Renewable Energy – Solutions for application in the communal energy infrastructure

This brochure contains a selection of successful renewable energy solutions suitable for a range of applications for local and national municipalities and economies. The main energy end-use sectors and the current state of the energy transition are briefly explained to provide readers with an understanding of the transformation of the greater energy system. The renewable energy technology options are explained, including their relevance and applications for municipalities. Finally, a selection of exemplary projects that have been successfully implemented in Europe, the Russian Federation and Central Asia, are included to demonstrate real applications and use-cases for renewable solutions. Renewable energies are cheap, clean and versatile.

This brochure contains a selection of successful renewable energy solutions suitable for a range of applications for local and national municipalities and economies. The main energy end-use sectors and the current state of the energy transition are briefly explained to provide readers with an understanding of the transformation of the greater energy system. The renewable energy technology options are explained, including their relevance and applications for municipalities. Finally, a selection of exemplary projects that have been successfully implemented in Europe, the Russian Federation and Central Asia, are included to demonstrate real applications and use-cases for renewable solutions. Renewable energies are cheap, clean and versatile.


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<strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>Energy</strong><br />

<strong>Solutions</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>application</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>communal</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>in</strong>frastructure

2 | LEGAL NOTICE<br />

Legal notice<br />

This work is published <strong>in</strong> support of <strong>the</strong><br />

German-Russian <strong>Energy</strong> Dialogue.<br />

Publisher<br />

Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (dena)<br />

German <strong>Energy</strong> Agency<br />

Chausseestrasse 128 a<br />

10115 Berl<strong>in</strong>, Germany<br />

Tel: +49 (0)30 66 777 - 0<br />

Fax: +49 (0)30 66 777 - 699<br />

E-mail: <strong>in</strong>fo@dena.de<br />

Internet: www.dena.de<br />

Contact<br />

Nikias Wagner, dena<br />

Project Director, International Cooperation<br />

Nikias.Wagner@dena.de<br />

Authors<br />

German Lewizki, Sunbeam Communications<br />

Eva Augsten, Sunbeam Communications<br />

Ina Röpcke, Sunbeam Communications<br />

Tibor Fischer, dena<br />

Laurence Green, dena<br />

Design and Implementation<br />

Sunbeam Communications, Berl<strong>in</strong><br />

www.sunbeam-communication.com<br />

Please cite as<br />

German <strong>Energy</strong> Agency (dena, 2021): <strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>Energy</strong>,<br />

<strong>Solutions</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>application</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>communal</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>frastructure<br />

Version as of<br />

July 2021<br />

All rights reserved. Any use is subject to consent by<br />

dena.<br />

This document is <strong>in</strong>tended <strong>for</strong> <strong>in</strong><strong>for</strong>mational purposes<br />

only. All content has been provided with <strong>the</strong> greatest<br />

possible care and is provided <strong>in</strong> good faith. dena provides<br />

no guarantee regard<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> topicality, accuracy<br />

and completeness of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong><strong>for</strong>mation provided. dena<br />

accepts no liability <strong>for</strong> damages of a tangible or <strong>in</strong>tangible<br />

nature caused directly or <strong>in</strong>directly by <strong>the</strong> use<br />

of or failure to use <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong><strong>for</strong>mation provided, unless<br />

dena can be proven to have acted with <strong>in</strong>tent or gross<br />

negligence.<br />

List of Figures<br />

10: shutterstock/Nikolai L<strong>in</strong>k<br />

12: shutterstock/Polarpx<br />

14: shutterstock/DedMityay<br />

16: shutterstock/IndustryAndTravel<br />

18: shutterstock/<strong>in</strong>dustryviews<br />

19: shutterstock/medicalstocks<br />

20: shutterstock/Mike Fouque<br />

22: shutterstock/Wolfgang Jargstorff<br />

11, 13, 17, 21, 23: Sunbeam Communications<br />

26, 29, 31: German <strong>Energy</strong> Agency (dena),<br />

<strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>Energy</strong> <strong>Solutions</strong> Programme/<br />

Немецкое Энергетическое Агентство dena<br />


28: Solarimo GmbH<br />

30: Hevel Group/ГК Хевел<br />

32: FASA AG, The Case Digital<br />

33: Ingenieurbüro für Energieeffizienz, Wolfgang Hilz<br />

34: RusHydro/РУСГИДРО<br />

35: Kraftwerk Himmelp<strong>for</strong>te - Gebr. Hennecke,<br />

EnergieAgentur NRW<br />

36, 41, 42: Department <strong>for</strong> <strong>Energy</strong> Efficiency of <strong>the</strong><br />

State Committee <strong>for</strong> Standardization of <strong>the</strong> Republic<br />

of Belarus/Департамент по энергоэффективности,<br />

Государственного Комитета по стандартизации<br />

Республики Беларусь<br />

37: Ecoklimat LLC/ООО Экоклимт<br />

38: Len<strong>in</strong>grad Oblast <strong>Energy</strong> Sav<strong>in</strong>g and <strong>Energy</strong><br />

Efficiency Centre/ГКУ ЛО «Центр энергосбережения<br />

и повышения энергоэффективности<br />

Ленинградской области»<br />

39: Fortum Corporation<br />

40: Siemens Gamesa <strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>Energy</strong><br />

43: Bioenergiepark Forst<br />

44: Fördervere<strong>in</strong> des Neue Energien Forum Feldheim e.V.<br />

45: Sedum Architects

CONTENT |<br />

3<br />

Content<br />

Executive Summary 4<br />

Th<strong>in</strong>k globally, benefit locally 5<br />

The <strong>Energy</strong> Transition 6<br />

Application options 8<br />

Photovoltaics <strong>–</strong> electricity from sunlight 10<br />

Solar <strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong> <strong>–</strong> heat from <strong>the</strong> sun 12<br />

Hydropower <strong>–</strong> electricity from <strong>the</strong> river 14<br />

Near-surface geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong> <strong>–</strong> <strong>energy</strong> from <strong>the</strong> ground 16<br />

W<strong>in</strong>d power <strong>–</strong> high-tech with tradition 18<br />

Biomass <strong>–</strong> stored solar <strong>energy</strong> 20<br />

Biogas <strong>–</strong> stored solar <strong>energy</strong> to gas 22<br />

Project overview 24<br />

Mongolia: Hybrid plant supplies electricity <strong>for</strong> rural tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g center 26<br />

Belarus: Solar power plant secures power supply 27<br />

Germany: Cheap solar power <strong>for</strong> tenants 28<br />

Kyrgyzstan: Solar power <strong>for</strong> a children’s home 29<br />

Tuva: Solar diesel hybrid system <strong>for</strong> remote villages 30<br />

Uzbekistan: Tashkent University uses solar power 31<br />

Germany: Plenty of solar heat <strong>for</strong> apartment build<strong>in</strong>gs 32<br />

Germany: Solar heat network of old and new build<strong>in</strong>gs 33<br />

Kabard<strong>in</strong>o-Balkaria: Small hydropower plant with secure returns 34<br />

Germany: Modernisation of a small hydropower plant 35<br />

Belarus: Heat from <strong>the</strong> earth, electricity from <strong>the</strong> sun 36<br />

Russia: Secondary school heats its build<strong>in</strong>gs with geo<strong>the</strong>rmal heatpumps 37<br />

Russia: School cuts heat<strong>in</strong>g costs to a quarter with geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong> 38<br />

Russia: W<strong>in</strong>d farm streng<strong>the</strong>ns research and creates jobs 39<br />

Poland: W<strong>in</strong>d power replaces lignite 40<br />

Belarus: Electricity and district heat<strong>in</strong>g from woodchip 41<br />

Belarus: Wood-fired heat<strong>in</strong>g plant reduces district heat<strong>in</strong>g costs 42<br />

Germany: Electricity, gas and heat from chicken manure and <strong>energy</strong> crops 43<br />

Germany: “Bio<strong>energy</strong> village” Feldheim supplies itself with w<strong>in</strong>d, sun and biogas 44<br />

Georgia: Small hydropower helps to support tourism 45<br />

Fur<strong>the</strong>r contact <strong>in</strong><strong>for</strong>mation 46


Executive Summary<br />

This brochure conta<strong>in</strong>s a selection of successful renewable <strong>energy</strong> solutions suitable <strong>for</strong> a range of <strong>application</strong>s<br />

<strong>for</strong> local and national municipalities and economies. The ma<strong>in</strong> <strong>energy</strong> end-use sectors and <strong>the</strong> current<br />

state of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> transition are briefly expla<strong>in</strong>ed to provide readers with an understand<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> trans<strong>for</strong>mation<br />

of <strong>the</strong> greater <strong>energy</strong> system. The renewable <strong>energy</strong> technology options are expla<strong>in</strong>ed, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir relevance and <strong>application</strong>s <strong>for</strong> municipalities. F<strong>in</strong>ally, a selection of exemplary projects that have been<br />

successfully implemented <strong>in</strong> Europe, <strong>the</strong> Russian Federation and Central Asia, are <strong>in</strong>cluded to demonstrate<br />

real <strong>application</strong>s and use-cases <strong>for</strong> renewable solutions. <strong>Renewable</strong> energies are cheap, clean and versatile.<br />

• Globally, <strong>the</strong> generation capacity of renewable<br />

energies has been grow<strong>in</strong>g faster than <strong>the</strong> capacity<br />

associated with fossil generators <strong>for</strong> several years.<br />

• Solar <strong>energy</strong> is suitable <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> completely emissionfree<br />

generation of electricity and heat. It can also be<br />

generated on house roofs <strong>in</strong> cities.<br />

• The costs are steadily decreas<strong>in</strong>g: W<strong>in</strong>d and solar<br />

power are already cheaper than fossil <strong>energy</strong> sources<br />

<strong>in</strong> many places.<br />

• Communities that use renewable <strong>energy</strong> benefit from<br />

cleaner air and less noise.<br />

• <strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>energy</strong> sources are local <strong>energy</strong> sources.<br />

They <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>the</strong> level of added value locally.<br />

They reduce fuel imports and create jobs.<br />

• Industrial companies often rely on renewable<br />

energies to hedge aga<strong>in</strong>st ris<strong>in</strong>g electricity prices.<br />

• Depend<strong>in</strong>g on demand, electricity, heat or fuels can<br />

be generated from renewable sources.<br />

• Each region has <strong>in</strong>dividual <strong>energy</strong> resources that<br />

need to be harnessed: Solar, w<strong>in</strong>d, bio<strong>energy</strong>,<br />

hydropower or geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong>. In remote locations<br />

without a grid connection, w<strong>in</strong>d and solar<br />

power <strong>–</strong> <strong>in</strong> comb<strong>in</strong>ation with batteries <strong>–</strong> are <strong>in</strong>expensive<br />

alternatives to diesel generators.<br />

• W<strong>in</strong>d farms can supply very large amounts of<br />

electricity.<br />

• Wood and o<strong>the</strong>r solid biomass are suitable <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and <strong>for</strong> generat<strong>in</strong>g electricity <strong>in</strong> power plants.<br />

Wood chips and pellets burn very cleanly <strong>in</strong> modern<br />

stoves.<br />

• Biogas can be produced from <strong>energy</strong> crops (e.g. maize),<br />

but also from waste. It consists ma<strong>in</strong>ly of methane<br />

and is used <strong>in</strong> a similar way to natural gas.<br />

• Hydropower plants come <strong>in</strong> all sizes.<br />

They generate electricity around <strong>the</strong> clock.<br />

• Geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong> (geo<strong>the</strong>rmal heat) is mostly used<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r with heat pumps <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

There is also potential <strong>for</strong> geo<strong>the</strong>rmal power plants<br />

<strong>in</strong> some areas.<br />

• Depend<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>the</strong> climate, build<strong>in</strong>gs have a high<br />

<strong>energy</strong> demand <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g and cool<strong>in</strong>g. Modern<br />

<strong>in</strong>sulation <strong>–</strong> <strong>in</strong> comb<strong>in</strong>ation with renewable energies<br />

such as solar heat or geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong> <strong>–</strong> help to<br />

reduce costs.

FOREWORD |<br />

5<br />

Th<strong>in</strong>k globally, benefit locally<br />

W<strong>in</strong>d power, solar <strong>energy</strong>, geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong>, biogas<br />

and biofuels <strong>–</strong> renewable energies are on <strong>the</strong> rise<br />

around <strong>the</strong> world. Just 20 years ago, <strong>the</strong>y were a niche<br />

product, but today <strong>the</strong>ir expansion rates exceed those<br />

of fossil <strong>energy</strong> sources. This is partly due to <strong>the</strong><br />

ever more visible and severe consequences of climate<br />

change. Increas<strong>in</strong>gly frequent wea<strong>the</strong>r extremes <strong>–</strong> such<br />

as droughts and floods <strong>–</strong> have pushed <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> transition<br />

up <strong>the</strong> political agenda. In addition to advances<br />

<strong>in</strong> technology and a reduction of costs, <strong>the</strong> success of<br />

renewable <strong>energy</strong> sources is also due to <strong>the</strong> fact that<br />

<strong>the</strong>y offer great benefits at <strong>the</strong> local level.<br />

The use of renewable <strong>energy</strong> sources such as w<strong>in</strong>d<br />

and solar <strong>energy</strong> not only produces no CO 2 , but also<br />

no harmful emissions such as f<strong>in</strong>e dust and nitrogen<br />

oxides. Municipalities can immediately benefit from<br />

better air quality when power generation, heat<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

mobility are switched to clean <strong>energy</strong> sources.<br />

In addition, renewables also offer new opportunities<br />

<strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> regional economy. Every region is characterised<br />

by its own specific <strong>energy</strong> potential. In one area, <strong>the</strong>re<br />

may be high solar radiation, while <strong>in</strong> ano<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>re is<br />

abundant w<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong>, and <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r places <strong>the</strong>re are<br />

high resources of biomass and o<strong>the</strong>r residual materials.<br />

Us<strong>in</strong>g this potential is economically attractive <strong>for</strong> municipalities<br />

<strong>in</strong> several respects. By supply<strong>in</strong>g municipal<br />

or community facilities with renewable <strong>energy</strong> solutions,<br />

<strong>the</strong> municipality and <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitutions <strong>the</strong>mselves<br />

can first benefit from favourable <strong>energy</strong> costs. A children’s<br />

home <strong>in</strong> Bishkek (<strong>the</strong> capital of Kyrgyzstan), <strong>for</strong><br />

example, previously spent a large part of its budget on<br />

electricity. The new photovoltaic system saves <strong>energy</strong><br />

costs and leaves more budget <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> primary activities<br />

of <strong>the</strong> home.<br />

The construction of renewable <strong>energy</strong> plants also creates<br />

jobs <strong>in</strong> local trade enterprises and plann<strong>in</strong>g offices.<br />

Many technologies, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g primary and secondary<br />

components, can also be manufactured locally <strong>in</strong> whole<br />

(or at least <strong>in</strong> part). Regions with particularly favourable<br />

conditions can, <strong>in</strong> turn, become <strong>energy</strong> exporters,<br />

<strong>for</strong> example, with w<strong>in</strong>d power or biofuels, and thus<br />

generate additional <strong>in</strong>come. <strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>energy</strong> projects<br />

also allow relevant expertise to be nurtured and developed<br />

at <strong>the</strong> local level. The solar plant located on <strong>the</strong><br />

grounds of <strong>the</strong> State Technical University “Abu Rayhan<br />

Beruni” <strong>in</strong> Tashkent (<strong>the</strong> Capital of Uzbekistan) not<br />

only provides renewable and reliable <strong>energy</strong>, but also<br />

serves to demonstrate and educate students and o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

<strong>in</strong>terested parties on renewable <strong>energy</strong> technologies.<br />

The decentralised nature of renewable <strong>energy</strong> is particularly<br />

valuable <strong>in</strong> remote regions that o<strong>the</strong>rwise rely on<br />

fuel or electricity supply over long distances. At <strong>the</strong> vocational<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g centre of <strong>the</strong> Mongolian University of<br />

Life Sciences (MULS) <strong>in</strong> Nart Töv, about 140 kilometres<br />

north of <strong>the</strong> capital Ulaanbaatar, solar and w<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong>,<br />

<strong>in</strong> comb<strong>in</strong>ation with a battery storage system, have<br />

replaced <strong>the</strong> <strong>for</strong>mer diesel generator. Instead of hav<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to pay <strong>for</strong> (and transport) large quantities of diesel, <strong>the</strong><br />

vocational tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g centre has now created a reliable<br />

and <strong>in</strong>expensive <strong>energy</strong> supply <strong>for</strong> itself.<br />

The demands on <strong>energy</strong> supply are wide-rang<strong>in</strong>g, as<br />

are <strong>the</strong> possibilities of renewable energies. With this <strong>in</strong><br />

m<strong>in</strong>d, we hope you discover some <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>sights<br />

<strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> areas of <strong>application</strong> and <strong>the</strong> vast opportunities<br />

that renewable <strong>energy</strong> sources and technologies offer.<br />

When citizens and bus<strong>in</strong>esses utilize and rely on local<br />

renewable <strong>energy</strong> sources it also benefits <strong>the</strong> community.<br />

By spend<strong>in</strong>g less money on <strong>–</strong> mostly imported <strong>–</strong><br />

fossil fuels, more stays <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> region, <strong>the</strong>reby help<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

boost <strong>the</strong> local economy.


