The Political Science Post Winter 2023

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FOREWORD 2<br />


IN SPAIN 4<br />








Publisher:<br />

Jay Goodliffe, Chair<br />

Editor:<br />

J. Matthew Clarke<br />

<strong>The</strong> BYU Department of <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong>, consistent with the aims of<br />

a BYU education, intends to foster “Lifelong Learning and Service.”<br />

We hope to provide our alumni with intelligent, thoughtful and<br />

sophisticated analysis of important issues, and to act as a catalyst for<br />

service in our communities, neighborhoods, nations and the world.<br />

Graphic Designers:<br />

Seraphina Johnstun,<br />

Abby Myers<br />



In this issue, we move to Spain during its particularly challenging 2016 election<br />

cycle. <strong>The</strong> struggles to build a governing coalition were aggravated by the influence<br />

of Spanish politicians using the rhetoric of populism, a term and point of discourse<br />

that has also gained significance in recent US elections. Professor Kirk Hawkins and<br />

his Spanish co-authors write about how populist ideas worked to deepen the divide<br />

between political parties in Spain in 2016, making coalition formation an almost<br />

insurmountable task. Populism is now a globally discussed ideal, as divisions that<br />

seem impossible to mediate continue to exist between citizens and the political elite.<br />

We also examine the influence of social media on correcting public opinion—in<br />

this case, opinions related to empathic behavior. Finally, we celebrate the scholarly<br />

accomplishments of our students during the now-annual College of FHSS Mentored<br />

Research Conference.<br />

We hope you enjoy this issue at the beginning of the new year.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Alhambra Palace, Granada, Spain<br />



<strong>The</strong> Third<br />

Dimension<br />

Examining Populism in Spanish Politics<br />

Kirk Hawkins<br />

<strong>The</strong> 2016 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 26 June 2016,<br />

to elect the 12th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in<br />

the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 266 seats in<br />

the Senate. No party had secured a majority in the 2015 election, resulting in<br />

the most fragmented parliament since 1977.<br />

Ensuing negotiations in late 2015 failed to produce a stable governing<br />

coalition, paving the way for a repeat election on 26 June 2016. <strong>The</strong> political<br />

deadlock marked the first time that a Spanish election was triggered due to<br />

failure in the government formation process. Podemos and United Left (IU)<br />

joined forces ahead of the election to form the Unidos Podemos alliance,<br />

along with several other minor left-wing parties.<br />

Opinion polling going into the election predicted a growing polarization<br />

between this alliance and the People’s Party, which would be fighting to<br />

maintain first place nationally. This turbulent divide in Spanish governance<br />

gave a third influencing group of politicians—the “populists”—significantly<br />

greater influence, since neither of the traditional left and right parties<br />

achieved a winning formula for the Spanish populace.<br />

Professor Kirk Hawkins and his co-authors, Hugo Marcos-Marne and<br />

Carolina Plaza-Colodro (both from the University of Salamanca), study<br />

this third group of influential populists from an ideational approach in their<br />

article, “Is populism the third dimension? <strong>The</strong> quest for political alliances<br />

in post-crisis Spain.” <strong>The</strong>rein, they describe the way populism functions<br />

in an actual state; in this case, 2016 Spain. <strong>The</strong>y also defend the ideational<br />

