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Program Book — CAMA Presents Les Violons du Roy with Avi Avital — Tuesday, October 19, 2021 — Lobero Theatre, Santa Barbara, 7:30PM

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Presenting the world’s finest classical artists since 1919

CAMA'S 2021/2022 SEASON

103 rd CONCERT SEASON

JONATHAN

COHEN

Music Director and conductor

AVI

AVITAL

mandolin

Tuesday, October 19, 2021, 7:30PM

Lobero Theatre, Santa Barbara

Photo by Zohar Ron

Exclusive Concert Sponsor:

MARTA BABSON

COMMUNITY ARTS MUSIC ASSOCIATION OF SANTA BARBARA, INC.


Presenting the world’s finest classical artists since 1919

2022 SEASON 103 rd CONCERT SEASON

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JORDI SAVALL

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BENJAMIN

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ISABEL

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MARK FEWER, violin

JAMIE PARKER, piano

Santa Barbara COVID-19

Live Event Requirement

Lobero Theatre and Granada Theatre

For all concerts in our 103rd Season, CAMA will be

following the Granada Theatre and Lobero Theatre’s

COVID‐19 Live Event Requirement. All events are

subject to State, County, and other governmental

agency COVID‐19 pandemic mandates and regulations

covering indoor live events. In an effort to create the

safest possible environment for guests, patrons of all

ages must show proof of being fully vaccinated or

supply a negative COVID‐19 medical test result (taken

within 72 hours prior to the concert), along with an

official photo identification, before entering the Lobero

Theatre. Over‐the‐counter COVID‐19 tests will not

be accepted. Masks are currently required indoors,

regardless of vaccination status. Protocols are subject

to change with local, State and national guidelines;

please check venue websites for up‐to‐date

information. This policy applies to venue and presenter

staff, audience members and performers.

COMMUNITY ARTS MUSIC ASSOCIATION OF SANTA BARBARA


Presenting the world’s finest classical artists since 1919

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

(As of October 1, 2021)

ROBERT K. MONTGOMERY

Chairman

DEBORAH BERTLING

Vice Chair and President, Women's Board

Rosalind Amorteguy-Fendon

Marta Babson

Bitsy Becton Bacon

Isabel Bayrakdarian

Edward E. Birch

Andy Chou

Stephen Cloud

NancyBell Coe

Bridget Colleary

Joan Crossland

Jill Felber

JAN BOWLUS

Vice Chair

WILLIAM MEEKER

Treasurer

CHRISTINE EMMONS

Secretary

Raye Haskell Melville

Judith L. Hopkinson

Elizabeth Karlsberg

Frank E. McGinity

George Messerlian

Patti Ottoboni

Craig A. Parton

Carl Perry

Michele Saltoun

Judith F. Smith

Emeritus Directors

(As of October 1, 2021)

Robert J. Emmons

Arthur R. Gaudi

James H. Hurley, Jr.

Herbert J. Kendall

Sara Miller McCune

Nancy Wood

Russell S. Bock*

Dr. Robert M. Failing*

Mrs. Maurice E. Faulkner*

Léni Fé Bland*

Stephen Hahn*

Dr. Melville H. Haskell, Jr.*

Mrs. Richard Hellmann*

Dr. Dolores M. Hsu*

Robert Light*

Mrs. Frank R. Miller, Jr.*

Mary Lloyd Mills*

Mrs. Ernest J. Panosian*

Kenneth W. Riley*

Andre Saltoun*

Jan Severson*

* Deceased

Administration

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Mark E. Trueblood

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Elizabeth Alvarez

Director of Development

Michael Below

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Photo by Nell Campbell

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Presenting the world’s finest classical artists since 1919

CAMA Presents

JONATHAN

COHEN

Music Director and conductor

AVI

AVITAL

mandolin

Tuesday, October 19, 2021, 7:30PM

Lobero Theatre, Santa Barbara

ANTONIO VIVALDI (1678–1741)

Mandolin Concerto in C Major, RV 425

Allegro

Largo

Allegro

Avi Avital, mandolin

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685–1750)

