tyis ukanono WrasTan brZolisa da monitoringis meTodebi

greenalt.org

tyis ukanono WrasTan brZolisa da monitoringis meTodebi

2006


i. maWaraSvili n. gujaraiZetyis ukanono WrasTan brZolisa damonitoringis meTodebisaxelmZRvanelo saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisaTvisTbilisi 2006


sarCeviSesavali 3I nawili 6saqarTvelos tyeebi 6saqarTvelos satyeo seqtoris marTvis ZiriTadi safuZvlebi 9sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebi 9saqarTvelos tyeebis marTvasa da kontrolze pasuxismgebelisaxelmwifo struqturebi 12tyis ukanono WrasTan dakavSirebuli aqtualuri sakiTxebi -kiTxvebi da pasuxebi 16II nawili 31monitoringis daniSnuleba 31monitoringis upiratesobani 31monitoringis zogadi mimoxilva 33monitoringis proeqtebi da programebi 35monitoringis proeqtis etapebi 38monitoringis proeqtis I etapi: dagegmareba 40monitoringis proeqtis II etapi: ganxorcieleba 47monitoringis proeqtis III etapi: komunikacia da gavlena 57reaqciisa da gamoxmaurebis prognozireba da maTTvis mzaoba 67Semowmebis procesi 67rodis unda SewyvitiT monitoringi? 68Semdegi nabiji 68gamoyenebuli literatura 69


Sesavalitye rTuli ekosistemaa, romelic aerTianebs cocxali da aracocxalibunebis mraval komponents. gasuli saukunis ganmavlobaSi msofliosunikaluri xeluxlebeli tyeebis didi nawili adamianis xelmagaanadgura. TiToeuli saxeoba, TiToeuli ekosistema ganumeorebelia,mas milionobiT wlis istoria gaaCnia. tyis ganadgurebas Tan sdevsuamravi cxovelisa da mcenaris ganadgurebac, romlebic damokidebuliarian tyis ekosistemaze. ukontrolo tyis Wra iwvevs tyis xanZrebs,mewyerebsa da wyaldidobebs, cvlis wylis reJimsa, da adgilobriv daglobalur klimats. ukanono Wrebis erT-erTi mtkivneuli Sedegiatyeze damokidebuli mosaxleobis gaRaribeba. ganviTarebad qveynebSiskolebisa da saavadmyofoebis asaSeneblad Tu sanitaruli pirobebisgasaumjobeseblad saWiro fuli xe-tyis baronebisa da korumpirebulisaxelmwifo moxeleebis jibeSi xvdeba. ukanonod mopovebuli xe-tyisumetesoba eqsportirdeba. Raribi qveynebis umniSvnelovanesi resursiCalis fasad iyideba CrdiloeT amerikis, evropisa da aRmosavleTaziis mdidar qveynebSi. aq mas mdidruli saxlebis mosawyobad,Zvirfasi avejisa da suraTis CarCoebis dasamzadeblad iyeneben.tyeebis ekonomikuri mniSvnelobatyis produqtebisgan yovelwliurad daaxloebiT 300 miliardi aSSdolaris Rirebulebis produqcia mzaddeba: samSeneblo da avejismasala, qaRaldi, medikamentebi, sakvebi da uamravi sxva produqti.msoflioSi damzadebuli merqnis naxevars moixmaren aSS, dasavleTevropis qveynebi da iaponia, sadac planetis mosaxleobis mxolod20% cxovrobs.msoflioSi damzadebuli merqnis 55% gamoiyeneba gasaTbobad dasakvebis mosamzadeblad. am merqnis nawili pirdapir SeSad gamoiyeneba,nawilisgan ki xis naxSirs amzadeben. 1950 wlis Semdeg moTxovnilebamerqanze orjer gaizarda, amasTan qaRaldis dasamzadebladgamoyenebam gaaswro merqnis sawvavi miznebiT gamoyenebas. 1995-2010 wlebis monakveTSi qaRaldze msoflio moTxovnileba orjergaizrdeba. yvelaze meti raodenobiT qaRalds erT sul mosaxlezemoixmars aSS, Semdeg iaponia da germania. (Miller , 2000).tyeebis ekologiuri mniSvnelobatyiani wyalgamyofi qedebi giganturi Rrublebis msgavsad,amcireben Camonadenis siCqares da kvebaven nakadulebs, wyaroebs,mdinareebsa da miwisqveSa wylebs. amiT, isini aregulireben mTebidansasoflo sameurneo savargulebisa da dasaxlebuli adgilebisakenCamonadeni wylis reJims; amcireben danaleqis raodenobas, romelicirecxeba mdinareebsa da tbebSi da niadagis erozias.


tyeebi gavlenas axdenen klimatze. magaliTad, tropikuli tyeebisTavze tenianobis 50-80% xeebis mier wylis aoTqlebis Sedegia. Tuam tyeebis didi farTobi gaiCexeba, wliuri tenianobis maCvenebelidabla daecema da maRali temperaturis gamo hava mSrali da cxeligaxdeba, rasac moyveba niadagis gamofitva. Sedegad tropikuli tyisadgils udabno daikavebs.tyeebs sasicocxlo mniSvneloba aqvT naxSirbadis globalurbrunvaSi. isini STanTqaven naxSirorJangis 90%-s. xmeleTis sxvabiomebTan SedarebiT, tyeebSi binadrobs cxovelTa yvelaze meti saxeoba.tyeebi axSoben xmaurs da akaveben haeris damabinZureblebs.udidesia tyeebis sulieri da kulturuli mniSvneloba. mravalicivilizaciisa da kulturis warmoSoba da istoria dakavSirebuliatyis ekosistemebTan.mecnierebma tyeebis ekologiuri mniSvnelobis monetaruladgamosaxva scades. gamomuSavebuli Jangbadis, haeris gasufTavebis,niadagis ganayofierebis, eroziisa da tenianobis kontrolis,wylis ciklSi monawileobisa da cxovelTa sabinadro garemosgaTvaliswinebiT, erTi tipiuri xis Rirebulebam 196 250 aSS dolariSeadgina. imave xis gamoyeneba merqnis saxiT 590 aSS dolaris odenobisSemosavals moitanda (Miller, 2000). amiT naTlad Cans, ramdenad didiaxis xangrZlivdroiani ekologiuri mogeba mokle droze gaTvlilekonomikur mogebasTan SedarebiT.tye ar aris ficrebis erToblioba, romelsac droebiTfoTlebi aqvs gamosxmuli!uxsovari droidan adamiani tyis resursebs iyenebda sakvebad,saTbob saSualebad, saSen masalad da sxva saWiroebisaTvis;Tumca, ukanaskneli saukunis ganmavlobaSi tye mTels msoflioSigansakuTrebiT didi raodenobiT ganadgurda. indoneziaSi, sadacdReisaTvis msoflios tropikuli tyeebis 10% SemorCa, yovelwliuradbelgiis farTobis toli teritoria iCexeba.bolo aTwleulis mZime socialur-ekonomikurma mdgomareobamtyis ukanonod da umowyalod Cexva gamoiwvia Cvens qveyanaSic. bevriadamiani tyes uyurebs, mxolod rogorc merqnis mosapovebel sabados,sadac SeiZleba mxolod xis moWra. tyis Wris wesebis daucveloba,tyis resursebiT sargeblobis kanonebis Seusrulebloba da ukanono,unebarTvo Wrebi bunebis kanonzomierebaTa rRvevisa da stiqiurubedurebaTa mizezi gaxda. swored ganukiTxaobisa da aranormirebulityis Wris, Cexvis Sedegia svaneTSi, duSeTSi, kaxeTSi, raWasa daaWaraSi bolo dros gaxSirebuli mewyerebi da Rvarcofebi. daiwyo dadResac mimdinareobs dazaralebuli mosaxleobis migracia qveynisSigniT, anu gaCndnen ekomigrantebi - evropisaTvis ucxoa es movlenada mxolod ganviTarebad qveynebSi Tu SexvdebiT. ekologiurikatastrofebi erovnul tragediad iqca, ramac ojaxebisa da mTlianad


soflebis ayra, "ucxo" miwaze gadabargeba da axali cxovrebis dawyebagamoiwvia. axal garemo pirobebTan, xalxTan, maT zne-CveulebebTanSegueba ioli ar aris. amitom, vidre Cveni mTiani regionebi ukanonodda umowyalod gaCexili xe-tyis wyalobiT mTlianad mewyers arwauRia, wyaroebi ar damSrala da sxva ekologiuri katastrofebiTavs ar dagvtexia, droa SevCerdeT, tyes Sesaferisi yuradRebiTmovepyraT da "tye Seunaxe Svilebsa" - ubralo simReris sityvebadki ar darCes, aramed cxovrebis wesad gavixadoT.mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba mxolod qveynis moqalaqeebisaqtiuri monawileobiT aris SesaZlebeli. saxelmwifo uwyebebs undadavexmaroT sakuTari funqciebis ukeT SesrulebaSi. xeli undaSevuwyoT im teritoriebze muSaobaSi, sadac uWirT ukanonobasTangamklaveba, "vaiZuloT" imuSaon im adgilebSi, sadac jer ar undaT,an ver axerxeben. aseve, saWiroa sazogadoebam Tvali adevnos kanonisaRsrulebis process, raTa igi efeqturi iyos da ar gadaiqceskorufciis axal wyarod.winamdebare publikacia, romelic ori nawilisgan Sedgeba,xe-tyis ukanono mopovebis winaaRmdeg ganwyobili adamianebissaxelmZRvaneloa. Cveni mizani saxelmwifo samsaxurebsa dasazogadoebas Soris TanamSromlobis xelSewyobaa. I nawilSimocemulia sasargeblo informacia saqarTvelos tyeebis, tyesTandakavSirebuli sakanonmdeblo da instituciuri sakiTxebis, ukanonoWrebisa da tipiuri darRvevebis Sesaxeb. es nawili garkveuliniSnebis mixedviT ukanono Wris faqtebis aRmoCenaSic dagexmarebaT.saxelmZRvanelos II nawili damoukidebeli monitoringis proeqtis/programis dagegmarebisa da ganxorcielebis teqnikas eZRvneba.vimedovnebT, rom saxelmZRvanelo sasargeblo iqneba sazogadoebriviorganizaciebisTvis, saswavlo dawesebulebebisTvis, mewarmeebisa dasajaro moxeleebisTvis.publikaciis momzadebisas gaweuli konsultaciebisaTvis avtorebimadlobas uxdian: zaza SavliaSvils, nikoloz burduls, aleqsandreuruSaZes, leri WoWuas; aRmoCenili daxmarebisa da fotomasalismowodebisaTvis: manana beriZes, Tamar kurtaniZes, nato oniaSvils,manana boWoriSvils.


I nawilisaqarTvelos tyeebioficialuri monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi tyes qveynis saerToteritoriis daaxloebiT 38% ukavia. tyis ekosistemebi damaxasiaTebeliaqveynis TiTqmis yvela regionisTvis, gamonakliss warmoadgensmxolod javaxeTis zegani, xolo xevisa da mTiani TuSeTis regionebSityes Zalian mcire farTobi ukavia. sxvadasxva tipis tyeebis wiliqveynis tyeebis saerTo farTobSi Semdegnairia: wiflnari - 51%,soWnari - 10%, muxnari - 3,3%, naZvnari - 6,3%, fiWvnari - 3,6%,murynari - 3%, wablnari - 2,1%, arynari - 2%. saqarTvelos tyeebisdanarCen farTobs xemcenareTa sxvadasxva saxeobebi qmnis (Carpinuscaucasica, Tilia caucasica, Acer platanoides, A. trantvetteri, Fraxinus exscelsior dasxva).sasurvelia saqarTvelos ZiriTad regionebSi tyis gavrcelebismonacemebis motana.dasavleT saqarTveloSi tye ukve zRvispiridanaa gavrcelebuli,xolo aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi tyis sartyeli ZiriTadad 600-700metridan iwyeba.Walis tyis biomi aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi ganviTarebuliamdinareebis mtkvris, ivris, alaznis da qciis qvemo welis gaswvriv.maTSi Warbobs muxa (Quercus pedunculiflora), agreTve verxvebi (Populuscanescens, Populus hybrida), qacvi (Hyppophae rhamnoides) da sxva. es tyeebimdidaria lianebiT.dasavleT saqarTvelos Walis tyeebSi wamyvani pozicia uWiravsmurynarebs. am tyeebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia gvimra (Mateuciastruthiopteris) da lianebi (Hedera colchica, Smilax exscelsa, Vitis sylvestris).TiTqmis gauval rayebs qmnis mayvali (Rubus anatolicus).naTeli tyis mcenareuloba gavrcelebulia aRmosavleT saqarTvelosnaxevradudabnoebisa da stepebis sartyelSi. es biomi Sedgeba tyisqserofiluri mcenareebisagan da sakmaod gvalvagamZle balaxovanisafarisgan. igi yvelaze kargad aris gamoxatuli vaSlovanisnakrZalSi da ukavia 5000 ha farTobi.sakmlis xis (Pistacia mutica) naTeli tye miekuTvneba dasavleTiranultips, romelSic warmodgenilia sxvadasxva buCqebi (Paliurusspina-christi, Rhamnus pallasii, Cotinus coggygria da sxv.). gvxvdeba agreTvesakmlis xis sufTa rayebi, romelsac calkeuli xe an buCqebi TuSeereva xolme.Rviian naTel tyeebs ukaviaT mcxeTisa da vaSlovanis mTiswinebisCrdilo ferdobebi. am tyeebis dominantebia Juniperus foetidissima(aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRveTis saxeoba) da J. polycarpus (wina aziurisaxeoba). vaSlovanSi es saxeobebi sakmlis xis tyis komponentebia.garda am saxeobebisa, am ekosistemaSi gavrcelebulia kavkasiuriJuniperus oblonga da aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvuri J. rufescens.


xSirad Rviian naTel tyeebs ukaviaT tyis Semdeg ganviTarebulimcenareulobis adgili.muxnarebi (Quercus iberica) gvxvdeba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos tyissartylis qveda nawilSi (600-700 metridan). saxeobrivi SemadgenlobismixedviT sxvadasxva variantebi gamoiyofa.wiflnarebi (Fagus orientalis) gavrcelebulia tyis sartylis Suada zeda nawilSi. Sereuli saxiT erT-erT yvelaze damaxasiaTebelsaxeobas warmoadgens kavkasiuri rcxila (Carpinus caucasica).fiWvnarebi (Pinus spp.) gvxvdeba zRvis donidan 1700-2400 metrissimaRleze. maT Soris orografiulad izolirebul regionSi(mTa-TuSeTi), an mcire simZlavris niadagebze (zemo svaneTi). esekosistemebi mdidari floristuli SemadgenlobiT gamoirCevian.damaxasiaTebeli saxeobebia: aryi, wifeli, soWi da sxva.muxnar-fiWvnari: fiWvTan erTad am ekosistemas qmnis maRali mTismuxa.am tyeebs vxvdebiT aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi 800-1100 metrisimaRlis farglebSi, xolo aWaraSi misi gavrcelebis zona gacilebiTdabali simaRleebidan iwyeba (300 m-dan 1100-1200 m-mde).uTxovris (Taxus baccata) tyeebi Semonaxulia reliqturi tyis saxiTbawaras xeobaSi, alaznis zemo dinebaSi.Zelqvianebi (Zelkova carpinifolia): babaneuris Zelqvianebi Tavisireliqturi bunebiT da iSviaTi gavrcelebiT did yuradRebas iqcevs.is ZiriTadad gvxvdeba CrdiloeT eqspoziciis ferdobebze, rogorcTxel, ise ganviTarebul niadagebze (dasavleT saqarTveloSiZelqvianebi ganviTarebulia mdinareebis terasebze aluviur dasubtropikul ewer niadagebze).nekerCxlianebi (Acer velutinum): es tyeebi mxolod alaznis velzeagavrcelebuli. misi zeda zRvari 1000 m-s ar aRemateba.kolxuri tyeebi: dasavleT saqarTveloSi, kolxeTis daWaobebuldablobze, zRvis donidanve iwyeba murynarebi (Alnus barbata), lafnarebi(Petocarya pterocarpa), nakleb tenian adgilebSi gavrcelebuliamuxnarebi (Quercus iberica, Q.hartwissiana), rcxilnarebi (Carpinus caucasica),wablnarebi (Castanea sativa). es tyeebi mdidaria lianebiT (Hederacolchica, Smilax excelsa, Vitis sylvestris).biWvinTis fiWvis (Pinus pithyusa) tye: biWvinTis fiWvi reliqturisaxeobaa. am tyisTvis damaxasiTebelia xmelTaSuazRvispireTisfloris warmomadgenlebi.dasavleT saqarTvelos tyeebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia reliqturigarTxmuli buCqebis, maT Soris, maradmwvaneebis qvetye. zogierTraionSi (afxazeTsa da samegrelos kirqvian mTebSi) gvxvdeba bza(Buxus colchica). dasavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleT nawilSi (imereTSi)tyis qveda da Sua sartyelSi gabatonebulia imereTis muxa (Quercusimeretina), romelic ZelqvasTan (Zelcova carpinifolia) erTad qmnis ajameTisnakrZalis Zelqvnar-muxnar koromebs.


kavkasiis mTebSi gansakuTrebiT unda gamoiyos subalpuri sartylistyis zeda sazRvris mcenareuloba (2400-2750 metri zRvis donidan),romelic gamoirCeva rogorc didi mravalferovnebiT, ise iSviaTiendemuri da reliqturi saxeobebis siuxviT. subalpuri sartylismcenareulobisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi tyiani formaciebi:meCxeri tyeebi: meCxeri, anu "parkiseburi tyeebi" gvxvdeba zRvisdonidan 1800-1900 metris zemoT. meCxer tyes warmoqmnian ZiriTadadmaRalmTis bokvi da maRalmTis muxa. garda amisa, "parkisebur tyes"qmnian (ufro xSirad anTropogenuri zemoqmedebis Sedegad) wifeli,naZvi, fiWvi da sxva.tanbrecili tyeebi: kavkasiis subalpur tanbrecil tyeebs qmnianwifeli, aryis sxvadasxva saxeobebi, maRalmTis bokvi, kolxuri Txili,imeruli xeWreli da sxvebi. gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa kolxeTistanbrecili tyeebi, sadac klimati ara marto Zalian teniani, SedarebiTrbilicaa. es tyeebi mdidaria endemuri da reliqturi saxeobebiT(mag. pontouri muxa, megruli aryi, medvedevis aryi da sxv.)garTxmul buCqnarebi: am formaciebis ZiriTadi komponentebia deka,ungernis Sqeri, garTxmuli Rvia, kavra, meliqauri da sxva.subalpuri zonis balaxovani flora gamoirCeva saxeobrivimravalferovnebiTa da kavkasiis endemebis simdidriT. aRsaniSnaviamagaliTad, monotipuri gvari Gadellia, aseve Grosshemia, Dolychorrisada sxv. aRsaniSnavia, rom Rvias ori saxeoba: Juniperus hemispaerica (J.depressa) da J. sabina. aRwevs kavkasionis alpur sartyels.