approach to populism by arguing that populist rhetoric has significant<br />


5<br />

consequences for government formation and the<br />

coalition choices of political parties.<br />

Populism refers to a range of political stances that<br />

emphasize the idea of “the people” and juxtapose<br />

this group against “the elite.” It is frequently<br />

associated with anti-establishment and anti-political<br />

sentiment. Populism has roots in the thoughts of<br />

Edmund Burke, John Locke and Adam Smith.<br />

A common approach to defining populism is known<br />

as the ideational approach, so called because<br />

it emphasizes that populism should be defined<br />

according to specific underlying ideas, as opposed<br />

to common economic policies or leadership<br />

styles that populist politicians sometimes display.<br />

<strong>The</strong> core principles of idealistic or “ideational”<br />

populism are as follows.<br />

In ideational populism, there are two primary<br />

units of analysis: ‘the people’ and ‘the elite.’ As<br />

described by political analysts, ‘the people’ are<br />

viewed as virtuous and homogenous, while ‘the<br />

elite’ are seen as dangerous ‘others’ who attempt to<br />

deprive the people of their rights, values, prosperity,<br />

identity, and voice. <strong>The</strong>re is an antagonistic<br />

relationship between these two units, and the idea<br />

of popular sovereignty—the rule of ‘the people’—<br />

underlies this dynamic and irreconcilably divides<br />

the parties.<br />

Using two attempts of government formation<br />

in Spain during 2016 as an example, Hawkins<br />

and his co-authors show that incorporating a<br />

populist dimension of competition alongside the<br />

two traditional issue divides in Spain (left-right<br />

and center-periphery) can successfully explain<br />

agreements where approaches restricted to the two<br />

traditional dimensions fail. Essentially, populism<br />

forms a third, “ideational” dimension with its own content,<br />

one that can be considered alongside strong ideological<br />

dimensions in formal spatial analysis, and which<br />

influences alliances among political parties.<br />

<strong>The</strong> ideational approach does not argue that populism<br />

overrides traditional issues and ideologies. Unlike<br />

traditional ideologies such as liberalism, socialism, or<br />

conservatism, populism is not consciously articulated and<br />

speaks to only limited numbers of issues on its own. <strong>The</strong><br />

thin, transitory nature of populous discourse means that<br />

it must be combined with more traditional ideologies to<br />

have comprehensive programmatic content. Thus, there<br />

are populists on both the right and the left, all of whom<br />

share a similar way of framing their (very different) issue<br />

positions.<br />

Similarly, populism<br />

played an important<br />

role in determining<br />

the outcome of the<br />

November 2022 U.S.<br />

midterm elections.<br />

Election results<br />

appear to have been<br />

dominated by an<br />

anti-populist majority<br />

that rejected the rise<br />

of global populism<br />

for many reasons,<br />

but mostly due to the<br />

concern about the rise<br />

of global authoritarianism; most populist candidates (on<br />

the right but also the left) did poorly.<br />

“Unlike<br />

traditional<br />

ideologies such<br />

as liberalism,<br />

socialism, or<br />

conservatism,<br />

populism is<br />

not consciously<br />

articulated and<br />

speaks to only<br />

limited numbers<br />

of issues on its<br />

own.”<br />

Spanish elections in 2015 and 2016 necessitated either<br />

a coalition government or a minority government with<br />

substantive support from third parties. Populist positions<br />

may have modulated the order of preferences of the major

parties in a way that explains the coalition outcomes.<br />

Because populism was generally rejected by the larger<br />

traditional parties such as the PSOE, it made the leftwing,<br />

non-populist Ciudadanos the PSOE’s party first<br />

choice. Thus, populism in the ideational sense has<br />

the ability to influence which parties are perceived<br />

as potential allies in negotiations and resulted in<br />

agreements reached in 2016 Spain between left and right<br />

forces, as well as more pro-center positions.<br />

Since the article was published, the populist Podemos<br />

party has joined with another left-populist party,<br />

Izquierda Unida, to form Unidos Podemos, highlighting<br />

the ability of populism to unite otherwise dissimilar<br />

parties. Also, Spain has seen the emergence of a new<br />

populist party, Vox, that has split away the traditional,<br />

conservative People’s Party. Founded in 2013, Vox is<br />

currently led by party president Santiago Abascal, vice<br />

presidents Jorge Buxadé, Javier Ortega Smith, Reyes<br />

Romero, and secretary general Ignacio Garriga. Vox is<br />

identified as right-wing to far-right by academics and<br />

mainstream journalists.<br />

“A Revolution of Rights in American Founding Documents” was published in the Journal of <strong>Political</strong> Institutions and<br />

<strong>Political</strong> Economy: Vol. 3: No. 2, pp 124-147, 28 Jun 2022. © 2022 S. F. Abramson, M. J. Barber and J. C. Pope<br />


Bear Ears National Monument Trip<br />

Professor Adam Brown took his Politics of Public Lands<br />

class down to the Moab area the weekend of November<br />

12 to see dinosaur tracks, petroglyphs, national parks, and<br />

national monuments.<br />

EVENTS &<br />


POLI 325, titled “Politics of Wilderness, National Parks,<br />

and Public Land Management,” examines the history,<br />

management, and legal environment surrounding federallyowned<br />

public lands in the west, particularly those managed<br />

by the National Parks Service, the Bureau of Land<br />

Management [BLM], the Forest Service, and the Fish<br />

and Wildlife Service. Students learned in the classroom<br />

about the paleontological, archeological, geological, and<br />

biological resources that compete for protection against the<br />

demands of tourism, development, extractive industry, and<br />

even deliberate vandalism.<br />

Students were able to touch 150-million-year-old allosaurus (top) and<br />

camarasaurus (left) tracks, causing many to exclaim about how much<br />

more impactful the physical example was than simply viewing fossils<br />

in a museum.<br />

7<br />

Seeing oil wells and mining activity so close to the northern<br />

boundary of Bears Ears National Monument—and so close to<br />

unprotected petroglyphs just outside the monument—invigorated<br />

discussions about how to balance impulses for preservation against<br />

modern society’s economic realities. Comparing the crowding at<br />

Delicate Arch (protected in Arches National Park) to the relative quiet<br />

at Corona Arch (on BLM land) drove home the costs of preservation,<br />

since “protecting” Delicate Arch results in so much publicity and<br />

visitation. Lessons from this experiential learning trip will stay with<br />

these students longer than anything taught in the classroom.


