sample, heating the

sample to a measured temperature and soaking the sample at that temperature

for a set period. After cooling the sample is again measured and any difference

between the first measurement is presented as the permanent linear change in per

cent of the initial length.

Thermal Conductivity

The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of its ability to transfer

heat. For kiln insulation, low thermal conductivity is sought. Knowledge of this

property enables the kiln designer to minimize the amount of heat lost through

the kiln wall and by the design of less bulky, thinner walled kilns to improve the

thermal efficiency.

Thermal conductivity is measured on a complex apparatus in which one face

of the test material is heated while the opposite face is cooled by a water filled

calorimeter. The rise in the temperature of the water is measured at a range of

hot-face temperatures.


The porosity of a ceramic refractory is a property which strongly influences

the thermal conductivity. Porosity is the air space contained within a ceramic in

the form of holes or pores expressed as a percentage of its volume. The higher the

porosity, the better usually will be its insulating ability, but strength, R.U.L. and

durability to abrasion and corrosion may be lowered.

Porosity is determined in several ways, one of which is to weigh a thoroughly

dry refractory sample (Wd), then to boil the sample in water for two hours. The

sample is left in the water for at least three hours after it has cooled and is then

weighed while immersed (Ws). The sample is then removed, lightly dried on the

surface and weighed again (Ww) . The apparent porosity as a percentage of the


total volume is then obtained using the formula : P = X 100.



Another important property to know when choosing refractories is density,

especially refractories used in shuttle and other intermittent kilns. The bulk density

of a refractory material, expressed in grams per cubic centimetre can be determined


from the data obtained in the porosity test, where: B.D. = ----

Ww - Ws

SpecifiC Heat

The specific heat of a material, in conjunction wi th its density is used to

calculate the energy storing capabil.ity of the material. Specific heat is the heat

energy which will raise the temperature of one gram of material by one degree

Celsius. The ability of a material to store heat is dependent on both its density

and specific heat. The energy which is stored in the refractory will considerably

increase the cost of a firing. During the cooling cycle the stored heat is released

delaying the rate at which cooling can be carried out, although with some

refractories a tendency to spall may be an overriding factor.


Thermal Expansion

The thermal expansion of a ceramic material is also important. When most

ceramic materials are heated they will expand and if constrained wiJI tend to

crush and spall or buckle the structure. This is the reason that expansion joints

are built into kilns to enable movement to be absorbed in a gap of soft compressible

material. Many ceramic materials do not expand at a constant rate; quartz is a

good example. When quartz is heated and reaches 573 degrees Celsius it will

suddenly expand at a greater rate. This sudden change in its rate of expansion is

known as the quartz anomaly and is a reversible change in volume. You can

imagine the stresses in a high silica containing material, which due to shading or

proximity to burners is say 30° hotter at one end than the other. At 573 °C one

end will suddenly expand while the other end wiJI not change.

The thermal expxansion of a ceramic material is measured in a dilatometer.

A sample of material is placed in a small furnace on the dilatometer and gradually

heated. As the material increases in length the amount of growth is recorded

together with the temperature. When completed the data is plotted on a graph.

Some example dilatometric curves are shown in Fig. 1. Curve A is a typical 32 per

cent alumina fireclay brick. The large and sudden expansion due to the quartz

anomaly is clearly seen at 573°C. This type of brick is popular with potters for

kiln construction largely because of its cheapness and availability. The 50 per cent

alumina brick, Curve B, has a better thermal expansion curve in that the expansion

rate is uniform over the temperature range and therefore the material would not

be subjected to as severe stress in heating and cooling. However, the cost of this

type of brick is usually greater.

The Diatom brick, Curve C, is the best of all in terms of thermal expansion

and also has very good insulating properties; however, its P.C.E. value is only

cone 010 (approximately 900°C) and it must not be used above this temperature.


Before a decision is made on what construction materials to choose, first

decide what size kiln is most suitable for your particular requirement. Consider

the situation where say a potter is producing on average .03 cubic metres (approx.

1 cu. ft.) of ware a day. They could choose to build a small .037 cu.m. kiln and

fire once a day, or build a I cu.m. kiln and fire once a month. Let us co ider the

economic factors involved.

Figure 2 shows the internal dimensions of a .037 and 1.01 cu.m. capacity

kiln. For simplicity the flue and firing boxes have been omitted. Assuming a

common method of insulation in both cases, the internal surf· e areas were

calculated. In the case of the smaller kiln this was 0.67 sq.m. or a surface area to

volume ratio of 18.1 : 1. With the larger kiln the surface area wa 6.25 sq.m. with

a surface area to vol ume ratio of 6.25 : \. Other factors being equal, heat losses

due to conduction are dependent upon the area of refractory insulation used. the

internal surface area of the small kiln is nearly three times greater than the llirge

kiln for an equivalent volume, therefore the heat losses by conduction from the

smaller kiln would be nearly three times more than from the larger kiln for the

same volume of ware. The heat storage capacity of the smaller kiln is also three

times that of the large kiln, when you consider that 27 firings are required to

achieve the same ware output. It is therefore obvious that the larger the kiln the

more efficient it will be.

Because thermal efficiency decreases with size it is imperative that very light

weight, highly insulative materials should be sed in the construction of any small

kiln. The materials need not be particularly song and the ceramic fibre materials,







FiS 3 Max,,,,,,,,, T.mpe"lIu. LimI ts lor Ie Un

Solid Mat .. ;a!~





GttrHll., &- fle.1bIe

Mal:'r .."

. Hot 'act lin"'91

" kltn furn; II,,,e.

Hot l.ee inwliliort

. SKk"'P onsulflion

... ElirctrOfl'lclIf'd




'-'-'- '- '




_._._._ . ..s.­


600 800



' Rl ·28

• Reuynill1ited

Sillcone • • blde.

tS ilh~k

1 CordOenil\: Mulli!

' RI·1G

~ Sil~C,}rbide

+ Ordi1h36

+OrdilhJ2 ' A12.

' Ukbti


After establishing the size and shape of the kiln the next thing to consider is

the most economical materials for construction. Let us now consider some of the

refractory materials which are available in Australia and of interest to potters and

kiln builders.

Listed in Fig. 3 are the maximum temperature limits of various kiln materials.

They have been grouped into three categories.

(1) Hot Face Linings and Kiln Furniture

These materials are generally not good thermal insulators but are instead

strong materials at high temperatures, have high R.U.L. values, and are resistant

to abrasion. They are used in applications in which they are likely to be subjected

to high loads or wear, such as kiln props, bats, bridge walls, door jambs and

surrounds. They usually have high heat storage capacities and so their use should

be kept to a minimum.

(2) Hot Face Insulation

These materials are used as the main internal insulation of a kiln. They have

low thermal conductivities and in most cases are also low in density and have high

R.U.L. values. The ceramic fibre products are excellent hot face insulators but in

the blanket form are not self supporting which causes difficulty in construction.

Expense is a limiting factor with all hot face insulation.

(3) Back-up Insulation

These are lower cost insulators usually having very good insulating properties

but they are limited by low P.C.E. values and so are used behind hot face

insulating materials.

Table 1 gives the properties of these locally available refractory materials

listed according to their general use. Firstly, attention is drawn to three potentially

hazardous materials.

A sbes/os: I have deliberately left this material off the table. It is dangerous

to health, causing lung and stomach cancer, even 20 years after contact and its

use should be avoided at all cost.

Ceramic Fibre: Recently health authorities have expressed concern at the

possibility of some fibres having similar effects to asbestos. Wear a dust mask

when handling these materials.

Diatomaceous Powder: Long term contact by inhalation can cause Ilicosis of

the lungs. Wear a dust mask if you are using this material. (This is t e material

used in swimming pool filters; owners take note.)

One group of materials not listed are the castable and mouldable group of

refractories. These materials are difficult to list accurately in terms of their properties.

Strength, density, porosity and thermal conductivity ar all influenced by

the method of preparation and application and can vary over wide limits.

The materials are applied or cast in a wet mouldable form and allowed to set

to a desired shape. There are three methods by which setting may take place. Air

setting in which a chemical bonding agent such as Sodium Silicate is incorporated

in the mix. Heat setting in which the actual bonding is achieved ceramic ally by

firing, and hydraulic bonding in which a high alumina refractory cement combines

with water to set as concrete. In all cases maximum strength is achieved only after


In order to reduce the overall cost of refractories in a kiln, we should try

to use various material combinations. As the temperature within the wall of a

kiln decreases, a material with a lower temperature rating can be used. These

materials are less expensive and are usually better insulators. From the table it is


apparent that there are a number of excellent insulating materials but with

limitations on the maximum temperature at which they can be used. For example,

the diatom brick is a good back up insulator but if the brick was to be subjected to

more than 900°C it would have to be used in combination with one or more other

materials with higher maximum service temperatures. The skill in kiln design is

to use a minimum quantity of costly refractories for the hottest parts of a kiln and

to back them with larger quantities of lower cost insulating materials.

When two or more materials are used in a structure the contact interface

temperature must be calculated. This is done to ensure that the temperature will

not exceed the maximum temperature limit of the lower quality materials, otherwise

the kiln could fail at the interface.

The temperature of each interface is also used in calculating the heat storage

capacity of an intermittent kiln. The heat storage or thermal inertia is important

in considering the overall thermal efficiency of refractory insulation. For example,

one material combination may be very good for thermal insulation but may waste

more heat in s:orage than another material combination which is less effective in


Anybody who attempts to design a kiln should know how to calculate the

conduction losses, interface temperatures and thermal storage capacity of refractory

insulation. Without this knowledge the hit and miss approach will more than likely

result in a very inefficient kiln, costly in its use of fuel and costly in its materials

of construction. The calculations are not difficult and nowadays with the aid of

the electronic calculator they can be carried out fairly quickly.

The following example is for the previous I cu.m. capacity kiln constructed

with a combination of refractory materials. The kiln has the internal dimensions

of 0.91 m wide, 1.09 m long and 1.02 m high. For simplicity the same material

combination is used in the walls, floor and roof and a steady state situation in

which temperatures have stabilized, is considered. The properties of all the

materials used are listed in Table 1.


I. Conduction Losses

Firstly sketch a cross-section of the chosen layout depicting the materials

which will be used. Then write in for each material the thickness and the thermal

properU of conductivity and density.








(4t") (2") (4t")

~kness .115 m .05 .115 m


conductivity .10 .21 1.12

w/ m.K

Density 1200 256 1600 kg/ rna

1 .235 m (11") ~

The resistance to the conduction of heat or thermal resistance for each of the

insulating materials is calculated by dividing the thickness of the material by its

thermal conductivity value.