saqarTvelos satyeo seqtoris marTvis ZiriTadisafuZvlebi *sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebisaqarTvelos garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis safuZvelswarmoadgens saqarTvelos konstitucia, romlis 37-e muxlisTanaxmad, "yvelas aqvs ufleba cxovrobdes janmrTelobisaTvisuvnebel garemoSi, sargeblobdes bunebrivi da kulturuli garemoTi.yvela valdebulia gaufrTxildes bunebriv da kulturul garemos";"adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis usafrTxo garemos uzrunvelsayofad,sazogadoebis ekologiuri da ekonomikuri interesebis Sesabamisad,axlandeli da momavali Taobebis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiTsaxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs garemos dacvas da racionalurbunebaTsargeblobas".saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebs, memorandumebs da konvenciebs, eniWebaTprioriteti erovnul kanonmdeblobasTan mimarTebaSi, Tu isini arewinaaRmdegebian saqarTvelos konstitucias. aRsaniSnavia “konvenciabiologiuri mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb", romelsac saqarTvelo 1994wels miuerTda.saqarTveloSi tyeebis dacvasa da gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiTmiRebulia Semdegi kanonebi: "garemos dacvis Sesaxeb", "daculiteritoriebis sistemis Sesaxeb", "cxovelTa samyaros Sesaxeb","saqarTvelos "wiTeli nusxisa" da "wiTeli wignis" Sesaxeb","saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi", “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb",da aseve sxva normatiuli aqtebi.1996 wels saqarTvelos konstituciis zemoT aRniSnuli debulebebisganxorcielebis mizniT miRebuli iqna saqarTvelos kanoni "garemosdacvis Sesaxeb", romlis mizania: garemos dacva mavne zemoqmedebisagan;garemos xarisxis gaumjobeseba; mdgradi ganviTareba da bunebriviresursebis mdgradi gamoyeneba; biologiuri mravalferovnebisa daekologiuri wonasworobis SenarCuneba; unikaluri landSaftebisada ekosistemebis dacva; globaluri garemosdacviTi problemebisgadasaWrelad garkveuli Zalisxmevis warmarTva; garemos dacvissferoSi moqalaqeTa uflebebisa da movaleobebis gansazRvra;garemosdacviTi ganaTleba.saqarTvelos kanoni "daculi teritoriebis sistemis Sesaxeb" (1996w.) gansazRvravs daculi teritoriebis daarsebis, ganviTarebisada funqcionirebis aspeqtebs; ayalibebs marTvaze pasuxismgebeliorganoebis sistemas sxvadasxva doneze da gansazRvravs sxvadasxvakategoriis daculi teritoriis farglebSi dasaSveb saqmianobebs.saqarTvelos kanoni "cxovelTa samyaros Sesaxeb" (1996 w.)aregulirebs samarTlebriv urTierTobebs cxovelTa samyaros* sakanonmdeblo da instituciuri sakiTxebis mimoxilva mocemulia 2006 w. 15 ivlisis mdgomareobiT


obieqtebis dacvisa da sargeblobis mimarTulebiT. kanoni,uSualod veluri faunis saxeobebis dacvis garda, iTvaliswinebsmaTi habitatebis, samigracio gzebis, gamravlebis adgilebisdacvas, uzrunvelyofs veluri faunis mdgrad gamoyenebas da qmnissamarTlebriv safuZvels misi in-situ da ex-situ konservaciisTvis."saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi" (1999 w.) aregulirebs saqarTvelostyis fondisa da misi resursebis movlasTan, dacvasTan, aRdgenasada gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebul samarTlebriv urTierTobebs."saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis" mixedviT gansazRvrulia saxelmwifotyis fondis cneba, romlis qveSac igulisxmeba kanonmdeblobissafuZvelze misTvis mikuTvnebuli miwebisa da misi resursebis(tyeebi) erToblioba. kodeqsi aseve aregulirebs tyis fondzesakuTrebis uflebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom kodeqsis Tanaxmad, daSvebuliatyis kerZo sakuTrebaSi gadacema. kodeqsis miRebis momentSityis fondi mTlianad gamocxadda saxelmwifo sakuTrebad, xologansaxelmwifoebriobis procesi unda daregulirdes SesabamisikanonmdeblobiT, romlis Seqmnis aucileblobasac iTvaliswinebskodeqsis me-9.2 muxli. kodeqsis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes amocanaswarmoadgens saqarTvelos tyis fondis dacva, xeluxlebeli tyeebisTviTmyofadobis SenarCuneba, mcenareTa reliqturi, endemuri da sxvaZvirfasi saxeobebis dacva.aRsaniSnavia saqarTvelos kanoni "garemosdacviTi nebarTvisSesaxeb" (amoqmedda 1997 wlis 1 ianvridan) da saqarTvelos kanoni"saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertizis Sesaxeb" (amoqmedda 1997 wlis1 ianvridan). am kanonTa mixedviT, nebarTva nebismier saqmianobazegaicema garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebisa da saxelmwifo ekologiurieqspertizis Catarebis Semdeg.2003 wlis ivnisSi saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo kanoni"saqarTvelos "wiTeli nusxisa" da "wiTeli wignis" Sesaxeb". kanoniTsamarTlebrivad ganisazRvra gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofigareuli cxovelebisa da veluri mcenareebis saxeobebis saqarTvelos"wiTeli nusxisa" da aseve, "wiTeli wignis" (romelsac eniWebasarekomendacio da meToduri xasiaTis mniSvneloba) iuridiulidefiniciebi. kanoniT aseve ganisazRvra, "wiTeli nusxis" struqtura,nusxaSi Sesatani saxeobebis gansazRvris, nusxis proeqtisSemuSavebis, miRebisa da ganaxlebis (gadasinjvis) procedurebi.aRniSnuli kanoni aseve aregulirebs gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSemyofi saxeobebis "wiTel wignTan", safrTxis winaSe myofi saxeobebisdacvasTan, mopovebasTan, maTi aRdgenisa da SenarCunebis RonisZiebaTadagegmvasa da dafinansebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs.saqarTvelos kanoni “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb" ZalaSiSevida 2005 wlis 4 agvistodan. am kanonis mixedviT, satyeo seqtorTanmimarTebaSi arsebobs: tyeTsargeblobis generaluri licenzia,romelSic Sedis xe-tyis damzadebisa da samonadireo meurneobismowyobis specialuri licenziebi; da garemoze zemoqmedebis10


nebarTva.am kanonis moTxovnebidan gamomdinare, masTan SesabamisobaSi undamovides saqarTvelos sxva normatiuli aqtebi. gardamaval perioSisakiTxebi regulirdeba mTavrobis dadgenilebebiT.garda am kanonebisa, arsebobs sxvadasxva wlebSi gamocemulinormatiuli aqtebi (prezidentis brZanebulebebi, parlamentisa damTavrobis dadgenilebebi, ministrisa da departamentis TavmjdomarisbrZanebebi), romlebic aregulirebs tyeTsargeblobasTan dakavSirebulsakiTxebs. esenia:• saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebuleba N479, 1996 wlis24 ivlisi, “saqarTvelos tyeebSi zezeuri xis gacemis wesisSesaxeb";• saqarTvelos satyeo meurneobis departamentisTavmjdomaris brZaneba N0/161, 1996 wlis 7 dekemberi, “movliTiWris wesis Sesaxeb" debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze;• saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebuleba N6, 2000 wlis10 ianvari, “saqarTvelos tyeebSi mTavri sargeblobis Wriswesis Sesaxeb debulebis damtkicebisa da tyeebis dacvis,aRdgena-ganaxlebis mTel rig RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb";• saqarTvelos satyeo meurneobis saxelmwifodepartamentis Tavmjdomaris brZaneba N10/61, 2000 wlis 13seqtemberi, “specialuri Wrisa da misi ganxorcielebis wesisSesaxeb" debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze;• saqarTvelos satyeo meurneobis saxelmwifodepartamentis Tavmjdomaris brZaneba N10/27, 2000 wlis 22Tebervali, “saangariSo tyekafis dadgenis wesis Sesaxeb"debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze;• saqarTvelos satyeo meurneobis saxelmwifo departamentisTavmjdomaris brZaneba N10/93, 2000 wlis 28 marti, "tyekafisgamoyofis wesis Sesaxeb" debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze;• saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebisdacvis ministris brZaneba N99, 2002 wlis 4 oqtomberi “ukanonotyiTsargeblobis Sedegad saxelmwifo tyis fondisaTvismiyenebuli zianis gaangariSebis da anazRaurebis wesisSesaxeb" debulebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb;• saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebisdacvis ministris brZaneba N93, 2004 wlis 17 dekemberi“saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvisministris 2002 wlis 4 oqtombris N99 brZanebiT damtkicebuldebulebaSi “ukanono tyiTsargeblobis Sedegad saxelmwifotyis fondisaTvis miyenebuli zianis gaangariSebis daanazRaurebis wesis Sesaxeb" cvlilebebis Setanis Taobaze";• saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadgenileba N132, 2005 wlis 11agvisto, “tyiT sargeblobis licenziebis da gacemis wesisa da11


pirobebis Sesaxeb debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze";• saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebisdacvis ministris brZaneba N380, 2005 wlis 22 seqtembri “xe-tyiskanonierebisa da warmoSobili damadasturebeli dokumentebisgacemis wesis damtkicebis Sesaxeb".dRidan gamocemisa am normatiul aqtebSi Sesulia araerTiarsebiTi cvlileba.saqarTvelos tyeebis marTvasa da kontrolzepasuxismgebeli saxelmwifo struqturebisaqarTvelos tyeebis udidesi nawili dReisaTvis aris saqarTvelosgaremos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosdaqvemdebarebaSi, maT Soris: satyeo meurneobis departamenti ganagebssaqarTvelos tyeebis - 82%-s, daculi teritoriebis departamenti- 8%-s. tyeebis mcire nawili - 2%, ekuTvnis v. gulisaSvilissaxelobis satyeo instituts, xolo adgilobrivi mmarTvelobisada TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs - 8% (yofili e.w. sakolmeurneotyeebi).saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministroaris saqarTvelos aRmasulebeli xelisuflebis samTavrobodawesebuleba, romelic uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo mmarTvelobasgaremos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis racionalurad gamoyenebis,agreTve mosaxleobis ekologiuri usafrTxoebis sferoSi. saministroshyavs teritoriuli organoebi, romlebic Sesabamis administraciulteritoriulerTeulSi Tavisi amocanebis ganxorcielebisaswarmoadgenen saministros.saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebissaministros saxelmwifo saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba, satyeomeurneobis departamenti – aris aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebisdawesebuleba, romlis meSveobiTac garemos dacvisa da bunebriviresursebis ministri axorcielebs aRmasrulebel xelisuflebassatyeo meurneobis sferoSi. departamentis daqvemdebarebaSi Sedissatyeo meurneobebi.saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebissaministros saxelmwifo saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba, daculiteritoriebis departamenti - departamentis daqvemdebarebaSi Sedisdaculi teritoriebi (erovnuli parkebi, nakrZalebi, aRkveTilebi dasxva).saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosgeneraluri inspeqcia - warmoadgens saministros sistemis Sidauwyebrivi kontrolis ganmaxorcielebel erTaderT struqturulqvedanayofs, romelic Tavisi saqmianobiT uzrunvelyofs saministros12


sistemis mosamsaxureTa mier Cadenil samsaxureobrivi gadacdomisada sxva saxis samarTaldarRvevaTa gamovlenas, xels uwyobs maTiTavidan acilebisa da kanonSesabamisi reagirebis mizniT mimarTulmuSaobas.garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros saxelmwifosaqveuwyebo dawesebuleba, garemos dacvis inspeqcia - aris garemosdacvis sferoSi saxelmwifo kontrolis erTiani centralizebuliorgano. misi ZiriTadi amocanebia: garemos dacvis sferoSisaxelmwifo kontrolis ganxorcieleba; bunebrivi resursebiTukanono sargeblobis faqtebis gamovlena da aRkveTa; saministrosmier gacemuli licenziebis /nebarTvebis pirobebis Sesrulebiskontroli.13


tyis ukanono WrasTan dakavSirebuliaqtualuri sakiTxebikiTxvebi da pasuxebisatyeo sfero Zalze rTulia. dauxvewavi da winaaRmdegobrivikanonmdebloba, korufciis maRali done, romelSic tradiciuladCabmulni arian erTdroulad sxvadasxva saxelmwifo uwyebebiswarmomadgenlebi (rogorc maRali rangis, ise rigiTi moxeleebi),bundovani, araerTmniSvnelovani wesebi da normebi, arazustidokumenturi masala - es im faqtorebis arasruli CamonaTvalia,romlebic arTuleben satyeo sferoSi darRvevebis aRmoCenasa damonitorings. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom satyeo sfero mecnierebisrTuli da kompleqsuri dargia da masSi garkveva saTanado ganaTlebassaWiroebs. tye cocxali organizmia da mxolod Teoriuli ganaTlebaar aris sakmarisi imisaTvis, rom adamiani gaerkves, erTis mxriv,tyis ekosistemebSi mimdinare bunebriv procesebSi, meores mxriv ki,SesaZlo darRvevebSi, romlebic xdeba satyeo meuneobis marTvisa Tutyis produqtebiT vaWrobisas.miuxedavad CamoTvlili sirTulebisa, satyeo sferoSi arsebulidarRvevebi xSirad Zalze TvalsaCinoa da mondomebuli adamiani,mcireodeni unar-Cvevebis aTvisebisa da dakvirvebulobis xarjze,advilad SeZlebs aRmoaCinos ukanono qmedebebi.Cven gadavwyviteT kiTxva-pasuxisa da komentarebis saxiTmogvewodebina is informacia, romelic yvelaze metad ainteresebTda sWirdebaT satyeo sferoSi mimdinare procesebiT dainteresebulmoqalaqeebs da gamosadegi iqneba darRvevebis aRmoCenisa dadamoukidebeli monitoringis warmoebisTvis.ras niSnavs saxelmwifo tyis fondi?saxelmwifo tyis fondi aris saqarTvelos saxelmwifo tyis,saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT misTvis mikuTvnebuli miwebisa da misiresursebis erToblioba. saxelmwifo tyis fondi ar gulisxmobsmxolod tyiT dafaruli teritoriebs. aq SeiZleba warmodgenili iyossaZovrebi, sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebi, sanergeebi, nakafebi,naxanZralebi, mindvrebi da sxva.saqarTvelos saxelmwifo tyis fondSi Sedis sameurneo tyis fondida daculi teritoriebi. sameurneo tyis fonds ganagebs saqarTvelossatyeo meurneobis departamenti da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisada mmarTvelobis organoebi, xolo dacul teritoriebs - daculiteritoriebis departamenti.14


a aris tyiTsargebloba?tyiTsargebloba aris tyis fondis sasargeblo Tvisebebis gamoyenebada sxvadasxva resursis mopoveba. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiTdaSvebulia tyiTsargeblobis ramdenime saxeoba: xe-tyis damzadeba,plantaciuri meurneobis warmoeba, tyis aramerqnuli resursebiTsargebloba, sasoflo-sameurneo mizniT sargebloba, specialuri damiCenis wesiT sargebloba, samecniero-kvleviTi da saswavlo mizniTsargebloba, sakurorto, rekreaciuli da sxva mizniT sargebloba,samonadireo meurneobis mowyoba. TiToeuli maTganisTvis saWiroagakveuli tipis nebarTva.ra aris xe-tyis damzadeba?xe-tyis damzadeba aris tyiT sargebloba merqnis miRebismizniT, rac moicavs xeebis moWras, samanqano gzamde moTrevas dadaxarisxebas. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT, xe-tyis damzadebismizniT xorcieldeba mTavari sargeblobis Wra da movliTi WriserT-erTi saxe - gavliTi Wra, Tu uzrunvelyofilia merqnis Tanabarida uwyveti mopovebis pirobebi tyis bunebrivi Tvisebebis zianismiuyeneblad. xe-tyis damzadeba SeiZleba agreTve ganxorcieldesmovliTi Wris gawmendiTi, gamoxSirviTi, sarekonstruqcio dasanitaruli Wris saxeebiT da specialuri WriT (qvemoT ixileTdawvrilebiT).ra aris tyis aramerqnuli resursebi?tyis aramerqnul resursebSi igulisxmeba biologiuri warmoSobisproduqtebi, romlebic moipoveba tyis fondis teritoriaze. tyisaramerqnuli resursebi SeiZleba Segrovebuli iyos veluri bunebidan,satyeo plantaciebidan, an calke tyis gareT mdgomi xeebidan.magaliTad, aseTebia: sakvebad an sakvebis danamatebad gamoyenebuliproduqtebi (Txili, kakali, xili, kenkra, saneleblebi, balaxebi,sokoebi), mcenareuli boWko, girCebi, balaxovani mcenareebis nawilebi(gorlebi, bolqvebi), fisi (webos misaRebad), samedicino, kosmetikurida kulturuli mizniT gamosayenebeli produqtebi.ra aris biologiuri mravalferovneba(biomravalferovneba)?biologiuri mravalferovneba (biomravalferovneba) - landSaftebis,ekosistemebis, saxeobebis bunebrivi mravalferovneba, aseveSidasaxeobrivi genetikuri mravalferovneba garkveuli teritoriisfarglebSi. biomravalferovnebis SenarCuneba, misTvis safrTxis15


arideba sameurneo saqmianobis dros, savaldebuloa saqarTveloskanonmdelbobiT. biomravalferovnebaze uaryofiT zegavlenas axdensmisi bunebrivi elementebis Semcireba (mag. mTiani ekosistemebis anmisi calkeuli elementebis Semcireba da ganadgureba), an bunebrivgaremoSi ucxo saxeobebis gavrceleba.ra aris tyeTmowyoba?tyeTmowyoba aris samuSaoTa kompleqsi, romlis farglebSi xdebatyeebis mdgomareobis Sefaseba da maTi gamoyenebis, aRwarmoebis dadacvis RonisZiebaTa dagegmva. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, es aris tyisresursebis inventarizaciisa da sameurneo saqmianobis dagegmvisprocesi.saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos tyeebSityeTmowyobis masalebis gareSe akrZalulia tyiTsargeblobisada satyeo sameurneo samuSaoebis warmoeba, stiqiuri ubedurebisSemTxvevebis garda. saqarTveloSi tyeTmowyoba yovel aT weliwadSierTxel unda tardebodes. im satyeo farTobebSi, sadac tyeTmowyobaaT welze metia ar Catarebuli, Wrebis daniSvna ar SeiZleba.tyeTmowyobis Sedegad dgindeba saxelmwifo tyis fondis sazRvrebi,ganisazRvreba tyeebis mdgomareoba, maTi saxeobrivi Semadgenloba,asaki, xdeba resursebis raodenobrivi da xarisxobrivi Sefaseba,tyiTsargeblobis ubnebis dadgena, Wris saxeebis daproeqteba, tyismdgomareobidan da adgilis bunebrivi pirobebidan gamomdinare, tyisbiologiuri da paTologiuri gamokvleva, wiTel nusxaSi SetaniligadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi iSviaTi, reliqturi da endemurimcenareebis gavrcelebis arealis mqone ubnebis gamovlena.tyeTmowyobis masalebis safuZvelze, specialuri meTodikiT,xdeba tyis fondis adgilobrivi teritoriuli organoebis (satyeomeurneobebis) teritoriebze mTavari sargeblobis WrebiT xe-tyisdamzadebis yovelwliuri SesaZlo optimaluri odenobis (saangariSotyekafis) dadgena. teritoriuli organoebis saangariSo tyekafebisjamiT miiReba regionebis, an mTlianad qveynis saangariSo tyekafisodenoba.aseve tyeTmowyobis masalebis safuZvelze dgindeba movliTi daspecialuri Wrebis moculobebi da vadebi.stiqiuri movlenebis, tyis mavneblebis da daavadebebis gavrcelebis,xanZrebis SemTxvevaSi xe-tyis damzadebis moculobebi da vadebidgindeba specialuri gamokvlevebis masalebis safuZvelze.gzebis, milsadenebis, eleqtrotrasebis, datborvis zonebis ansxva obieqtebis mSeneblobisas, Tu es ukavSirdeba xe-tyis Wras,misi moculobebi da vadebi ganisazRvreba konkretuli obieqtebismSeneblobis damtkicebuli proeqtebis safuZvelze.16


a aris tyekafi?tyekafi aris tyeSi gamoyofili gansazRvruli farTobis adgili,romelzec moniSnulia mosaWreli xeebi da tyidan gamijnuliavizirebiT, an bunebrivi sazRvrebiT da amasTanave, tyekafis nomrisada farTobis aRmniSvneli boZiT. boZze unda mieTiTos gamoyofisadgili, weli da Wris saxe. tyekafis farglebs gareT Wra unebarTvod/ ukanonod iTvleba.saqarTvelos tyis fondis gansazRvrul ubanze tyekafis gamoyofaxdeba tyeTmowyobis masalebis safuZvelze.tyekafis gamoyofa tyeSi xdeba misi eqspluataciaSi gadacemamde.amisaTvis dgeba misi aTviseba-damuSavebis dokumenti, romelSicmocemulia, tyekafis forma da gamoyofis dros gansazRvruliZiriTadi maCveneblebi: tyekafis farTobi, Semadgenloba, sixSire,saxeobis mixedviT mosaWreli xe-tyis maragi kubur metrebSi, merqnissaSualo maragi 1-ha-ze, xis Reros saSualo moculoba, mozardissixSire da mosaWreli merqniani saxeobebi. tyekafze TiToeulmosaWrel merqnian xem-mcenares aqvs Tavisi individualuri nomerida damRa fesvis yelTan. nomeri iwereba tyekafis dokumentSi daaRniSnuli xis moWris kanonierebas aRniSnavs. unomro da daudamRavixis moWra iTvleba unebarTvod / ukanonod.fizikurma Tu iuridiulma pirma, romelsac gaaCnia tyiTsargeblobislicenzia, tyekafze Wris dawyebamde unda warmoadginos da satyeomeurneobasTan SeaTanxmos tyekafis aTvisebis teqnologiuri ruka- dokumenti, romelic Seicavs informacias farTobis, reliefis,niadagis, Wris formis, moris Trevis saxeebis, xe-tyis zeda sawyobisadgilis, dasatvirTi moednis, xe-tyis sazidi gzebis ganlagebis,tyis bunebrivi ganaxlebis uzrunvelyofis, eroziisagan dacvis datyekafze arsebuli mozardis SenarCunebis Sesaxeb.ras niSnavs koromis simwifis asaki?koromis simwifis asaki aris asaki, romelSic koromi iZensraodenobriv da xarisxobriv maCveneblebs, romlebic yvelaze metadSeesabamebian sameurneo miznebs. ansxvaveben raodenobrivi simwifisasaks (asaki, romelSic erTi asakisa da saxeobis xeebisagan Semdgarikoromi mocemul pirobebSi aRwevs cocxali xis merqnis maqsimalurodenobas), sasaqonlo simwifis (asaki, romelSic SeiZleba miRebuliqnes samasale merqnis maqsimaluri odenoba), biologiuri simwifis(asaki, romlis Semdgom iwyeba erTi asakis koromis swrafi daSla)da sxv. sxvadaxva asakis xeebisagan Semdgari koromisaTvis "simwifisasakis" cneba praqtikulad ar gamoiyeneba.17


as niSnavs koromis sixSire?sixSire gansazRvravs xeTa dgomis simWidroves. normalur koromSi(tyis ubanSi), sadac xeTa dgomis simWidrove imdenad xSiria, rom iqSeuZlebelia xis Camateba, miCneulia 1.0 sixSiris koromad.aqedan gamomdinare koromis sixSire SeiZleba iyos 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6,0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1.ra aris merqnis maragi?merqnis maragi aris mozardi xeebis varjis saerTo moculoba(gamosaxuli kuburi metrebiT erT heqtarze). Cveulebriv gamoiyeneba"saZire maragi", anu merqnis saerTo maragi, kerweroebisa da jirkebisCaTvliT. e.w. "likviduri maragi" anu maragi, romelic SesaZloagamoyenebul iqnas sameurneo mniSvnelobiT, 10-15%-T naklebia, vidre"saZire maragi". likvidur maragSi Sedis rogorc samasale, ise saSeSemerqani (anu samSeneblo saqmianobisaTvis SesaZloa gamoyenebuliqnas likviduri maragis mxolod nawili).ra aris satyeo plantaciebi?satyeo plantaciebi ewodebaT xelovnurad Seqmnili tyis kulturebisnargavebs, romelTa mTeli arsebobis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobsmovliTi RonisZiebebi (SesaZloa sasuqebis gamoyeneba da niadagisspecialuri damuSaveba), minimalur droSi maqsimaluri raodenobismerqnis miRebis mizniT. tyis plantaciebi ufro gavrcelebuliatropikul da subtopikul ganedebSi. CrdiloeTis qveynebis civiklimati ar iZleva mokle periodSi (10-20 weli) sasaqonlo merqnismiRebis SesaZleblobas.ras niSnavs likviduri merqani (likvidi)?likviduri merqani aris merqnis nawili, romelic SeiZlebagamoyenebul iqnas adamianis mier. amaSi samasale merqani da gauqerqavisaSeSe merqani. zogadad miRebulia, rom likviduri merqani merqnissaerTo maragis daaxloebiT 0,87 Seadgens.tyis Wris ra wesebi moqmedebs Cvens qveyanaSi?Wris wesebis safuZvlebi mocemulia saqarTvelos kanonSi“saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi". Wra regulirdeba am kanoniT aseve misgangamomdinare debulebebiT, saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebiTda sxva normatiuli aqtebiT. am wesebis dacva savaldebuloa yvela18