<strong>The</strong> Economics and Politics of Gender<br />

Discrimination<br />

<strong>The</strong> Economics and Politics of Gender Discrimination, a seminar led by Dr. Olga Stoddard and Dr. Jessica<br />

Preece from BYU <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong>, was held on Tuesday, October 25. <strong>The</strong> purpose of their research was to<br />

conduct a field experiment that examined the ways in which political parties could increase women’s desire to<br />

run for office (their “political ambition”). Experiments conducted by Dr. Preece and Dr. Stoddard revealed that<br />

women are considerably more competition-averse than men, and this likely contributes to why women are less<br />

likely to run for office. <strong>The</strong>y found large differences in the response rates of men and women—men were twice<br />

as likely to respond as women. <strong>The</strong>se results contradicted the limited research that suggested women and men<br />

respond similarly to political party recruitment.<br />

This paper is currently under review at the Journal of Business Economics and Organization.<br />

Dr. Olga Stoddard and Dr. Jessica Preece of BYU <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong><br />


Does the American Experience Still Matter?<br />

Professors Danielle Allen and William B. Allen, held a discussion together on November 29, 2022 at the<br />

Wheatley Institute Center. This father-daughter duo discussed educating for American democracy and<br />

citizenship across generations.<br />

<strong>The</strong>y also discussed this question of whether the American Experience still matters, to which they responded<br />

with a resounding “yes.” <strong>The</strong>re have always been moral choices in government, they said. <strong>The</strong> voice of liberty<br />

and equality has been there from the beginning of the United States. Moral equality integrates and binds<br />

together the entire Declaration of Independence. <strong>The</strong> affirmation of the good and the right is more important<br />

to repeat than the evidence of the evil. We have established the reality of the political experiment that resulted<br />

in the United States, and the principles upon which it is founded. But we have a burden of knowing that if [the<br />

American Experiment] does fail, it won’t fail because the experiment failed, but because we failed. “I want to<br />

counsel all of us to take patriotism seriously, and take love of country seriously, but not to turn it into a divine<br />

principle,” William Allen counsels.<br />

Danielle Allen is the James Bryant Conant University<br />

Professor at Harvard University where she also directs<br />

the Safra Center for Ethics. Her work focuses on political<br />

philosophy, ethics, and public policy. Professor Allen,<br />

a former Marshall Scholar and MacArthur Foundation<br />

Fellow, has chaired the Pulitzer Prize board and the<br />

Melon Foundation Board.<br />

William B. Allen is Professor Emeritus of <strong>Political</strong><br />

<strong>Science</strong> at Michigan State University where he taught<br />

political philosophy, American government, and<br />

jurisprudence. A nationally recognized expert on George<br />

Washington and the American Founding, Professor<br />

Allen has served on numerous boards and commissions<br />

including the National Council on the Humanities and as<br />

chairman of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.<br />


<strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> <strong>Post</strong>er Conference<br />

<strong>The</strong> College of FHSS “Mentored Student Research Conference” at BYU was held on December 8, 2022. <strong>The</strong><br />

event was a half-day poster conference made possible by the Mary Lou Fulton endowed chair in the College<br />

of Family, Home, and Social <strong>Science</strong>s. All undergraduate and graduate students from any department or school<br />

in the college were invited to participate. <strong>The</strong> conference gave students an opportunity to orally present their<br />

research to other students, faculty members, and the public. Cash prizes were awarded in each category, and<br />

those who participate may apply to be reimbursed for graduate school applications.<br />

PSPC Winners<br />

1st Place: “Constitutional<br />

Choices with Populist<br />

Consequences”<br />

Ethan Johnson, mentored by Prof.<br />

Kirk Hawkins<br />

2nd Place: “Independents: <strong>The</strong><br />

Worst of Both Worlds”<br />

Elle Diether & Jacob Lunt,<br />

mentored by Prof. Quin Monson<br />

3rd Place: “<strong>The</strong> ‘Electable’<br />

Woman: Effects of Gendered<br />

Language on Voting Behavior in<br />

Spain”<br />

Megan Baird, mentored by Prof. Liz<br />

McGuire<br />


Civic Engagement<br />

1st Place: “#themoderncampaign:<br />

Twitter Rhetoric during the 2022 Midterm<br />

Elections”<br />

Grace Burns, Kathryn Fontano, & Ashlan<br />

Gruwell, mentored by Profs. Alejandrea<br />

Aldridge & Chris Karpowitz<br />

Honorable Mentions<br />

“Electoral Costs for Congressional Corruption in 2022”<br />

Sarah Read Mitchell, mentored by Prof. Celeste Beesley<br />

“Corruption and Democracy”<br />

Julia Chatterley, mentored by Profs. Michael Barber & Darren Hawkins<br />

“Vote the Bums Out: What do Americans Really Think About Career Politicians?”<br />

