PSP Winter 2022

Professor Sven Wilson on the Civil War Disability Pension System and Racial Discrimination

Professor Sven Wilson on the Civil War Disability Pension System and Racial Discrimination


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WINTER <strong>2022</strong><br />

FOREWORD 3<br />




The BYU Department<br />

of Political Science,<br />

consistent with the aims<br />

of a BYU education,<br />

intends to foster<br />

“Lifelong Learning and<br />

Service.”<br />

We hope to provide<br />

our alumni with<br />

intelligent, thoughtful<br />

and sophisticated<br />

analysis of important<br />

issues, and to act as<br />

a catalyst for service<br />

in our communities,<br />

neighborhoods, nations<br />

and the world.<br />









Publisher:<br />

Jay Goodliffe, Chair<br />

Editor:<br />

J. Matthew Clarke<br />

2<br />

2<br />

Graphic Designer:<br />

Sydney Freeman,<br />

Abby Meyers,<br />

Seraphina Johnstun

A Lesson on Discrimination<br />

from the Civil War<br />


WINTER <strong>2022</strong><br />

The American Civil War began on April 12, 1861. Slavery, especially the<br />

expansion of slavery into territories acquired from the Louisiana Purchase<br />

and the Mexican-American War, was the central cause of conflict.<br />

On January 1, 1863, Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation<br />

Proclamation, stating that all persons held as slaves shall be forever free.<br />

Slavery was officially abolished after the North won the war on April<br />

9, 1865, and four million enslaved black people were freed. President<br />

Abraham Lincoln presided over the victory, but did not witness the<br />

continued inequality. He was assassinated on April 15, 1865 at the Fords<br />

Theater in Washington, D.C., just six days after the war ended.<br />

For many, the war ended; for black people, however, discrimination<br />

had yet to see its conclusion. This issue discusses one of the ways that<br />

discrimination continued in the Civil War Pension System, despite attempts<br />

to write a “color-blind” law, and how we might avoid such a result in the<br />

future.<br />

3<br />



The Civil War Disability Pension System<br />

and Racial Discrimination<br />

by Sven Wilson<br />


(1865-1906) was the nation’s first large-scale<br />

social insurance program. It began during the<br />

U.S. Civil War as a tightly controlled system of<br />

war-related disability compensation that, over<br />

time, developed into a general disability system<br />

and, finally, into a broad-based old-age pension<br />

for almost all Union Army veterans. Indeed,<br />

the Union Army pension dominated the federal<br />

budget and the political debates of its day to<br />

much the same extent as Social Security and<br />

Medicare do today. At the program’s peak in<br />

1893, 41.6% of all federal budget expenditures<br />

were being paid out to military veterans. This<br />

is how Dr. Sven E. Wilson’s paper, “Prejudice<br />

& Policy: Racial Discrimination in the Union<br />

Army Disability Pension System, 1865-1906,”<br />

published in the American Journal of Public<br />

Health (2010), begins.<br />

Given the ubiquitous racial discrimination<br />

in American life during this era, the de jure<br />

equality of Blacks and Whites in the disability<br />

pension system was truly remarkable. Black<br />

and White veterans were subject to the same<br />

eligibility requirements and received the same<br />

schedule of benefits. It seemed that the racial<br />

discrimination prominent in official military<br />

4<br />

4<br />

practices during the war did not carry over into<br />

the statutes and regulations governing the new<br />

pension system. But what were the de facto<br />

experiences of Blacks and Whites in the pension<br />

system? Could such a system achieve racial<br />

parity in a world where racial prejudice was so<br />

pronounced? In this study, Sven used original<br />

data sources on over 40,000 Union Army<br />

veterans to systematically compare the treatment<br />

of Black and White veterans by the pension<br />

system.<br />

The seeds of the discrimination were planted<br />

during the war. Black soldiers who were<br />

sick and injured were much less likely to be<br />

hospitalized, which left them without the<br />

documentation they later needed to prove that<br />

their disabilities were war-related. The lack of<br />

medical records, combined with other challenges<br />

Blacks faced as a result of their poverty,<br />

illiteracy, and history of enslavement, put them<br />

at a considerable and immediate disadvantage in<br />

obtaining pension support.<br />

In 1890, the law was formally liberalized<br />

to eliminate the need for wartime medical<br />

records, and the enrollment rate for Blacks<br />

increased dramatically. However, even after

1890, Blacks still faced the same difficulties<br />

as before in applying for pensions. They also<br />

faced obstacles in getting the Pension Bureau to<br />

approve their claims, particularly if they were<br />

for conditions that required a “benefit of the<br />

doubt.” Furthermore, widows and dependents<br />

of veterans also encountered discrimination<br />

in gaining pensions (although only veterans’<br />

“invalid pensions” were analyzed here). In sum,<br />

race-neutral policies gave Blacks a measure<br />

of financial assistance and dignity, but the<br />

larger potential of the pension program was<br />

systematically undermined by the systemic<br />

prejudice of human actors.<br />

Black veterans did not emerge from the Civil<br />

War with as many obvious battle injuries as their<br />

White counterparts, nor did they serve as long.<br />

Nonetheless, their service was significant, and<br />

the burdens of disease and injury they faced<br />

over the course of their lives were profound. The<br />

pension assistance received by Black veterans<br />

was a financial lifeline to them, as well as to<br />

their families and communities. But in this,<br />

as with so many other matters, Black veterans<br />

were not given their fair share. Even though<br />

the eligibility requirements were “colorblind,”<br />

Blacks, often illiterate and impoverished, faced<br />

numerous obstacles in applying for a pension.<br />

The colorblind policy experiment teaches<br />

two critical lessons. First, the law made few<br />

allowances for the obstacles that Blacks faced<br />

as a result of the conditions of their previous<br />

treatment—namely, living under slavery<br />

and the segregated, unequal treatment they<br />

received while serving their country during<br />

the war. Second, a measure of discretion and<br />

judgment is necessary and even desirable in<br />

administering any public program. A greater<br />

measure of discretion allotted to program<br />

officials inherently carries a greater opportunity<br />

for prejudice to govern the program’s outcomes.<br />

Finding the right balance between the benefits<br />

of bureaucratic discretion and the potential for<br />

abuse should be an essential aspect of program<br />

design if we desire equal treatment under the<br />

law for all citizens.<br />

5<br />











Thursday, Sept. 30, 2021, 5 PM in the<br />

Education in Zion Auditorium<br />

Despite being rooted in the present,<br />

American politics is about what<br />

hasn’t happened yet. And as such,<br />

politicians have to find a balance<br />

between what people need now and how policies could affect our needs in the long run. The<br />

most difficult balance to find and maintain is the equilibrium between freedom and security.<br />