The <strong>Energy</strong> Transition<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>in</strong>dustrialisation, <strong>the</strong> consumption of fossil fuels and raw materials has grown steadily. These still cover<br />

<strong>the</strong> majority of global <strong>energy</strong> demand. However, <strong>the</strong> share of renewable <strong>energy</strong> and <strong>energy</strong> efficiency <strong>in</strong> global<br />

<strong>in</strong>vestments <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> sector is steadily <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g and has rema<strong>in</strong>ed more stable than <strong>in</strong>vestments <strong>in</strong><br />

conventional <strong>energy</strong>, even dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> Corona crisis. The transition from conventional <strong>energy</strong> sources to renewable<br />

and susta<strong>in</strong>able <strong>for</strong>ms of <strong>energy</strong> is occurr<strong>in</strong>g across all sectors, on a global scale.<br />

Electricity<br />

In 2018, <strong>the</strong> EU member states obta<strong>in</strong>ed around 32 per<br />

cent of <strong>the</strong>ir electricity from renewable sources. Climate<br />

protection targets and government fund<strong>in</strong>g are only one<br />

reason <strong>for</strong> this. The o<strong>the</strong>r is tangible economic benefits.<br />

The cost of w<strong>in</strong>d and solar <strong>energy</strong> has fallen so rapidly<br />

over <strong>the</strong> last twenty years that <strong>in</strong> many cases, <strong>the</strong>y<br />

are cheaper than fossil <strong>energy</strong> <strong>for</strong>ms. At <strong>the</strong> turn of<br />

<strong>the</strong> millennium, <strong>the</strong> generation of one kilowatt hour of<br />

solar electricity <strong>in</strong> Germany cost around 50 cents; today<br />

it is about a tenth of that.<br />

An <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g number of companies are conclud<strong>in</strong>g direct<br />

electricity supply contracts with solar system operators<br />

<strong>–</strong> without government subsidies. W<strong>in</strong>d power generation<br />

is also grow<strong>in</strong>g immensely. In 1997, global w<strong>in</strong>d power<br />

capacity was 7.5 gigawatts; <strong>in</strong> 2018, it was 564 gigawatts.<br />

Onshore w<strong>in</strong>d farms, <strong>in</strong> particular, are among <strong>the</strong> cheapest<br />

<strong>for</strong>ms of electricity generation today. Offshore w<strong>in</strong>d<br />

(w<strong>in</strong>d farms at sea) is somewhat more expensive because<br />

of <strong>the</strong> special conditions and requirements, but delivers<br />

<strong>energy</strong> with particular consistency.<br />

The fluctuat<strong>in</strong>g renewable <strong>energy</strong> sources (w<strong>in</strong>d and<br />

solar) are supplemented by controllable <strong>for</strong>ms of renewable<br />

<strong>energy</strong> <strong>–</strong> such as bio<strong>energy</strong> and hydropower,<br />

and by modern <strong>energy</strong> storage systems. Today, it is<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ly batteries, but <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> future it will <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly<br />

be renewable <strong>energy</strong> carriers such as hydrogen.<br />

Ano<strong>the</strong>r positive effect of <strong>the</strong> <strong>Energy</strong> Transition is <strong>the</strong><br />

high level of regional added value. Instead of simply import<strong>in</strong>g<br />

fossil raw materials, <strong>in</strong>vestments flow <strong>in</strong>to local<br />

economies. In Germany alone, several hundred thousand<br />

jobs have been created <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> green power sector.<br />

Build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Much rema<strong>in</strong>s to be done <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g sector, which<br />

accounts <strong>for</strong> about 40% of <strong>the</strong> EU’s <strong>energy</strong> demand.<br />

Depend<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>the</strong> climate zone, this <strong>in</strong>cludes, above all,<br />

a considerable amount of <strong>energy</strong> <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g or cool<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

In 2018, <strong>the</strong> EU decided (<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> “<strong>energy</strong> per<strong>for</strong>mance<br />

of build<strong>in</strong>gs directive”) that all member states must<br />

def<strong>in</strong>e a standard <strong>for</strong> new build<strong>in</strong>gs from 2020 that sets<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> requirement at almost zero. In technical<br />

terms, it has already been possible <strong>for</strong> years <strong>for</strong> build<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

to generate more <strong>energy</strong> than <strong>the</strong>y consume. The<br />

“Solar Settlement at Schlierberg” <strong>in</strong> Freiburg (Germany),<br />

<strong>the</strong> residential tower “Elithis Danube” <strong>in</strong> Strasbourg<br />

(France), <strong>the</strong> supermarket of <strong>the</strong> Migros cha<strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong> Zuzwil (Switzerland) and Solar-5 <strong>in</strong> Vladivostok are<br />

just a few of many examples. Member states must also<br />

present a plan <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> reno vation of exist<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

as demanded by <strong>the</strong> EU.<br />

In order <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> transition <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g sector<br />

to succeed, <strong>energy</strong> demand must be m<strong>in</strong>imised through<br />

measures such as efficiency standards, highly effective<br />

<strong>in</strong>sulation, and o<strong>the</strong>rs. At <strong>the</strong> same time, <strong>the</strong> demand<br />

must be met with renewable sources where possible.<br />

This can be done, <strong>for</strong> example, with a heat pump<br />

powered by electricity from a green electricity provider,<br />

or by generat<strong>in</strong>g heat or electricity with a solar system<br />

directly on <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g. With good plann<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

a long-term time horizon, highly efficient houses save<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir occupants a lot of money.


7<br />

Transport<br />

In <strong>the</strong> transport sector, greenhouse gas emissions<br />

<strong>in</strong> Europe have not fallen s<strong>in</strong>ce 1990, but have risen<br />

slightly. People and goods travel ever fur<strong>the</strong>r distances.<br />

Cars and trucks cause by far <strong>the</strong> most emissions. The<br />

mobility revolution beg<strong>in</strong>s <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> cities and goes hand<br />

<strong>in</strong> hand with a new urban lifestyle. In Copenhagen,<br />

people use bicycles <strong>for</strong> 35 per cent of all journeys, <strong>in</strong><br />

Amsterdam 30 per cent and, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> small Dutch town of<br />

Houten, <strong>the</strong> number is even 44 per cent. On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

hand, good public transport is essential <strong>for</strong> longer distances<br />

and <strong>for</strong> people with limited mobility.<br />

The retail trade also benefits from <strong>the</strong> mobility revolution,<br />

because fewer cars mean more space <strong>for</strong> parks,<br />

promenades, beautiful squares and cafés <strong>–</strong> and <strong>the</strong>se<br />

also attract customers. In rural areas, where many people<br />

still rely on cars today, clean drive motors are <strong>the</strong><br />

key, especially electro mobility <strong>for</strong> passenger cars. In<br />

2019, more than 2.1 million electric vehicles (EV) were<br />

sold worldwide <strong>–</strong> and <strong>the</strong> trend is ris<strong>in</strong>g. Thanks to developments<br />

<strong>in</strong> battery technology, <strong>the</strong> ranges of EVs <strong>for</strong><br />

personal mobility today has <strong>in</strong>creased to 500 kilometres<br />

and <strong>the</strong> purchase costs are only slightly higher than<br />

those of combustion eng<strong>in</strong>es. If <strong>the</strong> EV is “fueled” with<br />

<strong>in</strong>expensive, self-generated solar power, <strong>the</strong> economic<br />

and environmental benefits are even greater.<br />

Industry<br />

Industry also needs to become cleaner. S<strong>in</strong>ce 1990, European<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustry has successfully reduced its greenhouse<br />

gas emissions by 35 per cent. However, most of this<br />

was achieved be<strong>for</strong>e 2010. In <strong>the</strong> last decade efficiency<br />

has cont<strong>in</strong>ually <strong>in</strong>creased and many processes have<br />

been optimised to such an extent that fundamental<br />

changes <strong>in</strong> procedures are necessary <strong>for</strong> fur<strong>the</strong>r reductions<br />

<strong>in</strong> emissions.<br />

One step can be <strong>the</strong> use of electricity and heat from<br />

renewable energies, which can now also be purchased<br />

from specialised companies <strong>in</strong> direct contracts (power<br />

purchase agreements or heat supply contract<strong>in</strong>g). In<br />

some processes, such as <strong>the</strong> production of steel, CO 2 is<br />

also produced directly <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> production process.<br />

One way out of this could be <strong>the</strong> use of green hydrogen.<br />

Many companies are show<strong>in</strong>g great <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> climatefriendly<br />

production processes. The changeover is technically<br />

feasible, but it must be taken <strong>in</strong>to account today<br />

when <strong>in</strong>vest<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> new mach<strong>in</strong>ery and equipment <strong>in</strong><br />

order to prevent lock-<strong>in</strong> effects. For this, <strong>in</strong>dustry needs<br />

both clear targets and support from policymakers.<br />

Policy plays a vital role <strong>in</strong> shap<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> future, susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

<strong>energy</strong> system. In <strong>the</strong> EU certa<strong>in</strong> <strong>Energy</strong>-<strong>in</strong>tensive<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustries are part of <strong>the</strong> European Union Emissions<br />

Trad<strong>in</strong>g System (EU ETS). Companies with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>se <strong>in</strong>dustries<br />

may only produce a limited amount of emissions.<br />

If <strong>the</strong>y produce more, additional allowances must<br />

be acquired. For <strong>the</strong>se companies, <strong>energy</strong> efficiency,<br />

<strong>the</strong>re<strong>for</strong>e, pays off twice <strong>–</strong> <strong>in</strong> terms of <strong>energy</strong> costs and<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> sav<strong>in</strong>gs or trad<strong>in</strong>g of allowances.

8 |<br />

Application options<br />

<strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>energy</strong> sources are not only clean and cost-effective, but also versatile. This means that every<br />

municipality with its own <strong>in</strong>dividual needs can f<strong>in</strong>d a suitable solution <strong>–</strong> from heat<strong>in</strong>g a school to provid<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

reliable power supply <strong>for</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustrial areas. The below graphic and follow<strong>in</strong>g technology descriptions help to<br />

identify <strong>the</strong> right solution. Exemplary projects are <strong>the</strong>n presented, start<strong>in</strong>g on page 24.<br />

Applications Utility scale Industry/Commercial Private household Off-grid<br />

W<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong><br />

Offshore<br />

Onshore<br />

Small w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es<br />

Hydropower<br />

Small hydropower<br />

Geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong><br />

Near-surface<br />

Solar <strong>energy</strong><br />

Photovoltaics<br />

Solar <strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

Bio<strong>energy</strong><br />

Biogas<br />

Solid biomass<br />

Applicable <strong>for</strong> Heat<strong>in</strong>g/cool<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Applicable <strong>for</strong> Heat<strong>in</strong>g/cool<strong>in</strong>g and electricity<br />

Source: dena study: Status and perspectives <strong>for</strong> renewable <strong>energy</strong> development <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> UNECE region

|<br />



Photovoltaics <strong>–</strong> electricity from sunlight<br />

Photovoltaic systems generate electrical <strong>energy</strong> from solar radiation <strong>–</strong> cost-effectively, quietly and without<br />

emissions. In areas with an exist<strong>in</strong>g power grid, <strong>the</strong>y reduce <strong>energy</strong> costs and can provide support <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> network;<br />

<strong>in</strong> regions with an unstable (or even no) power grid, <strong>the</strong>y provide a secure and efficient <strong>energy</strong> supply<br />

that can also be comb<strong>in</strong>ed with storage systems <strong>for</strong> even greater coverage.<br />

Over <strong>the</strong> past 20 years, solar power generation has<br />

developed <strong>in</strong>to a marketable and economical technology.<br />

In many countries around <strong>the</strong> globe, <strong>the</strong> generation costs<br />

<strong>for</strong> solar power are now lower than those <strong>for</strong> conventional<br />

electricity. Worldwide, <strong>the</strong> generation costs <strong>for</strong><br />

solar electricity from large solar power plants have fallen<br />

to an average of 50 US dollars per megawatt hour. Ten<br />

years ago, those numbers were well above 300 dollars.<br />

This <strong>in</strong>credible drop <strong>in</strong> price follows <strong>the</strong> expansion of<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational production capacities, which was triggered<br />

by an explosion <strong>in</strong> demand <strong>for</strong> photovoltaic (PV)<br />

modules.<br />

Today even self-generated electricity from smaller solar<br />

systems is often cheaper than electricity purchased from<br />

<strong>the</strong> electricity network, or electricity generated us<strong>in</strong>g<br />

diesel generators. This applies to residential properties<br />

and municipal build<strong>in</strong>gs alike: solar PV systems can be<br />

<strong>in</strong>stalled on schools, hospital build<strong>in</strong>gs, recreational<br />

facilities and o<strong>the</strong>r public and private build<strong>in</strong>gs to cover<br />

electricity demand <strong>in</strong> a climate-neutral way.<br />

A typical household <strong>in</strong> Germany can cover roughly 20 to<br />

30 per cent of its electricity needs with solar power by<br />

us<strong>in</strong>g a solar PV system. With a storage system, this can<br />

<strong>in</strong>crease to around 80 per cent. Households <strong>in</strong> countries<br />

and areas with greater solar resources can cover all of<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir electriciy needs with PV systems toge<strong>the</strong>r with<br />

battery storage. Many battery storage systems also offer<br />

an emergency power supply. If <strong>the</strong>re is a power outage,<br />

<strong>the</strong> storage system steps <strong>in</strong>. This is especially important<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>application</strong>s where a constant power supply is<br />

essential, such as <strong>in</strong> hospitals and data centres.<br />

In regions without a stable grid connection, diesel<br />

gene rators are often used to supply power. The required<br />

fuel is often transported over longer distances. With a<br />

solar PV system, diesel and transport costs can be greatly<br />

reduced. A solar-diesel hybrid system can ensure supply<br />

of electrical <strong>energy</strong> <strong>in</strong> times of low solar <strong>energy</strong> generation<br />

or dur<strong>in</strong>g night. With <strong>the</strong> help of clever design, a<br />

comb<strong>in</strong>ation of a solar system and battery storage can<br />

ensure power supply even without a diesel generator,<br />

especially <strong>in</strong> areas with high solar irradiation.