(COMPLETED BY BERNARD LABADIE AFTER DAVITT MORONEY)

The Art of the Fugue, BWV 1080 (excerpts)

Contrapunctus I

Contrapunctus IV

Contrapunctus VII

Contrapunctus IX

Contrapunctus XIV

BACH (ARR. FOR SOLO MANDOLIN BY AVI AVITAL)

Violin Concerto No.1 in A Minor, BWV 1041

[Allegro]

Andante

Allegro assai

Avi Avital, mandolin

INTERMISSION

VIVALDI (ARR. FOR SOLO MANDOLIN BY AVI AVITAL)

Concerto for Lute and Two Violins in

D Major, RV 93

Allegro

Largo

Allegro

Avi Avital, mandolin

VIVALDI

Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op.3, No. 2,

RV 578

Adagio e spiccato

Allegro

Larghetto

Allegro

BACH (ARR. FOR SOLO MANDOLIN BY AVI AVITAL)

Harpsichord Concerto No.1 in D Minor,

BWV 1052

Allegro

Adagio

Allegro

Avi Avital, mandolin

CAMA’s Exclusive Concert Sponsor: MARTA BABSON

Les Violons du Roy would like to thank the Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec, Canada Council

for the Arts and the Government of Canada for their support.

North American Management for Mr. Avital and Exclusive Tour Management for Les Violons du Roy:

Opus 3 Artists, 470 Park Avenue South, 9th Floor North, New York, NY 10019

www.opus3artists.com

Harpsichord provided by Curtis Berak

Program subject to change.

Please switch off all cellular phones, watch alarms and other signals during the performance. The photographing or

sound recording of this concert or possession of any device for such photographing or sound recording is prohibited.

5 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


Photo by Christoph Kîstlin For DG


“Much as Andrés Segovia

brought the classical guitar

into the concert hall, the

Israeli virtuoso Avi Avital

is doing the same with

the mandolin.”

Los Angeles Times

Photo by Christoph Kîstlin For DG

AVI AVITAL

mandolin

The first mandolin soloist to be nominated

for a classical Grammy ® , Avi Avital has

been compared to Andres Segovia for his

championship of his instrument and to

Jascha Heifitz for his incredible virtuosity.

Passionate and “explosively charismatic”

(New York Times) in live performance, he is

a driving force behind the reinvigoration of

the mandolin repertory.

Avital’s wide-ranging repertoire and

inventiveness have led to collaborations

with musicians including Ksenija Sidorova,

Giovanni Sollima, Mahan Esfahani, Kristian

Bezuidenhout, Alice Sara Ott, Andreas

Scholl, Dover Quartet, New Danish Quartet,

Brooklyn Rider, Omer Klein (jazz piano),

Omer Avital (oud/bassist), actress Martina

Gedeck and Georgian puppet theatre, Budrugana

Gagra. He has been showcased

as a “Portrait Artist” with residencies at the

Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival, BOZAR

in Brussels and the Dortmund Konzerthaus

(Zeitinsel) and is a regular presence at major

festivals such as Aspen, Salzburg, Tanglewood,

Spoleto, Ravenna, MISA Shanghai,

Cheltenham, Verbier and Tsinandali.

Avital has commissioned over 100

new works for the mandolin adding new

concertos to the repertoire by Anna Clyne,

Avner Dorman and Giovanni Sollima and

chamber pieces by David Bruce and Elena

Kats-Chernin amongst others. Last season

7 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


he gave the world premiere of Jennifer Higdon’s

Mandolin Concerto with the Munich

Philharmonic Orchestra under the baton of

Krzysztof Urbanski.

An exclusive Deutsche Grammophon

artist, his sixth album for the label The Art

of the Mandolin was released this season

and follows recordings of solo Bach (2019),

Avital meets Avital (2017) with oud/bassist

Omer Avital, Vivaldi (2015), an album of

Avital’s own transcriptions of Bach concertos

and Between Worlds (2014), a crossgeneric

chamber collection exploring the

nexus between classical and traditional

music. He has also recorded for Naxos and

SONY Classical.