J. Quincy Taylor & Elijah Whitaker, mentored by Prof. Alejandra Aldridge<br />

“That Which Goes Beep in the Night: <strong>The</strong> Game <strong>The</strong>ory of Cyberattacks” M. Grant Macgregor, mentored<br />

by Jay Goodliffe<br />

“#themoderncampaign: Twitter Rhetoric during the 2022 Midterm Elections” Grace Burns, Kathryn<br />

Fontano, & Ashlan Gruwell, mentored by Profs. Alejandrea Aldridge & Chris Karpowitz<br />


Brent Taylor Gala<br />

<strong>The</strong> Major Brent Taylor Foundation Gala was held on November 12, 2022 at the David Eccles Conference<br />

Center in Ogden, Utah. Kray Jubeck, one of our BYU <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> students, gave a keynote address. Kray<br />

spoke about the scholarship he received and thanked Jennie Taylor and the Foundation for their support in his<br />

academic achievements. Attended by approximately 800 people, the Gala event raised funds for the Foundation<br />

and highlighted many of the recipients of Brent Taylor Foundation Scholarships, including both high school and<br />

university students from all over Utah.<br />

Major Brent Taylor was on his second term as the mayor of North Ogden when he took an unprecedented year<br />

of absence to serve his fourth deployment with the Utah National Guard in Afghanistan. In November 2018,<br />

Major Taylor was killed in Kabul, the first sitting U.S. politician to be killed in action since the Civil War. He<br />

is survived by his wife, Jennie Taylor, and seven children. To Brent, God, family, and country were everything,<br />

and it was this mantra that steered his life.<br />

Brent Taylor was born on July 6, 1976, in Ogden, Utah. From the start, he has always been a leader in his<br />

endeavors. He graduated from Chandler High School, where he was elected as student body president and<br />

earned an Eagle Scout award. Strongly rooted in his faith, Brent served a mission in Maceio, Brazil, for the<br />

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1998 to 2000 after his graduation.<br />

Contact Information:<br />

Major Brent Taylor Foundation<br />

2637 N Washington Blvd, Box #272<br />

North Ogden, UT 84414<br />

BYU <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> student Kray Jubek giving a keynote address. Kray<br />

is a recipient of one of the Foundation Scholarships for leadership and<br />

academic performance.<br />

11 13<br />

801-628-3848<br />

info@majorbrenttaylor.com<br />

Donate at majorbrenttaylor.com.

Miguel Cervantes<br />

and Don Quixote<br />

<strong>Political</strong> Character from Spanish Fiction<br />

Don Quixote was, first and foremost, the brainchild of Miguel de Cervantes, a Spanish soldier who,<br />

down on his luck after a life of mediocre writing, inadvertently penned one of the great masterpiece of Western<br />

literature (1605, 1615): the tale of a bored, middle-aged dilettante who, infatuated with his obsessive readings of<br />

knights and chivalry, decides to abandon his former life and become a knight himself, traveling all throughout<br />

Spain to make things right, battle evil and protect justice. Cervantes may have written the original book, but it is<br />

the fictional Quixote who is our true guide through his idealistic political notions.<br />

Quixote, as written by Cervantes, was forever challenging authority in his native Spain, criticizing<br />

both the government and the church in the name of his own philosophy of universal humanism. <strong>The</strong> Knight of<br />

La Mancha, in all his extraordinary eccentricities and altruism, is considered amongst the highest echelon of<br />

humanity.<br />

Don Quixote had the courage to trust his intuition, to break forth from the masses to become who he was<br />

meant to be, to live an authentic life without being repudiated by the bullying or sneer remarks of people who<br />

couldn’t do the same for themselves.<br />

Don Quixote thought that if he couldn’t live forever, then he would live in such a way that should be<br />

remembered forever– to live heroically, accomplishing great deeds that deserve their chapters in the annals of<br />

history. Such is the political philosophy of Don Quixote. Even if one cannot be immortal, one still should live<br />

and act as if one deserved to be.<br />

Miguel Cervantes, 1547-1616<br />





George<br />

Santayana<br />

Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y<br />

Borrás (December 16, 1863 – September 26, 1952),<br />

also known as George Santayana, was a Spanish and<br />

American philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. Born in<br />