11<br />

A place <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> solar modules can be found <strong>in</strong> most cases.<br />

These can be <strong>in</strong>stalled on roofs, facades and even on<br />

<strong>the</strong> ground. Once commissioned, <strong>the</strong> systems can run<br />

almost ma<strong>in</strong>tenance-free <strong>for</strong> decades.<br />

Possible <strong>application</strong>s and benefits <strong>for</strong><br />

municipalities:<br />

Solar PV systems can be <strong>in</strong>stalled on most build<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

and <strong>in</strong> open spaces. They supply solar power <strong>for</strong> a wide<br />

variety of <strong>application</strong>s, <strong>for</strong> example:<br />

• Residential houses of any size<br />

• Municipal, commercial and <strong>in</strong>dustrial build<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

• Off-grid consumers and loads, such as remote<br />

facilities or radio masts and equipment<br />

• Charg<strong>in</strong>g stations <strong>for</strong> electric vehicles<br />

• The replacement of diesel generators or <strong>for</strong> use <strong>in</strong><br />

diesel hybrid systems<br />

There, <strong>the</strong>y reduce <strong>energy</strong> costs and CO 2 emissions and,<br />

especially <strong>in</strong> connection with <strong>energy</strong> storage systems,<br />

provide reliable <strong>energy</strong> even when <strong>the</strong> public power<br />

grid is unstable. In off-grid locations, “micro grids”<br />

with solar PV plants with or without battery storage<br />

comb<strong>in</strong>ed with backup diesel generators, can ensure an<br />

efficient and stable <strong>energy</strong> supply.<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

Functional pr<strong>in</strong>ciple and design<br />

The primary components of a PV system are <strong>the</strong> solar<br />

modules which <strong>for</strong>m <strong>the</strong> solar array. In today’s most<br />

widespread module technology, each solar module<br />

consists of numerous solar cells that utilise silicon as<br />

a semiconductor. These cells are <strong>in</strong>terconnected with<strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> modules.<br />

Several modules are comb<strong>in</strong>ed to <strong>for</strong>m a PV system<br />

and mounted on <strong>the</strong> roof or ground us<strong>in</strong>g a mount<strong>in</strong>g<br />

system. There, <strong>the</strong>y convert solar radiation <strong>in</strong>to direct<br />

current. Inverters are used to convert this <strong>in</strong>to alternat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

current, which is fed <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> public or private<br />

electricity grid, or it is used directly on site.<br />

To ensure a high solar yield, <strong>the</strong> PV modules should<br />

be <strong>in</strong>stalled fac<strong>in</strong>g south if possible. When be<strong>in</strong>g used<br />

<strong>for</strong> <strong>in</strong>dividual <strong>energy</strong> needs only however, east- and<br />

west-fac<strong>in</strong>g systems are also well-suited. The modules<br />

should be mounted at an angle, <strong>for</strong> example, 30 degrees.<br />

It is also important that <strong>the</strong> system is not shaded,<br />

or only shaded <strong>for</strong> a brief period. Depend<strong>in</strong>g on how<br />

<strong>the</strong> modules are connected, a shaded area can significantly<br />

reduce <strong>the</strong> solar yield of <strong>the</strong> entire system.<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce becom<strong>in</strong>g more cost-effective than electricity<br />

from an <strong>energy</strong> supplier <strong>in</strong> some countries, <strong>the</strong> comb<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

of solar electricity and a battery storage system<br />

is ga<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> popularity. In this case, ei<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>verter<br />

or an external <strong>energy</strong> management system regulates<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> flows. The solar electricity is typically first<br />

consumed directly <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g. Unused electricity<br />

is temporarily stored <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> battery <strong>for</strong> later use or fed<br />

<strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> public grid depend<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>the</strong> country, market<br />

and relevant regulations.<br />

4 5 6<br />

Structure of a photovoltaic system <strong>in</strong> a build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

1) Solar modules 2) Generator junction box 3) Load<br />

4) Grid connection 5) Meter 6) Grid feed-<strong>in</strong> unit<br />

In addition to such grid-connected PV systems, offgrid<br />

systems or so-called “micro grids” (off-grid<br />

solutions), require a battery <strong>for</strong> optimal results. There<br />

are now technically mature battery systems available<br />

<strong>for</strong> all <strong>application</strong>s: from small home storage units <strong>for</strong><br />

a residential build<strong>in</strong>g, to large-scale commercial and<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustrial storage units with several megawatt hours of<br />

storage capacity.


Solar <strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong> <strong>–</strong> heat from <strong>the</strong> sun<br />

Solar <strong>the</strong>rmal systems generate heat from solar radiation <strong>for</strong> water heat<strong>in</strong>g and room heat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> build<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

<strong>for</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustrial processes and heat networks. The most common use worldwide is <strong>for</strong> domestic hot water and<br />

solar <strong>the</strong>rmal systems that support central heat<strong>in</strong>g. With <strong>the</strong>ir glazed solar collectors, <strong>the</strong> systems are robust,<br />

low-ma<strong>in</strong>tenance and rema<strong>in</strong> functional <strong>for</strong> decades. Free solar <strong>energy</strong> lowers <strong>energy</strong> costs and reduces<br />

climate-damag<strong>in</strong>g emissions <strong>in</strong> heat supply.<br />

Domestic solar <strong>the</strong>rmal hot water systems provide heat<br />

<strong>for</strong> shower- and dr<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g water, and are most commonly<br />

used <strong>in</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle-family homes. However, <strong>the</strong>y are,<br />

<strong>in</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>ciple, suitable wherever <strong>the</strong>re is a high demand<br />

<strong>for</strong> hot water. That is why hotels and holiday resorts<br />

are also ideal <strong>application</strong>s <strong>for</strong> solar <strong>the</strong>rmal systems, as<br />

are retirement homes, hospitals and sports halls. Solar<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmal systems that support heat<strong>in</strong>g provide <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>for</strong> hot water as well as room heat<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Solar <strong>the</strong>rmal systems can also be <strong>in</strong>tegrated <strong>in</strong>to heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

networks, <strong>for</strong> example, <strong>in</strong> new development areas,<br />

where <strong>the</strong>y supply residential build<strong>in</strong>gs and municipal<br />

properties centrally with heat. Generally, <strong>in</strong>stallation<br />

on roofs is common, but an elevated <strong>in</strong>stallation <strong>in</strong><br />

open spaces or o<strong>the</strong>r structures are also possible.<br />

These <strong>application</strong>s <strong>in</strong>volve low-temperature systems<br />

<strong>for</strong> a water temperature of up to approx. 60 degrees.<br />

For <strong>in</strong>dustrial and commercial enterprises, <strong>the</strong>re are<br />

process heat<strong>in</strong>g systems <strong>for</strong> high temperatures of approximately<br />

100 degrees Celsius. There is also a need<br />

among companies such as laundries, car washes, pa<strong>in</strong>ters<br />

and breweries. In agriculture, dry<strong>in</strong>g can be done<br />

with <strong>the</strong> help of solar heat.


13<br />

5<br />

1<br />

Design of a solar<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmal system<br />

<strong>in</strong> a build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

2 3 4<br />

1) Solar collector<br />

2) Solar storage tank<br />

3) Boiler<br />

4) Solar controller<br />

with expansion<br />

vessel<br />

5) Consumer<br />

Possible <strong>application</strong>s and benefits <strong>for</strong> municipalities:<br />

Solar <strong>the</strong>rmal systems convert solar radiation directly<br />

<strong>in</strong>to heat, thus sav<strong>in</strong>g costs and reduc<strong>in</strong>g CO 2 emissions.<br />

They can be used <strong>for</strong>:<br />

• S<strong>in</strong>gle and multi-family houses,<br />

apartment build<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

• Municipal build<strong>in</strong>gs such as k<strong>in</strong>dergartens,<br />

retirement and residential homes<br />

• Tourist build<strong>in</strong>gs such as guesthouses and hotels<br />

• Industrial and commercial processes<br />

• Local and district heat<strong>in</strong>g networks<br />

Functional pr<strong>in</strong>ciple and design<br />

At <strong>the</strong> heart of a solar <strong>the</strong>rmal system are solar collectors<br />

conta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g absorbers made of copper or alum<strong>in</strong>ium.<br />

These absorbers take <strong>in</strong> <strong>energy</strong>-rich short-wave<br />

solar radiation and convert it <strong>in</strong>to usable heat. The heat<br />

is <strong>the</strong>n transferred to a heat transfer medium. This is<br />

usually a frost-proof solar fluid that circulates with<strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> system. A circulation pump transports <strong>the</strong> heat<br />

from <strong>the</strong> collectors through <strong>the</strong> solar pipes and to <strong>the</strong><br />

heat storage tank. Due to <strong>the</strong> fact that <strong>the</strong> solar fluid<br />

is <strong>in</strong> a separate circuit, a heat exchanger transfers <strong>the</strong><br />

heat to <strong>the</strong> domestic or heat<strong>in</strong>g water. From <strong>the</strong> storage<br />

tank, <strong>the</strong> heat <strong>the</strong>n reaches <strong>the</strong> hot water distribution<br />

or <strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g system.<br />

Robustly built flat-plate collectors are available, which<br />

have <strong>the</strong> largest market share, as well as more powerful<br />

evacuated tube collectors. Air collectors, a niche product,<br />

can be used <strong>for</strong> additional ventilation.<br />

In domestic hot water systems, a dr<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g water storage<br />

tank stores hot water <strong>for</strong> bath<strong>in</strong>g and wash<strong>in</strong>g. In<br />

heat<strong>in</strong>g-support systems, ei<strong>the</strong>r a buffer storage tank<br />

is used that only stores <strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g water, or a comb<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

storage tank where a dr<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g water storage<br />

tank is <strong>in</strong>tegrated <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g tank.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> case of a domestic hot water system, it is advisable<br />

to dimension <strong>the</strong> system <strong>in</strong> such a way that<br />

<strong>the</strong> demand <strong>for</strong> heat <strong>in</strong> summer is completely covered<br />

by solar <strong>energy</strong>. The boiler can <strong>the</strong>n rema<strong>in</strong> switched<br />

off dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> warmer months and, depend<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>the</strong><br />

design, <strong>in</strong> spr<strong>in</strong>g and autumn, too.<br />

Heat<strong>in</strong>g-support systems must also be scaled proportionately<br />

<strong>in</strong> accordance with <strong>the</strong> share of solar heat<br />

to total heat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>energy</strong>. The collectors are aligned <strong>in</strong><br />

such a way that <strong>the</strong>y absorb as much solar radiation as<br />

possible dur<strong>in</strong>g w<strong>in</strong>ter. The space required <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> heat<br />

storage tank, which is usually <strong>in</strong>stalled <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

or eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g room, must also be taken <strong>in</strong>to account.

14 | HYDROPOWER<br />

Hydropower <strong>–</strong> electricity from <strong>the</strong> river<br />

Of all <strong>the</strong> renewable <strong>energy</strong> sources used to generate electricity <strong>in</strong> Eastern Europe and <strong>the</strong> Russian Federation,<br />

hydropower has by far <strong>the</strong> largest share. The electricity is ma<strong>in</strong>ly generated by plants <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> gigawatt<br />

power classes. But so-called “small hydropower” <strong>–</strong> with plants of up to 25 megawatts capacity <strong>–</strong> also delivers<br />

many positive effects as a decentralised, local power supply.<br />

Hydroelectric power really comes <strong>in</strong>to its own, above all,<br />

<strong>in</strong> remote areas such as mounta<strong>in</strong> regions. There, it is<br />

particularly costly to connect small settlements to <strong>the</strong><br />

public electricity grid. Harness<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> power of rivers<br />

enables <strong>energy</strong> generation from hydroelectric power.<br />

Local electricity supply improves liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions and<br />

thus creates a basis <strong>for</strong> fur<strong>the</strong>r economic development.<br />

In more densely populated areas, a stable electricity<br />

supply promotes <strong>the</strong> settlement and expansion of <strong>in</strong>dustry<br />

and commerce. Hydroelectric power plants, <strong>for</strong><br />

example, provide <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> used <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> production of<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g materials, <strong>for</strong> irrigation and sewage systems,<br />

and <strong>for</strong> agricultural operations. Municipal facilities,<br />

such as schools and medical care centres, also receive<br />

reliable electricity <strong>in</strong> this way.<br />

In addition to <strong>the</strong> off-grid operation of hydroelectric<br />

power plants, <strong>in</strong>tegration <strong>in</strong>to public electricity grids is<br />

also an option. The plants supply constant <strong>energy</strong> and<br />

can reliably cover <strong>the</strong> base load and stabilise <strong>the</strong> grids.<br />

In addition, no greenhouse gases are produced dur<strong>in</strong>g<br />

this <strong>energy</strong> generation process, and <strong>the</strong> municipality<br />

makes a contribution to climate protection.


15<br />

The Francis turb<strong>in</strong>e is a universally applicable water turb<strong>in</strong>e, <strong>in</strong><br />

which <strong>the</strong> impeller is radially imp<strong>in</strong>ged from <strong>the</strong> outside.<br />

The Kaplan turb<strong>in</strong>e is an axial-flow water turb<strong>in</strong>e and is used <strong>in</strong><br />

run-of-river power plants.<br />

Possible <strong>application</strong>s and benefits <strong>for</strong> municipalities:<br />

Small hydroelectric power plants with a capacity of<br />

up to approx. 25 megawatts support a wide range of<br />

potential <strong>application</strong>s:<br />

• Power supply to remote villages and regions<br />

• Improv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>frastructure <strong>in</strong> already developed areas<br />

• Cover<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> base load <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> electricity grid<br />

• Secur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> supply of electrical <strong>energy</strong><br />

• Stabilisation of <strong>the</strong> groundwater level<br />

• Reduction of climate-damag<strong>in</strong>g emissions<br />

Functional pr<strong>in</strong>ciple and design<br />

Small hydroelectric power plants are usually run-ofriver<br />

(RoR) power plants. They use <strong>the</strong> hydraulic <strong>energy</strong><br />

of flow<strong>in</strong>g water and cont<strong>in</strong>uously convert it <strong>in</strong>to electricity.<br />

Pumped storage plants are to be dist<strong>in</strong>guished<br />

from this. These store <strong>the</strong> water <strong>in</strong> a reservoir and<br />

generate electrical <strong>energy</strong> when needed.<br />

A run-of-river power plant works as follows:<br />

Run-of-river or what are also known as ‘diversion’<br />

power plants may also be contructed to channel or divert<br />

water to <strong>the</strong> power plant via an additional watercourse<br />

alongside <strong>the</strong> weir and ma<strong>in</strong> water body. The<br />

goal is to achieve a greater gradient <strong>in</strong> order to achieve<br />

more <strong>energy</strong>.<br />

Ano<strong>the</strong>r important component <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> hydro electric<br />

power plant are <strong>the</strong> rakes. The metal grilles possess<br />

a dual function. Firstly, <strong>the</strong>y protect <strong>the</strong> turb<strong>in</strong>e from<br />

damage caused by float<strong>in</strong>g refuse <strong>–</strong> such as branches<br />

and rubbish. Secondly, <strong>the</strong> small rake distances prevent<br />

fish from enter<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> power plant. The mechanical<br />

barrier moves <strong>the</strong> fish away from <strong>the</strong>ir migratory path<br />

with <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> current. In order to ensure <strong>the</strong> cont<strong>in</strong>uity<br />

of flow<strong>in</strong>g waters, plant operators often build devices<br />

known colloquially as “fish ladders” at <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong><br />

watercourse.<br />

Run-of-river power plants are particularly suitable <strong>for</strong><br />

watercourses with high flow velocities. They achieve<br />

very high efficiencies of up to roughly 90 per cent.<br />

The water may first be dammed up at a wier or dam<br />

wall but is not always required. The water upstream of<br />

<strong>the</strong> power plant (headwater) is higher than <strong>the</strong> water<br />

downstream of <strong>the</strong> power plant (tailwater). The steeper<br />

<strong>the</strong> gradient, <strong>the</strong> greater <strong>the</strong> amount of <strong>energy</strong> generated.<br />

The headwater is fed <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> power plant to <strong>the</strong> turb<strong>in</strong>e.<br />

This drives a generator that subsequently generates<br />

electrical <strong>energy</strong> (electricity) from <strong>the</strong> mechanical<br />

<strong>energy</strong>. After power generation, <strong>the</strong> tail water flows out<br />

of <strong>the</strong> plant.