Avital is highly in demand also as a

concerto soloist and has performed with

orchestras all over the world working with

conductors such as Zubin Mehta, Kent Nagano,

Osmo Vänskä, Yutaka Sado, Jonathan

Cohen, Nicholas McGegan, Omer Meir

Wellber, Ton Koopman and Giovanni Antonini.

Engagements include the Zurich Tonhalle

Orchestra, BBC Symphony Orchestra,

Orchestra dell’Accademia Nazionale di Santa

Cecilia, Deutsche Symphonie Orchester

Berlin, Orchestre National de Lyon, Maggio

Musicale Fiorentino, Israel Philharmonic,

Yomiuri Nippon Symphony, Residentie Orkest

and the Norwegian Radio Orchestra.

He tours 2-3 times each season in the USA

working with orchestras including the Chicago

Symphony Orchestra, Los Angeles

Chamber Orchestra, Seattle Symphony, Baltimore

Symphony, Les Violons du Roy, Orpheus

Chamber Orchestra and The Knights.

“The words 'superstar'

and 'mandolinist' still

look odd next to each

other. Yet in the classical

world they are starting

to be joined with some

frequency…. Avi Avital

was nothing short

of electric.”

The New York Times

Born in Be’er Sheva in southern Israel,

Avital began learning the mandolin at the

age of eight and soon joined the flourishing

mandolin youth orchestra founded and

directed by his charismatic teacher, Russian-born

violinist Simcha Nathanson. He

studied at the Jerusalem Music Academy

and the Conservatorio Cesare Pollini in

Padua with Ugo Orlandi. Winner of Israel’s

prestigious Aviv Competition in 2007,

Avital is the first mandolinist in the history

of the competition to be so honored. He

plays on a mandolin made by Israeli luthier

Arik Kerman.

Instrument: Arik Kerman (1998)

Strings: Thomastik-Infeld (154, Medium)

8 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


Photo by Atwood Photographie

LES VIOLONS DU ROY

Les Violons du Roy takes its name from the

celebrated court orchestra of the French

kings. It was founded in 1984 by Bernard

Labadie, now styled founding conductor,

and continues under music director Jonathan

Cohen to explore the nearly boundless

repertoire of music for chamber orchestra

in performances matched as closely

as possible to the period of each work’s

composition. Its minimum fifteen-member

complement plays modern instruments,

albeit with period bows for Baroque and

Classical music, and its interpretations are

deeply informed by the latest research on

seventeenth- and eighteenth-century performance

practice. The repertoire of the

nineteenth and twentieth centuries receives

similar attention and figures regularly on

the orchestra’s programs.

Les Violons du Roy has been a focal

point of Québec City’s musical life since it

was founded in 1984, and in 1997 it reached

out to enrich the cultural landscape of Montréal

as well. In 2007, the orchestra moved

into its permanent home base in Québec

City’s Palais Montcalm while continuing

to build on the worldwide reputation it has

acquired in countless concerts and recordings

carried by medici.tv, Radio-Canada,

CBC, and NPR along with regular appearances

on the festival circuit. Les Violons

du Roy has performed dozens of times

9 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


throughout Canada as well as in Germany,

the U.K., Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China,

Colombia, Ecuador, South Korea, Spain,

the United States, France, Israel, Morocco,

Mexico, Norway, the Netherlands, Slovenia,

and Switzerland, in collaboration with

such world-renowned soloists as Magdalena

Kožená, David Daniels, Vivica Genaux,

Alexandre Tharaud, Ian Bostridge, Emmanuel

Pahud, Stephanie Blythe, Marc-André

Hamelin, Philippe Jaroussky, Anthony Marwood,

Isabelle Faust, Julia Lezhneva and

Anthony Roth Costanzo. The orchestra has

performed at the Berlin Philharmonie and

iconic venues in London, Paris, and Brussels,

with two performances on invitation

at the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam.

Since Les Violons du Roy’s first trip to

Washington, D.C., in 1995, its U.S. travels

have been enriched with numerous and

regular stops in New York, Chicago, and

Los Angeles. Its ten appearances at Carnegie

Hall include five with La Chapelle de

Québec featuring the Messiah, the Christmas

Oratorio, and the St. John Passion under

Bernard Labadie, founder and music

director of the choir, and another featuring

Dido and Aeneas under Richard Egarr.

Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles

has hosted the orchestra three times, once

with La Chapelle de Québec in the Messiah,

again under Bernard Labadie. Les Violons

du Roy is represented by Opus 3 Artists and

Askonas Holt.

The thirty-six recordings released

thus far by Les Violons du Roy have been

met with widespread critical acclaim. The

twelve released on the Dorian label include

Mozart’s Requiem with La Chapelle de Québec

(Juno Award 2002) and of Handel’s

Apollo e Dafne with soprano Karina Gauvin

(Juno Award 2000). Since 2004, a dozen

more have appeared through a partnership

between Les Violons du Roy and Quebec’s

ATMA label, including Water Music (Félix

Award 2008), and Piazzolla (Juno Award

2006). Further recordings on Erato, Naïve,

Hyperion, Analekta, and Decca Gold

include Vivica Genaux, Truls Mørk, Marie-

Nicole Lemieux, Alexandre Tharaud, Marc-

André Hamelin, Valérie Milot, Anthony Roth

Costanzo (Grammy Award 2019 nomination)

and Charles Richard-Hamelin (Juno

Award 2020 nomination).

Photo by Atwood Photographie

10 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


Photo by Marco Borggreve

JONATHAN COHEN

Music Director, Les Violons du Roy

Jonathan Cohen has forged a remarkable

career as a conductor, cellist and keyboardist.

Well known for his passion and

commitment to chamber music Jonathan

is equally at home in such diverse activities

as baroque opera and the classical

symphonic repertoire. He is Artistic Director

of Arcangelo, Music Director of Les

Violons du Roy, Artistic Director of Tetbury

Festival and Artistic Partner of Saint Paul

Chamber Orchestra.

During the 20-21 season he returned

to Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment

(BBC Proms) and Handel and Haydn Society.

He makes his debut at Staatsoper

Berlin performing Orfeo with Freiburger

Barockorchester and Vocalconsort Berlin

in a production by Sasha Waltz Company.

Other debuts include Kobe City Chamber

Orchestra and Barcelona Symphony Orchestra

and he continues his fruitful collaboration

in Quebec with Les Violons du Roy.

Jonathan founded Arcangelo in 2010,

who strive to perform high quality and specially

created projects. He has toured with

them to exceptional halls and festivals

including Wigmore Hall London, Philharmonie

Berlin, Kölner Philharmonie, Vienna

Musikverein, Salzburg Festival and Carnegie

Hall New York. They made their Proms

debut at the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse in

2016 and returned to the Proms in 2018 to

present Theodora to a sold-out Royal Albert

Hall. They continue with a busy recording

schedule to continued acclaim with recent

releases such as Arianna with Kate Lindsey

on Alpha records and Grammy nominated

Buxtehude trio sonatas.

11 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


An historic treasure

with contemporary comforts

in the heart of Santa Barbara

50 Guest Rooms & Suites


Photo by Vladimir Ovchinnikov

Bach Monument, Leipzig, created by Carl Seffner in 1908

NOTES ON THE PROGRAM

By Howard Posner

Antonio VIVALDI:

Mandolin Concerto in C Major, RV 425

In Vivaldi’s day the word mandolino referred

to two different instruments. One was a soprano

lute, with pairs of gut strings tuned

more or less in fourths and played with the

right-hand fingers, and gut frets tied onto

the neck like a lute’s. The other was essentially

the modern mandolin, with four

pairs of metal strings tuned to the same

pitches as the violin’s four strings and

played with a plectrum, and metal frets set

into the neck like the modern guitar’s. We

don’t know which instrument Vivaldi meant

when he mandolino, and these days both

instruments are used for Vivaldi’s mandolin

music. It’s possible that Vivaldi himself regarded

the two instruments as interchangeable.

It’s also possible that Vivaldi played

the metal-strung instrument; the similarity

in tuning makes it a natural second instrument

for violinists, and nearly every large

orchestra has someone in the violin section

who can play the mandolin part in Mahler’s

Seventh Symphony.