Most citizens agree that politicians should not regulate speech, but other than that belief,<br />

nothing is certain except that secure democracy depends on truth.<br />

A question that has been debated time and time again is whether one party is better than the<br />

other. The received answer was that both parties are biased to some extent. We claim to be<br />

neutral, but when a position arises that could make our party look good--or make the other<br />

party look bad--we are happy to claim partisan biases and “dethrone” the other party. This<br />

abundant hostility is what makes our current day a bad time to be in politics. It also makes<br />

discovering and expressing informed opinions difficult. Critical thinking is irrelevant when<br />

one votes for a party simply to make the “other side” lose. If someone has made no effort to<br />

create an informed belief system, it is hard to talk with them about the truth.<br />

Despite the venomous nature of our current system, politics is still a way to do good. It is not<br />

the most effective way, but it is possible. Some suggestions on how to accomplish this are<br />

doing politics in a way that uplifts the debate; run in a positive way; and believe that things<br />

will get better and that the fever of negativity currently plaguing politics will pass.<br />

Though politics can do some good in the world, they cannot be a surrogate for religion.<br />

Religion should be the forefront example and most effective method of doing good; politics<br />

are a supplement for the good that can be accomplished by religion, rather than an alternative.<br />

Please be involved, Jeff Flake said at the end. We need good people to put the national good<br />

over self-interest. Let good people know they are doing good.<br />

The auditorium was filled to capacity, standing room only, and the discussion was interesting<br />

with some fun moments. Notable attendees<br />

included Senator Jeff Flake of Arizona;<br />

Cate Klundt, Government Affairs Director<br />

at the Utah Association of Realtors; and Dr.<br />

Christopher Freiman, Associate Professor of<br />

Philosophy at William and Mary. BYU Poli<br />

Sci’s Ryan Davis organized and conducted<br />

the event, which was sponsored by the<br />

Sorensen Center for Moral and Ethical<br />

Leadership.<br />

6<br />

6<br />

Thank you, Ryan, for a wonderful event.





Thursday, Oct. 14, 2021, 11 AM, 250 KMBL<br />

Utah Lieutenant Governor Deidre Henderson spoke<br />

on Thursday, October 14, 2021, in the Kimball Tower<br />

on BYU campus. Her speech, which featured points<br />

on nontraditional studenthood, how she balances<br />

family and career, and more, was sponsored by the<br />

Women of the College of FHSS.<br />

Some highlights of her talk include her advice that<br />

we “Find our ‘Why’” to remind ourselves of our<br />

motivating reasons. She also advised us to not take<br />

ISSUE<br />


31<br />

7<br />

counsel from our fears. Many people put plans on hold for a family and then feel like an<br />

“imposter” when they recommence their lives. When asked about “Imposter Syndrome,” she<br />

responded that we should be open about how we feel, remind ourselves that our value is inherent<br />

regardless of education, and remain true to ourselves.<br />

Her greatest accomplishment, she said, was becoming a mom. She has five kids. Because of<br />

her experience reentering the workforce after a family, she started the “Return Utah” program<br />

for those returning to the workforce after life’s detours. The program, which is 16 weeks long<br />

and offers opportunities for adults returning to the workforce after an extended absence, can be<br />

found on the Utah Governor's website.<br />

When asked about her most helpful skills, Henderson responded seriously, “acting class.” Many<br />

times, we put on brave faces when all we want to do is hide. Public speaking, she said, is also a<br />

critical skill. We need to learn how to appear confident despite our fear, and learn to listen. More<br />

helpful skills included learning how to use negative feelings in a positive way, and finally, to<br />

simply pray. Faith and politics, according to her, are not hard to use together. Faith is who you<br />

are; people elect you knowing about it. It’s nothing to be ashamed of.<br />

She also reminded us that opportunities are often menial: “Opportunity is often missed because<br />

it comes dressed in overalls.” When we are focused on other things, we can unintentionally<br />

become blind to new possibilities. Her advice was to get proximate--to be open to see everything<br />

that is happening. In closing, she said we need to first find our role models, and then become role<br />

models ourselves.<br />

Thank you for an insightful presentation, Lieutenant Governor Henderson.<br />





THE BYU<br />


2021<br />



The BYU Political Science Poster Conference occurred on December 9, from noon to 3 PM, in<br />

the Wilkinson Center Garden Court. The Conference was a success this year, highlighting the<br />

scholarship of 64 students. Experiential learning like this benefits the students, who learn how<br />

to present their ideas in the public format. The award winners and honorable mentions are listed<br />

on the next page, but everyone who participated is a winner. Thank you and congratulations.<br />

We also want to thank our two official judges, Liz McGuire and Chad Nelson, and Ryan Davis,<br />

who acted as a third unofficial judge. Thank you to all the faculty that worked with the students<br />

to produce this research. And a special thanks to Jay Goodliffe, who founded this event five<br />