Near-surface geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong> <strong>–</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong> from <strong>the</strong> ground<br />

In <strong>the</strong> ground, temperatures rema<strong>in</strong> largely stable throughout <strong>the</strong> year, even just a few metres below <strong>the</strong><br />

surface. With <strong>the</strong> help of a heat pump, this <strong>energy</strong> can be used to generate heat <strong>in</strong> w<strong>in</strong>ter and, if required,<br />

<strong>for</strong> cool<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> summer.<br />

The immense <strong>energy</strong> resources hidden deep <strong>in</strong>side <strong>the</strong><br />

earth are only accessible near or on <strong>the</strong> surface <strong>in</strong> a few<br />

places around <strong>the</strong> world <strong>–</strong> <strong>for</strong> example, <strong>in</strong> Iceland and<br />

<strong>in</strong> Russia’s Kamchatka pen<strong>in</strong>sula. In <strong>the</strong>se locations<br />

geo<strong>the</strong>rmal power plants <strong>–</strong> <strong>in</strong>stead of burn<strong>in</strong>g fossil<br />

raw materials <strong>–</strong> tap directly <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> earth’s <strong>energy</strong>.<br />

This means <strong>the</strong>y can generate clean electricity and district<br />

heat<strong>in</strong>g all year round.<br />

Even though <strong>the</strong> ground <strong>in</strong> most parts of <strong>the</strong> world is<br />

significantly cooler than that found <strong>in</strong> volcanically active<br />

zones, it is still a clean and reliable source of <strong>energy</strong>.<br />

With <strong>the</strong> help of ground-coupled heat pumps, heat from<br />

<strong>the</strong> ground can be used to keep build<strong>in</strong>gs warm. Us<strong>in</strong>g<br />

electrical drive <strong>energy</strong>, <strong>the</strong> heat pump “pumps” <strong>the</strong> heat<br />

<strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g circuit aga<strong>in</strong>st <strong>the</strong> temperature gradient.<br />

Essentially, heat pumps are effective when <strong>the</strong><br />

temperature <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ground is just a few degrees warmer,<br />

although <strong>the</strong> system’s efficiency <strong>in</strong>creases with every<br />

additional degree. Instead of <strong>the</strong> ground as an <strong>energy</strong><br />

source, water, wastewater, waste heat<br />

from mach<strong>in</strong>es or even, under certa<strong>in</strong> circumstances,<br />

ambient air can also be used. Some heat pumps can also<br />

reverse <strong>the</strong>ir operat<strong>in</strong>g direction and provide cool<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

summer by transferr<strong>in</strong>g heat from <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong><br />

ground.<br />

Nearly 20 million new heat pump heat<strong>in</strong>g systems were<br />

<strong>in</strong>stalled around <strong>the</strong> globe <strong>in</strong> 2019. In many countries,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y are <strong>the</strong> most common source of heat <strong>for</strong> new<br />

build<strong>in</strong>gs, e.g. <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> USA. In Europe, Sweden, Estonia,<br />

F<strong>in</strong>land and Norway are <strong>the</strong> countries with <strong>the</strong><br />

highest share of heat pump-based heat<strong>in</strong>g. The use of<br />

heat pumps is particularly suitable where clean electricity<br />

is also available. This can be generated centrally<br />

from w<strong>in</strong>d or hydroelectric power, or via photovoltaic<br />



17<br />

Surface ground heat absorbers use <strong>the</strong> heat stored <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

ground. They require a large area and are, <strong>the</strong>re<strong>for</strong>e, suitable<br />

<strong>for</strong> larger, undeveloped plots.<br />

For small plots of land or areas with deeper groundwater ve<strong>in</strong>s,<br />

geo<strong>the</strong>rmal probes aare advantageous.<br />

Possible <strong>application</strong>s and benefits <strong>for</strong> municipalities:<br />

Heat pumps can be used where heat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>energy</strong> is required<br />

and heat is reliably available at a low temperature<br />

level. There, <strong>the</strong>y reduce operat<strong>in</strong>g costs and CO 2<br />

emissions attributable to room heat<strong>in</strong>g:<br />

• Heat<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>gs of any size with heat<br />

from <strong>the</strong> earth<br />

• The comb<strong>in</strong>ation of heat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> w<strong>in</strong>ter and cool<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

summer (reversible operation)<br />

• The use of waste heat at a low temperature level, e.g.<br />

from mach<strong>in</strong>es or wastewater<br />

Functional pr<strong>in</strong>ciple and design<br />

A heat pump-based heat<strong>in</strong>g system consists of three<br />

ma<strong>in</strong> parts: With <strong>the</strong> source system, heat is collected<br />

from <strong>the</strong> ground or ano<strong>the</strong>r heat source. The heat pump<br />

raises <strong>the</strong> temperature to <strong>the</strong> desired level. The distribution<br />

and storage system ensures that <strong>the</strong> heat arrives <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> right room at <strong>the</strong> right time.<br />

In order to use <strong>the</strong> ground as a heat source, horizontal<br />

(geo<strong>the</strong>rmal collector) or vertical (geo<strong>the</strong>rmal probes)<br />

pipe systems can be deployed. Water mixed with antifreeze<br />

<strong>–</strong> br<strong>in</strong>e <strong>–</strong> flows through <strong>the</strong>se systems. The br<strong>in</strong>e<br />

absorbs <strong>the</strong> heat from <strong>the</strong> ground, and <strong>the</strong> heat pump<br />

renders it usable <strong>for</strong> people.<br />

<strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g’s heat<strong>in</strong>g system. The vaporous refrigerant<br />

transfers its heat to <strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g water. It becomes liquid<br />

aga<strong>in</strong> and <strong>the</strong> cycle can beg<strong>in</strong> anew<br />

The closer <strong>the</strong> temperature <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g’s floor and <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g circuit are to each o<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong> more heat can<br />

be “pumped” <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g with <strong>the</strong> same amount of<br />

electricity. It is thus important to comb<strong>in</strong>e heat pumps<br />

with, <strong>for</strong> example, underfloor heat<strong>in</strong>g or air heat<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

These can achieve a com<strong>for</strong>table room temperature <strong>in</strong><br />

excess of 20 degrees Celsius with heat<strong>in</strong>g circuit temperatures<br />

around 35 degrees Celsius <strong>–</strong> provided <strong>the</strong><br />

build<strong>in</strong>g is well-<strong>in</strong>sulated. At temperate latitudes, <strong>for</strong><br />

example, it is possible to generate more than four kilowatt<br />

hours of usable heat<strong>in</strong>g with one kilowatt hour of<br />

electricity, based on an annual average.<br />

So-called reversible heat pumps are also helpful. They<br />

are used <strong>for</strong> cool<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> summer by pump<strong>in</strong>g heat from<br />

<strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> ground by revers<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> process<br />

described above. This also has <strong>the</strong> advantage that <strong>the</strong><br />

ground becomes warmer and <strong>the</strong> heat pump works<br />

more efficiently <strong>in</strong> w<strong>in</strong>ter. As a general pr<strong>in</strong>ciple, good<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g and <strong>the</strong> coord<strong>in</strong>ation of components are particularly<br />

important <strong>for</strong> heat pumps.<br />

The br<strong>in</strong>e heats <strong>the</strong> so-called refrigerant <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> heat<br />

pump. This is a liquid that evaporates at very low<br />

temperatures. When turned <strong>in</strong>to steam by <strong>the</strong> heat of<br />

<strong>the</strong> br<strong>in</strong>e, <strong>the</strong> refrigerant flows to a compressor. There,<br />

it is compressed with <strong>the</strong> use of electrical <strong>energy</strong>. The<br />

gas heats up under pressure. It <strong>the</strong>n meets <strong>the</strong> medium<br />

of <strong>the</strong> distribution circuit <strong>in</strong> a heat exchanger, <strong>the</strong><br />

so-called condenser <strong>–</strong> usually <strong>the</strong> water circulat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>

18 | WIND POWER<br />

W<strong>in</strong>d power <strong>–</strong> high-tech with tradition<br />

Eng<strong>in</strong>eers have cont<strong>in</strong>ued <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir ef<strong>for</strong>ts to improve electricity generation from w<strong>in</strong>d power over recent decades.<br />

Large w<strong>in</strong>d farms, both on- and offshore, can generate enough electricity to supply entire cities. Small<br />

systems are suitable <strong>for</strong> off-grid villages and settlements.<br />

People have been harness<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> power of w<strong>in</strong>d to<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir benefit <strong>for</strong> centuries, but <strong>the</strong> boom <strong>in</strong> w<strong>in</strong>d power<br />

is just a few decades old. In Germany, w<strong>in</strong>d power<br />

contributed <strong>in</strong> excess of 24 per cent to total electricity<br />

generation <strong>in</strong> 2019, even surpass<strong>in</strong>g lignite. In Denmark,<br />

where w<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong> has long been relied upon<br />

<strong>in</strong>tensively, it even covers almost half of all electricity<br />

demand. Thanks to modern <strong>for</strong>ecast<strong>in</strong>g and control<br />

technology, w<strong>in</strong>d power can be safely <strong>in</strong>tegrated <strong>in</strong>to<br />

<strong>the</strong> electricity grid. In future scenarios developed by<br />

experts, w<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong> will play <strong>the</strong> second largest role <strong>in</strong><br />

electricity generation <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> long-term <strong>–</strong> after photovoltaics.<br />

Given <strong>the</strong> temporal differences <strong>in</strong> electricity<br />

generat<strong>in</strong>g profiles, <strong>the</strong>se two <strong>for</strong>ms of <strong>energy</strong> complement<br />

each o<strong>the</strong>r very effectively.<br />

Due to technological developments and economies of<br />

scale <strong>in</strong> production, <strong>the</strong> cost of w<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong> has fallen<br />

sharply around <strong>the</strong> globe and, depend<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>the</strong> region,<br />

costs roughly between 5 and 10 US cents per kilowatt<br />

hour, or 3 cents per kWh under particularly favourable<br />

conditions. Offshore power generation is somewhat<br />

more expensive than its onshore sibl<strong>in</strong>g because of <strong>the</strong><br />

special requirements that characterise its operation, but<br />

offshore w<strong>in</strong>d conditions allow <strong>for</strong> more stable generation<br />

and supply.<br />

Possible <strong>application</strong>s and benefits <strong>for</strong> municipalities:<br />

W<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong> is versatile <strong>for</strong> grid-connected and offgrid<br />

<strong>application</strong>s spann<strong>in</strong>g various dimensions:<br />

Today’s w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es <strong>for</strong> onshore use can have hub<br />

heights of approx. 150 metres and rated outputs of over<br />

5 megawatts; while offshore <strong>in</strong>stallations can exceed<br />

200 metres and produce more than 10 megawatts.<br />

There are several w<strong>in</strong>d farms with several hundred<br />

megawatts of capacity, and even <strong>in</strong>dividual projects<br />

operat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> gigawatt range.<br />

• On- and offshore w<strong>in</strong>d farms <strong>for</strong> feed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong><br />

electricity grid<br />

• Feed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to micro grids, e.g. <strong>for</strong> supply<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dividual<br />

locations, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> comb<strong>in</strong>ation with solar<br />

power and batteries<br />

• Small w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es <strong>for</strong> special <strong>application</strong>s (e.g.<br />

pump<strong>in</strong>g water)<br />

• Replacement or supplementation of diesel generators

WIND POWER |<br />

19<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

4<br />

10<br />

5<br />

6<br />

7<br />

8<br />

float<strong>in</strong>g foundations. The control technology <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

system is located at <strong>the</strong> bottom of <strong>the</strong> tower.<br />

W<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es <strong>for</strong> off-grid <strong>application</strong>s are often not<br />

only smaller but also technically simpler and more robust<br />

than <strong>the</strong>ir larger relatives. They require m<strong>in</strong>imum<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>tenance. Many of <strong>the</strong> small <strong>in</strong>stallations do not<br />

<strong>in</strong>volve free-stand<strong>in</strong>g towers, but ra<strong>the</strong>r masts braced<br />

with steel cables. In addition to <strong>the</strong> classic three-blade<br />

models, <strong>the</strong>re are also various models with a vertical<br />

axis.<br />

11<br />

12<br />

9<br />

13<br />

Construction of a w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>e:<br />

1) Rotor blade 2) Blade pitch<br />

3) Blade hub 4) Generator brake<br />

5) Gearbox 6) Measur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>struments<br />

7) Nacelle 8) Generator<br />

9) Trans<strong>for</strong>mer station 10) Ascent<br />

11) Cable route 12) Tower<br />

13) Foundation<br />

Functional pr<strong>in</strong>ciple and design<br />

Modern w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es typically have three rotor blades<br />

made of lightweight and stable fibreglass. The rotor<br />

hub connects <strong>the</strong> blades and transmits <strong>the</strong> movement<br />

to <strong>the</strong> shaft, which leads to <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>side of <strong>the</strong> nacelle situated<br />

at <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> tower. The nacelle can be rotated<br />

and can, <strong>the</strong>re<strong>for</strong>e, be aligned accord<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> w<strong>in</strong>d’s<br />

direction. The rotor blades can also be adjusted, <strong>in</strong><br />

order that different w<strong>in</strong>d strengths can be utilised to an<br />

optimum, while damage can be avoided dur<strong>in</strong>g storms.<br />

The gears translate <strong>the</strong> slow rotation of <strong>the</strong> rotor shaft<br />

<strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> fast movement of <strong>the</strong> generator.<br />

When plann<strong>in</strong>g a w<strong>in</strong>d farm, <strong>the</strong> first priority is to select<br />

<strong>the</strong> right location. W<strong>in</strong>d speed must be measured at<br />

different heights, while <strong>the</strong> distance and capacity of <strong>the</strong><br />

nearest power l<strong>in</strong>e must be taken <strong>in</strong>to consideration.<br />

Negative effects on human health have not been proven<br />

to date, but a certa<strong>in</strong> distance from settlements and<br />

houses contributes to <strong>the</strong>ir acceptance by <strong>the</strong> broader<br />

population. In order to protect bird and bat species,<br />

w<strong>in</strong>d farms should also be built outside breed<strong>in</strong>g areas,<br />

bird rest<strong>in</strong>g places and nature reserves.<br />

Involv<strong>in</strong>g people from <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> w<strong>in</strong>d<br />

farm and its profits <strong>–</strong> through <strong>the</strong> purchase of shares <strong>–</strong><br />

has also proven successful.<br />

W<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es are generally designed to have a service<br />

life of about twenty years. Depend<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>the</strong>ir condition,<br />

a general overhaul is <strong>the</strong>n due <strong>in</strong> order to ensure<br />

fur<strong>the</strong>r years of operation. Alternatively, <strong>the</strong> turb<strong>in</strong>es<br />

can be dismantled and replaced by a new, more efficient<br />

turb<strong>in</strong>e. This is known as “repower<strong>in</strong>g”. In view<br />

of <strong>the</strong> fact that <strong>the</strong> turb<strong>in</strong>es are primarily made of concrete<br />

and steel, <strong>the</strong> materials can be fur<strong>the</strong>r recycled <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> usual processes. Recycl<strong>in</strong>g processes are currently<br />

be<strong>in</strong>g developed <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> rotor blades.<br />