13 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


Vivaldi’s concerto for solo mandolin

and strings probably dates from the 1720’s,

when Vivaldi was travelling constantly, performing

concerts and producing his operas.

He had left his position as violin teacher at

the orphanage/convent/music school/concert

venue Ospedale della Pietà, but was

still under contract to send back two concertos

a month for one gold ducat apiece.

Beneath the title on Vivaldi’s manuscript,

there is a note that the bowed strings

can play pizzicato throughout (“Si può ancor

fare con tutti gli violini pizzicati”). Playing

without bows, which seems to be the

most popular way to play it these days,

gives the concerto a delicate texture that

the mandolin can dominate.

Johann Sebastian BACH:

Excerpts from The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080

The Art of Fugue was Bach’s last major

project, and he didn’t quite finish it. The

idea was to compose a series of fugues

and canons all based on the same thematic

subject, which could be varied through all

the devices that were part of every composer’s

education in counterpoint, such

as turning it upside down or backward, or

augmenting or diminishing the length of its

notes. Bach wrote most of them in “open

score,” with each voice given its own staff,

making it look like music for an ensemble,

although it was not unusual in Bach’s day

to write keyboard or organ music in open

score. Today the Art of Fugue is performed

on all sorts of keyboards and by all sorts of

instrumental combinations.

Bach never finished the fugue called

Contrapunctus XIV (the word “contrapunctus”

does not appear in Bach’s manuscript,

in which most of the fugues are untitled;

the labels may have been added by his son

Carl Phillipp Emanuel, or by the publisher of

the posthumous 1751 edition). It is a Fuga

a 3 Soggetti ("fugue in three subjects") that

stops after 238 measures, at which point

in the manuscript Carl Phillipp Emanuel

wrote, “At the point where the composer

introduces the name BACH [BH–A–C–BJ

for non-Germans] in the countersubject to

this fugue, the composer died.” The image

of Bach dropping dead over the score, quill

in hand, is dramatic, but probably fantasy.

Carl Phillipp Emanuel was more than 100

miles away in Berlin, where he worked for

Frederick the Great, when his father died,

and would have had no particular knowledge

about what happened.

There have been numerous completions

of the unfinished triple fugue over the

centuries, so many that one scholar wrote

a thesis arguing that Bach deliberately left

it unfinished as a sort of final exercise in a

counterpoint textbook.

BACH, arr.AVITAL:

Violin Concerto in A Minor, BWV 1041

The only extant evidence for the A minor Violin

Concerto in Bach’s handwriting is a set

of parts from around 1730, when he was director

of music in the churches of Leipzig,

and had recently taken over the directorship

14 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


Vivaldi c.1723, Anonymous Painter

of a Collegium Musicum that gave concerts

in a local coffeehouse. But the concerto

may have been composed a decade earlier,

when Bach was Capellmeister at the court

of the Duke of Anhalt-Cöthen, the only time

in his half-century professional career that

he was not employed in making music for

Lutheran church services.

Most concertos are a bit like a conversation

between soloist and orchestra, with

the soloist elaborating on thoughts the orchestra

introduces. This one is remarkable

for how the soloist and orchestra talk almost

entirely about different things, without

sharing thematic material. The assertive

theme that starts the first movement never

appears in the solo episodes. Nor does the

orchestra ever play the yearning theme that

the first solo introduces. The rolling theme

in the bass, cello, and continuo that begins

the slow movement, and recurs throughout

it, disappears during the solo episodes,

as do the bass, cello, and continuo themselves,

leaving the violas as the bottom of

the ensemble. Not until the last phrase of

the movement do all the elements come together

and all the instruments play at the

same time. The finale combines the rhythm

and feel of the jig (the traditional last movement

of the Baroque suite) with the fugue,

the tutti passages corresponding to the fugal

expositions.

VIVALDI, arr.AVITAL:

Lute Concerto in D Major, RV 93

Vivaldi’s Concerto in D, RV 93, for lute, two

violins and continuo, became one of his biggest

hits in the 20th century when guitarists

appropriated it, the dreamlike slow movement

becoming a particular radio favorite.