years ago, and to Joel Selway, his successor, for hosting this year.<br />

8<br />


1 st 2 nd<br />

"Evangelical Protestants: Friend or Foe?" ($300)<br />

Ashlan Gruwell<br />

Overall Winners<br />

"Tried and Prejudice: Using Hate Crime<br />

Sentencings to Disprove the Rise of Right-Wing<br />

Terrorism in the United States" ($250)<br />

Madison Sinclair Johnson<br />

3 rd<br />

"Be Thou Sexist? Hostile & Benevolent Sexism<br />

Among Latter-day Saints" ($200)<br />

Abigail Ryan, David Clove<br />

ISSUE<br />

31<br />

9<br />

Subfield winners ($150 each):<br />

Best Comparative Paper: "How do Emigration<br />

Rates Affect the Democracy Score of the Home<br />

Country?" Elliana Pastrano<br />

Best IR Paper: "Tanks and Missiles: The Only<br />

Counterterrorism Strategy?" Peyton Lykins<br />

Best American paper: "To Guide Us in These<br />

Latter-days: When Partisans disagree with the<br />

Church's guidance" Kelsey Eyre, Jordan Gygi, and<br />

Kesley Townsend<br />

Best Race and Ethnicity Paper: "Intersectional<br />

Constituents: How Minority Elected Officials Respond<br />

to Minority Constituents." Suzy Yi<br />

Honorable mentions:<br />

“Ideologues in the Political Pipeline: Measuring<br />

the Ambition of Local Elected Officials”<br />

Grant Baldwin & Chris Vazquez<br />

“Are Supreme Court Decisions Congruent with<br />

Public Opinion on Campaign Finance?”<br />

Kesley Townsend<br />

“Polarization Through a Generational Lens”<br />

Jeremy Pratt, Clara Cullen, Hannah Forsyth<br />

“Does Clothing Make the Candidate?<br />

Identifying the Impact of Traditional Immigrant<br />

Clothing on Elections”<br />

Elle Diether, Megan Cann,<br />

and McKell McIntyre<br />

“The Failure Effect: Gender and Benevolence in<br />

Sports”<br />

Abby Woodfield, Morgan Rushforth, Meg Price,<br />

Sam Ames<br />







THE<br />

Major Brent Taylor Foundation<br />

GALA<br />

The opening reception for the Brent Taylor Leadership<br />

Legacy Gala was held on Saturday, November 6, 2021.<br />

Among the honored scholarship attendees were three<br />

BYU students: Kray Jubeck and Zeke Peters (recipients<br />

this year), and Harrison Mayer (last year). Each recipient<br />

and his wife stood next to a large poster that had their<br />

photos and information about them. Harrison and Kray<br />

were in full military dress. Our Department Chair, Dr. Jay<br />

Goodliffe, and his wife, also attended.<br />

The Major Brent Taylor foundation is a registered<br />

501(c)3 charitable organization that aims to embody the<br />

legacy of leadership that Major Brent Taylor left behind.<br />

This scholarship was established in 2021 to honor Major<br />

Brent Taylor, who was killed in action on November 3,<br />

2018 while training an Afghan Army commando battalion<br />

in Kabul, Afghanistan.<br />

Brent served as student body president at Chandler High<br />

in 1996 – 1997. He was a soldier in the Utah National<br />

Guard and the Mayor of North Ogden, Utah at the time<br />

of his combat death. The organization provides scholarships<br />

to students that show outstanding service oriented<br />

leadership. In addition to funding scholarships, the organization<br />

is committed to honoring our nation's Gold Star<br />

& Surviving Families, Veterans, and military families by<br />

funding monuments across Utah.<br />

Contributions can be sent to the the Brent and Jennie Taylor<br />

Family Endowed Scholarship Fund:<br />

LDS Philanthropies<br />

Attn: Brent Sharp<br />

1450 N. University Ave.<br />

Provo, UT. 84604<br />

10<br />


What's Going On in Afghanistan?<br />

Four of the BYU Political Science department's<br />

Middle East experts answered this<br />

question in a Q&A panel on Thursday,<br />

Nov. 11, 2021, at 7pm in the JFSB Education<br />

in Zion Auditorium. Professors Josh<br />

Gubler, Tyler Pack, David Romney and<br />

Chad Nelson also discussed U.S. intervention<br />

in, and the current situation of, the<br />

Afghanistan region.<br />

Among other things, one important point<br />

was that Afghanistan acted as a buffer<br />

between the British Empire and the Russian<br />

Empire for many years. The country<br />

is characterized by low levels of literacy,<br />

lack of minority rights, and 80% of the<br />

country is rural. In the metropolitan center<br />

of Kabul, women were developing rights,<br />

while in the rural areas, women have few<br />

rights. The U.S. occupation was hampered by the lack of clear goals, and most<br />

of the illiterate citizens did not know why the U.S. was there. Neither the U.S.<br />

nor any other imperial power has succeeded in building a modern Afghani<br />

state, and therefore Afghanistan is characterized by instability, which needs to<br />