In contrast to a photovoltaic system, a w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>e<br />

supplies alternat<strong>in</strong>g current. The w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>e tower<br />

can be made of steel or concrete. Lattice towers made<br />

of steel require less material than tubular steel towers.<br />

This makes <strong>the</strong>m lighter and cheaper, but also more<br />

complex to assemble. A foundation of steel and concrete<br />

ensures a solid anchor<strong>in</strong>g. There are various special<br />

construction <strong>for</strong>ms <strong>for</strong> offshore foundations, rang<strong>in</strong>g<br />

from simple piers to gravity-based foundations and

20 | BIOENERGY<br />

Biomass <strong>–</strong> stored solar <strong>energy</strong><br />

Plants use <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> of <strong>the</strong> sun to grow. Biomass, e.g. <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>for</strong>m of wood, biogas or biofuels, is thus naturally<br />

stored solar <strong>energy</strong>. This resource can be harnessed cleanly and susta<strong>in</strong>ably with <strong>the</strong> help of modern<br />

technologies.<br />

Biomass refers to material that is of plant and animal<br />

orig<strong>in</strong>. The range extends from wood, to <strong>energy</strong> crops<br />

such as rapeseed and maize, to waste products such<br />

as animal dung or food process<strong>in</strong>g waste. The carbon<br />

conta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>the</strong>re<strong>in</strong> was taken from <strong>the</strong> atmosphere by<br />

plants and bound with <strong>energy</strong> from sunlight through<br />

<strong>the</strong> process of photosyn<strong>the</strong>sis to <strong>for</strong>m hydrocarbons<br />

that can serve as a source of <strong>energy</strong>. Bio<strong>energy</strong> accounts<br />

<strong>for</strong> roughly three quarters of renewable <strong>energy</strong> worldwide.<br />

Over half of this <strong>in</strong>volves traditional biomass use,<br />

i.e. <strong>the</strong> unregulated burn<strong>in</strong>g of wood, dung or charcoal.<br />

However, this produces particulate matter and nitrogen<br />

oxides that are harmful to health. The high fuel<br />

demand is also often accompanied by de<strong>for</strong>estation and<br />

<strong>the</strong> loss of natural habitats.<br />

Modern wood-based <strong>energy</strong>, on <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand, relies<br />

primarily on standardised fuels such as pellets and<br />

wood chips, which enable regulated and clean combustion<br />

processes, thus lead<strong>in</strong>g to improvements <strong>in</strong> local<br />

air quality. Given that residual materials from local<br />

wood process<strong>in</strong>g such as chips or knotted wood are<br />

mostly used <strong>for</strong> this purpose, local value creation also<br />

<strong>in</strong>creases. Until recently, wood and charcoal provided<br />

just under half of Europe’s renewable <strong>energy</strong>, especially<br />

<strong>in</strong> heat generation. In percentage terms, however, <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

share is decreas<strong>in</strong>g due to <strong>the</strong> expansion of w<strong>in</strong>d and<br />

solar <strong>energy</strong>, as well as o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>for</strong>ms of biomass use.<br />

Wood pellet heat<strong>in</strong>g systems offer a fully-fledged replacement<br />

<strong>for</strong> central heat<strong>in</strong>g systems. The pellet boiler<br />

works fully automatically and can heat an entire build<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Pellet stoves <strong>for</strong> <strong>in</strong>stallation <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> liv<strong>in</strong>g room, on<br />

<strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand, can serve as a clean replacement <strong>for</strong><br />

simple coal stoves. For larger build<strong>in</strong>gs, e.g. schools or<br />

community centres, woodchip heat<strong>in</strong>g systems are a<br />

good option. They are a cost-effective option <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

municipal build<strong>in</strong>gs, especially <strong>in</strong> rural regions.<br />

Municipal <strong>energy</strong> suppliers often rely on woodchips to<br />

generate district heat<strong>in</strong>g. Coal <strong>in</strong> power stations and<br />

cogeneration plants can also be partially replaced by<br />

woodchips. In pr<strong>in</strong>ciple, whenever possible, electricity<br />

and heat should be generated toge<strong>the</strong>r through cogeneration<br />

<strong>in</strong> order to use <strong>the</strong> limited raw material of wood<br />

as efficiently as possible.


21<br />

Functional pr<strong>in</strong>ciple and design<br />

Wood pellets are produced by compress<strong>in</strong>g wood shav<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

and sawdust without <strong>the</strong> use of any o<strong>the</strong>r additives.<br />

Pellet plants are often affiliated with sawmills.<br />

The cyl<strong>in</strong>drical pellets are typically about 6 millimetres<br />

thick and 1 to 4 centimetres long. The pellets are characterised<br />

by a higher heat<strong>in</strong>g value than wood chips and<br />

conta<strong>in</strong> little moisture.<br />

Pellet boilers are <strong>in</strong>stalled <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> boiler room like o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

central heat<strong>in</strong>g systems. The fuel supply from <strong>the</strong><br />

store to <strong>the</strong> burner is managed automatically, as is <strong>the</strong><br />

control system. The combustion heat is transferred to<br />

<strong>the</strong> boiler. From here, <strong>the</strong> heat is distributed throughout<br />

<strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g via radiators, as with any o<strong>the</strong>r central<br />

heat<strong>in</strong>g system. A heat accumulator compensates <strong>for</strong><br />

any deviations between heat generation and demand.<br />

In contrast to gas and oil heat<strong>in</strong>g systems, <strong>the</strong> ash <strong>in</strong><br />

a pellet heat<strong>in</strong>g system must occasionally be removed<br />

from <strong>the</strong> collection conta<strong>in</strong>er. In <strong>the</strong> case of pellet<br />

stoves to be <strong>in</strong>stalled <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> liv<strong>in</strong>g room, fuel is manually<br />

refilled <strong>in</strong>to a storage conta<strong>in</strong>er, which is <strong>the</strong>n automatically<br />

transported <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> combustion chamber.<br />

There are also special pellet stoves that can deliver up<br />

to four-fifths of <strong>the</strong>ir heat to a central heat<strong>in</strong>g system<br />

via a water bag.<br />

Wood pellet heat<strong>in</strong>g: Pellets can be stored <strong>in</strong> aboveground or<br />

underground tanks. The fuel feed to <strong>the</strong> heater works automatically.<br />

Possible <strong>application</strong>s and benefits <strong>for</strong> municipalities:<br />

Woodchips and pellets are locally produced <strong>energy</strong><br />

sources that are easy to store and, <strong>the</strong>re<strong>for</strong>e, not only<br />

reduce emissions but also <strong>in</strong>crease value creation at a<br />

local level. These are used <strong>for</strong> electricity and heat generation:<br />

• Generation of electricity and heat from wood chips <strong>in</strong><br />

cogeneration plants, e.g. <strong>for</strong> schools or community<br />

centres<br />

• Generation of district heat<strong>in</strong>g with woodchips (if<br />

possible, <strong>in</strong> cogeneration)<br />

• Operation of central heat<strong>in</strong>g systems and stoves with<br />

wood pellets<br />

Woodchips are often produced <strong>in</strong> mobile chipp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

plants directly <strong>in</strong> <strong>for</strong>ested areas or dur<strong>in</strong>g landscape<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>tenance work. Production from untreated waste<br />

wood is also possible. Wood chips are typically used<br />

<strong>for</strong> larger heat<strong>in</strong>g and cogeneration plants up to <strong>the</strong><br />

three-digit megawatt range, as <strong>the</strong>y are more cost-effective<br />

than wood pellets. Compared to wood pellets,<br />

however, <strong>the</strong>y require about three times as much storage<br />

space <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> same heat<strong>in</strong>g value.<br />

In wood chip systems, <strong>the</strong> fuel and air supply are also<br />

automatically regulated accord<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>energy</strong> demand.<br />

Here, <strong>the</strong> hot flue gases from <strong>the</strong> furnace also heat <strong>the</strong><br />

water <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> boiler first. In order to generate electricity,<br />

steam is produced from this, which is used to drive a<br />

turb<strong>in</strong>e. The residual heat left over after <strong>the</strong> turb<strong>in</strong>e can<br />

be used <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g (comb<strong>in</strong>ed heat and power). When<br />

only be<strong>in</strong>g used <strong>for</strong> heat, <strong>the</strong> boiler transfers <strong>the</strong> heat<br />

directly to <strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g circuit or storage unit.

22 | BIOENERGY<br />

Biogas <strong>–</strong> stored solar <strong>energy</strong> to gas<br />

Biogas is produced by ferment<strong>in</strong>g <strong>energy</strong> crops, slurry, biological waste or similar materials <strong>in</strong> a fermenter. It<br />

primarily consists of methane and can be used <strong>in</strong> a similarly flexible way as natural gas <strong>–</strong> <strong>for</strong> cook<strong>in</strong>g, heat<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

electricity generation and even as a fuel.<br />

Biogas is produced by fermentation from organic<br />

substances, from slurry to grass and biogenic waste. If<br />

local waste materials are used <strong>for</strong> its production, such<br />

as from agriculture or <strong>the</strong> food and cater<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustries,<br />

<strong>the</strong> added value <strong>in</strong>creases at a local level. Biogas consists<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ly of methane, i.e. <strong>the</strong> substance that is also<br />

<strong>the</strong> primary component of natural gas, and is similarly<br />

versatile.<br />

This means that conventional gas-fired power plants,<br />

natural gas-driven cars, heavy goods vehicles or even<br />

ships can also be run on biogas.<br />

One particular advantage of biogas <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> course of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong> transition is its storability. It can effectively<br />

help balance <strong>the</strong> fluctuat<strong>in</strong>g generation of w<strong>in</strong>d and<br />

solar power <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> system.<br />

Often, <strong>the</strong> biogas is used to run local cogeneration<br />

plants <strong>–</strong> standardised m<strong>in</strong>i power plants that supply<br />

electricity and heat at <strong>the</strong> same time. This ensures a<br />

particularly efficient use of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong>. Biogas can also<br />

be used <strong>for</strong> cook<strong>in</strong>g, heat<strong>in</strong>g and even as a fuel source<br />

<strong>for</strong> specially adapted vehicles. What’s more, it is possible<br />

to process biogas <strong>in</strong>to pure methane. This can <strong>the</strong>n<br />

be used <strong>in</strong> exactly <strong>the</strong> same way as natural gas and can<br />

also be fed <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> natural gas grid and extracted aga<strong>in</strong><br />

elsewhere.<br />

For farms, <strong>the</strong> technology offers yet ano<strong>the</strong>r advantage:<br />

The fermentation residues from <strong>the</strong> fermenter possess<br />

even better properties as fertiliser when compared to<br />

<strong>the</strong> start<strong>in</strong>g material.

BIOENERGY | 23<br />

Functional pr<strong>in</strong>ciple and design<br />

In <strong>the</strong> fermenter of a biogas plant, microorganisms<br />

produce methane from biogenic materials, called “substrates”<br />

(e.g. maize, rape, straw, slurry or food waste).<br />

Depend<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>the</strong> climate zone, it may be necessary to<br />

heat <strong>the</strong> fermenter to around 40°C (e.g. with <strong>the</strong> waste<br />

heat generated dur<strong>in</strong>g gas utilisation) so that <strong>the</strong> microorganisms<br />

can work <strong>in</strong> an optimal way.<br />

Possible <strong>application</strong>s and benefits <strong>for</strong> municipalities:<br />

Biogas is a very versatile <strong>energy</strong> source that can be used<br />

<strong>in</strong> a similar way to natural gas and not only reduces<br />

CO 2 emissions but also <strong>in</strong>creases local added value:<br />

The gas produced is collected <strong>in</strong> a gas storage tank. In<br />

addition to <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> component of methane (50 to 70<br />

per cent), it also conta<strong>in</strong>s o<strong>the</strong>r substances whose proportions<br />

vary depend<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>the</strong> substrate <strong>in</strong> use. Carbon<br />

dioxide (CO 2 ) is <strong>the</strong> second-largest component of<br />

biogas, account<strong>in</strong>g <strong>for</strong> 35 to 50 per cent. The rest is primarily<br />

nitrogen, water, oxygen and hydrogen sulphide.<br />

• Local generation of electricity and heat <strong>in</strong> cogeneration<br />

plants (e.g. <strong>for</strong> operat<strong>in</strong>g a dairy with gas<br />

production from cattle manure)<br />

• Use of biomethane <strong>for</strong> cars, heavy goods vehicles<br />

and ships<br />

• Replacement of natural gas with biomethane, e.g. <strong>in</strong><br />

heat<strong>in</strong>g systems or power plants<br />

• Flexible power generation to compensate <strong>for</strong><br />

fluctuat<strong>in</strong>g w<strong>in</strong>d and solar power output<br />

Sulphur and water must be removed <strong>in</strong> a purification<br />

plant. Then <strong>the</strong> biogas can be used, <strong>for</strong> example, <strong>in</strong><br />

cogeneration plants or vehicles that have been adapted<br />

to use biogas.<br />

An alternative way is to process <strong>the</strong> gas <strong>in</strong>to biomethane<br />

<strong>in</strong> a fur<strong>the</strong>r purification step. The biomethane can be<br />

used like natural gas <strong>in</strong> conventional heat<strong>in</strong>g systems,<br />

eng<strong>in</strong>es and power plants. If it is to be fed <strong>in</strong>to a<br />

natural gas network, <strong>the</strong> last step is to f<strong>in</strong>e-tune it so<br />

that all <strong>the</strong> properties <strong>–</strong> such as its heat<strong>in</strong>g value and<br />

dryness <strong>–</strong> match exactly.<br />

In addition to biogas plants with automatic agitators<br />

and pumps <strong>for</strong> fill<strong>in</strong>g and empty<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>the</strong>re are also very<br />

simple and small models available. These are mostly<br />

used <strong>in</strong> remote regions. They consist of a simple<br />

conta<strong>in</strong>er that is filled by hand. These are heated by <strong>the</strong><br />

sun. The gas is used, <strong>for</strong> example, <strong>in</strong> simple cookers as<br />

an alternative to wood or dung.<br />

Biogas plant with local heat<strong>in</strong>g network


Project overview<br />

On <strong>the</strong> follow<strong>in</strong>g pages, 20 exemplary projects from different regions that use renewable <strong>energy</strong> solutions are<br />

presented. These projects demonstrate that <strong>the</strong> <strong>Energy</strong> Transition is deliver<strong>in</strong>g very practical benefits <strong>for</strong> people<br />

and communities, which are reflected <strong>in</strong> lower <strong>energy</strong> costs and greater security of supply, among o<strong>the</strong>rs.<br />

13<br />

12<br />

10<br />

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19 18<br />

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15<br />

11 2<br />

17 16<br />

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25<br />

<strong>Renewable</strong> Solution/Technology Location Page<br />

1. Photovoltaics, w<strong>in</strong>d power . . . Nart Töv, Mongolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26<br />

2. Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . Kachanovichi, Belarus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27<br />

3. Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . Duisburg, Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28<br />

4. Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29<br />

5. Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . Mongun-Taiga, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation. . . . . . 30<br />

6. Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . Tashkent, Uzbekistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31<br />

7. Solar <strong>the</strong>rmal . . . . . . . . . . Chemnitz, Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32<br />

8. Solar <strong>the</strong>rmal, biomass . . . . . Zwiesel, Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33<br />

9. Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . .<br />

Republic of Kabard<strong>in</strong>o-Balkaria, Russian Federation . . . . . . 34<br />

<br />

10. Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . Himmelp<strong>for</strong>ten, Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35<br />

11. Geo<strong>the</strong>rmal, photovoltaics. . . . Grodno, Belarus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36<br />

12. Geo<strong>the</strong>rmal . . . . . . . . . . . Versh<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>o, Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37<br />

13. Geo<strong>the</strong>rmal . . . . . . . . . . . Zhitkovo, Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38<br />

14. W<strong>in</strong>d power . . . . . . . . . . . Ulyanovsk, Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39<br />

15. W<strong>in</strong>d power . . . . . . . . . . . Barwice, Poland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40<br />

16. Biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kal<strong>in</strong>kovichi, Belarus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41<br />

17. Biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kobryn, Belarus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42<br />

18. Biogas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forst, Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43<br />

19. Biogas, w<strong>in</strong>d power, biomass . . Feldheim, Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44<br />

20. Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . Gudauri, Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45


Mongolia: Hybrid plant supplies electricity <strong>for</strong> rural tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g center<br />

The photovoltaic-w<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong> hybrid system supplies <strong>the</strong> MULS field office with electricity.<br />

About 140 kilometres from <strong>the</strong> capital Ulaanbaater, <strong>in</strong><br />

Nart Töv, lies <strong>the</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g centre of <strong>the</strong> Mongolian University<br />

of Life Sciences. Until a few years ago, a diesel<br />

generator produced electricity <strong>the</strong>re <strong>for</strong> light<strong>in</strong>g, small<br />

electrical appliances and <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> pump<strong>in</strong>g of dr<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g<br />

water. Noise and exhaust pollution was a standard feature.<br />

That changed <strong>in</strong> 2015 thanks to HEOS <strong>Energy</strong>. The<br />

company built a photovoltaic-w<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong> hybrid system<br />

<strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> rural branch of <strong>the</strong> university, which makes<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g, learn<strong>in</strong>g and work<strong>in</strong>g on campus much easier.<br />

A small w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>e with 15 kilowatts of power generates<br />

37,000 kilowatt hours of electricity per year, while<br />

<strong>the</strong> photovoltaic system <strong>–</strong> with 6.44 kilowatts of power<br />

<strong>–</strong> supplies 11,500 kilowatt hours of solar electricity. The<br />

electricity can be temporarily stored <strong>in</strong> leadgel batteries.<br />

An emergency generator secures <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> supply<br />

if <strong>the</strong> power from <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>energy</strong> generators and <strong>the</strong><br />

storage unit is not sufficient.<br />

Encouraged and <strong>in</strong>spired by <strong>the</strong> quiet and emission-free<br />

power generation now available, <strong>the</strong> operators immediately<br />

added <strong>the</strong> new greenhouse and workshops.<br />

After commission<strong>in</strong>g, HEOS tra<strong>in</strong>ed both teachers and<br />

students on how <strong>the</strong> off-grid hybrid system works and<br />

how to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> it.<br />

The hybrid plant was built as part of <strong>the</strong> <strong>Renewable</strong><br />

<strong>Energy</strong> <strong>Solutions</strong> Programme of <strong>the</strong> German <strong>Energy</strong><br />

Agency (dena) of which is part of <strong>the</strong> “<strong>Energy</strong> Export<br />

Initiative” of <strong>the</strong> Federal M<strong>in</strong>istry <strong>for</strong> Economic Affairs<br />

and <strong>Energy</strong>.<br />

With <strong>in</strong><strong>for</strong>mation and practical experiments on <strong>the</strong> topics of<br />

photovoltaics and w<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong>, HEOS Manag<strong>in</strong>g Director, Dr.<br />

Klaus Hoffmann, added variety <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> curriculum <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> students<br />

of MULS.


27<br />

Belarus: Solar power plant secures power supply<br />

Photovoltaic power plant with 1.6 megawatt capacity.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> Nesvizhskyi district, located <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> region of<br />

M<strong>in</strong>sk, a photovoltaic power plant known as “Kachanovichi”<br />

with a capacity of almost 1.6 megawatts has<br />

been generat<strong>in</strong>g electricity <strong>for</strong> agriculture, <strong>in</strong>dustry and<br />

residential build<strong>in</strong>gs s<strong>in</strong>ce July 2020.<br />

The open-air plant is located on a five-hectare site near<br />

<strong>the</strong> village of Kachanovichi. Every year, 4,752 photovoltaic<br />

modules feed around 1,501,000 kilowatt hours <strong>in</strong>to<br />

<strong>the</strong> power grid of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> provider M<strong>in</strong>skenergo.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> rural region, farms, <strong>in</strong> particular, need a lot of<br />

electricity <strong>for</strong> gra<strong>in</strong> dry<strong>in</strong>g dur<strong>in</strong>g harvest time. This<br />

fits <strong>in</strong> well with solar power generation: In summer,<br />

<strong>the</strong> photovoltaic system generates <strong>the</strong> majority of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong> because of <strong>the</strong> high levels of solar radiation.<br />

The plant generates electricity <strong>for</strong> agriculture, <strong>in</strong>dustry and<br />

homes<br />

The <strong>in</strong>dustrial companies <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> region also have a high<br />

demand <strong>for</strong> electricity. The decentralised power plant<br />

supports <strong>the</strong> power supply of <strong>in</strong>dustry and around 1,000<br />

homes.<br />

Fur<strong>the</strong>rmore, <strong>the</strong> plant reduces fuel consumption by<br />

about 500 tonnes per year and thus reduces CO 2 emissions.<br />

The proximity to <strong>the</strong> consumers also reduces <strong>the</strong><br />

transport costs <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> provision of <strong>energy</strong>.<br />

The owner of <strong>the</strong> solar power plant is CJSC REAG Nesvizh,<br />

and <strong>the</strong> undertak<strong>in</strong>g was realised by <strong>the</strong> project<br />

company ALC ENECA.<br />

The 4,752 photovoltaic modules feed around 1,501,000 kilowatt<br />

hours <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> power grid of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> supplier M<strong>in</strong>skenergo<br />

every year


Germany: Cheap solar power <strong>for</strong> tenants<br />

In municipal hous<strong>in</strong>g, service charges <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> provision<br />

of <strong>energy</strong> <strong>for</strong> tenants are also an issue. The lower <strong>the</strong><br />

additional expenses, <strong>the</strong> easier it is <strong>for</strong> people with low<br />

<strong>in</strong>comes to shoulder <strong>the</strong> f<strong>in</strong>ancial burden. One area of<br />

potential adjustment is <strong>energy</strong> supply. The Duisburg-<br />

Süd hous<strong>in</strong>g cooperative <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Ruhr region shows a<br />

way <strong>for</strong> tenants to save with solar power.<br />

The specialist company Solarimo has <strong>in</strong>stalled photovoltaic<br />

modules with a total output of 240 kilowatts on<br />

several roofs of a residential complex. In this way, <strong>the</strong><br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g company avoids 130 tonnes of carbon dioxide<br />

every year and contributes to climate protection.<br />

One of <strong>the</strong> photovoltaic systems, which has an output<br />

of 100 kilowatts, has been produc<strong>in</strong>g electrical <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>for</strong> almost 70 tenants s<strong>in</strong>ce October 2019. Residents<br />

have <strong>the</strong> option of purchas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> CO 2 -free electricity<br />

at a price that is 20 per cent lower than that of <strong>the</strong><br />

external <strong>energy</strong> supplier. When <strong>the</strong> sun is not sh<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

sufficiently, <strong>the</strong>y receive <strong>energy</strong> from German hydropower<br />

plants. Electricity is sold through Solarimo.<br />

Photovoltaic system with a total output of 240 kilowatts on<br />

several roofs of <strong>the</strong> residential complex.<br />

After <strong>the</strong> positive experience enjoyed with <strong>the</strong> pilot<br />

plant, <strong>the</strong> hous<strong>in</strong>g cooperative decided to launch three<br />

more tenant electricity projects.


29<br />

Kyrgyzstan: Solar power <strong>for</strong> a children’s home<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce mid-2015, a photovoltaic system has been generat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

solar power <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> children’s home <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> capital<br />

Bishkek. Around 100 boys and girls live <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> “Rehabilitation<br />

Center <strong>for</strong> Homeless Children”. They benefit<br />

from <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> costs saved by solar power. Numerous<br />

groups of visitors have already learned about <strong>energy</strong><br />

generation with <strong>the</strong> help of <strong>the</strong> photovoltaic system,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g company representatives, students and<br />

teachers alike.<br />

With a module area of 101 square metres, <strong>the</strong> system<br />

has an <strong>in</strong>stalled capacity of 16.38 kilowatts. It produces<br />

approximately 222,500 kilowatt hours of electricity per<br />

year. In summer, <strong>the</strong> photovoltaic system covers <strong>the</strong><br />

children’s home’s monthly demand of 1,800 kilowatt<br />

hours. In w<strong>in</strong>ter, as well as throughout <strong>the</strong> year, it<br />

keeps <strong>the</strong> power supply stable. The solar power avoids<br />

carbon dioxide emissions of around 7,430 kilograms<br />

annually.<br />

After preparation toge<strong>the</strong>r with Kyrgyz partners, R.I.D.<br />

GmbH <strong>in</strong>stalled <strong>the</strong> plant. It was built as part of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>Energy</strong> <strong>Solutions</strong> Programme of <strong>the</strong> German<br />

<strong>Energy</strong> Agency (dena) of which is part of <strong>the</strong> “<strong>Energy</strong><br />

Export Initiative” of <strong>the</strong> Federal M<strong>in</strong>istry <strong>for</strong> Economic<br />

Affairs and <strong>Energy</strong>.<br />

Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g on <strong>in</strong>stallation, ma<strong>in</strong>tenance and service took place<br />

both <strong>in</strong> Bishkek and <strong>in</strong> Germany directly at <strong>the</strong> company R.I.D.


Tuva: Solar diesel hybrid system <strong>for</strong> remote villages<br />

The autonomous photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system reliably supplies 7,000 residents with electrical <strong>energy</strong>.<br />

A stable power supply improves liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions <strong>in</strong> remote<br />

villages, while solar <strong>energy</strong> reduces <strong>the</strong> consumption<br />

of diesel fuel by generators. For <strong>the</strong>se reasons,<br />

<strong>the</strong> government of <strong>the</strong> Republic of Tuva decided to use<br />

an autonomous photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system to<br />

supply electricity to two villages <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Mongun-Taiga<br />

district.<br />

The Hevel Group <strong>in</strong>stalled solar power systems with a<br />

total output of 550 kilowatts, battery systems with 710<br />

kilowatt hours (kWh) of storage capacity, and diesel<br />

generators. They reliably supply <strong>the</strong> 7,000 <strong>in</strong>habitants<br />

of <strong>the</strong> villages of Mugur-Aksy and Kyzyl-Khaya with<br />

electrical <strong>energy</strong> around <strong>the</strong> clock.<br />

The facilities went <strong>in</strong>to operation <strong>in</strong> December 2019. In<br />

2020, <strong>the</strong> Hevel group reported that <strong>the</strong> solar modules<br />

generated over 750,000 kWh of electricity. One of <strong>the</strong><br />

two villages supplies itself exclusively with solar power<br />

dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> day, even <strong>in</strong> w<strong>in</strong>ter. The fuel requirement<br />

<strong>for</strong> diesel generators has been reduced by 30 per cent,<br />

<strong>the</strong>reby sav<strong>in</strong>g approximately 408 tonnes of CO 2 each<br />

year.<br />

The Hevel Group implemented <strong>the</strong> project with its own<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ancial resources with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> framework of an <strong>energy</strong><br />

service contract. The electricity price <strong>for</strong> consumers<br />

has rema<strong>in</strong>ed stable. In <strong>the</strong> long-term, this model will<br />

allow <strong>the</strong> region to reduce <strong>the</strong> subsidised cost of diesel<br />

fuel supply.<br />

Solar power plant with an output of 550 kilowatts.


31<br />

Uzbekistan: Tashkent University uses solar power<br />

The plant demonstrates <strong>the</strong> opportunities and perspectives of solar power generation and storage<br />

The photovoltaic system, which was <strong>in</strong>stalled <strong>in</strong> 2016 on<br />

<strong>the</strong> grounds of <strong>the</strong> Tashkent State Technical University<br />

“Abu Rayhan Beruni”, fulfils multiple goals at once. It<br />

demonstrates <strong>the</strong> opportunities and perspectives of solar<br />

power generation and storage <strong>in</strong> Uzbekis tan. Due to its<br />

highly frequented location, it has aroused significant<br />

public <strong>in</strong>terest. It also offers students <strong>the</strong> opportunity to<br />

deepen <strong>the</strong>ir knowledge on <strong>the</strong> subject of solar <strong>energy</strong><br />

through <strong>the</strong> demonstration object.<br />

Technically, <strong>the</strong> photovoltaic system, which is elevated<br />

on a flat roof, has two special features. On <strong>the</strong> one<br />

hand, solar modules with <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>novative PERC technology<br />

have been <strong>in</strong>stalled. The modules from <strong>the</strong> German<br />

manufacturer Meyer Burger achieve an above-average<br />

efficiency of over 20 per cent. Secondly, <strong>the</strong> plant is<br />

coupled to an <strong>energy</strong> storage system with battery cells<br />

from BAE Batteries.<br />

With an output of 17.4 kilowatts, <strong>the</strong> photovoltaic system<br />

produces around 267,200 kilowatt hours of solar<br />

electricity every year. This saves about 17,370 kilograms<br />

of carbon dioxide.<br />

The reference plant is a project of BAE Batteries and<br />

Pre<strong>the</strong>rm <strong>Solutions</strong>. It was built as part of <strong>the</strong> <strong>Renewable</strong><br />

<strong>Energy</strong> <strong>Solutions</strong> Programme of <strong>the</strong> German<br />

<strong>Energy</strong> Agency (dena) of which is part of <strong>the</strong> “<strong>Energy</strong><br />

Export Initiative” of <strong>the</strong> Federal M<strong>in</strong>istry <strong>for</strong> Economic<br />

Affairs and <strong>Energy</strong>.


Germany: Plenty of solar heat <strong>for</strong> apartment build<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

The solar <strong>the</strong>rmal system supplies emission-free <strong>energy</strong> <strong>for</strong> room heat<strong>in</strong>g and hot water production.<br />

In Chemnitz, Germany, <strong>the</strong> construction company FASA<br />

AG has demonstrated <strong>for</strong> many years that solar <strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

systems can cover large parts of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> demand <strong>for</strong><br />

space heat<strong>in</strong>g and hot water <strong>in</strong> build<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>in</strong> a regenerative<br />

and emission-free way. This reduces heat<strong>in</strong>g costs<br />

<strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> residents and <strong>in</strong>creases <strong>the</strong> value of <strong>the</strong> properties.<br />

The current construction project “Solardomizil” is<br />

a lighthouse project <strong>for</strong> both multi-storey residential<br />

construction and solar heat<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

2,317 square metres of solar collectors cover half of <strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

needs <strong>for</strong> 29 flats.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> first construction phase with two condom<strong>in</strong>ium<br />

complexes (Solardomizil I+II), 317 square metres of<br />

solar collectors will generate enough to meet half of <strong>the</strong><br />

heat demand <strong>for</strong> 29 apartments. In <strong>the</strong> third construction<br />

phase, which will feature an optimal sou<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

alignment of <strong>the</strong> system, FASA will even achieve 60 per<br />

cent solar heat share <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> 24 apartments.<br />

FASA set up long-term heat storage tanks with 200<br />

cubic metres of water <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>termediate storage of<br />

<strong>the</strong> solar heat. These steel tanks extend over several<br />

floors. The additional costs <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> solar <strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

systems amount to about ten per cent, but <strong>the</strong>y are<br />

impressive proof that <strong>the</strong> construction company and<br />

<strong>the</strong> municipality are committed to a susta<strong>in</strong>able <strong>energy</strong><br />

supply with <strong>the</strong> help of solar <strong>energy</strong>.