Spain, Santayana was raised and educated in the U.S. from<br />

the age of eight, though he always retained a valid Spanish<br />

passport. He graduated from Harvard and later returned<br />

there to teach from 1889-1912, mentoring students such as<br />

W.E.B. Du Bois, T.S. Eliot, and Robert Frost. He moved<br />

permanently to, and spent the rest of his life in, Europe<br />

Santayana’s book, <strong>The</strong> Life of Reason, is arguably the<br />

first extended treatment of pragmatism written. Like many<br />

of the classical pragmatists, and because he was wellversed<br />

in evolutionary theory, Santayana was committed<br />

to metaphysical naturalism. He believed that human<br />

cognition, cultural practices, and social institutions have<br />

evolved so as to harmonize with the conditions present<br />

in their environment. <strong>The</strong> alternate title to <strong>The</strong> Life of<br />

Reason, “<strong>The</strong> Phases of Human Progress,” is indicative of<br />

this metaphysical stance.<br />

soon after.<br />

In <strong>The</strong> Life of Reason, he compared the “lived” world<br />

Santayana was a broad-ranging cultural critic spanning<br />

many disciplines. He was an early adherent of<br />

epiphenomenalism and was profoundly influenced by<br />

Baruch Spinoza’s life. He thought and, in many respects,<br />

with the “ideal” world, and Santayana sought therein<br />

to outline the ancient ideal of a well-ordered life. He is<br />

widely known for his aphorisms, especially the oft-quoted<br />

“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to<br />

was a devoted Spinozist.<br />

repeat it.”<br />

“To feel beauty is a better thing than to understand how we<br />

come to feel it. To have imagination and taste, to love the best,<br />

to be carried by the contemplation of nature of a vivid faith in<br />

the ideal, all this is more, a great deal more, than any science<br />

can hope to be.”<br />

Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, <strong>The</strong> Life of Reason<br />


ALUMNI<br />


Baxter Oliphant<br />

BA <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong><br />

Baxter Oliphant is a senior researcher at Pew Research Center, in Washington,<br />

DC, where he focuses on U.S. politics and policy research including partisan<br />

polarization, trust in government, gun policy and U.S. foreign policy.<br />

He received doctoral and master’s degrees in politics from Princeton<br />

University and holds a bachelor’s degree from Brigham Young University.<br />

His dissertation explored the impact of moral judgments on U.S. presidential<br />

elections. Before graduate school, he worked in political polling for<br />

campaigns and industry groups.<br />

Oliphant is a member<br />

of the American<br />

Association for Public<br />

Opinion Research and<br />

the American <strong>Political</strong><br />

<strong>Science</strong> Association.<br />

15 17

Aerin Burns<br />

Christensen<br />

Aerin is a second year law student at J. Reuben Clark Law School. She grew<br />

up in Highland, Utah and loves working with people and finding solutions.<br />

Before starting law school she worked in local policy and interned with<br />

Senator Mike Lee in Washington, DC, 2019, for five months. Her internship<br />

on Capitol Hill allowed her to meet and work with some of “the most amazing<br />

people” she has ever met. “And don’t even get me started on the free reign<br />

over some of history’s most amazing buildings!”<br />

She says that “the Washington Seminar is such a worthwhile program and it<br />

has given indispensable insight into both my education and my future career!”<br />

She is looking for opportunities to work with law firms here in Utah.<br />

Brady Long’s career has taken him to law school and back to Capitol<br />

Hill as the head of our Government Relations group. Brady says that this<br />

journey is a reminder to our grads that wherever their career leads them, the<br />

principles and framework they learned in Poli Sci can be incredibly useful<br />

down the road.<br />

Brady K. Long<br />

Transocean is the world’s largest offshore drilling contractor based on<br />

revenue. Based in Vernier, Switzerland, the company has offices in 20<br />

countries, including Canada, the United States, Norway, the United<br />

Kingdom, India, Brazil, Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia. It also has an<br />

office in Houston, Texas, where Brady works.<br />

Transocean’s website, found at deepwater.com, provides worldwide, rigbased<br />

well construction services to its customers by integrating motivated<br />

people, quality equipment and innovative technology, with focus on<br />

technically demanding environments.<br />




Amy Kurtzweil<br />

Amy grew up in Crestwood, Kentucky, right outside of<br />

Louisville, and lived there until she came to BYU. While at<br />

BYU, she’s been blessed to participate in organizations such<br />

as the BYU College Democrats, the <strong>Political</strong> Affairs Society,<br />

the <strong>Political</strong> Review, research for professors in the <strong>Political</strong><br />