be rebuilt from the inside out.<br />

ISSUE<br />


31<br />

11<br />

Afghanistan locals look<br />

on as Afghan National<br />

Security Forces lead a<br />

joint patrol with<br />

Coalition Forces in the<br />

village of Spine Gundey,<br />

Gelan district, Ghazni<br />

province, Afghanistan,<br />

May 10, 2012.<br />



2021 AMERICAN<br />


The American Family Survey<br />

Who is most interested in marriage and having kids?<br />



12<br />

12<br />


29 and 27 respectively, have a 2-yearold<br />

son and welcomed a daughter in late<br />

November. She’s put her master’s degree<br />

in math education to work owning a small<br />

virtual math tutoring company. He’s currently<br />

in school full time.<br />

The Jeppsons fall into the age group most<br />

apt to believe marriage is old-fashioned or<br />

unnecessary for a family to flourish. But<br />

that’s not their view.<br />

“I think there’s a level of commitment that<br />

comes with marriage that isn’t there with<br />

cohabitation,” Haley said. “I also think that<br />

kids’ happiness and health and security<br />

comes a lot from the quality of the parents’<br />

relationship.”<br />

Americans and the institution of marriage<br />

have historically been a love story. Most<br />

American adults believe marriage is key<br />

to forging strong families. However, not<br />

all young adults share Jeppson’s faith<br />

that being legally married matters. Young<br />

adults seem less committed to the concept<br />

of marriage than they were in 2015, when<br />

the Deseret News and BYU’s Center for<br />

the Study of Elections and Democracy<br />

first teamed up to conduct the American<br />

Family Survey. The nationally representative<br />

poll conducted by YouGov looks<br />

at attitudes about family life against a<br />

background of current events.<br />

The new study exposes a growing divide<br />

when it comes to post-COVID-19 family<br />

formation. Compared to other groups,<br />

more young adults view marriage as<br />

old-fashioned and out-of-date, although<br />

more than half agree the institution makes<br />

families and children better off. In younger<br />

generations, marriage has shifted from<br />

being a cornerstone on which family life<br />

could be built to a capstone accomplished<br />

only after checking off a list of other life<br />

experiences–if one chooses to marry at<br />

all.<br />

More adults generally agreed that being<br />

legally married is less important than<br />

having a “personal sense of commitment<br />

to your partner,” nearly 48% compared to<br />

31%. But all age groups agree that marriage<br />

makes families and children better<br />

off financially, including close to half of<br />

the 18- to 29-year-olds. And more of them<br />

agree “marriage is for life, come what<br />

may,“ though in smaller shares than those<br />

of other ages.<br />

Asked if marriage is more of a burden<br />

than a benefit to families, nearly 62% disagreed<br />

at least somewhat. Among young<br />

adults 18 to 29, 51% at least somewhat<br />

disagree that marriage is a burden. How-

The American Family Survey is an annual, nationwide study of 3,000<br />

Americans by the Center for the Study of Elections and Democracy at<br />

Brigham Young University and the Deseret News.<br />

BYU Professors Jeremy Pope and Chris Karpowitz participate in and<br />

author the annual survey.<br />

ever, 17% agree– a higher percentage of<br />

agreement than among older adults, who<br />

largely feel marriage is needed to create<br />

strong families.<br />

“Among younger generations, we’re<br />

definitely seeing some important social<br />

changes,” said demographer and Institute<br />

for Family Studies research fellow<br />

Lyman Stone. “We’re seeing less attachment<br />

to marriage, and to some extent,<br />

smaller family desires.”<br />

That view of marriage is<br />

concentrated within the young adults,<br />

echoed Jeremy C. Pope, who co-directs<br />

the BYU center with Christopher F.<br />

Karpowitz. The duo co-wrote the American<br />

Family Survey report. “If you look<br />

across the young-adult spectrum, in<br />

2015, 1 in 10 said [marriage is outdated].<br />

Now it’s 2 in 10. That’s a significant<br />

jump.<br />

“I don’t want to oversell it, but there is<br />

a hint that attitudes toward marriage are<br />

changing,” Pope concluded.<br />

The 2021 American Family Survey represents the<br />

seventh annual effort from the team of experts to<br />

understand the state of public opinion about the<br />

American family and the experiences of American<br />

families.<br />

Fielded between June 25 and July 8, 2021, last<br />

year’s survey came at a relative low point in<br />

COVID cases, prior to the widespread Delta variant<br />

wave and before families sent their children back<br />

to school. Questions in the survey relate back to the<br />

American family’s experience with the pandemic<br />

and their evaluations of government responses to<br />

it, as well as 2020’s protests around the issues of<br />

racial equality and policing. The results show both<br />

challenges and resilience in the face of pandemic<br />

difficulties.<br />

The 2021 survey was released Tuesday, October<br />

12, 2021 from Washington, D.C. The margin of<br />

error is plus or minus 2 percentage points.See:<br />

https://csed.byu.edu/; and the Deseret News article<br />

by Lois M. Collins@Loisco Oct 18, 2021, for<br />

more.<br />

ISSUE<br />


31<br />

13<br />




RALPH<br />

WALDO<br />


14<br />


Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803<br />

– April 27, 1882), was an American essayist,<br />

lecturer, philosopher, abolitionist and poet<br />

who led the transcendentalist movement of the<br />

mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion<br />

of individualism and a prescient critic of the<br />

countervailing pressures of society, and he<br />

disseminated his thoughts through dozens of<br />

published essays and more than 1,500 public<br />

lectures across the United States.<br />

A quintessential American voice, Emerson<br />

believed that civilization was only beginning<br />

and could reach unfathomable places through<br />

moral force and creative intelligence. This<br />

alone, however, is not a reason to blindly<br />

follow the footsteps before us. Remembering<br />

that “the law is only a memorandum” gave rise<br />

to Emerson’s most popular quote in this essay:<br />

“The less government we have, the better.”<br />

Emerson believed that an ideal government,<br />

aside from a nonexistent one dissolved when<br />

improvements in human character through<br />

love and wisdom could abolish the state,<br />

was one that advocated for the growth of<br />

the individual, and be able to protect one’s<br />

individual rights. The individual would<br />

only be ready for democracy when they<br />

had become completely independent and<br />

self-reliant. Then the abolishment of<br />

government could be achieved. The<br />

intelligence needed from each individual<br />

would triumph over business interests and<br />

politics, because the mind is the richest<br />

asset you can have.<br />

Emerson also questioned property rights<br />

in politics, noting that they are built not<br />

on democracy, but instead on owning.<br />

Believing that “property will always follow<br />

persons," Emerson believed personal rights<br />

were much more important than property<br />

rights.<br />

By 1844, Emerson, then 41, had moved<br />

into a pragmatic balance of skepticism<br />

and idealism, happily providing him with<br />

“a way to dream as well as a way to live.”<br />

Emerson’s views on politics championed<br />

democracy and individualism, two ideas<br />

that we view today as the very embodiment<br />

of America.<br />

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_<br />

Waldo_Emerson; Emerson, Ralph Waldo,<br />

and Ralph Waldo Emerson. 1990. Essays :<br />

First and Second Series. 1st Vintage<br />

Books/The Library of America ed. Vintage<br />

Books.<br />

ISSUE<br />


31<br />

15<br />




Bethany Linton<br />

Bethany Linton’s area of expertise is Environmental<br />

Governance. She works with the World Bank in Washington,<br />

DC as a consultant, and previously led analysis and publication<br />

of the Climate Smart Agriculture Investment Package Report<br />

for 13 countries across Africa and elsewhere. This study<br />

supports the development and piloting of a new framework<br />

for monitoring and valuing soil organic carbon sequestration.<br />

Bethany is a program manager, landscape convener, and gender<br />

analyst with a passion for collaborative and sustainable forest, landscape, and agricultural<br />

land management. Her interests lie in enhancing participatory land planning, natural resource<br />

management, and livelihood improvement through bottom-up processes.<br />

She graduated from the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies with a Master’s<br />