. thickness of material

Thermal ReSIstance (Rt) = --:-________ _

For the firebrick

Rt _

thermal conductivity value


= . 115



For the vermiculite Rt

For the clay brick



.2 10




= .102

Add them together for

the total Thermal Resistance

= .455 square metres Kelvin/ watt.

or m 2 °C/ w

The heat Bow for every square metre of kiln interior surface can now be

calculated for a given temperature difference. The outer surface temperature of a

kiln is influenced by the velocity of air Bow over that surface. The velocity in turn

is influenced by whether the surface is horizontal or vertical, and the texture of the

surface. GeneraUy after taking all these factors into account and giving consideration

to an economically viable temperature, a figure of about 100°C is accepted.

The temperature difference between the inside of a kiln operating at 1300°C and

the outside of the kiln say 100°C is 1300 - 100 = 1200°C.

temperature difference

Therefore Heatflow (q) = ______.,.-__

total thermal resistance

1300- 100


= 2637 watts/ sq.m.

The heat Bow figure multiplied by the surface area of the kiln will give the Heat

Loss Due to Conduction.

For a 1 cubic metre kiln with a surface area of 6.25 square metres the conduction

heat loss Qc = 6.25 X 2637

= 16 480 watts or 16.48 kilowatts.

This is the power lost every hour that the kiln is at I 300°C. The loss also occurs

at lower temperatures but at a reduced amount.

2. lllterface Temperatures

The next step in the calculations is to determine the interface terwx:ratures

between refractories to ensure that they will not exceed the upper tttnperature

limit of any of the insulating materials.

I ff te~'

TemperalUre between the 1st and 2nd material

(Firebrick and vermiculite) T = inside temperature - heat flow X

1·2 thermal resistance of 1 st material

1300- (2637 X .115)

1300- 303

= 997°C

Note that this temperature is just below the lOOO°C limit for vermiculite fill.

Temperature between 2nd and 3rd material

(Vermiculite and clay brick) T = T - heat flow X thermal

2-3 1·2 resistance of 2nd material

997 - (2637 X .238)

997 -628

= 369°C

Note that this temperature is well below the 900°C limit for clay brick.

3. Heat Storage

Temperature on outer surface

T = T - (2637 X .102)

3-4 2·3

= 369-269

= lOO°C

The heat lost due to storage in the refractories can now be calculated,

assuming steady state conditions have been reached.

Heat stored (Q) = surface area X thickness X density X specific

heat of the refractory X average maximum temperature.

For the calculations a specific heat of .22 calories/ gram. Kelvin is taken.

Heat stored in the firebrick Q = 6.25 X .115 X 1200 X .22 X t(T + T )

inside 1·2

= 6.25 X .J 15 X 1200 X .22 X HJ300 + 997)

= 217 833 kilocalories.

Heat stored in the vermiculite Q = 6.25 X .05 X 256 X .22 X t(997 + 369)

= 12 020 kilocalories.

Heat stored in the clay brick Q = 6.25 X .115 X 1600 X .22 X H369 + 100)

= 59 202 kilocalories.

The total heat stored = 217 833 + 12 020 + 59 202

= 289 055 kilocalories X .001163

= 336 kwh

These calculations can be applied to any refractory combination provided the

technical data is available. The procedures are fundamentally those given in the

following texts: ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1967; Chemical Engineers'

Handbook, J. H. Perry, McGraw-Hill. Further examples of refractory combinations

and the calculated results are shown in Table 2. The first combination (l) we

have just calculated. In the (II) combination the vermiculite and firebrick were

replaced with an RI-26 insulating brick. This shows an obvious improvement over

the previous combination with a reduction in overall losses, even though conduction

losses are greater.

The ([[I) combination u lizes a diatom brick on edge backed with rockwool,

in place of the clay brick. The t tal heat losses are further reduced but the interface

temperature T 12 exceeds the rna imum limit of the diatom brick and the combination

wou'd be unsafe to use for long at 1300°C.

The (IV) combination is interesting in that it is the same as (III) except

that the rock wool has been left off. This has caused an increase in the conducted

heat loss with a resultant lowering of the interface temperature, and so the diatom

brick can now be safely used. It is also interesting to note that the heat lost in


storage is now less and that this combination of refractories would be the most

economical {rom an energy conservation basis.

The newer ceramic fibre materials sold under the trade names of Triton

Kaowool, Fibrefax, Cerafelt, Saffil, etc., are being increasingly used for kiln

insulation and so I have incorporated these materials in the next three material

combinations. Note however, that the maximum temperature limit for the lower

cost fibres is 1260°C. Example (V) shows the effect of a single layer of ceramic

fibre blanket. The wall is only 50 mm thick and yet the heat losses have been

substantially reduced. These materials however are not free standing and would

need to be supported from outside. The usual method of supporting ceramic fibre

blanket is to attach it to a rigid backing material, with heat resisting pins spaced

about 300 mm apart. The commercially available pins are expensive, and add to

the already high cost of the fibre. A less costly method is to use short lengths of

16 swg "Kanthal" element wire bent into loops and passing through the fibre to

be fixed on the cooler side to a steel framework or refractory brick wall.

The material combination (IV) shows the effect of an additional supporting

wall of diatom bricks placed on edge. The heat losses have been further reduced

and a simpler supporting framework would now be used to support the roof.

The last .combination (VII) is similar to a design described by H. D. Emblem

and colleagues and referred to earlier in this article. This combination uses

ceramic fibre blanket pinned to a panel of vermiculite concrete which is in turn

backed with low cost rock wool blanket. Large insulating panels could be made

in this way and encased outside with light gauge steel. The panels would quickly

assemble into a kiln and be self supporting. The heat losses for this combination

are the lowest of any previous method of construction.

An argument often put forward by potters is that light insulation is a waste

of money because insufficient heat is stored in the refractories to slow the rate of

cooling down. Slow cooling being a requirement for crystal growth in some glazes,

r disagree with this attitude for several reasons. Firstly, in a large well loaded

kiln a lot of heat is unavoidably stored in the ware itself and if the kiln insulation

is efficient it will prevent this heat from being lost at any great rate, thus slowing

cooling. Secondly, if especially slow cooling is desired it is still economically

feasible to "fire down", that is control the rate of cooling by still applying some

heat from the burners for the few hundred degrees in which this is required. For

example, the cost of firing down a 1 cu.m. capacity kiln constructed from the

(VII) material combination would amount to 6c per hour, using natural gas. The

reason for this low figure is that heat is no longer required to raise the temperature

of the ware or refractories, and the only losses are the very low conduction loss

and a small flue loss.

Most potters fire much too slowly. Quicker heating and cooling should be

carried out to suit the sensitivity of the ware and not be restricted by the

dominating influence of heavy refractories. Quicker heating and cooling can enable

a more rapid turn-around of a kiln and in situatio s where there is frequently a

backlog of work waiting to be fired, this can save the cost of building another kiln.

Another advantage of lighter kiln materials is that foundations need not be as

heavy or as costly.


Any article on kiln design would not be complete if it did not make some

reference to the fuels used for firing. The choice of fuel will greatly influence the

design of a kiln and the choice of refractories. For instance an electric kiln would


not require the same quantity of refractories as a gas or oil kiln, as there would

not be a flue or firing box.

The following briefly lists the comparative merits of three of the most

popular fuels. The costs are applicable to Victoria but may have to be modified

in other areas.


Electricity is much easier to control than gas and oil fuels. Several tariffs

exist in Victoria. Commercial potters can take advantage of a night rate between

the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. at only 1.2 1 c/kWh, although their day tariff is

a little higher than that for domestic consumers. For hobby potters (people not

manufacturing for sale) the domestic tariff can be used. That is: for the first

90 kWh, 9.99 c/ kWh; for the next 450 kWh, 3.17 c/ kWh; and the balance used

in a yearly quarter at 2.58 c/ kWh.

The average domestic consumption of electricity for washing, lighting, refrigeration,

etc., is 950 kWh per quarter so that any kiln firing costs would be only

at the 2.58 c/ kWh rate.

Another advantage with electric firing is that flue losses do not exist. This is

the heat wasted by being carried out by the exhaust gases when gas, oil or for

that matter wood, is burned.

Natural Gas

Natural gas is becoming more readily available throughout Australia and is

a very convenient fuel. The price in Victoria on the domestic 04 tariff for people

with gas room heaters, is .17 c/ megajoule (1 kWh = 3.6 Mj) which is equivalent

to .612 c/ kWh.

If the industrial tariff is applied the cost is .32 cjMj for the first 20,000 Mj,

.26 c for the next 30,000 Mj, .21 cjMj for the next 100,000 Mj, and so on down

to .1 cjMj.


The versatility and cleanliness of LPG are the main features of this fuel. The

cost has increased recently and it is now $12.50 per 100 lb. bottle, which is

equivalent to 1.98 c/kWh. The freedom from the Natural Gas Authority's regulations

is claimed by many to be worth the extra expense; however, this can be a

short-sighted view.

Safety Equipment

Safety equipment should be fitted to any kiln, but in particular to gas-fired

kilns, in order to guard against the risk of overheating or explosion. The natural

gas authorities are strict in this requirement and will not allow a kiln to be connected

to their supply unless it meets with their regulations. Thus many potters

bypass these regulations by using LPG which is not as strictly controlled. For a

small kiln, continuously watched, the risks are perhaps tolerable but an explosion

in a large kiln can be fatal. If you are designing or already have a large kiln, give

some thought to fitting the required safety equipment; you should find that the

saving in fuel costs by changing to natural gas will soon pay for the extra equipment


Kiln FIring Costs

The amount of energy required and the fuel used will obviously set the basis

for the cost of a firing. As was previously shown, the correct choice of refractories

will enable a saving in energy by cutting down heat losses and shortening firing

times. Just how much this "lost" energy is worth, for each of the previous material


combinations is shown in Table 3. The calculations are based on steady state


Table 3. Cost of energy lost for 1 cu.m. kiln, using different fuels.

7 h.

Cost of Lost Heat



Total Electric LPG" Natural"

Material Heat Loss Firing at Firing at Gas Firing at

.6 I 2c/ kWh

Com binatioD kWh 2.58c/ kWh I 1.98clkWh I

I 451 $11.63 $10.71 $3.31

II 327 $ 8.44 $ 7.76 $2.40

III 271 $ 7.00 $ 6.44 $2.00

IV 261 $ 6.74 $ 6.20 $1.92

V 167 $ 4.30 $ 3.96 $1.22

VI 109 $ 2.81 $ 2.60 $0.80

VfJ 92 $ 2.37 $ 2. 18 $0.67

" includes 20% allowance for flue loss

It is apparent that the choice of fuel can have a marked influence on the cost

of the firing.

The decision on the shape, size, refractory combination and fuel rests with

you the user. Hopefully now you will be able to design and build your own kiln,

specifically suited to your particular requirements, and do this more economically

than in the past.