<strong>Science</strong> Department, and an internship with the Utah State<br />

Legislature. <strong>The</strong>se organizations here have connected her with<br />

some of the most “wonderful and inspiring people” she’s ever<br />

met, and have taught her so much about what it means to be<br />

involved with politics, and represent BYU in all we do.<br />

Her interest in politics first grew while she was in high<br />

school and she began learning more about issues affecting<br />

Kentuckians, such as coal in Eastern KY. She realized she<br />

didn’t like how a lot of issues were dealt with, and she felt<br />

like a lot of people were being underrepresented or not taken<br />

care of at all, which inspired her interest in working with/in<br />

politics someday. More than anything, she feels like politics<br />

and political science can teach us how to take care of each<br />

other, and she wants to dedicate her work to helping people<br />

and creating policies that will represent the needs of people<br />

from all walks of life.<br />

Amy’s plans for after she graduates right now is to attend law<br />

school. No matter what she does, she wants to make sure that<br />

she’s representing issues she cares about,<br />

and that she’s making a difference in<br />

people’s lives. Whether that’s working to<br />

help craft and pass important legislation,<br />

or litigation and representing certain issues<br />

and people in court, she wants to help<br />

others and make a meaningful difference<br />

in the world.<br />

Amy is currently the President of the BYU<br />

College Democrats organization.<br />


Ethan Johnson<br />

Ethan is a junior studying Economics and<br />

<strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> with a minor in Global<br />

Women’s Studies. He grew up in Kansas City,<br />

where frequent political conversations with<br />

his father sparked his political curiosity. He<br />

is just starting to serve a mission in Boston,<br />

Massachusetts.<br />

He received 1st Place in the FHSS College<br />

Mentored Research conference poster event,<br />

with this poster: “Constitutional Choices with<br />

Populist Consequences.” After graduation,<br />

Ethan plans to get a PhD and eventually return<br />

to BYU as a professor.<br />

Olivia Craig<br />

Olivia Craig is a Junior from Albuquerque, New Mexico<br />

studying political science. She has been interested in<br />

politics since she was young. In middle school, she<br />

volunteered as a Senate Page at the New Mexico State<br />

Capitol. Her interests have since evolved into her major.<br />

She enjoys politics because it’s a place to help others learn<br />

about what is happening in their community and find their<br />

voice.<br />

Last winter she was an intern in Idaho Senator Mike<br />

Crapo’s Washington DC office, where she worked with the<br />

press and legislative teams. Olivia is participating in the<br />

Utah State Legislature internship this winter semester. In<br />

the future, Olivia is interested in continuing to work with<br />

the legislative branch or getting involved with campaigns.<br />

Outside of politics, Olivia is an entrepreneur at heart. In the<br />

summer, she teaches swimming lessons to babies and does<br />

wedding florals.<br />


19<br />



Kirk<br />

Hawkins<br />

Kirk Hawkins grew up in Phoenix, Arizona, close to downtown, near the “tough part of town” and served a mission in<br />

Chili, Concepcion. He returned to BYU studying Mechanical Engineering, but a student friend told him about IR and he<br />

switched majors eventually graduating in IR and Area Studies.<br />

He went to Duke for his MA, and while he was in his PhD program in <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> at Duke, his roommate, Matt<br />

Holland, introduced him to a friend, who then introduced him to a young woman who was studying in her PhD in <strong>Political</strong><br />

<strong>Science</strong> at University of Wisconsin in Madison. <strong>The</strong>y both did fieldwork in Chili, and they helped each other conduct<br />

their research. She had also grown up in Arizona, so they had a lot in common. She eventually flew out to Duke and they<br />

married soon thereafter.<br />

While Kirk was doing research in Venezuela during his dissertation in 1999, Hugo Chavez had just come to power after<br />

legitimate democratic elections, after a constitutional convention, and Kirk thought it would be interesting to interview<br />

Chavez or some of the people who worked around him. So he waited outside the gates of the Chavez political offices in<br />

Caracas and knocked on the door, and eventually got in. He never got to Chavez, saw him only in a military parade, but<br />

he spoke with a lot of the people who got Chavez into government. Soon, Venezuela moved away from democracy toward<br />

authoritarianism, and Maduro is the anointed heir to Chavez. Kirk studies some of the populist ideas that helped move<br />

Venezuela from democracy to a dictatorship.<br />

Kirk Hawkins teaches comparative politics with an emphasis on Latin America. His current research focuses on political<br />

organization and populism, and he directs “Team Populism,” a global scholarly network studying populism’s causes and<br />

consequences. Projects include the creation of a global populism dataset, experimental research on populism’s rhetorical<br />

mechanisms, and the mitigation of populism’s polarizing consequences for society. He studies the role of ideas in politics,<br />

and theorists who focus on ideologies, political ideas, not normative justifications for politics, but the spread and impact of<br />

ideas.<br />

Kirk received his Ph.D. from Duke University (2003), an M.A. in <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> from Duke (1998), and an MA from,<br />

Brigham Young University (1995), and a B.A., Brigham Young University (1993) He is a Professor, Brigham Young<br />

University Department of <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong>, 2019-present (Associate Chair over Curriculum, 2020-present)<br />