Degree in Environmental Science, after receiving her BA in Political Science, International<br />

Development, Political Philosophy and Art History at BYU. In her undergraduate work,<br />

she participated in the BYU Political Affairs Society, Sigma, the Tocqueville Society, the<br />

Washington Seminar and worked with an NGO in Uganda.<br />

David Trichler<br />

David works with research labs and internal and external partners<br />

to bring the best of academia to current global policy challenges.<br />

His main responsibilities involve strategic planning, external<br />

engagement, and cross-cutting initiatives.<br />

Trichler served as director of operations at William & Mary’s<br />

Institute for the Theory & Practice of International Relations,<br />

where he was responsible for catalyzing applied research by<br />

faculty and students to address global challenges.<br />

Previously, Trichler worked for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, USAID, ExxonMobil Foundation,<br />

and the World Bank. He is a TedX speaker, a lucky husband to an insanely talented wife, and<br />

father of two young daughters who love dogs, cheese, and their parents, in that order. The<br />

running trails behind Lake Matoaka are his favorite place on W&M Campus. He holds an MS<br />

in Foreign Service from Georgetown University and a BA in Political Science from Brigham<br />

Young University.<br />


Rob Waller<br />

Rob Waller is an expert in U.S. foreign policy in the<br />

Middle East and works for the U.S. Department of State.<br />

Waller, formerly the US State Department’s Director of<br />

the Office of Iraq Affairs, has taken office as the new<br />

consul general of the United States in Erbil, the capital<br />

of Kurdistan Region. The US Consulate General in<br />

Erbil welcomed Waller in an online statement, saying<br />

that he had assumed charge of the consulate on 1st July.<br />

The statement also confirmed that Katie Kiser has been<br />

appointed as the new Deputy Principal Officer at the consulate. “Over the next few months,<br />

they look forward to exploring the rich culture of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region while also seeking<br />

out meaningful ways to collaboratively build upon our shared values of peace, security, and<br />

economic prosperity,” reads the statement.<br />

ISSUE<br />


31<br />

17<br />

A member of the Senior Foreign Service, Waller previously served as the Director of the<br />

Office of Iraq Affairs and as the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Iraq and Iran.Prior to<br />

joining the Iraq office, he was Minister-Counselor for Political and Economic Affairs at the<br />

U.S. Mission to the United Nations at Geneva (2015-2018) and spent his last year there as<br />

Acting DCM. He was the U.S. Consul General in Dubai (2012-2015) and served as Director<br />

for Israeli, Palestinian and Jordanian Affairs at the NSC (2011-2012). His other overseas<br />

assignments include Paris, Baghdad, Jerusalem, FSI Tunisia, and Jeddah.<br />

Garrett Gibson<br />

Garrett Gibson has worked in various projects through his<br />

business management career. Notable companies include<br />

Panum Group, where he assisted in designing a stellar tool<br />

that further utilized space management.<br />

Garrett currently works as a senior consultant at Morgan<br />

Franklin Consulting in Washington, D.C. While working as a<br />

consultant, he leads teams to enhance operational<br />

effectiveness, execute cost-cutting strategies, and adopt new<br />

technologies to improve the efficiency of finance and procurement functions.<br />

He graduated from BYU with a bachelor's degree in PoliticalScience and Business<br />

Management, and later received his MBA from the Georgetown University McDonough<br />