Authors Note: The specific heat of refractories is usually not give~ by

manufacturers. A value of . 22 J/kg for most paterials

and . 27 J/k9 for ceramic fibres is re=ommended.

+Hot Face Lininss & Kiln Furniture



Not Available

Maximum Bulk. Thermal Apparent

Supplier Type Service Density Expansion Porosity


C kg/m 3 em/em °c ,

N H A F 1400 2120 NA 20

N Ordish 36 1350 1880 NA 28

N Ordish 32 1300 860 NA 27

0 t-1ullite (electromel t) 1650 2500 ·5.0 NA


Silicon carbide (ree) 1500 2600 4.0 NA

0, R, D Sillimanite 1470 2700 5.0 NA

0, R, D OOrdierite-Mullite 1450 2900 3 . 0 NA


0 , R, D Cordierite 1300 2700 2.7 NA

·Hot Face Insulation












N, 10, V 1U- 26

N, 0, V RI-20

N, RI-24

I, E Chrome-Alumina Fibre(i)

J, G, E High Alumina Fibre (ii)

K, G, E Ceramic Fibre S 1b(iii)

K, G, E Ceramic Fibre 6 1b

K, G, E Ceramic Fibre 4 1b

















.49 @ 1000 0 C

.43 @ 1000

.37 @ 800

.18 @ 800

. 1S @ SOO

.24 @ 1000

.27 @ 1000

.33 @ l OCO

"sack Ug Insulation



H Darley

5 Litebrik

N Orcel

A, W Vermiculi te Concrete*

E Calciwn Silicate

N Diatom Erick

L Clay Brick

E Marinite
















k9/ m3










. 65 g 500°C

.505 @ 500

. 550 @ ?

.2~ @ SOO

.112 @ 500

#l ~ @ 600

1600 1.12 @ 600

576 .U5 @ ?

















Vermiculite Fill

Oia tomaceous Fill

Perlite Fill

Rock Wool BlankEt

Fibre Glass Blanket






256 .21 @ 800

400 .16 @ 500

135 .12 @ 500

60 .073 @ 260

44 . 094 @ 260






Suppliers Names:

5 South Yarra Firebrick Co.

N Newbold General Refractories

A Australian Gypsum

I' George \'1ills, McCann & Son

E Eliza Tinsley

L Local brickworks

1~ Materials Ltd

B Bradford Insulation

C I.e! Fibreglass

H Darley Firebrick Co.

I ICI Refrac tories

I' G.R. Stein

J 3-M company

K Morganite

0 Nonporite

R Russel Co''''an

0 Diamond Ceramics

V R G Williams & Co .

G Carborundum

"'Vermict:,lite Concrete

Vermiculite 5 parts by vol ume

Ciment Fondu 1 part


Table 2. Heat losses under stt!adv state conditions for different material combinations.




T emperalure

Conducted Stored Total

Heat loss ' Heat Loss Heat l on


13000 C

Th ickneu(m)

Th erma! Cond

D. nsity


13000 e

Th icknes,(m)

Th ermal Cond

De nsity

Firebrick Ver. Clay Brick

(4 %",

. 115





(4 Yz" )



1200 256 1600 lOOOC





. 115



Clay Brick


. 115


1600 l000C




13000 e RI ·26 Diat. Rock


- (4 \;"1 (3") \1"1

Th ickness{m)

Th ermal Cond

D. nsity




.07 5





60 l OOOC




13000 C

Th it:kncss(m.

Th ermal Cond .

D. mity






(3" 1


640 100 0 e


R 11·2, 12·3

m 2 K/w ·C


.455 369

.4 10 402


1.044 4 g~

.702 776

q a at

kw kwh kwh

16.48 336 451

18.29 199 327

7.18 221 271

10.68 186 261




12 woe


Th ickness(m)

The rmal Cond.

D ensity










(2") ~

.312 -


23.2 4.75 166.8


Table 2 Continued

Thermal Interface Conducted Stored Total

R psistan~ Temperature Heat loss Heat Loss Heat Loss

R t' _2. t2_3. q 0 Ot



12SOOC Ceramic Diat.


12"1 13" 1

Thiekneu{m} .05 .075

Thermal Cond


.16 .19

96 640


~1 5"'J --

m2K/w "C kw kwh kwh

.704 747 10.3 36.5 108.5





Thermal Cond


Ceramic Ver. Rock



12" 1 13-, In

.05 .075 .025

.1 6



96 450 60

f--- 16"1

1.013 Btl6

512 7.5 42.4 94 .9


ING. A mid-term special instruction course will be held at the Gallery workshop

every Thursday and Friday evenings from 6-9 p.m. for a period of four weeks

from 3rd June to 25th June inclusive. The tutor will be Richard Brooks, who has

worked with both the Leach Pottery and Shiga Shigeo. Twelve students only will

be enrolled, and these are expected to be reasonably proficient at the wheel.

Instruction will cover production attitude and application following through with

the turning and possible appendages. No firing will be done within the course

duration. Enquiries to the Potters' Society of Australia, 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst.

Telephone : 31-3151. Tuesday to Saturday. Fee: $30.00.



A brief review of the Potters' Society of Australia.

In the six months since the Spring issue of POllery in A IIstralia there has been great activity

both for the Society and many of its members.

A new vitality is evident with the establishment and development of the Society's new

headquarters at 48-50 Burton Street. Darlinghurst, Sydney. Much credit goes to Hon.

Secretary Joan Alenson for her part in this. Better facilities bave been created for members

with the updating of equipment in the workshop and the provision of a library-reading room,

which also serves for viewing slides and films.

Exhibition galleries have been renovated. The Potters' Society now has the major

exhibiting gallery for ceramics in Sydney, with four rooms on two levels. These are attractiog

increasing numbers of visitors.

Membership of the Society now stands at 415 with 140 Exhibiting Members in all

States. There are 113 residing outside N.S.W. Recognition of the role of the Society is

increasing. The N.s.W. State Government, through the Department of Culture, Sport and

Recreation has assisted with small grants, one to help the Society to undertake a country

kiln-building seminar in Condobolin and another towards the purchase of equipment for the

workshop. The Crafts Board of the Australia Council has made a grant for the commissioning

of special articles for Pottery in Australia.

The Society continues to undertake schools and seminars in ceramics in both city and

country areas. The kiln-building seminar, conducted by Jim Simpson in Condobolin in

September 1975 drew potters from many country areas and proved a very successful evenl.

The now traditional Potters' Society Summer Schools were quickly filled . An Earthenware

School for beginners was conducted by Beryl Barton and a Stoneware School for advanced

students was conducted by Richard Brooks and Melinda Hardy. Both were held for the first

time in the workshop area of the Potters' Society headquarters. The latter was also the venue

for the Brian Newman four-day workshop in Sydney in October 1975, a project organised

by the Craft Associ.ation of N .S.W. and financed by the Crafts Board.

In addition to general exhibition of Members' work there were special shows by Peter

Dobinson and Janet Barciskill.

The Society's Workshop School commenced its 1976 enrolment with full evening classes,

students enjoying the improved faci lities. Associate Members' days held monthly were well

supported. A varied programme has been followed involving talks, slide viewings, demonstrations

a nd general participation.

Of special significance was the visit to China of the Australian Potters' Delegation,

organised by Margot Staples and lead by Ivan McMeekin. This was as much a "diplomatic"

mission as an instructional visit and as such was very successful. A Potters' Society Group

depaJled for a tour of China in April this year.

International Women's Year 1975 was bighlighted in various ways. The Australian

Information Service featured two members, Janet Mansfield and June Lord in the publication

"Austlalia and Australia Now", in recognition of the importance of women potters


Tbe momentum gained in tbe past period continues with the visit in April of the

internationally-known potter, Don Re.itz, to give master classes, workshOps and lectures in

Sydney, Perth , Canberra, Armidale and Cootamundra. His visit, co-sponsored by the Potters'

Society of Australia, coincides with the Australian-American Festival. SpeCial ceramic

exhibitions of Members' work are planned for the Potters' Gallery and the Seymour Centre.

A school for production throwing is being organised for mid-year to further develop

ski lls of members and an Jnterstate Members' Exhibition is to be "'eld in Octoher 1976 al

the Potters' Gallery.



HANDICRAFTS OF INDIA by Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay, published by the

Indian Council of Cultural Relations, Azad Bhavan, Indraprastha Estate, New

Delhi, 110001. Price: Rs 60.00. Forty-four pages of black and white illustrations,

twenty pages of colour, 146 pages of text.

Meeting Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay at the World Craft Council's Asian

Conference in Sydney in 1975 one could not fail to be impressed by her deep

sincerity and good sense when she spoke of the craftsman's place in the developing

nations. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay had been chairman of the All India Handicrafts

Board for 20 years and active in the theatre movement for a great part of

her life. She has also held the position of Vice-President of the World Crafts


Handicrafts of India sets out to document the traditional crafts of India,

giving information on techniques and historical development and discussing the

place of the crafts in the lives of the Indian people. A chapter on earthenware

points out that clay objects for ritual use are as important and prolific as clay

domestic utensils. A filled water pot is a symbol of good omen and indispensable

in any ritual, and the many deities requiring worship cause the production of

countless clay figurines, ceremonial pottery and votive offerings. The style and

production methods of a great many districts are described including reference to

glazed tableware, recently developed.

"The growth of handicrafts in society was the sign of the cultivation of

sensitivity and the stirring and mellowing of humanism. It stood for man's endeavour

to bring elegance and grace into an otherwise harsh and drab human life

.. . " wrote the author in her introduction. As a record of the crafts of a highly

creative people Handicrafts of India is a work of authority.

It is a pity that the illustrations which all appear at the end of the book on

unnumbered pages were not directly related to the text.


Frank Hamer, Pitman Publishing Pty. Ltd., 158 Bouverie Street, Carlton 3053-


This is a large, very readable book containing 348 pages profusely illustrated

with photographs and line drawings. Apart from its value as a dictionary this

book contains as much useful information as you would find in a small library of

potters' references.

The definition 0 words and phrases is frequently followed by a detailed

article. Under the headmg Crack is a description of 20 different types of cracks,

their causes and remedies. Perhaps you are guilty of Clobbering, you can find its

definition in these pages. An appendix of useful tables such as Conversion Scales,

Formulas, Table of Elements, and Ultimate Analysis, to mention a few, add to

the book's value.

Frank Hamer has produced this excellent book with an authority based on

years of experience as a potter and teacher.