19<br />



Darin Self<br />

Quin<br />

Monson<br />

Darin received a PhD from the Department of Government at<br />

Cornell University, Fall 2022. He specializes in Comparative<br />

Politics with a minor in International Relations. His research<br />

focuses on authoritarian incumbent parties, militaries, party<br />

systems, and democratization.<br />

His dissertation explained why some militaries support<br />

democratization. He argues that the military’s confidence<br />

in civilians is higher when the military and civilians share a<br />

vision of the national project, and when parties allied with<br />

the military are institutionalized and electorally strong.<br />

He tests this argument using archival research and elite<br />

interviews conducted in Indonesia and Paraguay, and crossnational<br />

quantitative data using an original dataset he created<br />

on military behavior during 150 different regime transitions<br />

following military-backed authoritarian rule.<br />

His other research looks at the role of authoritarian<br />

incumbent parties and their effects on various aspects of<br />

democratic development and consolidation. For example,<br />

he has working papers under review on how authoritarian<br />

incumbent parties affect democratic party system<br />

development globally, as well as how these parties restrain<br />

former military officers’ political prospects. <strong>The</strong>se papers,<br />

along with other papers, can be found in Working Papers.<br />

Darin has received several awards and fellowships including<br />

the Fulbright Fellowship, Henry Luce Foundation Research<br />

Grant, Southeast Asian Research Group pre-Dissertation<br />

Fellowship, Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowship,<br />

and has served as a Cornell Latin American Studies Program<br />

fellow. Darin began at BYU <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> during<br />

Summer 2022.<br />

Quin has been with BYU <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> since 2001<br />

and has held positions as Director of CSED, Associate<br />

Chair of BYU <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong>, Senior Scholar at<br />

CSED, Director of the BYU Office of Civic Engagement<br />

Leadership, and is a founding partner of the influential<br />

Y2 Analytics. He is an expert in polling and American<br />

Politics, speaks Portuguese, and plays saxophone since<br />

his youth, and was a member of BYU’s prestigious jazz<br />

band Synthesis. In the summer of 2022, he was promoted<br />

to Professor of <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> at BYU.<br />

Alejandra is an Assistant Professor of <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> at<br />

Brigham Young University. She studies how Americans<br />

think about democracy in an era of polarized politics<br />

and how presidents influence conceptions of democratic<br />

norms. Broadly, her research interests include survey<br />

methodology, experimental methods, presidential<br />

influence, voter behavior, presidential elections, and<br />

gender and politics. She graduated with her PhD in<br />

political science from Stanford University in 2022, and<br />

graduated from Brigham Young University with her BA<br />

in <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong> in 2016.<br />

On the side, she loves tennis, Crossfit, Sprinkles<br />

cupcakes, and dark chocolate.<br />

Alejandra<br />

Aldridge<br />



Kirk Hawkins<br />

<strong>The</strong> Ideational Approach to Populism<br />

Populism is on the rise in Europe and the Americas. Scholars increasingly understand populist forces in terms of their<br />

ideas or discourse, one that envisions a cosmic struggle between the will of the common people and a conspiring elite.<br />

In this volume, we advance populism scholarship by proposing a causal theory and methodological guidelines – a research<br />

program – based on this ideational approach. This book argues that populism exists as a set of widespread attitudes among<br />

ordinary citizens, and that these attitudes lie dormant until activated by weak democratic governance and policy failure.<br />

It offers methodological guidelines for scholars seeking to measure populist ideas and test their effects. And, to ground<br />

the program empirically, it tests this theory at multiple levels of analysis using original data on populist discourse across<br />

European and US party systems; case studies of populist forces in Europe, Latin America, and the US; survey data from<br />

Europe and Latin America; and experiments in Chile, the US, and the UK.<br />

<strong>The</strong> result is a truly systematic, comparative approach<br />

that helps answer questions about the causes and<br />

effects of populism.<br />


Adam R. Brown<br />

<strong>The</strong> Dead Hand’s Grip: How Long Constitutions Bind States<br />

In <strong>The</strong> Dead Hand’s Grip, Adam R. Brown examines constitutional specificity--or length--as a new way to evaluate<br />

how different policies govern citizens and regulate themselves. As Brown shows, many states and nations bloat their<br />

constitutions with procedural and policy details that other polities leave to statutory or regulatory discretion. American<br />

state constitutions vary in length from under 9,000 to almost 400,000 words. Constitutional endurance has often provoked<br />

fears that the dead hand of the past may reach into the present; lengthy constitutions strengthen the dead hand’s grip,<br />

binding states to a former generation’s solutions to modern problems.<br />

Brown argues that excessive constitutional specificity restricts state discretion, with three major results. First, it compels<br />

states to rely more frequently on burdensome amendment procedures, increasing constitutional amendment rates. Second,<br />

it increases judicial invalidation rates as state supreme courts enforce narrower limits on state action. Third and most<br />

importantly, it results in severely reduced economic performance, with lower incomes, higher unemployment, greater<br />

inequality, and reduced policy innovation generally. In short, long constitutions hurt states.<br />