School of Business.<br />




Ashlan was awarded first place and $300 at<br />

the annual Political Science Poster<br />

Conference, with a poster entitled: "Evangelical<br />

Protestants: Friend or Foe?" ($300).<br />

As a political science major, Ashlan has<br />

focused her studies on elections, sexism,<br />

and national politics, and thus her research<br />

reflects all of those interests.<br />

As a result of the research of other political<br />

scientists and religious scholars, she theorized<br />

that evangelical Protestants have a negative<br />

effect on the election of female state<br />

legislators because of the religious tradition's<br />

beliefs that a woman is not fit to lead, which<br />

led to her research question: What is the<br />

effect of a state’s percent of evangelical Protestants<br />

on the percent of females within the<br />

state’s legislature? Through her analysis, and<br />

with the help of Professor Monson, she was<br />

able to support that theory. Her results show<br />

that the percent of evangelical Protestants<br />

in a state will have a statistically significant<br />

negative effect on how many women are in<br />


First Place,<br />

2021 Political Science Poster Conference<br />

Winning Poster: "Evangelical Protestants:<br />

Friend or Foe?"<br />

that state's legislature.<br />

Outside of her school work, Ashlan<br />

volunteers in the Brigham Young<br />

University Student Association as the Director<br />

of Club Events. The BYUSA office<br />

is one of her favorite places on campus and<br />

volunteering has allowed her to meet other<br />

students, gain experience, and take part in<br />

unique activities and events.<br />

In her free time, she loves to relax with her<br />

friends and watch movies, play games, make<br />

food, and get ice cream. She also loves to<br />

listen to music at full volume, especially<br />

when she's driving her car or is home alone.<br />

She is from from Harborcreek,<br />

Pennsylvania, and is currently living in<br />

Washington D.C. as part of BYU's<br />

Washington Seminar program.<br />

18<br />



Madison (Maddie) is a brand-new BYU<br />

alumna who graduated in December<br />

with a degree in political science and a<br />

minor in communications. Despite barely<br />

passing POLI 328, she loved the program<br />

and especially enjoyed all the research<br />

opportunities.<br />

Most recently, Maddie was awarded<br />

second place at the Political Science<br />

Poster Conference for her research<br />

project “Tried and Prejudice: Using Hate<br />

Crime Sentencing to Disprove the Rise<br />

of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United<br />

States.” By reasearching the Global<br />

Terrorism Database's counts of right-wing<br />

terrorism in the U.S. from 2002-2019, she<br />

found that about 70% of the 167 cases<br />

should not be classified as terrorism. At<br />

least 22% of the events were actually<br />

hate crimes, and with the solving and<br />

prosecution of more cases, it could be<br />

as high as 44%. Based on this research,<br />

while right-wing terrorism isn't truly on<br />

the rise in the U.S., hate crimes are.<br />


Megan is a Political Science<br />

Major who is the communications<br />

coordinator for the Political Affairs<br />

Society here at BYU. Megan<br />

is from Reston, Virginia (a few<br />

minutes outside of D.C.). She loves<br />

the outdoors; she’ll hike, climb,<br />

bike or ski. In a non-COVID world,<br />

she loves to travel. She’s made it to<br />

all 50 states!<br />

She does a lot of New York Times<br />

crossword puzzles, and has a<br />

secret talent for trivia games. As<br />

a student at BYU, she’s been able<br />

to work as a research assistant in<br />

the department. It’s been such an<br />

amazing learning opportunity!<br />

She’s also an officer in the BYU<br />

Political Affairs Society, where<br />

she runs the advertising and social<br />

media pages.<br />

ISSUE<br />


31<br />

19<br />

Maddie is from Zionsville, Indiana, and<br />

now works for Ballotpedia as a News<br />

Researcher. Her interests include roller<br />

skating, house plants, and true crime.<br />







Professor Sven Wilson received a PhD<br />

in economics from the University of<br />

Chicago, and he has been in the Political<br />

Science Department at BYU since<br />

1997. He studies the demographic correlates<br />

of health over the life cycle in<br />

both modern and historical populations.<br />

He has published in a wide range of<br />

scholarly outlets on various aspects of<br />

health and social inequalities, especially<br />

with respect to race, gender and family<br />

structure. He has been a Senior Investigator<br />

on the NIA-funded program<br />

project, Early Indicators, Intergenerational<br />

Processes, and Aging, which is a<br />

data collection project based on a large<br />

sample of white and black Union Army<br />

veterans, and has published several<br />

papers based on this data.<br />

Early in in his career, Wilson published<br />

two of the seminal articles on what<br />

would come to be known as the spousal<br />

concordance in health, a topic of study<br />

that has expanded to include hundreds<br />

of published articles by both social<br />

scientists and biomedical researchers.<br />

In these oft-cited studies he shows that<br />

the health status of married persons<br />

mirrors significantly the health status<br />

of the spouse, using a variety of health<br />

indicators. Moreover, he shows that the<br />

occurrence of health problems in both<br />

spouses is highly concentrated among<br />

couples with low socioeconomic status,<br />

further compounding the economic<br />

consequences of poor health.<br />

20<br />

20<br />

Sven Wilson<br />

Expert in history,<br />

social and political sciences,<br />

and economics<br />

Wilson’s interest in social disparities in health has<br />

led to other research on social capital, including<br />

family relationships. Very little social science<br />

research has been able to follow individuals and<br />

social networks over time, so relatively little is<br />

known about the long-term persistence of human<br />

capital. Using the data on Union Army veterans,<br />

Wilson’s team demonstrated that Civil War<br />

veterans formed long-lasting social networks, as<br />

evidenced by their choice to live near Civil War<br />

comrades many years later. They also found that<br />

living near a former comrade had a beneficial<br />

effect on life expectancy.<br />

Using more modern data, Wilson’s recent research<br />

has investigated the impact of military<br />

service on participation in civic groups such as<br />

service clubs, fraternal organizations or unions.<br />

Wilson’s research finds that the veterans of major<br />

20th century conflicts participated in more groups<br />

and with greater intensity than non-veterans.<br />

Furthermore, this effect of military service is<br />

largely independent of the impact of education on<br />

civic participation.<br />

Wilson served for many years as director of the<br />

Masters in Public Policy program at BYU and<br />

was chair of the Political Science Department<br />

from 2014-2021. He currently teaches large sections<br />

of American Heritage as well as methodology<br />

and public policy courses in the department.<br />

In his spare time, Wilson enjoys downhill skiing<br />

and watching BYU Women’s Volleyball with his<br />

wife, Nancy. He and Nancy are the parents of six<br />

children and live in Provo.