On the mandolin it has to be played an octave

higher than it would sound on a lute, so

that the solo part is often in unison with the

first violin part. Oddly enough, there was a

time (mostly the 1980s) when cutting-edge

lute scholarship held that playing the solo

part in the upper octave pitch was precisely

what Vivaldi intended, and indeed the visual

evidence of the music on the page suggested

a solo instrumentthe gut-strung

mandolinosounding at violin pitch. Opinion

changed when the tradition of concerted

music with lute, in which the lute often

doubled the violin part an octave down in

tutti passages, became better understood.

The concerto works with the solo part at

either octave.

15 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


VIVALDI:

Concerto Grosso in G Minor, Op.3, No.2,

RV 578

The 1711 publication of his 12-concerto

opus 3, L'Estro Armonico, confirmed Vivaldi

as an international star, and established

the three-movement Vivaldi concerto as

a competitor, and eventual supplanter, of

the multi-movement Corellian concerto

grosso. Vivaldi was cutting-edge, and other

prominent composers, most notably Bach,

studied and adopted Vivaldi's techniques.

Bach was particularly enamored of the concertos

in L'Estro Armonico, getting inside the

music by arranging them for harpsichord(s)

and organ.

The G minor concerto, with two solo

violins and a cello that occasionally takes

a soloistic turn, offered plenty of headturning

moments for his contemporaries:

the vigorous chains of dissonances that begin

it, the surprising turns of harmony, and

the brusque chords and dramatic silences

of the second movement would have been

startling in 1711.

BACH, arr.AVITAL:

Keyboard Concerto in D Minor, BWV 1052

As a rule, Bach did not compose concertos

for keyboard instruments. With only two

likely exceptions his 15 concertos for harpsichord,

alone or with other instruments, are

thought to be reworkings of works for other

instruments. His purpose in refashioning

them is not clear, but he likely used them

as training and performance vehicles for

his own children and young players in the

Leipzig Collegium Musicum.

Some of the models from which Bach

fashioned his harpsichord concertos are

available: extant concertos by Vivaldi, or

concerto and cantata movements by Bach

himself. In other cases the original is lost.

Where a harpsichord concerto is from a

known model, scholars have observed that

Bach used the entire range of the original

solo instrument, and turned the original solo

part into right‐hand harpsichord part without

changing its range or key. This makes it

easy to deduce the original solo instrument

for a concerto that now exists only in keyboard

form. In the D‐minor harpsichord concerto

the right hand descends consistently

to G below middle C and no lower, which is

a fairly solid indication that it is a converted

violin part. This makes it doubly natural for

the mandolin, an instrument tuned like a

violin but with wire strings plucked with a

plectrum like a harpsichord.

The D‐minor concerto is Bach doing

Vivaldi: the statements of the theme in

unharmonized octaves that begin the first

two movements, the aggressive cast of the

themes in the outer movements, and the

solo episodes accompanied without bass,

are typical Vivaldi touches.

16 CAMA'S 103 RD CONCERT SEASON


US Tour with Avi Avital

Conductor and

Harpsichord

Jonathan Cohen

1st Violin

Pascale Giguère

Nicole Trotier

Pascale Gagnon

Noëlla Bouchard

2nd Violin

Marie Bégin

Angélique Duguay

Michelle Seto

Maud Langlois

Viola

Isaac Chalk

Annie Morrier

Jean-Louis Blouin

Cello

Benoît Loiselle

Raphaël Dubé

Double Bass

Raphaël McNabney

MANAGEMENT

Joint Executive

Director and Artistic

Administrator

Laurent Patenaude

Joint Executive

Director – Director

of Administration

Patrice Savoie

FOR OPUS 3

ARTISTS

President & CEO

David V. Foster

Manager, Artists

& Attractions

Sarah Gordon

Associate &

Company Manager

Grace Hertz

www.violonsduroy.com

www.facebook.com/violonsduroy

Photo by Atwood Photographie


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northerntrust.com

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