While Brown’s analysis focuses on just one set of sub-national constitutions, their broad functions make his thesis relevant<br />

to those wanting to understand institutional variation between nations.<br />


Busby, Howat, Rothschild, Shafranek<br />

<strong>The</strong> Partisan Next Door<br />

<strong>The</strong> Partisan Next Door, 2021, published by Cambridge University Press, explores the idea that in the United<br />

States, politics has become tribal and personalized. <strong>The</strong> influence of partisan divisions has extended beyond<br />

the political realm into everyday life, affecting relationships and workplaces as well as the ballot box. To help<br />

explain this trend, we examine the stereotypes Americans have of ordinary Democrats and Republicans.<br />

Using data from surveys, experiments, and Americans’ own words, we explore the content of partisan<br />

stereotypes and find that they come in three main flavors—parties as their own tribes, coalitions of other<br />

tribes, or vehicles for political issues. <strong>The</strong>se different stereotypes influence partisan conflict: people who hold<br />

trait-based stereotypes tend to display the highest levels of polarization, while holding issue-based stereotypes<br />

decreases polarization. This finding suggests that reducing partisan conflict does not require downplaying<br />

partisan divisions but shifting the focus to political priorities rather than identity—a turn to what we call<br />

responsible partisanship.<br />

Professor Ethan Busby at BYU <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong>, along with colleagues Adam Howat, Jacob Rothschild, and<br />

Richard Shafranek, authored this intriguing analysis of neighbors and friends who disagree with us, and why.<br />

27<br />

See: Ethan C. Busby, Adam J. Howat, Jacob<br />

E. Rothschild, and Richard M. Shafranek.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Partisan Next Door: Stereotypes of Party<br />

Supporters and Consequences for Polarization<br />

in America, October 2021. Available on<br />

Amazon and other online bookstores.

Gubler, Karpowitz, Monson, Romney<br />

Changing Hearts and Minds Through Media<br />

It seems intuitive: if you want to soften hearts toward marginalized people, show that they are human like<br />

everyone else. That’s the theory behind untold media messages depicting “outgroups” having relatable<br />

experiences, such as images of immigrants eating Thanksgiving dinner or videos of refugees hugging their<br />

children.<br />

Unfortunately, although humanizing messages do increase empathy in those who already view the group<br />

positively, they do almost nothing to increase empathy in people with high animosity toward an outgroup,<br />

according to new BYU research from political science professors.<br />

Using two experiments focused around Latinos, they found that while media messages humanized the<br />

Latino groups for all respondents, the treatment messages produced the largest empathy response among<br />

those with the most positive prior attitudes. A key intended target of the media messages—those with the<br />

highest pretreatment antipathy toward the out-group—reported a dramatically lower increase in empathy. In<br />

a second study, they show that unpleasant effects from dissonance are an important mechanism driving these<br />

differential results. In both studies, treatments designed to provoke increased empathic concern produced little<br />

change in policy attitudes. Thus, changing hearts using empathy-inducing media is a complex task, making<br />

the ability to change minds elusive.<br />

See: Joshua Gubler, Chris Karpowitz, Quin Monson and David<br />

Romney, Changing Hearts and Minds? Why Media Messages<br />

Designed to Foster Empathy Often Fail, <strong>The</strong> Journal of Politics,<br />

Volume 84, Issue 4, October 2022, Pages 1885-2311<br />


pic of campus or whatever. could also include Don Quixote<br />

bonus article in here<br />


Words from Noel B. Reynolds, 2021<br />

Noel Reynolds, Professor Emeritus, BYU <strong>Political</strong> <strong>Science</strong><br />

In all their teachings, the Nephite prophets recognized the human potential for both goodness and evil. Because of<br />

his infinite goodness, God prepared a plan of salvation, including the atonement of Jesuis Christ, so that in this state of<br />

probation, all humankind could choose the covenant path of his gospel by repenting and coming to him. And this path will<br />

prepare them as they follow him and endure to the end to become good like him so that they might enter into his presence<br />

and into eternal life. . . In Nephite discourse, the goodness of God was a phrase that was used in two different ways–to<br />

explain God’s provision for the possibility of eternal life for all men and women and to explain his miraculous support and<br />

deliverances, day by day, for those who are enduring to the end on the covenant path. <strong>The</strong> Book of Mormon portrays the<br />

goodness of God as the divine feature he desires all his human children to emulate and to incorporate into their souls.<br />

29<br />

See Noel B. Reynolds, “<strong>The</strong> Goodness of God and His Children as a Fundamental <strong>The</strong>ological Concept in the<br />

Book of Mormon,” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship, Vol. 46, 2021, at 131-156.<br />



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