Craft Centre, South Yarra

Judy Lorraine's exhibit "Potsound II:

Primitive Metaphysical Propositions"

at the Craft Centre in South Yarra,

Victoria, offered the viewer a sigruficant

sensual experience. Using unglazed

clay, hides, knotted and coiled

fibres, and bamboo, she created a

series of musical instruments which

satisfy the auditory, as well as tactile

and visual senses. The broad range of

works included drums of several types,

plate and bowl gongs, chimes, pluckin'

drums, maraccas, ocarinas, and a

banjo. Although the use of clay in producing

such objects is uncommon if

not unique, they are not an expression

of a search for novelty. On the contrary,

Judy Lorraine has based her

work on simplicity, purity of form ,

sensitivity to musical sound, and a

strong affinity for her materials. Separating

herself from contemporary

ideas of musical instruments, she starts

with a simple material, clay, and some

fundamental characteristics of sound.

Her objects are the answers to basic

questions about making music, questions

about vibrations, resonant spaces,

closed and open volume. Because of

this, they are never decorative imitations

or superficial reproductions of the

craft of other peoples, other times.

They are not like "primitive" objects,

they are primitive in a most genuine

sense of that word. They are an effective

answer to a contemporary craftsperson's

search for simplicity, yet at

the same time they represent an extension

of the simple clay pot, giving

it greater scope as an object to be seen

and touched but also struck, plucked,

beaten, pounded, shaken, and heard.

Although "Potsound II" was the

major and most interesting exhibit in

the show, three other themes were

also presented-"Elephant Bird Spectator

Sports", "April in Saigon", and

"Grub City". Most noteworthy of these

were Saigon's Elephant Majors, satirical

constructions of coil and slab, with

military hats, noses askew, glazed buttons,

and chests full of medals. The

majors gave the impression of being

small-minded, self-important, promoted

beyond merit, and entirely supernumerary.

The social comment in

"April in Saigon" was more readily

perceivable than in "Grub City", an

expression of the chaos and dehumanization

of the modern city. Texture suggesting

high-rise buildings was superimposed

on a form which was part

grub, part city-scape. Miniature road

signs, green trees, and flags related to

titles such as "Self-Destruction", "Men

at Work", and "Lone Pine Parking


Some thrown functional pottery

was shown. On the whole this lacked

the warmth and spirit which characterizes

Judy Lorraine's bold and handsome

hand-built work. Her large slab

plates, rubbed with oxides to complement

simple impressed patterns, were

among her finest pieces, strong and

earthy yet subtle and elegant.

Judy Lorraine's throughtful explorations

into sound-making clay objects

have resulted in some extraordinary

work with ~a t beauty and vitality.

Such work may well have the potential

for further extension into the areas of

music, movement, and theatre. Developments

of this type can contribute

to a breakdown of those compartments

which tend to confine and separate

creative people and their expressions,

defirung creative work by the materials

used rather than by the essential idea.

Tete Triggs



Adelaide Festival of Arts

Exhibition, March 1976

In her latest exhibition of hand-built

ceramic sculpture at the Greenhill Galleries,

Joyce Scott maintains the exceptional

quality for which her work is


Though many of the pieces are

very large, Joyce manages to retain a

strong feeling of lightness, and elegance,

in her work. This combination

of massive size with an air of delicacy

is exceedingly satisfying.

Through the sensitive use of clay

and the design elements of movement,

form, texture and colour Joyce creates

sculptures that are beautifully simple,

yet maintain delicate balance and individuality.

These pieces often have subtle

alterations in contour and surface, and

smaller exciting areas of contrast with

broken edges and clusters of organiclike


One senses a movement towards

greater use of space and the environment

within some of the sculptures.


Narek Galleries

Peter Schlliz

The most spectacular of Greenaway's

pieces, the most individual, are his

female figures. In these, over the last

two years, he has written a figurative

essay on his deepest creative and intellectual

aspirations. Significantly, in this

quite brilliant one-man exhibition at

Narek Craft Galleries in Canberra the

calmer, more masked, figures' are

clothed in porcelain : earlier the glazes

were less refined and contrasts between

plain, stone, tapered, cylindrical stems

and freely-shaped hoods or cowls were

urgently suggestive. The sterns symbolized

the intransigence of materials, the

restraints of orthodox skills, the co~ls

stood for the unrealised, interpretative

aspirations - sometimes they floated,

ghost-like, sometimes they suggested

shapes from a romantic past, sometimes

they carne close to the anonymous,

emblematic present. There was

a sense of exploration, of the excitement

of something tentative and halfrealised.

The sculptural pieces in this exhibition

are pieces of fulfilment; to the

extent that there is a suggestion in them

already of the decadent. Two new, and

quite unprecedented, pieces offer both

a new direction and a memory of

Greenaway's time in Japan - sma))

wharves or jetties, with miniature

figures in random posture, little islands

of man's affectations and anonymity.

Greenaway's latest "big" figures are

much more certain in their execution:

cone-like stems accept variations and

the cowls have lost their ethereality

and romance, and accepted an anchoring

decorativeness. They assert the

vanity of human wishes.

These figures and the new composite

pieces which use them, indicate

the directions of Greenaway's thought,

the tensions between craftsman and

thinker. Other pieces in the exhibition

find a different resolution. There are

sets of plates, goblets, tea cups, coffee

cups; there are individual jugs, platters

and vases. There is the stock of the

domestic potter but no recognition of

the limitations commonly accepted by

the domestic potter. Another of

Greenaway's signatures is his transformation

of the humblest of all domestic

pots, the egg-cup, into a quite beautiful

, and independent, shape. And all of

what might loosely be called his domestic

items have this energy of reappraisal.

They do not conform. They

do not seek change for change's sake.

They offer the limited harmony which

his larger, more intellectually exploratory

forms suggest is so uncertain ;

they recognise its validity and, on the

simply decorative level, its beauty.

These are the precious things wi th

which we surround ourselves.

This is a beautiful, and complete,

exhibition. It marks both Greenaway's


extraordinary technical accomplishment

and his creative aspiration. It is

an attempt to lead people beyond their

expectations, to encourage them not to

respond to any conventional notion of

standards of excellence but to look for

meaning, to find values which are not

easily typed. For Greenaway it is, of

course, one of those recurring moments

of declaration; but it is one that we

should ·Ill ponder.

w. S. Ramson


Brisbane Potters' Den

The similarity of glazes, techniques,

forms, and ideas which were for so

long a monotonous feature of Queensland

ceramics are now no longer quite

so evident.

The main impetus to greater individuality

in Queensland ceramics

seems to have been largely due to the

efforts of the Queensland Potters'

Association with its imaginative programme

of workshops and exhibitions.

The echoes of the Soldner visit are still

apparent, indicating that his shock

treatment in this conservative environment

was extremely effective. It is even

more apparent at times that the individuality

of a visiting potter can be

parodied into a trendy gimmick on the

local scene and pseudo Peascods litter

the exhibitions for months.

The real value of the visitors,

however, has been to open the scene

to the potential of ceramics as a creative

and expressive medium away from

the sound comforts of Leach and

oriental embellishments.

Recent exhibitions in the Brisbane

Potters' Den have provided excellent

examples of fresh and individual approaches

to the medium, and the exhibition

in November by Robyn

Tremble showed a promising originality.

Most of the pots in the exhibition

were of unglazed stoneware with positive

rounded profiles. Some of these

carried rows of disc handles and in

others the starkness of the form was

ROBIN TREMBLE: Black bottles, 65 cm,

manganese over unglazed stoneware.

J280' C. Potters' Den, Brisbane

relieved by broken and torn lips held

securely by buttons and button-holes.

A series of rounded bottles had a distinctly

anthropomorphic quality with

pleasing rounded forms ~hd with small

eyes impressed above the spouts.

Equally pleasing was a group of

raku pots with simple tin and copper

glazes and heavily blackened body.

These pots had a directness and vitality

a~propriate to the technique and suggest

that Robyn Tremble has the sensitivity

to develop fairly rapidly into one

of our more promising potters.

Jeff Shaw




This year's exhibition of paintings, pottcry

and drawing, held in March,

attracted more than seventy entries in

the wheel-thrown and hand-built pottery

sections. The prizemoney of $450

allocated for the pottery section was

used to purchase acquisitions for the

Shire's collection. The adjudicator,

Wanda Garnsey, said that it was satisfying

to see such an improvement in

the standard of pots from the previous

JANET MANSFIELD: Raku platter. 45 em

diam., white glaze, copper lustre. Gosford

Shire Annual Art Exhibition

year. She commented on the wide range

of approach in the hand-built pots and

the interesting variety of glazes used in

the wheel-thrown section. Results of

the wheel-thrown section: Highly Commended

- Janet Mansfield, Shigeo

Shiga; Commended-Janet Mansfield,

G. McCracken, Beryl.£arton, D. & W.

Campbell. Results of hand-built section:

Highly Commended - Roger

Keane, Gillian Dodds; Commended -

Mavis Schicht, Ross McBride, Glenys

Morrison, John Flakelar.



Fred and Mary Marer have been collecting

pottery on the West Coast of

California over the past 20 years. Paul

Soldner selected part of their collection

which has been loaned for an exhibition

sponsored by the Crafts Board of

the Australia Council. The collection

will be seen in the following galleries:

Newcastle City Art Gallery; Australian

Museum, Sydney; Queensland Art Gallery,

Brisbane; Tasmanian Museum

and Art Gallery, Hobart; National

Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne; Adelaide

Festival Centre; Art Gallery of

Western Australia, Perth.

As an introduction to the Exhibition's

Catalogue Paul Soldner writes:

"As I recall, Fred Marer just walked

into our pot shop one Saturday afternoon

sometime in 1955. We were a

small group then, maybe half-a-dozen

students and our teacher Peter Voulkoso

Although the perspective acquired

with time has shown that great things

were happening in clay that year, little

did we realise the importance then.

But somehow Fred Marer must have

sensed its importance because he soon

became a regular visitor, a collector of

our pots and a personal friend. . . .

At times Pete would point out a particularly

successful pot to Fred, and

Fred in turn would often act on his

information by asking to purchase it.

It didn't seem to make much difference

who made it, just that it be good .. . .

Fred's collection of contemporary pottery

is exciting because he was present

at its inception. He understood the

evolving shapes and ideas because he

made the effort to understand the

people who were making them change.

A purchase was not often a snap

judgement. Rather, after a length y

consideration of a piece, perhaps a

questioning of the maker, Fred would

ask to take it home on trial. I believe

this patience of the need to live with

a new idea, helps to explain why so


many of Fred's pots are of high

quality. The test of time as one method

of judging value has been one of Fred's

most useful tools in determining what

to buy. Added to this, of course, was

his willingness to seek advice from

others and a certain willingness to

gamble. But, in the end, the collection

reflects Fred's eye."

PETER VOULKOS: Platter, stoneware with

porcelain inlay, 40.6 cm x 33 cm approx.