33<br />

Germany: Solar heat network of old and new build<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

Two solar <strong>the</strong>rmal systems with a total of 76 square metres of collectors provide heat <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> parish centre and <strong>the</strong> residential build<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

In Zwiesel, Bavaria, Germany, planners have come up<br />

with a smart concept to supply an old build<strong>in</strong>g and a new<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a heat<strong>in</strong>g network with two solar <strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

systems. The parish owns two build<strong>in</strong>gs; <strong>the</strong> parish<br />

house had already seen extensive <strong>the</strong>rmal renovation<br />

work <strong>in</strong> 2006. In 2010, <strong>the</strong> parish built a modern,<br />

<strong>energy</strong>- sav<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> place of <strong>the</strong> old parish centre<br />

next door. It houses a lecture room, additional group<br />

rooms, a kitchen and sanitary facilities. Previously, <strong>the</strong><br />

200-kilowatt boiler had consumed 25,000 litres of oil a<br />

year; <strong>the</strong> new parish centre is heated exclusively with<br />

solar heat and wood. The 60-kilowatt pellet boiler only<br />

heats when <strong>the</strong> sun’s <strong>energy</strong> is not sufficient.<br />

The solar <strong>the</strong>rmal systems cover 60 per cent of <strong>the</strong> heat demand<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> parish centre <strong>–</strong> emission-free.<br />

For this purpose, 36 square metres of solar collectors<br />

were mounted on <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast façade, plus a fur<strong>the</strong>r<br />

40 square metres of free-stand<strong>in</strong>g solar <strong>the</strong>rmal collectors<br />

located beside <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> build<strong>in</strong>gs. The systems<br />

cover 60 per cent of <strong>the</strong> heat demand <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> new parish<br />

centre, which shares solar heat with <strong>the</strong> five-storey<br />

parish residence. The control system ensures that <strong>the</strong><br />

solar heat is utilised optimally. As a result, both build<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

are able to cover about 40 per cent of <strong>the</strong>ir heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

needs emission-free from <strong>the</strong> solar systems.<br />

The project was planned and realised by, among o<strong>the</strong>rs,<br />

<strong>the</strong> architectural office Löw and <strong>the</strong> eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g office<br />

Hilz from <strong>the</strong> Bavarian town of Zwiesel, as well as <strong>the</strong><br />

build<strong>in</strong>g services company Wölf <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> municipality of<br />

Bodenmais.<br />

The solar heat is optimally distributed to both build<strong>in</strong>gs.


Kabard<strong>in</strong>o-Balkaria: Small hydropower plant with secure returns<br />

The small hydropower plant on <strong>the</strong> Cherek River produces 60 gigawatt hours of electricity per year.<br />

With its mounta<strong>in</strong>s and mounta<strong>in</strong> rivers, <strong>the</strong> North<br />

Caucasus has ideal geographical conditions <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> use<br />

of hydropower. In <strong>the</strong> Republic of Kabard<strong>in</strong>o-Balkaria<br />

alone, plants with 198.1 megawatts of capacity are <strong>in</strong><br />

operation. Of <strong>the</strong>se, 73 megawatts belong to <strong>the</strong> socalled<br />

small hydropower. Last year, <strong>the</strong> power company<br />

and hydropower plant operator RusHydro commissioned<br />

a small hydropower plant with a capacity delivery<br />

contract (DPM <strong>in</strong> Russian) <strong>for</strong> renewable <strong>energy</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

Verkhnebalkarskaya. The agreement ensures a guaranteed<br />

return <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> operators.<br />

The three turb<strong>in</strong>es and generators boast a comb<strong>in</strong>ed output of<br />

ten megawatts.<br />

With three Voith turb<strong>in</strong>es and three generators with a<br />

total output of ten megawatts, <strong>the</strong> run-of-river power<br />

plant on <strong>the</strong> Cherek mounta<strong>in</strong> river produces around<br />

60 gigawatt hours of electricity per year. The plant<br />

helps to secure <strong>the</strong> electricity supply <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> republic and<br />

reduces dependence on electricity supplies from o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

regions. With pollution-free electricity generation, it<br />

has m<strong>in</strong>imal impact on <strong>the</strong> environment. Fur<strong>the</strong>rmore,<br />

a stable <strong>energy</strong> supply promotes <strong>the</strong> settlement and<br />

expansion of bus<strong>in</strong>esses <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> mounta<strong>in</strong> region, thus<br />

secur<strong>in</strong>g and creat<strong>in</strong>g jobs. This, <strong>in</strong> turn, leads to stable<br />

tax payments <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> municipalities.<br />

Electricity from hydropower contributes to a stable <strong>energy</strong><br />



35<br />

Germany: Modernisation of a small hydropower plant<br />

The hydroelectric power plant on <strong>the</strong> Möhne River has been <strong>in</strong> operation s<strong>in</strong>ce 1906 and today produces 2.2 million kilowatt hours of<br />

electricity annually.<br />

Decentralised electricity<br />

generation from hydropower<br />

has a centuries-old<br />

tradition.<br />

That is why many hydropower<br />

plants have been <strong>in</strong><br />

operation <strong>for</strong> decades.<br />

When <strong>the</strong> time comes <strong>for</strong><br />

modernisation, it is<br />

advisable to also improve<br />

<strong>the</strong> protection of fish and<br />

water bodies. This was<br />

also <strong>the</strong> case with <strong>the</strong> plant <strong>in</strong> Himmelp<strong>for</strong>ten <strong>in</strong> North<br />

Rh<strong>in</strong>e-Westphalia.<br />

Several measures also improved <strong>the</strong> level of environmental<br />

friendl<strong>in</strong>ess and conditions <strong>for</strong> fish stocks. For<br />

example, <strong>the</strong> rake distances were reduced so that <strong>the</strong><br />

fish do not swim <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> turb<strong>in</strong>es. They reach <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

spawn<strong>in</strong>g grounds via a new device known colloquially<br />

as a “fish ladder”.<br />

In 1906, <strong>the</strong> diversion power plant <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> river Möhne<br />

was put <strong>in</strong>to operation <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> first time. It has been<br />

generat<strong>in</strong>g electricity with two turb<strong>in</strong>es ever s<strong>in</strong>ce.<br />

After more than 100 years of operation, <strong>the</strong> hydropower<br />

plant was to be modernised. A Kaplan tubular turb<strong>in</strong>e<br />

with 600 kilowatts of power was <strong>in</strong>stalled, which went<br />

<strong>in</strong>to operation at <strong>the</strong> beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g of 2012. The highly<br />

efficient plant generates around 2.2 million kilowatt<br />

hours of electricity per year. That is a third more than<br />

The new Kaplan tubular turb<strong>in</strong>e with 600 kilowatts of power.<br />

be<strong>for</strong>e and enough <strong>for</strong> 624 households. The annual CO 2<br />

avoidance amounts to 900 tonnes.


Belarus: Heat from <strong>the</strong> earth, electricity from <strong>the</strong> sun<br />

Heat pumps supply <strong>energy</strong> <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g and hot water. Photovoltaic modules are <strong>in</strong>stalled on <strong>the</strong> façade and provide clean electricity.<br />

In Grodno, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> far west of Belarus, a ten-storey residential<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g with a special <strong>for</strong>m of <strong>energy</strong> supply<br />

was built <strong>in</strong> 2017. Three geo<strong>the</strong>rmal heat pumps with<br />

a total output of 136 kilowatts provide heat <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and hot water. Underfloor heat<strong>in</strong>g distributes <strong>the</strong> heat<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> 120 flats.<br />

Part of <strong>the</strong> total of 300 photovoltaic modules is <strong>in</strong>stalled on <strong>the</strong><br />

roof.<br />

While <strong>the</strong> load-bear<strong>in</strong>g walls are made of bricks, <strong>the</strong><br />

outer walls are made of aerated concrete blocks, which<br />

provide better <strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>in</strong>sulation. The rooms are<br />

equipped with automatic ventilation systems. Heat is<br />

recovered from <strong>the</strong> exhaust air and waste water via heat<br />

exchangers, thus pre-heat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> fresh air and water<br />

respectively be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong>y enter <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

A total of almost 300 photovoltaic modules are <strong>in</strong>stalled<br />

on <strong>the</strong> roof and façade. They generate 64,000 kilowatt<br />

hours of climate-friendly solar electricity annually,<br />

which is sold to <strong>the</strong> local grid operator. An <strong>in</strong><strong>for</strong>mation<br />

screen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g shows <strong>–</strong> <strong>in</strong> real time <strong>–</strong> how much<br />

<strong>energy</strong> is currently be<strong>in</strong>g generated and consumed <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

The house <strong>in</strong> Grodno is part of a project funded through<br />

<strong>the</strong> UNDP Global Environmental F<strong>in</strong>ance (UNDP-GEF)<br />

programme to <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>energy</strong> efficiency <strong>in</strong> new build<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

which also <strong>in</strong>cludes build<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>in</strong> M<strong>in</strong>sk and<br />



37<br />

Russia: Secondary school heats its build<strong>in</strong>gs with geo<strong>the</strong>rmal heatpumps<br />

The village school uses geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong> <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g and hot water supply.<br />

The newly built village school of Versh<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>o <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

Tomsk region of Siberia has been heated and supplied<br />

with hot water by geo<strong>the</strong>rmal heat pumps s<strong>in</strong>ce 2014.<br />

With <strong>the</strong> help of 28-vertical geo<strong>the</strong>rmal probes that<br />

reach down approximately 50 metres, <strong>the</strong> plant extracts<br />

heat from <strong>the</strong> ground. Two heat pumps raise <strong>the</strong><br />

low temperature level from <strong>the</strong> ground to 55 degrees<br />

Celsius so that <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> can be used <strong>for</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

hot water production. The temperature can be <strong>in</strong>creased<br />

up to 100 °C if necessary. Toge<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong> two heat pumps<br />

provide a heat<strong>in</strong>g output of 84 kilowatts. To generate<br />

four kilowatt hours of heat<strong>in</strong>g, only one kilowatt hour<br />

of electrical <strong>energy</strong> needs to be used. The 1,454 square<br />

metre school build<strong>in</strong>g is heated via underfloor heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

comb<strong>in</strong>ed with room <strong>the</strong>rmostats. The entire system<br />

was implemented by Ecoklimat, a Siberian company<br />

specialis<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> heat pump heat<strong>in</strong>g systems.<br />

The 28-vertical geo<strong>the</strong>rmal probes reach down <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> earth<br />

approximately 50 metres.<br />

If <strong>the</strong> school were heated with fossil fuels, 19 tonnes<br />

of natural gas or 25 tonnes of diesel would be needed<br />

annually. The modern heat<strong>in</strong>g technology pays <strong>for</strong> itself<br />

with<strong>in</strong> a few years and ensures a high degree of <strong>in</strong>dependence<br />

from fossil fuels.<br />

The two heat pumps with a heat<strong>in</strong>g capacity of 84 kilowatts.


Russia: School cuts heat<strong>in</strong>g costs to a quarter with geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong><br />

The school <strong>in</strong> Zhitkovo can reduce heat<strong>in</strong>g costs by around 75 per cent with <strong>the</strong> help of heat pumps.<br />

The secondary school <strong>in</strong>Zhitkovo <strong>in</strong> Len<strong>in</strong>grad Oblast<br />

has been heated with geo<strong>the</strong>rmal heat pumps s<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong><br />

end of 2020. Previously, an electric convection heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

system provided heat <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> brick build<strong>in</strong>g from 1965<br />

with 1,150 square metres of heated room space. The<br />

<strong>energy</strong> costs were 3 to 3.5 million roubles annually. Accord<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to calculations, <strong>the</strong> new heat<strong>in</strong>g system should<br />

reduce costs by 75 per cent. The <strong>in</strong>vestment <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> new<br />

heat<strong>in</strong>g system will thus pay <strong>for</strong> itself <strong>in</strong> just six years.<br />

Three heat pumps are <strong>in</strong>stalled <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> new boiler room,<br />

which toge<strong>the</strong>r can provide 91 kilowatts of heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

power. In addition, <strong>the</strong>re is an electric boiler with 21<br />

kilowatts of power and a 1,000-litre buffer tank. The<br />

electrically driven heat pumps extract <strong>energy</strong> from<br />

14 geo<strong>the</strong>rmal probes that reach 145 metres <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong><br />

ground. The temperatures <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> ground are +5 to<br />

+10°C, even <strong>in</strong> w<strong>in</strong>ter. In <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>the</strong> heat is<br />

distributed via new low-temperature radiators with<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmostatic valves.<br />

The “Centre <strong>for</strong> <strong>Energy</strong> Sav<strong>in</strong>g and <strong>the</strong> Improvement<br />

of <strong>Energy</strong> Efficiency of <strong>the</strong> Len<strong>in</strong>grad Adm<strong>in</strong>istrative<br />

District” <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>the</strong> school <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> list of “demonstration<br />

sites with high <strong>energy</strong> efficiency”. Students from<br />

<strong>the</strong> educational <strong>in</strong>stitutions of <strong>the</strong> Len<strong>in</strong>grad Adm<strong>in</strong>istrative<br />

District visit <strong>the</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g to learn about <strong>energy</strong>efficient<br />

technologies. In addition, representatives of<br />

<strong>in</strong>terested companies and organisations can learn about<br />

<strong>the</strong> technologies used <strong>in</strong> order to implement fur<strong>the</strong>r<br />

successful projects.<br />

The three heat pumps extract <strong>energy</strong> from <strong>the</strong> ground at a<br />

depth of 145 metres.


39<br />

Russia: W<strong>in</strong>d farm streng<strong>the</strong>ns research and creates jobs<br />

“Ulyanovsk 1”: Russia’s first commercial w<strong>in</strong>d farm with 28 w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es and a total capacity of 35 megawatts.<br />

In 2018 and 2019, Russia’s first commercial w<strong>in</strong>d farm<br />

was built <strong>in</strong> Ulyanovsk on <strong>the</strong> banks of <strong>the</strong> Volga River:<br />

“Ulyanovsk 1”. It consists of 28 turb<strong>in</strong>es with a total<br />

capacity of 35 megawatts and supplies 8 per cent of <strong>the</strong><br />

region’s electricity. At <strong>the</strong> local Ulyanovsk State Technical<br />

University, where courses <strong>in</strong> renewable energies<br />

are now also offered, it serves as a demonstration and<br />

research project.<br />

The w<strong>in</strong>d farm was <strong>in</strong>itiated by <strong>the</strong> F<strong>in</strong>nish <strong>energy</strong><br />

company Fortum and <strong>the</strong> Russian Direct Investment<br />

Fund (RDIF). Fortum is also develop<strong>in</strong>g fur<strong>the</strong>r w<strong>in</strong>d<br />

and solar power plants <strong>in</strong> Russia. The Danish company<br />

Vestas not only supplied part of <strong>the</strong> w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es, but<br />

is also sett<strong>in</strong>g up a manufactur<strong>in</strong>g facility <strong>for</strong> rotor<br />

blades <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> city <strong>–</strong> creat<strong>in</strong>g new local jobs <strong>in</strong> w<strong>in</strong>d<br />

power. One o<strong>the</strong>r pleas<strong>in</strong>g effect: S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong> w<strong>in</strong>d<br />

turb<strong>in</strong>es have dom<strong>in</strong>ated <strong>the</strong> skyl<strong>in</strong>e of Ulyanovsk, <strong>the</strong><br />

w<strong>in</strong>d farm has also become <strong>the</strong> Instagram hotspot <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> area. In <strong>the</strong> meantime, many more w<strong>in</strong>d farms have<br />

been built <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> region and more are to follow.


Poland: W<strong>in</strong>d power replaces lignite<br />

The Barwice w<strong>in</strong>d farm generates 112 gigawatt hours of electricity per year, enough <strong>for</strong> 27,000 four-person households.<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce April 2020, 14 w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es have been turn<strong>in</strong>g at<br />

<strong>the</strong> Barwice w<strong>in</strong>d farm near <strong>the</strong> town by <strong>the</strong> same name<br />

<strong>in</strong> north-western Poland, each with a rotor diameter<br />

of 113 metres and an output of 3 megawatts. Toge<strong>the</strong>r,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y generate 112 gigawatt hours of electricity a year <strong>–</strong><br />

enough to supply 27,000 four-person households and<br />

avoid around 48,000 tonnes of CO 2 emissions annually.<br />

Wirtgen Invest <strong>Energy</strong> implemented this project, and<br />

<strong>the</strong> turb<strong>in</strong>es are from Siemens Gamesa. To date, 70 per<br />

cent of electricity <strong>in</strong> Poland comes from lignite, which<br />

leads to particularly high CO 2 emissions. Poland has a<br />

high potential <strong>for</strong> onshore and offshore w<strong>in</strong>d <strong>energy</strong>.<br />

After stagnation <strong>in</strong> recent years, a total of 3.5 gigawatts<br />

of w<strong>in</strong>d power capacity was awarded <strong>in</strong> a tender process<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2018 and 2019. The production of w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es<br />

and components has developed <strong>in</strong>to a great economic<br />

realisation <strong>in</strong> Poland with a turnover of several hundred<br />

million euros. Siemens Gamesa alone employs more<br />

than 200 people <strong>in</strong> Poland.