uwyebisaTvis, romelTa gamgeblobaSic arsebobs tyeebi, agreTvefizikuri da iuridiuli pirebisaTvis, romlebic ewevian tyeSinebismieri Wris saxeobiT merqnis damzadebas.saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs ZiriTadad sami saxisWris wess: mTavari sargeblobis, movliT da specialur Wrebs. Tavismxriv es Wrebic iyofa sxvadasxva saxeebad.tyis Wris saxeebis SerCeva warmoebs merqnian saxeobaTa biologiurida ekologiuri Taviseburebebis, tyis tipebis, tyis bunebriviganaxlebis mdgomareobis, eroziis winaaRmdeg niadagis mdgradobis,ferdobTa eqspoziciisa da daqanebis simkveTris Sesabamisad.mTavari sargeblobis Wrebis saxeebia: pirwminda Wra, TandaTanobiTiWra, jgufur-amorCeviTi Wra da nebiT-amorCeviTi Wra. TiToeulimaTganis unda dainiSnos Sesabamisi bunebrivi pirobebisa damosaWreli saxeobis gaTvaliswinebiT.Wris wesebis Tanaxmad, mTavari sargeblobis Wrebi ar SeiZlebadainiSnos Semdeg tyis kategoriebSi:• saxelmwifo nakrZalebSi;• erovnul parkebSi;• aRkveTilebSi;• bunebis ZeglebSi;• daculi landfSatebSi;• sakurorto zonis tyeebSi;• mwvane zonis tyeebSi (daculi, bunebrivi an xelovnuritye, romelic dasvenebis da sanitarul-sakurorto daniSnulebiTgamoiyeneba); amasTanave,• gansakuTrebuli dacviTi mniSvnelobis mqone tyis ubnebSi,romelTac miekuTvnebian: saxelmwifo dacviTi tyis zolebi (bunebrivi anxelovnuri nargaobebi, romlebic dasaxlebuli punqtebis,rkinigzis da saavtomobilo gzebis, arxebis, savargulebis damdinareTa wylis regulirebis mizniTaa Seqmnili); Walis tyeebi (mdinareTa xeobebSi gavrcelebuli tyeebi,romlebic sezonurad itboreba); subalpuri zonis 300 m siganis arealSi arsebuli tyeebi(gardamavali zoli tyis sartylidan alpur sartylamde,sadac mimdinareobs brZola merqnian da balaxovan mcenareebsSoris); tyis ubnebi reliqtiuri, endemuri da Zvirfasmerqnianisaxeobebis gabatonebiT; 35 0 -ze meti daqanebis ferdobebi; mdinareebis, tbebis, wyalsacavebis gaswvriv 300 msiganis napirdamcavi tyis ubnebi; rkinigzis da saavtomobilo gzebis gaswvriv 100 msiganis tyis zolebi.19


mTavari sargeblobis Wra iniSneba 0,6 da meti sixSiris tyisubnebSi. Wris Catarebis Semdeg, tyenakafze dazianebuli xeebisodenoba ar unda aRematebodes darCenili xeebis 10%-s. tyenakafzedarCenili xis wvrili narCenebi mozardisagan Tavisufal adgilebze,mkvriv xurgebad daiwyoba tyis mavneblebis dasaxlebis Tavidanacilebis mizniT da dasalpobad darCeba, an wvrilad daiWreba damTel farTobze Tanabrad gaifanteba.mTavari sargeblobis Wrebis Catareba sxvadasxva merqnianisaxeobebis koromebSi kidev gansakuTrebul wesebad arisCamoyalibebuli: (1) Wrebi fiWvnarebSi, (2) Wrebi wiflnarebSi,naZvnarebSi da soWnarebSi, (3) Wrebi rcxilnarebSi, (4) WrebimurynarebSi, arynarebSi, verxvnarebSi.movliTi Wrebi - Wris aRricxvis kategoria, romelic formaluradmimarTulia maRalproduqtiuli koromebis Camosayalibeblad,sasargeblo funqciebis SesanarCuneblad da gasaZliereblad damerqnis dasamzadeblad. movliTi Wris mravali saxeoba arsebobs,romelTa nawili mxolod Teoriulad arsebobs. aseTia magaliTad,xmeli totebis moWra, qvetyis movla, tyispirebis movla. zogierTisaxeobis movliTi Wra, Tavisi daSvebuli parametrebiT, uaxlovdebamTavari sargeblobis Wrebs da ukanasknelisgan gansxvavebiTSeiZleba Catardes iseT tyeebSi, sadac mTavari sargeblobis WrebidaSvebuli ar aris (ferdobebze, sakurorto-sarekreacio zonebSi).saqarTvelos (aseve ruseTis) bevr regionSi merqnis damzadeba xdebamovliTi Wrebis saSualebiT.saqarTvelos dRevandeli kanonmdeblobiT, arsebobs Semdegisaxeebis movliTi Wrebi, romlebic ganisazRvreba koromTa xnovanebisada funqciuri daniSnulebis mixedviT: ganaTebiTi, gawmendiTi,gamoxSirviTi, gavliTi, sanitaruli da sarekonstruqcio.movliTi Wra tardeba 0,7 da meti sixSiris tyis ubnebSi. Wrismizania tyeebis niadagdacviTi, wyalmaregulirebeli, sanitarulhigienuri,xarisxobrivi da saxeobrivi Semadgenlobis da struqturisgaumjobeseba.sanitaruli Wra movliTi Wris yvelaze gavrcelebuli saxea.sinamdvileSi es aris Wris kategoria, romelic mimarTulia koromismdgomareobis SesanarCuneblad / gasaumjobeseblad, romlis drosacunda gamotanil iqnes gamxmari, dakninebuli, mavneblebiTa dadaavadebebiT dazianebuli xeebi. 90-iani wlebidan sanitaruli WrebiCvenSi, iseve rogorc ruseTSi, gamoiyeneboda samrewvelo mizniTmerqnis damzadebis SesaniRbavad iseT tyeebSi, sadac sxva saxeobisWrebi ar iyo daSvebuli.kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, sanitaruli Wra movliTi Wris erTerTisaxea, romelic iniSneba 0,4 da meti sixSiris tyis ubnebSi,sanitaruli mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT da gulisxmobsubnis teritoriaze zexmeli, xmobadi, fauti (futuro) da mavneblebiT20


Zlier dazianebuli xeebis moWras. yvela Zlier dazianebuli xe,romelTac aRar aqvT momavalSi zrdis saSualeba, unda moiWras.mdinaris napirebze 30-50 metris siganeze ar daiSveba traqtorismoZraoba. rkinigzisa da gzebis gaswvriv, agreTve, mwvane zonis dasakurorto tyeebSi daSvebulia mxolod movliTi Wris saxe. tyissixSire Wris Semdeg ar unda davides 0,6-ze qveviT. subalpur 300m-ian tyis zolSi iWreba mxolod zexmeli, fauti da mavneblebiTdazianebuli xeebi.specialuri Wra xorcieldeba aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi,specialuri daniSnulebiT, agreTve, mosaxleobis saTbobi SeSiTuzrunvelsayofad, Sesabamisi tyis marTvis organosTan winaswariSeTanxmebiT.Wris wesebis Tanaxmad, specialuri Wra SesaZloa ganxorcieldes:hidrokvanZebis, milsadenebis, gzebis, kavSirgabmulobis daeleqtro-gadamcemi xazebis, arxebis mSeneblobisas da aucilebelixanZarsawinaaRmdego RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebisas, satyeosamelioracio,satyeo-sakulture da sxva satyeo-sameurneo RonisZiebebisganxorcielebisas, karierebis damuSavebisa da wiaRiseulisamoRebisas da sxv. specialuri Wra ar SeiZleba daigegmos:• nakrZalSi, erovnuli parkis mkacri dacvis zonaSi, bunebisZeglSi, dacul landSaftSi;• subalpur zolSi;• erozirebul, damewyril da eroziasaSiS teritoriaze.specialur Wras ar eqvemdebareba:• wiTel nusxaSi Setanili saxeoba;• endemuri, reliqturi da Zvirfasmerqniani saxeoba;• istoriuli, memorialuri da sxva Rirebulebis mqone erTeulixeebi.ra aris licenzia?licenzia aris administraciuli organos mier gacemuli(tyiTsargeblobis SemTxvevaSi es aris garemos dacvisa dabunebrivi resursebis saministro) saqmianobis ganxorcielebisuflebis damadasturebeli oficialuri dokumenti. igi SeiZlebagaices moklevadiani da grZelvadiani periodebiT, auqcionis wesiT.tyiTsargeblobis licenzia (generaluri da specialuri) miekuTvnebasargeblobis licenziis saxeobas. is gaicema auqcionis wesiT.licenziis mflobels SuZlia dayos licenzia, an gadasces sxvapirs, maT Soris memkvidreobiT. auqcions gamarTvisa da sawyisi fasisdadgenis wesi mtkicdeba ministris brZanebiT. licenziis maZiebelmaganacxadi unda Seitanos auqcionis gamarTvamde araugvanes 15dRisa. igi valdebulia winaswar gadaixados "be". auqcioni tardebagaremos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministroSi an mis miermiTiTebul sxva misamarTze.21


a aris tyis saWreli bileTi?tyis saWreli bileTi moqmedebda 2005 wlamde, "licenziebisada nebarTvebis Sesaxeb" saqarTvelos kanonis amoqmedebamde.yovelwliurad iwereboda da eZleoda xe-tyis damamzadebels. iswarmoadgenda oficialur dokuments merqnis moWra-dasamzadeblad.bileTSi miTiTebuli iyo tyekafi (adgili), masze mosaWreli merqnianisaxeoba da misi raodenoba kubur metrebSi. aranairi sxva dokumenti,sityvieri an sxvagvari SeTanxmeba, fizikur Tu iuridiul pirsa dasatyeo meurneobis nebismieri Tanamdebobis pirs Soris ar iZleodatyis Wris nebarTvas. Sesabamisad, tyis saWreli bileTis gareSetyiTsargebloba, xe-tyis Wra, unebarTvo (ukanono) Wras niSnavda.aRniSnuli sakiTxis ganxilva am etapze mimdinareobs da SeiZlebamomavalSi aRdges es sanebarTvo mowmoba.rogor unda movipovoT tyiTsargeblobis licenzia?tyiTsargeblobis licenciis mopoveba xdeba auqcioniT. xetyisdamzadebis specialuri licenziis misaRebad auqcionSimonawileobisaTvis saWiroa:1. gancxadeba, sasurveli tyekafis miTiTebiT. saministrowinaswar akeTebs gancxadebas, Tu romel tyekafze cxaddebaauqcioni;2. iuridiuli piris an individualuri mewarmis mier saxelmwiforeestridan amonawerebi, xolo fizikuri pirisaTvis _ identifikaciisdamadasturebeli, kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili sabuTebis aslebi.sajaro samarTlis iuridiulma pirma, gancxadebas unda daurTossadamfuZneblo dokumentebis aslebi.3. salicenzio mosakreblis da sawyisi fasidan “be"-s gadaxdisdamadasturebeli dokumentebi.samonadireo meurneobis licenziis misaRebad saWiroa:1. gancxadeba;2. kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli pirisa da individualurimewarmisaTvis - saxelmwifo reestridan amonawerebi; fizikuripirisaTvis - identifikaciis damadasturebeli, kanonmdeblobiTdadgenili sabuTebis aslebi. xolo sajaro samarTlis iuridiulmapirma gancxadebas unda daurTos sadamfuZneblo dokumentaciisaslebi;3. salicenzio mosakreblis gadaxdis damadasturebeliqviTari;4. samonadireo savargulebis gamoyofisaTvis saWiro winaswaridaskvna (mxolod auqcionis gamocxadebamde).22


a gadasaxadebi/mosakreblebia saWiro tyiTsargeblobisgansaxorcieleblad?tyeTsargeblobis licenzia, iseve rogorc bunebrivi resursiTsargeblobis sxva licenziebi, gaicema auqcionis wesiT. licenziaeniWeba im pretendents, romelic auqcionis msvlelobisas (vaWrobisprocesSi) daawesebs yvelaze maRal fass. auqcioni tardeba RiawesiT, xelmisawvdomia yvela fizikuri da iuridiuli pirisaTvis dasajaroa. auqcionis sawyisi fasi gamoiTvleba specialuri meTodikiTda yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi dgindeba garemos dacvisa dabunebrivi resursebis ministris brZanebiT.auqcionis gamarTvamde licenziis maZiebeli naRdi an unaRdoangariSsworebiT (saministros mier miTiTebul sabanko angariSze)ixdis gadasaxdel “be"-s, romelic Seadgens sawyisi fasis 20%-s.auqcionSi vergamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi “be" ukan brundeba, xologamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi CaiTvleba auqcionis saboloo fasSi.licenziis maZiebeli aseve ixdis salicenzio mosakrebels.tyiTsargeblobis generaluri licenziis an xe-tyis damzadebisspecialuri licenziis misaRebad gamarTul auqcionSi gamarjvebulmapirma unda uzrunvelyos xe-tyis Sesabamisi moculobis tyekafebisgamoyofis mizniT saxelmwifos mier gaweuli xarjebis anazRaureba.licenziis mopovebis Semdeg mflobelma tyiTmosargeblemmopovebuli resursis odenobis mixedviT adgilobriv biujetSi undagadaixados resursis mosakrebeli.rogor unda aiRos soflad mcxovrebma mosaxlem SeSismoWris nebarTva?adgilbrivi mosaxleobis piradi moxmarebisaTvis xe-tyes, TavianTikompetenciis farglebSi, gascemen satyeo meurneobis departamentisSesabamisi satyeo meurneobebi, an daculi teritoriebis departamentisSesabamisi daculi teritoriebis administraciebi martiviadministraciuli warmoebis wesiT. SeSis mopovebis msurvelma maTunda mimarTos werlobiT. igive organoebi gascemen saSeSe merqniskanonierebis damadasturebel dokuments.ras niSnavs fautiani xeebi?fautiani xeebi ewodeba xeebs dazianebuli varjiT, an sxvadasxvadefeqtiT (orkerweroiani, fuRuroiani, gadatexili, daRrecili da a.S.),riTac maTi merqnis komerciuli Rirebuleba mniSvnelovnad mcirdeba.fautiani xeebs xSirad gaaCniaT didi mniSvneloba biomravalferovnebisSenarCunebis TvalsazrisiT, imdenad, ramdenadac asruleben budis,bunagis TavSesafaris funqcias, warmoadgenen substrats sokoebisa23


da sxva organizmebisaTvis.kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, ra sabuTebia saWiro xe-tyisgadasazidad?xe-tyis gadasazidad saWiroa “xe-tyis kanonierebisa da warmoSobisdamadasturebeli dokumentebi", romelic mewarmem unda iqoniosxe-tyis transportirebisas da warudginos sabaJo organoebs. misigacemis wesi da forma damtkicebulia garemos dacvisa da bunebriviresursebis ministris brZanebiT. is unda gascen im adgilobrivmasatyeo meurneobebma, sadac moxda resursis mopoveba. moWrilixis nomeri (romelic aRniSnulia fesvis yelze) gadatanil undaiqnas moWrili xisagan damzadebul morze. daunomravi moristransportireba akrZalulia. xe-tyis transportirebis aseTi wesebimoqmedebs 2005 wlis Semodgomidan. eqsportis gansaxorcielebladsaWiroa saqarTvelos savaWro-samrewvelo palatis mier gacemuliwarmoSobis sertifikati. es ukanaskneli ki gaicema eqspertizis aqtissafuZvelze.ra aris ukanono Wra?ukanono Wra aris saTanado sanebarTvo mowmobis gareSe CatarebuliWra. calke gamoyofen "darRveviT Catarebul Wrebs". magaliTad, Tuvinme moWris xes licenziis an bileTis gareSe, es aris ukanono Wra.xolo Tu licenziis an bileTis mflobelma ar daicva tyiTsargeblobiswesebi: narCenebi adgilze datova, moWra daunomravi xe da a.S amasuwodeben xolme "Wris wesebis darRvevas".vis evaleba tyis dacva ukanono Wrebisagan da Wriswesebis dacvaze kontroli?saqarTvelos tyis fondis sworad marTvasa (mdgomareoba, movla,dacva, aRdgena da gaSeneba) da gankargvaze, (tyiTsargebloba)saxelmwifos mxridan kontrolsa da zedamxedvelobas axorcielebssaqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro,masSi Semavali struqturuli erTeulebis meSveobiT (satyeomeurneobis departamenti, daculi teritoriebis departamenti,garemos dacvis inspeqcia).satyeo meurneobasa da dacul teritoriaze momuSave tyisdacvis TanamSromels ufleba aqvs: aRkveTos unebarTvo Wrebi,Seamowmos tyiTsargeblobis dokumentebi, gaaCeros satransportosaSualebebi da moaxdinos maTi daTvaliereba kanonierebis dadgenismizniT. xe-tyisa da tyis sxva resursebis mopovebis kanonierebisdamadasturebeli sabuTebis uqonlobis SemTxvevaSi, moaxdinos maTi24


CamorTmeva, SeaCeros da akrZalos tyiTmosargebleTa sameurneosaqmianoba, Tu igi ar Seesabameba dokuments da Seadginos oqmidarRvevebis Sesaxeb.tyis dacvis TanamSromeli pasuxs agebs: tyis mdgomareobaze, misaradaniSnulebisamebr gamoyenebaze, tyis Wris wesebis darRvevaze,ukanono Wrebze da sxva tyis kodeqsiT gansazRvruli wesebisdarRvevaze.tyis Wris wesebis dacva da mis dacvaze kontroli uSualod evalebasatyeo meurneobis administracias, xolo satyeo meurneobebSi -satyeos ufross.satyeo meurneoba sistematiurad akontrolebs tyiT mosargebleebismier am wesebis dacvas, xolo samuSaoebis damTavrebis Semdegawarmoebs Wris adgilebis Semowmebas tyekafebis aTvisebis, xetyisada tyis meorexarisxovani masalebis gamouzidavad datovebisSemTxvevebis gamovlenis mizniT. Semowmeba xorcieldeba samuSaoTadamTavrebis Semdeg araugvianes Semdegi vadebisa:a) Wris adgilebis - xe-tyis gamozidvisaTvis dadgenili vadisdamTavrebidan 30 dReSi;b) tyis meorexarisxovani masalebis damzadebis adgilebis -gamozidvisaTvis dadgenili vadis damTavrebidan 30 dReSi.satyeo meurneoba Semowmebis TariRis Sesaxeb tyiTmosargeblesacnobebs daniSnul vadamde 15 dRiT adre.2005 wels saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebissaministroSi Seiqmna garemos dacvis inspeqcia (gdi). mis erT-erTmTavar movaleobas warmoadgens satyeo sferoSi ukanono qmedebebis(ukanono Wra, Wris wesebis darRveva da sxv.) gamovlena da aRkveTa.ra saxis darRvevebi SeiZleba naxoT tyeSi?Wra tyekafis gareSexe-tyis damzadeba daSvebulia mxolod specialurad gamoyofilityekafis farglebSi. Wra ukanonoa (unebarTvoa), Tu is tyekafisgamoyofis gareSe, gamoyofili tyekafis farglebs gareT, daSvebulzemeti raodenobiT, yalbi an vadagasuli dokumentebiT xorcieldeba.unebarTvod zexmeli, Caxergili, maT Soris waqceuli xeebis moWrada damzadebac ki akrZalulia!tyekafze yvela mosaWrel xes aqvs Tavisi individualuri nomerida damRa fesvis yelTan. aseTi moniSnuli xeebis arsebobac tyekafisgamoyofis maCvenebelia. Tu ver vnaxavT tyis Wris adgilas tyekafismaCvenebel boZebsa da vizirebs, aseve danomril xeebs, es niSnavs,rom Wra tardeba tyekafis gareSe, an mis farglebs gareT da es ukvemizezia, rom mivmarToT Sesabamis saxelmwifo organoebs (gdi-s).xSirad boZebi mxolod tyekafis erT mxarezea, raTa damRrvevmazerele Semowmebas "gauZlos". tyis siRrmeSi ki wesierad ar aris25


xolme aRniSnuli tyekafis sazRvrebi. xSirad boZebze ar aris sruliinformacia tyekafis Sesaxeb. esec kanonis darRvevaa.daSvebulze metis WraxSirad gamoyofil tyekafSi iWreba ufro meti, vidre amis uflebasiZleva licenzia da tyekafis masalebi. Tu gamoyofil tyekafzearis moWrili xeebis jirkebi, romlebsac ar aqvs nomeri fesvisyelTan, es ukanonod moWrili xea. aseve, gadaWril kunZze zemodanunda iyos specialuri damRa, romelsac asvams satyeo meurneobiswarmomdgeneli.ukanonod moWrili xe-tyis transportireba da eqsportixe-tyis gadasazidad saWiroa gadamzidavma iqonios "xe-tyiskanonierebisa da warmoSobis damadasturebeli dokumentebi", an,,saSeSe merqnis kanonierebis damadasturebeli dokumenti", romlebicman moTxovnisamebr unda warudginos uflebamosil saxelmwifoorganoebs (policia, gdi, satyeo da sabaJo departamentebi).aRniSnul dokuments gascems is adgilobrivi satyeo meurneoba,romlis uflebamosilebis gavrcelebis farglebSic moxda resursismopoveba. moWrili xis nomeri (romelic aRniSnulia fesvis yelze)gadatanil unda iqnes misgan damzadebul morze. daunomravimoris transportireba akrZalulia. Tu satransporto saSualebadatvirTulia morebiT, romlebic ar aris danomrili, es SesaZloamuiTiTebdes ukanonod moWrili xe-tyis arsebobaze. rigiT moqalaqeskerZo pirisTvis dokumentaciis moTxovnisa da Semowmebis ufleba araqvs!amorCeviT saukeTeso xeebis moWraxSirad movliTi (romlis erT-erTi saxea sanitaruli Wra) WrebisSedegad iWreba janmrTeli, saukeTeso xeeebi. gamoyofil tyekafzexmeli, xmobadi, Zlier dazianebuli xeebis WraSi ardaniSvna darRvevaada kanoniT isjeba. amdenad Tu naxavT, rom gamoyofil tyekafSi araris danomrili, anu mosaWrelad moniSnuli aseTi xeebi, CaTvaleT,rom satyeo meurneobam kanoni daarRvia. daniSnuli Wrebis drossaukeTeso, janmrTeli xeebi, wesiT, ar unda iWrebodes. xSirad kipiriqiT xdeba. gansakuTrebiT savalaloa, roca aseTi ram sworedmovliTi (sanitaruli) Wrebis dros xdeba, romelic wesiT tyeebisgajansaRebas unda emsaxurebodes.endemuri, reliqturi, Zvirfasmerqniani da wiTel nusxaSi Setanilisaxeobebis WraTu naxavT, rom tyeSi moWrilia Walis muxa, wabli an uTxovaries iqneba ukanono Wra, vinaidan es saxeobebi Setanilia saqarTveloswiTel nusxaSi. Zvirfasi merqnis gamo, wiTel nusxaSi Setanilisaxeobebidan yvelaze xSirad zemoCamoTvlil saxeobebs moipoveben26