Fred and Mary Marer Collection

PUBLICATIONS available from the Editor, 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst 2010.

Pottery in Australia (back numbers) 9/ 2, 10/ 1,10/ 2, 11 / 1, 11 / 2, 12/1 (70 cents

each); 12/ 2, 13/ 1, 13 / 2 ($1.50 each); 14/ 1 ($2.00); 14/ 2 ($2.00).

Materials and Equipment:

1. Checklist for N.S.W. Potters, 75 cents.

2. Checklist for Victorian Potters, 25 cents.

3. Checklist for West Australian Potters, 25 cents.

Booklets: (postage extra 20 cents per copy).

ELECTRIC KILN ( Arthur Higgs): price 75 cents.

GAS KILN, CATENARY ARCH (Les Blakebrough): price 50 cents.

GAS KILN, TOP LOADING (Ivan Englund): price 50 cents.

RAKU: price 50 cents. (Copies of earlier edition: 30 cents).

A SIMPLE WOODFIRED KILN (Ivan Englund): price 50 cents.


price 50 cents.

A 10 cu. ft. OIL-FIRED KILN PLAN (Alan Peascod): price $2.00.


THE BUMBO LATlTE, both by Ivan Englund : price 30 cents each.

A DIRECTORY OF POTTERS: gratis, 20 cents postage.


postage only.

KICK-WHEEL PLAN (set of four diagrams): price $1.00




Fred & Mary Marer Collection

Judi Elliott

Millon Moon

Bela Kotal

Milton Moon

Janet Barrlskill

Alan Walt

Group Exhibition

Carol-Ann Fooks

Sandra Black

Milton Moon

Joyce Scott

Sam Shub

Lucy Boyd, Hatton and

Robert Beck

Australian-American Festival


Maldon Pottery

M1cbiko Love

Kim Martin

Derek Smltb

Mark Thompson

Sue Moorhead

Zelma Dufton

Shigeo Shiga

Drinldng Pots

Newcastle City Art Gallery

Beaver Galleries, Red Hill, A.C.T.

Collectors' Gallery, Perth

Cliff St. Gallery, Perth

Festival Theatre Complex, Adelaide

Potters' Gallery, 48-50 Burton St.,

Darlinghurst, Sydney

The Craft Centre, South Yarra, Vic.

Narek Galleries, Deakin, A.C.T.

The Craft Centre, Glibert PI. , Adelaide

Collectors' Gallery, Perth

Greenhill Galleries, North Adelaide

Greenhill Galleries, North Adelaide

Manyung Gallery, Mt. Eliza, Vic.

Macquarie Galleries, Canberra

Potters' Gallery, 48·50 Burian St.,

Darlinghurst, Sydney

Potters' Cottage, WarrandYle

Fremantle Arts Cenlre

Potters' Cottage, Warrandyle

The Crafl Cenlre, Soulh Yarra. Vic.

Jam Factory Gallery, St. Pelers, S.A.

Aldgate Crafrs, Aldgate, S.A.

Macquarie Galleries, Sydney

Von Bertouch Galleries, Newcastle

Laburnum Gallery, Blackburn, Vic.

Feb. 1976

























Potters' Society of AustraJia­

Ikebana Pots

Jan Twyerould

Judi Lorraine

PhilUp McConnell

Andrew Park

Val Taylor

Crafts Victoria

Ration Beck and Lucy yd

Potters' Society of AustraJla­

New Members

Potters' Society of Australia­

Members' Exhibition

Potters' Society of Australia­

Members' Exblbition

Victorian Ceramic Group

Frederick Cbapeau

Graham Gonn

Sbunlcbl Inoue

Ben Kyprldakls

Greg Daly

Vlt Jurlvlclus

Potlers' Gallery, 48·50 Burton St.,

Darlinghurst, Sydney

Aldgate Crafts, Aldgate, S.A.

Narek Galleries, Deakin, A.C.T.

The Craft Cenlre, South Yarra, Vic.

Old Bakery Gallery, Lane Cove, Sydney

Beaver Galleries, Red Hill, A.C.T.

Shepparton Art Gallery

Von Bertouch Galleries, Newcastle

Potters' Gallery, 48·50 Burlon St.,

Darlinghurst. Sydney

Potters' Gallery, 48·50 Burton St.,

Darlinghurst, Sydney

Farmer's Blaxland Gallery, Sydney

Caulfield Art Cenlre, 441 Inkerman St.

Narek Galleries, Deakin, A.C.T.

Aldgale Crafts, Aldgale, S.A.

The Chlft Centre, South Yarra, Vic.

FeSlival Centre, Adelaide

Potters' lIage, Warrandyte, Vic.

Potters' Gallery, 48·50 Burton St.,

Darlinghurst, Sydney




















Peter Rushfortb

Les Blakebrougb

Robyn Davis and Lois Westlake

Crafts, Victoria

Jim Nelson

Group Exhibition

12 South Australian Potters­

Day for Mugs

Vic Greenaway

Janet Mansfield

Jan Twyerould

Sylvia Halpern

Judith GledhUl and DOD Jones

Beaumaris Art Group-­

Ceramic Exhibition

Shlgeo Shiga

Australian Ceramics--46 Potters

Peter Mlnson-Glass exhibition

Japanese Prints and Ceramics

Sam Herman-Glass exhibition

R. and C. Craine

Tim Moorhead

John Dermer

Rhonda Longbottom

Alan Peascod

Wally Scbwab

Alan Watt

Alan Peascod

Hilary WoUf

Jolanta Janavicius

David Jones Art Gallery, Sydney

Macquarie Galleries, Sydney

Old Bakery Art Gallery, Lane Cove,


City of Hamilton Art Gallery

Narek Galleries, Deakin, A.C.T.

Potters' Gallery, 48-50 Burton St

Darlinghurst, Sydney .,

Aid gate Crafts, Aldgate, S.A.

Jam Factory Gallery, St. Peters, S.A.

Beaver Galleries, Red Hill, A.C.T.

Narek Galleries, Deakin, A.C.T.

Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte, Vic.

Aldgate Crafts, Aldgate, S.A.

Clive Parry Galleries, 468 Beach Rd.,


Narek Galleries, Deakin, A.C.T.

Newcastle City Art Gallery, Newcastle

Beaver Galleries, Red HiIJ, A.C.T.

Macquarie Galleries, Canberra

The Craft Centre, South Yarra, Vic.

Manyung Gallery, Mt. Eliza, Vic.

Narek Galleries, Deakin, A.C.T.

Potters' Gallery, 48-50 Burton St.,

Darlinghurst, Sydney

Aldgate Crafts, Aldgate, S.A.

The Craft Centre, South Yarra, Vic.

Jam Factory Gallery, St. Peters, S.A.

Manyung Gallery, Mt. Eliza, Vic.

Potters' Gallery, 48-50 Burton St.,

Darlioghurst, Sydney

Beaver Galleries, Red Hill, A.C.T.

Old Baker Gallery, Lane Cove, Sydney






























Third Singleton Pottery Prize

$125 Acquisitive

$50 Local

$65 Purchases

Judges: lim and Jean Tyler. Enquiries Phone 065.747157

Townsville Pacific Festival Ceramic Awards

$250 Non·acquisitive open

$100 Non·acquisitive North Queensland

$500 Purcbase for Art Gallery

Judge: Hiroe Swen

Enquiries: Mrs. Fussell, P.O. Box 1798, Townsville

Bendigo lnternational Pottery Award

S 1,500 Best Exbibit

$500 Highly Commended

$250 Honourable Mention

Port Hacking Potters' Group

$ I 00 Open hand·built

$100 Open Wheel·thrown

Enquiries: Box 71, P.O., Miranda. Phone 522.83 ~ M. Ogle

Walkers/ Pugmill Pottery Award

$500 Prize

Enquiries: See page 79.

May 1976







Diamond Valley Ceramic Award

Judge: Reg Preston

Aldgate Crafts Award-Mad

Hatters Teaparty-

Judge: Reg Preston

Judge : Bert Flugelman

John Teschendorf

Thomas Cockram

Functional teapot

Mark Thompson

Fantasy teapot-

Gosford Shire 7th Annual Art Exhibition--See reviews page

Bathurst Ceramic Award

Hunters Hill Annual Art Exhibition

Open Ceramic Section

1st Prize: Janet Mansfield

Highly Commended: Gillian Dodds, Peter Wilson

Sculpture: Weody Ericksoo

Nov. 1975

March 1976

Sept. 1975


THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ARTS COUNCIL in association with the City of Fremantle

and the Fremaotle Arts Centre has established a new programme called Arts Access. This

programme will take pottery workshops to country areas. Enquiries to I Finoerty Street,


A guest tutor at Fremantle Arts Centre for the summer school was Bill Samuel who

conducted the master class.

Jean Robins, recently returned from tour of China, Europe and Morocco, is now

resident tutor at the Fremantle Arts Centre. The rich variety of Moroccan handcrafts and

visits to the colourful old pottery districts in Fez Marrakesh and Safi was a rewarding

highlight of the tour.

Bryan Newman as guest of the Craft Association conducted a stimulating workshop at

the premises of the Perth Potters' Club in October. The workshop was for 12 potters of

wbich 4 places were reserved for country people.

Victor Greenaway has been invited to teacb the residential craft scbool organised by

the W.A. Institute of Technology at Muresk Agricultural College in May. Other potters

invited to demonstrate are Sandra Black, Joan Campbell, Mick Kusnick and Jean Robins.

W.A. Institute of Tecbnology are planning a ceramics, textiles and jewellery workshop

to take place at Kalgoorlie Scbool of Mines in October.

Mick Kusnick at W.A.I.T. bas been evaluating clay and minerals from the Fitzroy

Crossing area with a view to establishing an aboriginal pottery.

Sandra Black who finishes ber year as resident graduate at W.A.l.T. in June will be

having an exhibition at tbe Collectors Gallery in March.

BEAUMARIS ART GROUP. The new extensIon, which the Pottery Section of the Group will

move into is well in progress. Tbe newly acquired pug-mill makes life somewhat easier. This

term the Group are fortunate to have Judy Lorraine as a tutor. A Raku workshop is being

planned for the near fULUre. The lOtb Annual Open Exbibition will be beld at tbe Clive

Parry Galleries, Beaumaris, in August. It is by invitation only. The Group hold many other

classes in Arts and Crafts. EnqtJ.iries are always welcome. BAG Studio, Reserve Road,

Beaurnaris 3193 . Telepbone: 99.4917, Mon.-Fri., 10 a.m.-I p.m.