41<br />

Belarus: Electricity and district heat<strong>in</strong>g from woodchip<br />

The plant has reduced heat generation costs by 20 per cent by us<strong>in</strong>g wood chips.<br />

The short-rotation plantation (SRP) Kommunalnik<br />

Kal<strong>in</strong>kowitschskiy has been us<strong>in</strong>g woodchips to generate<br />

district heat<strong>in</strong>g and electricity <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> small town<br />

of Kal<strong>in</strong>kowitschi <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> south of Belarus s<strong>in</strong>ce 2018. In<br />

total, <strong>the</strong> local heat<strong>in</strong>g plant provides 56.5 megawatts<br />

of district heat<strong>in</strong>g capacity. Of this, 10 megawatts come<br />

from a woodchip boiler from <strong>the</strong> Lithuanian manufacturer<br />

Enerstena. In addition, three natural gas boilers<br />

are used <strong>for</strong> hot water. Ano<strong>the</strong>r woodchip boiler<br />

with 6.5 megawatts of <strong>the</strong>rmal output was comb<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

with a turbo generator from Siemens to <strong>for</strong>m what is<br />

known as cogeneration or comb<strong>in</strong>ed heat and power<br />

(CHP), which now supplies 1.39 megawatts of electrical<br />

output. In this way, it was possible to reduce heat<br />

generation costs by 20 per cent. The heat<strong>in</strong>g plant has<br />

created jobs <strong>for</strong> 30 people. CO 2 emissions are expected<br />

to fall by 368,000 tonnes over <strong>the</strong> life of <strong>the</strong> plant. The<br />

project was f<strong>in</strong>anced with <strong>the</strong> help of USD 14.17 million<br />

from <strong>the</strong> International Bank <strong>for</strong> Reconstruction and<br />

Development.<br />

The CHP plant recovers <strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong> to achieve great<br />



Belarus: Wood-fired heat<strong>in</strong>g plant reduces district heat<strong>in</strong>g costs<br />

The wood chips are stored beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> boiler house.<br />

In Kobr<strong>in</strong>, a town of 50,000 <strong>in</strong>habitants <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> southwest<br />

of Belarus, Kobr<strong>in</strong>skoe ZhKH (which means<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g and <strong>communal</strong> services) commissioned a new<br />

boiler house <strong>in</strong> 2019, which is fired with wood chips.<br />

It reduces dependence on imported natural gas and<br />

<strong>in</strong>creases local value creation. The three boilers, each<br />

with a peak output of four megawatts, were manufactured<br />

by <strong>the</strong> Belarusian-French company JLLC Komkont<br />

based <strong>in</strong> Gomel. Kobr<strong>in</strong>skoe ZhKH also operates its own<br />

wood chip production and logistics. The bottom l<strong>in</strong>e is<br />

that <strong>the</strong> new plant reduces <strong>the</strong> costs <strong>for</strong> district heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

by around 40 per cent.<br />

The use of wood chips <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> new boiler house reduces <strong>energy</strong><br />

production costs by 40 per cent.<br />

The modern wood-fired heat<strong>in</strong>g centre is equipped<br />

with an automatic fuel supply and automated control<br />

technology, and <strong>the</strong> boilers have an efficiency of 91 per<br />

cent. Dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> heat<strong>in</strong>g season, <strong>the</strong> new boiler house<br />

operates <strong>in</strong> parallel with an exist<strong>in</strong>g gas boiler plant;<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> warmer season, <strong>the</strong> gas boilers are switched off.<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to calculations, <strong>the</strong> new boiler house saves<br />

14 million cubic metres of natural gas annually and will<br />

thus reduce CO 2 emissions by 449,000 tonnes over its<br />

lifetime.<br />

Boiler with a peak output of four megawatts and an efficiency<br />

of 91 per cent.<br />

The new construction of <strong>the</strong> boiler house <strong>in</strong> Kobr<strong>in</strong> is<br />

part of <strong>the</strong> project entitled “Use of wood biomass <strong>for</strong><br />

district heat<strong>in</strong>g” funded by <strong>the</strong> International Bank <strong>for</strong><br />

Reconstruction and Development, which <strong>in</strong>cludes a<br />

total of 20 boiler houses.


43<br />

Germany: Electricity, gas and heat from chicken manure and <strong>energy</strong> crops<br />

The biogas plant supplies 60 gigawatt hours of <strong>energy</strong> annually, enough to heat 4,000 homes.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> small town of Forst <strong>in</strong> Lusatia, a region <strong>in</strong><br />

eastern Germany dom<strong>in</strong>ated by lignite, <strong>the</strong> company<br />

“Bioenergiepark Forst GmbH & Co. KG” has been feed<strong>in</strong>g<br />

biomethane <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> natural gas grid of <strong>the</strong> local<br />

operator Ontras VNG s<strong>in</strong>ce 2014. The biogas is obta<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

from <strong>the</strong> fermentation of poultry manure and renewable<br />

raw materials.<br />

The treatment plant has a capacity of 700 standard cubic<br />

metres per hour. Each year, it supplies biomethane with<br />

an <strong>energy</strong> content of 60 gigawatt hours <strong>–</strong> enough to<br />

heat 4,000 homes.<br />

The plant uses a special gas treatment process named<br />

EnviTec Biogas AG, after <strong>the</strong> company that designed it.<br />

The hollow fibre membranes used enable a gas purity of<br />

96 per cent methane. The arrange ment of <strong>the</strong> membranes<br />

<strong>in</strong> a horizontal cartridge system with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> plant<br />

ensures that twice as much biogas can be purified <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> same space as with conventional processes.<br />

The special gas treatment process enables a gas purity of 96 per<br />

cent methane.<br />

In addition to <strong>the</strong> process<strong>in</strong>g plant, <strong>the</strong> biogas is also<br />

used to operate a comb<strong>in</strong>ed heat and power plant,<br />

which has an electrical output of 549 kilowatts.<br />

Chicken manure and renewable raw materials ferment <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

fermenters, <strong>the</strong>reby produc<strong>in</strong>g gas.


Germany: “Bio<strong>energy</strong> village” Feldheim supplies itself with w<strong>in</strong>d, sun and biogas<br />

55 w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es supply most of <strong>the</strong> village’s electricity, 250 gigawatt hours per year<br />

The lion’s share of <strong>the</strong> electricity, 250 gigawatt hours<br />

per year, is supplied by <strong>the</strong> 55 w<strong>in</strong>d turb<strong>in</strong>es. In<br />

addition, <strong>the</strong>re are 2.75 gigawatt hours of solar power,<br />

which come from 284 decentralised photovoltaic<br />

systems. Toge<strong>the</strong>r with a lithium-ion battery with a<br />

capacity of 10.7 megawatt hours, this becomes an <strong>in</strong>telligent<br />

power grid.<br />

A comb<strong>in</strong>ed heat and power plant with 0.5 megawatts of<br />

electrical power generates electricity and heat from biogas.<br />

The approximately 130 <strong>in</strong>habitants of <strong>the</strong> village of<br />

Feldheim, southwest of Berl<strong>in</strong>, have taken <strong>the</strong> topic<br />

of <strong>energy</strong> supply <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong>ir own hands: S<strong>in</strong>ce 2010,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y have been supply<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>mselves with electricity<br />

and heat from renewable energies. 90 per cent of <strong>the</strong><br />

houses are connected to <strong>the</strong> local heat<strong>in</strong>g network. The<br />

customers are also shareholders of Feldheim Energie<br />

GmbH & Co KG. They now save 31 per cent on electricity<br />

and 10 per cent on heat<strong>in</strong>g costs and can rely on stable<br />

prices. Local bus<strong>in</strong>esses benefit from <strong>the</strong> construction<br />

and operation of <strong>the</strong> facilities. The project attracts<br />

<strong>in</strong>terested parties and is part of collaborative research<br />

ef<strong>for</strong>ts with universities.<br />

In addition, a comb<strong>in</strong>ed heat and power plant with<br />

0.5 megawatts of electrical output provides 4 gigawatt<br />

hours of electricity and 2.2 gigawatt hours of heat <strong>for</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> local heat<strong>in</strong>g network per year. It is operated with<br />

biogas from maize silage and liquid manure, while <strong>the</strong><br />

fermentation residues serve as fertiliser. In w<strong>in</strong>ter,<br />

a woodchip plant provides additional heat. Feldheim<br />

has received a grant from <strong>the</strong> EU <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> local heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

network. In total, <strong>the</strong> bio<strong>energy</strong> village avoids around<br />

170,000 tonnes of CO 2 emissions per year.


45<br />

Georgia: Small hydropower helps to support tourism<br />

The Aragvi II small hydropower plant blends <strong>in</strong>conspicuously <strong>in</strong>to Georgian nature.<br />

In Georgia, hydropower plays an important role <strong>in</strong><br />

secur<strong>in</strong>g a reliable <strong>energy</strong> supply and reduc<strong>in</strong>g dependence<br />

on fossil fuels. In <strong>the</strong> north-east of Georgia, <strong>the</strong><br />

Aragvi II small hydropower plant supports <strong>the</strong> electricity<br />

supply of <strong>the</strong> emerg<strong>in</strong>g ski and tourism region of<br />

Gudauri. For small and large hydropower projects, it is<br />

particularly important to assess and consider <strong>the</strong> environmental<br />

impacts be<strong>for</strong>e, dur<strong>in</strong>g and after completion.<br />

For <strong>the</strong> Aragvi II project, it was particularly important<br />

that <strong>the</strong> power plant did not disturb <strong>the</strong> natural environment.<br />

The power plant, which <strong>in</strong>cludes <strong>the</strong> operator’s<br />

office, <strong>the</strong> primary mach<strong>in</strong>ery and <strong>the</strong> turb<strong>in</strong>e, is<br />

designed to blend <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> mounta<strong>in</strong> landscape. The 2<br />

MW horizontal Francis turb<strong>in</strong>e provided by Voith Hydro<br />

generates approximately 13 GWh per year, depend<strong>in</strong>g on<br />

<strong>the</strong> season, and was commissioned <strong>in</strong> early 2019. With<br />

many years of experience, Voith Hydro is one of <strong>the</strong><br />

lead<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustrial partners <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> plann<strong>in</strong>g, construction,<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>tenance and modernisation of hydropower<br />

plants <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> region.<br />

With an output of three megawatts, <strong>the</strong> turb<strong>in</strong>e generates<br />

around 13 gigawatt hours of electricity per year.<br />

Hydropower ensures a reliable <strong>energy</strong> supply and thus promotes<br />

tourism <strong>in</strong> Georgia.


Fur<strong>the</strong>r contact <strong>in</strong><strong>for</strong>mation<br />

Institution Name<br />

Ma<strong>in</strong> Address<br />

Telephone<br />

Contact Email<br />

Website Address<br />

Belarus<br />

German Economic In<strong>for</strong>mation Centre <strong>in</strong> Belarus<br />

220116 M<strong>in</strong>sk, Gazeta Pravda Avenue 11A +375 17 378 81 41<br />

Информационный центр немецкой экономики<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@de<strong>in</strong>ternational.by<br />

220116 г. Минск, Проспект Газеты «Правда» 11A https://belarus.ahk.de<br />

Representative Office of German Bus<strong>in</strong>ess <strong>in</strong> Belarus<br />

220116 M<strong>in</strong>sk, Gazeta Pravda Avenue 11A +375 17 2554324<br />

Представительство немецкой экономики в Республике Беларусь<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@ahk-belarus.org<br />

220116 г. Минск, Проспект Газеты «Правда» 11 https://belarus.ahk.de<br />

Kazakhstan<br />

Association of <strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>Energy</strong> of Kazakhstan<br />

010000 Nur-Sultan, Yanushkevich St. 1 +7 (701) 710-89-15<br />

Ассоциация возобновляемой энергетики Казахстана (АВЭК)<br />

Kazr<strong>energy</strong>@gmail.com<br />

010000 г. Нур-Султан, ул. Янушкевича 1 kazr<strong>energy</strong>.com<br />

Solar Power Association of Kazakhstan<br />

010000 Nur-Sultan, distr. Chubary, Alexander Knyag<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong> St. 11 +7 701 286 69 50<br />

ОЮЛ «Казахстанская ассоциация солнечной энергетики»<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@spaq.kz<br />

010000 г. Нур-Cултан, мкр. Чубары, ул. Александра Княгинина, д. 11 https://spaq.kz/rus/<br />

Kazakhstan and<br />

Uzbekistan<br />

Delegation of German Bus<strong>in</strong>ess <strong>for</strong> Central Asia<br />

Kazakhstan, 050040 Almaty, Bus<strong>in</strong>ess center «Koktem Square»,<br />

Bostandykski rayon, mdistr. Koktem 1, 15 a<br />

Представительство германской экономики в Центральной Азии +7 727 356 10-61 bis -66<br />

Казахстан, 050040 г. Алматы, Бизнес-центр «Koktem Square»,<br />

Бостандыкский район, мкр. Коктем 1, 15 a<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@ahk-za.kz<br />



47<br />

Institution Name<br />

Ma<strong>in</strong> Address<br />

Telephone<br />

Contact Email<br />

Website Address<br />

Russia<br />

Russian Association of W<strong>in</strong>d Power Industry +7 495 134 68 88<br />

197706 St. Petersburg, Tokareva St. 8/12 +7 981 980 0846 whatsap<br />

Ассоциация ветроиндустрии<br />

adm<strong>in</strong>@rawi.ru<br />

197706 г. Санкт-Петербург, ул. Токарева, 8/12 www.rawi.ru<br />

Distributed Power Generation Association<br />

125167 Moscow, Victorenko St. 5, build<strong>in</strong>g 1, BC «Victory Plaza»<br />

Ассоциация малой энергетики +7 351 247 33 99<br />

125167 г. Москва, ул. Викторенко, 5, energo@energo-union.com<br />

строение 1, БЦ «Victory Plaza»<br />

www.energo-union.com<br />

Photovoltaic Industry Association<br />

Ассоциация предприятий солнечной энергетики<br />

l<strong>in</strong>nas@pvrussia.ru<br />

pvrussia.ru<br />

Russia <strong>Renewable</strong> <strong>Energy</strong> Development Association<br />

123610 Moscow, Krasnopresnenskaya embankment 12, entrance 6 +7 (495) 115-10-34<br />

Ассоциация развития возобновляемой энергетики (АРВЭ)<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@rreda.org<br />

123610 г. Москва, Краснопресненская набережная, д. 12, подъезд 6 https://rreda.ru/<br />

Eurosolar Russia<br />

119334 Moscow, Len<strong>in</strong>sky prospekt 38A<br />

Некоммерческое партнерство по Раазвитию Возобновляемых +7 985 760-8010<br />

источников энергии ЕВРОСОЛАР Русская секция<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@eurosolarrussia.org<br />

119334 г. Москва, Ленинский проспект, д. 38А http://www.eurosolarrussia.org/<br />

German-Russian Chamber of Commerce Abroad<br />

121087 Moscow, Bus<strong>in</strong>ess-Center Fili Grad,<br />

Beregovoy Proezd 5A, build<strong>in</strong>g 1<br />

Российско-Германская внешнеторговая палата +7 495 234 49 50<br />

121087 r. Москва, Бизнес-центр «Фили Град», ahk@russland-ahk.ru<br />

Береговой проезд, д. 5А, к.1<br />



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