ukanonod. aseve, savaraudod danaSaulTan gveqneba saqme, Tu saxerxSiwaawydebiT wiTeli nusxis saxeobebis morebs.tyiTsargeblobis wesebis darRveva, tyisTvis zianis miyenebaarsebobs darRvevebi, romelTa Sedegad ziani adgeba tyes daromlebic ar aris Znelad gamosacnobi. ubralod unda icodeT, romes darRvevaa da kanoniT isjeba. aseTebia:• tyis Wra Zlier daqanebul ferdobebze (Tu aseTferdobze tyekafia gamoyofili, daniSnulia xeebi, es satyeomeurneobis mier kanonis darRvevaze miuTiTebs);• tyis Wris dros dauniSnavi xeebis waqceva andazianeba;• moWrili da miyudebuli xeebis datoveba tyeSi - essafrTxes uqnis adamianis sicocxles;• xe-tyis damzadebisas mozardi aRmonacenis dazianebagafuWeba;• tyis Wra gzispirebze;• miyolebiT mozardi xeebis Wra;• xe-tyis damzadebis Semdeg tyis narCenebisgan argawmenda.xSirad miaqvT mxolod samasaled gamosadegi xe-mcenarisvarjis nawili, wveroebsa da totebs ki iqve yrian. ikargebauamravi saSeSe merqani, nayari ki xels uSlis aRmonacens daxels uwyobs tyis daavadebebis gavrcelebas;• sadResaswaulo, religiuri, saritualo, dekoratiulida sxva mizniT xeebis dazianeba, totebis moWra (bzis totebibzobisTvis, uTxovaris totebi, saaxalwlod wiwvovnebis moWra,aseve varjis wveris waWriT mcenaris dazianeba);• nayofis momcemi xeebis produqtebis Segroveba totebismoWriT (jonjoli, qacvi, askili, kowaxuri, Sindi, nuSi dasxv.)• tyis fondis teritoriaze unebarTvo (ukanono) Zoveba,xvna da Tibva;• tyis farTobebis TviTneburad Semokaveba, SemoRobva damiTviseba;• gauqerqavi wiwvovani xis morebis tyidan gamotana, antyeSi damarageba.niadagis dazianebamerqnis gamozidvis dros niadagis zedapiruli fenis dazianeba daamiT eroziis winapirobis Seqmna akrZalulia. amas iwvevs dacurebiTxe-tyis gamotana, ris Sedegadac viTardeba mewyruli movlenebi.yvelaze xSirad dacurebis kvali SeimCneva tyeebis siaxlovesganlagebul soflebTan, sadac saxerxebSi xdeba merqnis pirveladidamuSaveba. amasTanave, rogorc wesi, tyidan dacurebiT gamoaqvTukanonod moWrili xeebi.27


merqnis pirveladi damuSaveba tyeSixe-tyis pirveladi damuSaveba tyeSi akrZalulia. Tu SeamCnevT,rom tyeSi muSaobs gadasatani saxerxi, icodeT, rom adgili aqvskanonis darRvevas da gdi-s unda mimarToT.saxerxebixe-tyis saxerx sawarmoebSi akrZalulia ukanonod mopovebuli xetyisdamuSaveba da es kanoniT isjeba. rigiT moqalaqes ar aqvs uflebaSeamowmos sawarmoSi xe-tyis warmoSobis kanoniereba, magram arsebobsZalze TvalnaTeli darRvevebi saxerxebis funqcionirebisas. saxerxisteritoriaze unda iyos specialuri ormo, sadac grovdeba naxerxi.xSirad, naxerxi grovebad yria saxerxis ezoSi an mis gareT, da racufro meti zianis momtania garemosaTvis - iyreba mdinareSi. naxerxiiwvevs niadagisa da wylis dabinZurebas, qimiur reaqciaSi Sedis maTkomponentebTan, riTac imatebs mJavianoba. es uaryofiTad moqmedebsadamianis janmrTelobaze, radgan mavne nivTierebebi niadagisa dawylis gavliT sabolood adamianis sakvebSi da Semdeg organizmSixvdeba. aseve darRvevaa, roca saxerxSi Setanilia ukanonod moWrilixe-tye, romelic SeiZleba icnoT nomris ararsebobiT.SeiZleba Tu ara xe-tyis damzadeba daculi teritoriebisfarglebSi?xe-tyis damzadeba (aseve saqonlis Zoveba) daSvebulia mxolodzogierTi kategoriis daculi teritoriis farglebSi, isic mxolodspecialuri nebarTviT. magaliTad, aseTebia: aRkveTili, erovnuliparkis tradiciuli gamoyenebis zona. nakrZalis an erovnuli parkismkacri dacvis zonaSi xis Wra akrZalulia. Tu dacul teritoriazear aris amisaTvis specialurad kanoniT daSvebuli adgilebi, iqCatarebuli Wra (iseve, rogorc sxva bunebrivi resursis mopoveba,Zoveba) ukanonoa, xolo Tu amaze arsebobs daculi teritoriisxelmZRvanelobis Tanxmoba, es maT danaSaulze miuTiTebs.vis unda mivmarToT tyeSi ukanono qmedebebisaRmoCenisas?ukanono Wrisa da sxva darRvevebis aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSi,mimarTeT garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrossaxelmwifo saqveuwyebo dawesebulebas - garemos dacvis inspeqcias(gdi), an mis regionul biuros.28


gdi - centraluri ofisimisamarTi: Tbilisi, guluas q.#6;tel. (cxeli xazi): 98 83 08.gdi - qvemo qarTlis biurobiuros ufrosi: ivane guluaSvili;misamarTi: q. rusTavi, firosmanis#19; tel.: (8_24) 14 11 29.gdi - dasavleT centraluribiuro (imereTis, raWa-leCxumis,qvemo svaneTisa da guriisregionebi)biuros ufrosi: mamuka vezdeni;misamarTi: quTaisi, WavWavaZis #31;tel.: 8 (231) 2 61 35.gdi - aWaris biurobiuros ufrosi: ivane WeiSvili;misamarTi: baTumi gorgaslis#124;tel.: (888 222) 7 49 85; 7 49 61.gdi – samegrelo-zemo svaneTibiuros ufrosi: vaJa gurCiani;misamarTi: zugdidi, janaSias #1;tel.: 8 (215) 2 15 10.gdi - aRmosavleT centraluribiuro (Sida qarTlis, mcxeTamTianeTisada yazbegis regionebi)biuros ufrosi: daviT uTmeliZe;misamarTi: mcxeTa, samxedros # 13b;tel.: 8 (273) 38 84gdi - kaxeTis biurobiuros ufrosi: erasti metreveli;misamarTi: Telavi, WavWavaZis #243;tel: 8 (252) 7 70 07.gdi - samcxe-javaxeTis biurobiuros ufrosis m/S: revazqadagiSvili; misamarTi: axalcixe,m. kostavas #18;tel: 8 (262) 2 33 78.Tu TvliT, rom saministros sistemis TanamSromelma (maT Sorissatyeo meurneobis, daculi teritoriebis departamentis an gdi-is)daarRvia kanoni, Caidina samsaxureobrivi gadacdoma, droulad dasrulad ar mogawodaT informacia, ar moaxdina saTanado reagirebaTqvens saCivarze - mimarTeT garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebissaministros generalur inspeqcias. misamarTi: q. Tbilisi, guluas q.#6, telefoni: 27 57 18.asociacia mwvane alternativa gTxovT mogvawodoTinformacia Tqvens mier aRmoCenili darRvevebis Sesaxeb.rogor movipovoT informacia saxelmwifo organoebidan?yvela moqalaqes SeuZlia moiTxovos da miiRos sajaro informacia.amisTvis, werilobiT unda mimarTos Sesabamis saxelmwifodawesebulebas, romelic valdebulia Seuferxeblad miawodosinformacia. saxelmwifo uwyebas amisaTvis maqsimum 10 dRe aqvs. Tuinformaciis moculoba didia, an misi moZieba moiTxovs garkveuldros, uwyebam 3 dRis vadaSi unda gacnoboT, rom ver eteva 10-dRianvadaSi da iqve miuTiTos, Tu rodis SeZlebs mis mowodebas. Tu29


saxelmwifo dawesebulebam daarRvia es pirobebi, Tqven SegiZliaTsaCivriT mimarToT amave saxelmwifo dawesebulebis generalurinspeqcias an sasamarTlos.daimaxsovreT, rigiT moqalaqes kerZo pirisTvis dokumentaciismoTxovnisa da Semowmebis ufleba ar aqvs! amisaTvis arsebobssaxelmwifo samsaxurebi, romlebic kanoniT miniWebuli uflebiTaxorcieleben aseT qmedebebs.saxelmZRvanelos am nawilSi Cven SevecadeT warmogvedinainformacia, romelic Tqven dagexmarebaT zogadi warmodgenaSegeqmnaT satyeo sferoze, seqtoris instituciurwyobaze, SesaZlo ukanono qmedebebze da maTi gamovlenisSesaZleblobebze. miuxedavad Cveni mcdelobisa, rac SeiZlebasrulad warmogvedgina aRniSnuli informacia, ra Tqma undaiqneba sakiTxebi, romlebic damatebiT ganmartebas saWiroebs.amitom gTxovT, nebismieri damatebiTi informaciisaTvis,rCevisa Tu konkretul sakiTxze konsultaciisaTvismogvmarToT saxelmZRvanelos garekanze miTiTebulmisamarTze.30


II nawilirogorc SesavalSi iyo aRniSnuli, saxelmZRvanelos II nawilieZRvneba xe-tyis aralegaluri Wris damoukidebeli monitoringisdagegmvisa da wamoebis teqnikas. Tumca, aq warmodgenili informaciaSesaZloa gamoiyenoT rogorc satyeo seqtorSi mimdinare procesebzedakvirvebisaTvis, aseve nebismieri garemosdacviTi xasiaTismonitoringis sawarmoeblad.monitoringis daniSnulebamonitoringi saSualebas aZlevs arasamTavrobo organizaciebsxeli Seuwyon garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobis gaumjobesebas ramdenimegziT:• bunebrivi resursebis arsebuli mdgomareobis (jansaRi, safrTxisqveS arsebuli, an degradirebuli) da cvlilebis tendenciebis(gaumjobesebuli, stabiluri an gauaresebuli) SefasebiT.am saxis informaciis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia resursebisaTvisebis Sesabamisi donis dadgenis, an aramdgradi qmedebebisgansazRvrisaTvis;• komerciuli samrewvelo organizaciebisa da mTavrobisaTvisSesasruleblad savaldebulo maregulirebeli da sakanonmdeblosistemisa da maTi aRsrulebis SefasebiT;• garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobis xarisxis SefasebiT;• mTavrobis an komerciuli samrewvelo organizaciebis miermowodebuli informaciis realobasTan Sesabamisobisa da sizustisSemowmebiT;• safrTxis Semcveli, an ukanono qmedebebis gamovleniT. amgvariqmedebebis didi xnis ganmavlobaSi uyuradRebod datovebam,SesaZloa, resursis sabolood amowurva gamoiwvios.saboloo jamSi, monitoringi SesaZloa gamoyenebul iqnes mTavrobis,samrewvelo kompaniebisa da sazogadoebis mier bunebrivi resursebismarTvis, kanoniTa da sazogadoebrivi RirebulebebiT dakisrebulivaldebulebis Sesrulebis SefasebisaTvis.monitoringis upiratesobanisakuTari misiis Sesasruleblad bevri arasamTavro organizaciaawarmoebs monitorings, radgan swori informaciis SegrovebiTada sazogadoebisaTvis miwodebiT maT SeuZliaT gavlena iqonionmTavrobaze da samTavrobo politikaze. organizacias, romelicwarmatebiT awarmoebs monitorings, sul mcire Svidi saxis sargeblismiReba SeuZlia:31


1. bunebrivi resursebis mdgomareobis Sefaseba;sazogadoebisa da sxva jgufebis cnobierebis asamaRlebladarasamTavrobo organizacias sWirdeba problemis arsisa damisi masStabis dadgena-Sefaseba. aseve, monitoringis SedegebigansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania arasamTavrobo organizaciisaTvisresursebis mdgomareobis Sesafaseblad (anu izrdeba, Tu mcirdebaresursi).2. politikuri gavlena;informacia arc Tu usasyidlod, an Tavisuflad xelmisawvdomiamaTTvis, visac mcire politikuri da ekonomikuri gavlena aqvT.informaciisadmi xelmisawvdomobis gareSe ki naklebad SesaZlebeliagaremosdacviT politikaze zegavlena. monitoringi arasamTavroboorganizacias saSualebas aZlevs moaxdinos bunebrivi resursebismarTvis sistemis saWiroebasTan Sesabamisobis Sefaseba. monitoringisSedegad mopovebuli sando informacia mZlavri iaraRia arasamTavroboorganizaciisaTvis Tavisi poziciis sisworis sailustraciod.3. problemebis winaswar gaTvlisa da Tavidan aridebisSesaZlebloba;arasamTavobo organizaciebs SeuZliaT monitoringi promlemiswamoWris, an misi Tavidan aridebisaTvis gamoiyenon. sazogadoebaSi,samTavrobo struqturebsa da gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa SorisgangaSis atexviT arasamTavrobo organizacias zogjer SeuZliaproblemis Tavidan aridebisaTvis swori qmedebis provocireba.4. damkvireblis (watchdog) statusi;warwera saxlze - “ezoSi avi ZaRlia", gafrTxilebaa potenciuriqurdebisTvis. organizacias, romelic awarmoebs monitorings, msgavsifunqcia gaaCnia. Tuki garemos xelovnurad miadga ziani, damnaSavemicis, rom mas SesaZloa pasuxi moeTxovos. potenciurma damnaSavemSesaZloa Tavi Seikavos danaSaulis Cadenisagan, misi gamoaSkaravebisSiSiT. sando da gamocdili arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, mxolodarsebobamac ki SesaZloa SezRudos garemosaTvis zianis aSkaradmiyenebis faqtebi, radganac kanondamrRvevma icis, rom misi danaSauliar darCeba SeuCneveli.5. mokavSireTaTvis saWiro informaciis miwodeba;bevr organizacias ara aqvs sakmarisi resursi, raTa Tavadawarmoos monitoringi. informaciis urTierTgaziareba arasamTavroboorganizaciebs matebs mokavSireebs da Zalas araswori politikiswinaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad.6. aRiareba;aRiarebis mopoveba monitoringis mwarmoebeli organizaciebismier xdeba droTa ganmavlobaSi da mxolod mas Semdeg, racxelisufleba, samrewvelo seqtori, media da mTlianad sazogadoebandobiT ganewyoba da darwmundeba maT mier miwodebuli informaciissisworesa da sarWiroebaSi. amgvari ndobiT aRWurvili arasamTavroboorganizaciebi sul ufro metad xdebian informaciis wyaro.32


7. TviTSefaseba.monitoringi exmareba arasamTavrobo organizaciebs, Seafason,ramdenad emsaxureba dasaxuli miznebis miRwevas maTi saqmianoba daramdenad SeuZlia mas zegavlenis moxdena.monitoringis zogadi mimoxilvanebismieri monitoringis programis kredoarsebobs kargi monitoringis oTxi ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli:1. gqondeT naTeli warmodgena imaze, ris monitorings awarmoebTda risTvis;2. awarmoeT monitoringi martivad da uSualod;3. moipoveT sando da miukerZoebeli informacia, romlisgamoyeneba SesaZlebelia cvlilebis miRwevisaTvis; da4. gaaxmovaneT Sedegebi zegavlenis mosaxdenad.sxvadasxva monitoringis programis detalebi, ra Tqma unda,gansxvavebulia, radganac programa unda daigegmos konteqstisgaTvaliswinebiT da amis zusti recepti ar arsebobs.ra aris monitoringi?monitoringis Sesaxeb uamravi literatura arsebobs da Sesabamisad,arsebobs am mcnebis arsiT erTi, magram gansxvavebuli formulirebisganmarteba. am saxelmZRvaneloSi, warmogidgenT monitorigissazogadod miRebul ganmartebas, romlis mixedviTac, "monitoringiaris garemo pirobebis cvlilebis da/an raime saqmianobis miznismisaRwevad progresis SefasebisaTvis, ganmeorebadi dakvirvebisSedegad mopovebuli informaciis Segroveba da analizi". es arisspecifiuri sakiTxisadmi droTa ganmavlobaSi Tvalyuris devnebisprocesi. am ganmartebis Tanaxmad, monitoringi:1. aris mravaljeradi gadamowmebis procesi;2. amowmebs/zomavs specifiuri sakiTxis sxvadasxva aspeqts;3. amowmebs/zomavs miznebTan mimarTebaSi miRweul progress;da4. axmovanebs Sedegebs, raTa sworad warimarTos saqmianoba.monitoringi aris konkretul sakiTxze fokusirebuli monacemebisSegroveba, konkretul kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad. arafokusirebulimonitoringi resursebisa da drois fuWi xarjvaa.monitoringi da masTan dakavSirebuli qmedebebixSirad, sxvadasxva saxelmZRvaneloSi “monitoringis" saTaurisqveS mTeli rigi qmedebebi arasworad aris gaerTianebuli. maTimagaliTebi warmodgenilia qvemoT. zogierTi maTgani SesaZloa33


adeqvaturi iyos calkeul SemTxvevaSi, magram erTdulad yvela araris saWiro warmatebuli monitoringisaTvis.bunebrivi pirobebis Seswavla gulisxombs mocemuli teritoriisada resursis safuZvlian biologiur da ekologiur Seswavlas.romelime teritoriis aseTi Seswavlis Sedegebi da konservaciulimniSvneloba, SesaZloa gaxdes monitoringis safuZveli, magramamgvari kvlevebi ar aris igive, rac monitoringi.kvleva moicavs samecniero da SesaZloa eqsperimentul samuSaosmovlenaTa “mizez-Sedegobriobis" dasadgenad. bunebrivi pirobebisSeswavlis msgavsad, kvleva SesaZloa gaxdes mniSvnelovani safuZvelida dasabuTeba monitoringis programis detalebisaTvis, magram eskvlavac ar iqneba monitoringi.inventarizacia aris saxeobrivi Semadgenlobis, an resursismdgomareobis Sesaxeb, monacemTa erTjeradi Segroveba. inventarizaciaxSirad saWiroa monitoringis sawyis, dagegmvis stadiaze, radganmisi saSualebiT ganisazRvreba momavalSi cvlilebis dadgenisaTvisSesadarebeli monacemebi. ganmeorebadi inventarizacia SesaZloaganixilebodes, rogorc monitoringi.ganxorcielebis monitoringi aris informaciis Segroveba qmedebisSesrulebis Sesaxeb, anu Sesrulda Tu ara aRebuli valdebulebaqmedebis Sesrulebis Taobaze. es aris SedarebiT advili kvleva,radganac xdeba mxolod imis dadgena ganxorcielda Tu araqmedeba.arsebobs sami msgavsi tipis monitoringi, romelsac iyenebenarasamTavrobo organizaciebi zemoqmedebis Sesafaseblad: fonurimdgomareobis monitoringi, cvlilebis/tendenciis monitoringi dazRvruli mdgomareobis monitoringi.fonuri mdgomareobis monitoringifonuri mdgomareobis monitoringi zomavs/afasebs monitoringisobieqtis statuss, raTa dadgindes misi mudmivi, “normaluri"mdgomareoba. fonuri mdgomareobis monitoringi xSirad xorcieldebadagegmili saqmianobis (mag. kaSxlis mSenebloba, xe-tyis intensiuriWra) Sedegad gamowveuli cvlilebis dokumentirebisaTvis. fonurimdgomareobis monitoringi Zalzed mniSvnelovania resursebisracionaluri marTvisaTvis da mTavrobebisaTvis, romlebicaxorcieleben ganviTarebis proeqtebs; magram arasamTavroboorganizaciebisaTvis, rogorc wesi, es aris Tanxisa da droisaraefeqturi xarjva. aseTi kvlevebi moklebulia naTel, specifiurmizans da Sesabamisad, advilad ar transformirdeba raimezegavlenaSi. umjobesia, ganisazRvros raime specifiuri mizani dafonuri mdgomareobis monitoringi daigegmos am miznis misaRwevad.miuxedavad yovelive aRniSnulisa, ar SeiZleba fonurimdgomareobis monitoringis mniSvnelobis ugulebelyofa, radgan34