VICTORIAN CERAMIC GROUP. At the Annual Meeting in November the following

executive was elected for 1976: Fresident, Kay Rose; Vice-President, Brian More; Secretary,

Kirill Maganov; Treasurer, Geoff Boag, and Committee. The Group concluded a very busy

and succe.ssful year with an illustrated lecture by Tele Triggs on "New Crafts in Old Places"

(in Ameflca), the "Yellow earth of North China and its Relationship to Ceramics of the

Area", by Lorna Grover, and a panel dilcussion and selection of members' slides. The

p~ogralT!me of country workshops cO!'tinued and the last city workshop w~s a weekend for

Kiln . bUlldlOg. A great deal of planrung bas already been accomplished th,s year. The first

meetmg was a panel discussion night, tbe subject: "What is the future and place in today's


society for the Studio Potter?" The panel, H. R. Hugban, Reg Preston, Ian Sprague, Peter

Laycock and Elsa Arden agreed that while there has neve.r l,>e~n a better public acceptance

of pottery the potier's work must be a labour of love--

TAMWORTH ART AND CRAFT SOCIETY's workshop, equipped with 4 wheels, electric

kilo, silk screen materials, leather work tools, art equipment, macrame twines a!,~ ropes! is

used regularly. We have jllst held a weekend for advanced pott 7 rs tutored by GII,han 9r, .gg·

Seven of our members attended Harry Davis' workshop m Armldale. A members exh,h,t,on

was held in February with guest speaker Rosemary Sinclaire talking on Art and Craft in

the community. The Society's collection is now on display at the Tamworth Art Gallery.

Our postal address is P.O. Box 641 , Tamworth 2340.

NEWCASTLE CERAMIC GROUP exhibited for the first time at the Newcastle A.H. & L.

Association Show. An exhibition will be held at our workshop on 24th-25th April. We are

looking forward to schools later in the year to be tutored by Hildegarde Anstice, Janet

Mansfield aod a New Zealand potter. Our Anoual Review will be held on 24th-25th-26th

of September, in the Foyer of The Great Hall at the University of Newcastle. This is not

just a sale but a review of the Group's achievements and standards we wish to maintain.

57 Bull Street, Cooks Hill.

The PORT HACKING POTTERS' GROUP will conduct regular workshops for members this

year. These will include Soft Slab Building with Beryl Barton, Bead and Jewellery Making

with Betty Davies, and demonstrations and lectures with John Turvey and Bill Samuels.

Our 15th ANNUAL COMPETITION will be held at Grace Bros., Broadway, from 5th to

13th August. For entry forms write to Box 71 , P.O., Miranda 2228, or phone M. Ogle


The Sutherland Shire Council will be opening their new Civic Centre at Sutherland in

June. The Group have been asked to organise a Pottery Exhibition in conjunction with other

crafts for one week. Anyone interested in exhibiting their crafts should contact Betty

Davies, 528-6444.

Meetings are held regularly on the first Wednesday night of each month at the Cronulla

School of Arts, Surf Road, Cronulla. Visitors are welcome. Telephone M. Ogle, 522-8335.

The Craft Association have asked the Group to exhihit their work at the Craft Association

rooms, 50 Burton Street, Darlinghurst, in September for three weeks. Secretary:

S. Mortson, P.O. Box 71 , Miranda.

SIX: Summer Art Programme 1976, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York, June 28-

August 6. Introductory, intermediate and advanced courses are offered in: painting, drawing,

sculpture. photography, film making. ceramics, jewellery and weaving. Scholarships availahle.

Write or call: Regis Brodie, Director, SIX: Summer Art Programme, 1976, Skidmore College,

Saratoga Springs, New York 12866. 518-584-5000, ext. 373.

JANET KOVESI writes from London, "I have been baunting Primavera in Cambridge and

the C.P.A. sbop in London wbere I saw an enchanting exhibition nf work by new members .

. . . Ian Godfrey sbowed salt glazed models of kitchen dressers, kilns, potters' wheels, pianos,

beds, and little landscapes with silhouetted trees, clouds and rainbows . . . a tiny picnic

tray in the foreground and a house or church in the distance . . . sometimes cut from

slabs or thrown cylinders. One had a little ship tossing in waves made like partly unfurled

swiss-roll slices."

BETTY BEAVER'S new gallery is a large area of 1100 square feet at 9 Investigator Street,

Red Hill, Canberra. Glass gives plenty of natural light, and good lighting has been instaUed

for the dull days and evenings. There is on display a wide selection of craftwork from

Australia and overseas. Betty would like to hear from any craftsmen who would like to have

their work in Canberra, either in the general display or for exhibition.

DOUG ALEXANDER is establishing a pottery at the Cuppucumbalong Art and Craft

Centre near Lanyon, Canberra (proprietors Karen Beaver and Henry O'Cleary) . Doug, who

will be the first craftsman-in-residence at Cuppacumhalong was one of the Delegation of

Potters who visited China in 1975.

CYNTHIA MITCHELL, Tasmanian potter,

who visited China with the Australian Potters'

Delegation, sent the photograph of

Chinese type pots she has heen making

since her return. She says the stetmer is a

great success and she uses it often. "No

water in the food to start, but it cooks rice

beautjfully and it's great for any casserole

meals because none of the flavour can

escape. The wine /lask is based on the

shape of a prehistoric one from the Nanking


CYNTHIA MITCHELL'S "Chinese"-style

covered tea-cups, steamers and wine-carafes


WALLY SCHWAB has been appointed by the South Australian Craft Authority as Master

Craftsman to manage the pottery workshop at the Jam Factory. Wally has a masters' degree

in ceramics from Alfred University, New York, where he studied with Daniel Rhodes and

Val Cushing. He is expected to take up his appointment this year in May.

KEI!H OGILVIE has been commissioned and has now placed six large flower pots in the

FestIval Theatre Restaurant. The pots are the same basic form with diameters about 56 cm

and varying heights up to 84 em. They vary in proportion and are covered with a dolomite

glaze and overglazed with feldspathic glazes.

A "DAY FOR MUGS" is on again at Aldgate Crafts, S.A. It's their ninth annual event,

from July 4-18. Twelve S.A. potters make hundreds. of mugs, goblets, tumblers, drinking

vessels of all shapes and SIzeS for sale. At the opening the purchasers get their mugs kept

filled with hot mulled wine.

ANNE MERCER made this set of cannisters.

They won the Bendigo Prize for 1975

for the best set of utilitarian pieces. Alan

Watt, Victoria, won tbe award for the best

single piece. Peter Rushforth was chairman

of the judging panel. Both potters are emplayed

as lecturers in ceramic design, Anne

at O'Halloran Hill D.F.E. and Alan at the

State College of Frankston, Victoria. The

Craft Board of the Australia Council commissioned

A nne to make a similar set for

their own collection.

MILTON MOON has resigned from fuB-time lecturing at the Torrens C.A.E. School of Art,

Ceramics Department, and is now working and living in is SUMMERTOWN POTTERY.

It is in the small hiBs town, in the lane at the side of the t Office store, telephone: 30-1927

(Adelaide). He's open Wednesday to Sunday 11.00-5.00, or by appointment. He sells a range

of functional ware from dinner sets to garden seats alld pots. His only assistant is his son

Damon who is carrying the Moon name to the secooo generation. They use an Ana-Gama

(bank kiln) for wood firing and a 2-chamber kiln fired with gas for production work.

Milton's last commission was a fountain for the Adelaide Festival Theatre Complex.

It consists of domes of varying sizes in a round pond with water spouting out into perfect

dome forms that touch each other as tbey fall back into the pond.

PARIS CREEK STUDIO run by potters Dorothy and Eddie Andrews is open to visitors

7 days a week. Phone them first: 388-3224 (Adelaide).


MUSWELLBROOK CERAMIC GROUP. Members of the Muswellbrook Ceramic Group

prepared pots for a display at the Far West Local Anists' Exhibition at the end of March.

The next major event will be lbe Annual Pottery Prize in conjunction with tbe Art Prize

Exhibition whicb opens on Saturday, 31st July. It is hoped tbat polters from all over

Australia wili suppon this competition. .

The Ceramic Group is suffering acutely from sbortage of workmg space at the Pot House.

A grant was not forthcoming, and necessary extensions are delayed due to lack of finance.

The fifth BENDIGO POTTERY AWARD, open to professional studio polters by invitation,

has been extended to include potters in the United Kingdom, U.S.A., Canada, Japan and

Europe. The winning exhibitor will receive $AI,500. There are also prizes of $A500 and

$A250 for Highly Commended and Honourable Mention. Among the judges this year are

Alan Watt and Milton Moon. Alan Watt was an Award winner in 1974. The winners will

be announced at the Bendigo Art Gallery on Friday, 16th July. The exhibits will be on

display at the gallery for two weeks. All pieces, except for the Award winners, will be on

sale during the exhibition and 25 % of tbe sale price will be contributed by tbe exhibitor to a

fund set up by the Award Committee to purchase a collection of contemporary ceramics

for the gallery-to be known as the " Bendigo Poltery Ceramic Collection".

CRAFT ASSOCIATION SOUTH AUSTRALIA workshops for ceramics this year include:

Surface enrichment, June 12th-13tb, Alan Wall; Small Clay Objects, May 1st-2nd, Marcia

Del Thomas; Introduction to Funk, November 6tb, Tim Moorhead; Ceramic Sculpture, no

date set, Ron Rowe; Stained Glass Worksbop, March 26th-27th, Fred Hammill.

THE CERAMIC STUDY GROUP continues actively to pursue its aim of furthering study

opportunities for its members. The resid.ential Spring School held at Blackheath in September

1975 was tutored by Kathy McMiles and Greg Nelson. In October of that year a holiday

weekend was devoted to a Primitive Campout on Janet and Colin Mansfield's property at

Mangrove Mountain. At the Annual General Meeting in Novemher, Ted Jones was elected

President, Elizabeth Green, Secretary and Rhonda Smith, Treasurer.

The 1976 programme opened in Fehruary with an Activity Day at the home of Mollie

and Sid Grieve at Pymble with a programme including the creation of a large wall mural

designed by Esme Hopkins, and demonstrations of Japanese calligraphy by Miss Teruko Akita,

porcelain handbuilding by Mavis Scbicbt, ceramic sculpture by Frederick Chepeaux, papermaking

by Marjorie Hall, a combination of techniques for making pols by Rick Ball, and

wheel-throwing by Greg Nelson.

The C.S.G. Study Tour No.4 leaves at the end of April for a tour of Iran, Greece, Crete

and Turkey.

A lively programme is planned for the rest of tbe year, the first activity being a two-day

workshop in mid-April conducted by Hiroe Swen.

The group's monthly meeting is held at the McMahon's Point Community Centre, Blues

Point Road, McMahon's Point, on the fourtb Thursday of each month at 8 p.m. (enquiries



pots from Angkor Wot

ond Summertown S.A.

exhibited at


specialising in australian and

asian/pacific art and ceramics


Chinese potlers (Pong, Sung, Ming)

Su khotai & Sawankalak (AD 1200-1450)

Annomese o rt potters (AD 1000·1600)

Khmer (AD 900-1400)

Austra lian (AD 19705: including Shigo, Travis. Moon.