Dr. Tyler Pack specializes in civil wars<br />

and ethnic conflicts, civil-military<br />

relations, and authoritarian regimes.<br />

In particular, he explores how violent<br />

conflict influences the decision making of<br />

political leaders, military elites, and the<br />

public in neighboring states.<br />

After living in five different states by<br />

the age of five, Tyler grew up in Utah,<br />

graduating from Northridge High School<br />

in 2003. He became interested in politics<br />

the traditional professor way – researching<br />

topics for high school debate. The<br />

September 11th attacks (and subsequent<br />

invasion of Afghanistan) happened when<br />

he was a junior, and the U.S. invaded Iraq<br />

three months before he graduated. U.S.<br />

military action and civil conflict were<br />

very much on his mind. While serving<br />

a mission in Russia, he observed the<br />

reaction of leaders and the public to a<br />

host of political events, including terrorist<br />

attacks carried out by Chechen separatists<br />

such as the hostage-taking and botched<br />

rescue attempt at a school in Beslan in<br />

2004.<br />

Realizing the importance of perception<br />

and exposure, as well as having a personal<br />

connection to political events, helped<br />

solidify his intentions to teach and study<br />

international relations. He received a<br />

Dr. Tyler Pack<br />

Expert in civil wars,<br />

civil-military relations,<br />

and authoritarian regimes<br />

bachelor’s and master’s degree at Utah State<br />

with a focus on Russian foreign policy. During<br />

his undergraduate work, he met his wife, and<br />

they had their first child while in Logan. They<br />

had three more children in Illinois, where<br />

Tyler attended graduate school for a PhD<br />

before coming to BYU as a visiting professor<br />

in 2019.<br />

As a teacher, Tyler’s approach focuses on<br />

frequent discussions, maximizing student<br />

engagement, exploring political events<br />

through simulations and cases, and sharing<br />

moderately dated pop culture references. At<br />

BYU he has taught Principles of International<br />

Relations, Civil Wars and Ethnic Conflict,<br />

International Intervention, and U.S. Foreign<br />

Policy.<br />

Tyler’s research focuses on the spillover<br />

effects of civil war in democratic and<br />

authoritarian regimes from World War II to the<br />

present. Some of his current projects include<br />

a study of how the unique threat environment<br />

of a nearby civil war presents a window<br />

for coup-proofing by political elites, and a<br />

project involving how individuals respond<br />

to proximate conflict with support for extraconstitutional<br />

measures by or against the<br />

regime.<br />

ISSUE<br />

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21<br />




22<br />

22<br />

Gentry Jenkins is a visiting professor<br />

of Political Science who recently<br />

finished his PhD at the University<br />

of Chicago in 2020. Previously, he<br />

received an MA in International<br />

Relations from Chicago in 2014, and a<br />

BA in History from the University of<br />

Idaho in 2012.<br />

Gentry grew up in Troy, Idaho, a small<br />

town of less than 1,000 people. For<br />

the neighboring town of Moscow, his<br />

dad was the institute director of the<br />

first-ever LDS Church for the Moscow<br />

Institute of Religion. He attended<br />

the University of Idaho and majored<br />

in history, a topic he considered<br />

interesting. Gentry, along with Dr. Lisa<br />

Carlson, wrote about China’s decision<br />

to enter the Korean War despite being<br />

a new country at the time. They<br />

thought to ask: why do revolutionary<br />

states go to war?<br />

After doing a lot of research and<br />

writing, along with being denied<br />

acceptance to multiple History PhD<br />

programs, Gentry discovered that his<br />

interests in history were primarily<br />

theoretical. However, he was offered<br />

a partial scholarship in International<br />

Gentry Jenkins<br />

Expert in history,<br />

international security,<br />

revolutionary regimes,<br />

and archival research<br />

Relations at the University of Chicago.<br />

At Chicago, he worked with Robert Pape, a<br />

scholar on the logics of coercion in IR, air<br />

power, and terrorism. Professor Pape directed<br />

his Masters Thesis and PhD at Chicago. Pape<br />

has done research on the rise of territorial<br />

disputes, especially on Ethiopia’s civil war<br />

in the 1970s and 80s. Jointly, Pape and<br />

Gentry conducted research discovering that<br />

peripheral groups in Ethopia rebel against<br />

state centralization and transformational<br />

policies. Tensions exist between the Ethiopian<br />

government and its ethnic tribes: the Aromo,<br />

Emhara and Tigray specifically. Each of the<br />

tribes has cultural traits that identify them,<br />

but not necessarily their heritage, making the<br />

tension more complicated.<br />

Upon graduation from Chicago, Gentry was<br />

hired by Chicago to a two-year post doc to<br />

advise Masters students. He worked there for<br />

one year, then was invited to become a visiting<br />

professor at BYU. His research interests include<br />

international security, revolutionary regimes,<br />

civil wars, and archival research.<br />

Gentry met his wife Liz in her native Chicago;<br />

they had both been seminary teachers and had a<br />

lot in common. Now they have two daughters: a<br />

four-year-old and a nine-month-old baby.

ISSUE<br />

31<br />

23<br />




How Politicians Discount the<br />

Opinions of Constituents with<br />

Whom They Disagree<br />

Daniel M. Butler, Adam M. Dynes<br />



We argue that politicians systematically discount the opinions of constituents with whom<br />

they disagree and that this “disagreement discounting” is a contributing factor to ideological<br />

incongruence.<br />

A pair of survey experiments, in which state and local politicians are the subjects of interest,<br />

show that public officials rationalize this behavior by assuming that constituents with<br />

opposing views are less informed about the issue. This finding applies both to well-established<br />

issues that divide the parties as well as to nonpartisan ones.<br />

Further, it can be explained by politicians’ desires to favor the opinions of either copartisans<br />

or likely voters. A third survey experiment using a sample of voters suggests that the<br />

bias toward favorable constituents is exacerbated by an activity central to representative<br />

governance—taking and explaining one's policy positions. To sum, the representative job<br />

itself can cause an increase in the likeliness to dismiss voters with dissenting opinions.<br />

24<br />


The First Political Order: How<br />

Sex Shapes Governance and<br />

National Security Worldwide<br />

Donna Lee Bowen<br />

Donna Lee Bowen’s new book, "The First<br />

Political Order: How Sex Shapes Governance<br />

and National Security Worldwide," has been<br />

mentioned in the Economist in two separate<br />

articles. Together, the articles use Bowen’s<br />

book to answer why societies that mistreat<br />

women are worse off than those who treat<br />

women fairly, and why foreign policy should<br />

pay more heed to half of humanity.<br />

ISSUE<br />

31<br />


25<br />

The following paragraphs are exerpts<br />

combined from both Economist articles.<br />

“A WOMAN WHO drives a car will be<br />

killed,” says Sheikh Hazim Muhammad<br />

al-Manshad. He says it matter-of-factly,<br />

without raising his voice. The sheikh is a<br />

decorous host. Yet the code he espouses is<br />

brutal. The social order is built around male<br />

kinship groups; the leaders are all men. At<br />

home, women are expected to obey husbands,<br />

fathers or brothers. Daughters were valued for<br />

their ability to give birth to sons. Strict rules<br />

were devised to ensure women’s chastity. If<br />

a daughter dallies with anyone other than the<br />

man chosen for her, her male kin are honourbound<br />

to kill them both.<br />

Global history records an astonishing variety<br />

of forms of social organization. Yet almost<br />

universally, males subordinate females.<br />

How does the relationship between men and<br />

women shape the wider political order? The<br />

First Political Order is a groundbreaking<br />

demonstration that the persistent and<br />

systematic subordination of women underlies<br />

all other institutions, with wide-ranging<br />

implications for global security and<br />

development.<br />

A society’s choice to subjugate women<br />

has significant negative consequences:<br />

worse governance, worse conflict, worse<br />

stability, worse economic performance,<br />

worse food security, worse health,<br />

worse demographic problems, worse<br />

environmental protection, and worse<br />

social progress. Yet despite the pervasive<br />

power of social and political structures<br />

that subordinate women, history―<br />

and the data―reveal possibilities for<br />

progress. The First Political Order shows<br />

that when steps are taken to reduce the<br />

hold of inequitable laws, customs, and<br />

practices, outcomes for all improve.<br />

https://www.economist.com/<br />

international/2021/09/11/societiesthat-treat-women-badly-are-poorerand-less-stable;<br />