sxvis mier Catarebuli fonuri mdgomareobis monitoringi xSiradadgens “normalur" an “bunebriv" (gare zemoqmedebamdel) bilogiurmaCveneblebs, romlebic Rirebulia arasamTavrobo organizaciebisaTvisrogorc zRvruli maCveneblebi SemdgomSi cvlilebis dasadgenad.cvlilebis/tendenciis monitoringicvlilebis/tendenciis monitoringi gamoiyeneba resursiscvlilebis Sesafaseblad. izrdeba Tu mcirdeba resursis sxvadasxvamaxasiaTeblebis maCveneblebi da ras ambobs es maCveneblebi resursismdgomareobis Sesaxeb? situacia umjobesdeba Tu uaresdeba? arisTu ara cvlileba, an cvlilebis tendencia. resursis mdgomareobisSefasebis es midgoma warmoadgens efeqtur ilustracias,Tumca moiTxovs didi raodenobis monacemebis flobas suraTisSesaqmnelad.zRvruli mdgomareobis monitoringizRvruli mdgomareobis monitoringi adarebs monitoringisSedegebs winaswar gaTvlil/dagegmil maCveneblebs. zRvrulimdgomareobis monitoringi gansakuTrebiT efeqturad gamoiyenebarodesac zRvruli maCveneblebi winaswar gaTvlilia racionalurian mecnieruli gansjis safuZelze. calkeuli dakvirvebebi SesaZloagamoyenebuli iqnes arsebuli mdgomareobis mizanTan Sesadareblad.ase magaliTad, zRvruli mdgomareobis maCvenebeli SeiZlebaiyos SeTanxmeba erovnuli parkis damxmare zonaSi mcxovrebmosaxleobasTan, imis Sesaxeb, rom isini wlis ganmavlobaSi moWrianmeoradi tyis 2%-ze naklebs da ar ganaxorcielben Wrebs pirveladtyeSi. Tuki Tqveni organizacia aRmoaCens, rom moWrilia 2%-ze meti,Tqven geqnebaT safuZveli amtkicoT, rom mosaxleoba ar marTavsresurss SeTanxmebisamebr. igive midgoma SesaZloa gamoyenebul iqnesindustriuli kompaniebis an mTavrobis valdebulebebis mimarT.monitoringis proeqtebi da programebicalkeuli monitoringis proeqti mimarTulia konkretulimniSvnelobis sakiTxze. erTi an meti monitoringis proeqti qmnismonitoringis programas. monitoringis programa igegmeba raimefarTo sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi, romelic SesaZloa ukavSirdebodesarasamTavrobo organizaciis misiis ganacxads. monitoringis proeqtifokusirebulia monacemTa Segrovebaze farTo sakiTxis erT-erTkomponentze.ase magaliTad, monitoringis programa SesaZloa miznad isaxavdesSeafasos erovnuli parkis biomravalferovnebis statusi, ekosistemissijansaRisaTvis arsebuli safrTxe da parkis marTvis efeqturoba.35


am miznis misaRwevad uamravi proeqtis ganxorcielebaa saWiro:(1) fonuri informaciis Segroveba parkSi biomravalferovnebisada resursebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb; (2) resursebis mopovebis(aralegaluri nadiroba, xe-tyis Wra) masStabis Sefaseba; (3)ekoturizmis ganviTarebis donisa da zegavlenis Sefaseba -vizitorebis raodenobis dadgena, maT mier gamoyenebuli bilikebismdgomareobis Sefaseba, narCenebis dagrovebisa da ganTavsebissaSualebebis arsebobis dadgena da a.S.warmatebis gazomvamonitoringis programa da monitoringis proeqtic moicavskomponentis - “Sesrulebis xarisxis Sefaseba", romelic gulisxmobsproeqtis an programis efeqturobis Sida Sefasebas, anu warmatebiTvasrulebT Tu ar Cvens samuSaos. amgvari Sefaseba Sedgeba oTxiZiriTadi komponentisagan, an kiTxvisagan:1. warmatebiT ganvaxorcileT Tu ara monitoringi? anu, iserogorc es iyo dagegmili;2. movicaviT Tu ara winaswar gaTvlili samizne jgufebi?magaliTad, darigda Tu ara bukletebis sakmarisi raodenobayvela sofelSi? gavida Tu ara radiogadacemebi eTerSi? daiwerada gavrcelda Tu ara angariSi?3. iyo Tu ara komunikacia efeqturi? gaumjobesda Tu aramdgomareoba?4. da yvelaze mniSvnelovania, Seicvala Tu ara resursiskonservacia Cveni qmedebis Sedegad? Semcirda an aRmoifxvra Tuara destruqciuli saqmianoba? umjobesdeba Tu ara resursismdgomareoba?Sesrulebis xarisxis Sefaseba mniSvnelovania rogorc calkeuliproeqtisaTvis aseve mTeli programisaTvis.monitoringis gegmaSi miznebis dasaxvis mniSvnelobamonitoringis mizans unda hqondes Semdegi maxasiaTeblebi:1. miznebis dasaxvisas unda daefuZnoT amocanas sasurveli miznismisaRwevad. mizani ar unda iyos idealuri, magram unda iyos TqveniSefasebiT saukeTeso da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi Seicvalos;2. mizanSi unda Candes sasurveli Sedegi. naTelad Camoyalibebulimizani Rirebulia imiT, rom is saxavs amocanas, romelic gasagebiamTliani jgufisTvis da iZleva Ria diskusiis saSualebaswarmatebuli monitoringis proeqtis SeqmnisaTvis. mizani aCvenebsTu ramdenia gasakeTebeli sasurveli Sedegis miaRwevad;3. erT-erTi yvelaze rTuli sakiTxi monitoringSi aris codna, Turodis unda gaCerde. miznis miRwevisas naTeli xdeba, warmatebuliiyo Tu ara Cveni saqmianoba; aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia36


gadavideT Semdeg proeqtze, Tu saWiroa damatebiTi qmedeba, sanamresursis mdgomareobam kritikul zRvars miaRwia;4. naTlad Camoyalibebuli mizani dagexmarebaT situaciissimZafris gansazRvraSi da Sesabamisad dagexmarebaT proeqtisaTvissaWiro resursebis dadgenaSi.miznebis kargad Camoyalibeba monitoringis procesis erT-erTi,SesaZloa, umniSvnelovanesi etapia. miznebi unda iyos realisturi,specifiuri, gazomvadi da naTlad Camoyalibebuli. mizani ar undaiyos orazrovani an bundovani. maTi siZliere gamomdinareobs maTispecifiurobidan.Semowmeba da indikatorebimraval gadawyvetilebaTagan erT-erTi, monitoringis dagegmvisasaris imis gadawyveta Tu ras vamowmebT. mas Semdeg rac TqvengansazRvreT monitorigis daniSnuleba – vTqvaT, mocemulteritoriaze xe-tyis Wris moculoba – Tqven gaqvT ori arCevani: (1)uSualod gazomoT Wris moculoba, an (2) amoirCioT Wris indikatorian “SefardebiTi maCvenebeli". Wragavlil tyeSi SegviZlia davTvaloTmoWrili xeebis raodenoba, an Tuki es SeuZlebelia, “ganvsazRvroT"Wris intensivoba satvirTo manqanebis daTvliT. ra Tqma unda,satvirTo manqanebis raodenobis Wris intensivobis dasadgenadindikatorad gamoyenebis siswore damokidebulia satvirTo manqanebisraodenobasa da xe-tyis Wras Soris arsebul kavSirze. igive exebayvela indikators – indikatorebi frTxilad unda SevarCioT!maRalxarisxiani da sando informaciandoba - arasamTavrobo organizaciis reputaciisaTvis umTavresifaqtoria da moipoveba droTa ganmavlobaSi sazogadoebisTvis sandoinformaciis mopovebis gziT. arasamTavrobo organizaciis nebismierimtkicebis safuZveli unda iyos samdo monacemebi. obieqturi,miukerZoebeli da damtkicebadi analizi da sazogadoebisaTvisSedegebis sworad miwodeba erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi pirobaaarasamTavrobo organizaciis warmatebisaTvis.37


monitoringis proeqtis etapebiarasamTavrobo organizaciebs ar aqvT imis fufuneba, rom fuWaddaxarjon TavianTi resursebi cudad dagegmil an ganxorcielebulmonitoringis proeqtebze – Tanxebi SezRudulia, TanamSromelTaraodenobac mcirea da repurataciac gafrTixilebas saWiroebs.proeqtis cudi dagegmarebis Sedegad SesaZloa ziani miadgesbunebriv resursebs romelTa dasacavadac iqmneba proeqti, daikargossasargeblo informaciis Segrovebis SesaZlebloba da SeilaxosarasamTavrobo orgaizaciis reputacia. am safrTxeebis Tavidanasacileblad gTavazobT sam etaps monitoringis warmatebuliproeqtisaTvis:I etapi: dagegmareba1. gaakeTeT monaxazi, romelic asaxavs proeqtis daniSnulebas,samizne jgufebs, miznebs da amocanebs;2. SearoveT informacia da masalebi (fonuri monacemebiscodnisaTvis);3. gadawyviteT ras amowmebT da ra indikatorebis mixedviT;4. gansazRvreT meTodologia, masStabis, indikatorebis,monacemebis Segrovebis meTodebisa da analizis meTodebisCaTvliT;5. gamocadeT meTodebi (CaatareT sacdeli testi);6. CamoayalibeT komunikaciis (Sedegebis gaxmovanebisa dagamoyenebis) starategia;7. daTvaleT xarjebi.II etapi: ganxorcieleba1. SeagroveT monacemebi;2. daaxarisxeT monacemebi Tematurad;3. gaakeTeT Sedegebis analizi.III etapi: komunikacia/Sedegebis gaxmovaneba1. amoirCieT Tqveni samizne jgufebi;2. gadawyviteT rogor miawvdinoT xma da gavlena iqonioT samiznejgufebze.imisaTvis, rom daiwyoT monitoringis meore raundi, daubrundiT IIetaps da gaimeoreT cikli. an Tuki meTodebi ar muSaobs, daubrundiTI etaps axali gegmis Sesadgenad da SeasworeT meTodologiuriproblemebi. sabolood, Tuki SeasruleT monitoringis proeqtismiznebi da amocanebi, SewyviteT monitoringi da gaaxmovaneT Sedegebi.Semdeg gadainacvleT sxva saqmianobaze.winaswar dagegmeT proeqtis yvela faza, “yvelaze cudi scenaris"CaTvliT. Tumca, ganxorcielebis procesSi, yvelaze frTxili38


da detaluri dagegmvis miuxedavadac, SesaZloa, Tavi iCinosgauTvaliswinebelma problemebma. dagegmvis etapze SerCeulimeTodebis testireba/gamocda mniSvnelovnad amcirebs problemebisraodenobas ganxorcielebis etapze, magram es yovelTvis ar arisSesaZlebeli. amitom yovelTvis mzad unda iyoT SeasworoT gegmebida SecvaloT kursi rodesac “raRac ar muSaobs".39


monitoringis proeqtis I etapi: dagegmarebadagegmareba warmatebis winapirobaa. dagegmarebis meSveobiT TqvenairidebT problemebs da isargeblebT mravali SesaZleblobiT,romelic sxva SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa ar gamovlindes. dagegmarebisprocesi gvexmareba proeqtis konceptualuri etapidan (risi miRwevagsurT) speciur etapze (rogor mivaRwioT) gadasvlaSi da proeqtismonawileTaTvis naTeli miTiTebebis micemaSi. dagegmarebis procesisdasasruls, Tqven unda gqondeT detaluri samoqmedo gegma.monitoringis proeqtis daniSnuleba,samizne jgufebi da miznebimonitoringis proeqtis daniSnulebis gansazRvradaniSnulebis gansazRvra aris pirveli nabiji nebismierimonitoringis qmedebisaTvis, romelic SemdgomSi gansazRvravsmTlianad monitoringis programis arss. miaqcieT yuradReba, rommonitoringis daniSnuleba iyos martivad aRsaqmeli, specifiurida miRwevadi. gaiTvaliswineT, rom rogorc wesi, daniSnuleba arisqmedeba, an cvlileba, romelic ganxorcieldeba sxvis mier. asemagaliTad, minitoringis daniSnuleba SeiZleba iyos saxelmwifouwyebebis qcevis Secvla, mompovebeli kompaniebis gaumjobesebulimenejmenti, an adgilobrivi mosaxleobis Semosavlebis zrda.samizne jgufis gansazRvramas Semdeg, rac Tqven gansazRvreT monitoringis daniSnuleba, undagansazRvroT samizne jgufebi. amisaTvis Tqven unda gadawyvitoT,Tu visze gsurT gavlenis moxdena; vis aqvs Zalaufleba Caeriosda gamoiwvios cvlileba, romelic dagexmarebodaT Tqveni miznismiRwevaSi; savaraudod, vin gamoiyenebda Tavis Zalauflebas Tqvenssasargeblod. samizne jgufi SesaZloa iyos farTo sazogadoeba,samecniero wre, saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebi, adgilobrivimosaxleoba, sxva arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, media, politikosebi,saxelmwifo moxeleebi da mewarmeebi. monitoringis programebisumetesobas ramdenime samizne jgufi hyavs.qvemoT, ixilavT dawvrilebiT informacias imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogorSearCioT samizne jgufebi da miawvdinoT maT xma.miznebis gansazRvramonitoringis miznebis gansazRvra dagexmarebaT dagegmvisprocesSi gadawyvitoT Tu ra saxis monacemebi gWirdebaT situaciisdokumentirebisaTvis da samizne jgufisaTvis monitoringisdaniSnulebis dasabuTebaSi.40


fonuri informaciis codnaSemdegi nabiji aris arsebuli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb informaciisada masalebis Segroveba. miuxedavd imisa, rom Tqven, ra Tqma unda,geqnebaT garkveuli codna arsebuli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb, saWiroadamatebiT moipovoT specifiuri informacia, romelic dagexmarebaTmonitoringis programis dagegmvasa da ganxorcielebaSi. esinformacia saSualebas mogcemT amoirCioT Sesatyvisi strategiamonacemTa SegrovebisaTvis, sworad SearCioT samizne jgufebi daSeityoT problemaTa Sesaxeb, romelTa arideba sawyis etapzeveaSesaZlebelia swori dagegmvis Sedegad.arsebobs winaswari informaciis mopovebis xuTi wyaro:1. adre Segrovebuli monacemebi, sacdeli kvlevebis CaTvliT;2. gamoqveynebuli naSromebi, wignebi, xelnawerebi;3. sxva eqspertebis gamocdileba;4. dainteresebul mxareebTan interviuebi;5. piradi gamocdileba da intuicia.SeecadeT fonuri informaciis Segrovebisas gamoiyenoT informaciiswyaros farTo speqtri, magaliTad, interviuebi xelisuflebisada kompaniebis warmomadgenlebTan, adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan,adgilze vizitebi, sagazeTo statiebi, dargobrivi Jurnalebi, marTvisgegmebi, garemosdacviTi kvlevebi, iuridiuli wignebi da nebismierisxva wyaro, romelic mogcemT Sesatyvis informacias.fonuri informaciis mopovebisaTvis gamosaZiebeli sakiTxebismagaliTebia:• resursis ekologia, misi gamoyenebis istoria, resursismimdebare teritoriaze mcxovrebi mosaxleobis socialurimdgomareoba;• resursTan kavSirSi arsebuli saxelmwifo politika dakanonmdebloba, sasamarTlo saqmeebis CaTvliT;• kompaniis mier wardgenili marTvis gegmebi da/an garemozezemoqmedebis Sefasebebi;• resursis ekonomikuri Rirebuleba;• kompaniis istoria da reputacia;• partniori organizaciebis Zlieri da susti mxareebimonitoringis ganxorcielebisaTvis;• kulturuli da enobrivi barieri adgilobriv mosaxleobasa dakompanias Soris;• monitoringis sxvadasxva meTodebi, im meTodebis CaTvliT,romlebic warsulSi iyo gamoyenebuli am resursis mimarT;• resursiT sargeblobis gaumjobesebisaTvis adre warmatebiTgamoyenebuli midgomebi.monitoringis programis dagegmvisas, SeZlebisdagvaradgaiTvaliswineT potenciuri SesaZleblobebi. es SeiZleba iyospolitikuri SesaZleblobebi, rogoricaa politikuri debatebikonkretuli resursis gamoyenebaze; universitetebis /insititutebis41


Tbilisis, an adgilobrivi filialebis studentebi, romelTacsWirdebaT arasamTavro organizaciaSi msgavsi samuSaos gamocdileba;an donorebi, romlebic dainteresebulni arian monitorigis SedegebSi.fonuri informaciis Segrovebisas, aseve, SesaZloa aRmoaCinoTsakiTxebi, romlebmac ganapirobos monitoringis programiscvlileba.gansazRvreT gazomvadi indikatorebiTavidanve unda gadawyvitoT, ra indikatorebi unda SeafasoT. isinipirdapir gamomdinareoben winaswar gansazRvruli monitoringismiznebidan. amoirCieT rac SeiZleba martivad gazomvadiindikatorebi, romelic SemdgomSi iqneba advilad gasaanalizebelida sazogadoebisaTvis gasagebi. zogierTi kvleva, SesaZloa, mxoloderT indikators eyrdnobodes, zogi ki ramodenimes Sesaxeb moiTxovdesinformaciis flobas.umjobesia, SeagrovoT informacia rac SeiZleba meti gazomvadiindikatoris Sesaxeb, romlebic erTad upasuxeben Tqvens kiTxvas.saboloo jamSi, is, Tu ra cvladebs gazomavT da ra meTodebiT,damokidebulia dasmul amocanaze da xelmisawdom resursebze. mzarecepti amisTvis ar arsebobs.qvemoT ixileT tyis aralegaluri Wris monitoringisaTvis zogierTiarasamTavrobo organizaciis mier gamoyenebuli indikatorebi.indikatori midgoma areali masStabi sizuste mizanivizitebi imadgilebSi, sadacmosalodnelia Wraukanonomorebissawyobebiar arsebobdesukanono morebissawyobebidokumentebi,romlebicmowmoben, rommorebi gaiyidanebarTbisgareSe, anvadagasulinebarTviTaralegaluradmoWrilixe-tyiTdatvirTulisatvirTomanqanebidokumentebismopovebaramdenime ZiriTadmarSrutzemeTvalyureobisdaweseba damanqanebis daTvlaarxorcieldebodesWra SesabamisidokumentaciisgareSe5 wlisganmavlobaSiaralegaluradmoWrili xe-tyistransportirebis50% Semcirebamonitoringis programebis umetesobas aqvs martivi indikatorebida gazomvis meTodebi. imas, Tu ra indikatorebs airCevT da risgazomvas gadawyvetT, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba TqveniSemdgomi gadawyvetilebebisaTvis, romelic Seexeba monacemTaSegrovebis meTodebs, masStabsa da analizs.42


monacemTa Segrovebis meTodebiarsebobs monacemTa Segrovebis uamravi gza: Jurnalisturi andeteqtiuri gamoZieba, administraciuli Canawerebis mopoveba,teritoriis garemosdacviTi Sefaseba, aerofoto gadaRebebi, ansatelituri gamosaxulebebi da sxva. calkeuli proeqtisaTvisSesatyvisi meTodis SerCeva damokidebulia iseT faqtorebze,rogorebicaa: proeqtis mizani, TanamSromelTa gamocdileba,partnior organizaciaTa arseboba, fasi, dro, monacemTa sizustissaWiro done da samuSao pirobebi. am faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiTSerCeuli monacemTa Segrovebis meTodi uzrunvelyofs TqvenisamuSaos warmatebas.qvemoT warmogidgenT monacemTa Segrovebis ramdenime ZiriTadjgufs.gamoZiebaam saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoZieba gansazRvrulia, rogorcmonitoringis meTodi, romelic monacemTa SegrovebisaTvis iyenebs:1. Jurnalisturi an deteqtiuri gamoZiebis gzebs;2. interviuebs moqalaqeebTan an saxelmwifo uwyebiswarmomadgenlebTan, romlebic floben saxelmwifo informacias;3. farul qmedebebs sensitiuri an daculi informaciismosapovebladzogierT viTarebaSi gamoZieba yvelaze efeqturi saSulebaamonacemTa SegrovebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT iq, sadac politikuri dasocialuri situacia ar aris Ria. monitoringis programis saWiroebasada politikur situaciazea damokidebuli, is, Tu gamoZiebis romelmeTods gamoiyenebT.gamoZieba, iseve rogorc monitoringis yvela meTodi, gansakuTrebiTefeqturia, roca gamoiyeneba cvlilebis tendenciis saCveneblad.“gamomZieblebi" agroveben da dokumentirebas ukeTeben Zneladxelmisawvdom informacias imis Sesaxeb, Tu rodis, sad, vis mier darogor ganxorcielda saqmianoba. isini informaciis mosapovebladiyeneben interviuebs, dakvirvebebs, fotografirebas, videogadaRebebs.sajarod Znelad xelmisawvdomi dokumentebis misaRebad zogjerfaruli, an gamogonili fsevdonimiT qmedebac warmatebis momtania.bevri saxelmwifo moxele, an romelime kompaniis TanamSromeliukmayofiloa da mtkivneulad ganicdis misi organizaciisarakeTilsindisier saqmianobas an cud marTvas. aseTi adamianebiSesaZloa Rirebuli informaciis wyaro iyvnen. imis gamo, romgamoZiebis saSualebiT Cven, rogorc wesi, vcdilobT movipovoTinformacia, romelic dafarulia xelisuflebis an kompaniis mier, essaqmianoba SesaZloa safrTxis Semcveli iyos, miuxedavad imisa, romar varRvevdeT kanons. amitom, yovelTvis yuradRebiT unda adevnoTTvali gamoZiebis process, raTa aiciloT safrTxis Semcveli43


situaciebi. “gamomZieblebi" yovelTvis mzad unda iyvnen msgavsisituaciebisaTvis, kargad icodnen kanonis moTxovnebi da icavdnenmaT. aseve, gavlili unda hqondeT specialuri swavleba safrTxisSemcveli situaciebis amocnobisa da maTi Tavidan aridebisaTvis.bevri arasamTavrobo organizacia iyenebs adgilobrivi mosaxleobisgamokiTxvis meTods. xSirad, magram ara yovelTvis, es saukeTeso gzaaadgilobrivi bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobis Sesaxeb informaciismosapoveblad.informaciis meoradi wyaroebiarasamTavrobo organizaciebis umetesoba garkveul wilad iyenebsinformaciis meorad wyaroebs monitoringis ganxorcielebisas.xelisuflebis da kompaniebis saqmianobis amsaxveli dokumentacia,aseve gazeTebi, statistikuri krebulebi, interneti, samecniero dadargobrivi samecniero-populariuli Jurnalebi da sxva mravalgvariwyaro zogjer sakmaod Rirebulia monitoringis programisdawyebisTvis da zogjer swored es informacia xdeba monitoringisprogramis safuZveli. meoradi wyaroebi organizacias ramdenimesaxis upiratesobas aniWebs: daufaravi monacemebi xSirad Rirebuliinformaciis wyaroa, aseTi monacemebi gaZlevT mimarTulebas daxSirad monitoringis programis daniSnulebasac gansazRvarven.amasTanave, es wyaroebi dagegmvis, monacemTa Segrovebis, analizisda Sedegebis gaxmovanebis etapebis legalur, socialur, eTnikur, angaremosdacviT konteqsts ganapirobeben.meoradi wyaroebis gamoyeneba ufro advilia im qveynebSi, sadacinformaciaze xelmisawvdomoba kanoniTaa uzrunvelyofili, xolokanoni daculi.aseve gamokvlevebisaTvis saWiro meoradi wyaroebi SeiZlebaiyos mTavrobasa da kompanias Soris dadebuli xelSekrulebebi,finansuri operaciebis Canawerebi, marTvis gegmebi da ganacxadebigaremoze zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb da a.S. amgvari wyaroebi gvawvdisinformacias imis Sesaxeb, Tu vin aris xe-tyis Wraze momuSaveSvilobili kompaniebis namdvili mflobeli, sad aqvT maT Wrisufleba, waradgines Tu ara marTvis gegma, yofilan Tu ara odesmedajarimebulni kanonis darRvevisTvis da a.S. am dokumentebisgamoTxova SesaZlebelia resursis marTvaze pasuxismgebeli Sesabamisisaxelmwifo struqturebidan.miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, xSirad aseTi saxis informacia dafaruliada arasamTavrobo organizaciebi sxvadasxva midgomebs iyenebenmis mosapoveblad. ase magaliTad, zogi amjobinebs saministrosTanamSromlebTan axlo urTierTobebis damyarebas, zogi ki kompaniazeganawyenebuli TanamSromlebisgan moipovebs informacias.aseve mniSnvnelovani informaciis meoradi wyaroa kanonmdebloba,romelic aregulirebs resursis mopovebas da gamoyenebas. velzemopovebuli informaciis Sedareba kanonmdeblobasTan, romelic44