Mansfield and contemporary o rt potters)

tel 358 4493

aladdin gallery

~5 .Ii%o beth boy rd sydney

Potter: Shiga Shlge o - Sto neware iar wit h

iron oxid e d ecoration.

Day and Evening Pottery Clo sses

I ",'ruction in preparation of cloy, slob·bullt pots,

coli pots, wheel work. vorlous glozinR', stocking and




Rick 8011 95 6540

Renota de lambert 434766

Term 2 M ay 24-Aug ust 14

John Turvey 5298461

Term 3 September 6-November 27, 1976.

Pointing; d rawing; etching; li thography; silk-screen;

woodcuts; sc: ure; creative weaving; creative em.

brOidery; macrame; mosaiC; iewellery.making; gen·

eral deSign· art clas.ses for children and young people.

33 Laurel Street, Willoughby, 2068

Tel. 95-6540. (Enquiries 9 .30-4.301

Holf-term students occepted








Open five days a week

-Tuesday to Saturday-

10.30 am to 5.30 pm

Stoneware Earthenware

and Porcelain Pots

by Members of


GIFT VOUCHERS available for pots or for subscriptions to Pottery in A uslralia

NEW SUB S C RIP T ION Application Form

Pottery in Australia



Annual Subscription $A4

(including postage) $US6



Two issues per annum

Name (block letters)

Mr.!Mrs.!Miss . . . . . . .

Street . ...... .

Town ...... . .. . . . . State .


Subscription to commence wjth Issue No .. . ... . .. . .. .. .. .

(Cbeques, Money Orders and Postal Notes should be made payable to

Pottery 10 Australia. Stamps are not acceptable.)

8 1


Materials and Equipment for the Craft Potter

Agent and Distributor for


Manufacturers of finest quality High Alumina



Available throughout Australia


Our complete range of kilns

are distributed by Russell Cowan

Pty. Ltd.

For several years we have been

associated with Russell Cowan Pty.

Ltd. through the use of their Acme

Marls kiln furniture for our complete

range of ilns. Kiln owners

requ iri 9 service should still contact

us direct at

2 Waine Street, Harbord, N.S.W., 2096

Phone 93.1220













all miscellaneous pottery supplies



Telegrams: Russellcowan Phone 47.0294



(Now manufactured in Australia featuring our larger drip tray with storage capacity)


Price: $473.00 ex Factory

Plus Sales Tax

OPTIONAL EXTRA;-Oetochoble seat with adjustable height.

Price: $24.00

Plus Sal.s Tax

80th seat and drip t(oy available separately

Price of drip troy: $26.00 Plus Sales Tax

Wheel Head speed 0-200 RPM

Clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation

Motor 1 HP 240 VAC

Weight 149 Ibs

This compact wheel utilizes Ring and Cone principle to ensure

smooth and accurate running

Automatic Acceuories Pty. Ltd.

27.29A Hall Str •• t

Hawthorn East, Victoria, 3123


Sale. Offices:


Automatic Accessories Pty. ltd.

27·29 A Ho II Str •• t

Hawthorn East, Victorio. 3123



Automatic Accessories Pty. ltd.

58-60 King William Street

Adelaide, South Australia, 5000



N .S.W.

The Potters' Society of Australia

48·50 Burton Street

Ooriinghurst, N.S.W. 2010

31 ·3151

Automatic Accessories Pty. ltd.

27 Grosvenor Street

Neutral 8ay

N.S.W. 2089

9O~502 - 90-4-

---.. ~-----

the handbuiltceramicsof h SYJeI1










~ narek galleries canberra

Representing Australian Craftsmen Working in:

Pottery Silver Leather G lass

Weavi ng Furniture Batik Pri nts

23 Grey Street

Deakin A.c.r.

Phone: 733374

Karen Beaver


262 Given Terrace, Paddington, Brisbane, Queensland, 4064

• Clays-Local, Southern and English.

• Wheels-Craig, Fact, Shimpo and Venco.

• Kilns-Ward (Electric),

• Pugmills-Venco and Wengers.

• Glazes-Powdered and Brush-on,

Cowan, Cesco, Blythe, Ferro and Wengers.

• Minerals, tools, kiln furniture, bungs, taps etc.

China blanks and colours.



Phone: 363633

laburnum gallery


quality australian halTdcraft










9a salisbury avenue

blackburn, 3130

phone: 8780842



S.A. Agent:

All Supplies


74 Henley Beach


Mile End

SA 5031

Tel. : 43 4544

Clay Distributors

See Separate

Page for details

of Interstate



Clays and Bodies

Twenty three different bodies and casting slips

listed on separate page.

Catalogue on request.

GLAZES - Full range Powder and Paint-on.

FRIT - Blythe, Cesco, Ferro, DeGussa,

Podmore, Leach, Walker.

COLOURS - On Glaze, Under Glaze, In Glaze,

Body Stains: Blythe, Ferro.

DECORATION - Hanovia and Blythe. Matte and

Liquid Bright Golds, Lustres,



ENAMELS - Schauer & Co. - Blythe.

MATERIALS - All Glaze and Body materials.

PUG MILLS - Venco 3 models 100-400 Kg.hr.

WHEELS - Hire or Sale. Venco, Tetlow,

Shimpo, Brent (U.S.A.), Fact

KILNS - Pottery, Stoneware, Enamel,

Gas L.P., Town-Natural Gas.

Manufactured in six sizes.

Also custom built.

Build Your Own Kiln-plans and

all materials supplied.

Gas Equipment and Burners.

Pyrometric Equipment.

Electric Kilns-Tetlow.

Kiln Furniture -

Acme Marl Bats,

Props, Stilts, Saddles, etc.,


SUNDRIES - Tools-Corks-Taps-Tongs-

Kidneys-Seives, etc.


Sink Units. Made to Order or Standard.

BOOKS: Complete range from elementary to






N.S.W. Agents:

Russell Cowan

Pty Ltd

128-138 Pacific

Highway Waitara


Tel.: 47 0294

S.A. Agent:


74 Henley Beach


Mile End

SA 5031

W.A. Agent:

Meg Sheen

306-308 Hay

Street Subiaco

W.A. 6008

Tel. : 81 8215

Nonporlte (WA)

6 Peel Street


WA 6163

Canberra Agent:

Torrens Pottery

and Craft


6 Davies Place

Torrens A.C.T.

Tel.: 434544

The following types of clays and bodies are suitable for

general pottery work.

TERRA COTTA BLENDED CLAYS - Firing temperatures of

900-1060 ' C.

Throwing Terra Cotta. A medium texture plastic clay mixture

containing some fine grog suitable for textured throwing or

hand building.

Hand Building Terra Cotta. A rougher texture plastic clay blend

containing more grog, suitable for hand building or liles.

Fine Throwing Terra Colla. A very plastic smooth blend of

terra cotta clays. A filter pressed body very suitable for

throwing, turning and very fine work. Vitreous at 1060' C.

Fi re from 950-1060' C for varying colour of terra cotta.

Manganese Blended Clay. A medium texture, plastic blend with

a manganese addition. Suitable for throwing or hand-building.

Firing temperature Is 1000' C to a maximum of 1060' C.

The colour will change from a light tan at 1000' C to a

deep chocolate coloured vitreous piece at 1060' C.


While Pottery Clay Blend. This is a blend of clays designed

for easy throwing or hand building. It gives a fairly smooth

turned finish and is Ideal for almost every school or pottery

use. Fires to a cream colour from 1050-1100' C. Suggested

biscuit firing temperature of 950 ' C minimum.

While Modelling Clay. This Is a very plastic smooth body made

specifically for sculpture. Ideal firing temperature Is about

1100' C, when it fires to a cream coloured dense body.

Pink Earthenware Body. This Is a commercial body stained

to give a pink colour. It is extremely smooth and Is designed

for easy throwing, modelling or casting. Biscuit or Glost firing

temperature at 1080 ' C and is satisfactory using a low biscuit

temperature of 950' C and a glost temperature of 1080' C.

It will fire to a vitreous body at about 1150' C.

White Earthenware Body. This is a commercial body

designed for jiggering, jolleying or casting. Designed for a

biscuit firing temperature of 1100' C and glost at 1060-

1080' C. Fires to a near white colour with a smooth finish.


Ironstone. This Is a commercial body stained to a buff

brown colour. It Is extremely smooth and designed for easy

throwing, turning, modelling or casting. Suggested firing

temperature 900-1000' C for biscuit and 1100' C for glosl.

This will give a vitreous light brown coloured body.

Raku. A reddish firing body for this special application.

This body can be fired at the usual Raku temperatures, but Is

also a good stoneware hand building clay at 1300' C.

Stoneware Clay. and Bodl •. Primarily for throwing but can

be used for fine hand building. ALL BODIES ARE


No. 2 Stoneware Body. This is a buff grained body

designed for throwing or hand building with reasonable

texture. It has proved 10 be a most popular clay mix. Firing

temp. 1300-1350' C under oxidizing or reducing conditions.




No. SA Stoneware Body. A cream body with ample tooth for

throwing and hand building. It is still smooth enough to

give a smooth fine lip for beakers, etc. Fire to 1300' C.

No. 5B Stoneware Body. An exceptionally good clay for the

largest exhibition pots by hand building or throwing. It has

high green strength and no drying problems. Firing

temperature 1300' C reducing or oxidizing to a grained buff

grey colour.

No. 6 Stoneware Body. A very rich dark brown flecked body

at 1280·1300' C. Very good for partial glazed ware. It throws

very easily with plenty of tooth and grain. A maximum of

30 minutes reduction at 1290-1300' C (Cone 10) Is all the

body needs.

No. 7 Stoneware Body. A very plastic, smooth, strong

throwing body, at 1260-1300' C. Fires to a grey colour with

dark specks. Under reduction a warm walnut brown with flecks.

No. 8 Stoneware. A grey white with a buff grain coloured body

with excellent throwing qualities. Has more tooth than No. 7,

fires 1280-1300' C to a smooth surface. Under reducing

conditions is a much darker buff grained grey colour.

No. 9 Stoneware. A superb throwing body firing to a rich

red brown colour under reducing conditions, or a deep

grained red buff under oxidizing conditions at 1280-1300' C


No. 10 Stoneware. A white porcelain at 1280-1290' C. It Is

completely vitreous. As a body It Is very smooth and suitable

for any sized work when a white body will assist good

glaze colour development. Easy to throw.

No. 12 Stoneware. A good throwing body especially

compounded to fire at 1240-1260' C, making it possible In

the common electric kilns. The colour is a sandy brown and

the body is vitreous.