https://www.<br />

economist.com/leaders/2021/09/11/<br />

why-nations-that-fail-women-fail.<br />




26<br />

26<br />

America the Vincible: U.S.<br />

Foreign Policy for the<br />

Twenty-First Century<br />

Earl H. Fry, Stan A. Taylor,<br />

Robert S. Wood<br />

Taking the view that the United States is<br />

not an invincible superpower, the book<br />

America the Vincible: U.S. Foreign Policy<br />

for the Twenty-First Century focuses<br />

on changing conditions within the nation<br />

and fully examines the constitutional,<br />

political, economic, strategic, and social<br />

issues which will shape future U.S. foreign<br />

policy decisions.<br />

The authors, BYU Professors Earl H. Fry<br />

and Stan A. Taylor, are joined by Professor<br />

Robert S. Wood, who makes suggestions<br />

for changes that will produce more effective<br />

foreign policy in the coming century.<br />

Professor Wood is the holder of the Chester<br />

W. Nimitz Chair of National Security<br />

at the United States Naval War College in<br />

Newport, Rhode Island. He served in Newport<br />

as Dean of the Chief of Naval Operations<br />

Strategic Studies Group. Wood was<br />

also Dean (later, Dean Emeritus) of the<br />

Center for Naval Warfare Studies, a focal<br />

point of strategic and campaign thought<br />

in the naval services and a major research<br />

group in the national security field.<br />

Vicious Habits: Sexually<br />

Transmitted Infections among<br />

Black and White<br />

Union Army Veterans<br />

Sven Wilson et al.<br />

Sven and his collaborators (Christopher<br />

Roudiez, Heather Desomer, Coralee Lewis<br />

and Noelle Yetter) analyzed a random<br />

sample of 15,049 white veterans and 5,329<br />

black veterans of the US Civil War examined<br />

by physicians between 1890 and<br />

1906. They calculated a period prevalence<br />

of STI of 1.2–1.7% among whites and 4.2–<br />

8.0% among blacks, even though blacks<br />

and whites had almost identical prevalence<br />

of STIs in their wartime medical records.<br />

Furthermore, they found evidence that<br />

Board physicians were on the lookout for<br />

STIs among black veterans that could be<br />

used to justify denial of pension support.<br />

With or without STIs, blacks were rejected<br />

at roughly twice the rate of whites during<br />

this time period. Currently, racial disparities<br />

are even higher today than in this historical<br />

period, with blacks currently having<br />

a 5–15 times higher incidence than whites.<br />

The authors invite a critical reflection upon<br />

practices of screening and measurement<br />

systems to assess properly the degree to<br />

which racial prejudice may be part of these<br />

systems.Their article will be featured in a<br />

forthcoming publication of the Journal of<br />

Applied History.

ISSUE<br />

31<br />

27<br />




WEDNESDAY, JULY 21ST, 2021<br />


Vice President Kamala Harris is now responsible for voting rights and illegal immigration.<br />

Each responsibility is a big-ticket, divisive issue that could spell either victory or doom for<br />

her likeliness of becoming president in the future. Questions surrounding these duties and the<br />

pros and cons of the VP heading such important assignments are discussed on Top of Mind by<br />

historian Grant Madsen and political scientist Chris Karpowitz here: https://www.byuradio.<br />

org/95c1cfe9<br />

TUESDAY, AUGUST 19TH, 2021<br />


President Biden’s execution of removing U.S. troops from Afghanistan is what some regard<br />

as a catastrophe, citing the supplies and people he left behind. Others have the opposite view:<br />

that it was worth it, because our soldiers are now home rather than fighting a losing battle.<br />

The political consequences President Biden will face as a result of his decision, and how<br />

he will weather the storm, are discussed further with BYU professors Chris Karpowitz and<br />

Grant Madsen in this episode: https://www.byuradio.org/0d63bf6d<br />



After Texas passed controversial law SB 8– effectively banning abortion after 6 weeks, when<br />

a fetal heartbeat is detectable– the issue of abortion is once again the hot topic for politicians<br />

across the nation. Even when compared to other issues met with similarly fiery debate, such<br />

as gun control or the death penalty, abortion seems to almost be in a category of its own.<br />

We’ve had half a century to live with Roe v. Wade, yet it hasn’t gotten any less sensational<br />

since its origin almost exactly 50 years ago.<br />

The core issue is that abortion is centered around two fundamental and very different ideas of<br />

how American freedom and responsibility are defined. Why is abortion such a major issue,<br />

and why does it matter? Regular Top of Mind guests Chris Karpowitz and Grant Madsen<br />

dissect the situation in this episode: https://www.byuradio.org/0fcc4eba<br />

28<br />




The 2020 election saw a record voter turnout, in which 66.8% of the eligible voting<br />

population turned up at the polls. Yet, the state or city elections that occur between<br />

major elections see turnout as little as 10%.<br />

Off-year city elections provide an opening for well-organized groups to influence local<br />

policy, sometimes even against the interest of the general electorate. BYU political<br />

science professor Adam Dynes explains the reasoning, advantages, and disadvantages<br />

of off-year elections. Listen to the episode here: https://www.byuradio.org/bc769d78<br />

ISSUE<br />

31<br />


29<br />

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 14TH, 2021<br />


What do children, privacy, and a whistleblower have in common? They’re all factors in<br />

Congress’s latest clash with private business: the fight against Facebook. Facebook is<br />

under fire after a whistleblower testified that its executives are not only aware of the harm<br />

Facebook is causing– whether through voter manipulation, unauthorized data collection, or<br />

its negative effects on teenagers’ mental health– but are also attempting to conceal it.<br />

Listen to regulars Chris Karpowitz and Grant Madsen describe Congress’s grievances with<br />

the social media giant, as well as what this involvement could mean for the future of media<br />

monopolies, here: https://www.byuradio.org/9bfa0106<br />





Four score and seven years ago our forefathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation,<br />

conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.<br />

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived<br />

and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have<br />

come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their<br />

lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.<br />

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this<br />

ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above<br />

our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say<br />

here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated<br />

here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.<br />

It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from<br />

these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full<br />

measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain<br />

-- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the<br />

people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.<br />

30<br />

30<br />


NOVEMBER 19, 1863

ISSUE<br />

31<br />

31<br />




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