aregulirebs xe-tyis Wras, aris monitoringis programebisumetesobis mTavari strategia. standartebi da wesebi, romelsacmTavroba da kompaniebi aweseben TavianTi saqmianobisaTvis, aris iszRvari, romelTan SedarebiTac unda ganxorcieldes monitoringi.saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi, an savaWro SeTanxmebebi, romlebicaregulireben resursis gamoyenebas da daculi teritoriebis marTvas,aseve garemosdacviTi rekomendaciebi resursiT sargeblobisaTvis,mniSvnelovani informaciis wyaroa. yvela zemoTxsenebuli wyaroaris sajaro informacia da xelmisawvdomi unda iyos Sesabamissaxelmwifo uwyebaSi.savele dakvirvebebisavele dakvirvebebi, ZiriTadad, gulisxmobs saqmianobisdokumentacias. es midgoma idealuria aralegaluri saqmianobis,an cudi marTvis monitorigisaTvis da meorad wyaroebTan erTadgamoiyeneba arasamTavrobo organizaciebis umetesobis mier. saveledakvirvebebisTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania darRvevebis fotodokumentireba.teritoriis ganmeorebadi Sefasebaes aris meTodi, romlis drosac mkvlevarebi ganmeorebiT agrovebeninformacias erTidaigive teritoriaze cvlilebis Sesafaseblad.sworad ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi, miRebul monacemebs SesaZloasamecniero da statistikuri TvalaszrisiT sandoobis sakmaod maRalimaCvenebeli hqondes. am meTodiT mopovebuli informacia, SesaZloa,bevrad ufro detaluri iyos, vidre es arasamTavro organizaciassWirdeba politikaze zegavlenisaTvis.distanciuri zondireba / monacemTa Segrovebaaerofoto gadaRebebis, video da satelituri gamosaxulebebisgamoyeneba SesaZloa did teritoriaze monitoringis warmoebisaTvis. essakmaod Zlieri meTodebia miwis safaris cvlilebis dasafiqsirebladda sarwmunoa ilustrirebisaTvis.monacemTa zondirebis teqnika moiTxovs specialur swavlebas dasakmaod Zviria. distanciuri zondirebis monacemebi, gansakuTrebiTki satelituri monacemebi, ar aris yvelasTvis xelmisawvdoni,magram is SeiZleba iyos SesaniSnavi saSualeba Tuki arasamTavroboorganizacias aqvs Sesabamisi resursebi gamosaxulebebis miRebisada Sedegebis damuSavebisaTvis.arsebobs monacemTa distanciuri Segrovebis ori ZiriTadi saxe:gamosaxulebaTa (1) TviTmfrinavis (aero) da (2) satelitis saSualebiTmiReba. aero monacemebi, rogorc wesi, efuZneba vizualur,fotografiul an video monacemebs. satelituri monacemebi SesaZloaaseve iyos fotografiuli, magram, Cveulebriv, maTi saSulebiTizomeba dedamiwis zedapiridan areklili radiacia. eleqtromagnituri45


speqtris (mag. cisferi, mwvane, wiTeli, infrawiTeli) sxvadasxvazonebSi areklili radiaciis odenoba sxvadasxva teritoriazevegetaciis statusis dadgenis saSualebas iZleva. aero gadaRebebisgamoyeneba bevrad meti sivrcis Sesaxeb iZleva monacemebis SegrovebisSesaZleblobas, vidre savele dakvirvebebi; xolo sateliturigamosaxulebebi bevrad ufro informaciulia. da radganac msofliosTiTqmis yvela wertilze dakvirveba permanentulad mimdinareobs,Tqven SegiZliaT ubralod iyidoT TqvenTvis saintereso teritoriissatelituri gamosaxuleba.idealur SemTxvevaSi, monacemTa distanciuri SegrovebisgamoyenebiT kvlevis dagegmvisas, analitikosi irCevs Tu ra saxismonacemebia saWiro kvlevis miznebisTvis. realobaSi, ki Cven, rogorcwesi SezRudulni varT mxolod im informaciiT romelic adviladxelmisawvdomia da ar aris Zviri. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, rodesacgadawyvetT monacemTa distanciuri Segrovebis romelime meTodisgamoyenebas, darwmundiT, rom Tqven gaqvT sakmarisi codna monacemTaanalizisaTvis da mniSvnelovani daskvnebis gakeTebisaTvis.monacemTa distanciuri Segrovebis meTodis gamoyenebis dagegmvisasdarwmundiT, rom investicia amarTlebs Sedegs. monitoringismiznebidan gamomdinare, dabalteqnologiuri midgoma SesaZloa iseveefeqturi aRmoCndes, rogorc bevrad ufro Zviri, maRalteqnologiurida xangrZlivvadiani midgomebi, romlebic iyeneben distanciurzondirebas.meTodis SerCevamas Semdeg, rac gadawyvetT ris monitorings apirebT, Semdeginabiji aris monacemTa SegrovebisaTvis meTodologiis SerCeva. esgulisxobs imis gadawyvetas, Tu rogor, sad, vis mier, rodis, rasizustiT da sixSiriT unda Segrovdes monacemebi.saboloo gadawyvetileba meTodologiis Sesaxeb unda moicavdesTqven xedvas monacemTa analizis Sesaxeb. mniSvnelovania, romwinaswar ifiqroT monacemTa analizis Sesaxeb, sanam daiwyebdeT TavadmonacemTa Segrovebas. gaxsovdeT, rom awarmoebT monitorings raTamoaxdinoT movlenaTa dokumentireba, xolo amas akeTebT imisaTvis,rom waradginoT angariSi da moaxdonoT gavlena. amitom dagegmarebisyvela etapze warmoidgineT, Tu ra iqneba saboloo Sedegi. racSeiZleba zustad dagegmeT Tu rogor moxdeba informaciis analizida sazogadoebisTvis wardgena. mas Semdeg rac gansazRvravT meTods,an meTodebs, gadawyviteT Tu vin gaakeTebs analizs da darwmundiT,rom es adamianebi TqvenTvis xelmisawvdomi iqneba saWiro dros.meTodebis gamocdayovelTvis, rodesac es SesaZlebelia, CaatareT sacdeli kvleva,46


aTa SeafasoT ramdenad muSaobs meTodi. zogjer saukeTeso gegmebiSesaZloa araganxorcielebadi aRmoCndes velze, amitom amis Sesaxebumjobesia manamde SeityoT, vidre droisa da resursebis investiciasmoaxdenT.SeimuSaveT komunikaciis (Sedegebis gaxmovanebis)strategiaam etapze mniSvnelovania dagegmoT komunikaciis strategia. rogorgamoiyenebT monacemebs? geqnebaT, Tu ara sakmarisi informaciasarwmuno da sando angariSis warsadgenad samizne jgufisaTvis.naTelia, rom amis Sesaxeb winaswar sjobs fiqri. wlebis Semdeg,rodesac Tqven mixvdebiT, rom saWiro iyo damatebiTi monacemebisSegriveba, sakmaod gvian iqneba.SeimuSaveT biujetigaqvT, Tu ara sakmarisi Tanxa monitoringis gegmisgansaxorcielebad? Tu ara, gegma unda Seicvalos. xolo, Tuki gegmisSecvla SeuZlebelia, an Secvlis Sedegad igi araefeqturi gaxdeba,izruneT damatebiTi Tanxebis moZiebisTvis. am mZime realobis sxvaalternativa ar arsebobs. gegmis ganxorcielebis dawyeba arasakmarisiTanxebiT yovelTvis dasruldeba 1) arasrulyofili monacemebiT,da 2) usargeblo angariSebiT. yovelTvis ganaxorcieleT gegma,romlisTvisac gaqvT sakmarisi Tanxa da airideT usargeblo mZimeSroma.monitoringis proeqtis II etapi: ganxorcielebamonitoringis gegmis Sedgenis Semdeg, unda daiyos misiganxorcieleba. qvemoT warmogidgenT informacias, Tu rogorSeagrovoT monacemebi, SeinaxoT maRalxarisxiani monacemebi dagaaanalizoT informacia. Cven ganvixilavT im ZiriTad problemebs dasakiTxebs, romlebic aRelvebs mcire arasamTavrobo organizaciebs.maRalxarisxiani monacemebi da SedegebimaRalxarisxiani informaciis Segrovebisa da analizisuzrunvelsayofad mniSvnelovania gansakuTrebuli yuradRebadauTmoT TiToeul nabijs monacemTa mopovebis procesSi. es nabijebiqvemoT aris moyvanili:1. dokumentireba gaukeTeT dagegmil meTods (anu dawereT igi);2. savele samuSaos dawyebamde dagegmeT gasvlebis materialurteqnikuriuzrunvelyofa;3. SeadgineT saWiro teqnikis sia; da47


4. darwmundiT rom teqnika muSa mdgomareobaSia.monacmeTa warmoebisa da analizis fazaSi:1. SeinaxeT da daaarqiveT informacia ramdenime adgilze;2. gamoiyeneT Sesabamisi analizis meTodika; da3. gaakeTeT Sesabamisi daskvnebi.Secdomebis aridebaSecdomebi Zalian mkveTrad aRiqmeba Tqvens samizne jgufSida Tqvens samuSaos daudevrad an mikerZoebulad Sesrulebulisreputacias uqmnis. Secdomebi SesaZloa daSvebul iqnas nebismieretapze, dawyebuli monacemTa SegrovebiT, damTavrebuli angariSismomzadebiT. yuradReba unda miaqcioT, rom moxdes maTi gamosworebayvela etapze. arsebobs oTxi ZiriTadi tipis Secdoma.uxeSi cdomilebauxeSi cdomilebis tipiuri magaliTi aris monacemTa CawerisasdaSvebuli Secdomebi, kompiuterSi monacemebis Seyvanisas daSvebuliuneblie Secdomebi, teqnikis araswori gamoyenebisas daSvebuliSecdomebi, an araswori maTematikuri gamoTvlebi. samwuxarod, uxeSicdomilebebi yevlaze farTod gavrcelebuli Secdomebia, magramSesaZlebelia maTi Tavidan arideba frTxili da sistematiurijvaredini gadamowmebis gziT. aucilebelia arsebobdes sistema,romelSic monacemebi sistematurad gadamowmdeba procesis sxvadasxvaetapebze. TiToeuli adamiani unda awarmoebdes sakuTari namuSevrisgadamowmebas. ufro metic, gadamowmebaSi ramdenime adamiani undamonawileobdes, radganac sakiTxSi gaTviTcobiereba zogjer amcirebsSecdomebis danaxvis unars, amitom umjobesia gadamowmeba gareSepiris mier moxdes. qvemoT, monacemTa marTvis qveTavSi, ganvixilavTgadamowmebis ramdenime sistemas.meTodologiuri cdomilebameTodologiuri cdomileba cudi dagegmarebis, an arasworiganxorcielebis Sedegia. magaliTebi moicavs monacemTaSegrovebisaTvis araswori meTodis gamoyenebas, dagegmili meTodisarasworad gamoyenebas, an araSesatyvisi analizis xerxis gamoyenebas.uxeSi cdomilebis msgavsad, meTodologiuri cdomileba SesaZloaaviridoT frTxili dagegmarebiTa da ganxorcielebiT. meTodologiuricdomilebebis arideba moiTxovs specialur swavlebas imisaTvis, romvelze da monacemTa analizze momuSave jgufebma SesZlon meTodissworad gamoyeneba.sistemuri an teqnikuri cdomilebasistemuri cdomilebebi ZiriTadad gamowveulia teqnikisgaumarTaobiT. am saxis cdomilebebis arideba SesaZlebelia mxolod48


xelsawyoebis xSiri da frTxili kalibrirebiT.SemTxveviTi cdomilebaSemTxveviTi cdomileba, romelic aseve iwodeba SerCeviTigamokvlevis cdomilebad, statistikis sagania. es gardauvali Sedegiamosaxleobis farTo fenebis Sesaxeb daskvnis gasakeTeblad mcirejgufis SerCevisas. Tuki Tqveni analizisaTvis saWiroa statistika,aucileblad unda gaiTvaliswinoT SemTxveviTi cdomilebisarseboba. magaliTad, SesaZloa ver daviTvaloT tyidan gamosuliyvela satvirTo manqana. sanacvlod, viTvliT satvirTo manqanebiszust raodenobas sanimuSo teritoriaze da Semdeg ganvazogadebTmonacemebs. gansxvaveba Cvens gamoTvlebsa da zust raodenobasSoris aris SemTxveviTi, anu SerCeviTi gamokvlevis cdomileba.SemTxvevviTi cdomileba gardauvalia da statistikuri analizisstandartuli nawilia. SemTxvevviTi cdomileba SeiZleba aviridoTsamagaliTo teritoriis zomis SerCevisa da SerCevis meTologiisfrTxilad dagegmviT.monacemTa SegrovebamonacemTa velze Segrovebis teqnikamonacemTa SegrovebisaTvis teqnikis SerCeva xdeba imis damixedviT, Tu ra saxis informaciis Segroveba gsurT. distanciurizondirebis monacemebi, savele monacemebi, interviuebis Canawerebida sxva saxis informacia moiTxovs specifiur teqnikas. mas Semdeg,rac gadawyvetT, Tu ra saxis informacia gWirdebaT, unda moipovoTwarmatebuli magaliTebi imisa, Tu rogor akeTeben amas sxvebi.arsebobs velze monacemTa Segrovebis sami ZiriTadi wesi. (1)dasaxeT gegma da misdieT mas; (2) winaswar moamzadeT Sesavsebadmartivi da gamosayeneblad sasargeblo cxrilebi monacemTaSesayvanad; (3) droulad gadawereT (ganavrceT) savele Canawerebi,sanam detalebi kargad gaxsovT.monacemTa CaweramonacemTa velze Caweris sami saSualeba arsebobs: (1) monacemTaspecialur savele formebSi monacemTa xeliT Cawera; (2) audio davideo Canawerebi; (3) portabeluri kompiuterebi. ra Tqma unda, essaSualebebi ar aris urTierTgamomricxavi da SesaZlebelia maTikombinireba ufro meti sizustisaTvis.(1) monacemTa savele formebiupiratesoba:• monacmTa savele formebi an rveulebi iafia da msubuqi;• isini SesaZloa moTavsdes wyalgaumtar CanTaSi da naklebaddazianebadia velze;49


nakli:• monacemTa gadawera ofisSi dabrunebisas did dros moiTxovs;• xelnaweri SesaZloa waiSalos an gakruli xeliT dawerili daZnelad wakiTxvadi iyos.rCevebi savele formebis gamoyenebiT monacemTa Segrovebisgasaumjobeseblad:• winaswar gaamzadeT specialuri formebi, romlebic gagiadvilebTmonacmeTa Cawerisa da Semdeg Canawerebis ganvrcobis process.• wereT garkveviT!• winasawar SeitaneT formebSi rac SeiZleba meti ukve cnobiliinformacia. es Seamcirebs ganmeorebiTi weris saWiroebas daSecdomebis albaTobas.cxrilebi:arsebobs ramdenime saxis informacia, romelic unda aisaxosproeqtis ganmavlobaSi gamoyenebul yvela cxrilSi:1. proeqtis saTauri;2. TariRi;3. adgilmdebareoba;4. damkvirvebelis vinaoba (adamiani an adamianebi, romlebicagroveben monacemebs);5. dokumentis gverdebis raodenoba;6. cxrilSi unda iyos adgili damatebiTi komentarebisaTvis.aseTi saxis informacia aadvilebs cxrilebis gamoyenebas, rogorcSevsebisas, aseve momavalSi gamoyenebisaTvis, radganac droTaganmavlobaSi, mexsierebaSi sul ufro naklebi informacia gvrCeba.TariRi, saTauri da damkvirveblebis vinaoba, momavalSi gadamwyvetiacxrilebSi gaurkveveli Canaweris dazustebisaTvis.yovelTvis ar aris SesaZlebeli srulyofili savele formis winasawarmofiqreba. xSirad saWiroa garkveuli cvlilebebis adgilze Setana anmomavalSi gaTvaliswineba. rogor unda gadawyvitos damkvirvebelma,Tu ra saxis informacia Seitanos cxrilSi komentaris saxiT?naTelia, rom cxrilebi ar unda gadaivsos damatebiTi komentarebiTan informaciiT, romelic SesaZloa sainteresoa, magram kavSirSiar aris proeqtTan. es Zalian gaarTulebs SemdgomSi monacemTainterpretaciis process. amavdroulad, nebismieri komentari andakvirveba, romelic mniSvnelovania kvlevisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT kiinformacia, romelic gavlenas iqoniebs monacemTa interpretaciasada analizze, aucileblad unda aisaxos Sesaferis grafaSi.(2) audio da video Canawerebiupiratesoba:• xelis magnitofonebis gamoyeneba amcirebs savele kvlebisTvissaWiro monacemebis Caweris dros;50


• detaluri aRwera SesaZloa ufro nakleb droSi Caiwerossityvierad, vidre werilobiT;• video Canawerebi dokumentirebis saukeTeso saSualebaa daxSirad gamoiyeneba Sedegebis gaxmovanebis procesSi;• monacemTa interpretacia SesaZloa moxdes SedarebiTkomfortul pirobebSi.nakli:• monacemebi unda gaiSifros gamoyenebamde;• es aparatura ufro Zviria vidre qaRaldi da sWirdebabatareebi;• aparati SesaZloa uecrad ise gafuWdes, rom daikargosmasze arsebuli informacia, an monacemTa Semdgomi SegrovebisSesaZlebloba;• radganac ar arsebobs monacemTa forma, romelzec SesaZloa“Seuvsebeli" grafebis danaxva, zogierTi kategoriis monacemiSesaZloa ver moipovo;rCevebi audio da video teqnikis gamoyenebiT monacemTa SegrovebisgaumjobesebisaTvis:• Canawerebi unda gaiSifros (moxdes qaRaldze gadatana)rac SeiZleba swrafad, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi velidandabrunebisTanave;• Tan iqonieT carieli savele formebi, romelzec aRniSnavT,Tu ra saxis informaciis Cawera gWirdebaT;• velze Tan iqonieT savele formebi, aparatis gaumarTaobisSemTxvevaSi monacemTa xeliT Casawerad;• isaubreT garkveviT;• yvela kasetaze CawereT erTidaigive sabaziso informacia;• yvela kaseta daasaTaureT da srulad daawereT proeqtissaTauri, TariRi da damkvirveblis vinaoba;• periodulad gadaamowmeT Cawerili masala, raTa darwmundeT,rom aparati gamarTulad muSaobs.(3) portabeluri kompiuterebiupiratesoba:• ofisSi monacemTa ganvrcobisaTvis sWirdeba mcire dro;• zogierTi monacemi SesaZloa pirdapir Seyvanili iyos saWiroprogramaSi;• Tuki kompiteri aRWurvilia navigaciisa da geoinformaciulisistemiT (GIS) SesaZlebelia adgilmdebareobis adgilzegansazRvra;nakli:• portabeluri kompiuterebi sakmaod Zviria;• moxmarebis dro velze SezRudulia batareebissicocxlisunarianobis vadiT;51


