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eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

eTheses Repository - University of

ARKADIA IN TRANSITION: EXPLORING LATE BRONZE AGE AND EARLY IRON AGE HUMAN LANDSCAPES By CATHERINE RUTH PARKER A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham For the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity School of Historical Studies The University of Birmingham January 2008

  • Page 2 and 3: University of Birmingham Research A
  • Page 4 and 5: DEDICATIONS Ian, Leila, Gabriel and
  • Page 6 and 7: CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER
  • Page 8 and 9: 5.4: Case Studies .................
  • Page 10 and 11: LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fig.1.1: Sect
  • Page 12 and 13: Fig.5.13: view of excavated tombs f
  • Page 14 and 15: LIST OF MAPS Map 2.1: Map of ancien
  • Page 16 and 17: LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 and Table
  • Page 18 and 19: LIST OF TRANSCRIPTS Transcript 1: V
  • Page 20 and 21: RDAC Report of the Department of An
  • Page 22 and 23: problematic archaeological record.
  • Page 24 and 25: esults (Bintliff pers. comm.). This
  • Page 26 and 27: think in terms of how individuals i
  • Page 28 and 29: account questions regarding the tim
  • Page 30 and 31: essentially an investigation into h
  • Page 32 and 33: PART 1 12
  • Page 34 and 35: stands today. In addition, it is st
  • Page 36 and 37: sources. Scholars working primarily
  • Page 38 and 39: a specific place detectable from Ho
  • Page 40 and 41: However, in spite of the fact that
  • Page 42 and 43: with political matters, which is ra
  • Page 44 and 45: evidence for the period from across
  • Page 46 and 47: Initial researches took place in th
  • Page 48 and 49: discovery of temples near Vaklia an
  • Page 50 and 51: Intensive, systematic survey as ext
  • Page 52 and 53:

    Megalopolis survey on the other han

  • Page 54 and 55:

    formed during the Alpine Orogeny -

  • Page 56 and 57:

    present day, leads to the assumptio

  • Page 58 and 59:

    The use of herbs is also known and

  • Page 60 and 61:

    p.409; Snodgrass [1971] 2001, p.269

  • Page 62 and 63:

    archaeological material included pr

  • Page 64 and 65:

    Democratic Athens in particular has

  • Page 66 and 67:

    Compared to other regions and/or pe

  • Page 68 and 69:

    one that is open to and tolerant of

  • Page 70 and 71:

    work of philosophers and social the

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    sense has been informed by this way

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    any other. There is nothing wrong p

  • Page 76 and 77:

    Soja (1996, p.10) characterises the

  • Page 78 and 79:

    through time. This approach is an a

  • Page 80 and 81:

    small, central area and reaches the

  • Page 82 and 83:

    Kompegadhi and Dhrosato Vrisariou-L

  • Page 84 and 85:

    Despite changes in the landscape, s

  • Page 86 and 87:

    The data available for a considerat

  • Page 88 and 89:

    assumption that peers will all unde

  • Page 90 and 91:

    classified as `structure+scatter` i

  • Page 92 and 93:

    3.2.6: Site Visits The predominant

  • Page 94 and 95:

    Arkadian origin, many of which have

  • Page 96 and 97:

    first hand, to see the seasonal var

  • Page 98 and 99:

    and Bradley (1991, p.212) suggests

  • Page 100 and 101:

    approaching past societies. He beli

  • Page 102 and 103:

    3.3.2a: Late Helladic The period wi

  • Page 104 and 105:

    abandonment and movements of people

  • Page 106 and 107:

    site. Basic information regarding e

  • Page 108 and 109:

    archaeology is itself a form of dwe

  • Page 110 and 111:

    CHAPTER 4: LANDSCAPES OF RELIGION A

  • Page 112 and 113:

    number of factors found together th

  • Page 114 and 115:

    Fig.4.1: view of Asklepeion at the

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Fig.4.2: view of ‘structure’ to

  • Page 118 and 119:

    A site that has indisputable eviden

  • Page 120 and 121:

    leader’s house may very well have

  • Page 122 and 123:

    Site ID Site Name site type 1 site

  • Page 124 and 125:

    A number of clay models found in sa

  • Page 126 and 127:

    dedicated to Aphrodite or Poseidon

  • Page 128 and 129:

    To the southeast, on the southern p

  • Page 130 and 131:

    Another prominent site within the t

  • Page 132 and 133:

    Fig.4.13: site of Asea Palaiokastro

  • Page 134 and 135:

    Finally, northeast of Gortys is Pet

  • Page 136 and 137:

    have been employed during religious

  • Page 138 and 139:

    (Mazarakis Ainian 1997, p.274). Sim

  • Page 140 and 141:

    site, retelling the myth of its fou

  • Page 142 and 143:

    There has been much anthropological

  • Page 144 and 145:

    ancients, at least not for those wh

  • Page 146 and 147:

    Map 4.1: sites in the Asea Valley w

  • Page 148 and 149:

    Abundant finds of the eighth-sevent

  • Page 150 and 151:

    The surrounding valley stands at ap

  • Page 152 and 153:

    affected relations between particip

  • Page 154 and 155:

    Fig.4.26: view from Ayios Elias to

  • Page 156 and 157:

    from where it came, is unknown: as

  • Page 158 and 159:

    was seen to be sacred, certainly in

  • Page 160 and 161:

    Fig.4.30: view from the site of Vla

  • Page 162 and 163:

    4.4.3: Case Study C: Ptolis-Gortsou

  • Page 164 and 165:

    Stathakopoulou 1989; 1992-3; Voyatz

  • Page 166 and 167:

    Map 4.3: map of sites in Mantinean

  • Page 168 and 169:

    and power arrangements could be map

  • Page 170 and 171:

    metaphorically remove deities away

  • Page 172 and 173:

    5.1 Introduction CHAPTER 5: LANDSCA

  • Page 174 and 175:

    As for rite, most burials of the LB

  • Page 176 and 177:

    As can be seen from Table 5.1, most

  • Page 178 and 179:

    Thebes; see Mountjoy 1999, p.55). T

  • Page 180 and 181:

    5.2.6: Protogeometric and Geometric

  • Page 182 and 183:

    ties to the living society and how

  • Page 184 and 185:

    the idea of labour cost in modern s

  • Page 186 and 187:

    change in population or belief in o

  • Page 188 and 189:

    Kaphyae or lower Orchomenos plain)

  • Page 190 and 191:

    informants who had been there befor

  • Page 192 and 193:

    However, during the summer months t

  • Page 194 and 195:

    Map 5.2: Plains of Stymphalos and P

  • Page 196 and 197:

    adult, the other a child, and in th

  • Page 198 and 199:

    Fig.5.8: the large tholos at Vourvo

  • Page 200 and 201:

    or the comb. Maybe it was the older

  • Page 202 and 203:

    took on a different role and afford

  • Page 204 and 205:

    Fig.5.10: View to N with Sarandapot

  • Page 206 and 207:

    Map 5.3: SE Arkadia (source: Hellen

  • Page 208 and 209:

    . Map 5.4: Palaiokastro-Palaiopyrgo

  • Page 210 and 211:

    Here, as in the case studies above,

  • Page 212 and 213:

    that once devoid of flesh, the rema

  • Page 214 and 215:

    Map 5.5: site of Kalliani-Ayios Yio

  • Page 216 and 217:

    Of course, the sites reviewed above

  • Page 218 and 219:

    Map 5.6: position of sites of perio

  • Page 220 and 221:

    suitable place, unless access was i

  • Page 222 and 223:

    Burials and cemeteries of the Geome

  • Page 224 and 225:

    approached or looked upon during th

  • Page 226 and 227:

    contrast to that posited for the My

  • Page 228 and 229:

    any reinforcing of roots or appropr

  • Page 230 and 231:

    1997, p.15). This general pattern c

  • Page 232 and 233:

    this time at major sites such as Or

  • Page 234 and 235:

    The sites described as scatter and

  • Page 236 and 237:

    In the south east of Arkadia, the s

  • Page 238 and 239:

    opinion of the excavator, SM and PG

  • Page 240 and 241:

    Similarly, at Kato Asea-Palaiokastr

  • Page 242 and 243:

    there are problems with this. It is

  • Page 244 and 245:

    and see Chapter 5), although it cou

  • Page 246 and 247:

    dating - at least for similar roads

  • Page 248 and 249:

    identification and definition to be

  • Page 250 and 251:

    the citadels have been found. There

  • Page 252 and 253:

    divisions in the present study are

  • Page 254 and 255:

    Fig.6.4: LH foundations at Orchomen

  • Page 256 and 257:

    comparable with other hydraulic wor

  • Page 258 and 259:

    Fig.6.8: channel running past an EH

  • Page 260 and 261:

    In the lower plain of Orchomenos, n

  • Page 262 and 263:

    it may also be that the sites in th

  • Page 264 and 265:

    populations. Conflicts were perhaps

  • Page 266 and 267:

    6.4.2: Case Study B: The Mantinean

  • Page 268 and 269:

    Map 6.4: site of the LBA (red dots)

  • Page 270 and 271:

    hill appears to have been reserved

  • Page 272 and 273:

    and enhance the sanctity of the pla

  • Page 274 and 275:

    Fig.6.16: View along ridge to churc

  • Page 276 and 277:

    Fig.6.17: View from ridge to the we

  • Page 278 and 279:

    not purposeful, it may still have a

  • Page 280 and 281:

    Fig.6.21: view from Nestani-Paniyir

  • Page 282 and 283:

    Map 6.5: plains of Pheneos and Stym

  • Page 284 and 285:

    Fig.6.24: apsidal structure 3 looki

  • Page 286 and 287:

    Fig.6.26: ‘entrance’ at Tsoukka

  • Page 288 and 289:

    The evidence is too slight from all

  • Page 290 and 291:

    6.5: Conclusions This chapter serve

  • Page 292 and 293:

    Perhaps with growing communities fr

  • Page 294 and 295:

    7.1 Introduction CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY

  • Page 296 and 297:

    such as to construct the hydraulic

  • Page 298 and 299:

    If there was continuity of populati

  • Page 300 and 301:

    7.3: Problems and Resolutions The a

  • Page 302 and 303:

    Although speaking with reference to

  • Page 304 and 305:

    p.175) states in his essay ‘We Ph

  • Page 306 and 307:

    which they are achieved are signifi

  • Page 308 and 309:

    Although such statements maybe cons

  • Page 310 and 311:

    Fig. 7.2: drawing of S90 made in th

  • Page 312 and 313:

    7.3: Final thoughts McDavid (2000,

  • Page 314 and 315:

    The research presented here illumin

  • Page 316 and 317:

    APPENDIX 1: GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATIO

  • Page 318 and 319:

    The problems start with the paper m

  • Page 320 and 321:

    always taken into account. For inst

  • Page 322 and 323:

    However, VR falls short of what mos

  • Page 324 and 325:

    humans interacted with the physical

  • Page 326 and 327:

    archaeology. Is archaeology without

  • Page 328 and 329:

    e of little relevance or use at all

  • Page 330 and 331:

    A2.1: Site type 1 categorisations A

  • Page 332 and 333:

    Site ID Site Name period site type

  • Page 334 and 335:

    Site ID Site Name period site type

  • Page 336 and 337:

    Site ID Site Name period site type

  • Page 338 and 339:

    Site ID Site Name period site type

  • Page 340 and 341:

    A2.3: Sites by period Site ID Site

  • Page 342 and 343:

    Site ID Site Name site type 1 site

  • Page 344 and 345:

    APPENDIX 3: INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING

  • Page 346 and 347:

    Modern Sources Adrimi-Sismani, B.,

  • Page 348 and 349:

    Belcher, M., Harrison, A. & Stoddar

  • Page 350 and 351:

    Brann E., (1961). ‘Late Geometric

  • Page 352 and 353:

    Chadwick, J., (1967). The decipherm

  • Page 354 and 355:

    Cracolici, (2005). ‘Pottery from

  • Page 356 and 357:

    Evans, A. J., (1912). ‘The Minoan

  • Page 358 and 359:

    French, E. B. & Wardle, K., (1988).

  • Page 360 and 361:

    Given, M., et al. (2001) Troodos Ar

  • Page 362 and 363:

    Hearnshaw, H., (1994). ‘Psycholog

  • Page 364 and 365:

    Iakovides, S.E. (2003). Gla and the

  • Page 366 and 367:

    Knauss, J., (1990), ‘Der Graben d

  • Page 368 and 369:

    Loraux, N., (1987). Tragic Ways of

  • Page 370 and 371:

    Morgan, C., (1999a). Isthmia VIII:

  • Page 372 and 373:

    Norwegian Institute, Tegea [online]

  • Page 374 and 375:

    Petch, J., (1994). ‘Epistemologic

  • Page 376 and 377:

    Renfrew, A. C. & Wagstaff, M., (198

  • Page 378 and 379:

    Schoinas Ch., (1999). "Eikonistike

  • Page 380 and 381:

    Tausend, K., (1994). ‘Ein antiker

  • Page 382 and 383:

    Voyatzis, M. E., (1997). ‘Illumin

  • Page 384:

    Winckelmann, J. J., (1764 German ed

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