Hand Building Stoneware. Mixture very suitable for

hand building huge pots or tiles. II is still qulle plastic enough

to throw, If you can stand the roughness, to the biggest pot

you wish for. II does give an interesting iron blebbed buff

brown surface, which Is quite rough, when fired to

1250-1280' C. it is very much used and enjoyed.

Dark Hand Building Stoneware. Same properties as the

cream hand building stoneware but stained with a small

percentage of manganese to fire to a deep chocolate

brown colour.

White Hand Building Stoneware. Fires to just off-white

colour. Excellent for glaze colours and does not develop

any specki ng.


1. White Earthenware Body.

2. White Stoneware Body - for rapid casting - fires to 1280' C

. to a completely vitreous piece.

These are Similar to the previous descriptions but have

been slightly changed in composition for rapid casting.



With international reputation for quality, now offer the best

in Australian and imported-




Available only through the following agencies:


Pottery Supplies Torrens Pottery Gilberton Gallery

262 Given Terrace Supplies 2-4 Walkerville Terrace

PADDINGTON, 4064 6 Davies Place GILBERTON, 5081



The Pugmill

430 Ross River Road VICTORIA 74 Henley Beach Road

TOWNSVILLE, 4810 Deans Artcraft Pty. Ltd. MILE END, 5031

368 Lonsdale Street



Pacific Ceramic Diamond Ceramic WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Supplies Supplies Carrolls Pty. Ltd.

24 Norman Street SO-52 Geddes ~treel 566 Hay Street


Durham Ceramics

' Handcraft Supply

45 Du rham Street


33 Brighton Avenue

Walker Ceramics

Tasmanian Craft Tools


Boronia Road

66 Brisbane Street

• Copper Enamels only WANTIRNA, 3152 LAUNCESTON, 7250


Made in Australia by arrangement with the Leach Pottery,

St. Ives, Cornwall, U.K.

The Wheel made by Craftsmen for the discriminating Potter.

Timber construction -

Clear Flat Lacquer Finish

Epoxy tray 4V2 ins. deep

10 inch dia. C.1. head

Adjustable leg action

Also Motor Wheels



68a Christian Road

Punchbowl, N.S.W. 2196

Phone 750-8369






This sit-down model - foot operated

cone drive variable speed (0/200

r.p.m.) - with 12" diameter throwing

plate - full length (high impact) Plastic

Tray - Rust resistant cablnet­

ON/OFF water proof switch - 240V

V. hp motor with plug and lead for

normal household power point.

Stand up models and Kick Wheels also available.




A top-loading Kiln with a capacity of 60 Ibs.

Inside measurements 15" x 15" x 18" deep - The

lid can be raised to accommodate tall

pots - Temperature range to 1280' C on either

single or two phase power.

Sturdy metal frame with heat resistant

cladding - Best quality K23 bricks with

Kanthal Wire elements, drawing 4.8 KW.

Drying rack on lid - Weight 135 Kg.

" School" model as supplied to ald.

Education Dept, also available.



A top-loading kiln with a capacity of 4.8 cubic

It-Inside measurements 19Yz " x 19112" X 21"

(approx). Best quality K23 bricks and

insulation - Economical single jet air controlled

" Venturi" burner, uses only 20 lb. to 30 Ibs.

gas per firing.

Temperature range to 1300' C - The lid

can be raised to accommodate tall pots­

Drying rack on lid, weighing only 155 Kg.


6 cubic It and 8 cubic It models available

on request.

Enquiries to Manufacturer - Ooall Service Pty Ltd,

12-14 Nile Street, Woolloongabba, Qld, 4102 Phone 391 4467

Russell Cowan Pty Ltd, 128·138 P cific Highway, Waitara, N.S.W. 2007

Phone 47 0294


Ceramic Art Supp ies



Telephone 2233284



Specialists in supplies of material and equipment






Thomas C. Thompson-Enamels USA * Wengers-Clay and Glazes UK *

Duncan Ceramic Products - Low Fire Glazes. Underglazes. Stains and

Casting Moulds USA * Kemper-Tools for Potters USA * Westwood

Ceramics-Clays USA * Cerami Corner-Ceramic Transfers USA.




Ceramic Art Supplies










Country and Interstate Orders welcomed

Wholesale Enqu; es accepted




• Y. h.p. resilient mounted motor

for quiet an d smooth operation.

• Variable speed; powerlul drive at

all speeds. Speed locks at any

sett ing.

• All steel construction , finished

with Hammertone baked enamel.

• One piece libreglass slip tray.

• Cast iron Wheel head, 9Y2" diam.

machined true and grooved.

• 22" high, 19" wide, 40" long

weight 120 Ibs.

• Self-aligning lully-sealed bat/­


• Maintenance Iree.

• Adjustable seat for height.

• Cast iron Wheel Head, 9Y2" diam.

machined true and grooved.

• Fly Wheel weighs 80 Ibs. well


• 29" high, 30" wide, 34" long.

• Total weight 140 Ibs.

• A comlortable wheel , suitable lor

lall and low pieces.

• NOW with moulded one-piece

f:breglass slip-tray.

Manufactured by:



PHONE: 43-3806 BUS.

42-1 928 PRIVATE



prepared clays



(packed in 28 Ib (approx.) plastic bagged blocks)

Write or phone for prompt assistance with prices,

technical details, transport arrangements.

We despatch Australia wide.

We invite you to visit Australia's Oldest Pottery

Workshop to experience the craft being carried

out much as it was during the late 1800's.

BENDIGO POTTERY P.O. BOX 666 EPSOM VIC 3551. (SlD 054 484404)




tor the Australian Ceramic Industry














Cadmium Red - Orange - Yellaw 980°C - lO60° C




N.S.W., 2191




Devoted exclusively to display and appreciation

of craftwork

Ph (062) 95 9803


Hours: Wednesday - Sunday

10.30 am - 5 pm.









Craftsmen interested in exhibiting in Canberra contact Betty Beaver



Manufactured in New Zealand by The Talisman Potters Supplies Co. Ltd.

P.O. Box 36087 Northcote, Auc~land 9 N.Z.


* Y4hp split phase balanced


* Ring-cone principal.

* Variable speed 10 rpm to

200+ rpm .

* Dual foot control.

* Throwing load 12 kg.

* 10" aluminium wheel head.

* Weight approx 30 kg.

• Low maintenance.

* Detachable fibreglass

bowl, wheelhead, pedals

and feet.


Potters' Society of Australia

48 Burton Street

Darlinghurst 2010

Phone 313151








9 Vanessa Avenue, Baulkham Hills, NSW, 2153 Phone 639-2547

8 Orana Crescent, Peakhurst, NSW, 2210 Phone 53-6606


Neutral Bay


Pots and Ceramics by leading craftsmen


Day and evening classes: all levels


Clay, tools, glazes, wheels, brushes

Films and slides for hire

Agents for: Fulham Pottery (London)

Richard Brooks 5 Special Classes at The Potter's Wheel. 5 Weeks of

Specialised Classes between June 5th and July 3rd will be held for

12 Advanced Students who have or intend to set up a small Workshop.

The Programme will include Workshop Production and Techniques

with emphasis placed on the Design of Domestic Ware. Also included

will be tool making and a limited amount of hand-building, with

the final week being spent on Decoration and Glazing.

Fee: $55.00 for 5 weeks 12.00 to 5.00 p.m.

Dates: Sats. June 5th, 12th, 19th, 26th, and July 3rd.

Applications to

The Potters' Wheel Pty. Ltd. 27A Grosvenor St. Neutral Bay

NSW 2089. Tel: 9093583





VICTORIA AUSTRALIA 729 2857 870 7533

Distributors of ROBERT BRENT Corp. Pottery


POTTERY WHEELS-Electronic controlled.

Cone free. V3 HP $339; V2 HP $610,

also 1 HP.

KiCK WHEEL KITS-Motorising attachments


SLAB ROLLERS-Rolls 25 Ibs of clay for

.• hand building.

HAND EXTRUDERS - of handles, tubes,

coils, mouldings, etc.

Catalogue available on request.

Agencies-Walker Ceramics, WANTIRNA, Victoria.

Gilberton Gallery, GILBERTON, South Auotralia.

Interstate agent enquiries welcome.




All enquiries to





PubUd.ed crt Wemngto" by ,It. Edito,.ial Committee, twice year.y

in August and Decembe,. The yearly subscription ;, $A3.50

and 'he m090zine may b. obtained from

Ne"", Zenland Potte,. P.O . • ox 12162. Wellington North. Nltw Zealand.



to suit Professional and Home Potters and Schools.

Specialising in L.P. Gas firing for

flexibility and simplicity of operation.

No installation costs, economical to operate.

Capable of firing to Stoneware temperatures.

L.P.G. burner kits also available.

Now manufactured under license by

Ashwood Combustion Services

39 Yertchuk Avenue, Ashwood 3141

Telephone (03) 211 3819





























638-3774 - 638-5946




Capacity 6 cwt per

hour % horsepower

single phase motor

with overload

protection. Complete

ready for use.

Price: $995.00 (Aust.

curr.) ex works.

P.O. Box 51-032,


Phone 596-603, New






PUGGOON EXTRUDED CLAYS: "Prepared" bodies ready to use in 12.5 kg

plastic sealed packs. Range - red earthenware, buff middlefire, white


PUGGOON MILLED CLAYS: Airfloated to 200 mesh (or as required) in 31 kg

paper packs. Range: 4 clays (2 white, 1 buff, 1 terracotta). Also 1 clay

suitable for kiln furniture etc.

PUGGOON CRUDE CLAYS: Quarried raw clays in 50 kg jute bags or bulk

supplied. Range: 7 clays.

Sample packs of each group available from Gulgong only, $4.50 per pack, post paid.

For brochures, price lists, information, sample pack. or supplies, contact:

The Manager


P.O. Box 89

Gulgong, N.S.W., 2852

" The town on the $10.00 note"

Telephone (063)

Tallawang 75-9611

The Manager


P.o. Box 19

Alexandria, N.S.W., 2015





* Speed Range 0-250 r.p.m.

* Clay Capacity - in excess of 10 kg

* Rubber mounted - vibration free

* 10" grooved wheel head

* A.S.S. high impact plastic moulded tray

* V4 h.p. electric motor (overload protected)

* Dimensions 26" long; 20" wide; 25" high

* Weight 28 kg - packed 33 kg

Price $249 Inc. Sales Tax

Available from


53 Col bee Court, Phillip A.C.T.




Phone 822919













Torrens Pottery

and Craft Supplies



Mon. to Fri.

9 a.m. - 5.30 p.m.


9 a m. -4 p.m.


ACt\- r;/3( /2-

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!