• kompiuteri SesaZloa mouxerxebeli iyos velze mZime wonisada ekranis mcire zomis gamo;• SesaZloa daziandes wvimaSi moxvedrisas, mogparon an saerTodCamogarTvan;rCevebi:• portabeluri kompiuterebi velze umjobesia wyalgaumtariCanTiT ataroT;• SeecadeT periodulad gadaweroT informacia sxva saSualebebze(mag. kompaqtur diskebze);• Tuki SesaZlebelia, Tan iqonieT sarezervo batarea;• SeimuSaveT eleqtronuli formebi monacemTa swrafiCawerisaTvis.monacemTa marTvamonitoringis programisTvis mniSvnelovania Segrovebulimonacemebis frTxilad warmoeba da marTva. araSesaferisadgilas Senaxuli, daviwyebuli an, rac yvelaze xSiria, cudaddokumentirebuli monacemebi sayovelTao problemaa. mniSvnelovania,rom Tqvens organizacias hqondes monacemTa warmoebis procedurebiprocesis yvela etapze, monacemTa Segrovebidan dawyebuli saboloodokumentis SeqmniT damTavrebuli. qvemoT SemogTavazebT monacemTakompiuteruli arqivaciis ramdenime sistemas, Tumca monacemTaqaRaldze Senaxvac igive wesiT unda xorcieldebodes.monacemTa kompiuterSi Setana da ofisSi SenaxvamonacemTa kompiuterSi Setana da marTvis procesi SesaZloa xuTetapad daiyos:1. kompiuteruli programis SerCeva;2. monacemTa Setana, failisaTvis Sesaferisi saxelisgamoyenebiT;3. monacemTa dokumentireba;4. Setanili monacemebis gadamowmeba; da5. Seqmnili dokumentebis ramdenime aslis gakeTeba da usafrTxoadgilas Senaxva.agreTve mniSvnelovania velze gakeTebuli Canawerebis originalebisSenaxva, raTa dokumentis kompiuteruli versiis dakargvis SemTxvevaSisamuSao Tavidan ar gaxdes Casatarebeli.kompiuteruli programis SerCevateqsturi redaqtorebi (mag. e.w. “maikrosoft vordi"): teqsturiredaqtorebi naklebad mosaxerxebelia monacemTa SenaxvisaTvis,radganac isini ufro sityvier Sinaarszea gaTvlili da naklebadgamoiyeneba ricxvebTan muSaobisas. teqsturi monacemebisaTvis,rogorcaa interviuebi, teqsturi redaqtorebi saukeTeso arCevania.52


eleqtronuli cxrilebi: “maikrosoft eqseli" eleqtronulicxrilebis programis erT-erTi saxeobaa, romelic iZleva cifrulian teqsturi cxrilebis advilad manipulirebis SesaZleblobas.eleqtronuli cxrilebis gamoyeneba teqsturi monacemebisTvisnaklebad mosaxerxebelia. am programebis meSveobiT SesaZlebeliazogierTi statistikuri analizis gakeTeba da grafikuligamosaxulebebis Seqmna.sivrculi analizis programebi: geoinformaciuli sistemebi(GIS) yvelaze farTod gamoyenebadi sivrculi analizis programaa.es sakmaod Zlieri, sul ufro popularuli da advilad mosaxmariprogramebia. misi fasi SesaZloa sakmaod didi iyos, dawyebuliramodenime aseulidan dasrulebuli ramodenime aTeuli aTasi aSSdolariT, Tumca es Rirebuli investiciaa.failebisaTvis Sesatyvisi dasaxelebis gamoyenebadokumentebiT savse kompiuterSi failisaTvis Sesaferisi saxelisdarqmevas didi mniSvneloba aqvs. proeqtebisa da monacemTaraodenobis zrdasTan erTad, daudevrad dasaxelebuli failebi,saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, SesaZloa namdvil Tavis tkivilad gadaiqces,xolo uares SemTxvevaSi, monacemTa dakargviT damTavrdes. yoveliveaRniSnulis Tavidan asarideblad: (1) SeqmeniT failebis standartulidasaxelebis sistema da (2) monacemTa failebi ganaTavseTindividualuri proeqtebisaTvis gankuTvnil direqtoriebSi.monacemTa dokumentirebadokumentacia unda daiwyos proeqtisa da monacemTa SegrovebismeTodis aRweriT. monacemTa Segrovebis formebi da aseve gamoyenebulmeTodTan dakavSirebuli nebisieri sxva informacia (kontaqtebi,TariRebi, informaciis wyaroebi) unda daarqivdes, raTa SemdgomSinebismieri gaugebrobis dros samuSao jgufis wevrebs hqondeTgaugebrobis wyaros dadgenis saSualeba.monacemTa gadamowmebagakruli xeliT gakeTebuli Canaweris kompiuterSi gadatanisasSesaZloa daSvebul iqnas mniSvnelovani Secdomebi (mag. 9,9-is nacvlad99). amitom, mas Semdeg, rac monacemebi Setanilia kompiuterSi,dokumentis eleqtronuli versia aucileblad dakvirvebiT undagadamowmdes da Sedardes xelnawerebTan.monacemTa dakargvisagan Tavis dacvamas Semdeg, rac monacemebs SeagrovebT, pirvel rigSi izruneT,rom yvela dokuments hqondes asli da orive varianti usafrTxoda ganxvavebul adgilze inaxebodes. aslebis Seqmnisa da Senaxvisprocesi proeqtis dasrulebamde unda grZeldebodes, xolo proqtisdasrulebis Semdeg yvela saboloo dokumenti, masalebi da procesis53


aRwera unda daarqivdes usafrTxo adgilze.monacemTa gaziarebagarda imisa, rom Tqveni monacemebi usafrTxod unda iyos Senaxuli,unda izrunoT, rom isini sxvebisTvisac gaxdes xelmisawvdomi. amiTmniSvnelovnad gazrdiT Tqvens mier warmoebuli monitoringisgavlenas.kompiuteruli failebidokumentacia, romelic gsurT, rom sxvebsac gauziaroT,aucileblad unda akmayofilebdes strandartul parametrebs (mag.failis moculoba ar unda iyos didi, ar saWiroebdes damatebiTifontebis an programebis gamoyenebas da a.S.).internetiinterneti monacemebis da masze dafuZnebuli angariSebisgavrcelebis saukeTeso saSualebaa. imis gamo, rom droTa ganmavlobaSiinternet-gverdebis Seqmna Zalze gaadvilda, informaciis gacvlainternetis meSveobiT sul ufro popularuli xdeba.organizaciuli qselebisaerTo interesebis mqone organizaciebis qseli SesaZloa Zalianefeqturi saSuleba iyos informaciis, gamocdilebisa da politikurizegavlenis gavrcelebisaTvis.monacemTa analiziefeqturi samonitoringo kvlevis dagegmva da ganxorcilebasakmaod Sromatevadi samuSaoa. Tumca mxolod cifrebi arafrismTqmelia, sanam isini ar gaanalizdeba da ar gakeTdeba Sesabamisidaskvnebi. mniSvnelovania, rom daskvnebi obieqturi da gamWirvaleanalizis meTodebis gamoyenebiT gakeTdes.am saxelmZRavneloSi ganvixilavT monacemTa oTx farTo jgufs:intervius monacemebs; foto, an sxvagvarad xarisxobriv monacemebs;raodenobriv ekologiur monacemebs; da distanciuri zondirebiTmopovebul monacemebs. am saxis monacemebis analizisaTvis arsebobsoTxi saxis analitikuri midgoma:1. aRweriTi (dokumenturi) analizi (interviuebisa dafotomasalisTvis);2. grafikuli analizi;3. statistikuri analizi; da4. rukaze datana.aRweriTi analiziinterviebi, fotoebi da sxva xarisxobrivi monacemebi Sesaferisi54


masalaa aRweriTi analizisTvis. aseTi saxis analizs moTxrobismsgavsi forma aqvs. kargad warmodgenili aRweriTi analizi SesaZloasakmaod damajerebeli iyos.aRweriTi analizi gansakuTrebiT sasargebloa, rodesac saWiroasfecifiuri situaciis farTod gaxmovaneba. magaliTad, situacia,rodesac irRveva kanoni, romelic krZalavs garkveul teritoriebzetyis Wras. interviuebidan, an fotomasalebidan miRebuli informaciissaSualebiT, SesaZloa darRvevis winaaRmdeg sazogadoebismxardaWeris mopoveba.aRweriTi analizisas fotoebi SesaZloa ori gziT iqnasgamoyenebuli.pirveli: fotoebi SesaZloa gamoviyenoT aralegaluri an akrZaluliqmedebis dokumentirebisaTvis. samxilebad fotoebis gamoyenebadamokidebulia maT sandoobaze. amitom, yovelTvis, rodesac esSesaZlebelia, TariRi da adgilmdebareoba unda aisaxebodes Tavadfotoze. amJamad, ukve farTod aris gavrcelebuli navigaciisa damdebareobis gansazRvris sistemiT aRWurvili fotoaparatebi,romelTa am funqciis aqtivaciis Sedegad, mimdinare TariRi daadgilmdebareoba avtomaturad ibeWdeba fotoze. aseT fotoaparatebsxelmisawvdomi fasi aqvT da sakmaod kargi investiciaa monitoringisprogramebisaTvis.meore: fotoebis seria SesaZloa gamoviyenoT habitatis cvlilebisdokumentirebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT Tu es cvlileba mniSvnelovania.habitatis mciredi cvlileba SesaZloa moiTxovdes uSualo gazomvebs,xolo ufro didi cvlilebebi SesaZloa advilad dokumentirebuliqnas fotoebiT. magaliTad, Tqven SegiZliaT pirwminda Wrebisdemonstrireba “manamde da Semdeg" fotoebis gamoyenebiT. zemoTganxiluli TariRisa da adgilmdebareobis maCveneblebi asevegamoyenebul unda iqnes aseT SemTxvevaSi. Tuki “manamde" fotoebiar arsebobs, aseT SemTxvevaSi unda gamoiyenoT sateliturigamosaxulebebi, romelic adasturebs Wrebamde iq tyis arsebobas.grafikuli analizifotosuraTi sakmaod damajerebeli dokumentia. amitom, girCevTmasTan erTad gamoiyenoT analizis strategia, romelic moicavsgrafikebs da ricxvebs. gansakuTrebiT sasargebloa grafikulianalizi, romelic iyenebs Sedarebebs mdgomareobis saCveneblad.zogierTi organizacia iyenebs am teqnikas, raTa aCvenos, sxvaqveynebTan SedarebiT ramdenad cudad xorciledeba maTTan esa Tuis garemosdacviTi qmedeba.xarisxobrivi monacmebis grafikuli analizi yovelTvisrekomendirebulia, maSinac ki, rodesac Tqven gegmavT damatebiTstatistikuri analizis ganxorcielebas. amitom, grafikuliprogramebis SeZebna kargi investicia nebismieri arasamTavroboorganizaciisaTvis.55


statistikuri analiziis, Tu ra tipis statistikur analizs gamoiyenebT, undagadawyvitoT samonitoringo kvlevis dagegmvis sawyis etapze.calkeuli statistikuri analizis meTodis efeqturoba damokidebuliamonacemTa raodenobasa da magaliTebis maxasiaTeblebze. TukisaWiro informacia arasakmarisi raodenobiTaa mopovebuli, analiziSeuZlebeli xdeba. ase magaliTad, variaciuli analizi, romelicikvlevs gadaxras saSualo monacemebidan da farTod gamoiyenebasxvadasxva jgufebis Sesadareblad, ar SeiZleba ganxorcieldeserTi dakvirvebis Sedegad TiToeul jgufze. praqtikaSi amisaTvissul mcire 10 dakvirvebaa saWiro. Tuki es SezRudvebi winaswarar iqna gansazRvruli, araefeqturi monacemebi SeuZlebels xdisanalizis gakeTebas.miuxedavad imisa, rom statistikuri analizi ar aris kosmosurifizikis msgavsi mecniereba, igi moiTxovs specialur unarebsa dacodnas. amitom, statistikuri analizis ganxorcielebisaTvis, girCevTyovelTvis mimarToT specialistebs.sivrciTi analizisivrciTi analizi iyenebs monacemebs dedamiwis zedapiris, miwisqveSanawilisa da atmosferos bunebrivi da politikuri kanonzomierebebisSesaxeb. sivrciTi analizisas gamoiyeneba socioekonomikuri,politikuri da fizikuri maxasiaTeblebi. rogorc es monacemTamarTvis qveTavSi iyo ganxiluli, arasamTavrobo organizaciebisumetesoba sivrciTi analizisaTvis geoinformaciul sistemebs iyeneben.geoinformaciuli sistemebi iZleva sxvadasxva sivrciT monacemebsSoris kavSiris asaxvis, maTi Sedarebisa da analizis SesaZleblobas– tyis tipi, miwis mflobeloba, mosaxleobis simWidrove, politikurisazRvrebi, gzebi, navTobsadenebi, mineraluri depozitebi da a.S.drois ganmavleobaSi sxvadasxva elementebze dakvirveba miwissafaris cvlilebis tendenciis da misi sxva elementebTan kavSirisanalizis SesaZleblobas iZleva. am saxis analizis produqtiSeiZleba iyos miwis safaris cvililebis identificireba da misigamomwvevi faqtorebis analizi. geoinformaciuli sistemebisaukeTeso saSualebaa bunebrivi resursebis konservaciisa daefeqturi marTvisaTvis. misi saSualebiT SesaZlebelia cvlilebiskanonzomierebis farTo speqtris dadgena, romelic Zalian ZneliaRmosaCenia sxva saSualebebiT. sivrciTi analizi xSirad iyenebsdistanciuri zondirebiT mopovebuli iseT monacemebs, rogorebicaa,satelituri gamosaxulebebi, aerofotografia da videografia.tyeebTan dakavSirebuli tipiuri analizisas erTmaneTs edebamonacemebi tyiT dafaruli teritoriebis da Wris nebarTvebis ansxva saxis saqmianobis Sesaxeb, raTa gamoCndes Tu arsebuli tyis raprocentia degradaciis safrTxis qveS. monacemTa damateba daculiteritoriebis an iSviaTi biomravalferovnebis adgilebis Sesaxeb56


saSualebas gaZlevT SeityoT, Tu ra viTarebaa maT dacvasTandakavSirebiT. aSkara darRvevebi, Tundac iseTi aralegaluri qmedebebi,rogorcaa dacul teritoriebze gacemuli Wris nebarTva, SesaZloaaRmoCenili da damajereblad gaxmovanebuli iyos geoinformaciulisistemebis meSveobiT. rodesac aseTi analizi keTdeba Wrisganxorcielebamde, monitoringis saSualebiT SesaZlebelia aseTidarRvevis ganxorcielebis arideba.miuxedavad imisa, rom sivrciTi analizis gakeTeba Zviria dasakmaod rTuli, es teqnologia sul ufro farTod gamoiyeneba. mcirearasamTavrobo organizaciebisaTvis SesaZloa sasargeblo iyossawyisad did partnior organizaciebTan TanamSromloba aRniSnuliteqnologiis gamoyenebisaTvis. satelituri gamosaxulebebi SesaZloaZalian efeqturi iyos (1) bunebrivi habitatiT an miwiT sargelobisSedegad landSaftis cvlilebis kanonzomierebis gamovlenisaTvis da(2) habitatebis iseTi calkeuli maxasiaTeblebis idetificirebisaTvis,rogoricaa axali gzebis an Wragavlili teritoriebis gaCena.monitoringis proeqtis III etapi: komunikacia dagavlenaarasamTavrobo organizacebi agroveben xarisxian monacemebsmniSvnelovani sakiTxis Sesaxeb da akeTeben srulyofil analizs,magram saboloo jamSi maT ar aqvT gavlena da ar iwveven bunebriviresursebis mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas, radganac maT efeqturadar gaaxmovanes maTi mignebebi. isini usargeblod xarjaven Tanxas daxelidan uSveben bunebrivi resursebis mdgomareobis gaumjobesebisSesaZleblobas.arasamTavrobo organizacia iwyebs monitoringis programas mxolodim mizniT, rom gaaumjobesos bunebrivi resursis statusi da marTva.aRniSnulis misaRwevad monitoringis monacemebis gamoyeneba arismonitoringis procesis saboloo nabiji.monitoringis SedegebiT gavlenis moxdenas aqvs ori faza: (1)strategiis Seqmna da (2) misi ganxorcieleba. Tuki monitoringismonacemTa Segrovebis etapze mniSvnelovania gegmis zustadSesruleba, komunikaciis (Sedegebis gaxmovanebis) etapzemniSvnelovania sakiTxisadmi ufro Tavisufali midgoma da strategiissaWiroebisamebr Secvla. miuxedavad amisa, SeecadeT, rac SeiZlebameti dagegmoT winaswar, raTa gansazRvroT strategia, romelicimuSavebs da aseve SeqmeniT biujeti mis gansaxorcieleblad.komunikaciis strategiakomunikaciis strategiis SesamuSaveblad Tqven unda:1. amoirCioT samizne jgufebi; da2. amoirCioT gza, romelic iqneba saukeTeso samizne jgufebisaTvis57


xmis miwvdenisa da maTze zegavlenis moxdenisaTvis.rogorc wesi, monitoringis programebi iTvaliswineben erTzemet samizne jgufs da TiToeulisaTvis Sesaferis strategias.ase magaliTad, zogierTi organizacia aralegaluri WrebisaRsakveTad samizne jgufebad irCevs sxvadasxva qveynis mTavrobebs,saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebs da farTo sazogadioebas.maTi komunikaciis strategia ki moicavs personalur Sexvedrebs/brifingebs, angariSebs, werilebs da a.S.komunikaciis strategiis Seqmnas aqvs ori saxis sargebeli:pirveli, SesaZlebelia kolegebisa da yvela dainteresebuli mxariskomentarebisa da SeniSvnebis miReba; da meore, SesaZlebeliamaqsimalurad Sesabamisi biujetis SemuSaveba.komunikaciis tonikomunikaciis strategiis mniSvnelovani nawilia Tqvenipublikaciebis tonis gansazRvra. komunikacia unda xorcieldebodessamizne jgufisaTvis martivi da damajerebeli toniT sando daobieqturi informaciis miwodebiT. am balansis darRveva martivadSesaZlebelia informaciis Zalian mkveTri, ukompromiso an monacemebTanaraSesatyvisi informaciis miwodebiT. zogjer zedmetad ukompromisogancxadebebis gakeTeba arasamTavrobo organizaciebs sazogadoebismxardaWeras akargvinebs. gawonasworebuli da dasabuTebuli tonimet kars aRebs.samizne jgufebis SerCevasamizne jgufebis SerCeva unda moxdes ori ZiriTadi kriteriumisgaTvaliswinebiT. pirveli: potenciur samizne jgufebs unda hqondeTunari da SesaZlebloba arasamTavrobo organizaciis informaciissafuZvelze gavlena moaxdinon procesebze. meore: unda arsebobdesjgufis survili/unari miiRos, Tqvens mier miwodebuli informacia.ase magaliTad, Tuki Tqvens mier SerCeul samizne jgufs SeuZliaaRkveTos qveyanaSi xe-tyis aralegaluri Wra, magram naTelia, rommas ar gaaCnia amis survili, am jgufis SerCeva ar iqneba saukeTesoarCevani. qvemoT CamoTvlilia ramdenime potenciuri samizne jgufi.mokavSireebierTi miznisaTvis mebrZol jgufebs xSirad SeuZliaT damatebiTisargebeli/gamoyeneba upovon Tqvens mier mopovebul informacias. esjgufebi SesaZloa yvelaze efeqturi samizne jgufi iyos.mTavrobaqveynis mTavroba umniSvnelovanesi samizne jgufia arasamTavroboorganizaciis informaciis gamoyenebisaTvis. mTavroba aris qveynis58


unebrivi resursebis ganmkargavi, is iRebs kanonebs, romlebicaregulireben resursebis moxamrebas da akontroleben maTSesrulebas. amitom, arasamTavrobo organizaciis mopovebul sandoda obieqtur informacias bunebrivi resurebis statusisa da marTvisSesaxeb, Tuki is efeqturad aris mimarTuli, SesaZloa mTavrobazedidi gavlena hqondes.resursis mompovebeli kompaniebibunebrivi resursebis mompovebeli kompaniebis (mag. xe-tyisdamamzadebeli kompaniebi, samTo-mompovebeli kompaniebi da sxv.)saqmianoba garemosdacviTi arasamTavrobo organizaciebis udidesiinteresis sagania. maT saqmianobas umniSvnelovanesi zegavlena aqvTbunebriv resursebze. arasamTavrobo organizaciebis publikaciebismeSveobiT SeuZliaT miuTiTon kompaniebs cudad warmarTulsaqmianobaze. maT Sesaxeb cudi informaciis gavrcelebam SesaZloakompaniebs ubiZgos saqmiaobis gaumjobesebisaken. amis efeqturadgakeTebisaTvis, mzad iyaviT aRiaroT kompaniis miRwevebic.sxva qveynis mTavrobebisxva qveynis mTavrobebi SesaZloa Sesatyvisi samizne jgufi iyosmonitoringis zogierTi programisTvis. sxva qveynis mTavrobebida korporaciebi SesaZloa yidulobdnen ukanonod da darRvevebiTmopovebul resursebs. am mTavrobebis gafrTxilebam SesaZloa ubiZgosmaT aseTi resursebis yidvisgan Tavis Sekavebis, an saerTaSorisokorporaciebisagan ukeTesi menejmentis moTxovnisaken. garda amisa,sxva qveynis mTavrobebs, donoruli programebisa da diplomatiissaSualebiT, SeuZliaT gavlena iqonion garemosdacviTi miznebiTresursebis marTvis gaumjobesebaze.mediamasobrivi media – gazeTebi, radio da televizia – informaciisswrafi da did teritoriaze gavrcelebis saSualebaa. media ufrofarTo sazogadoebisaTvis xmis miwvdenis saSualebaa, vidreTavisTavad samizne jgufi. monitoringis programisaTvis sasargebloaadgilobrivi presis, radios da televiziis, aseve igive tipissaerTaSoriso mediis gamoyeneba. pres-relizebi, pres-konferenciebida satelevizio klipebi aseve Zalian efeqturia. am saSualebebisgamoyenebiT Tqven SegiZliaT ubiZgoT mediis warmomadgenlebsgaaSuqon TqvenTvis saintereso sakiTxi.saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebisaerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebi SesaZloa zegavlenisgaZlierebis saukeTeso saSualeba iyos. maT SeuZliaT gamoiwvionTqveni samizne jgufis uprecendento yuradReba Tqvens miermopovebuli informaciis mimarT.59


saerTaSoriso donori organizaciebi da korporaciebies jgufebi (magaliTad, msoflio banki) Zalian mniSvnelovania,radganac isini xSirad gamoyofen Tanxas bunebrivi resursebisganviTarebisa da mopovebis proeqtebisaTvis. rogorc wesi, maTainteresebT am proeqtebis mier adgilobriv doneze moxdenili efeqtida amitom, Sesatyvis samizne jgufs warmoadgenen monitoringisSedegebis gaziarebisaTvis.farTo sazogadoeba da momxmareblebisazogadoebrivi azri SesaZloa cvlilebis erT-erTi uZlieresiganmapirobebeli garemoeba iyos, Tundac arademokratiulsazogadoebaSi. arasamTavrobo organizaciis informaciasSeuZlia sazogadoebrivi azris Seqmna. amisaTvis mravali saxisinformacia SeiZleba iyos Sesaferisi. ase magaliTad, adgilobrivimosaxleobisaTvis SesaZloa ar iyos cnobili garkveuli tyeebis anbunebrivi resursebis Rirebulebis Sesaxeb. SesaZloa, maT ar icodnen,an araswori informacia hqondeT, maTi qveynis bunebrivi resursebismarTvis Sesaxeb. aseve, SesaZloa Zalian efeqturi iyos sainformaciokampaniebi, romlebic mimarTulia momxmarebelTa dasarwmuneblad, arSeisyidon garkveuli saqoneli (ukanonod mopovebuli nedleulisgannawarmoebi).komunikaciis produqtebiarsebobs komunikaciis sxvadasxva saSualebebi, romlTa efeqturobadamokidebulia samizne jgufis tipze. aseve gansxvavebulia maTTvissaWiro Tanxebis odenobac. komunikaciis strategiis SemuSavebisasfrTxilad unda SearCioT samizne jgufisTvis Sesatyvisi midgoma misiRirebulebis gaTvaliswinebiT. daimaxsovreT, mizani aris efeqturistrategiis SemuSaveba. erTi kargad momzadebuli dokumenti ufroefeqturia, vidre xuTi sxvadasxva saxis araSesaferisad momzadebulimasala.mas Semdeg, rac moamzadebT masalebs, gansazRvreT wre,romlisTvisac saintereso iqneba am monacemebis miReba da mudmivadmiawodeT maT informacia. aseTi midgoma gansakuTrebiT amarTlebsmediasTan urTierTobis dros. mediis warmomadgenlebi miT ufroxSirad gamoiyeneben Tqven informacias, rac ufro xSirad SeaxsenebTTavs. droTa ganmavlobaSi, SesaZloa maT TviTonac ki mogmarTonsiaxleebisaTvis.personaluri brifingebi / Sexvedrebipersonaluri brifingebi SesaZloa informaciis gacvlis RirebulisaSualeba iyos, rogorc monitoringis mwarmoebeli organizaciisaTvis,aseve im jgufisaTvis, romelsac miewodeba informacia. es moicavsSexvedrebs ministrebTan, an sxvadasxva saxelmwifo moxeleebTan,60


saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, an bilateraluridonori organizaciebis warmomadgenlebTan, interviuebs mas-mediisreportiorebTan, aseve sxva jgufebTan. personaluri brifingis drosmonitoringis mwarmoebeli arasamTavrobo organizacia RebulobsmniSvnelovani personis yuradRebas, xolo is ki, Tavis mxriv, iRebsinformacias, romelsac ver miiRebda sxva saSualebebiT.arasamTarobo organizaciam unda daamtkicos, rom igi arissrulyofili, sando da miukerZovebeli informaciis mimwodebelimanamde, sanam dagegmavs Sexvedrebs mniSvnelovan adamianebTan.sxva SemTxvevaSi, msgavsi Sexvedrebis miRweva Zalian Zneli iqneba.nebismier SemTxvevaSi, es Rirebuli mizani da strategiaa sxvamidgomebis Sesavsebad.upiratesoba:• brifingebis saSualebiT myardeba kontaqtebi gavlenianpirebTan;• brifingebis meSveobiT monitoringis daskvnebi xalxis xelSixvdeba, romelTac ZaluZT cvlilebis miRweva/ganxorcieleba;• Tqven iZenT axal adamianebs, romlebic mzad iqnebian momavalSikvlav miiRon sxva informacia Tqvengan.nakli:• Sexvedrebis SeTanxmeba sakmaod Znelia, gansakuTrebiTaxladSeqmnili organizaciebisaTvis;• personaluri brifingebisas informacias mcire raodenobisadamiani iRebs.rCeva:• nu iqnebiT konfrontaciuli;• yovelTvis Tan iqonieT dokumenturi masala, romelsacdautovebT Sexvedris Semdeg.pres-relizebikargad dawerili pres-relizebi nebismieri komunikaciis strategiisganuyofeli nawilia. es aris monitoringis Sedegebis mediaSi da misisaSualebiT farTo sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebis efeqturi saSualeba.mniSvnelovania, rom pres-relizi moicavdes informacias, romelicsWirdebaT Jurnalistebs. sasurvelia, pres-relizi ar aRematebodeserT gverds, magram, amavdroulad, amomwuravad asaxavdes problemas daar Seicavdes teqnikur detalebs. pres-relizis mizania sakiTxisadmixalxis yuradRebis mipyroba – raTa xalxma gaigos problemis Sesaxebda seriozulad moekidos mas.upiratesoba:• pres-relizi advili dasaweria;• is advili gasavrcelebelia faqsiTa da eleqtronulifostiT;• pres-reliziT didi gamoxmaurebis gamowveva SeiZleba;• swrafia.61


nakli:• radganac pres-relizis wera advilia, SesaZloa maT Sorisbevri uvargisi iyos;• cudi pres-relizi arasamTavrobo organiaciis repuraciaslaxavs;rCeva:• iswavleT pres-relizis wera (formati da Sinaarsi);• mTavari saTqmeli dasawyisSive naTlad da mokledCamoayalibeT.pres-konferenciebipres-konferenciebi presasTan komunikaciis kargi saSualebaa.pres-konferencia kiTxvebis dasmisa da pasuxebis miRebis kargisaSualebaa da maTi meSveobiT ufro meti yuradRebis mipyrobaaSesaZlebeli, vidre marto presreliziT. Tumca Jurnalistebisdaswrebis uzrunvelyofa sakmaod Znelia.pres-konferenciebi unda moewyos TvalSisacemi sakiTxebis Sesaxeb,an im sazogadod aRiarebuli mniSvnelobis sakiTxebze, romlisSesaxebac arasamTavrobo organizacias gaaCnia utyuari monacemebi.axladSeqmnili arasamTavrobo organizaciebisaTvis JurnalistebisyuradRebis misapyrobad SesaZloa kargi strategia iyos ufrocnobil organizaciebTan partnioroba. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Tqveniinformacia unda iyos sando da damarwmunebeli – es aris umTavresiprincipi. sapirispiro SemTxvevaSi, Tqveni informacia SesaZloaerTxel an orjer gavrceldes presis meSveobiT, magram es meti arganmeordeba.upiratesoba:• pres-konferencia iZleva mediasTan uSualo urTierTobissaSualebas;• igi informaciis farTod gavrcelebis saSualebaa;• kiTxva-pasuxma SesaZloa gaaZlieros mediis interesi;• igi Jurnelistebs exmareba profesionalurad Sedgenilistatiebis da reportaJebis momzadebaSi.nakli:• Jurnalistebis Sekreba sakmaod Znelia;• cudad miwodebulma informaciam SesaZloa arasamTavroboorganizaciis reputacia Selaxos.rCevebi:• yovelTvis iqonieT pres-relizebi gavrcelebisaTvis;• frTxilad SearCieT pres-konferenciis Catarebis TariRi daadgili, raTa uzrunvelyoT maqsimaluri daswreba;• nu gamoiyenebT am saSualebas zedmetad.plakatebiplakatebi SesaZloa efeqturi iyos mcire samizne jgufisaTvis,62


ogoricaa, romelime soflis, dabis, an patara qalaqis macxovreblebi.is unda iyos kargad Sedgenili, Tvalis momWreli da damarwmunebeli.arasworia plakatze bevri informaciis ganTavseba. plakatzeukeTesia mokle, naTlad Camoyalibebuli da yuradRebis mimzidvelimimarTvebis ganTavseba.upiratesoba:• plakatebi kargi saSualebaa sazogadoebis yuradRebismisapyrobad;• SesaZloa plakatebis farTod gavrceleba;• misi saSualebiT SesaZlebelia arasamTavrobo organizaciisvizualuri cnobadobis gazrda.nakli:• plakatze ganTavsebuli informacia unda iyos martivi, amitominformacia mwiria;• plakatebi unda gavrceldes da gaekras;rCevebi:• SeecadeT, rom plakatebi Tvalis momWreli iyos;• darwmundiT, rom efeqtur adgilze akravT.bukletebies mcire dokumentebi saukeTeso saSualebaa arasamTavroboorganizaciis saqmianobisa da misiis ganacxadis Sesaxeb informaciisfarTod gavrcelebisaTvis. Tumca, bukletebi aseve efeqturisaSualebaa raime konkretuli sakiTxis, an proeqtis Sesaxebinformaciis gasavrceleblad.veb-gverdiveb-gverdi SesaZloa broSurisa da angariSis saukeTesomaxasiaTeblebis nakrebs warmoadgendes. is SeiZleba vizualuradSTambeWdavi, detaluri da uamravi informaciis momcveli iyos.kargi dizainis veb-gverdebis mnaxvelebs SesaZlebloba aqvT miiRonrogorc zogadi, aseve detaluri informacia. amJamad, organizaciaTaumravlesobasac gaaCnia veb-gverdi, Tumca ara yvelas. veb-gverdi arcvlis komunikaciis sxva saSualbebs, Tumca igi friad sasargebloda efeqturia.upiratesoba:• veb-gverdi Tqveni saerTaSoriso samizne jgufebisaTvisinformaciis miwodebis saukeTeso saSualebaa;• veb-gverdze SeiZleba ganaTavsoT rogorc StambeWdavi broSura,aseve detaluri angariSi;• veb-gverds SesaZloa ewvios uamravi pasiuri mnaxveli, romelicar iyo Tqvens samizne jgufSi;• veb-gverdi multimediuri prezentaciebis saSualebasiZleva;• veb-gverdis meSveobiT SesaZloa farTo samizne jgufisaTvis63


xmis miwvdena;• veb-gverdebi SesaZloa advilad ganaxldes, an Seswordes.nakli:• veb-gverdi mudmivad unda ganaxldes, raTa mnaxvelma yoveljerze raime siaxle naxos;• is moiTxovs kompiuterTan muSaobis specifiur codnas(Tumca arc Tu gansakuTrebiT rTuls) da SesaZloa saWiroebdesdamatebiTi TanamSromlis ayvanas;• igi moiTxovs kompiuterTan xelmisawvdomobas;• mnaxvelebis mozidvisaTvis aucilebelia veb-gverdisreklamireba.rCeva:• veb-gverdis dizaini vizualurad mimzidveli unda iyos;• yovelTvis ganaaxleT veb-gverdi;• farTod gaavrceleT informacia Tqveni veb-gverdis Sesaxebsamizne audienciaSi.broSurebibroSurebi konkretul sakiTxze fokusirebuli SedarebiT mokleda lakonuri dokumentia. Cveulebriv, igi gaTvlilia specifiurorganizaciebze, an adamianebze, romelzec gsurT moaxdinoT gavlena.broSurebi SesaZloa moicavdes zomierad detalur informacias.isini SesaZloa gamosadegi iyos, Tuki awarmoebT xangrZlivvadianmonitoringis programas, magram gsurT periodulad (mag.yovelwliurad) gamosceT angariSebi.upiratesoba:• mniSvnelovani sakiTxis Sesaxeb broSurebi mimzidveliadakavebuli adamianebisaTvis;• broSurebi SesaZloa swrafad gamoqveyndes;• broSurebis gamoqveyneba iafia.nakli:• broSuraSi warmodgenili informacia mwiria;rCeva:• SesaZlebelia misi swrafad SemuSaveba, magram darwmundiT,rom is kargad aris dawerili da kritikuli sakiTxebi naTladaris gansazRvruli;• naTlad gamijneT faqtebi da Tqveni interpretaciebi;• roca es SesaZlebelia, gamoiyeneT grafikebi - isiniipyroben yuradRebas da, amavdroulad, lakonurad gadmoscemeninformacias..biuletenebi da seriuli gamocemebisakiTxis codna, sandoobasTan erTad, ganapirobebs sazogadoebiskeTilganwyobas. amitom, biuletenebi komunikaciis strategiisRirebuli nawilia. es publikaciebi, rogorc wesi, sakmaod vrcelia64


da regularuli imisaTvis, rom fokusirebuli iyos calkeulmonitoringis programaze.upiratesoba:• regularuli publikaciebi, rogoricaa biuletenebi, aZlierebssazogadoebis ndobas da qmnis sakiTxiT dainteresebul adamianTawres;• biuletenis formati saSualebas iZleva gaavrceloT rogormokle, aseve detaluri informacia, fotoebis CaTvliT;• biuletenebi informaciis droulad gavrcelebis saSualebasiZleva.nakli:• calkeuli monitoringis programa ver agrovebs sakmarisinformacias didi biuletenisaTvis;• dokumentis xSirad momzadebis saWiroebam SesaZloa jgufimTavar samuSaos mowyvitos;• perioduli biuletenebis gamocema SesaZloa did danaxarjebTaniyos dakavSirebuli;• Tuki ar aris sakmarisi informacia biuletenisaTvis, publikaciaSesaZloa formalur xasiaTs atarebdes.rCeva:• umjobesia biuleteni moicavdes informacias mTlianadorganizaciis saqmianobis an ramodenime proeqtis Sesaxeb;• msgavsi publikaciebi jobia naklebi sixSiriT gamosceT (mag.yovelwliurad).angariSebimokle anotaciebisagan gansxvavebiT, angariSi ufro vrceli dadetaluri dokumentia da Cveulebriv efuZneba sakiTxis gamoZiebazemimarTul ramdenime proeqts.upiratesoba:• vrceli angariSebi detalebSi CaRrmavebis SesaZleblobasiZleva;• publikaciebi SeiZleba iyos Tvalis momWreli daSTambeWdavi;• publikaciebi iZleva monacemebisa da gamoyenebuli meTodisdetaluri dokumentirebis saSualebas.nakli:• publikaciis sididem SesaZloa is naklebad kiTxvadigaxados;• angariSebis wera, dabeWdva da gavrceleba sakmaod did drosda xarjebs moiTxovs;• swrafad cvalebad situaciaSi angariSi SesaZloa swrfad“moZveldes".rCeva:• ar iCqaroT angariSis momzadeba, daelodeT samuSaos65


dasrulebas;• SeecadeT angariSi ar iyos Zalian grZeli da gadatvirTuli;• gamoiyeneT grafikebi da fotoebi dokumentis“gamosacocxleblad";• yovelTvis waumZRvareT mokle anotacia.radio, videoradio:radio mediumia, romlis saSualebiTac SedarebiT mcire danaxarjebiTSesaZlebelia bevri adamianisaTvis xmis miwvdena. radios meSveobiTSesaZloa mimarTvis gavrceleba saWiro teritoriaze.video:video “pres-relizebi" SesaZloa Zalian efeqturi da adviladgasakeTebeli iyos. video pres-relizebi gansakuTrebiT efeqturadgamoiyeneba telemediis mier, radganac Tqven mudmivad informaciisZebniT dakavebul Jurnalists eTerisaTvis mza masalas awvdiT.ufro vrceli filmebi an video Canawerebi SesaZloa efeqturi iyosgarkveul situaciaSi, magram ufro met drosa da Tanxebs moiTxovs.upiratesoba:• vizualur an audio istoriebs SesaZloa didi gavlenahqondes;• maTi saSualebiT izrdeba organizaciis vizualuricnobadoba;• maTi saSualebiT farTo samizne jgufis mocvaaSesaZlebeli.nakli:• did danaxarjebs moiTxovs (gansakuTrebiT filmebi);• moiTxovs specialur aparaturas da gamocdilebas.rCeva:• iTanamSromleT ufro did organizaciebTan;• aqcenti ufro mcire (rogoricaa video pres-relizebi) formebzegaakeTeT;• filmis xilul an uxilav gamxmovaneblebad daiqiraveT cnobiliadamianebi.66


eaqciisa da gamoxmaurebisprognozireba da maTTvis mzaobamonitoringis Sedegebis warmodgenisaTvis mzadebisas undaSeecadoT winaswar gansazRvroT samizne jgufis potenciuri reaqciada Tqveni mignebebis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobebi. ra Tqma unda,sando informaciis floba gadamwyvetia. winaswari gaTvlebi TqvenSesaZleblobas mogcemT dagegmoT, Tu rogor SexvdeT negatiurreaqciebs da daakmayofiloT informaciaze moTxovna.monitoringis programis Sedegebis gaxmovanebisas undagaiTvaliswinoT Semdegi:• yovelTvis saqmis kursSi gyavdeT partniorebi da dainteresebulimxareebi – winaswar gaafrTxileT isini Sedegebis gaxmovanebisSesaxeb da acnobeT mTavari ideis Sesaxeb;• iqonieT sakmarisi dabeWdili masala gavrcelebisaTvis;• specialurad gamoyaviT TanamSromeli, romelic upasuxebskiTxvebs da satelefono zarebs;• mzad iyaviT gamoiyenoT gazrdili aRiareba. magaliTad, eskargi droa fondebisaTvis axali dafinansebis moZiebisaTvismisamarTad, personaluri brifingebisaTvis moTxovnis warsadgenad,mediisaTvis intervius misacemad da a.S.Semowmebis procesipublikaciis samuSao variantis momzadebis Semdeg mniSvnelovania,rom is sabolood gadamowmdes. Semowmeba aris procesi, romlisdrosac Tqven dokumentis samuSao variants SeniSvnebisa dakomentarebisaTvis warudgenT sakiTxSi garkveul kolegebs.arsebobs ori mizezi, romlis gamo dokumentisaTvismniSvnelovania Semowmebis procesis gavla: (1) publikaciis xarisxiudavod gaizrdeba sferos eqspertebis mosazrebebis maqsimaluradgaTvaliswinebiT; (2) eqpertebis mier dokumentis xarisxisa dasandoobis aRiareba gazrdis Tqveni samizne jgufis ndobasac.arsebobs Semowmebis ori done: Sida da gare. Sida Semowmebaxorcieldeba organizaciis SigniT, Tqveni kolegebis mier. gareSemowmeba xorcieldeba ara Tqveni TanamSromlebis mier. SidaSemowmeba rogorc wesi, xorcieldeba oTxi an xuTi kolegis mier.saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, Tqven unda miiRoT eqvsidan aTamde garekomentari, Tumca im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki farTo audiencia gyavT,SesaZloa ufro meti iyos saWiro.Sida SemowmebisaTvis kolegebis SerCeva xdeba publikaciebismomzadebaSi gamocdilebisa da sakiTxis Sesaxeb codnis mixedviT.gare Semmowmeblebi ki unda iyvnen (1) monacemTa momwodeblebi, (2)mecnierebi/eqspertebi da (3) Tqveni publikaciis samizne jgufiswarmomadenlebi.67


odis unda SewyvitoT monitoringi?Tqven unda icodeT, rodis gaCerdeT. efeqturi monitoringisdagegmareba da ganxorcieleba damokidebulia imaze, Tu ris miRwevascdilobT. miznebi aucileblad specifiuri unda iyos. mag. Tuki mizaniaris xelisuflebis saqmianobis cvlilebis meSveobiT qveyanaSiaralegaluri Wris Semcireba, warmatebisTvis mniSvnelovania: 1)progresi iyos gazomvadi da 2) gansazRvroT rodis gaCerdeT anSeamciroT Zalisxmeva. usasrulo miznebi (mag. “Wris Semcireba")araefeqturia. gansazRvreT Wrebis Semcirebis miRwevis xarisxobrivi,raodenobrivi da droiTi maCveneblebi. magaliTad, monitoringisprograma Seamcirebs aralegalur Wras 25 %-iT 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi,an 2010 wlisTvis gamoiwvevs tyis mcvelebis raodenobis 15 %-iT gazrdas. zogierTi procesi SeiZleba moiTxovdes gangZobad(SesaZloa dabali donis) monitorings mas Semdegac, rac mTavribrZola mogebulia. magram yvela monitoringis programas undahqondes warmatebis indikatorebi.Semdegi nabijiCven warmogidgineT monitoringis procesis mimoxilva da CarCo,Tu rogor unda awarmooT monitoringi. saxelmZRvanelos mTavariazri aris, rom monitoringi xorcieldeba bunebrivi resursebismarTvis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT specifiur kiTxvebze pasuxisgasacemad; magram ar SeiZleba arsebobdes mza recepti, Tu rogorwarmarToT monitoringi. monitoringi unda iyos Sedegiani, martivi,mizanmimarTuli da efeqturi kritikul kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad.monitoringis proeqtebs da programebs unda hqondes naTladCamoyalibebuli komunikaciis strategia. fuli wyalSi iyreba,rodesad monitoringis Sedegebi Sesaferisad ar xmovandeba. ufrometic, xelidan gaSvebuli SesaZlebloba pirdapir aisaxeba zustadim bunebrivi resursis mdgomareobaze, romlis dacvasac cdilobdaarasamTavrobo organizacia.am saxelmZRvaneloSi Cven SevecadeT gveCenebina, Tu ra mimarTulebiTunda ifiqroT rodesac iwyebT monitoringis proeqtis an programisganxorcielebas, Cven ver gikarnaxebT detalebs. Tumca, rogorc wesi,detalebi ganapirobeben warmatebas. amitom, monitoringis saukeTesomaswavleblebi yovelTvis arian is adamianebi, romlebic uSulodaxorcieleben mas.68


gamoyenebuli literatura••••••Wris wesebi saqarTvelos tyeebSi. 2000, saqarTvelos satyeomeurneobis saxelmwifo departamenti, red. l. WoWua, Tbilisi,48 gv.saqarTvelos ZiriTadi garemosdacviTi kanonebis krebuli. 2004,ozurgeTi, 400 gv.saqarTvelos biomravalferovnebis strategia da moqmedebaTagegma. 2005, Tbilisi, NACRES, 89 gv.saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo da kanonqvemdebare normatiuliaqtebis sainformacio saZiebo sistema CODEX 2005. (2006 wlis15 ivlisis mdgomareobiT).G. Tyler Miller, Jr. 2000, Living in the Environment: principles, connections andsollutions, Brooks/Coe puplishing Company, Eleventh editionMonitoring for impact: lessons on natural resources monitoring from 13 ngos.2000, by Christian Ottke, Peter Kristensen, David Maddox, Eric Rodenburg;Editors: Robert Livernash, David Hosansky; World Resources Institute,Conservation International.• www. forestgeo.net• www.parliament.ge• www. eia-international.org••69


1 23 451, 2. ukanono Wrebi sh- tyekafis gareSe, gzis pirebze moWrilia mouniSnavixeebi3, 4. niadagis erozia, romelic gamowveulia morebis moTreviT5. tyeSi niadagi dazianebulia zedmeti eqspluataciis gamo70


6789106, 7. tyidan gamotanili gauqerqavi wiwvovani xebis morebi8, 9. ukanono Wra, wiwvovani xis morebi damaragebulia tyeSi10. ukanonod moWrili xe, narCenebi tyeSia datovebuli71


11 1213 141511., 12. ukanono Wra kolxeTis erovnul parkSi13, 14, 15. saxerxebze dafiqsirebuli darRvevebi72


16 171816. ukanonod moWrili wiflis morebi17. ukanonod moWrili wabli (wiTeli nusxis saxeoba)18. saxerxi, sadac mxolod wablis merqani muSavdeba73

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines