Anthropology - Butler University

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Anthropology - Butler University

ANTHROPOLOGY

The Near East Side Legacy: Revitalization or Gentrification?

Samantha Adamson, Faculty Sponsor: Susan Hyatt, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

With the recent injection of funds from Indianapolis Super Bowl’s NFL Youth Education Town

Legacy project, a revitalization endeavor on the upper near Eastside of Indianapolis has taken

place gained additional funding and momentum with the hopes of creating a “neighborhood of

choice” in close vicinity to Indianapolis downtown. In this paper, I will evaluate the

consequences of the Legacy project. Is this project the neighborhood revitalization that

Indianapolis’ upper eastside so desperately needs? Or is this a superficial development that is

simply an example of gentrification at its finest? I will evaluate the differences between the ideas

of those who benefit from the project and those who are just outside its reach.

Super Hoosier Hospitality

Oaksoon Callahan, Faculty Sponsor: Susan Hyatt, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

The Super Bowl XLVI in Indianapolis recruited 13,000 Hoosiers volunteers to make the event a

success. In my paper, I will be discussing Indianapolis’s Philanthropy leading up to the Super

Bowl. My research will survey philanthropic activities in relation to the Super Bowl and the

impact of such a connection on those organizations. I will be surveying volunteers about their

philanthropic activities leading up to the Super Bowl and whether the Super Bowl was a onetime

philanthropic act, a way to be involved with the Super Bowl, or another opportunity for

them to give back to the community. Many organizations are also partaking in the Legacy

Project on the Near Eastside, but how will such a project be maintained after the Super Bowl

when the “Super Bowl” label is no longer attached the opportunities of philanthropy?

Reifying Beauty: Hair, Gender, & Power

Matthew Free, Faculty Sponsor: Sholeh Shahrokhi, Butler University

In the creation of beauty and fashion, much attention is paid to the role of the fashion industry

elite—those who indeed create trends and beauty ideals. However, whatever influence ‘high

fashion’ has on perception and creation of beauty norms and exceptions, beauty is idealized,

enacted, performed, and created daily by the ‘laypeople’ of fashion, the professionals of

technique. This multisided, mini-ethnographic project attempts to locate the salon amidst the

discourses it produces and by which it is produced. Somewhere between 'high fashion,' those

who hold the power to determine trends and styles, and the consumers that buy and buy into

these ideas is the place—the salon—that facilitates an integral part of this exchange. The

beautician is artist-laborer, translating the ‘high fashion’ of hair into the everyday, designing and

realizing some fusion of pragmatism and what is in-style. From where beauty is deified to where

it is reified, connotations and expectations of gender, race, and power permeate the industries

and ideologies of beauty-making. Norms are not representative of the whole, but created as an

end—the means to which are money and painstaking treatments, products, styling, razors, shears,

chemicals, and judgment. The endless flux of rewriting the self into what has already been and is


constantly being authored is reflected in the periodic visit to the salon. I have tried here to initiate

a dialogue between constructions and performances of beauty and gender and the power

relationships amongst the beautician, beauty ideals, race, consumerism, and the client.

While Neighborhoods Decline, Georgia Street Rises: An Analysis of Downtown

Development and the Super Bowl in Indianapolis Stephen Godanis, Faculty Sponsor: Susan

Hyatt, Indiana University/Purdue University at Indianapolis

Downtown Indianapolis is witnessing a dramatic resurgence. The completion of the Georgia

Street corridor, a three-block, 12.5 million dollar project, complete with covered pedestrian

walkways, trees, and imagined cafes, is the envy of the city. Few neighborhoods boast the

development that has become common downtown. In this paper, I analyze the effects of the new

Georgia St. corridor on the downtown area. In addition, I will discuss the ways in which this

ambitious project was initiated and completed in a surprisingly short period of time, during the

run-up to the Super Bowl while other neighborhoods in Indianapolis have been left to languish.

Food Porn: the Art of Food Photography, Blogging, and Entering the "Foodie" Culture

Emilija Grinvalds, Faculty Sponsor: Troy Hill, Butler University

With the advent of Food Network, Iron Chef, and food-centric magazines, food blogging has

become an increasingly popular method of becoming involved with the "foodie" culture. Anyone

with a camera and internet access can share their recipes online to a huge community that is

passionate and hungry for the next big recipe. However, as the community continues to grow and

become more exclusive, the quality of food photography has become the determining factor that

separates amateur foodies from professionals. The art of food photography is to master how to

manipulate light and "style" the food so that the food not only looks appetizing, but also tells a

story. In this presentation I will share my food blogging experiences and "the tricks of the trade"

on how to create food stories and properly photograph food.

A Glimpse of Ghana

Kelly Hamman & Jenna Wheaton, Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Corpus, Butler University

After two best friends studied separately in Ghana, they returned with a new perspective of

Ghana and the world. Fusing elements they observed in everyday life with an academic historical

basis of understanding, a new conceptualization of Ghanaian life and society has emerged. These

two friends seek to share the joys of life in Ghana while providing additional information on the

core factors that have served to shape this illuminating country, including indigenous culture,

religion, and tribal structures as well as the unfortunate advent of colonialism and slavery.

Job Scrimmage: After the Game Is Over

Amanda Jolliffe, Faculty Sponsor: Susan Hyatt, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

The problem of unemployment in Indianapolis can be debilitating emotionally and

financially. The Super Bowl is coming to Indianapolis in 2012 and along with the excitement it

will supposedly bring in new employment opportunities. The question on everyone's mind is


whether the Super Bowl jobs will have the staying power to remain in Indianapolis after the

game is over or whether they will disappear as has been the case in other cities that have hosted

major sporting events. In this paper, I evaluate the kinds of jobs that came to Indy and whether

any of them will be living wage jobs.

New Brew: The Emergence of Microbrewing in the American Midwest

Dustin Klingler, Faculty Sponsor: Susan Hyatt, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

Brewing is a tradition long practiced Indiana but within the past two decades the state has

become a center for innovation within the craft and it now stands at the vanguard. As

Indianapolis is continuously growing so are these small breweries. The significance behind these

breweries is that they are intertwined with other local food movements within and around the

state of Indiana. These small breweries have also been instrumental in passing new legislation

allowing for sales on Sunday, which equates to direct state revenue. Most importantly these

small breweries have also become integral members of their communities, giving back to their

local customers through various fundraisers, donations, and special charity events. The goal of

this presentation is to explain the connections microbreweries have to other local food

movements as well as analyze the effects they are having their communities.

The Catholic Church and Mexican Immigrants in Indianapolis: The Immigrant

Experience in Indianapolis at St. Philip Neri

Ryan Logan, Faculty Sponsor: Susan Hyatt, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

Although marginalized, the growth in Latino populations is having an effect on many

metropolitan areas in the United States. This is seen on East and West Washington Street here in

Indianapolis as well as in several Catholic parishes. In this presentation, I will explore the nature

of the changing relationships between the Catholic Church (specifically St. Philip Neri Catholic

Church in Indianapolis) and the influx of Latino residents and worshippers in that parish.

Utilizing ethnographic methodology, I will demonstrate how the Catholic Church plays a pivotal

role in the lives of Latino immigrants and, in many ways, how the Latino immigrants are saving

Catholic parishes.

Conceptions of Identity in Teotitlán del Valle

Angela Miller, Faculty Sponsor: Ageeth Sluis, Butler University

In order to research my honor’s thesis for Butler University, I spent April and May of 2011

living with members of Vida Nueva, a women’s weaving cooperative in Teotitlán del Valle, a

rural Zapotec village in southern Mexico. The resulting ethnography documents and analyzes the

ways in which Vida Nueva’s efforts to empower indigenous women have altered the community

of Teotitlán. The first section of the project uses Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of capital to examine

how the women’s attempt to gain economic resources has resulted in their attainment of cultural

and social assets. The second chapter uses subaltern theory to investigate how the rug market has

shaped indigenous identity in Teotitlán. The final chapter elaborates on the idea that the women

have altered cultural norms by exploring notions of gender identity in the state of Oaxaca. The


conclusion integrates the results to show that Vida Nueva has changed the community of

Teotitlán.

Examining the Colonial Project: James Cameron’s Avatar and the Conquest of Knowledge

and Desire

Tia Osborne, Faculty Sponsor: Sholeh Shahrokhi, Butler University

James Cameron’s Avatar stands as one of the most successful movies of all time. The fan base

and online community connected to this film is enormous and illustrates Cameron’s ability to

create films that resonate with the “contemporary zeitgeist.” This paper examines the ways in

which Avatar, as an immensely popular cultural product, speaks to both our past and our present.

Drawing on influential works such as Edward Said’s Orientalism, Talal Asad’s Anthropology &

the Colonial Encounter and other writers like Arturo Escobar and Michel Foucault, I examine

the ways in which the conquest of knowledge and desire in the colonial context becomes

intimately intertwined and emphasized through the two main characters’ (Jake Sully and Neytiri)

romantic relationship throughout the film. This “conquest of knowledge” primarily considers the

discourse both surrounding and constructing the “Other” throughout colonial and neocolonial

encounters. In addition, I argue that the construction of the “Other” is coupled with a gendered

construction, with the colonial power, the “knower” relatively superior to the colonial subject,

the “known.”

Harry Potter and the Manifestations of Colonialism

John Shaw, Faculty Sponsor: Sholeh Shahrokhi, Butler University

This presentation offers a critical examination of the Harry Potter book series by JK Rowling

and the ways that we can trace various forms of colonial powers represented in their stories.

More specifically, by examining the relationship presented to us between the wizards and

witches that populate the novels and the magical creatures known as “house-elves”. I argue that

the books provide clear references to colonialism, (i.e. subjugated populations, acts of resistance,

and struggles with identity) that closely parallel the history of our own world. To frame the

theoretical approach of this research I used works from authors Michel Foucault, Edward Said,

Arturo Escobar, and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak in order to get a sense of the anthropological

and colonial canon as well as various critiques of discourse. Finally, in order to situate these

theories in the fictional world of Harry Potter, this critique will depart from a passage in which

Rowling describes a statue created by the wizards that is symbolic of a hierarchal binary between

the colonizer and the colonized.

Cultural Biases within Art

Ginny Swale, Faculty Sponsor: Sholeh Shahrokhi, Butler University

As the creation and trade of art becomes globalized in the modern era, we are asked to consider

what, if any, cultural biases are present in that exchange. How do different cultures perceive and

appreciate foreign art? More specifically, in what ways do cultural biases and stereotypes

influence us to either approve or disapprove (through purchase or patronage) of a foreign art

form? Through my discussion on this topic, I would like to highlight the hypocrisy with which

art is bought and sold in the U.S- specifically how a piece of art can be transformed from being


perceived as 'primitive' and worthless to a valuable, prized possession all through the connotation

under which it’s sold. I will be using examples from African art and Mexican textiles to

demonstrate the relationship between differing cultures and to showcase some very relevant

examples of art manipulation.

A Fatal Attraction: The Symbiotic Relationship between Indianapolis and a Sports

Strategy

Lian Thang, Faculty Sponsor: Susan Hyatt, Indiana University/Purdue University at Indianapolis

For Indianapolis, a chance to host the 2012 Super Bowl is not only an honor, but it is an

opportunity to rebrand itself as a "big league city" with Midwestern charm. From the building of

the Lucas Oil Stadium, to the expansion of the existing convention center to subsidizing the

building of a soaring new hotel, Indianapolis has bent itself backward to be "cool" and "sporty."

This dependency on sports as a mean for economic development has created a complex

landscape in the city of Indianapolis and its surrounding areas. Thus, I will analyze how the

vernacular landscape of the city of Indianapolis and its surroundings has been impacted over

time due to a sports strategy.

Coffee and Dates: Perceptions of Life in the Modern Middle East

Patrick Thevenow, Faculty Sponsor: Elise Edwards, Butler University

This presentation explores the differing usage of public space by men in the Middle East and the

implications of foreign perception upon this activity through the analysis of existing historical

and anthropological work on this subject and original ethnographic fieldwork in the Sultanate of

Oman. Through examining the use of public space in the Middle East I create an image of life in

a culture quite different from America which will aid in furthering understanding between

American and Middle Eastern culture. Firsthand ethnographic work with Omani men over their

daily date and coffee meetings is the basis of this work, coupled with a discussion of the effects

of foreign and domestic perception upon the activities of this last generation of men to grow up

in a largely pre-oil Middle East. This work is a culmination of over two years of research,

multiple trips to a wide range of locations in the Middle East, and countless hours of writing and

editing that has all contributed to create a unique image of a part of life in the Arab World that is

rarely encountered by Americans.

The Curse of Being Iraqi: A Summer in Kurdistan

Patrick Thevenow, Faculty Sponsor: Elise Edwards, Butler University

American perceptions of life in Iraq have been largely formed through images of atrocities and

war over the past two decades. While my personal perception of Iraq had been formed based

upon these images, a trip to Iraq in the summer of 2011 completely rebuilt my understanding of

life in Iraq. Through photographs, ethnographic storytelling, and discussion, I hope to paint a

unique portrait of daily life in Iraq. While what has been broadcast on television is a part of the

reality of life here, it is by no means the entire reality. This presentation will seek to broaden

horizons and enhance the understanding of life for Iraqis--a group of people who remain

misunderstood and demonized by long years of war and violence.


Death in the Neighborhood of Saturdays: An Ethnograpic Portrait of Mortuary Practices

from Indianapolis' Old Southside

Anne Waxingmoon, Faculty Sponsor: Susan Hyatt, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

The Neighborhood of Saturdays is a collaborative project between the Anthropology Department

at IUPUI, and current and former residents of Indianapolis' Old Southside. Dr. Susan Hyatt has

directed students in collecting the oral histories of neighborhood life from the residents. Stories

of unity and relative racial harmony are in abundance from the old neighborhood, particularly

before it was literally divided by super infrastructure with the building of Interstate 70. A priority

of the project is the completion and publishing of a book to honor the Old Southside entitled The

Neighborhood of Saturdays. My Senior Project, "Death in the Neighborhood of Saturdays"

represents a sub-project, focused on the death and bereavement practices of two of the

neighborhood's prominent subcommunities: Sephardic Jews and African-Americans. Through

oral interviews, scholarly research, and participant observation in contemporary funeral practices

from both sub-communities, I have compiled a chapter for inclusion in The Neighborhood of

Saturdays. My work highlights how ethnic identity and public policy intersect to impact death

and bereavement practices in historic and contemporary Indianapolis.

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Refining the Annotations of Malaria Genomes

Asaad Alkhouli, Faculty Sponsor: Peter Blair, Earlham College

Malaria remains a global scourge to human life and existence and is responsible for up to 500

million cases and 3 million deaths annually. Therefore the need to establish and design novel

malaria drug and vaccine strategies is crucial yet remains challenged, in part, due to the current

status of malaria gene annotations. While the human malaria (P. falciparum) genome deserves

the majority of attention, the accuracy of the rodent model (P. yoelii) genome is imperative for

the traditional pipeline of drug/vaccine development and validity studies. Our research utilizes

published large-scale datasets, notably Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), comparative genomics,

and bioinformatic approaches to resolve and correct the current P. yoelii gene annotations. Our

research focused on the first 200 genes of the rodent malaria genome. Overall, 62% of all genes

surveyed were incorrectly called as originally published. This presentation will offer both a

description of our methodology and an update of results. Our data are currently available on the

free online genomic resource, PlasmoDB (www.plasmodb.org). This work was funded by an

NIH Academic Research Enhancement Award (R15 AI068675-01/02) and the Stephenson Fund.

Developing a Temperature-Sensitive S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) Hydrolase

Expression Vector to Study SAM Metabolism in E. Coli

Matt Alward, Faculty Sponsor: Jeffrey Hughes, Millikin University

S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) hydrolase (SAMase) cleaves SAM in E. coli transformed with

expression vectors containing the cloned coliphage T3 gene. This provides a tool to study the


metabolism of SAM in these cells. A temperature sensitive mutant of this enzyme is being

studied to determine whether temperature shifts might be used to regulate SAMase activity. The

variant gene, SAM ts , has been cloned into bacteriophage M13 and cells infected by these phage

are being assayed at different temperatures for activities affected by SAMase expression. To

produce a more reliable expression vector, the SAM ts gene is being spliced into pUC18 to allow

antibiotic selection of transformed cells. The goal of this research is to provide a molecular tool

for controlled expression of SAMase in E. coli that should be useful in studies involving cell

division, methylations, and other SAM-related activities.

Locating a SNP on a Particular Region of the HLA-C Gene in Psoriatic Individuals that

Will Indicate Susceptibility to Developing Psoriasis

Kristy Amores, Faculty Sponsor: Joann Lau, Bellarmine University

Psoriasis is a non-contagious, lifelong skin disorder that is characterized by periodic flare-ups of

well defined, red patches covered by silvery flaky scales. It can be difficult to determine

individuals at risk for psoriasis since there are several factors including genetic and

environmental. The purpose of this study was to identify a single nucleotide polymorphism

(SNP) in the PSOR1 susceptibility gene, HLA-C (a gene associated with the immune system)

that will identify individuals susceptible to psoriasis. PSORS1 has been implicated in about 35-

50% of the heritability of the disease. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used

to amplify a 3000 bp region of HLA-C. Previously established two primer sets within the HLA-

C region were used for PCR optimization and analyzed by gel electrophoresis. DNA samples

from healthy and psoriatic individuals will be collected. Age and gender matched will be

extracted, amplified and sequenced to identify a SNP for restriction enzyme screening. Results

from this experiment can be used to develop a way to screen individuals who are more

susceptible to psoriasis.

Do Butterfly Communities Change Over Time in Northern California?

Lucas Avery, Faculty Sponsor: Andrew McCall, Denison University

Climate change is affecting many species across diverse ecosystems. Butterflies are reliable

biological indicator species with changes in habitat ranges correlating with regional climate

trends. In this study we explored if butterfly communities at ten sites in northern California

changed over the last thirty years, and whether these changes depended on the life history

characteristics (weedy or non-weedy) of the species Our hypotheses were that the communities

were changing and that weedy species were changing less because of their greater tolerance to

changes in host plant availability. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) to

first characterize each year using relative butterfly species abundances. This also allowed us to

graphically observe the changes in time in multivariate space. We analyzed the change in

communities over time by first partitioning the years into early, mid, and late periods. We then

analyzed the differences among the categories using a multivariate extension of ANOVA called

ANOSIM. All of the butterfly communities changed over the three time periods. (P-values for

all sites were < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in the amount of change between

the weedy and non-weedy butterflies, suggesting that the differences over time were not

dependent on life histories.


The Relationship between Soil pH, Depth below Surface, and Buried Bone Preservation

Sarah Berger, Faculty Sponsor: Stephen Nawrocki, University of Indianapolis

There are many factors that can affect the condition and survival of bones depending on whether

they are scattered on the ground surface or buried. This research examines the effects of burial

on bone condition for 26 adult and 51 subadult human skeletons excavated from the historic 19th

century Berne Cemetery in northwest Indiana. The degree of erosion, cortical delamination,

fragmentation, and differential preservation of spongy and cortical bone was documented and

ranked for each skeleton. Following the model developed by Nawrocki (1995), skeletal ranks

were then correlated to the pH of the soil in each burial, depth below surface, and degree of

postburial disturbance (if present) in order to determine which factors, if any, affected bone

condition. This approach should help us to understand why skeletons deposited in seemingly

similar environments display considerable variability in preservation.

Small Mammal Biodiversity and Abundance at Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge

Stephanie Bishir, Faculty Sponsors: Walter Bruyninckx & Joseph Robb, Hanover College

I surveyed small mammals at Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge (BONWR) during the summer

and fall of 2011. BONWR is located on the former site of the Jefferson Proving Ground. Given

this history, there exists unexploded ordnance on the property that has limited access since 1940,

and has resulted in mammal diversity not being well documented. BONWR is interested in

developing a species list in order to assess biodiversity and document any rare species, allowing

the refuge to be able to better understand how to manage and preserve the unique biodiversity

and habitat relationships of the species found on the refuge. In my survey, a total of 7 habitat

types were sampled yielding 6 species in 1,652 total trap nights. The habitats sampled were pole

stand and mature mixed forest, mixed forest riparian corridor, open and dense grassland with

saplings, mature mesic forest slope, and open grassland near forest edge. I also examined 29

previous specimens that were collected in pitfall traps that were set during a previous

investigation. The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) was the dominant species,

comprising 61.73% of the total species captured. The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) was

subdominant, comprising 16.05% of the total species captured. Species diversity was highest in

the open grassland and lower in forest habitats. The information gathered can be compared to

future surveys as environmental conditions change to assess the impact that these changes are

having on the small mammal populations, in regards to their diversity, abundance, and overall

habitat relationships.

Periwinkle Eradication: Are Multiple Years of Herbicide Application Necessary?

Stacy Buschhaus, Faculty Sponsor: Darrin Rubino, Hanover College

Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.) becomes an invasive species when it escapes into Midwestern

forests. The goal of this study was to determine the most effective method of site preparation

and herbicide application to eradicate periwinkle. During the previous growing season all of the

vinca was sprayed with herbicide. Three herbicide treatment methods were used in the second

year: rake-and-spray (rake around any periwinkle seen and spray), see-and-spray (any vinca that

lived through the first year and was visible was sprayed), and intense rake and spray (removal of

all vegetative cover and spraying of periwinkle). The species, tree species, and woody species


ichness, and percent periwinkle cover were assessed throughout the 2011 growing season. An

ANOVA analysis determined that herbicide application to invaded areas significantly increased

species richness (F = 29.64, P < 0.05), tree species richness (F = 9.50), and woody species

richness (F = 10.90) in the three treatment sections. Herbicide application also significantly

decreased (F = 2053.20) the percent periwinkle cover in the three treatment sections by the end

of the growing season. UPGMA cluster analysis of the treatments showed that the rake-andspray

and see-and-spray treatments were most successful in establishing non-invaded

communities following herbicide application. Results show that multiple herbicide applications

are needed over several years in order to completely eradicate Vinca minor from the area and

return it to a natural, non-invaded state.

Analysis of DNA Sequence and Enzyme Expression of Cloned Punitive T3 SAMase

Homologs in Escherichia Coli

Ian Callahan, Faculty Sponsor: Jeffrey Hughes, Millikin University

A variety of bacteriophage direct synthesis of an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) hydrolase

(SAMase) immediately upon infection to inactive host Type I restriction systems. The cloned

SAMase gene from coliphage T3 has been expressed in Escherichia coli to remove endogenous

SAM and study metabolic consequences such as the effects of SAMase-induced

hypomethylation, induction of methionine biosynthetic genes, and impaired cell division. Using

degenerate primers, genomic DNA from coliphage BA14, serratia phage IV, and klebsiellaphage

K11 was amplified by PCR and cloned into pUC18. Analysis of insert DNA sequences and the

ability of each plasmid to induce met regulon genes in the E. coli will verify the identity and

activity of each putative clone. Furthermore, comparison of these sequences to those obtained

from seven bacteriophage genomes submitted to GenBank should identify features in the protein

related to its activity, information that should be useful in creating a more effect SAMase

expression vector.

Treatment of Craniofacial Deficits in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

Alexis Chom, Faculty Sponsor: Randall Roper, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

Trisomy 21 is the genetic source of the group of phenotypes commonly known as Down

syndrome (DS). These phenotypes include cognitive impairment, heart defects and craniofacial

abnormalities, including a small mandible. The Ts65Dn mouse model contains three copies of

approximately half the genes found on human chromosome 21 and exhibits similar phenotypes

to individuals with DS including a small, dysmorphic mandible. Our lab has traced this deficit to

a smaller first branchial arch (BA1) consisting of fewer neural crest cells (NCCs) at embryonic

day 9.5 (E9.5). At E9.5, Dyrk1a, a gene known to affect craniofacial development, is upregulated

in the BA1, likely contributing to its cell deficit. Using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an

extract from green tea and a known inhibitor of Dyrk1a, we are attempting to rescue this deficit.

We hypothesize the consumption of EGCG by pregnant mothers at E7 and E8 will rescue the

mandibular deficit in developing embryos by reducing the expression or activity of Dyrk1a.

From our data we conclude the treatment of pregnant mothers with EGCG results in increased

embryo size of trisomic embryos. Further analysis will be done to determine embryo volume, the

volume of the BA1, and number of NCCs within the BA1 to determine the effects of EGCG in


vivo. This research will better our understanding of craniofacial development and could lead to

potential genetic-based therapies in the future.

Synthesis and Characterization of Ester Derivatives of Chloramphenicol

Nathan Clarke, Faculty Sponsor: Jeremy Johnson, Butler University

The increase in antibiotic resistant drugs over the past decades has led researchers into

developing new methods to maximize the efficacy of already developed antibiotics. Through the

process of microwave synthesis and solution phase resins, choloramphenicol derivatives were

esterified with three differing carboxylic acids, (Triacetic Acid, Proprionic acid, Cyclobuteric

acid). Theaddition of esters to the antibiotics removes its potential toxicity until bacterial

esterases reactivate the drug. Microwave synthesis for each reaction yielded low to moderate

concentrations of complex mixtures of chloramphenicol derivatives; whereas the use of solution

phase resins (PS-Carbodiimide) yielded much higher concentrations. Products were tested for

their ability to inhibit bacterialgrowth. In the presence of different bacterial esterases, the

proprionic acid derivatives showed the greatest reactivation of the chloramphenicol, inhibiting

the growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilus.

Genetic Diversity in Genus Myriophyllum

Kelly Crider, Faculty Sponsor: Nathanael Hauck, Butler University

Invasive Myriophyllum spicatum (i.e. Eurasian watermilfoil) is a major threat to the biodiversity

of native communities of organisms. Additionally, M. spicatum clogs waterways and costs the

state of Indiana thousands of dollars in treatment costs each year. Samples of watermilfoil were

collected from the Indianapolis Canal to measure levels of genetic diversity, a classic indicator of

the overall health of a population. DNA was extracted from the samples, and specific sequences

were replicated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using both chloroplast and random

amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Replicated chloroplast DNA was sent into

MCLabs for genetic sequencing, while RAPD DNA was run out on agarose gels. Genetic

sequencing from MCLabs indicated that M. spicatum made up a much smaller percentage of the

Canal’s milfoil population than originally anticipated, with the vast majority of the population

being composed of native varieties of milfoil.

A New Assay to Measure Uptake by S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) in Escherichia Coli

Transformed with a Yeast SAM Permease Expression Vector

Kirsten Daykin, Faculty Sponsor: Jeffrey Hughes, Millikin University

S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a sulfonium containing metabolite whose presence is vital for

many metabolic reactions. SAM, however, cannot cross cell membranes in Escherichia

coli. Metabolism of SAM has been extensively studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and

advantage of this species being that it processes a transmembrane SAM permease (SAP) which

allows exogenously added SAM to cross cell membranes. Transforming a putative SAP

expression vector (pSAP1) into E. coli apparently allows the uptake of SAM by these cells as

demonstrated previously. To verify this conclusion using a different assay procedure, E. coli

strains K-12 and BW545 were transformed with pSAP1, SAM was added exogenously, and

samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours. Cell-free media were analyzed by ultraviolet


visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) at 260 nm in order to monitor disappearance of 260nm absorbing

substances, including SAM. Comparison of these data with previous results should provide a

better basis upon which to claim that pSAP1 facilitates the uptake of SAM in E. coli.

Active Site Characterization of Vibrio Cholerae ybfF

Liz Ellis, Faculty Sponsor: Jeremy Johnson, Butler University

V. cholerae ybfF is a metabolic thioesterase with a unique binding pocket and interesting

substrate specificity. In a previous study, ybfF was found to show strong substrate specificity

toward butyl esters, but to also accept a wide-range of aromatic, polar, and sterically constrained

esters. To understand the structural basis for the catalytic promiscuity of V. cholerae, we

substituted thirteen residues within the binding pocket and active site and determined their affect

on the thermal stability and catalytic activity of ybfF. Comparison of the kinetic constants and

thermal stability of the ybfF variants to wild-type ybfF indicate that the two lobes of the

bifurcated substrate binding pockets play discrete roles in controlling catalytic activity. One

pocket containing the catalytic nucleophile controls substrate specificity, while the other pocket

contributes to stability and orients hydrolytic water molecules. The unusual substrate specificity

could make ybfF a potential prodrug target

Analysis of Culture Media for Compounds Exported from Escherichia Coli with In Vivo S-

adenosylmethionine Hydrolase Activity

Stephanie Gates, Faculty Sponsor: Jeffrey Hughes, Millikin University

In vivo expression of the cloned coliphage T3 S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase) causes

SAM to be hydrolyzed into 5’-methylthioadenosine (which is subsequently degraded to 5-

methylthioribose, MTR) and homoserine. To better understand the consequences of expressing

SAMase in E. coli, media conditioned by cells transformed with SAMase expression vectors

were analyzed for the presence of exported organic compounds using high-performance liquid

chromatography (HPLC) and gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Demonstrating

high levels of exported MTR will confirm published reports, identifying homoserine and

derivatives such as homoserine lactone may help explain cell aggregation in these cultures

through an autoinduction mechanism, and other molecules found in significant levels should hint

at other SAMase-related metabolic disturbances.

Comparison of the Substrate Specificity of Homologous Esterases from Mycobacterium

tuberculosis and Vibrio cholerae

Alexandra Gehring, Faculty Sponsor: Jeremy Johnson, Butler University

Multiple drug resistant TB has become common in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

infections. Consequently, new drugs and new drug targets are needed to treat M. tuberculosis

infections. One interesting class of new drug targets is an enzyme family known as lipases,

which are essential to the virulence of the bacteria and are used to sustain a persistent infection

of TB. M. tuberculosis has a large number of lipases which are used to cleave ester bonds in

lipids, including Rv0045c. ybfF is an enzyme in V. cholerae that has an amino acid sequence

similar to that of Rv0045c. Because of this, it is plausible the Rv0045c and ybfF are bacterial

esterase homologs. The substrate specificity of Rv0045c and ybfF was determined against a


library of fluorogenic ester substrates. Comparison of their substrate specificity, amino acid

sequence, and crystal structures provides support that Rv0045c and ybfF are homologs.

Patterns of Tree Seedling Invasion Over Time within Self-Thinning, Near Monocultures of

Prunus serotina

Jonathan (Yoni) Glogower & Casey McCabe, Faculty Sponsor: Brent Smith, Earlham College

Black cherry (Prunus serotina, Rosaceae), is a common fruit-bearing tree found throughout

forests of eastern North America . We investigated the temporal pattern of appearance of tree

invaders in a 47 year-old black cherry forest. This forest had been closely studied since its

emergence from an abandoned farm field in 1974. In 1987, 16 plots were located in soils of

differing quality and at different tree densities. All trees in these plots were tagged and censused

regularly. We sampled invaders by coring all individuals larger than 2.5cm DBH, aging them

and recording average ring width as a measure of growth rate. Using age data, we plotted the

temporal pattern of colonization in conjunction with the temporal pattern of thinning of the

original black cherry trees. We also investigated whether present day soil quality or forest

density has had an impact on patterns of invader establishment.

We found that there was a distinct wave of increase in invader establishment at the time when

the thinning of black cherry trees was most rapid. This fits the model of inhibition put forth by

Connel and Slatyer (1977). However, growth rate based on ring width of invading trees was not

significantly different between plots of differing soil quality and plots of differing tree density.

We conclude that the decrease in black cherry density was significant enough to allow for

seedling establishment, yet still dense enough to inhibit optimal growth rates, and that

competition for light was the cause.

Effects of Intraspecific Competition on Brood Ball Construction Time of East African

Dung Beetles

Emma Grygotis & George Bouchard, Faculty Sponsor: Leslie Bishop, Earlham College

Herbivore dung contains many nutrients and resources that are available to a broad variety of

organisms. Dung beetles are one such organism, using dung for several purposes, including the

construction of brood balls in which their eggs hatch and larvae develop. Field observations of

dung beetle populations in Ndarakwai Game Reserve, Northern Tanzania, suggested that

intraspecific competition may be a determining factor of the time allocation for Kheper sp., the

most frequently observed dung species over the course of our study. We recorded the time and

number of aggressive intraspecific interactions for each phase of the brood ball construction

process, from the time an individual beetle has arrived on a fresh dung pad to the time it rolls

away with a complete brood ball. The rate of interaction was highest prior to the start of

construction, but remained high until after beetles had left the pad. These results support the

hypothesis that intraspecific competition is important in determining patterns of time allocation

during brood ball construction. Such a hypothesis could explain why many of the construction

behaviors, such as rolling away from the pile prior to covering the ball with dirt, as well as

partner building between mated pairs of beetles, are beneficial. Implications for population

variability in both ball and beetle size are also discussed.

Identification of Airborne Mold on the Campus of Bellarmine University


Samuel Harris, Faculty Sponsor: Joanne Dobbins, Bellarmine University

This research project was conducted in order to determine an efficient, accurate way of detecting

3 different species of the fungus Aspergillus (A. niger, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus)

simultaneously from an airborne sample. A protocol was developed to quickly identify airborne

molds found both outdoors and within places of residency, work, and recreation. An “Aerotech”

air sampling apparatus was used to collect airborne mold. Several samples from different

locations indoors and outdoors around the Norton Health Science Center on the campus of

Bellarmine University were taken. The sample plates were grown until distinguishable fungal

colonies appeared. Each unique colony was re-plated and, after sufficient and pure growth of

these colonies had been established, samples were prepared to microscopically identify each

unique species. Using traditional microscopic identification of fungal fruiting bodies as a

reference, Aspergillus and Penicilium molds were selected for DNA analysis. With this DNA,

PCR and gel electrophoresis determined primer affinity and accuracy with each sample. Once

Aspergillus DNA had been genetically confirmed, primers developed by the EPA for detecting

fungal species were obtained. PCR and gel electrophoresis produced clear and distinct bands for

each species tested. DNA from each control Aspergillus species was then mixed with all 3

primers in a single sample and the PCR produced one lane with 3 unique bands (a process known

as multiplexing). Species present in an unknown sample were now able to be identified as

Aspergillus and distinguished from Penicillium by comparing bands present to established band

sizes. With this type of PCR involving multiple primers and unknown samples producing

distinguishable bands or different sizes, a more efficient method to quickly and accurately

identify select species of airborne mold has been established. Finally, future comparisons of

unknown mold samples to the established fungal species, using our select primers, will give us

the capability to identify with greater efficiency the prevalence of specific airborne mold on the

Bellarmine University campus.

Hypersensitivity Response and Systemic Acquired Resistance in Mnium cuspidatum upon

Pathogenic Infection by Pythium irregulare

Rachel Heck, Faculty Sponsor: Philip Villani, Butler University

The most common methods by which angiosperms (flowering plants) respond to pathogen attack

include the hypersensitivity response (HR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). HR is

characterized as the immediate death of cells in which the pathogen has entered, as well as the

cells surrounding the infected ones so as to prevent the spread of the pathogen. SAR is initiated

when a certain signaling molecule is sent out to all areas of the plant starting at the initial

infection site. Once SAR has been initiated, the plant will create defensive molecules (e.g.

jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene) and should be protected for an extended period of time

from a multitude of different pathogens and further infection by the same pathogen. The specific

pathogenic defense mechanisms employed by mosses have not been researched in depth, but

previous research has given evidence to suggest mosses may employ the same methods of

defense as the angiosperms. Through comparative microscopic analysis of the moss species

Mnium cuspidatum post inoculation with the fungus Pythium irregulare, evidence to suggest the

presence of the use of HR and SAR by M. cuspidatum has been noted. Further experimentation

should be performed to determine which signaling molecule is used by M. cuspidatum to initiate

SAR.


Testing the Hotspot Hypothesis of Lek Evolution in the White-Crowned Manakin

Meghan Hennessey & Martin Ventura, Faculty Sponsor: Wendy Tori, Earlham College

In many species males gather to display at traditional sites (i.e., leks) for the purpose of

mating. Females visit these display arenas to assess potential mates, and typically there is high

variance in male mating success. The fact that only a few males sire the majority of offspring

begs the question: why do males gather in leks if by doing so they may risk a decrease in fitness

by allowing direct comparison with competing males?

Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of leks. The hotspot hypothesis

suggests that patterns of female movement and dispersion determine where males settle. Males

gather in areas with the highest probability of encountering females (hotspots). To test this

hypothesis, we estimated the home range size of two female White-crowned Manakins by

attaching radio transmitters and conducting telemetry via triangulation within a 100 Ha plot in

the Ecuadorian Amazon. Combining our home range estimates with previous female capture

data (2001-2011), we used Geographic Information Systems to generate a female density

map. Next, we examined whether male territories were located in areas of higher female

densities than expected by chance. To do this, we overlaid the observed male territories on the

female density map and calculated the average number of female home ranges overlapping male

territories. We compared this value against 100 sets of randomly generated territories using a

Monte Carlo simulation. Our findings are discussed in light of what is known about this species.

Unusual Gait Transitions in Elephant Calves

Megan Houchin, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Dale, Butler University

Hoyt and Taylor’s (1981) famous study of locomotion in ponies indicated that as the speed of the

ponies increased, they switched gaits from lateral sequence walk, to trot, then to gallop. This

relationship between speed and gait may be true of most animals, but it does not seem true of

young elephants. I recorded the gaits used by elephant calves during their first year of

life. Using reference points in the elephant yard I was able to calculate the speed of the

elephants when using both the lateral sequence and the trot gaits. These elephants exhibited both

gaits over the same range of speeds. I will describe the range of speeds over which the two gaits

overlapped, and discuss why elephant calves might use two different gaits at the same speed

instead of switching gaits like the ponies in Hoyt and Taylor’s study.

African Elephant Locomotion

Elizabeth Jennings, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Dale, Butler University

For hundreds of years, observers thought that elephants had only one gait. Scientists have only

recently recognized that elephants exhibit several walking patterns. Research on elephant

locomotion is important because of their huge size and their unusual body shape; this research

provides insight into the effects of mass on locomotion. There have been several interesting

studies on the footfall patterns of adult African elephants (Loxodonta africana). The present

study extends this work by examining locomotion in an African elephant calf at the Indianapolis

Zoo. I will collect frame-by-frame observational video data from this calf across a six-month

period (from the calf’s birth, July 20, 2011, to January 2012) and use this information to


determine how the movements of the fore and hind limbs are coordinated across a wide variety

of speeds and ages. My hypothesis is that stride duration will increase as the calf’s age increases,

but that the calf’s gait, itself, will not change.

Where do the Bugs Go? Pollination Networks in Alpine Meadows

Alina Kanaski, Faculty Sponsor: Chris Smith, Earlham College

Pollination networks are a way to look at pollination as an ecosystem-wide process, rather than

focusing on any single interaction. For this study, pollination networks were created for three

meadows in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. This was done through direct observation of

pollination events in sample plots over a four-week period. A tentative correlation was found

between the size and connectedness of meadows and the size of the pollination network. Two

different methods of mapping pollination networks were also compared.

Comparative Conservation Efforts: Australia & the United States

Sarah Kuchinsky, Faculty Sponsor: Travis Ryan, Butler University

A recent study abroad experience inspired the idea for this project. Australia and the United

States both have unique flora and fauna, many of which are threatened. This project focuses on

the conservation efforts of both nations by using two case studies. Conservation efforts at the

national, state, and local levels are assessed in the Hawaiian monk seal and the Tasmanian devil.

Both are endemic island species residing in their namesake locations. Both are listed as

"endangered" species and are at dire risk of extinction. This paper analyzes the main

conservation literature of both countries and looks at experiments done to assess the outcomes of

conservation laws.

Embryonic Bone Development and Nfat Expression in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model for Down

Syndrome

Ahmed Malik, Faculty Sponsor: Randall Roper, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic disorder that occurs in approximately 1 out of every

750 live births. DS phenotypes include cognitive deficits, altered craniofacial features, muscle

hypotonia, heart defects, and abnormal bone structure. The Ts65Dn mouse model is the most

common organismal model used to study DS phenotypes. This model exhibits a number of

phenotypic traits comparable to those of humans with DS, including bone anomalies. Past

studies have shown that Ts65Dn mice exhibit weaker trabecular bone due to less trabeculae.

They have also been shown to have less bone mineral density and bone mineral content at 6

weeks of age when compared to their euploid counterparts, with the severity of these defects

lessening by 16 weeks. No studies of bone development have yet decisively identified the origin

of these defects. We hypothesized that abnormal endochondral ossification is responsible for the

presence of these deficiencies in bone mineral content and bone mineral density. Aberrant

expression of Nfat has been implicated as the molecular cause of many DS-related phenotypes,

and activity of Nfat can be determined based upon its localization. Specifically, Nfat has been

shown to control many aspects of bone development, which makes it of special interest to this

research. To test our hypothesis of a bone deficit present during embryonic development of


Ts65Dn embryos, we are comparing cartilaginous template characteristics, progression of the

mineralization front, osteoclast activity, percent bone volume, and Nfat localization in euploid

and trisomic mouse femurs at embryonic day 17.5. Our preliminary data show lower percent

bone volumes in trisomic femurs, suggesting that endochondral ossification in Ts65Dn mice lags

behind that of their euploid counterparts. These results indicate that DS bone phenotypes do

indeed originate during embryonic development and create a foundation for future work on their

treatment.

Kosciusko County Water Quality Testing Factors

Ashlea Marshall, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

Testing for water quality can have its murky points, such as who will test the water and what the

testers will look for in the water. Microorganisms, toxins from algae, and chemicals have shut

down beaches, pools and reservoirs. In Kosciusko County in Northern Indiana, several groups of

people test their local bodies of water for harmful chemicals and take care of the area

surrounding them. Those in charge of water quality testing from four local water quality testing

groups and the Kosciusko County Health Department have agreed to share their water quality

testing practices. Through the information these groups have shared, I hope to learn which

factors determine water quality testing in Kosciusko County, such as government regulations and

scientific research.

Natural Selection on Insect Resistance in Several Populations of Wild Radish

Clare Meernik, Faculty Sponsor: Andrew McCall, Denison University

Levels of plant defenses may be predicted by the optimal defense theory, which suggests that

plants experiencing varying levels of herbivory across years will have high levels of inducible

defenses, while plants in conditions with more constant herbivory will employ constitutive

defenses. To investigate these predictions, we censused herbivore damage on fourteen

populations of wild radish from northern California for six years and grew the plants in a

greenhouse. Spodoptera exigua larvae were used to challenge half of the wild radishes from each

population and subsequently challenge all the plants. Constitutive defenses were determined by

caterpillar performance on undamaged control plants within populations, while induced defenses

were determined by analyzing caterpillar performance on previously damaged plants compared

with the undamaged controls in each population. Plants with prior damage were more resistant to

herbivory relative to controls, indicated by more trichomes produced, fewer holes eaten, and less

weight gain of the caterpillars after being challenged. However, no significant relationships were

found between variation in herbivory and constitutive or induced defense measured by the same

variables. Even with extended census data over six years, our results provide no support for a

relationship between variation in herbivory and any type of defense.

C-mpl is Expressed on Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts and is Important in Regulation of

Skeletal Homeostasis

Tomas Meijome, Faculty Sponsor: Melissa Kacena, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis


Thrombopoietin is the main megakaryocyte growth factor, and c-mpl is the thrombopoietin

receptor. As megakaryocytes have been shown to enhance bone formation, it may be expected

that c-mpl-/- mice, having reduced megakaryocyte numbers, would have decreased

bone. However, c-mpl-/- mice have similar or higher bone mass compared to controls. Here we

show, c-mpl expression on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and begin to identify how c-mpl regulates

bone. Static and dynamic bone histomorphometry parameters suggest that c-mpl deficiency

results in a high bone turnover state with net balance or gain in bone volume. In vitro, higher

percentage of c-mpl-/- osteoblasts were in active phases of the cell cycle, leading to increased

osteoblast number. No differences in osteoblast differentiation were observed in vitro as

examined by real-time PCR and functional assays. In co-culture systems, which allow for

interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclast progenitors, c-mpl-/- osteoblasts enhanced

osteoclastogenesis. The MCSF/OPG/RANKL axis, a major pathway by which osteoblasts

regulate osteoclastogenesis, was however unaffected in c-mpl-/- osteoblasts. These data begin to

clarify the roles of megakaryocytes and c-mpl in regulating bone. Further understanding how c-

mpl regulates bone formation may provide insight into homeostatic regulation of bone mass as

well as bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis.

The Characterization of the S1 transposon in Sweet and Sour Cherry Trees

Karissa Miller, Faculty Sponsor: Nathanael Hauck, Butler University

Transposons provide variability to genomes of various species. And when comparing the diploid

sweet cherry to the tetraploid sour cherry one would think that there would be more activity and

affect in the diploid speices. In order to confirm this hypothesis, several different techniques

were employed including PCR, sequencing, RFLP, and the making of a fosmid library. In the

end it can be concluded that the S1 transposon is conserved between the two species but the

characteristics of it are not fully known at this time.

The Diversity of Feeding Behaviors in Marine Olivid Snails

Molly Miller, Faculty Sponsor: Winfried Peters, Indiana University/Purdue University at Fort

Wayne

Olivid snails (families Olividae and Olivellidae) occupy a variety of niches in the intertidal and

shallow subtidal of tropical and subtropical sandy coasts worldwide. Evolutionary niche

establishment depends on various factors; in the olivids, different modes of food acquisition

seem to have played a key role. The two extremes are represented by large predatory members of

Oliva (olive snails) which show very complex behavioral sequences of prey attack and handling,

and some small Olivella (dwarf olive snails) species which are suspension feeders that produce

mucus nets carried by unique foot appendages, with which they filter microscopic food particles

from swash waves. In the field as well as under controlled aquarium conditions, we are

characterizing behavioral patterns related to food acquisition with the aim of mapping these

patterns onto current phylogenetic models, in order to provide independent behavioral evidence

for the reconstruction of olivid evolution. In this contribution, we will present a comparative

analysis of food acquisition in Oliva sayana from Florida, Agaronia propatula and Olivella

semistriata from the tropical east Pacific, and Olivella biplicata from Oregon.


Understanding Invasion Patterns of Honeysuckle at Butler University via Genetic

Structure

Ashley Neiweem, Faculty Sponsor: Nathanael Hauck, Butler University

The Amur Honeysuckle (Lonciera maackii) plant is abundant on Butler University's

campus. Native to China, Korea and Japan, the intentionally introduced plant quickly takes over

sunlight and other resources to eliminate other native species. The ecological damages that the

invasive plant causes are important. However, understanding its reproductive patterns may be a

preventable measure in controlling its spread. Specifically, study of the genetic data of the

Honeysuckle may be useful in understanding its invasive patterns. The genetic diversity of the

Honeysuckle plant was closely examined over the course of BSI 2011, with the hypothesis that

diversity exists among the Honeysuckle population and facilitates its invasiveness.

Thieves or Friends: Are Specialist Bees More Efficient at Removing Pollen than

Generalists?

Kellen Paine, Faculty Sponsor: Brent Smith, Earlham College

Specialist bees take advantage of a very limited set of floral hosts compared to generalists that forage in the same

system, thus it is suspected that they have evolved to exploit these hosts very efficiently. Though

bees are generally thought of as pollinators the relationship between specialist bees and their host

plants comes into question. Because specialists are expected to be especially good foragers they

might act as pollen parasites relative to other visitors if they do not make up for the excess pollen

removed by depositing more pollen on stigmas. To investigate this I studied the pollinators of

Physalis longifolia [Solanaceae] and I investigated pollen removal versus fruit-set in Physalis’

generalists [Halictidae] and its specialist (Colletes latitarsis), which sometimes sonicates the

flower (which lacks poricidal anthers) when collecting pollen. Colletes removed significantly

more pollen than Dialictus but not more than Halictus or Augochlorella. Further Colletes did not

remove more pollen when sonicating than during other visits. Colletes induced fruits set in

Physalis around 90% of the time, whereas Halictids were less likely to induce fruit set. This

implies that sweat bees act as pollen thieves in the Physalis system, taking more pollen than they

contribute to pollination. Colletes does not remove more pollen than generalists in a single visit,

but more data is needed to determine whether or not Colletes is actually a more efficient forager,

and what advantages it gains from being a specialist in this system.

The Effects of Mint-Derived Monoterpenes on Legume Growth and Nodulation

Kellen Paine, Ian Suzuki, Anne Rohn & Frances Hall, Faculty Sponsor: Brent Smith, Earlham

College

Monoterpenes found in certain members of the mint family have been shown to have

antimicrobial properties. However, recent studies have demonstrated that these monoterpenes

also promote nodulation and growth in legumes. One possible explanation for this increase is a

positive interaction between mint-derived monoterpenes, such as thymol and carvacrol, and

Rhizobium, mutualist nitrogen-fixing bacteria found in the roots of legumes. In our study we

examined this interaction by observing the effects of thymol and carvacrol on nodulation and dry

weight in Glycine max. G. max were grown with five different soil treatment types: thyme

essential oil, double thyme essential oil, oregano essential oil, carvacrol, and control. G. max

grown with carvacrol or oregano essential oil had significantly higher dry weight. We found no


difference in nodulation among all treatments. However, when comparing only the larger plant

of each pot there was a statistically interesting difference in nodulation, implying a greater

dominance hierarchy in experimental treatments. This would indicate that carvacrol in particular

has a greater impact on nodulation in G. max than thymol. A possible explanation for this

interaction may be a possible co-evolution between G. max and Oreganum vulgaris, which

produces carvacrol. Legumes, such as G. max, are agriculturally very important and make up

27% of primary crops worldwide. By using mints or their essential oils as agricultural

supplements, this phenomenon could prove useful in promoting sustainable agricultural

practices.

Queen, Worker, and Male Yellowjacket Wasps Receive Different Nutrition During

Development

Kevin Schmidt, Faculty Sponsor: Chris Smith, Earlham College

Nutritional variation among developing larvae is a long-standing hypothesis for how a sterile

caste could evolve, with larvae deprived of nutrition becoming sterile or not leaving the nest. In

this study, we test whether the three castes of the eusocial yellowjacket wasp (Vespula

maculifrons) differ in the trophic source of their larval diet, their overall carbon (C) and nitrogen

(N) content, as well as the distribution of C and N across body parts. Virgin queens (gynes)

assimilated food from a higher relative trophic level compared to males, and workers were the

lowest. Gynes, due to their much greater mass compared to the other castes are much more costly

in terms of N, but males have the lowest C:N ratio. The variation in C:N is likely due to

differences in life history between males and females (gynes and workers), where females invest

more in energy storage (e.g., lipids) compared to males which have very short life spans; the

major difference is in the abdomen, where fat is stored. The results of this study complement

similar results in ants, which evolved a reproductive division of labor independently, and which

diverged from vespid wasps near 150 million years ago. Similarities between how wasp and ant

caste determination occurs suggest either a conserved mechanism that predates the evolution of

eusociality or convergence on the same mechanism for generating alternative phenotypes.

Provisioning N-expensive castes with food from a higher trophic level likely increases efficiency

of N delivery because of N-enrichment with increasing trophic level.

Genetic Variation in the Globally Rare Charophyte Chara Brittonii (Characeae)

Ryan Scribalo, Faculty Sponsor: Robin Scribailo, Purdue University North Central

Charophytes are macrophytic algae that are important components of the ecology of calcareous

lakes throughout the world. They perform many of the same functions as rooted aquatic vascular

plants stabilizing sediments, trapping nutrients, and providing habitat for young fish and

invertebrates. Chara brittonii is one of the rarest endemic North American species of

charophytes and has only been recorded from 12 localities. After a decade of study, Scribailo

and Alix have confirmed six populations as still extant, including five from Indiana and one from

Michigan. An important part of developing a conservation plan for a rare species is an

assessment of genetic variation within and among populations. With funding from a Flora

Richardson Grant, fresh samples of Chara brittonii were collected from five of the six existing

populations of this species in the summer of 2011. DNA was isolated from samples using

Qiagen DNEasy plant mini-kits. Twenty-four microsatellite DNA primers available for the


European species Chara canescens were used to attempt DNA amplification in Chara brittonii

and several other closely related species. Lack of amplification suggests that North American

and European species are too distantly related for primer recognition. A Hanes Trust Grant has

recently provided funding to develop species-specific primers for Chara brittonii and the related

species Chara zeylanica at the Savannah River Ecology Lab (University of Georgia) using stateof-the-art

Illumina paired-end sequencing. This will result in the production of 36 primers per

species which will then be screened and optimized to identify those with the greatest

polymorphism.

mTOR Signaling Mediates TBI-enhanced Neural Stem Cell Proliferation

Pich Seekaew, Faculty Sponsor: Jinhui Chen, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) induced neuron death was once thought to be irreversible.

However, the identification of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain holds the hope of

repairing injured brain following TBI. Our previous study showed that TBI promotes NSC

proliferation in an attempt to initial an innate repair and/or plasticity mechanisms. However, this

induced proliferation is transient without significantly increasing neurogenesis. It suggests that

additional intervention is required to further increase NSC proliferation to enhance neurogenesis

for successfully repairing the damaged brain following TBI. In order to determine the molecular

mechanism that mediates TBI-enhanced NSC proliferation, we assessed the activity of

mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling by detecting the level of Phospho-S6

Ribosomal protein (pS6), an indicator of the activity of mTOR signaling. We found that the level

of pS6 was transient but dramatically increased prior to TBI-enhanced NSC proliferation. In

contrast inhibiting the activity of mTOR signaling with rapamycin attenuated this effect,

indicating that mTOR signaling mediates TBI-enhanced NSC proliferation. Further stimulating

mTOR signaling strengthened the effect of TBI-enhanced NSC proliferation. These results

suggest that mTOR signaling mediates TBI-enhanced neural stem cell proliferation and

stimulating mTOR signaling may be a potential therapeutic approach to enhance neurogenesis

for post-traumatic functional recovery.

Identification of Transcription Factors Associated with Down Syndrome Skeletal

Abnormalities

Nicole Shepherd, Faculty Sponsor: Randall Roper, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a variety of phenotypes, including craniofacial

and skeletal dysmorphologies. It is believed that trisomic genes initiate phenotypes associated

with Down syndrome, though specific gene-phenotype relationships for DS are largely

unknown. We hypothesize that the altered expression of genes in three copies will also affect the

expression of downstream genes, including non-trisomic genes and play an important role in DS

phenotypes. Transcription factors, which encode proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences

controlling the flow of transcription, are among the genes that may be affected by trisomy. We

have identified genetic and phenotypic alterations in craniofacial precursors as early as

embryonic dayE9.5of the Ts65Dn mouse model of human DS. This mouse model is trisomic for

orthologs of approximately half of the genes on human chromosome 21. Previous microarray


data from the developing mandible have shown dysregulation of multiple non-trisomic genes.

We will test the expression of the Six2, Gata3, Gata6, Pth, Hoxb4, Runx2, Ets2, and Osterix

transcription factors at two developmental time points, E9.5 and E13.5, to determine which are

dysregulated in the Ts65Dn DS mouse model. Understanding the effect of trisomy on nontrisomic

transcription factors will help identify links between trisomy and specific DS

phenotypes.

The Cloning and Analysis of the Spätzle Cytokine in Hermit Crabs (Coenobita clypeatus)

Brittany Sherron, Faculty Sponsors: Samuel Galewsky & Cynthia Handler, Millikin University

The idea that invertebrates experience pain has been debated in recent years. Hermit crabs

(Coenobita clypeatus) show a behavioral response indicating pain, but no connection has been

made with a physiological molecular response. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Toll signaling

pathway plays a role in the innate immune response and is functionally homologous to

mammalian interleukin-1 receptor. Spätzle, an IL-1 homologue, is required for activation of the

pathway. We cloned a portion of a spätzle-like gene in hermit crabs that shares 88% identity with

the spätzle gene from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis). Reverse transcription PCR

indicates that spätzle mRNA is present in hermit crab tissue. We have examined the expression

of spätzle after crabs are treated with an inflammation inducing stimulus of 85 °C water.

Preliminary results suggest that spätzle is induced in experimental tissues when compared to a

control group treated with water at room temperature. These results suggest that a cytokine-like

gene is present in hermit crabs and is involved in an inflammation response that could indicate

pain. Currently, we are aiming to determine the full-length spätzle gene sequence.

Is Eurasian Water-Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) an Introduced Invasive or Native

Aquatic Plant Species in North America?

Helen Sookradge & Jennifer Topolski, Faculty Sponsor: Robin Scribailo, Purdue University

North Central

The genus Myriophyllum is composed of a widespread group of submerged aquatic plant species

commonly found in lakes throughout North America. Although most species are members of

healthy aquatic plant communities, two species (M. aquaticum and M. spicatum) are introduced,

aggressive, aquatic weeds, costing millions of dollars to manage annually. A study of herbarium

specimens by Couch and Nelson in the 1980’s appeared to establish that M. spicatum was

introduced to North America in Washington D. C. in the mid-1950’s. Subsequently, this species

rapidly spread and is currently found in 43 states in the U. S. Studies of nuclear ribosomal DNA,

the internally transcribed spacer, and chloroplast DNA by several investigators have confirmed

that M. spicatum appears to have hybridized with native northern water-milfoil (M. sibiricum)

producing an aggressive, widespread, intermediate taxon. While studying thousands of

herbarium specimens of the latter two species for a treatment of the Haloragaceae for the Flora of

North America, Scribailo and Alix found numerous specimens dating back to the mid-1800’s

having the morphological characteristics of either M. spicatum or the hybrid taxon. To

determine if M. spicatum might be native to North America or introduced at a much earlier date,

DNA was isolated from herbarium specimens using Qiagen DNEasy plant mini-kits. Standard

primers for chloroplast DNA and ITS were used to amplify these regions for sequence


comparisons to published values to determine the identity of the herbarium specimens and to

shed light on the question of the status of M. spicatum in North America.

Habitat Distributions of Four Life Stages of the Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma

maculatum) in and around a Temporary Pond

Eric Stachura, Faculty Sponsor: Rebecca Homan, Denison University

Amphibians are incredibly important to our environment due to their high biomass efficiency as

a result of their ectothermic life style. To help understand how they use their environment, I

explored the distributions of four life stages of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum)

in and around a temporary pond in central Ohio. The four stages were adult females, egg masses,

larvae, and juveniles. Adult females and juveniles were caught in pitfall traps entering and/or

exiting the pond. Egg mass distributions were surveyed once a year by counting numbers of egg

masses along transects. Finally, each summer, larvae were sampled bi-weekly using a dipnet.

Patterns of habitat use for both individual life stages across years and for individual years across

life stages were determined using χ 2 and post-hoc tests. Yearly trends combining life stages

showed varied and inconsistent results. However, looking at each life stage on its own, I found

that all life stages except for egg masses exhibited a non-random distribution in and around the

pond. Furthermore, these autonomous life stages seem to utilize the same quads of the pond as

each other. These patterns could be explained by variation in micro-habitat quality and the ability

of the autonomous life stages to show preference towards one micro-habitat over another. If our

exploratory results are found to be significant than it could be prudent to look more closely at

larval distribution patterns to find out why they disperse the way they do.

Analysis of Global Gene Expression in Bladder Cancer Cells

Vera Staley & Rachel Warwar, Faculty Sponsor: Lina Yoo, Denison University

The PI3-kinase (PI3K) cell signaling pathway is responsible for cell survival, growth,

proliferation, and death. Alterations in this pathway have been associated with many human

cancers, including bladder cancer. Previous studies have shown that complex interactions and

feedback loops can occur within the PI3K pathway in a tissue-specific manner, indicating the

importance of tailored treatments. Our approach is to examine shared gene expression across two

cell lines to elucidate common gene changes applicable to many types of bladder cancer. This

study will use gene expression microarray technology in order to profile the characteristics of

two different bladder cancer cell lines. Both cell lines will be treated with epidermal growth

factor (EGF) in order to stimulate the PI3K pathway. Because EGF stimulates other pathways in

the cell, one control group of each cell line will also be treated with LY294002, an inhibitor of

the PI3K pathway, in order to examine changes exclusively due to the PI3K pathway. The results

of this study will globally analyze gene expression to determine over or under expressed genes in

the differentially treated cell lines. Those candidate genes will be further analyzed using PCR to

confirm gene expression and Western Blotting techniques to confirm protein expression. Any

compelling gene candidates have the potential to contribute to our understanding of molecular

pathways in the cell and could be used for diagnosis, prediction of progression, or treatment.

The Impact of a Water Treatment Plant on Small Freshwater Invertebrate Abundance and

Diversity


Hilary Standish, Tessa Breedlove & Meara Bucklin, Faculty Sponsor: Brent Smith, Earlham

College

Wastewater treatment facilities are present in all major cities across the United States, but their

potential impact on the environment is not always known. This experiment investigated the

impact of Richmond, Indiana’s Waste Water Treatment Plant on the abundance, diversity, and

composition of the Whitewater River’s freshwater invertebrates. We hypothesized that the

abundance and diversity of these invertebrates would change downstream of the wastewater

treatment plant. We tested at four different sites, one of which was upstream of the treatment

plant, the other three downstream of the plant at varying distances. At each site we selected plots

and then looked under all available rocks and documented the invertebrates found. Our results

show that freshwater invertebrates are affected negatively by wastewater treatment plants,

especially directly downstream of the plant. Snails appear to be the most greatly affected by the

chemicals used to sanitize the water, but other invertebrates are also affected at varying levels;

for example dragonfly, damselfly, and mayfly naiads also decrease dramatically immediately

after the plant. This suggests the effects of chlorine toxicity are greatly felt within certain

invertebrate populations.

Teaching Old Buildings New Tricks: Benefits of Retrofitting Indianapolis Buildings with

Green Roofs

Sarah Strobl, Faculty Sponsor: Travis Ryan, Butler University

Novel ideas such as green building are generally understood to only be appropriate for new

construction, but retrofitting spaces for green roofs is quite possible and practical. Extensive

green roofs are low-maintenance and can provide a variety of economic and environmental

benefits, especially in terms of providing increased habitat space and thus increased urban

biodiversity in native invertebrate species. Four different vegetated roofs around Indianapolis

were sampled and catalogued over the summer. Analysis included separating out plant material,

identifying invertebrates in the sample to order, and then counting individuals. Diversity indices

were used to quantify the diversity of each rooftop for comparison between and within each site.

The wide range of diversities already found between sites supports the conclusion that green

roofs provide another option for a more natural habitat for invertebrates, something that is

becoming harder to find in cities. Urban biodiversity can be further and more easily increased

and sustained by retrofitting existing buildings with green roofs.

The Ultrastructure of Spermatogenesis in the High Elevation Lizard, Sceloporus bicanthalis

Katherine Touzinsky & Justin Rheubert, Faculty Sponsor: Kevin Gribbins, Wittenberg

University

The body of ultrastructural data on spermatid characters during spermiogenesis continues to

grow in reptiles, but is still relatively limited within the squamates. This study focuses on the

ontogenic events of spermiogenesis within a viviparous and continually spermatogenic lizard

living at high altitudes in Mexico. Between the months of June and August, testicular tissues

were collected from 8 spermatogenically active Bunchgrass Lizards (Sceloporus bicanthalis)

from the Nevado de Toluca, Mexico. The testicular tissues were processed normally for

transmission electron microscopy and analyzed to access the ultrastructural differences between


spermatid generations during spermiogenesis. Interestingly, few differences exist between S.

bicanthalis spermiogenesis when compared to what has been described for other saurian

squamates. Degrading and coiling membrane structures similar to myelin figures were visible

within the developing acrosome that were most likely remnants from Golgi body vesicles. The

only major difference observed within the developing acrosome of S. bicanthalis was an apically

enlarged and well-developed lucent ridge between the basal subacrosome space and

perforatorium. This enlarged apical region led to open lucent areas seen within the subacrosome

space in acrosomal transverse sections of developing elongating spermatids that have not been

described previously. This study is an addition to the existing literature on spermatid

development in squamates, which could be useful in future work on the reproductive systems in

high altitude vicariant lizard species.

Possible Relationship between In Vivo S-adenosyl-L-methionine Hydrolase Activity and

Quorum Sensing in Escherichia coli

Grace Walworth, Faculty Sponsor: Jeffrey Hughes, Millikin University

Recent literature has documented the existence inter-bacterial communication molecules called

autoinducers in the form of N-actyl homoserine lactones that mediate a process called quorum

sensing. By using quorum sensing, bacteria are able to aggregate together to form a biofilm that

allows them to perform activities that single cells cannot conduct. In previous work, cells

transformed with an expression vector containing the coliphage T3 SAM hydrolase (SAMase)

gene aggregated into clumps distributed throughout the medium. We have demonstrated that

these do not appear related to capsule formation or entanglement of cell filaments, both of which

are induced by SAMase expression. The biochemical pathways related to SAM production and

SAMase activity could be responsible for high amounts of homoserine being internally

rearranged into homoserine lactone being dumped into the medium and possibly serving as an

autoinducer. Building off of previous work, optimal clumping conditions were determined and

various media was collected and assayed for the possible presence of autoinducing

molecules. Should conditioned media induce cell clumping, efforts will be made to identify the

molecules in the media responsible for cell clumping.

Gaits Used by African Elephants Vary with Distance Travelled (Excursion Size)

Brock Ward, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Dale, Butler University

Research into the gaits of elephants is largely a new area of study. As the world's largest

terrestrial animals, African Elephants provide insight into the influence of body size on

locomotor function. Research has shown that elephants can change gait from a lateral sequence

walk to a trot style gait. However, little research has been conducted to see if there is a

correlation between the number of strides the elephant takes (excursion size) and the type of gait

produced. The current study will utilize frame-by-frame obsevational analysis of the gaits

exhibited by African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the Indianapolis Zoo. It will show that

the gait an elephant uses changes systematically as a function of the distance the elephant

travels. I will attempt to explain why this occurs.

Investigation of the Relationship between the Anaphase Promoting Complex and the

FSHR-1 Protein in Regulating Synaptic Transmission at the C. elegans Neuromuscular

Junction


Amy Wasilk, Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Kowalski, Butler University

Neurobiology has become a topic of increasing interest to the world as new information is

discovered about the brain almost daily. Neuronal communication occurs at specialized cellular

junctions called synapses and is referred to as synaptic transmission. The amount of

transmission occurring at each synapse is tightly regulated, and misregulation of synaptic

transmission occurs in neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s or epilepsy. My project

investigates the function of FSHR-1, which we previously identified as a potential substrate of

the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC), an ubiquitin ligase that regulates synaptic

transmission at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction (NMJ). FSHR-1 is a receptor protein

highly expressed in neurons and the intestine and is required for NMJ signaling. My goal is to

uncover the mechanism by which FSHR-1 and the APC regulate the balance of excitatory and

inhibitory signaling at this synapse. I am determining the role of FSHR-1 by using genetic,

behavioral, and biochemical approaches in C. elegans roundworms. My recent data suggest that

FSHR-1 is required presynaptically in neurons for normal NMJ synaptic transmission. I am

currently preparing for additional genetic experiments to determine the specific neuronal cell

type where FSHR-1 acts at the NMJ, and for biochemical analyses to test if FSHR-1 is a direct

APC substrate at this synapse. This work is significant because given the high conservation of

neuronal protein structure and function between worms and vertebrates, by better understanding

the proteins that control C. elegans neuronal communication, we can begin to address human

neurological diseases.

Systemic Acquired Resistance in Moss: Further Evidence for Conserved Plant Defense

Mechanisms

Peter Winter, Faculty Sponsor: Nathanael Hauck, Butler University

Vascular plants possess multiple mechanisms for defending themselves against pathogens. One

well-characterized defense mechanism is systemic acquired resistance (SAR), in which a plant

detects the presence of a pathogen and transmits a signal throughout the plant, inducing changes

in the expression of various pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Once SAR is established, the plant

is capable of mounting rapid responses to subsequent pathogen attacks. SAR has been

characterized in numerous vascular plants; however, our understanding of the evolutionary

history of SAR is incomplete since its presence in non-vascular plants has not been conclusively

demonstrated. Previous studies have alluded to the presence of an SAR in moss, however, none

of these have conclusively shown that the phenotype exists. Here, we show that the moss species

Amblystegium serpens does initiate an SAR-like reaction upon inoculation with Pythium

irregulare, a common soil-borne oomycete. Within 24 hours of a primary inoculation, moss

plants grown in culture became completely resistant to infection following subsequent

inoculation by the same pathogen. This increased resistance was a response to the pathogen itself

and not to physical wounding. Treatment with ß1,3 glucan, a structural component of oomycete

cell walls, was equally effective at triggering SAR. Our results demonstrate for the first time that

this important defense mechanism exists in a non-vascular plant, and, together with previous

studies, suggests that SAR arose prior to the divergence of vascular and non-vascular plants.


BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

Experiential Entrepreneurship: Psychological Capital and Generational Connection

Charlie Adams, James Dowell, Margo Graff & Brian Kenny, Faculty Sponsor: Denise E.

Williams, Butler University

The Millennial generation (age 18-24) has a natural potential to be entrepreneurs due to their

creativity, willingness to take risks, and technology and social networking savvy. They access

information in a fundamentally different way than past generations and in some ways,

technology is primarily tied to their identity. On the other hand, senior citizens often face

isolation as well as fear of technology and computers. Our study explores the impact of a

technology training intervention on the outcomes of hope, optimism, resilience and self-efficacy

(confidence) for both the Millennial and the senior citizen. The theory that we examine is

Psychological Capital (PsyCap) by Fred Luthans, Kyle Luthans, and Brett Luthans (2004). Our

research occurs in two studies. Study 1: we conducted marketing and applied research to

identify how, where, and to whom to direct a technology training intervention to. The results of

that study were that we tested training interventions in a local retirement community in

Indianapolis, Indiana for a month period in Fall 2010. Study 2: we will conduct qualitative

research to address our questions in Spring 2012 as we conduct more training in retirement

communities. The study is designed to answer the questions: Will the technology training more

likely increase the participants’ PsyCap? If so, which of the variables will be most

affected? Will delivering the training more likely increase the trainers’ PsyCap? Lastly, we

hypothesize that the training intervention will have a positive impact with both the youth trainer

and the senior citizen in terms of their “capacity to accept diversity” due to the interaction. The

questions deserve investigation and will contribute to knowledge about the influence of

technology training on Psychological Capital and diversity.

Total Quality Management Implementation: Critical Factors Necessary to Put the

Philosophy into Practice

Mathew Prest, Faculty Sponsor: Greg Rawski, University of Evansville

Total quality management (TQM) is one of the most popular management philosophies in

today’s business world. If implemented properly, TQM can help companies achieve business

success. Although many companies often adopt the principles of TQM, some companies still do

not achieve TQM’s benefits. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the critical factors that

are necessary to effectively implement TQM in an organization. In examining the critical factors,

the obstacles to TQM implementation will also be addressed.

Exception to the Rule: Facilitating Payments & Corporate Compliance Responses amid

Expansive FCPA Enforcement

Nick Stock, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Koehler, Butler University


The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 was enacted for the purpose of making it

unlawful for certain classes of persons and entities to make payments to foreign government

officials to assist in obtaining or retaining business. In order to satiate investor growth

expectations, corporations are caught in the quagmire of entering corrupt international markets

that demand facilitating payments/bribes and FCPA enforcement agencies that are prosecuting

the law contrary to Congressional intent. This article will examine how corporations are

communicating the distinction between a facilitating payment and a corrupt payment to their

employees amid expansive FCPA enforcement. Initially, I will briefly discuss the Congressional

intent behind including a facilitating payments exception to the FCPA and expound on how the

current enforcement environment is contrary to that intent. Next, I will examine the international

business environment, demonstrating the pervasiveness of “corruption” within key growth

markets for multinational corporations. Finally, I will discuss how the largest multinational

corporations, as indicated by the Fortune Global 50 list, are leaving their FCPA policy up to

interpretation of their employees, exposing themselves to undue risk in an expansive

enforcement environment.

Greed is Good? Analyzing Market Responses to the “New Era of FCPA Enforcement” in

the Oil, Gas and Healthcare Sectors

Nick Stock, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Koehler, Butler University

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 was enacted for the purpose of making it

unlawful for certain classes of persons and entities to make payments to foreign government

officials to assist in obtaining or retaining business. Widely unenforced until 2002, the FCPA has

become the focus of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Department of Justice’s

Criminal Fraud Section, who collected $1.6 billion in fines in 2010 from alleged violators of the

FCPA – over half of all federal criminal fines collected by the agency. Griffin’s (1977) study

found that firms disclosing “sensitive foreign payments” saw a slight decrease in the price of

their publicly-traded stock, but then reverted to normal levels after two to three weeks. However,

is this holding still true in today’s heightened enforcement environment? This study examines

the significance investors place on FCPA enforcement actions through market event analyses of

the targeted firm’s equity securities when the information became public knowledge and when

the enforcement agencies handed down the sentencing penalties. It observes companies within

the oil, gas and healthcare industries that have been the target of FCPA enforcement actions from

January 2002 to February 2012.

CHEMISTRY

Metal Dithenoylmethanates and Metal Tetrathenoylethanates as Microporous Metal-

Organic Frameworks

Ryan Bowser & Kent Shilts, Faculty Sponsor: Chad Wallace, Anderson University

Metal dibenzoylmethanates have previously been synthesized and investigated as microporous

metal-organic frameworks by Ripmeester. The divalent metal and neutral, coordinated ligands

may be changed to generate a variety of host materials with the ability to enclathrate guest


compounds. However, metal dithenoylmethanates (metal DTMs) and metal

tetrathenoylethanates (metal TTEs) have not been investigated. If porous, they would constitute

a new class of metal-complex hosts. We synthesized metal DTMs (Co, Zn, Ni, Cu) in an effort

to grow crystals and analyze their porosity. Our work on metal TTEs will also be presented.

Synthesis of Dihydropyrans by Tandem Reaction of Cyclic Boronic Half Acids

Erica Couch, Faculty Sponsor: LuAnne McNulty, Butler University

Natural products have influenced our lives through the development of new

drugs. Dihydropyrans are a group of structural compounds that can be used in the synthesis of

some natural products. Dihydropyrans are found in many significant compounds that possess

significant biological activity and may aid in the research for health improvements. This project

involves the preparation of dihydropyrans from a cyclic boronic acid in a four step synthesis

starting with the crotylation of an aldehyde to create a branched homoallylic

alcohol. Preparation of the cyclic boronic acid will be prepared via ring-closing metathesis

followed by a Suzuki coupling of the acid. The final step is a Michael reaction which will test

whether or not the stereochemistry of a dihydropyran can be controlled due to the added

substituent to the cyclic boronic acid precursor. Adding a substituent to the boronic acid may

allow control of the stereochemistry of dihydropyran formation, which would allow the

formation of two different stereoisomers and expand the utility of the method.

Electrochemical Detection in Microfluidic Devices using Carbon Cryogel Electrodes

Michael Ehrstein, Faculty Sponsor: Daniel Morris, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Chemical analysis using microfluidic devices is attractive because of the small sample

requirements and short analysis times. Detecting the small quantities of analytes associated with

microfluidic analyses is a challenge. The most common form is laser-induced fluorescence;

however, not all analytes lend themselves to fluorescence detection. Electrochemical detection

(ECD) is a more universal means of detecting small quantities of analyte. We are investigating

ECD using a carbon cryogel electrode. These porous carbon structures exhibit high surface area

to enhance detection sensitivity and they can be embedded in a microfluidic channel easily. Our

preliminary work involves detecting the accepted oxidative DNA damage marker 8-OH-dG

using cyclic voltammetry on a carbon cryogel electrode. We present results that demonstrate the

feasibility of such detection scheme in a microfluidic device.

Infrared Investigations of Solute-Solvent Interaction of Histidine, Tryptophan, and

Tyrosine with Water and Ionic Liquid

Kelly Grott, Faculty Sponsor: Joe Kirsch, Butler University

This research project investigates the interactions occurring between the amino acids Histidine,

Tryptophan and Tyrosine and the solvents water and an ionic liquid. Infrared spectroscopy was

used to examine the change in bond character of the bonds in the amino group and the carbonyl

group with respect to the solvent being used.


Investigating the Effect of Selenium Dioxide and Sodium Selenite on the Formation of 8-

OH-dG via Oxidative DNA damage and Developing a Liquid Chromatography- Mass

Spectrum Method as a Means of Analysis

William Hart, Faculty Sponsor: Daniel Morris, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Oxidative DNA damage occurs when essential transition metal ions, including Fe(II), Cu(II) and

Cr(III), form reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the Fenton reaction or “Fentonlike”

reactions when they come in contact with hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell

function. The ROS attack DNA at very specific sites causing DNA strand scission and/or

chemical modifications that cause problems with replication of DNA in cells [1]. The effect of

oxidative DNA damage is linked to many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, Parkinson’s disease

and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as the aging process [2]. Previous research has shown that

Selenium Dioxide and Sodium Selenite have an effect on oxidative DNA damage caused by

Fe(II) and that these compounds ability to act as anti-oxidants is tied to their ability to complex

with the metal ion. For these reasons, we investigated the effect of Selenium Dioxide and

Sodium Selenite on their ability to protect Calf thymus DNA from oxidative DNA damage

caused by Fe(II), Cu(II), and Cr(III) ions. We investigated the effect these two compounds had

by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate our reaction mixtures of

digested DNA and used an electro-chemical detector (ECD) and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer as a

means of detection. We looked at two factors to compare the effect of these compounds, the

amount of deoxyguanosine (dG) and the amount of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG)

remaining after oxidative DNA damage. We will present this data as a the ratio of 8-Oh-dG to

dG remaining, to illustrate how well the selenium compounds effect both site specific damage

and generalized damage. In addition to using HPLC-ECD to monitor 8-OH-dG and dG we

investigated using liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (LC-MS) as a means

of detection and identification of the products of oxidative DNA damage with the goal of better

understanding the mechanism of how selenium dioxide and sodium selenite affect oxidative

DNA damage. This lead us to develop and optimize an LC-MS method, and investigate the two

ionization process of LC-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical

ionization (APCI). Our research is, to our knowledge, the first time someone has tested the effect

of SeO 2 and SeO 3 2- on oxidative DNA damage mediated by Cu(II) and Cr(III). Our results can

hopeful allow us to gain insight into the differences between the oxidative damage caused by

these metal ions and the mechanism by which SeO 2 and SeO 3 -2 affect oxidative DNA damage.

Reproducibility of Gold Nanoparticle (AuNP) Syntheses

Qian He, Faculty Sponsor: Bridget Gourley, DePauw University

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using a range of methods adjusting reaction

conditions to generate a variety of different size particles. By exploring these techniques, we

hope to establish a library of AuNPs for use in a biosensing platform. The source of the gold

came from auric acid (HAuCl 4 ). The gold ions were first reduced and then isolated by a capping

agent. The sizes of the clusters were controlled by the relative number of the capping agents

compared to the number of Gold atoms. AuNPs of four sizes were produced by manipulating a

citrate to gold ratio. Citrate acted as both a reducing and capping agent. Employing a method

using d-glucose, no AuNPs were manufactured. Utilizing L-cysteine, AuNPs of one size were


created. UV-Vis data will be presented as evidence of the formation of different size AuNPs. All

of the results were tested by their reproducibility.

Study of Chiral Recognition in Amino Acid Based Chiral Ionic Liquid Solvents

Daniel Kroupa, Faculty Sponsor: Todd Hopkins, Butler University

In this study, amino acid based chiral ionic liquids were prepared and their chiral recognition

ability probed using a model system. Potential applications of amino acid based chiral ionic

liquids include enatioselective catalysis and chiral resolution. The chiral ionic liquids under

study were prepared from amino acid methyl ester cations and

bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (TF 2 N) anions, specifically l-alanine methyl ester , d-alanine

methyl ester, l-leucine methyl ester, l-proline methyl ester, and l-valine methyl ester. The model

system used to quantify chiral recognition of each chiral ionic liquid consisted of dissolving a

chiral luminescent probe, racemic Eu(2,6,-pyridine dicarboxylate) 3 3- , in the ionic liquid and

measuring the ratios of left versus right-handed circularly polarized luminescence emitted from

the sample. The role of intermolecular interactions and stereochemistry of the amino acids in

chiral recognition of the luminescent probe will be discussed.

Spectroscopic Analysis of Chlorophyll a in a Polyethylene Glycol Solution

Chris Savas, Faculty Sponsor: Geoffrey Hoops, Butler University

Chlorophyll is an integral part of the transformation of energy from the sun into oxygen that is

necessary for human life. The absorbance of light by a molecule is typically unique for just that

molecule, and is determined mainly by the structure of the molecule. Absorbance is measured

by a spectrophotometer. Absorption of light may change based on whether the compound is free

floating in a solution or adsorbed to a surface. In previously published research, a waveguide

spectrophotometer was used to study chlorophyll that was adsorbed to various surfaces, rather

than free floating in solution. So is this peak shift, which is seen for the surface adsorbed

chlorophyll, a property of PEG, merely a consequence of chlorophyll being adsorbed to a

surface, or a unique combination of both? Paper chromatography was used to purify chlorophyll

a from all the other components of spinach. Following purification it was tested by spectroscopy

with varying NaCl concentrations as well as varying PEG concentrations. The results received

by the Cary 50 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer were normalized and then analyzed. The varying

NaCl concentrations did not result in a definite peak shift between the 0mM NaCl and the 10mM

NaCl. The peak shift was found to only occur with the 10mM NaCl and above a 30% PEG

concentration. This peak shift was seen to occur in normal free floating solution so it was not a

consequence of the chlorophyll being adsorbed to the waveguide surface but rather a property of

the PEG.

Simultaneous Determination of Various Bisphenols via LC/MS

Ben Trefilek, Faculty Sponsor: Olujide Akinbo, Butler University

Bisphenols (especially, Bisphenol A) are commonly used in epoxy coatings of metal cans and in

various other plastic products. These molecules are also well-known endocrine disruptors, thus

leading to numerous health problems. While extensive work has been done to develop methods

for accurate and reproducible determination of Bisphenol A (BPA), other Bisphenols (BPF, BPS,


BPB etc.) are not as well studied. This study worked to develop a reproducible LC/MS program

to simultaneously detect five Bisphenol molecules: BPA, BPF, BPS, BPB and BPE.

COMMUNICATION & MEDIA STUDIES

The Effect of Class Time on Student Success

Robert Bitting, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University

For some, the biggest challenge in college is waking up and being prepared for a morning

class. Does the time of a class really affect students, and if so, how? The purpose of this study

is to examine how the time that a class meets affects student performance. Does the time of a

class affect the grade of students in that class? Does the time of a class affect the participation of

students in the class? Does the time of a class affect student attendance? A survey of teacher's

thoughts and students' grades and attendance will serve as data for this research project.

Understanding Sustainability: An Examination of Encoding and Decoding of Promotion

Materials for Green Consumers

Muriel Cross, Faculty Sponsor: Mark Rademacher, Butler University

Organic, sustainable, green, localvore, socially and environmentally conscious are all words

being used in a growing subculture that is concerned with keeping the world a healthy and

livable place. This issue is important to many people and affects everyone. Consumers connect

with this issue for various reasons ranging from the personal, such as seeking out healthy

options, to the social, such as environmentalism and sustainability. These consumers have been

embraced by marketers as having the potential to be a profitable market segment, as illustrated

by the increasing number of organic brands and products in the market today. Additionally, the

traditional model of communication is being complicated, much in part to unique, niche

segments such as green consumers. To explore how marketers can best target this market

segment, this study looked at one local company, Trader’s Point Creamery, and investigated how

this producer and their attempts at encoding effective communication compared with the

consumer’s decoding of that message. In-depth interviews were conducted with the owners of

Trader’s Point Creamery as well as six Trader’s Point Creamery consumers recruited at Trader’s

Point Saturday Farmer’s Market. The findings showed that the backgrounds of both the

producer and the consumer affected their interpretation of the meaning and the effectiveness of

the message. Also, the producer and consumer shared a field of experience, but there were some

areas of disconnect. The producer and consumer both had an understanding of living a green

lifestyle and the benefits for their body and the earth, but the reasons that the producer cited that

consumers should shop at Trader’s Point was different than the reasons they actually shopped

there. For the consumers, there was less of an emphasis on health than the producers imagined

and more of an emphasis on the experience and the taste of Trader’s Point and its products. The

implications of this study include a possible rethinking of Trader’s Point’s heavily health focused

communication materials. The contribution to the study of communication as a whole includes a


closer look at a small subset of consumers and an examination of how and what they know about

the companies they purchase from.

Effects of Parental Divorce on Children and Sibling Relationships

Hannah Coy, Faculty Sponsor: Valerie Young, Hanover College

Divorce is a very prevalent issue in our society today and this in turn is having effects on the

children of this generation. This paper investigates the effects that parental divorce has on

children of different age groups such as young children, adolescent children and adult children. It

also examines the effects that divorce has on siblings and whether the relationship grows closer

or farther apart through the duration and the afterlife of parental divorce. In-depth semistructured

interviews with six individuals provided insight into the way that adult children of

divorce reflect on their sibling relationships. From the results four main themes arose from

thematic deductive analysis: closeness, conflict, feeling caught and happiness. These themes

offer an extension of previous research on the effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships.

Live, but at What Cost? An Analysis of Live News Reporting in the Indianapolis Television

Market

Robert Inskeep, Faculty Sponsor: Allison Harthcock, Butler University

It was once thought that live television coverage of news events would be extremely rare.

However, recent technological advances have made “going live” easier than ever before. With

stations now incorporating more live shots in their nightly newscasts, many news practitioners

are wondering whether or not live technology capabilities are driving story selection in

newsrooms today? This paper presents the finding of a research study that analyzes the use of

live shots, over a two-week period, by two television stations (WTHR-TV and WISH-TV) in

their 6 p.m. weekday newscasts. The results from this study indicate: 1) that the stations

surveyed incorporate multiple live shots in each of the 6 p.m. newscasts 2) both stations included

a disturbingly high number of “black hole” live shots in their newscasts during the study 3) there

is a definite connection between stories that include live shots and priority story placement in a

newscast.

Does Playing Video Games Affect the Social Behavior and Time Management of the

Students Playing Them?

Andrew Johnson, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University

Video games are played by many of today’s youth. While some believe that coordination and

proficiency are heightened through game play, others disagree. The focus of this study is to

examine the effects of playing video games among college students. What games are most

commonly played? How long are they being played on a daily basis? Does playing video games

affect the social behavior and time management of the students playing them?

An Examination of the Impact of Technology on Maintaining Significant Long Distance

Relationships

Nick Kight, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University


Technology allows the current generation to continue pursuing meaningful relationships when

distance begins to separate the two people involved. Facebook, Skype and texting have all

allowed people to hold conversations and sustain meaningful relationships with family,

friends, significant others and colleagues. Or have they? The purpose of this study is to examine

how people use these mediums to maintain the previously mentioned relationships, the effects

these technologies have on people’s ability to communicate, and whether or not the previously

mentioned technologies do indeed provide adequate services to maintain a meaningful long

distance relationship.

An Examination of the Use of Expletives on College Campuses

Sarah Messick, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University

Traditionally, expletive usage was associated with sailors, those lacked social etiquette or those

who temporarily lost control of their speech. Today, however, expletive usage is far more

common and an integral part of many people’s rhetorical styles. The purpose of this research is

to examine differences in expletive usage on a Christian campus compared to a state

school. Additionally, does one gender use expletives more than the other? Are there differences,

between campuses, regarding what constitutes an expletive? Fifty students from each of the two

campuses will serve as participants.

Through the Whispered Promises and the Changing Light: Loneliness in Taxi Driver

Samantha Pursel, Faculty Sponsor: Dennis Bingham, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

Taxi Driver, Martin Scorsese's 1976 film, depicts the story of one lonely man and his struggle to

comprehend himself and his city. It is a snapshot of the 1970s, told subjectively through the eyes

of the neurotic Travis Bickle. The film’s discussion of the depraved New York streets creates an

allegory of an unconventional, yet realistic hero. This paper explores the origin and effect of

characters like Travis. He symbolizes a synthesis of insanity in history and film, vigilantism, and

the alienation caused by war and life in an urban milieu. Scorsese uses his incomparable power

of observation to affirm that however unbalanced, characters in film are often a reflection of the

loneliness that lies within us all.

The Reinvention of General Motors: A Fantasy-Theme Analysis

Nate Reiskytl, Faculty Sponsor: Jessica Rousselow-Winquist, Taylor University

General Motors (GM) has been one of the world’s largest vehicle manufacturers for more than

one-hundred years. By 1931, GM brought in more global revenue than any other automaker.

They held the number one spot for an unprecedented seventy-seven years. However, in 2007,

GM was surpassed by Toyota has the largest global automaker. GM would soon realize that this

would only be the beginning of their problems, which had been hidden during their years of

dominance. The problems climaxed with GM filing for bankruptcy in 2009. After hitting rock

bottom, GM realized that changes must come in order to survive. Therefore, they reinvented the

way they did business and are once again climbing towards automotive global dominance.

An Examination of Adult Bullying Among College Students


Emily Russell, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University

Bullying is everywhere. The idea of the bigger, stronger individual dominating over the weaker

individual has been engrained in society for centuries. Bullies don’t just disappear after one

reaches adulthood or leaves high school. The purpose of this study is to discover whether bullies

are prominent on college campuses more specifically on Christian campuses. Do adult bullies

target men more so then women? If so is it verbal bullying or does bullying tend to be more

physical? What constitutes bullying at Christian campuses? What are the most common types

of bullying on Christian campuses? And is one sex more likely to be victimized by bullying?

The Influence of Class Format on Message Effectiveness and Learning

Ryan Schnurr, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University

With the increased information-sharing capabilities facilitated by the internet, many colleges and

universities have begun experimenting with alternative forms of learning in an effort to better

serve their students. Professors and instructors currently utilize varied styles of presenting

information, covering the entire spectrum from in-class lectures to online classrooms to some

hybrid of both. But is one better than the other? The purpose of this study is to determine

whether class format affects students’ academic performance, interest, and motivation, and what

these effects are through an analysis of undergraduate courses in Creative Writing at Huntington

University.

Self-Confidence among Women

Brittany Siemens, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University

Many women struggle with self-confidence. The purpose of this study is to examine female, selfconfidence

as a function of age. Is there a correlation between age and self-confidence?

Additionally, how do factors such as perceptions of success and accomplishment affect a

female’s self-confidence? Survey research using three age groups of females will serve as

participants: high school age, college age and middle adult (30+).

How do Young People View Marriage?

Alicia Stauffer, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University

It’s common knowledge that parents influence their child’s development. The church can also

play a part in child development. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of family

and church on college students’ views of marriage. How do college students view marriage in

terms of commitment, sacrifice, roles within the marriage, and responsibilities of each partner?

Do college students who attended church regularly as children see marriage differently than

those who did not attend church regularly?

Relational Dialectics and Gender

William Stauffer, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University

Relational Dialectics is a theory by Baxter and Montgomery that examines the tensions present

in every close human relationship. The three main dialectics are Integration vs. Separation,


Stability vs. Change and Expression vs. Nonexpression. The purpose of this study is to examine

these three dialectics and their relationship to gender by examining couples in committed

romantic relationships. 1. Which of the three dialectics do males see as most important? Which

do females see as most important? 2. Within each dialectics, is there a gender difference between

male and female preferences between the opposite dialectic ends?

This is what Americans Actually Believe: South Park and the American Religious Minority

Brenna Williams, Faculty Sponsor: Christine Becker, University of Notre Dame

This paper explores the satire of Matt Stone and Trey Parker’s Emmy winning television show

South Park, focusing on the way the show treats four of America’s minority religions: Judaism,

Islam, Scientology, and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS Church). 75% of

Americans self-identify as Protestants or Catholics, and this research examines how Parker and

Stone’s works present minority religions to audiences that might get their information about

other belief systems from the media. Understanding the ways in which different forms of satire

treat and handle minority religions can help make sense of the American religious majority’s

conceptions of and prejudices against minority religions, since the media reflects and shapes

cultural values. The research consists of case studies of the South Park episodes as well as Parker

and Stone’s musical, The Book of Mormon. After close analysis of the beliefs presented, the

depictions and characterizations of the faithful, and the reactions by religious viewers to the

show, the research has concluded that the works of Parker and Stone are overwhelmingly

sympathetic to the religious individual but warn against religious institutions as a whole. The

works serve to educate the American populace on the platform of popular culture. Parker and

Stone’s works, and therefore their opinions, are popular and potentially influential in ways that

religious satire typically isn’t. Indeed, South Park is one of the longest running, most popular,

and most influential satirical television shows on television, while The Book of Mormon has

received Broadway’s most prestigious awards and is sold out for over a year. Religious satire is

not new, but at this particular moment in time, it has become popular to be the dissenting and

critical voice when discussing religion, as specifically evidenced by the American public’s recent

fascination with Mormonism leading up to the 2012 Presidential election. The works of Parker

and Stone fill a gap left by most of the rest of popular culture, educating when news outlets

won’t and being honest when dramas can’t, and operating as an influential comedic, educational,

and satirical force of popular culture.

Curtain Call

Braden Worrell, Faculty Sponsor: Elizabeth Winters, Hanover College

This Senior Thesis video production project, Curtain Call, is a short comedy film about two

average college guys who experience a not-too farfetched situation that involves partying, an

incriminating picture, and a desperate mission to erase the evidence. It captures a unique, fun,

and humorous part of any college campus. I created this project entirely with a hilarious script,

high quality production techniques, and entertainment values that the college audience will want

to watch again and again. This project offers a creative and non-traditional take on a senior

thesis through the video medium.


The goal is to effectively tell a funny and somewhat relatable story in a short amount of time in a

professionally developed video form. The audience can take away a lesson in how they manage

their party-going, even beyond the party night. It also serves as an example of how people need

to manage their reputation, in life and online. I have seen and heard of other video Senior

Thesis, but I most I have seen have been in the form of mini-documentaries, instructional videos,

and romance shorts. This project is the culmination of all the video production techniques and

writing skills that I have developed in my four years at Hanover as a Communication major.

EDUCATION

Using Picture Books to Build Common Schema in the Middle School English Classroom

Kristina Albarello, Faculty Sponsor: Shelly Furuness, Butler University

As a teacher, how do you manage to connect students with a new topic of study when each

student has different experiences and prior understandings of that topic? This study investigates

one possible approach to answering this question. In an urban fringe middle school located in a

metropolitan school district in Indianapolis, five students from each of the first two periods of a

7th grade Language Arts class were invited to participate. These two small groups received

instruction using the same lesson plans that were being taught to the rest of the class; however,

the method used to introduce the lessons was different. Each lesson began with reading a

children's picture book that was relevant to the ensuing lesson, providing a shared experience to

which all participants could relate. Data was collected during these small group lessons to

investigate the value of the method used and how a common experience, such as the reading of a

children's picture book, impacts teaching middle school students.

The Method behind Games, Fun, & Learning

Rebecca Austin, Diane Berg, Lauren Buroker, Travis Cawthorn, Lyle Franklin, Joshua Hurst,

Caitlyn Rickey, Jacque Schrag, Ashley Swartz, Ryan Thompson & Nick Walters, Faculty

Sponsor: Paul Gestwicki, Ball State University

"Games, Fun, & Learning" is the latest in the Immersive Learning Projects hosted at the Ball

State University Virginia Ball Center for Creative Inquiry. The student-driven project is based on

a combination of varying methodologies that combine software and game development with

learning. This presentation will focus on these methodologies and how they have been used

effectively in this unique learning environment, with the ultimate goal of producing a web-based

game for the Indianapolis Children's Museum.

Cultural Competency in High School Educators

Jodie Buchanan, Sidney Findley & Rachel Pollock, Faculty Sponsor: Matt Ringenberg,

Valparaiso University


Education for school aged children in cultural competency is an important aspect of their overall

learning. Students cannot always learn this at home, and for most children, this is the first time

they learn outside of their homes. A diverse environment, like that of a school, is the best place

for it to be acquired. Because the world is shifting to a more global, international society, the

need for cultural competency and its importance will only increase in the coming years. The lack

of this knowledge leads to intolerance, prejudice and even violence. The purpose of this study

was to explore the relationship between an educator’s cultural competency skill level and how it

relates to the racial diversity of the school. This study used survey questionnaires of the staff at

high schools in the northwest region of Indiana. This area is very diverse overall, but also has

some areas that are not diverse populations. Some schools mandate cultural competency training

for all new staff. Training of staff to be culturally competent is the key to having them teach

cultural competency to the students. The study will focus on the cultural competence of the staff

at diverse schools versus staff at those that are not as diverse. The findings of this research may

lead to more effective training, or the implementation of a training program where there is none,

for the staff.

Using Brain Research to Aid Reading Comprehension

Mia Claretto, Faculty Sponsor: Theresa Knipstein, Butler University

Research has proven that paying attention matters to learning. Additionally, engaged attention

dramatically increases learning. As teachers, how do we actively engage students in the act of

reading? Brain research is a new area that is fueling teachers with knowledge of how the brain

learns. How can teachers use this knowledge to best harness the brain’s power to learn while also

creating active, engaged readers? This study focuses on reading comprehension strategies that

capitalize on how the brain actually learns. It also explores the why behind the impact of these

strategies.

Using Novels and Writing to Teach Students Mathematical Concepts

Rachel Colby & Amanda Huffman, Faculty Sponsor: Shelly Furuness, Butler University

How much variety did you see in your mathematics instruction? For many of us, the answer is

probably little to no variety. The purpose of this study was to take a different approach to

teaching mathematics through the integration of the novel "The Number Devil: A Mathematical

Adventure" by Hans Magnus Enzensberger and journals into the foundation of the mathematics

instruction.

This study was carried out in a sixth grade classroom at a local school. The participants read the

novel and wrote journal entries reacting to the novel and explaining mathematical concepts.

During each class, the participants were taught using, primarily, the scope of the novel, but the

different mathematical concepts from the novel were elaborated on and taught in more

detail. The participants were given a pre- and post-assessment over particular mathematical

concepts and at the end of the unit, they completed a project to assess their knowledge of the

concepts they learned. Over the course of the study, data was collected and continually analyzed

to evaluate the effectiveness, benefits, and consequences of using a novel as the foundation for

mathematics instruction.


A Simple Understanding of Attention Deficit Disorders and Resources for the Afflicted and

Their Support Group

Amber Hauser, Faculty Sponsor: Matt Ringenberg, Valparaiso University

My first, purpose in writing this paper is to enlighten myself about an affliction that, as of 2011,

5.3 million children (3-12 years of age) in the United States have been diagnosed with attention

deficit disorders, according to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention. I am writing to

enlighten others that this affliction is real, but cannot be cured. I am hoping to provide a simple,

but through explanation of what happens in an afflicted person, and what makes them different

from a non-afflicted person. I also want to educate others concerning the causes and treatments

of this affliction.

Helping Students Enjoy Reading

Noelle Haynie, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

My aim in this paper is to explore many different ways to help students enjoy reading, both

inside and outside of school. Particularly from a teacher's perspective, frustration can be large

when a student outwardly despises reading. Not reading can also prohibit educational growth. I

will argue that if certain strategies are used, such as looking at each student's interest or modeling

what reading should look like, many more students will actually begin to enjoy reading. I will

also show why many boys in particular dislike reading and how specifics steps can help them

start to enjoy reading. This essay will endeavor to provide strategies for both parents and

teachers to use and show how these strategies have been successful in the past.

New Technology Education

Octavia Lehman, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

In 1996, business and community leaders in Napa Valley, California developed a new model of

high school education. Frustrated by the lack of leadership and technology skills in young

employees, the New Tech model provided an instructional approach centered on project-based

learning and integrating technology in the classroom. Indiana leads the surge in adapting schools

to the New Tech model with 18 New Tech high schools, more than any other state in the U.S.

The second highest concentration of schools reside in Northeast Indiana, with six, behind New

York City. This paper will examine the effect of New Technology schools on students, teachers,

and the community in Northeast Indiana.

Why Did I Ever Choose This Major?

Derek Linn, Faculty Sponsor: Justin Gash, Franklin College

Choosing a major is a very difficult and important task as sets you down a career path for the rest

of your life. I want to know why people are comfortable in certain areas of study, so I chose to

delve into how students learn and their majors. This study prompts students at Franklin College

to take a test that assesses their learning styles. This data along with each respondent’s respective

demographic information is analyzed to see similarities or differences and to possibly prove a

relationship between learning styles and academic majors. These results can be used to help

professors better understand the educational needs of the students. They could also be used by


admissions offices to give undecided students an idea of what majors are best for their learning

styles.

The Allegory of the Cave and its Implications for Modern Education

Sarah Risley, Faculty Sponsor: Richard McGowan, Butler University

Many of the ideas that Plato sets forth throughout his dialogue between Socrates and Glaucon,

known as the Allegory of the Cave, follow similar patterns as cognitive theorists such as

Lawrence Kohlberg, Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky, and William Perry. Kohlberg outlines the

stages of moral development, which can loosely be traced through the prisoner’s path to

enlightenment. Piaget tracks a child’s stages of cognitive development, all the way to concrete

and abstract thought. Noam Chomsky and the cognitive theory of language acquisition and

development put forth the idea that the general terms of our language are not names; they are

simply concepts and ideas of something larger. Perry argued that students progress through

different stages of intellectual and moral development, parallel to the development of the slave

throughout Plato's dialogue. According to the ideas of Plato, Kohlberg, Piaget, Chomsky, and

Perry it is imperative that philosophy be incorporated more and more into education in order to

produce the higher order thinking and moral development that educators expect of high school

and college students today.

ENGLISH (LITERATURE & CREATIVE WRITING)

Eat Your Heart Out: Consumption, Escape, and the Discourse of Desperation in Günter

Grass's The Tin Drum

Emelia Abbe, Faculty Sponsor: Ania Spyra, Butler University

The incredibly jarring and morbid nature of Agnes Matzerath’s suicide in Günter Grass’s Nobel

Prize winning novel The Tin Drum is one of the most perplexing and graphic scenes of the entire

work. Agnes literally gorges herself to death by mindlessly consuming mass amounts of fish and

fish products. What is the purpose of depicting such a violent and gruesome method of

suicide? What are the underlying causes of the act itself? By taking an in-depth look at the

death of Agnes Matzerath, overarching themes concerning the nature of war itself become

apparent within Grass’s colorful portrayal of human reactions to World War II inside the

contested city of Danzig.

Arthur through the Ages

Emily Armstrong, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

The Legend of King Arthur began in 5 th century Britain and has gone through several evolutions

since then. Early mentions of Arthur portray him as a warrior and list a few of the battles he was

involved in, but in A History of the Kings of Britain Arthur is portrayed as a king of great honor

and a warrior for God. In Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte Darthur, the spiritual aspect of


Arthur’s character diminishes and the actions of the knights he leads come to the forefront.

Moving into modern day, Arthur is portrayed as a dutiful hero who earns the respect and power

he obtains. From Geoffrey of Monmouth’s A History of the Kings of Britain to T.H. White’s

modern portrayal of King Arthur in The Once and Future King, this paper will seek to trace the

character of King Arthur and determine why he is viewed as such a great hero in the past and

why readers and moviegoers today still identify with the hero of old.

The Stage is the Court and All the Player Merely Copies: Shakespeare’s Antony and

Cleopatra as Propaganda

Ginnye Cubel, Faculty Sponsor: William Walsh, Butler University

In Elizabethan England theatre was the place to present political ideas and no one was better at

this than William Shakespeare himself. The presentation seeks to explore the idea that

Shakespeare’s historical drama Antony and Cleopatra is in part a propaganda piece meant to

bolster support for James while at the same time condemning Elizabeth I’s previous rule. The

presentation will examine the role of theatre in conveying political ideas and the specific political

causes Shakespeare was involved in. Focus will then shift to Shakespeare’s work Antony and

Cleopatra and the political ideologies conveyed in the work. Furthermore, the presentation will

specifically focus on the differences and similarities between Cleopatra the character and

Elizabeth the Queen. I argue that Cleopatra is constructed as an image of Elizabeth that at once

condemns her reign and revels in it.

Getting Lost in Her Translation: The Applied and Sociolinguistic Elements of Eva

Hoffman’s Lost in Translation

Margaret Cychosz, Faculty Sponsor: Ania Spyra, Butler University

In her linguistic memoir Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language, author Eva Hoffman

describes her experience as a translingual Polish immigrant. During her time in both Canada and

later in the United States, Hoffman experiences a great deal of socio and applied linguistic data

attributed to second language learners. Many scholars have analyzed the diverse linguistic

phenomena available within linguistic memoirs, (Bohórquez 2009, Besemeres 2004, and

Pavlenko 2007); however, they have yet to compile a comprehensive work showcasing how the

phenomena can contribute to the final written work. As primarily monolingual Anglophones, we,

the readers, must examine Hoffman’s writing genius to increase our own social awareness and

better comprehend the complexities of second language acquisition. Although some critics argue

that Hoffman’s language usage within the work is too Americanized to adequately portray an

immigrant’s struggle between two languages, this paper will show that several linguistic

phenomena – such as bilingualism, linguistic displacement, and foreign language anxiety -

contribute to the creation of a distinctive bilingual writing technique in Hoffman's memoir.

The Form of Fragmentation: Transnational Identity in Theresa Hak Kyung Cha’s Dictée

and Eva Hoffman’s Lost in Translation

Allison Denton, Faculty Sponsor: Ania Spyra, Butler University

Broken, schizoid, shattered. These are the words often used to describe the fragmented identities

of transnational migrants in literature. In theory, fragmentation is considered a common side


effect of diaspora or immigration. While many scholars define fragmentation as indicative of

something lost or incomplete, writers like Theresa Hak Kyung Cha and Eva Hoffman have

expressed just the opposite. In their respective memoirs, Dictée and Lost in Translation, the two

writers illustrate their transnational journeys—how they pieced together multiple, distinct

cultural identities to create a whole sense of self. In this presentation, I compare and contrast

their works to show the way both writers manipulate form and structure differently to

communicate the same notion of identity. In examining both of these texts, we see the way

formal structure can embody and express the idea of fragmentation.

Gatsby under the Influence: The Times That Created The Great Gatsby

Mary Gensel, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

A book is not created without outside influences. It is shaped and molded by the time it was

created. F. Scott Fitzgerald mentions in The Great Gatsby some events that began or ended at the

start of the Jazz Age, which his book partially created. By examining such events as World War

I, Prohibition, the Black Sox Scandal, and a murder that has been unsolved to this day, we will

be able to discern the effects of the 1920s on Fitzgerald’s novel.

Love-Making at the Piano

Jane Hurdish, Faculty Sponsor: Sara Danger, Valparaiso University

During the Victorian period, the piano served many functions that had very little to do with the

simple act of making music, especially in the lives of many middle-class women. Besides being

a means of education, entertainment, and emotional expression, the piano was also used by some

middle-class women as an alternative way to express their sexuality in a society that often

repressed it. In George Eliot’s Middlemarch, Rosamond Vincy, a Victorian sex symbol, is also

incidentally the only character who is seen playing the piano throughout the novel. She uses the

piano as a means of seduction, successfully seducing Lydgate, whom she marries. Rosamond is

unable to seduce Ladislaw, though, when she becomes unhappy in her marriage and seeks

satisfaction from him. It is in this instance, when Rosamond, and the piano, ultimately prove to

be limited in their powers of seduction, that Eliot offers her commentary on the piano’s function

in society at that time. The piano was not capable of liberating women sexually, and disguised

as an object of deliverance, actually perpetuated aspects of society that aimed to confine women.

The Role of Dogs in Iris Murdoch

Marc Keith, Faculty Sponsor: Joanne Edmonds, Ball State University

This paper examines both the philosophical and fictional works of Iris Murdoch, with a focus on

what it means to be Good, and how to achieve this state of being. The essay first examines the

basic principles of Murdoch’s philosophy, such as the importance of looking outward rather than

inward, and the influences of art and nature on humans as we attempt to do this. The paper then

focuses specifically on the role of dogs in Murdoch’s novels. The paper uses the principles

established in the former part of the essay to analyze how Murdoch uses dogs to help her

characters achieve an enlightened moral state that leads them closer to the Good.


The Relationship between Gender, Control and Nimi’s Feminism in Kiran Desai’s The

Inheritance of Loss

Shannon Knall, Faculty Sponsor: Ania Spyra, Butler University

In Kiran Desai’s The Inheritance of Loss, the character Nimi plays an important role that has

been quite overlooked in terms of research and analyses of Desai’s characters. Most of the

research done on this novel is based primarily on the Judge (Jemubhai Patel), his self-hate and

anglophilia, or on Biju focusing on racism and transnationalism, or on the post-colonial state of

India and how colonialism is still felt. However, there is no research on Nimi who represents a

very powerful role in terms of the position of women and gender norms in India. As Jemubhai’s

wife, her character reveals two major things: the tolerance of domestic abuse and the

representation of her own feminism. This paper will have three components to it: first it will

explore the gender norms in India, secondly it will look at Jemubhai’s need for control that leads

to his aggression towards Nimi, and finally it will examine Nimi’s feminist characteristics. My

analysis will reveal that even though Nimi appears to be a tolerant and domestic character, given

her circumstances she is quite the feminist.

The Green Sun: Tolkien's Literary Philosophy of the Fantastic

Xander Marton, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

Tolkien began to provide authors, students, readers and critics with a framework for the analysis,

interpretation and critique of stories in his critical essay “On Fairy-Stories.” By extrapolating on

this central essay in his further notes and commentary, Tolkien provided a rough sketch of a

fairly comprehensive—if scattered—literary theory.

This paper intends to follow this vein and extend it into a more complete framework for the

analysis and interpretation of literature—with a particular focus on the literature of the fantastic.

Focusing predominantly on gathering his theories into a coherent and unified whole, this paper

seeks to understand and further develop Tolkien’s branch of critical philosophy. This paper will

provide partial analysis of specific literary works, compare Tolkien’s theories to those of

traditional narratology and critique of the literature of the fantastic, and reference external

commentary on his works—both fiction and nonfiction. All this is done so that his theory may be

clearly understood and properly applied to literature.

The Art of Human Breathing: An Examination of Poetry’s Potential in the 21st Century

Chelsea Noble, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

In 2000, Simon Armitage wrote an essay entitled, “Re-Writing the Good Book” in which he

explored possible future paths for poetry in the coming century. Though at the time poetry was a

slightly fringe part of our culture, Armitage believed that poetry could become, “a front-line art

form for the next century.” He wrote, “Poetry pre-dates the book, pre-dates the alphabet even,

and should not be content with its current format.” This essay reexamines his words over a

decade later and demonstrates their validity through real-world examples of renowned poets who

are experimenting with the methods they use to present their words to the world and examples of

how poetry has worked its way into commercial advertisement. Through all of this, it will

become clear that poetry is not the art of the written word, but the art of spoken word, and if


poets wish to keep their art alive and relevant to the rest of the world they must take that into

account when deciding how to present their work to their audience.

Literature and the Creation of Great Thinkers

Jason Ropp, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

Great writers of the past and present are often those we also consider to be great thinkers. While

Liberal Arts has been under the gun for some time now, I will argue, using academic research as

well as the thoughts of great writers, that the exploration of classic and contemporary literature,

as well as analytic, summary, and creative writing, produces an individual that is prepared to face

the demands of a rapidly shifting workforce and the challenges of an increasingly complex

society. The well-read individual, when grounded in reality, produces a great thinker, a type of

person necessary to produce a successful society.

To Kill a Mockingbird: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

Mark Schaefer, Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Howard, University of Evansville

In 1960, Harper Lee published her first, and last, full length novel. Despite low expectations, To

Kill a Mockingbird immediately became a best seller. To fully understand its initial, and

continued, overwhelming success, it is necessary to examine the social atmosphere and cultural

history surrounding the publications release.

A Male Strength of Heart: Shakespeare’s Strong-Willed Women and the Effect of

Marriage upon their Wit

Katherine Sheridan, Faculty Sponsor: William Walsh, Butler University

“To such an end a lady’s male strength of heart in its high confidence ordains. . .” These are

some of the opening lines of Aeschylus’ Agamemnon: a tale of a woman considered too

outspoken, too proud and too strong of persona to be a ‘good wife.’ Though her tale is a

tragedy, I found myself drawing comparisons between mighty Clytemnestra and select women

of Shakespeare’s repertoire. “She speaks poniards, and every word stabs,” Benedick accuses of

Beatrice (II.i.216). Katherina snarls, “What, will you not suffer me? Nay, now I see. . .Talk not

to me, I will go. . .Till I can find occasion of revenge” (II.i.31-36). Both are strong women,

capable of defending themselves superbly in a verbal confrontation—but their positions in time

and society strain them to settle into a socially acceptable marriage.

Motivation “A Male Strength of Heart” explores the characters of Shakespeare’s strongestworded

women, examining the ways in which they are molded into social expectations. In

juxtaposition, my research will determine in what manner, if any, the characters manage to retain

aspects of their unmarried personas’ wit.

Results Shakespeare enigmatically achieves both social compatibility and an extraordinary level

of compassion toward his female characters’ wills and personas. By varying degrees and

through differing trials—both woman achieved a certain level of constancy within their

characterization, neither being required to utterly abandon what made them such “Shakespearian

ladies” to begin with: their exceptional wit and willingness to wield it.


Darth Hamlet: Elements of Shakespearean Tragedy in Star Wars

Andrea Skowronski, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

Anguished groans reverberate through high school classrooms across the country when any of

the works of Shakespeare appear on the reading list. The language shift caused by nearly four

hundred fifty years of dynamic usage leaves students in mental agony as they attempt to sift

through linguistic and cultural differences to find the essence of the plays. Shakespeare certainly

lived a long time ago, and for many modern readers he may as well have lived in a galaxy far, far

away. Nevertheless, his works have endured to this day. Whether in their original form or a

modernized version, Shakespearean characters, story lines, and plot devices continue to influence

the performing arts. Indeed, Shakespeare’s influence is so widespread that it can even be found

in stories whose writers did not intend it. For example, George Lucas had no Shakespearean

aspirations when he wrote and directed the Star Wars saga. His goal was to recreate science

fiction in a way that would resonate with his audience. Yet, when viewed as a whole, the six

films of Star Wars canon fit nearly perfectly with A. C. Bradley’s definitive work,

Shakespearean Tragedy. This paper will compare Star Wars with the characteristics of a

Shakespearean tragedy as described by Bradley with the intention of demonstrating that the saga

does in fact follow tragic pattern.

The Things of the Flesh: The Battle between Hebrew and Christian Traditions in William

Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice

Jarred Turner, Faculty Sponsor: William Walsh, Butler University

“And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after

thee in their generations (Genesis 17:9 KJV). This verse is indicative of the covenantal

relationship between God and the descendants of Abraham. Throughout the Old Testament the

notion of a covenant is used to frame the belief structure of the Jewish people. In the Biblical

narrative the Israelites were often punished for breaking their covenant with God. This is

contrasted in the Christian tradition where the emphasis for a relationship with God is placed on

His grace. Or as the apostle Paul states,“ye are not under the law, but under grace” (Romans 6:14

KJV). It is in this religious background that the interaction of Shylock and Antonio in

Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice is formed. While there are prejudicial undertones

that factor into the agreement entered into by the two men, it is a fundamental differing in

religious ideology that frames the events surrounding the bond. Shylocks actions can be better

understood when viewed in relationship to the Biblical story of Jephthah. When viewed in this

light, Shylock’s actions become less connected with any internal evil, but rather conjoined to his

religious beliefs in a way that forces him to choose between his own traditions and those of

Christianity.

The Epic Hero's Burden: Imperial Consciousness in Tennyson's “Ulysses"

Caitlin Willenbrink, Faculty Sponsor: Melissa Eden, Hanover College

In 1829, Scottish author Christopher North famously described the British Empire as the land

“on which the sun never set”; in 1842, Alfred, Lord Tennyson published his poem “Ulysses,” a

dramatic monologue written in the voice of the hero of Homer’s Odyssey. In my presentation, I

will examine the intersection of Victorian literature and British imperial history through


Tennyson’s poem. I first analyze the rhetorical parallels between this work and English rhetoric,

comparing Ulysses’s expansionist agitation with restlessness of the British imperialist spirit. I

explore the parallels that both Tennyson and the orators of the imperial age draw between the

British Empire and the colonizing powers of antiquity, thus demonstrating how the author

reflects on his own nation’s drive for expansion, and the motives, justifications, and doubts

involved in this quest. Finally, I analyze how the poem’s narration explores the fundamental

tensions between savagery and civilization, bondage and freedom, and weakness and power that

are inherent in the imperialist attitude, but approaches them ambivalently, in order to evaluate the

Victorian colonial adventure.

Between Public and Private: Personal Autonomy in The Merchant of Venice

Olivia Yoch, Faculty Sponsor: William Walsh, Butler University

The two plots winding through The Merchant of Venice present Shakespeare’s play between the

inner and outer, the romantic and financial, the personal and public. Portia and Shylock, the two

marginalized characters, emphasize the division between public and private spheres. Susan

Oldrieve identifies private and public senses of self in “Marginalized Voices in ‘The Merchant of

Venice’” by claiming Portia and Shylock conform publically in order to succeed privately.

Oldrieve’s differentiation between public conformity and private independence plays out, though

Portia and Shylock in fact use the public sphere as a means of action in order to influence

personal affairs. Both characters lack the power to change their private spheres: Shylock suffers

under Venetian prejudice and Portia must accept whichever suitor correctly chooses the lead

casket. The financial or legal sphere offers an avenue for marginalized characters to influence

personal position – to gain autonomous, personal identities. Though participation in the public

sphere necessitates some degree of conformity, the public enables the disadvantaged to alter

private situations.

Reimagining the Bard: National Influences in the Anglo-Celtic Literature of Dylan Thomas

and James Joyce

Olivia Yoch, Faculty Sponsor: Ania Spyra, Butler University

Dylan Thomas’ Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog (1940) and James Joyce’s A Portrait of the

Artist as a Young Man (1914) are semi-autobiographical works from Celtic authors who write in

English-language prose. Because the authors’ childhoods fall during different periods of Celtic

nationalism, Joyce and Thomas have predictably divergent relationships with Ireland and Wales

as culturally and linguistically distinct entities. They express these relationships through their

interactions with language, both in the response to Welsh and Irish Gaelic and in the narrators’

youthful attempts at English-language poetry. Examining the novels in light of Irish and Welsh

nationalistic influences (especially a nationalism as expressed by language) lets us read Young

Man as a novel of departure and Young Dog as one of return.

EXERCISE SCIENCE


The Effect of a Cognitive and Motor Task on Postural Stability

Kyle Bohnert, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

In daily life, individuals typically stand while performing other suprapostural tasks. A large

collection of literature has explored the effect of only a cognitive or motor task on postural

stability. However, there is a dearth of information on the impact of both types of tasks

performed simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine integration of a motor task

with balance control on an unstable surface while engaged in a memory task.

Methods Fourteen college students free from any postural, mental, or motor deficiencies

participated in this study. Three phases of trials were imposed. Two phases required participants

to fit a block into either a large or small opening. A third phase of trials did not require a fitting

task. Within each phase, half of the trials consisted on an additional cognitive memory

task. Through all trials, a force platform as well as Vicon 3D Motion Capture cameras took

measurements relative to postural sway.

Results and Discussion Data collection is ongoing and nearing completion. Initial findings and

pilot data have revealed that postural sway decreases with the addition of each task. This would

demonstrate the body taking a facilitator role when challenged with suprapostural tasks. In being

a facilitator, the body reduces sway because any extra bodily movements could impede the

successful completion of the tasks. Thus, this decrease in sway appears to be beneficial to

suprapostural tasks.

The Impact of Cross Education in Dominant and Non-Dominant Fine Motor Training

Audrey Black, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Cross education is an adaptation in an untrained limb that occurs when the opposite limb is

trained. Previous research supports unidirectional impact, in the dominant to non-dominant

direction. However, this may be influenced by the degree of dominance in the muscle group. In

addition, there is little evidence regarding cross education as it relates to fine motor training. As

such, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cross education as it relates to the

degree of hand dominance when training fine motor skills.

Methods Five subjects participated: Three trained the dominant hand, two trained the nondominant

hand. Training was performed using a computerized mirror maze task, on nonconsecutive

days, until significant improvement occurred (60%) and a plateau was observed,

typically over 6-8 training sessions. Pre- and post-tests were performed using the same mirror

maze, and with the added challenge of tilting the image at a 45º angle.

Results and Discussion Data collection is ongoing and nearing completion. Initial findings and

pilot data have revealed that cross education occurs in the dominant to non-dominant direction.

Evidence also supports cross education effects in the non-dominant to dominant direction. It

appears that cross education was not successful when slightly altering the maze task by 45º,

suggesting a high level of task specificity. To this point in the research process, it can be

concluded that (1) cross education occurs when learning a fine motor task; (2) Cross education is

not unidirectional; And (3) cross education effects are highly task specific.


Effects of Varying Exercise Intensities and Timing of Exercise on Insulin Sensitivity: A

Case Study

Michael Case, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Insulin resistance is a major health problem in the U.S. Exercise has been shown to increase

insulin sensitivity. However, it is unclear how intensity, and the timing of exercise (prior to or

after eating) influence the degree of impact. This study was designed to explore the timing of

exercise and the intensity with regard to short term insulin sensitivity evidenced by glucose

clearance from the blood.

Methods One 22 year old male engaged in six experimental sessions: (1 and 2) resting baseline

tests in which a standardized glucose load was ingested and blood glucose response was

measured. Remaining sessions were randomly assigned: (3 and 4) exercise was performed an

hour before ingestion of the glucose load, one trial was moderate intensity (HR=120 bpm; 45%

VO2max for 30 min), the other vigorous (HR=150 bpm: 60%VO2max for 30 min); (5 and 6)

exercise was performed immediately following ingestion of the glucose load, one trial was

moderate intensity, the other vigorous. Blood samples were obtained over 75 minutes post

ingestion at minutes 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 from finger pricks, and glucose measurements were

determined with an Accu-check Aviva glucose monitor.

Results and Discussion Results indicate good reliability of the resting glucose response

following oral glucose loading. Exercise enhanced blood glucose clearance, indicated by

calculations of the area under the curve. Moderate exercise intensity in both cases was more

effective than vigorous exercise. Overall, it was concluded that (1) exercise promotes insulin

sensitivity evidenced by enhanced glucose clearance from the blood; (2) exercise before

ingestion is superior to exercise after; and (3) moderate exercise is superior to vigorous exercise.

The Effect of Auditory and Visual Stimuli on RPE, Affect, and HR during Exercise

Sarah Clapp, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

The purpose was to determine the effects of auditory and visual stimuli, using music and film, on

heart rate, affect, and ratings of perceived exertion during moderate exercise.

Methods Subjects were six males, ages 20-21, from Hanover College who participated in three

separate trials, walking on a treadmill at 40, 50, 60, and 70% of their maximum heart rate

(MHR). The trials consisted of auditory stimulation with visual deprivation, visual stimulation

with auditory deprivation, and a control. Auditory and visual stimuli were the independent

variables and heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and affect were the dependent

variables. Affect was measured prior to and following each trial using the Subjective Exercise

Experience Scale (SEES), HR was measured with a Polar heart rate monitor, and the Borg 6-20

scale measured RPE, which reflects individual perceptions of intensity or effort. Music was used

as auditory stimuli and the selection was based on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-3 (BMRI-

3) to determine the motivational impact. Subjects selected a film to watch from several options

and then completed a questionnaire of elicited emotions.


Results and Conclusion Data collection is ongoing and nearing completion. Initial findings and

pilot data suggest that RPE during the auditory and visual trials were lower than during the

control trials and the lowest RPE occurred during the auditory trials. Pre to post-test affect

ratings improved during the control, auditory, and visual trials. It appears that auditory and visual

stimuli will positively influence RPE and affect during moderate exercise.

Physiologic Adaptations to Simulated Normobaric Hypoxia: A Case Study

Jeremy Cook, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Background and Purpose Hypoxic exposure lowers the percentage of hemoglobin saturation

with oxygen (SpO2), which in turn stimulates production of additional red blood cells (RBCs) as

compensation. Sleeping at simulated altitude has become popular among endurance athletes to

promote an increase in RBCs. Is this approach effective, and if so is eight hours of daily

exposure sufficient? In addition, if effective, does it lead to an increase in performance as

measured by VO2max and anaerobic threshold (AT)? The purpose of this study was to address

these questions.

Methods One highly fit anaerobically trained male subject (22 years) slept at simulated altitude

(normobaric hypoxia) that reduced SpO2 FROM 97% to


Results and Discussion Caffeine increased VO2 peak, heart rate, and time to exhaustion during

exercise. Performance was negatively impacted by heat inhibition. This was the case in both

caffeine and non-caffeine trials. Heat inhibition appeared to increase the metabolic overhead of

exercise which may explain the decreased time to exhaustion. It was concluded that although

caffeine can increase performance, the effect may be lost when the thermoregulatory system is

challenged.

Strength and Flexibility Imbalance of Female College Athletes

Michaela Gray, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Recent studies have shown a correlation between muscle imbalance and injury occurrence in

athletes. Muscle imbalance occurs when there is a strength difference between two muscle

groups of the same limb, or between homologous muscles of opposing limbs. For example, an

H/Q ratio less than .60 suggests imbalance between the quadriceps and hamstrings of the same

leg. Leg dominance can also affect imbalance. Strength difference between the dominant and

non-dominant leg should be within 10%. For example the dominant leg should be no less than

90% the strength of the non-dominant. Flexibility imbalance between hamstrings of opposing

legs may also play a role in injury occurrence in athletes. The purpose of this study was to

determine the occurrence and degree of imbalance in female college athletes.

Methodology Strength was measured isometrically at the angles of 135 degree and 90 degree for

quadriceps and hamstrings. Hamstring flexibility was measured using a sit and reach test.

Discussion Data collection is ongoing. Initial findings have shown imbalances in H/Q ratios of

the same limb, H/Q imbalance between opposing limbs, as well as imbalance between opposing

quadriceps and opposing hamstrings. No significant imbalances have been noted in hamstring

flexibility. It is tentatively concluded that strength and flexibility imbalance is common among

college female athletes and that addressing imbalance could potentially reduce the incidence of

injury.

The Impact of Caffeine vs. a Placebo on Caloric Expenditure, Blood Pressure, Heart Rate,

and Ratings of Perceived Exertion

Leslie Manuel, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Caffeine stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn may increase energy

expenditure (EE). Does this mean regular caffeine ingestion may help (all things being equal) to

reduce body fatness? Typically, caffeine studies have been conducted at rest, which raises the

following question: what is the impact of caffeine during moderate exercise with regard to EE,

heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE). The purpose of

this study was to address this question.

Methods This study was a double-blind experimental design. Six subjects completed 2 trials

each, one with caffeine and one with a placebo. Caffeine dosage was 6 mg per kilogram of body

weight. Exercise was performed on a treadmill at 2.5 mph with 0% grade, 3.5 mph with 0%

grade, and 3.5 with 8% grade, each for 6 minutes. Indirect calorimetry (oxygen consumption),

HR, BP, and RPE were determined during exercise.


Results and Discussion Data collection is ongoing and nearing completion. Initial findings and

pilot data have revealed that the dose of caffeine versus the placebo resulted in an increase in EE,

HR, BP, and a decrease in RPE during exercise. To this point in the research process, caffeine

would seem to be helpful in reducing body fatness. However, it must be noted that subjects were

able to determine after the fact which treatment entailed caffeine as they self-reported higher

levels of anxiety and jitteriness.

Cross Education: The Effect of Unilateral Strength Training

Chris Mosier, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Atrophy and loss of strength are likely to occur when a limb is immobilized. A helpful

intervention is cross education (cross transference of effects) in which the homologous muscles

on the contralateral limb are exercised and there is a cross transference of effects to the

immobilized limb. The degree of cross education may depend on the degree of dominance of the

exercised limb and also the degree of strength gained from training. The purpose of this

investigation was to track the rate of strength gain from session to session in one limb and to

determine the overall degree of cross education to the unexercised limb.

Methods Four male college students performed unilateral strengthening exercises using a

handgrip dynamometer. Two subjects trained the dominant limb and two trained the nondominant

limb for 12 training sessions.

Results and Discussion Subjects who trained their dominant limb had greater strength gains in

the trained limb. The dominant trained group had an average of 15.4% increase in strength in the

trained limb and a 7.75% increase in the untrained limb as compared to the non-dominant trained

group with gains of 6.7% and 6.25%. Subjects who trained their dominant limb had a 2.2%

increase in strength on average from session to session as compared with an average gain of 0.95

% in the non-dominant trained limb. It is concluded that (1) strength can be gained during each

training session; (2) training effects are greater in the dominant limb; and (3) cross education is

similar regardless of which limb is trained.

Acute Effects of Moderate and Higher Intensity Exercise on Blood Lipids (A case study)

Heather Nichols, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Postprandial (after eating) triglycerides have been shown to be a better indicator of heart disease

and metabolic disease than fasting levels, because they show the body’s ability to process and

use triglycerides. Studies have shown that exercise up to 24 hours before a high fat meal can

lower postprandial levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of timing of

exercise and intensity on postprandial triglycerides.

Methods One female subject, moderately active and 22 years of age, consumed a high fat meal

after which blood lipid levels were determined at 1, 2.5 and 4 hours.

Experiment 1. Acute moderate exercise. The subject performed one hour of walking on a

treadmill (3.5 mph, 0% grade; 1.1025 L/min, 4.85 kcal/ L, 320.8 kcal total) either immediately

before the high fat meal or immediately after. Results were compared to the control treatment.

Experiment 2. Acute higher intensity exercise. The subject performed 30 minutes of walking on


the treadmill (3.5 mph, 8% grade; 1.745 L/m, 4.9 kcal/L, 256.5 kcal total) immediately before

the high fat meal. Results were compared to experiment 1.

Results and Discussion Triglyceride area scores for each of the trials show that the timing of

exercise and the intensity of exercise matter in the postprandial triglyceride response. Exercising

immediately before a high fat meal appears to lower postprandial triglyceride levels more than

exercising immediately after. Higher intensity exercise before a high fat meal appears to be more

effective in lowering the postprandial triglyceride response than the moderate intensity exercise

both before and after a meal. This occurred despite the fact that the moderate intensity exercise

expended more energy than the higher intensity exercise.

The Effect of Cross Education on Reactive Hyperemia

Molly Pierson, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

During exercise, there is an increased demand for oxygen and blood flow to the working

muscles. Blood flow is reduced to other areas of the body via widespread vasoconstriction, a

sympathetic nervous system response. Local factors cause vasodilation in the working muscles,

resulting in excess blood flow (hyperemia). During resistance exercise, hyperemia is delayed

(reactive hyperemia). Does cross education of reactive hyperemia occur in the non-working

muscles homologous to the working muscles? If so, is the effect bidirectional or unidirectional

(only from the dominant to non-dominant direction)? The purpose of this investigation was to

examine the effect of cross education on reactive hyperemia in the upper arm muscles, and the

directionality.

Methods Five female subjects performed resistance exercise in two sessions; one involved the

dominant arm, the other the non-dominant arm. Exercise included seated bicep curls using an

exhaustive drop-set technique. Reactive hyperemia was determined with a water-displacement

technique in each arm before and after each trial.

Results and Discussion Reactive hyperemia was evident in the exercised arm in both

sessions. Cross education was seen in the dominant to non-dominant direction, with an increase

in reactive hyperemia to the non-exercised arm. When exercising the non-dominant arm, cross

education did not occur. It was concluded that cross education of reactive hyperemia does occur,

but only in the dominant to non-dominant direction.

Impact of Heat or Cold Application on Acute Flexibility

Megan Priest, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Therapeutic modalities such as heat have been shown to facilitate acute stretching. Cold is

generally thought to decrease flexibility. Ironically, however, there is evidence that cooling the

muscle with ice can facilitate acute stretching. The mechanism is unknown but could possibly be

related to “numbing” the neurological stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to examine

and compare the effects of heat and cold on hamstring flexibility.

Methods: Ten college-aged women were tested in three separate trials in which maximal stretch

of the dominant hamstring muscle was determined. Pre and post-intervention measurements


were taken using a sit-and-reach box. A 20 second stretch-6 second contract method of

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching was utilized for 1 minute and 12

seconds. The randomly assigned trials included (1) no intervention; (2) fifteen minutes of moist

heat; or (3) fifteen minutes of ice packing prior to stretching.

Results and Discussion: Data collection is ongoing and nearing completion. Initial findings

from preliminary data have shown that both therapeutic modalities, heat and cold, impact acute

stretching positively when compared to the control treatment. It has yet to be determined which

modality, heat or cold, is superior.

The Impact of Flexibility on Sprint Performance

Derek Prifogle, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Increased flexibility typically is viewed as a positive attribute that enhances performance.

However, casual observation suggests that the fastest football players, those with the lowest time

in the forty yard dash, may be less flexible. Is there an inverse relationship between flexibility

and sprint time? The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between flexibility

and sprint time in male varsity collegiate football players.

Methodology 24 Varsity Collegiate (Hanover College) football players served as subjects for the

study. The subjects represented offensive (line, backs, and receivers) and defensive (line,

linebackers, and backs) positions which provided a considerable range of body sizes and sprint

times. From each of the six position groups the two fastest players and two slowest players were

selected. Each subject then performed five different flexibility tests. Additional data (strength

score on various exercises) were considered and utilized in a multiple regression statistical

procedure to predict sprint time.

Results and Discussion Data collection is ongoing and nearing completion. Initial findings

suggest increased flexibility may be inversely related to sprint time. However, flexibility scores

may not be a strong predictor of sprint time. Strength scores, particularly vertical jump and

power clean appear at this point in the study to be the most powerful predictors.

Cross Education Fatigue

Matt Sieg, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Cross Education (CE) is a neural adaptation defined as the increase in strength of the untrained

homologous muscles on the contralateral limb following unilateral training of the opposite

limb. CE has obvious implications for reducing muscle atrophy and the loss of strength that can

occur when a limb is immobilized. It is well documented that CE can transfer strength, however

it is unknown if fatigue is transferred as well. This study was designed to explore the potential of

CE fatigue. If it occurs it would be evidence of a centralized fatigue mechanism that could work

alone, or in concert with localized fatigue.

Methodology Five college males participated in a total of five randomized sessions, each session

one week apart. Maximal exertion hand gripping was imposed in a series of work/rest (5

seconds/10 seconds) isometric contractions. Two sessions consisted of a baseline measurement


on either the dominant or non dominant hand. Two sessions consisted of exercising the

dominant or non dominant hand to maximal fatigue followed immediately by testing of the

opposite limb. In one session a placebo of caffeine was ingested and the dominant hand was

exercised.

Results and Discussion Data Collection is ongoing and nearing completion. At this point, CE

fatigue has been shown to occur in both directions, dom to non-dom and vice versa. This

supports the impact of a centralized fatigue mechanism.

Load Carriage Efficiency during Moderate Exercise

Rachel Strang, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

The ability to carry loads efficiently has been a topic of interest throughout history. Strategies

vary and include carrying the load on the head, in a backpack, with the hands, over the shoulder,

etc. Why is one method more efficient than another and what is the primary factor that

contributes most to efficiency of load carriage? Is it the closeness to the body, or closeness to the

center of gravity? The purpose of this study was to address these questions.

Methods Energy expenditure (EE) was determined with indirect calorimetry (oxygen

consumption). Six healthy recreationally active college female students were tested during

treadmill walking AT 3.5mph and 0% grade. Three load carriage regimens were imposed: (1)

carrying two 10-pound hand-held weights; (2) wearing a 20-pound weighted vest; and (3) loaded

with both the weighted vest and hand-held weights. Hand weights were close to the center of

gravity, while the vest was close to the body. Note: The EE of simply “holding” the weights was

taken into account and deducted.

Results and Discussion Data collection is continuing. However, a pilot study and preliminary

test data seemed to indicate that the most cost effective method of load carriage during moderate

exercise on a treadmill was the weighted vest. Closeness to the body is the key to efficiency, in

other words. EE for the combined loads was greater than the additive impact of each separately.

This suggests a threshold factor in load carriage, beyond which efficiency is comprised. Note:

The EE of simply “holding” the weights was close to a zero effect.

Efficacy of Active Recovery Interventions on Blood Lactate Clearance Rates

Keaton Worland, Faculty Sponsor: Bryant Stamford, Hanover College

Clearing lactate from the blood can aid subsequent exercise performance. As such, the purpose

of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of different active recovery interventions on

the rate of blood lactate clearance.

Methods A case study, including nine different recovery interventions was performed. Each

active recovery was performed for 20 minutes and followed immediately by 20 minutes of

passive recovery. Blood lactate concentration was determined at 5, 20, 30, and 40

minutes. Finger perforation blood was introduced to the Accutrend lactate analyzer.

Recovery Interventions


Passive (Control)

Active cycling just below

the anaerobic threshold (AT)

Active cycling recovery with

fresh leg muscles

Passive Recovery followed by

active cycling recovery

Rehab trainer arm cranking

at 35% of VO 2 max

Static core stabilization

exercises

Active cycling recovery at 35% Active cycling with preexhausted

leg muscles

exercises

Dynamic core stabilization

VO 2 max

Results and Discussion Data collection is ongoing and near completion. The raw data suggests

that active recovery is far superior to passive recovery. Other findings suggest that (1) recovering

with task specific muscles is superior to recovering with “fresh” muscles; (2) a large muscle

mass (leg cycling) is superior to a smaller muscle mass (arm cranking); (3) recovering at the

highest exercise intensity below AT is superior to the commonly used 35% of VO 2 max; and (4)

core stabilization exercises are an effective alternative.

GENDER AND WOMEN'S STUDIES

Sometimes Ordinary Is All We Need

Camille Germain, Faculty Sponsor: Gerald Waite, Ball State University

After two of her nephews and one niece were killed in Belfast on August 10, 1976, Mairead

Corrigan Maguire stood up as a leader alongside Betty Williams and Ciaran McKeown in

organizing peace marches and demonstrations on a daily account. The peace marches took place

in Ireland and England against the British war, leading into a campaign on making Northern

Ireland gun-free. Belfast was undergoing what was seen as “The Troubles” in its height and over

thirty-four hundred people were killed from 1969 to 1998. Maguire, like the thousands of others

who campaigned, was an ordinary person who was struck emotionally from both empathy and

personal affair.

The people in Northern Ireland who sought after an end of the killings were mostly ordinary

women. The “Peace People” was created as an organized movement in 1976 which caused the

largest nonviolent demonstrations known in Northern Ireland’s history. Maguire is a co-founder

of the Community of the Peace People (a way for the group to continue with their peacemaking

initiatives). Mairead Colligan Maguire and Betty Williams, in 1977, were both awarded the

Nobel Peace Prize of 1976.


Maguire, as a peace activist and primarily a woman, displays courage through her nonviolent

approaches to peace and determination to speak out against war. She displays how woman can

equally fight for peace and achieve change through their strength. Today, Maguire is the

Honorary President of the Peace People (it now advocates peace and nonviolence worldwide),

has created a peace education curriculum with Peace Jam (a nonprofit group), is a member of the

Honorary board of the International Coalition for the Decade of the culture of Peace and

Nonviolence. She proves that ordinary women can make a difference in this world.

Leymah Gbwoee: Nobel Peace Prize Recipient 2011

Sysilie Hill, Faculty Sponsor: Gerald Waite, Ball State University

Leymah Gbowee of Liberia was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011 along with two other

women. They were awarded "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for

women's rights to full participation in peace-building work." She began her work at Trauma

Healing and Reconciliation Program and then joined the Women in Peacebuilding

Network. With the help of her allies at the WIPNET, she started the Women of Liberia Mass

Action for Peace. They started by praying in the markets and calling for the violence against

women to be stopped. They then held demonstrations and sit-ins. They called for the end of the

Liberian war and their demonstrations helped bring about the signing of the Accra

Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which ended the war officially. In addition to bringing an end

to 14 years of warfare in Liberia, this women's movement led to the 2005 election of Ellen

Johnson Sirleaf as president of Liberia, the first elected woman leader of a country in Africa,

who was one of Gbowee’s fellow Nobel Peace Prize recipients. She has since this, gotten her

master’s degree in Peacekeeping and is struggling considerably in her personal life. It shows the

burden it is to carry the responsibility of this on your shoulders and why even more now women

need to rise up to support one another.

For my future career, I want to focus on women and children’s sexual health and safety so the

work that Leymah has done is very inspirational and it’s very heartbreaking because of all

personal sacrifices she’s had to make. It has been proven that if you empower and improve the

lives of women in an impoverished nation they will bring everyone up with them and literally

raise the GDP (Gross Domestic Profit.) I believe that if we work to empower one women at a

time and in turn they help one other women, my gender can make a big difference in our world.

Michael Corleone: Traditional Masculinity as Puppeteer

Wyatt Lewis, Faculty Sponsor: Warren Rosenberg, Wabash College

The Godfather trilogy is famous for its examination of the American Dream, but it also provides

a fascinating glimpse into the nature of masculinity by allowing the viewer to see how Michael’s

slow rise to power and eventual role as “Godfather” directly relate to his masculinity. In

particular, the trilogy offers two contrasting views of masculinity: the Romanticized male

essence characterized by the mythic figure of Vito and a progressive definition of masculinity

that defines masculine gender behavior as performance and cultural construct. These two

conflicting theories reside together in all three movies, and Michael’s struggle to define his

masculinity is a struggle to choose between them, until the final installment eventually

deconstructs the former definition of masculinity as a falsehood. This struggle partly explains


the vast popularity of the movies. Although the first two movies do offer a critique of a

Romanticized gender “essence,” the critique is much more subtle and the Romanticized

masculinities presented appeal to a wide range of audiences; however, the third movie offers a

more blatant deconstruction of Michael’s masculinity, unmasking it as performative, which helps

explain viewer distaste for Part III.

Yoko Ono: Sharing the Message of Peace through Art and Social Media

Nina Monstwillo, Faculty Sponsor: Gerald Waite, Ball State University

For my presentation I would like to focus my attention on the work of Yoko Ono. Since she is

often represented as just the former wife of John Lennon, I would like to demonstrate that she is

working hard and making a great impact towards spreading the message of peace and love

through her creative projects around the world and through the use of social media.

In the past, she has used her creativity and interest in the arts to primarily focus on the issues of

violence in the home and in women’s lives. Even though she continues to address these

important issues of female violence, she is also making projects which encourage every

individual to become their own personal advocate of peace within their own lives.

In recent years, in an effort to share the message of peace, Yoko Ono has used the power of the

internet to invite individuals to send in personal reflections or photo’s which she uses as a

medium to create her projects, and to share their messages with people around the world. She

truly believes that through love for ourselves and for humanity, we can overcome the violence

that hurts each of us around the world.

In my presentation, I will explore the different forms of art Yoko Ono has used throughout her

life, while continuing to work towards spreading the message of peace. I will also show visual

examples of her most recent work and share resources which can be explored by audience

members during their personal time.

I have no doubt that my presentation about Yoko Ono can be a great educational and entertaining

experience for my prospective audience and I truly believe that through her work, people can

become inspired to make personal changes in their own lives which will help encourage the

spread of peace in the lives of people around them.

The Sorry Truth of Beauty

John Traylor, Faculty Sponsor: Paul Hanson, Butler University

The United States Declaration of Independence claimed, “That all men are created equal, [and]

that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights…” (Hunt

216). Philosophically and biologically this may be true. All may be born as human beings and

should therefore be treated equally. However, aesthetically all are certainly not created

equally. Some are born with clear skin, big eyes, high cheek bones, and proportional features,

while others are born with less perfect attributes. The purpose of this work is to examine the

principals of beauty of people, and to understand the beauty of people as an objective scale or


grade. In relation to human rights, this work will argue that those of greater beauty will be

treated to greater privileges than those of less beauty.

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES

The American Dream vs. Revolution

Michael Burke, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

The American Dream is for the individual as it promotes the idea that any one person can climb

social ranks with the right amount of hard work and perseverance. The American government

preaches democracy, freedom and the power of the people, giving the common man a sense of

individual freedom and a piece of sovereignty in society in his ability to vote and make

change. For the revolutionary, America is contrived of contradictions in which ultimately

suppress the revolutionary thought because it consists of a population of people who are

individualistic by nature and believe they have equal rights while being controlled by those of

whom possess the most power and are in the 1%. Individualism and a false sense of power

prevent the American from revolutionary thought. When an American exercises his “power” to

vote, it is a power which is just enough to make them feel content, for no American will sacrifice

their American Dream for the good of others, especially when the rest of society is striving for

the same dream.

The Woodstock Exchange

Leslie Cyranowski, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

The aesthetic traditions of society reflect its social truths. The arts, including music, follow the

mainstream and counter cultures. This article examines Woodstock as a moment of cognitive

and aesthetic praxis wherein the youth of the United States asserted an ethico-political position

antagonistic to the prevailing status quo in a revolution based upon human dignity and founded

upon an interpretation of the same core principles (freedom, equality, and the pursuit of

happiness) of the mainstream political forces they were rebelling against. This article shows that

Woodstock was a critical moment that illuminates the aesthetics of music and fashion affecting a

social movment that promoted harmony and freedom expressed in sex, drugs, and peaceful

resistance against war.

Falling Whistles; Sean Carasso

Morgan Dragoo, Faculty Sponsor: Gerald Waite, Ball State University

In the last decade, more than 6 million people have died in the Democratic Republic of

Congo. Around 1,500 people continue to lose their lives daily. Since WWII, the war in the

Congo has been labeled as our world’s deadliest war. The natural resources we use to create our

consumers electronics are found in this country, causing death and destruction to everyone in the

Congo.


Young boys are forced to fight. They have been abducted from their families, tied up, beaten,

and forced to kill. There is more sexual violence in the Congo than any other country in the

world. Children who are too young to hold a gun are forced to carry only a whistle and stand on

the front lines in battle. Their only purpose is to make enough noise to scare the enemy. When

their bodies receive bullets they are then used as temporary barricades.

When the happenings of this war were shown to a single man, he made a plan, and a promise, to

end the war in the Congo. Sean Carasso created an organization called Falling Whistles using

the Congo’s weapon as our voice. The organization educates the public of the happenings of the

Congo in hopes of one day ending this deadly war. They encourage everyone to be a

whistleblower for peace.

Throughout my college experience, I have realized I am very passionate about two things, the

love of design and helping others in need. For undergraduate research conference, I would like to

apply the theories that I have studied in my Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution courses. In

doing so, I am going to raise awareness about the war in the Congo, inspire those that hear the

problem, and create a change in attitude. If people don’t know about the problem, how can we

even begin to fix it?

With this conference, I would be expressing the importance of Falling Whistles, and the need to

stop the war in the Congo and feel that it would be a great way to kick off the message on

Butler’s campus. Many times students are the a great way to spread information quickly. On

college campuses, students become energized by each other and become excited and moved by

different organizations. By talking about Falling Whistles and about Sean, hopefully a movement

will begin and change will occur in the Congo.

We need to do something about the war, and as the message grows, the casualties will decrease.

The Congo needs people to become whistleblowers to make a difference. I strongly believe there

are many who feel the same as I do, and are just as passionate; they just need to hear the story.

“The world is changed by those who speak out”

The 2011 Egyptian Revolution: The Lasting Effects of U.S. Foreign Policy in Egypt

Ryan Frazier, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

This paper will strive to summarize United States foreign policy concerning the 2011 Egyptian

Revolution and what effects that this foreign policy will have on the United States in the

future. The paper will limit analysis of United States foreign policy to the Obama

administration. Through a brief literature review covering this particular facet of the Arab

Spring, the paper will develop a historical perspective in determining what interests the United

States has had in Egypt. Subsequently, the paper will examine official actions in Egypt: what

direct actions by the State Department, social media, and official actors tie together to influence

the Egyptian Revolution. Also, how did the media and unofficial actors (students or NGOs) play

a part in the revolution? The research will conclude with an attempt to understand how the

revolution got from where it started to where it will go, as well as what implications the 2011

Egyptian Revolution will have on the United States in the future.


United States and China: the Struggle for the African Oil

Fabio Frettoli, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

My research would like to analyze which is the current situation of The United States and China

in the African oil sector. I would like to use as paradigmatic cases the investments and the

strategies that these countries and their oil companies are applying in two African countries,

Nigeria and Sudan. I’ve chosen them because they represent the main oil exporters for United

States and China in the African Continent.

In a world where oil is becoming a scarce resource every day more and where the Middle East

area seems less stable than in the past, the diversification of oil supplies is fundamental in order

to assure to every country a constant and certain oil supply, and in the future Africa will play an

important role in this field.

“Crise d’Identité”: The Push to Preserve National Identity in France

Katie Hammitt, Faculty Sponsor: Paul Hanson, Butler University

In 2010, in response to his proposed “national history” museum to open in Paris, French

President Nicolas Sarkozy spoke of a France in the midst of a “crisis of identity.” The backlash

from the academic community and the political posturing proposed as motive for such a museum

speaks to how true the President’s statement was. In a world where the place of the nation is

thrown into question in the wake of ever-increasing globalization, France’s struggle to establish

and maintain a cohesive national identity represents a particular case of a widely-experienced

problem. This presentation will trace various aspects of France’s struggle for identity as it seeks

to find its place as a nation in a world where national eminence is challenged by international

entities.

The Social Media Revolution

Needa Malik, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

This presentation will analyze the revolutionary quality that is social media and how it is altering

relationships in a modern age. Individuals are staying connected all over the world and these new

methods of communication are changing how they relate to each other. Additionally, the

communal aspect of social media is allowing individuals and groups to not only socialize with

others globally, but also as a venue to express their social and political opinions, to spread

awareness about topics they find important, and just about anything they might want to do. Not

only is social media revolutionizing relationships, it also is altering the way we receive

information and the way we perceive the material. Instead of being alerted by a newspaper or

online article, individuals are being notified of headline news via his or her own personal

networking site. This presentation will also argue how social media is being used as a platform to

facilitate revolutionary movements, particularly by the youth. To investigate this concept in

detail, I will examine the Arab Spring and the Occupy Movement, both which have altered the

course of history on a global scale.

Narco Paradise: Mexico, United States, and Drug Culture

Cameron Panther, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University


In 2006, the newly elected President of Mexico, Felipe Calderón, declared a war on drugs. To

date, that “war” has claimed upwards of 45,000 lives and has been a crucial point of relations

between the governments of Mexico and the United States. Various solutions to this issue have

been conceptualized; some have been officially put to action with differing results. Many of the

solutions seem to be “quick-fix” measures while the deeper issues are skimmed over. This

research is intended to examine the various factors contributing to the thriving industry in the

areas of politics, social elements, economics, and international relations with the United States

and Mexico. The goal is to have a better understanding of all factors contributing to this thriving

industry and what can be done to quell the situation.

MENA Revolutions and the Future of U.S Foreign Policy

Brittanie Redd, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

The purpose of this research is to provide an analysis of how the political and social climate in

the Middle East and North Africa will impact the future of U.S foreign policy. The progression

of dissent across the region has caused individual restructuring of multiple nations. The transition

will greatly impact national interests and make U.S foreign policy reform an imperative. Two

essential components of reform are; following a more representative construct for the Middle

East and North Africa than the Modern Nation-State and engaging religious communities abroad.

The MENA region is very unique, with complex ethno-geographic realities. The Modern Nation-

State does not adequately represent the region. The complexity that exists in the MENA region is

deeply rooted in religious ideology, which acts as a determinant in government.

American and Chinese Exceptionalism in the Modern Day

Brian Stanley, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

This paper explores the exceptionalism in both the United States and the People’s Republic of

China. Structurally and philosophically the governments of these two countries is very

dissimilar. However, I will argue that their foreign policies are similar in the sense that they are

centered around the belief that their individual nation can and should operate outside of the status

quo of the international community. For the United States this is evident in their military

presence and extremely visible power projection around the world. The Chinese take a different

stance and have implemented policies such currency manipulation and the establishment an

industrial superiority that could provide for a new model of exceptionalism in the world.

DREAMing Through a Clouded Lens

Edward Stein, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

The Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act, or DREAM Act, from its

inception in 2008 has been a contentious point in U.S. politics for its rewarding of permanent

residency to minors who are the children of undocumented aliens. With this bill going as far as

granting in-state tuition and scholarships to the children of undocumented aliens, controversies

have erupted over how the U.S. government should handle cases of education for these youth.

You will examine what segments of U.S. society are averse to passage of this bill in any

form, the legal parameters from which the DREAM Act receive its justification, an examination

of the archetype brought originally to the U.S. Congress, its modifications, and DREAM Act


ills that have popped up in separate states around the U.S. Through a comprehensive study, the

author will present his findings and his opinion on the legality of the DREAM Act, its future,

what it means for U.S. society, and what it means to immigration policy for global core nations

experiencing growing immigration patterns

The Iconography and Symbolism of the Anonymous Movement

Robert Sweeney, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

The Anonymous movement is one of the most ubiquitous examples of revolution present in

today’s world. With the Anonymous movement being such a new phenomenon there is a large

gap in the knowledge that is readily available on it and I will attempt to remedy this by

examining the myriad symbols used by the movement. The Anonymous movement, being the

international internet activist (or ‘hacktivist’) group, is rife with allusions, whether those be

religious, pop culture, or political icons. Those symbols and icons are a means through which

one can begin to understand the beliefs, motives, and actions of Anonymous. Through the

exploration of these icons, by means of examining their origins, I hope to engender a greater and

fuller understanding of the Anonymous movement as a whole.

Fertile Deserts: Factors for success in the 2011 Libyan Intervention

Nathaniel Vaught, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

This paper examines the unique geopolitical context that made the UN-mandated multinational

intervention against the forces of the late Col. Muammar Gaddafi possible. It supports the view

that the Libyan Revolution occurred in an environment that was very convivial to an air

campaign which supported the NTC forces without transforming a domestic revolution into

another western-run example of neo-colonialism. By carefully tailoring their level of

involvement to a limited level of fire support and goal-specific advising to the fledgling

republican forces; it will be shown that the intervening forces skillfully avoided previous pitfalls

such as reckless arms-saturation, long-term entanglement, and euro-centrism. The paper will also

note the growing interest in some Arab states in supporting this kind of popular democratic

movement through a variety of means.

Post-9/11 Fashion Culture and Politics

Lindsey Weiss, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

This paper will examine fashion as an aesthetic reflection of competing ideologies, particularly

in the post-9/11 era. I will explore the correlation between fashion culture and post-9/11

geopolitics. Fashion is representative of culture and furthermore ideologies and is a pertinent but

often misunderstood factor in cross-cultural understanding. This understanding can lead to a

more effective approach to foreign policy, decision-making, and relations. I will also explore

American constructions of domestic as well as Arab and Islamic fashion and perceived

symbolism. I will examine this topic through exhaustive exploration of secondary literature and

academic articles and by conducting primary qualitative research to examine culture perceptions

of fashion culture and freedom.

The United States, the Middle East and Youth Bulge Theory


Courtney Williams, Faculty Sponsor: Robert Oprisko, Butler University

My research will look at the “youth bulge theory” and the idea that countries who have a

particularly large population of young people (although the definition of a “youth” is itself

political in nature and not easily definable, I will focus on youth ages 30 and under), are more

likely to rebel against social, political and economic institutions, typically in a violent manner.

This research will critique traditional youth bulge theorists who, I will argue, use race, color,

gender, ethnicity and geography to pinpoint and target certain youths in certain areas. This

research will look at the growing fear of youth in certain areas of the globe (particularly the

Middle East), framed by youth bulge theorists in the United States. Through this research I will

argue that fear of youth in Middle Eastern countries has risen post 9/11 and it is due to unjust and

unfair observation by “youth bulge” theorists in the United States.

MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

Homogeneous and Non-Homogeneous Markov Process Models for Melodic Sequences

Eric Buenger, Faculty Sponsor: Chris Wilson, Butler University

We compare melodic musical samples generated from both homogeneous and non-homogeneous

Markov processes to the source melodies on which the models were based. Because the nonhomogeneous

Markov processes take into account only recent melodic history, one might predict

that these samples will be more similar to the original melody than their homogeneous

counterparts. We test this prediction using chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests. We also identify

other mathematical methods for evaluating and comparing the abilities of homogenous and nonhomogeneous

models to generate material resembling the original sources.

Parallelizing Alpha-Beta Pruning in the Context of Connect-4

Patrick Copeland, Deanna Fink & Jordan Hildebrandt, Faculty Sponsor: Steven Bogaerts,

Wittenberg University

Programming in a new, experimental language is challenging – and so is implementing a parallel

version of minimax with alpha-beta pruning (MAB), a serial algorithm for decisionmaking.

Though the ultimate product will be usable for any combinatorial game, this

investigation examines both of these challenges on the playing field of Connect-4, a tic-tac-toe

variation consisting of seven columns and six rows, in which opponents alternate placing a piece

in a column. The pieces slide straight down to the next available slot in the column. Given a

sufficiently robust evaluation function, the traditional MAB algorithm would provide the “right”

next move. The massive game tree of Connect-4, though, makes it laborious for an AI system to

perform this serial depth-first search on each of its turns. MAB works by skipping (pruning)

decisions it knows to be worse than previous possible choices. By parallelizing MAB on some

of the game-tree nodes, some pruning opportunities are missed because knowledge about all

other choices is not available to the individual processors. We will show how the master-slave


manner by which additional processors are assigned to the problem decreases the number of

these missed opportunities. Also, we will demonstrate whether the added speedup to the final

decision is worth the sacrifice on larger trees. Additionally, we will discuss different

experiments on variations of the parallel MAB search depth, with the goal of optimizing the

move selection to play as close to a perfect game as possible. We used Chapel, a new language

specifically designed for parallel processing work, for the project, and Chapel both streamlined

some aspects of development and obfuscated others. This undertaking revealed some

weaknesses that could be addressed for later improvement of the language.

Permutation Pattern Avoidance and the Catalan Triangle

Derek DeSantis, Wesley Hough, Rebecca Meissen & Jacob Ziefle, Faculty Sponsors: Rebecca

Field & Brant Jones, Hanover College

In the study of various objects indexed by permutations, a natural notion of minimal excluded

structure, now known as a permutation pattern, has emerged and found diverse applications. One

of the earliest results from the study of permutation pattern avoidance in enumerative

combinatorics is that the Catalan numbers count the permutations of size n that avoid any fixed

pattern of size three. We refine this result by enumerating the permutations that avoid a given

pattern of size three and have a given letter in the first position of their one-line notation. Since

there are two parameters, we obtain triangles of numbers rather than sequences. Our main result

is that there are two essentially different triangles for any of the patterns of size three, and each

of these triangles generalizes the Catalan sequence in a natural way. All of our proofs are

bijective and relate the permutations being counted to recursive formulas for the triangles.

Mancala, a Java Rendition

Andre Harvey & Nathaniel Rutter, Faculty Sponsor: Steven Bogaerts, Wittenberg University

Mancala is a series of mathematical games played widely throughout Africa, parts of Asia and

much of the Caribbean. Often sharing traits with such well-known games as Chess and Go, you

are to outwit your opponent by capturing as many beads as possible from numerous wells

throughout the board while filling your home well. We produced our own Mancala game suite in

Java using the NetBeans IDE and organized our code into the model-view-controller

scheme. We will discuss this scheme of coding in more detail and explain how it had allowed

for better organization and simplicity of the code. In addition, we will explain the different

gameplay options that we made as well as several menu options, including saving, loading, game

statistics, and general options. We will also discuss some of the research and development

strategies that we used to gain insight into what people wanted to see in the Mancala program in

addition to what they wanted to see in a game in general.

MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE


The Making and Breaking of a Language: The French and Spanish Effect upon the

Catalan Regional Language

Margaret Cychosz, Faculty Sponsor: Eloise Sureau-Hale, Butler University

Almost four hundred years ago, the French and Spanish governments divided the Catalan border

regions located between their respective countries. The subsequent centuries have seen the

expansion and development of the Catalan language in Spain and the demise of the Catalan

language in France, where it has nearly deteriorated to disuse. Is this a reflection upon the French

and Spanish culture or was it simply governmental policy? If so, what did the central

governments of Madrid and Paris do in those years that resulted in this contrasting development

of Catalan? What effect did the usage of Catalan in governmental relations, schools, and daily

life have on its destruction, its prospering? How does one measure the vitality of a regional

language? This study, rooted in Grenoble and Whaley’s 1998 study that systemizes endangered

language prospects, “Toward a typology of language endangerment,” will focus upon several

categories such as governmental intervention, economic strength, religious involvement, but

particularly the consequences that the unique French and Spanish cultures have had upon the

minority language Catalan.

More than Meets the Eye: False Appearances in Pardo Bazán’s “Sud-Exprés”

Hannah Downey, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Willem, Butler University

Emilia Pardo Bazán was a pivotal writer of the 19 th -Century Realism and Naturalism movements

in Spain. Her nearly 6oo short stories often allusively challenge the inflexible, oppressive, and

sexist society in which she lived. Her story, “Sud-Exprés,” specifically concentrates on the

theme of deception beneath social appearances. Written in 1902, “Sud-Exprés” is told from the

perspective of the narrator who is traveling on the Sud-Express train and observing a young

Parisian couple aboard. The Sud-Express, which still operates today, transports passengers from

Madrid to Paris overnight. During Pardo Bazán’s era, the ability to afford such an overnight

train ride denoted substantial wealth, so passengers on the Sud-Express were limited to members

of the upper classes. Focusing on these notable aspects, I will place the story, “Sud-Exprés,”

within its cultural context and will subsequently review its theme of illusory pretenses.

The Unclassifiable Disease: The Medical History of Tuberculosis and its Portrayal in 19thcentury

Spanish Literature

Lauren Gatchel, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Willem, Butler University

From the medical perspective, tuberculosis was not thoroughly understood in Europe during the

19 th -century. The disease had various social implications, as it was a disease of the individual

rather than of the general population. This further warranted the infamous gender-specific

stereotypes for consumptive patients in European society. Males and females with tuberculosis

were considered to have the same disease, yet were viewed unequally. Two late 19 th -century

short stories, El dúo de la tos by Leopoldo Alas (Clarín) and Más allá by Emilia Pardo Bazán,

display the prevalent gender disparities concerning tuberculosis within European culture,

capitalizing on ideas of the endless consumptive imagination and of healing attempts utilizing

travel. My presentation will link the disease’s social significance portrayed in literature with the


common misunderstandings of the complex disease, relating the 19 th -century reasoning to

aspects of the disease now second nature to modern practitioners.

Picture Theory as Applied to Art during the Spanish Civil War

Jordan Kirkegaard, Faculty Sponsor: Irune del Rio Gabiola, Butler University

The purpose of this study is to explore the connection between theories on art, specifically visual

representations and their functions within real world contexts, such as war. How is the Spanish

Civil War portrayed through the art of Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso, and Joan Miró? Their

works are underlain in the concepts of Surrealism and can be considered abstract works; I will be

investigating and analyzing the function and reasoning behind this aesthetic. I will explore the

role that surrealism and abstract art plays within three specific paintings in the visual

representation of the tragedy of war and human suffering during the Spanish Civil War.

In contributing to mere descriptions of these paintings, theory on the visual arts such as the study

done by W.T. Mitchell entitled Picture Theory will help me to critically engage the multiple

aesthetic and social meanings that these paintings offer. Picture Theory is a book about the

essence or nature of visual representation, the function pictures and visuals serve, and their effect

on viewers, the world, and the future. Visual literacy is more complex than many realize and

may even have an entire language of its own (Burmark). Applying the concepts discussed in

Picture Theory and What Do Pictures Want?, also by W.T. Mitchell, as well as artistic

movements and Spanish criticism of Surrealism to these three specific works of art can provide

entirely unique insight into these innovative, varying, and often disturbing responses to the

tragedies of the Spanish Civil War.

“¿Doña Marina, traidora de la raza indígena o mediadora entre dos culturas?”

Abigail Merritt, Faculty Sponsor: Eduardo Santa Cruz

Está presentación va a enfocarse en la vida de Doña Marina y el legado que ella dejó en la

cultura de México. Doña Marina, la traductora principal y amante de Hernán Cortés, es

considerada la mujer más controvertida en la conquista de los aztecas. Ella era un personaje vital

en satisfacer las ambiciones de Cortés pero a la misma vez, se ve como una traidora a la gente

azteca. Por lo que yo leí en mi clase de español, la historia de Doña Marina me resultó

interesante. Está mujer que vivió una vida llena de privaciones merece que su historia sea

revalorada, eso es lo que me atrajo a este tema un poco controversial en los ojos de muchos

mexicanos. Doña Marina tuvo el valor para lograr una aventura que muchas personas no

intentarían hacer, por eso ella debería ser una inspiración para mujeres en México y el mundo

entero. Su historia ambigua ha sido traducida a muchas lenguas y presentada en varios medios,

literarios y dramáticos y yo quería presentarla desde mi punto de vista. Esta presentación será en

español.

Doña Perfecta: From Spanish Novel to Mexican Film

Maria Moreno, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Willem, Butler University

In Benito Pérez Galdós’s novel, Doña Perfecta, a love story between two cousins mirrors the

social, political, and religious conflicts of Spain during the final Carlist War. Alejandro

Galindo’s 1951 film adaptation of this Spanish 1876 novel transfers the setting to Mexico of the


same century. My paper will compare and contrast these two versions of Doña Perfecta using

critical paradigms of film adaptation identified by film scholar Karen Kline. This paper will be

given in Spanish.

Supporting Young Immigrants in the German School System

Avery Stearman, Faculty Sponsor: Michelle Stigter, Butler University

The German school system has faced recent criticism about its inability to educate first- and

second-generation immigrant students. As a part of a larger strategy to close the gap between

citizen and immigrant students, the German government has begun to fund programs such as

Youth Migration Services (Jugendmigrationsdienst or JMD) to support immigrant students in

completing their education and starting successful careers. Working in a branch of Caritas-JMD,

I helped to facilitate various programs for immigrant students, including a one-month English

course that I planned and taught independently. The course focused on improving conversational

skills and reading comprehension to help students pass a mandatory English exam before

graduation.

El Gallego: Idioma, Identidad y Cultura

Katherine Louise Stegman-Frey, Faculty Sponsor: Lisa Kuriscak, Ball State University

En contraste con lo que piensa mucha gente, España no es un país monolingüe. Oficialmente,

existen cuatro idiomas: el castellano, el catalán, el gallego y el euskera, pero es importante notar

que también hay innumerables variedades dialectales. Esta investigación se enfocará en la

situación sociolingüística del gallego en la comunidad autónoma de Galicia con énfasis en

particular a las actitudes lingüísticas en cuanto al prestigio del gallego y también a la situación de

diglosia que existe hoy entre el castellano y el gallego. Mi presentación será basada en una

encuesta dada a gallegoparlantes. Dicha encuesta se tomará en cuenta variables como el nivel de

formación, el campo de estudio/trabajo, el estatus social y económico y la situación geográfica

de los encuestados en el análisis de los resultados. El objetivo de este estudio es describir y

analizar la situación actual del gallego como idioma oficial y también como símbolo e identidad

cultural de Galicia. (English version: There are four official languages in the Kingdom of Spain:

Castilian, Catalan, Euskera and Galician as well as innumerable dialectal variations. This

research project focuses on the situation of Galician, particularly its diglossic situation and its

significance for Galician culture and identity. Data for my study will come from a survey of

speakers of Galician and will take into account variables including level of education, field of

study/ work, socioeconomic background, and place of birth and residency of those surveyed.)

Observaciones del idioma, la identidad hispanoamericana y la brecha inter-generacional en

las familias del Centro La Casita

Caitlin Willenbrink, Faculty Sponsor: Miryam Criado, Hanover College

It has been said that the United States is a linguistic graveyard: a country built by immigrants but

which, as many studies show, nowadays responds to migrants who settle in the country with such

assimilating force that they experience a total loss of their mother tongue within three

generations of their arrival. During the three months I spent working at La Casita Center – a nonprofit

organization in Louisville, Kentucky that works to enhance the quality of life for Hispanic


and Latino individuals, families and communities through education, healthy and cultural

enrichment initiatives – I had the chance to work with and observe various immigrant families

that, between generations, already exhibited this kind of linguistic and cultural disunion. I

analyze the causes of this discontinuity, first examining the shift in public and private spheres

that occurs in the first (migrant) generation and which differentiates this generation from the

subsequent one in its usage of English and its identification of nationality. I examine how

members of the first generation define their values, perceive their country of origin, and

demonstrate cultural pride differently than the second generation. I couple observations of and

interviews with members of La Casita with various sociological studies as well as the literary

memoirs of other immigrants’ journeys in order to gage the first and second generations’ distinct

responses to the linguistic consequences of immigration. I conclude with a discussion of the

possibility of linguistic and cultural preservation amidst the assimilation process.

MUSIC

Hitler's Propagandistic Wagner: Nazism, Bayreuth, and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg

Rachel Anderson, Faculty Sponsor: Hilene Flanzbaum, Butler University

The Nazis stopped at nothing to maintain their power over the German Volk (people).

Understanding the music that was used as propaganda, the festival that brought Nazis together to

celebrate the Third Reich, and why Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, in particular, was chosen to

represent the Nazi regime, is key to understanding how a Holocaust occurs. Hitler chose Die

Meistersinger von Nürnberg to speak for the Nazis and build pride in the German people because

Wagner's own beliefs and writings encouraged a hatred of the Jews. Music is a powerful tool,

and when used by the wrong people, it can have dramatic effects.

“And Now for Something Completely Different!": British Comedy from The Beggar's

Opera to Today

Brittany Archer, Faculty Sponsors: James Briscoe & Kurt Carlson, Butler University

The Beggar’s Opera was written by John Gay in 1728, precipitatinn the end of Italian Opera in

England, and transforming the world of comedy in Britain. Famous for its irreverent satire and

humor for the common man, The Beggar’s Opera has greatly influenced following forms of

British comedy. Briefly overviewing generations of British comedy, from The Beggar's Opera

to The Pirates of Penzance and to Monty Python, this paper will explore the common factors

between each of these.

The Significance of the Influence on J.S. Bach's Violin Sonata I in G Minor BWV 1001

Carla Black, Faculty Sponsors: James Briscoe, Kurt Carlson & Wayne Wentzel, Valparaiso

University


Among the violin repertoire, Johann Sebastian Bach’s Unaccompanied Sonatas and Partitas are

prized for their ability to convey profound and indeed contrapuntal melodies, revealing harmony,

despite their technical difficulty. In particular, the Violin Sonata I in G minor BWV 1001

expresses many Baroque Affects in its four movements, including contemplation, aggression,

and serenity. J.S. Bach effectively conveys these sentiments by creating a polyphonic texture

with the solo violin, a technique he borrowed from his colleague Johann Paul von Westhoff. The

close relationship between the compositional styles of the two composers includes shared

techniques that convey such powerful Affects and reveal much about the emotional naissance of

the composition.

The Women of Die Zauberflöte: Futile Attempts at Self-Assertion

Katherine Bolinger, Faculty Sponsors: James Briscoe, Kurt Carlson & Wayne Wentzel,

Valparaiso University

Die Zauberflöte, written in 1791, remains one of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's most popular and

enigmatic operas.Its complex portrayal of women, as interpreted through the composer's

affiliation with the Freemasons, late 18 th century social norms, as well as the influence of the

charming and pugnacious Constanze Mozart, reveals a brief insight into Mozart's true feelings

regarding women near the end of his life. This thesis uses the characters Pamina and the Queen

of the Night to illustrate the subtle misogyny evident in Die Zauberflöte, as well as the

contradicting philogynous concessions made by the composer in light of his relationship with his

wife.

Alban Berg's Lulu: Pitch Organization in Relation to the Serialization of Character

Weston Bonczek, Faculty Sponsor: Rusty Jones, Butler University

Opera has been treated many different ways in the 20 th century and beyond. Some composers

worked within the general limitations of tonality and some stretched far beyond into the realms

of atonality. On one hand we have the sweet sonorities of Britten’s operas, and on the other we

have the wildly new sounds of serialism. This paper seeks to explore the sets used in Alban

Berg’s lesser-known serialist opera, Lulu . What distinguishes Lulu from other serialist operas is

its use of a variety of sets in the makeup of his opera, as opposed to a single set along with its

transpositions and permutations making up the entirety of a work. This paper shows that the use

of different sets functioned to distinguish between the persons of drama, in other words each

character is distinguished by his or her own set with some connecting or overarching sets

spanning the whole work. This treatment combined the idea of a Wagnerian leitmotiv with the

new aural sensation of serialism, giving us new sounds but presented in a more familiar way.

Each character’s set had distinct harmonic and melodic elements that distinguished it and made it

unique, but still cohesive with the piece as a whole.

La Serva Padrona and Opera Buffa: A Manifestation of Shifting Class Structure

Kelly Cassady, Faculty Sponsor: James Briscoe, Butler University

Before Giovanni Battista Pergolesi wrote his intermezzo La Serva Padrona in 1733, the core of

the opera world was dominated by Opera Seria, which focused on lofty subjects and highminded

ideals. The introduction of Opera Buffa marks a shift not only in popular music styles,


ut also the people and culture that music reflects. The comic nature of La Serva Padrona

reflects the rising middle and lower classes. The subjects that the intermezzo addresses are those

that would be relevant to a common audience, such as marriage, faithfulness, and the

relationships between different social classes. The heroine of the show is not a member of the

elite, reflecting the value placed upon the lower classes. These musical trends can also be seen a

little later in other nationalities as in Mozart’s Die Entführung aus Dem Serail, Rousseau’s Le

Devin du Village, and most blatantly in John Gay’s crude production of The Beggar’s Opera.

The themes and attitudes presented in these comic operas manifest the shifting class structure

taking place across Europe.

Bach and Opera - Is it Possible?

Hilary Clark, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Ferguson, Valparaiso University

Devoted to the art and science of technique, Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) is a celebrated

master of the all musical genres of his time, except for opera. Based on his musical upbringing

and his independent attitude, there exists a possibility that Bach had the propensity to be an

operatic composer. An exploration into this perspective leads us to wonder: Why did Bach

never become an operatic composer? Are there operatic features present in non-operatic works,

including sacred pieces? What factors might have affected his inclination toward operatic

composition? An investigation into Bach’s professional development and influences from his

early days in Arnstadt, to his mature years in Leipzig, reveals a number of opportunities for Bach

to assimilate the period’s operatic expressive devices. Such occasions include examples from the

monumental St. Matthew Passion (BWV 244), the secular cantata BWV 211, “Schwegt stille,

plaudert nicht” (recognized as the Coffee Cantata), and the drama per musica BWV 201, “Der

Streit zwischen Phoebus und Pan,” three texts written by Christian Friedrich Henrici (1700–

1764), known as ‘Picander.’ Produced during the greatly prolific time in Leipzig, these pieces

exemplify Bach’s mastery of operatic writing, despite his having been contracted for work in

other genres. Valued today, Bach’s aptitude as an opera composer has been explored recently

through some attempts to stage such involved pieces as the St. Matthew Passion. Even without

explicit theatrical intentions, Bach’s dramatic skill has influenced modern opera composers as

well, including John Adams.

An Exploration of Modes in Polyphonic Compositions of the Sixteenth Century

Marcella Columbus, Faculty Sponsor: Rusty Jones, Butler University

In the Renaissance era composers used a musical system known as “modes” for creating their

literature. This system theoretically focuses on single melodic lines, as opposed to the

composition as a whole. Therefore, there has been much debate about this system and its

functionality in polyphonic compositions. My research will deduce whether or not modal theory

is relevant or applicable in polyphonic compositions. Although several theorists disagree, I

believe that by using a strictly historical mindset, a theorist can fully understand and apply the

modal system to polyphonic musical literature. My research will include reading treatises by

modern theorists and theorists from the Renaissance era. This will be done to understand how

modes were historically used, and how the concept of modal theory has been interpreted. This

research will be paired with my own observations acquired from analyzing a six-voice

polyphonic composition with a historical mindset.


Failed Attempts: Bassoon Development from 1831 to Present

Cassie DeFoe, Faculty Sponsor: Doug Spaniol, Butler University

During the 17th and 18th Centuries the bassoon saw gradual addition of toneholes and keywork

to improve its range, chromatic capabilities, and acoustics. In the early 19th Century, Carl

Almenraeder and Johann Adam Heckel made radical changes to the dimensions and keywork of

the bassoon, resulting in what is still the most widely used bassoon today, the German or Heckel

bassoon. Since Almenraeder and Heckel’s changes, many instrument makers such as Boehm,

Sax, Kruspe, Triebert, Brindley, Ward, Cuciureanu, and Weisberg have attempted to improve the

German bassoon. This paper will trace the attempted reforms on the bassoon and try to answer

questions about their acceptance and viability. By doing so, the groundwork for future successful

reforms will be laid.

Bach's Mass in B minor and the use of Baroque Trumpet

Eric Hjellming, Faculty Sponsors: James Briscoe & Kurt Carlson, Butler University

J. S. Bach’s Mass in B minor is a masterpiece by which other works are judged. He spent from

1733 off and on until 1749 writing the multi-movement, immense work, but ironically it is

unsure if he even got to hear the complete work performed. Robert Summer writes that, “It

represents a summation and culmination on Bach’s part of the forms and expressions of his

time." During this period the trumpet was used to represent or characterize people or ideas

powerfully, and I will show how the instrument does so in the B minor mass to exceptional

affect.

The History and Development of the Keyed Trumpet

Paul Hunt, Faculty Sponsor: James Briscoe, Valparaiso University

The modern, valved trumpet is a relatively new instrument in the world of Western art music,

appearing after about 1820. The trumped that served in early music before 1750 was the natural

trumpet, sometimes made flexible by tuning crooks. However, there are a handful of chromatic

works for trumpet written at the end of the Classical period, in the late 1700’s, that could not be

played on a natural trumpet. The subject of this paper is the instrument that could play in ways

chromatically, the keyed trumpet, which bridges the gap between the natural trumpet and the

modern trumpet.

The Correlation between the Independent Lines in Easter Motets

Shireen Korkzan, Faculty Sponsor: Joseph Bognar, Valparaiso University

In the latter half of the thirteenth Century, the motet – two to four Latin or French texts sung over

a wordless tenor drawn from a pre-existing chant or some other melody – becomes the main

polyphonic composition in France, replacing the organa, conductus, and clausulae. The word

motet comes from the French mot for word. Each text was a tenor, motetus, triplum, or

quadruplum. The texts were usually connected to the tenor chant through a similar theme. The

relationship is evident in the three motets from the Bamberg Codex based upon the Haec dies,

the Latin gradual for Easter Sunday. This paper will be a musical and poetic study of these


motets, specifically examining intertextual relationships and musical connections across the

works.

The Rhetoric of Faith in J.S. Bach's Cantata 92

Timothy Mastic, Faculty Sponsors: James Briscoe & Kurt Carlson, Butler University

Cantata 92, “Ich hab' in Gottes Herz und Sinn” has a very special place within Bach's second

cycle of 60 cantatas, dating to 1725. The cantata "I have surrendered myself to God" offers

substantial evidence that the intentions of the texts and their treatment, Bach's text painting or

musical rhetoric, portray his deeply-held religious beliefs. Differing from what previous

scholarship indicated, recent students of the composer see these texts as chosen specifically by

Bach as personally-honed expressions.

Early Jewish Music and the Hebrew Melodies in Benedetto Marcello's Estro Armonico-

Poetico

Brianna Nielsen, Faculty Sponsors: James Briscoe & Sarah Eyerly, Butler University

This paper examines the Jewish melodies found in Benedetto Marcello's Estro-poetico armonico

as a work of early ethnography and its context in the Venetian ghetto, focusing on five melodies

from the Ashkenazi tradition. The first section describes the history of the Venetian ghetto and

its policy towards Jews. The second section argues for the authenticity of the melodies by

examining the essays before the first and second volumes of the Estro. The third section

discusses the melodies' structure and purpose.

Brahms’s Third Symphony: A Prophecy Fulfilled

David Platt, Faculty Sponsor: James Briscoe, Butler University

E.T.A Hoffmann’s Kater Murr and Fantasiestücke in Callots Manier describe an eccentric

young composer “whose music is fragmentary, bizarre and painfully expressive.” This

archetypal figure, named Johannes Kreisler in the novels, detaches himself from the world into

secrecy such that he is on a level disparate from the unworthy. The manifestation of Hoffmann’s

Kreisler resides in the intensely Romantic character of Johannes Brahms. After a momentous

meeting with Brahms in 1853, Schumann was so impressed by the then 20-year-old that he

prophesied the overwhelming greatness that Brahms must and will achieve in Neue Zeitschrift.

This single document, along with the challenge of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, pushed

Brahms into a further obsession with symphonic perfection than even E.T.A Hoffmann could

illustrate in Johannes Kreisler. Brahms’s Third Symphony represents the culmination of this

obsession.

The Castrato and the British Opera Seria Craze

Rafael Porto, Faculty Sponsor: James Briscoe, Butler University

Italian opera seria predominated almost throughout European music from 1710 to 1770, and

outside Italy nowhere more than in Britain. In 1708, the renowned male castrato Bruno Nicolini

sang the lead role in Alessandro Scarlatti's Pyrrhus, and Handel achieved the apex of Italian

opera seria as empowered by the castrato about 1730. The genre continued until about 1770,


when Enlightenment sensibilities turned it away. This paper traces the rise of the castrato in

England and shows that the voice type sustained the genre despite the remoteness of the Italian

language and culture to British audiences.

What Happened to the Fife? The Legacy of an American Icon

Samantha Schwartz, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Ferguson, Valparaiso University

During the American Revolution, the fife played a significant role in shaping a distinctly

American identity. Its significance moved beyond its original military functions and came to

represent the American ideal of independence. Although the fife rarely appears in more recent

music, its message has been carried forward by its relatives and descendants, the flute and

piccolo. In the 19 th century, Patrick S. Gilmore and John Philip Sousa employed fife-like

instruments as they developed wind ensemble repertoire beyond military and national civic

functions. The proliferation of bands in schools and towns followed. Today, marching bands,

reenactment performances and pep bands continue to feature the fife’s descendents when giving

voice to patriotic themes. The distinctive sound and associations of the fife’s relatives are

displayed in songs from “Yankee Doodle” to “The Stars and Stripes Forever” which associate

the fife tradition with American identity and patriotism. In making this association, it is well to

note the characteristic American desire to soar, distinctively and independently, not subsumed in

sameness. Thus the legacy of the fife suits the American desire: to harmonize with a community

while carrying an independence prominently and proudly in the musical texture.

Bach the Theologian

Michael Slack, Faculty Sponsor: James Briscoe, Butler University

Despite mountains of accolades and wide acclaim celebrating the compositional and

performance virtuosity of Johann Sebastian Bach, a lacuna of historical knowledge regarding

much of his personal life remains to be filled. The dichotomy between Bach’s secular and sacred

works and his masterfully adroit hand for composing in each genre tarry still amidst the Bach

analyses without satisfying interpretation. Do the hagiographies accurately portray Bach’s

ultimate concern as glorifying God through music, or do they exaggerate the convictions of a

man who took pride in his work? To round out the lesser-explored corners of Bach’s music

concerning theology, we investigate the St. Matthew Passion (1727) for Bach's use of symbolism

and ability to communicate the gospel for his congregation.

Dido and Aeneas: Nationalism and Chromaticism in Purcell's Great Opera

Carl Wiersum, Faculty Sponsor: James Briscoe, Butler University

In his opera Dido and Aeneas, Henry Purcell achieved a historical level of emotional connection

with a unification of English and Italian musical styles and a careful but liberal use of

chromaticism. While best demonstrated in Dido's "When I am Laid in Earth" aria, the entire

opera is permeated with these innovative techniques. This thesis explores how Purcell utilized

these devices to create an opera which cultivates a dramatic effect progressive enough to lend the

opera relevance over three centuries later.


PHARMACY/HEALTH SCIENCES

Safety of Saccharomyces boulardii (Florastor®) in Kidney and Pancreas Transplant

Patients

Nicole Dores, Faculty Sponsors: Jeanne Chen & Jane Gervasio, Butler University

Probiotics have been promoted for use in gastrointestinal ailments and are considered to be

relatively safe. However, probiotics are live microorganisms and thus have the potential to cause

infection. Transplant recipients are considered at high risk for infectious complications of

probiotics due to the immunosuppressive medications used to prevent organ rejection.

Nonetheless, due to their benefit in gastrointestinal disorders, particularly recurrent Clostridium

difficile colitis, clinicians are currently utilizing probiotics in the transplant population. There are

case reports regarding infectious complications of probiotics in these high risk patients.

However, some studies have shown probiotics post- transplantation help restore normal gut flora

preventing translocation of bacteria thereby decreasing infections in these immunosuppressed

patients. There are no prospective trials regarding the use of a Saccharomyces spp. probiotic in

the solid organ transplant population. The goal of this project was to investigate the safety of

utilizing Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in kidney

and pancreas transplant recipients at Indiana University Health University Hospital. It included

hospitalized patients > 18 years of age who received simultaneous kidney/pancreas, pancreas

after kidney, or isolated pancreas transplant and received antibiotic therapy as well as

Saccharomyces boulardii to prevent antibiotic associated diarrhea. Patients who were pregnant,

had a known hypersensitivity to Saccharomyces spp., or received other probiotics prior to or

during admission were excluded. The primary outcome was the incidence of infections caused by

Saccharomyces boulardii. The safety data collected includes complications, infections, and other

serious adverse effects associated with the probiotic.

Probing Speciation of Selenium Dioxide and Sodium Selenite as a Function of pH:

Understanding Metal-Ion Binding by Selenium Compounds and its Role in Antioxidant

Activity

Robert French, Faculty Sponsor: Daniel Morris, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Oxidative damage to DNA is associated with cancer, aging, and a host of other diseases and

clinical conditions. Metal ions are known to bind to both phosphate groups and individual bases

in DNA, and comparing production of the accepted oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-

2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) to the levels of unmodified nucleosides (specifically

deoxyguanosine (dG)) provides insight into the degree of site-specific damage. It is accepted

that formation of 8-OH-dG results from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated close to the

guanine base while generalized base damage is most likely produced by ROS generated in bulk

solution. Selenium compounds are known to exhibit both anti- and pro-oxidant behavior, and

recent work suggests that metal ion coordination is a critical part of the mechanism by which

inorganic selenium compounds inhibit metal-ion mediated oxidative DNA damage in the

presence of hydrogen peroxide. Selenium dioxide (SeO 2 ) and sodium selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 ) show

different antioxidant activity at physiological pH despite predictions that they would exist as the

same species (HSeO 3 - ) at pH 7.0. We present results of a pH-dependent Raman study of SeO 2

and SeO 3 -2 , as well as a discussion of the experimental protocols that gave the initial results. Our


esults demonstrate that the two selenium compounds exhibit different antioxidant activity based

on metal identity despite the fact that Raman spectroscopy indicates that they are structurally

similar at pH 7.0.

Adult Patient Evaluations of Indiana Pharmacists Administering Influenza Vaccinations

Lisa LeCleir, Faculty Sponsor: Laurence Kennedy, Butler University

Indiana pharmacists have been licensed to administer influenza vaccinations on protocol since

July 1, 2007. In the first week of October 2012, Butler University in Indianapolis held a free

influenza clinic for Butler University students and faculty. Over 600 patients were given

influenza vaccinations from licensed pharmacists in individualized patient areas. Over the

course of this week, 538 patients completed surveys on their satisfaction of each step of the

vaccination process from check in to check out. Each survey also investigated each patient’s

perceptions of the ability and qualifications of pharmacists in comparison to other health care

professionals (nurse practitioner, physician, physician’s assistant, etc). Most (93%) participants

felt pharmacists were equally as qualified as health care professionals; however, there were still

(6%) participants who were unsure or did not feel pharmacists were adequately

qualified. Virtually all (99%) participants were satisfied with the process from check in to check

out. Despite that, only 23% of participants would return to the clinic, while 72% of participants

would prefer to go to a retail pharmacy or a physician’s office. In comparison to the study

“Perceptions of pharmacists as providers of immunizations for adult patients” completed in

1999, patients feel more comfortable with pharmacists as the administrator of their

vaccination. The majority of the pharmacy profession is focused now on counseling, patient

safety, and medication therapy management. After analyzing this data, one can determine that

patients are comfortable with pharmacists administering their immunizations, but there is still

some work to be done for patients to view pharmacists on the same level as health care

professionals.

Vancomycin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Population

Kelsey Lyon & Megan Veverka, Faculty Sponsor: Chad Knoderer, Butler University

Background: In 2008, the recommended empiric vancomycin dose for pediatric patients was

changed from 40 mg/kg/day to 60 mg/kg/day as standard treatment. After this dosage change,

there was an observed increase in rates of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving higher

doses. This observation was attributed to the higher vancomycin doses, however, AKI could

also be related to other contributing factors including alternate medications such as

aminoglycosides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, furosemide, amphotericin and

cyclosporine or radio contrast dye.

Objective To compare AKI incidence in children treated empirically with low-dose versus highdose

vancomycin.

Methods In this single center cohort design at a free-standing children’s hospital, data was

retrospectively collected through the hospital’s decision support system for patients treated from

January-December 2007 and January-December 2010. Incidence of AKI was determined by

International Classification of Diseases, 9 th Revision (ICD-9) coding for AKI or an increase in


serum creatinine by ≥50% from baseline. The follow-up period for this study was the inpatient

admission upon which the patient was included into the cohort.

Results A total of 405 and 454 patients in the 2007 and 2010 groups, respectively, were included

in analysis. Mean (range) age of patients in the 2007 vs. 2010 study groups were 2 years (1

month – 17 years) vs. 3 years (1 month – 17 years), respectively (p = 0.57). The mean empiric

vancomycin dose (mg/kg/day) was significantly higher in the 2010 vs. 2007 group (43.2 ± 16.6

vs. 40.1 ± 14.6, p = < 0.05). The mean empiric trough concentration was also higher in the 2010

vs. 2007 group (10.7 ± 7.9 vs. 8.6 ± 4.3, p = < 0.05). The groups did not differ with respect to

AKI defined by ICD-9 coding. However, there was a greater incidence in patients categorized

with AKI (8.4% vs. 5.2%, p = 0.065) or renal failure (11.7% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.048) in the 2010 vs.

2007 groups, respectively.

Conclusions Based on the change in empiric dosing and assessed trough serum concentrations,

there was a relationship shown between increased empiric dosing and a rise in serum creatinine

≥50% from baseline. Although other factors, such as concomitant nephrotoxins, were

comparable between the two study groups, a clinically significant increase in AKI occurred in

the 2010 vs. 2007 study group which reflects an association with higher empiric vancomycin

dosing.

Neighborhood Correlates of Body Size in Adults in Marion County, IN

Cam Thompson, Faculty Sponsors: Marjorie Hennessy & Priscilla Ryder, Butler University

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (CDC BRFSS, 1985-2009) shows a progressive

trend for rising prevalence in overweight and obesity rates nation-wide, which the Centers for

Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) points out has dramatically increased in the last 20 years.

Especially as overweight and obesity rates reach epidemic proportions for children, adolescents,

and adults, their prevalence become more pressing public health concerns (WHO, 2006) in the

United States and other economically developed and urbanized countries, where the trend has

become most noticeable in recent years (Wang & Lobstein, 2006). The World Health

Organization (2006) reports that overweight and obesity rates are reaching epidemic proportions

for children, adolescents, and adults in economically developed and urbanized nations, like the

United States. Alarmingly, the CDC’s reports, like the most recent U.S. Obesity Trends

assessment (2010), warn the public that there is a strong link between overweight and obesity

rates with increased risks for medical conditions like cardiovascular disease, strokes, certain

types of cancers, and type-2 diabetes. Past research, however, has focused on the biological and

behavioral correlates of obesity (Pearce & Witten, 2010), while attention toward how the

characteristics of the individual’s built environment really exacerbates biological and behavioral

factors, often referred to as an obesogenic environment, has gained recognition only recently

(Lake & Townshend, 2006). The CDC’s annual BRFSS (1985-2009), for instance, assesses the

phenomenon on a state-wide and national level. In addition to the CDC, the majority of other

literature focused on the social and environmental factors (Hill & Peters, 1998; Gortmaker, Must,

Sobol, Peterson, Colditz & Dietz, 1996; Esptein, Paluch, Gordy, & Dorn, 2000) address state

level or census tracts, but investigation seldom reaches the smaller neighborhood level.

Therefore, a secondary analysis of de-identified data from the 2005 Marion County Needs

Assessment Report will be performed, in addition to drawing upon literary reviews, surveys,


asic search engines, and geographic information system (GIS) software, in order to examine the

neighborhood correlates of obesity rates for three specific Marion County neighborhoods. The

three neighborhoods will be selected using census tract boundaries and will be comparable in

geographic size, population density and ethnic makeup. The dataset will be assessed using

multivariate statistical modeling through SPSS software to find the independent predictors of

obesity rates and compare the three different neighborhoods.

PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION

The Great Transcendentalist Revival: Retrieving Collective Consciousness and

Conscientiousness from “God Discourse”

Emelia Abbe, Faculty Sponsor: Brent Hege, Butler University

Is it possible to discuss collective and overarching worldviews beyond the structure of “God

Discourse”? Is it conceivable that we can productively examine, and subsequently better, the

human condition outside of the either/or structure of religion and atheism? What ideology, if

any, has the capacity to achieve these ends, and what are the potential benefits of such a

dialogue? The holistic and pluralistic nature of Transcendentalism has the unique ability to

function beyond traditional religious—or atheistic—ideologies while simultaneously providing a

universally applicable system of ethos that allows for a reassessment of established views

concerning the human condition. Taking these issues into consideration, Transcendentalism

offers a viable worldview that surpasses our time and place.

Notions of Truth & Power in Theological Discourse

Kirsten Boles, Faculty Sponsor: Brent Hege, Butler University

According to Michel Foucault in “Truth and Power,” “each society has its regime of truth:” its

own system of regulating, discussing, and acquiring truth. Within any institution, Foucault

suggests, there is a struggle for truth, which is ultimately a struggle for power, and within this

struggle, hierarchies are established and maintained. But does this interpretation apply to all of

our institutions? What then would this suggest about our oldest institution: religion? And, more

specifically, what does it suggest about our most quintessential quest for truth: theology? If we

are to understand the search for “truth” as a pursuit of power, how are we to understand the

search for the “Truth,” for ultimate “Truth?” Catherine Keller, in her book On the Mystery:

Discerning Divinity in Process, argues that when doing theology we should steer clear of

absolutizing Truth, that when Knowledge is considered to be given from the top down, it

“masters its objects, that confers power on those who possess it.” Theology, Keller proposes, is

also susceptible to the corruption of truth-claims; it often claims special metaphysical knowledge

that implies authority and inequality. In my research, I will explore what role the concept of

“truth” plays within theological discourse: specifically, (1) how “truth” is a constructed concept

and a tool often used in the acquisition of power, (2) what implications truth-claims can have

within a religious context, and (3) how absolutizing Truth actually perpetuates polarity and

“paralyzes faith rather than fostering its living process.”


The Foundations of Human Rights: Choosing a Natural Account

Dane Callstrom, Faculty Sponsor: David Western, Valparaiso University

In the literature on human rights, there is a debate over whether human rights are fundamentally

natural (aspects of a universal natural moral law) or essentially conventional (manmade).

Taking the pragmatic stance that we can never really know for sure, I argue that we

should think of human rights as natural, whether they ultimately are or are not, on the

consequential grounds that thinking about human rights as fundamentally natural makes for

better consequences than thinking of human rights as essentially conventional. If we consider

human rights natural, we consider them fixed, which can be seen when we look at human rights

as trumps and in relation to democracy. If we consider human rights conventional, we consider

them malleable. Consequentially, a consistent view of human rights is better than a malleable

view because a consistent view improves our chances of progressing as a society by providing us

with an overlapping consensus—a common goal—that ultimately allows for a more well-ordered

society. A malleable view of human rights does not provide us with any such goal. Instead, it

leaves us wandering with no intent to improve society. Thus, the consequences of thinking of

human rights as natural are better than the consequences of thinking of them as conventional

because a natural account means we are intending to seek progress whereas a conventional

account means we are not intentionally seeking progress.

What’s interesting about my argument is that it suggests, on the surface, that we should think

about human rights from a deontological vantage point—as essential natural rights that we have

inescapable moral duties to oblige—but that we do so ultimately on consequentialist grounds.

Hinduism and the Many Faces of Durga

Stephanie Cheuvront, Butler University; Faculty Sponsor: Aimee Hamilton, DePauw University

Hinduism is a multifaceted religion in which there are many approaches to worship and

belief. Among the many facets of Hinduism is bhakti, the devotional worship of a personal and

relatable deity. Even within the worship of a single, personable deity, there is a variety of ways

in which the image of that god is constructed and used. Devi Durga, one of the female gods

present in Hinduism takes on many unique forms. Literary sources such as the Devi Mahatmya

provides detailed descriptions of how Durga came into being and descriptive epithets for Durga

that enable scholars to understand how devotees of Durga originally conceived of the

goddess. Modern images of Durga demonstrate a certain continuity in the depiction of Durga as

a warrior goddess, but the context of the image often shapes the meaning of that image in new

ways, allowing even non-Hindus to establish a personal relationship with her. These images,

whether they are formed by words, paints, or actions, continuously define Durga as a protector, a

mother, a warrior, a woman, and many other things, while the individual’s relationship to Durga

as a charge, a dependent, a devotee, or a fellow fighter and female is also constantly in flux. As

a result, it is possible to understand the complexities within Durga worship and a segment of the

Hindu faith.

Reconciling Distributive Justice Theories

Jillian Edmonds, Faculty Sponsor: Michael Popich, Westminster College


This paper focuses on the fundamental differences between two types of distributive justice

theory: Judeo-Christian social justice theory and Rawlsian liberalism. Many philosophers have

argued for using Rawlsian liberalism over Judeo-Christian social justice in government settings

and the two theories have often been compared, with one coming out as better than the

other. However, this paper attempts to reconcile the two theories so that they function together

within one system. I argue that Rawlsian liberalism is a better theory for working within

governmental institutions (as Rawls intended), while Judeo-Christian social justice theory is

better as a format for political activism. Both philosophy and real-life examples of activism are

used in order to show these two theories can work together harmoniously.

Latvian Folk Dance: sustaining cultural identity through Christianity and Communism

Emilija Grinvalds, Faculty Sponsors: Susan McGuire & Paul Valliere, Butler University

"He who knows when he can fight and when he cannot will be victorious."

-Sun Tzu in The Art of War

In times of chaos, brutality and oppression, one would not think of the arts as a guiding light for

maintaining cultural identity and establishing peace and independence. However, bordering the

Baltic sea and nestled in the northern Europe, the small country of Latvia serves as a prime

example of how the arts, specifically folk dance, helped to maintain Latvian culture through

centuries of violence. As missionaries sought to spread Christianity upon the Baltic pagan tribes

in the 11th Century, dance helped to sustain the cultural and religious beliefs of the ancient

Latvians. Folk dance created a sense of unity within their communities, and the Christian

missionaries were not able to suppress the artform enough to discontinue its ritualistic use.

Jumping forward to the 20th century, folk dance played an important role in what is known as

“the Singing Revolution” that began in 1987 and eventually led to the independence of the Baltic

States in 1991. Whilst under the grasp of the Soviet Union, Latvian folk dance served as a form

of political protest, which created a sense of unity by reminding Latvians of their cultural

heritage, and ultimately bolstering their nationalistic movement.

This thesis will attempt to answer the question: How has Latvian folk dance helped to sustain

Latvian cultural identity through the introduction of Christianity and the oppression of

communism?

Strategies for an Effective Youth Ministry

Sarah Kraus, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

Various strategies and philosophies have always been involved in running a church youth

ministry, which depend greatly on the views and position of each specific church. Some of them

are more effective than others, depending on the overall purpose of the specific youth ministry.

Some exist simply as a “safe” environment for middle and high schoolers to be in, and others

operate not only as a good place for young people to be, but as a place where they can

participate, lead, and be discipled and equipped for Christian ministry. This paper gives a brief

overview of various strategies of “doing” youth ministry, and focuses on those strategies that

research has discovered to be effective, which are characteristically found in a youth ministry

that disciples and equips its students.


Islamophobia in Contemporary America

Matt Miller, Faculty Sponsors: Chad Bauman & Paul Valliere, Butler University

Immediately following the events of September 11, 2001, a Washington Post-ABC News Poll

indicated that 39% of Americans had an unfavorable view of Islam and 14% believed that the

religion encouraged violence against non-Muslims. When this same poll was conducted again in

2010, 49% now looked upon Islam unfavorably and 31% felt that the religion was violent. This

rise in fear of Islam is indicative of what I mean by Islamophobia in contemporary America. By

critically examining America's recent past, effectively between the years 2008 and 2011, I aim to

identify numerous examples of Islamophobia (e.g., "Burn a Qur'an Day" and the "Ground Zero

Mosque"). Subsequently, I offer reasons why Islamophobia appears to be flourishing in America

today.

Christian College Students’ View of Homosexuality

Tyler Morgan, Faculty Sponsor: Mike Rowley, Huntington University

Fred Phelps versus The Episcopal Church; which of these positions best represent Christian

college students’ views regarding homosexuality? Is homosexuality a sin in which the only

appropriate option is confession and repentance? Or is homosexuality simply one of many

orientations in which God created humans, not much different than skin color, height or shoe

size. The purpose of this study is to discover how college students, at a Christian university,

view homosexuality. A survey of 125 male and female students will serve as a sample for this

research.

The Existential Crisis and the Problem of the Other Writer

Jeff Schatz, Faculty Sponsor: Shodhin Geiman, Valparaiso University

Human life is torn between the extremes of the unique specificity of the individual and the

general limitations of humanity. Though the Western individual wants to see him or herself as

truly special, it is an unavoidable fact that much of life is repetitious and bounded by the

limitations of human life. The individual seems trapped between merely accepting their place as

just another person living an ordinary and potentially meaningless life, and a futile attempt to

reject the generality of their life. Such a crisis is experienced on a smaller scale by any writer

attempting to create a unique work. The writer must escape from completely mimicking the

literary tradition, and letting the creative impulse die, as well as from being consumed in an

attempt to write wholly against the tradition, which has the same effect. The writer can

successfully maintain an original creative impulse only by being able to immerse him or herself

in the tradition, having a lived-in and authentic experience of the literary works, and yet return to

the original creative impulse. Similarly, the individual must wholly accept the generality of

human life, and yet still keep living his or her life. Through a critical examination of language

and experience, this paper fully elucidates the two crises and presents a potential solution.

A Rehabilitation of the American Left: Class Struggle and the Ideology of the I.W.W.

Aaron Simmons, Faculty Sponsor: Ferit Guven, Earlham College


The purpose of this paper is to bring to light the radical philosophical nature of the Industrial

Workers of the World during the early part of the 20 th century. The material for this project is

gathered from a recent acquisition of I.W.W. publications and ephemera by the Newberry

Library in Chicago. Through a careful analysis of original prints and pamphlets published

between 1905 and 1930, I outline the I.W.W.'s unique theory of ideology, and how it contributed

to their critique of capitalist forms of production. These pamphlets and prints aided the I.W.W. in

educating workers in Marxism, Socialism, and Industrial Unionism, in order to further their goal

of overthrowing capitalism. Although the I.W.W. educated workers in leftist philosophy, it was

always done within the context of the workplace. Only in daily production and class struggle did

philosophy matter to the I.W.W. By reinterpreting Marxism, and Socialism, through the concept

of the Industrial Union, the I.W.W. envisioned a future society organized around the shared

experience of production. The I.W.W.'s emphasis on worker solidarity, philosophy of the

workplace, and their commitment to worker education, leads me to claim that the I.W.W.

proposed a radical form of embodied ideology.

PHYSICS

Thermal Transport Properties of Carbon Nanotubes

Jeremy Christman & Andy Moore, Faculty Sponsor: Mahfuza Khatun, Ball State University

Recent advances in nanostructure technology have made it possible to create small devices at the

nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are among the most exciting building blocks of

nanotechnology. Their versatility and extremely desirable properties for electronic and heat

transport have driven intense research and development efforts in recent years. Our research has

focused on measuring the thermal properties of various CNT structures using molecular

dynamics with the simulation software called LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular

Massively Parallel Simulator) on the Beowulf cluster at Ball State University. Using the Green

Kubo formulation thermal conductivity is calculated of various CNTs. We will show the theory

behind this calculation, our results for thermal properties of various tubes, along with the basic

simulation procedure we have been using for finding these properties.

Ambient Temperature P-V Equation of State for Garnet Sand of Pfeiffer Beach

Erica Cotter, Faculty Sponsor: Henry Scott, Indiana University-South Bend

Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction analysis was performed on a natural beach-sand

almandine, (Fe 0.68 Mg 0.25 )3Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 , from Pfeiffer Beach, Big Sur, California. The ambientpressure

lattice parameter, a, was found to be 11.529 Å. The lattice parameter and, accordingly,

unit-cell volume were determined through isothermal compression to 19 GPa in a symmetric

diamond anvil cell, in which helium served as a nearly-hydrostatic pressure-transmitting

medium. The isothermal bulk modulus, K 0T , was determined to be 168.8 ± 1.8 GPa using a

second-order (i.e. dK/dP fixed at 4) Birch–Murnaghan equation of state. We compare these

findings with previous elasticity measurements of garnets along the pyrope-almandine join, and


eport our measurements in relation to prior work on bulk modulus–volume–cation valence

systematics [e.g. Fan et al., 2009].

27 New Variable Stars in NGC 6584

Elliott Johnson, Butler University, Joe Toddy, University of Georgia & Andrew Darragh, Butler

University, Faculty Sponsor: Brian Murphy, Butler University

Using the SARA 0.6 meter telescope located at Cerro Tololo, we searched for variable stars in

the globular cluster NGC 6584. We obtained images for 10 nights between 28 May and 6 July of

2011. After processing the images, we used the image subtraction technique developed by Alard

(2000) to search for the variable stars. We detected a total of 69 variable stars in our 10x10 arcminute

field, including 42 previously known variables cataloged by Millis & Liller (1980) and

27 hereto undetected variables. In total, we classified 44 RRab, 16 RRc, 6 eclipsing binaries, and

3 long period (P > 2 days) variable stars. Many of the RR Lyrae stars exhibited the Blazhko

Effect. Furthermore, the RR Lyrae stars exhibit a period/amplitude relationship consistent with

NGC 6584 being an Oosterhoff Type I cluster. Here we present refined periods, complete multicolor

light curves, and classifications for each of the 69 variables, as well Oosterhoff and colormagnitude

diagrams for the cluster. This project was funded in part by the National Science

Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program through grant NSF AST-

1004 872 and by a grant from the Butler Institute for Research and Scholarship.

Alternating Current Faraday Rotation of Multiple Liquid Systems

Thomas Foulkes & John Moore, Faculty Sponsor: Maarij Syed, Rose-Hulman Institute of

Technology

While chemists have analyzed the kinetics of reactions for a long time, little emphasis has been

placed on the implications of reaction kinetics on the evolution of a solution’s magnetic

properties corresponding to changes in its molecular structure. Specifically, the classic kinetic

study referred to colloquially as the Iodine Clock Cycle involving the evolution of Iodide into

Triiodide was altered to yield three unique concentrations of Triiodide. On a chemical level,

these species can be differentiated based on three distinct relative concentrations of Iodine and

Triiodide thereby allowing distinct amounts of free ions which lead to different magnetic

properties for the three solutions.

To investigate the different magnetic (specifically diamagnetic) properties of these differing

concentrations we have carried out precise Faraday rotation (FR) measurements in an AC field

arrangement. FR refers to magnetically induced birefringence whereby a substance rotates the

polarization of the light beam passing through it, in the presence of a magnetic field. This AC

experimental setup yields reliable results for rotations as small as one arc minute. Thus, by

analyzing the FR of these three unique species of Triiodide, an analysis of the significance of the

amount of free ions and their impact on the overall magnetic properties of the solution can be

deduced. Supplemented by absorbance and index of refraction measurements for each solution,

we also compare our results to various theoretical models that deal with multi-component

solutions.

Modular Black Holes as Probes of Spacetime


William Hammer, Faculty Sponsor: Rolf Schimmrigk, Indiana University-South Bend

One of the open problems in gravity is a microscopic interpretation of the entropy of black holes.

Recently, progress has been made in this direction for black holes in the context of string theory.

The work done by Jatkar and Sen et al, establishes a statistical interpretation of N=4 super

symmetric black holes in terms of certain types of functions that count states. These counting

functions are distinguished by a high degree of symmetry, which is given by the corresponding

modular group, affords you the means to construct an entropy. The goal of this talk is to explore

the possibility of using the resulting modular entropy as a probe for geometric structure of the

extra dimensions predicted by string theory. Supported by NSF-RUI grant No. 0969875.

Construction and Use of a Pressure Vessel Simulator for the COUPP Matter Search

Experiment

Cale Harnish, Faculty Sponsor: Ilan Levine, Indiana University-South Bend

Observations of the cosmos have indicated that the majority of the mass in the Universe is in the

form of non-luminous matter (dark matter.) Since this matter does not interact via the

electromagnetic force, searching for evidence of it requires a new kind of detector. The COUPP

experiment uses a superheated fluid to search for dark matter. When a dark matter particle

collides with the superheated fluid, enough energy is transferred to the recoiling nucleus to cause

a dramatic phase change from liquid to gas. Pressurizing the chamber allows the detector to be

returned to a non-superheated fluid state to recover sensitivity for repeated use. Such a high

temperature and high pressure environment puts serious restrictions on what materials may be

used in the detector. This talk describes the design and use of a pressure vessel simulator as a

means for ensuring components created in the lab can withstand the hostile environment present

in the COUPP detector.

Worlds In Transit: Observations of Exoplanets using IRTF MORIS

Mackenzie Jones, Faculty Sponsor: Brian Murphy, Butler University

We present new transits of targets TrES-1b, TrES-3b, XO-2b, and GJ-1214b, observed with

IRTF-MORIS. The radius ratio we found for TrES-1b in Sloan r’ is 0.1315 +/- 0.0003, which

differs by 6 sigma from the Winn et al. (2007) value in z’. A possible cause for this inconsistency

is wavelength variation by depth. The other parameters found for TrES-1b were consistent with

the Winn et al. (2007) values. The timing for TrES-1b may indicate the need for a new

ephemeris. The orbital and planetary parameters found for TrES-3b were consistent with

previous values, which can be attributed to good observational conditions and a bright

comparison star. Likewise, the values found for XO-2b deviated very little from previous

literature. Both TrES-3b and XO-2b demonstrated consistent timing values. Due to poor

conditions and a lack of good comparison stars within the field of view, the parameter values for

the radius ratio, inclination, and orbital distance, found for GJ-1214b are not reliable. The timing

values, while still suspect, suggest consistency with the current ephemeris. This work is

supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568

and by the Smithsonian Institution.


An Accurate Determination of Binding Energy and Momentum Spectra for Carbon

Dioxide gas using Computational Physics Methods and Quantum Analyses

Adam Kidd, Faculty Sponsor: Xianming Han, Butler University

Electron Momentum Spectroscopy (EMS, also known as binary (e, 2e) spectroscopy) is a very

valuable tool when attempting to experimentally determine the wave functions of electrons in

quantum systems such as atoms, molecules, and solids. It is also well utilized in determining the

electronic structure of atoms and molecules by measuring the electron density distributions in

momentum space for individual orbitals. During the last decades, EMS has been successfully

applied to an increasingly wide variety of atomic, molecular, and solid-state targets and has been

shown to provide stringent tests for Hartree-Fock level configuration interaction molecular wave

functions, as well as the evaluation for Kohn-Sham density functional theory. The unique ability

of directly “imaging” the electron momentum distributions for individual molecular orbitals,

especially the chemical important valence orbitals, provides straightforward information for

understanding chemical properties and reactivity. Utilizing a high-sensitivity angle and energy

dispersive multichannel electron momentum spectrometer at the University of Science and

Technology of China, we explored the capabilities of producing the binding energy and

momentum spectra for carbon dioxide gas through Hartree-Fock analysis, combined with

computational methods. This presentation is intended to explain how computational methods

allow for more thorough and complete analysis of quantum systems through the ability to

interpret large sets of data accurately and more efficiently, using the carbon dioxide experiment

as the prime example.

Measurement of Asteroid Rotational Periods through Direct Observation and Light

Calibration

Adam Kidd, Frederick Rastede, Bradley Magnetta & Orry Heffner, Faculty Sponsor: Xianming

Han, Butler University

The number of asteroids is extensive, and the number of observed rotational periods is

significantly less in comparison. By observing the amount of light reflected from an asteroid, we

are able to determine its rotational period. To observe an asteroid, we take digital images of the

asteroid at predetermined intervals throughout the course of a night using the SARA telescopes

at Kitt Peak National Observatory (Arizona, 0.9 m) and at Cerro Tololo Inter-American

Observatory (Chile, 0.6 m). So far, we have observed four asteroids and determined their

rotational periods. The four asteroids in question include: 1660 Wood, 966 Muschi, 47035 1998

WS, and 1301 Yvonne. Asteroids 1660 and 47035 have not been observed before 2012 and we

are one of the first few to measure their rotational periods. Asteroids 966 and 1301 have been

observed before, but our data will be used to determine the physical shape of these

asteroids. This presentation is intended to explain the methods by which we accomplished our

task, as well as present our findings.

Black Box Module for Low-Level Light Detection in Optogenetic Studies

Elizabeth Maret, Faculty Sponsor: Mohamed Diagne, Connecticut College

Optogenetics combines cell targeting through genetic modification with optical stimulation

methods to improve neural circuit stimulation precision and introduce minimally invasive


probing techniques. Viral vectors in genetic modification introduce photo-responsive channel

proteins into mammalian neurons marked with a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)

label. Optogenetics has brought with it the ‘optrode,’ a novel bi-functional device for

simultaneous optical stimulation and electrical recording by a gold coated waveguide fiber.

Recording by optrode allows for millisecond time-scale resolution unattainable by traditional

electrical stimulation methods. However, optrode probing is limited by the lack of spatial

understanding of genetically modified neurons in relation to the optrode’s location. As a result,

all optogenetic studies require terminal histological analysis of test subjects. The Black Box

Module is a light-tight environment that filters low-level YFP fluorescence for detection with the

optrode, confirming the optrode’s presence in an optogenetically modified area. This

presentation examines the Black Box Module’s optogenetic stimulation, recording, and optical

filtration system, as well as its success in improving spatial understanding of optogenetic studies

that could reduce the need for expensive terminal mammalian studies.

Examining the Mass Ratio Dependence of Post-Newtonian Smoothed Particle

Hydrodynamics (SPH) Simulations of Binary Neutron Star Coalescence

Jonathon Meyers & Richard Hallett, Purdue University, Margaret Michna & Yi Mei, Faculty

Sponsor: Aaron Warren, Purdue University North Central

We use a publicly available post-Newtonian SPH code, StarCrash, to calculate final remnants

and gravitational waveforms for coalescing binary neutron star systems with binary mass ratios

ranging from 0.90 to 1.00, in steps of 0.05. These simulations and their results are analyzed to

determine how several properties of the merger depend on the mass ratio. Changes in the

dynamical behavior of the binary system at different mass ratios, in particular the formation of

tidal tails and lags, are illustrated and described. We also model the mass ratio-dependences of

peak gravitational wave strain and gravitational luminosity. Finally, using Gaussian wavelet

transformations, we calculate the pseudo-frequencies of gravitational waves produced during the

inspiral, chirp, and ring-down periods.

Construction and Commissioning of a Cryogenic Radon Assay System

Timothy Moan, Faculty Sponsor: Ilan Levine, Indiana University-South Bend

Astronomical measurements have shown that 85% of the universe’s mass is in some exotic form

which is inherently invisible ("dark matter.”) Two experiments, COUPP and PICASSO, use

superheated liquid targets to search for dark matter. When a dark matter particle collides with a

nucleus in the superheated liquid, it creates an explosive phase change from liquid to gas. These

experiments are insensitive to various backgrounds that plague other detectors; however they are

sensitive to alpha particles from radioactive decays. Therefore, one must reduce the levels of

radioactive contaminants in the detectors, and be able to measure the amount of contaminants

that get by. This talk describes the construction of a cryogenic radon sampling system and

photomultiplier counting system used to measure radon emanation and diffusion of candidate

materials for low-background experiments

AC Faraday Rotation of Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Composites

John Moore, Faculty Sponsor: Maarij Syed, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology


An AC Faraday rotation technique has been used to study the factors that affect the Verdet

constant of several classes of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle composites. Faraday rotation is the rotation of

light’s axis of polarization as it propagates through a medium in which a magnetic field is

applied along the direction of propagation. The angle of rotation is given as the product of the

magnetic field strength, the optical path length, and a material specific constant called the Verdet

constant. Materials with a large Verdet constant are useful in the design of optical isolators,

magneto-optic modulators and switches, and magnetic field sensors. These devices in their

conventional bulk forms usually rely on materials like garnet crystals for their large rotations and

fast response times, but as optical components continue to be miniaturized for applications to

integrated optical systems, more compact designs demand new materials. Nanoparticle

composites, because of their scalability and potential to deliver exceptionally large magnetooptic

rotations, are a viable solution. In our composites the effects of nanoparticle concentration

and magnetization, as well as polymer rigidity have been investigated.

Acoustic Transducer Design for Dark Matter Detection and Radiation Acoustics

Thomas Nania, Faculty Sponsor: Ilan Levine, Indiana University-South Bend

Astronomical measurements reveal that about 85% of the matter in the Universe is non-baryonic

(that is, not made from the constituents of atoms.) This exotic matter does not interact with

ordinary matter via the electromagnetic or strong forces and is thus intrinsically invisible and

hard to detect. The COUPP collaboration is working to observe individual “dark matter”

particles using superheated liquid CF3I as a target for these particles. When the dark matter

particles scatter one of the atoms in the liquid, the recoiling nucleus deposits enough heat to

cause the liquid to explosively transform to a gas.

The COUPP detector is monitored using acoustic sensors which detect the acoustic emanations

from the phase transition. The sensors we have designed and built thus far have been able to

distinguish phase transitions induced by neutron calibration sources from those caused by alphas

from radioactive decay. Our work is to try to improve the sensor backing composition to improve

the event-by-event particle identification capabilities of the detector. We are also exploring

whether acoustic sensors can be used in other particle physics measurements.

Measuring the Performance of Generalized Gradient Approximations in Solids

Zachary Nault, Faculty Sponsor: Antonio Cancio, Ball State University

There recently have been a number of generalized gradient approximations (GGA's) developed

to address a major limitation of the approach – the inability to model both energies and structural

constants at the same time. We examine the performance for bulk systems of four different GGA

exchange-correlation (XC) functionals: the PBE functional, best for energy calculations in

molecules, the PBEsol functional developed to improve calculations of solid structures, the

SOGGA functional developed to improve lattice constant calculations, and the VMT1 functional

developed to improve atomization energy calculations without a loss in lattice constant accuracy.

These XC functionals are tested on a set of 12 solids composed of metals, semiconductors, ionic

metals, and transition metals. The plane-wave DFT code ABINIT was used to calculate the

cohesive energy for each solid using each XC approximation. The bulk moduli and lattice

constants were determined by fitting to the Murnaghan equation of state. We look particularly


into how the use of a pseudopotentail will effect the predictions of each model in comparison to

experiment.

POLITICAL SCIENCE

The Influence of Nazism on the Development of Fascist Anti-Semitism in Italy

Brittany Brake, Faculty Sponsors: Dave Barry & Timothy Bennett, Wittenberg University

From the early 1920’s to the mid 1930’s, Benito Mussolini believed that Italian Jews did not

pose a threat to Italy; in fact, he believed they were helpful to the fascist cause. However, in the

midst of Adolf Hitler’s influence and under serious wartime pressures, Italian Fascism, which

was not inherently anti-Semitic, shifted towards the radical anti-Semitism of the Nazis. Nazi

anti-Semitic views diverged from common anti-Semitic attitudes prior to the early twentieth

century. The anti-Semitism of German National Socialism surpassed the traditional anti-Semitic

practices that existed prior to Hitler’s modifications. Hitler’s unconventional anti-Semitic

policies combined the ideas of early anti-Semitism with his own extreme thoughts, and cultivated

radical acts of violence. This monomaniacal anti-Semitism was distinctly different from the anti-

Semitism found in Italian Fascism. In the late 1930’s, as Italy started to fall behind Germany

economically and militaristically, Mussolini feared losing close ties with Hitler and began

implementing more extreme anti-Semitic policies that mirrored those of Nazism. Hitler’s

modifications are clearly seen in Italian Fascism after the year 1938. By distinguishing the bases

of anti-Semitism in both of these countries, one is able to determine the level of importance that

anti-Semitism played in Italy and Germany prior to the Second World War.

The Jurisprudence of Sonia Sotomayor: An Analysis of Her First Amendment Freedom of

Speech Decisions

Alexis Branham, Faculty Sponsor: Phil Loy, Taylor University

As one of the newest and first Hispanic Justice to ascend to the Supreme Court bench Sonia

Sotomayor might have a large impact on the decisions the court hands down in the future. Using

her background, history as a lawyer and District Attorney in New York in combination with her

opinions and dissents on the Free Speech Cases the United States Supreme Court handed down

in their 2010-2011 term; this is an evaluation and analysis of what we can expect from her in the

years to come.

Conservative Feminism and its Potential to Interact with, Influence, and Transform

Traditional Feminist Identity

Aja Cacan, Faculty Sponsor: Margaret Brabant, Butler University

The recent emergence of conservative female public figures has posed a challenge to the

traditional notion of feminist thought. Although they define their particular form of success in

conservative terms, many of these women either operate according to feminist paradigms or

depend upon feminist achievements to attain success. There seems to be a developing school of


conservative thought, which somewhat incorporates feminist logic into its philosophy; whether

or not it constitutes a legitimate movement that may counter or merge with feminism will have

implications for the feminist identity and the shaping of various public policies regarding

women’s interests.

Media Influence or Influential Media?

Rachel Cheeseman, Faculty Sponsor: Brett O'bannon, DePauw University

The question of news media’s influence on policy has recently shifted away from the question of

“does it or does it not exist?” to one of “when and under what conditions does it occur?” The

existence of media influence on policy, particularly foreign policy, became evident after a slew

of humanitarian crises in the 1990s prompted scholars to investigate the latter question rather

than the former. In 2000, Piers Robinson of the University of Manchester posited his policymedia

interaction model arguing that news media can influence policy only in the absence of

executive certainty. This theory is fundamentally flawed, essentially begging historical questions

by terming policy certain whenever it was unchanged and seeking out signs and sources of

“uncertainty” whenever it did change. Alternatively, Peter Viggo Jakobsen from the University

of Copenhagen conceives of a relationship in which media portrayals of humanitarian crises play

a key role in motivating relevant policy. Not only must the crisis be covered; it must be covered

in a certain way. In Jakobsen’s complex dynamic, media always have the potential to influence

policy, though they are unlikely to do so if coverage is inconsistent or framed in such a way that

fails to motivate the public (i.e. inaccurate or un-empathetic framing). This subtle but important

distinction between media influence as a contingent upon executive certainty and a more

persistent role of potentially influential media has major implications not only on how policy

formation must be conceived but also how scholars and professionals must conceive of media’s

role in democratic societies.

This paper draws on existing scholarship, both theoretical and analytical, regarding media’s

influence on policy formation in response to humanitarian crises throughout the 1990s to

examine the role impact of executive certainty as well as media’s influence. Flaws with the

ultimately circular notion that media influence only exists in the absence of executive certainty

become evident, and the alternative notion that the media coverage of a particular issue might

influence relevant policy formation is supported. An examination of the French and American

responses to the 1994 genocide of Tutsi Rwandans makes clear that media’s coverage played a

decisive role. A review of the processes by which the French and American administrations

reached their respective decisions of intervention and non-intervention serves as a case study in

the final portion of the paper.

Homeless and Low-Income Individuals Struggle to Find Access to Services in District of

Columbia

Zachary Davidson, Faculty Sponsor: Paulette Sauders, Grace College

Great attention is paid to delivery of services to the low-income populous in the United States,

often fueling partisan discourse. Rather than politicizing delivery of services, whether they are

effective or ineffective, and calling for widespread reforms in existing programs, this paper will

examine access to current existing services and programs specific to the experience of


individuals in the District of Columbia. This paper will conclude that the process of obtaining

services such as housing, Medicaid, and disability is confusing and untimely for any individual,

but even more so for indigents. The conclusion is supported with documented statistics from

credible institutions and government offices, as well as personal testimony.

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: A Policy Analysis

Jillian Edmonds, Faculty Sponsor: Michael Zarkin, Westminster College

This paper examines the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, specifically examining

whether or not the United States Senate should ratify the treaty. The U.S. is one of the countries

that must ratify the treaty in order for it to go into effect (called Annex 2 states by the

treaty). Our position on the treaty is very important for the future success of the treaty, so careful

consideration of the pros and cons of the treaty are necessary. This policy analysis is based on

several factors, examining both arguments for and against ratification of the treaty. The factors

for analysis are comprehensive, considering environmental, security, economic, and political

factors. The conclusion of the paper is that the United States should ratify the treaty and there

are several advantageous reasons for doing so.

Critiquing the Supreme Court's 1962 Decision in Engel v. Vitale

Christopher Goff, Faculty Sponsor: Nancy Whitmore, Butler University

In 1962, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a school prayer that students in the state of New

York had the option of reciting each morning. The ruling overturned a 172-year tradition of legal

prayer in American public schools. A reargument and reexamination of Engel v. Vitale finds that

the outcome of the case, while perhaps desirable politically, was not actually consistent with the

First Amendment to the Constitution. There is a good deal of evidence the case was wrongly

decided, and those legal and historical rationales will be explored.

The Experience of Women Leaders in Northern Ghana

Kelly Hamman, Faculty Sponsor: Robin Turner, Butler University

Throughout my month long research period in the Northern Region of Ghana, I was able to

interview a handful of female district assembly members and gender desk officers who gave me

much insight to both the joys and difficulties as female members of the local level

governance. In addition to talking to the women first hand, I was able to work with a total of

five NGOs based in Tamale and Yendi that worked to increase women's representation in local

level governance; these organizations discussed some of the barriers they face, as well as many

of the programs they have worked to implement over the last decade. Most of my work was

based out of Tamale, Northern Region, although I did work with one NGO and about 3 district

assembly women in Yendi, a less developed area that has seen conflict as late as 2000, which

added a peacekeeping element into the mix.

This project takes into consideration the impact of colonialism on traditional power structures,

the influence of religion in the region, and the cultural importance of women's roles.

Civic Engagement of Italian-Americans in Indianapolis


Lauren Hodge, Faculty Sponsors: Elisa Lucchi-Riester & Robin Turner, Butler University

Civic engagement, the study of how individuals engage with their community, has been shown to

have a tremendous impact on politics. Previous research has indicated immigrant populations

engage with their communities differently than non-immigrant populations. Yet there have not

been many studies specifically studying Italian-American populations and their methods of

engagement. Utilizing Indianapolis’ rich Italian immigrant population, a study was conducted

through interviews and surveys. The results have revealed Italian-Americans maintain their

Italian but not regional identity from generation to generation. Additionally, Italians, while

highly educated, purposefully choose not to vote in national elections. Rather, they are highly

involved in neighborhood and local community activities and tend to engage in conversation

about politics and social issues at a high rate, but choose to engage in politics through “nontraditional”

methods.

Visiting the Promising Land: The Effects of Religious Pilgrimage on Peace Building in the

Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Christopher Jozwiak, Faculty Sponsors: Siobhan McEvoy-Levy & Paul Valliere, Butler

University

This research will provide an analysis of religious pilgrimage and its connections with peace

building in context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Religious pilgrimage peace research points

to an area that emphasizes the current and future opportunity for faith-inspired peace building in

the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Little research in the past has analyzed this relationship of

religious pilgrimage and peace building, particularly within the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The

uniqueness of this research is built upon that of British scholar, Dr. Stephen R. Sizer, who has

noted the rare nature of such research. The history of pilgrimage to the Holy Land offers a

complex background on the contemporary situation and explains a variety of current nuances in

the region. The Holy Land has a rich history. Furthermore, the history of pilgrimage to the Holy

Land has uniquely shaped the modern nature of pilgrimage today and distinctively contributed to

the social, economic and political status of the Holy Land. While Jewish and Islamic pilgrimage

within the context of the Holy Land was analyzed for this research, Christian pilgrimage is

focused on, particularly regarding the context of the Roman Catholic Church.

This analysis obtained information through a combination of a variety of scholarly methods for

research. The foundation for this analysis included participant observation as a pilgrim from

November 2011, interviews with pilgrims to the Holy Land and local residents of Israel and the

Palestinian Occupied Territories. Additional pilgrimage experiences in Europe and a

comprehensive scholarly review of interdisciplinary materials connected with pilgrimage in

theology, history, peace building, political science and the Holy Land further shaped this

research.

In some ways this research analyzes both intentional and unintentional actions and effects of

pilgrimage on local communities. This includes economic, theological, sociological and political

consequences. Pilgrimage is thus analyzed in a variety of ways to understand its impact on peace

building in the Holy Land.


The Kurdish Question: Kurdish Identity in the Modern Turkish State

Peter Kassig, Faculty Sponsor: Margaret Brabant, Butler University

This paper attempts to answer questions related to the relationship between ethnicity and national

identity of the Kurdish people in Turkey. Mustafa Kemal, leader of the Turkish War of

Independence (insert dates of the war), and first President of the Turkish Republic (dates),

initiated a series of reforms commonly referred to as Kemalism. These reforms were, amongst

other things, attempts at modernization in the development of the modern Turkish state that some

critics of Mustafa Kemal (better known as Atatürk) assert. This includes the suppression of

particular ethnic and cultural identities in Turkey and attempts to assimilate them into the

mainstream Turkish population.

The Kurdish population in Turkey has suffered greatly as a result of Kemalism and has, since the

inception of the republic, resisted state organized attempts at assimilation, by way of peaceful

protest, as well as violent revolt. The Kurds, with their own language, culture, and identity,

represent a quarter of Turkey’s population. Once allies of the Ottoman empire and initial

supporters of Mustafa Kemal, the Kurds have found themselves an isolated and disavowed

people, and the center of a powerful and often bloody dispute regarding the possibility of a

separate Kurdish state. Referred to as the “Kurdish Question”, this dispute within Turkey is one

that has evolved through periods of violence perpetuated by both separatist Kurds and the

Turkish government to a position of ambivalence and stagnant repression by the Turkish state.

Only through a deeper understanding of Kurdish identity and culture can Turkey hope to resolve

dispute(s) stemming from the separation and isolation of Kurds that the state itself initiated.

Though the Turkish state has launched numerous initiatives aimed at integrating Kurds into

mainstream society in Turkey; housing projects in the East, re-instatement of Kurdish

broadcasting, ect., these efforts are insufficient for closing the gap between the Kurdish people

and the Turkish state. In order for lasting peace and reconciliation to be established, both the

Government and the Kurdish people need to work together unilaterally to bring about both

political reform and a shift in cultural ideology.

Issues with Pakistani Women's Citizenship

Megan Moles, Faculty Sponsor: Larry Williamson, Butler University

This research presents the complicated and unequal case of women's citizenship in the country of

Pakistan. Women are not allowed to give their citizenship to their husbands should they marry

foreigners, and are therefore forced to continue to be under the control of a patriarchal

system. Questions explored include human rights, women's rights, as well as rights of

citizenship. Case studies include those of women within the country of Pakistan as well as India.

John F. Kennedy as an Innovator in the Peace Movement

Kacie Newhouse, Faculty Sponsor: Gerald Waite, Ball State University

John F. Kennedy was one of the leading innovators in bringing peace to the world. One of

Kennedy’s biggest accomplishments as president involved preventing nuclear war during the

Cuban Missile Crisis. During a time when we were on the brink of nuclear war and when the

USSR was setting up missiles in Cuba for a potential attack on the United States, JFK prevented


Soviets from reaching the island through strategic, peaceful measures, preventing a war where

one could have easily been started with one wrong move. In addition, Kennedy conceptualized

The Peace Corps in 1951 in seeking to bring peace to underprivileged and impoverished nations.

While several of his opponents doubted the effectiveness of such an organization, Kennedy

believed it would shatter the notion of Yankee Imperialism and spread peace to areas that were in

desperate need of rebuilding. These accomplishments show Kennedy was a dedicated innovator

to the creation and spread of peace throughout his political career.

Closer to Home: The Push towards Regionalization in Response to Globalization

Josh Slusher, Faculty Sponsor: Paul Hanson, Butler University

The rise of globalization in the last century has been deeply discussed and debated encompassing

nearly every field of study. The influence of globalism is undeniable, yet what has been less

analyzed is the world’s increasing movement towards regionalization within the context of larger

globalization. As the international community faces increasingly daunting social revolutions,

political destabilizations, and economic crises, many nations seek to combat these mounting

problems through regional economic blocs and political unions. This paper will endeavor to

better comprehend the factors behind this push towards regionalization by examining regional

blocs such as the European Union, the Organization for American States, the Arab League, the

Association of South East Asian Nations, and the African Union.

PSYCHOLOGY

The Effects of Gender and Sociosexual Orientation on Perceptions of Casual Sex

Ashley Adams & Whitley Holt, Faculty Sponsor: Ellen Altermatt, Hanover College

This study was designed to examine if there is still a double standard for judging individuals who

engage in casual sex, and if the gender and personal sexual behavior of the participant affect this

standard. Participants read hypothetical scenarios in which the actors engaged in casual sex. The

gender of the initiator of the sexual act was manipulated. Participants were asked to evaluate the

initiator of the sexual act, to indicate their own gender, and to complete Penke’s Revised

Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (2011) to assess their personal sexual behavior. We anticipate

that males who initiate casual sex will be judged less harshly than females who initiate casual

sex, but that this double-standard will be moderated by both the participants’ gender and

personal sexual behavior.

False Memory in the DRM Paradigm: A Comparison of Synesthetes and Non-Synesthetic

Controls

Caitlin Anderson, Faculty Sponsor: Mandy Gingerich, Butler University

This study investigated how the superior memory of synesthetic individuals “protects” them

from false memories. Synesthesia is a non-disordered cross-wiring of the senses (Hubbard &

Ramachandran, 2005). A color-grapheme synesthete might associate the letter “A” with the color


purple although it is printed in black ink. Past research has shown that color-grapheme

synesthetes show better memory for stimuli such as word lists and abstract figures compared to

non-synesthetes and that they believe that their memory is more accurate than average (Yaro &

Ward, 2007). In the current study, participants viewed 15 words semantically-related to one

critical, non-presented word for 250 milliseconds each followed by recall tasks. This was

repeated for 12 Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm lists (Roediger & McDermott, 1995).

After participants recalled all the words they remembered, they completed a recognition task.

Results suggest that synesthetes had higher correct recall rates (M=.53, SD=.07) than did nonsynesthetes

(M=.45, SD= .12), F(1,24)=4.43, p< .05.Every other measure, however, yielded no

significant difference between groups (all ps >.05). Results indicate that, compared to nonsynesthetes,

the “cross-wiring” of senses that synesthetes experience does not necessarily enable

them to reduce their false recall of critical lures or to correctly reject critical lures. Furthermore,

synesthesia does not seem to “protect” individuals from falsely recognizing critical lures.

Effects of Name Status on Attractiveness

Mandy Anderson, Rachel Bernhardt & JJ Burns, Faculty Sponsor: Amy Bracken, Franklin

College

Past research has shown that women tend to take social status and access to resources into

account whenever judging prospective partners (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, and Linsenmeier, 2002).

Studies have also been performed that show women are likely to rate pictures of men with formal

names as being more successful than those with informal names (English & Stephens, 2004).

Common names are associated with a person being more rated as more successful (Levine &

Willis, 1994). The current study combines the past research involving names and perceived

social status. Female participants will view a slideshow containing pictures of young men with

either a high status name (i.e. “Robert”), a low status name (i.e. “Bob”), or no name at all. While

viewing each picture, the participants will have 10 seconds to rate the attractiveness of each

picture on a 5-point scale, with 1 being “least attractive” and 5 being “most attractive.” There

will be a five second pause between each picture when a blank side is presented for the

participants to finish responding. The goal of the experiment is to see if high status names, low

status names, or no names at all will have an effect on the perceived attractiveness level of

potential partners. The researchers hypothesize that pictures of males paired with high status

names will be rated as more attractive than pictures of males paired with low status names.

Results from this study will increase knowledge of name psychology and whether this affects

women’s choices about potential partners.

All in My Head?: How Does Mood Affect How We Interpret Facial Expressions?

Lillian Ashmore, Faculty Sponsor: Gregory Francis, Purdue University

What visual cues do people use to judge facial expressions? Do those cues change with the

observer’s mood, or is emotion recognition in facial expressions based on either objective,

formulaic facial cues that Ekman’s notion of universal facial expressions suggests (Ekman,

1970)? We investigated these questions using a reverse correlation technique by embedding

random noise pixels on a face with an ambiguous facial expression (a copy of the Mona Lisa).

Because of the random noise pattern, the resulting image sometimes looks happy and sometimes

sad. Subjects classified the expression of the faces (happy or sad) for many different random


patterns. The commonly categorized patterns were then averaged to identify which noise pixels

influenced expression categorization. In addition, sad or happy music was played during the face

judgment task to manipulate the mood of observers. Based on previous research, we

hypothesized that different noise pixels would be important in expression categorization

depending on the manipulation mood. The results find that noise pixels around the corners of the

mouth are important in determining the categorized facial expression, but that there was no

difference in the cues used to make judgments between mood groups. The mood manipulation

was not statistically significant; however, the analysis of facial expression interacted with mood

context. These findings line up with that of Kontsevich and Tyler (2004) and provide evidence

for an objective analysis of facial expression.

Emotion Yields Isolated Tunnel Memory, But Collaborative IMAX

Dominick Atkinson, Faculty Sponsor: John Bohannon III, Butler University

Recollection is frequently social; people tend to remember with others and when they do, their

joint recollection is enhanced (McClure et al. 2009). Group recall tends to be superior to isolated

recall. However, subjects viewing emotional material tend to focus in on the central, emotional

aspects of the scene (Safer & Christianson, 1998). Thus, if groups experience an emotional

scene, their recollections should be similar. 114 Butler University students viewed one of two

slideshows including 15 photos taken in various places at a house. One group saw a slideshow

that contained a non-emotional version of the middle scene (cutting bread) and three extra nonemotional

scenes (food). The other group saw an emotional version of the middle scene (cut off

fingers) and three extra emotional scenes (ER photos). Three critical slides showed multiple

household items varying in placement, central or peripheral. After the three-minute presentation,

and a 10-minute interpolated task, subjects completed a memory questionnaire. Participants

completed the questionnaires either by themselves or with partners and were asked to work

together. In free recall, arousal allowed the isolates to improve their recall of central items with

no effect on the groups’ superior recall, whereas arousal improved the accuracy of the groups’

peripheral recall with no effect on isolates’ poor recall. For the probed recall, arousal improved

the group memory for peripheral items, but there was no difference for the central data. This

further backs up the memory model that under emotional conditions, peripheral group memory is

improved.

Implicit Association Test vs. Police Officer’s Dilemma, Which is Better for Increased

Prejudicial Awareness?

Alex Baer & Christian Entezari, Faculty Sponsor: Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Indiana

University/Purdue University at Indianapolis

In the quest for reducing prejudicial thinking and biases the question has become how can that be

done best? A possible avenue lies within the applications of two tests designed to activate the

processes necessary to learn from their outputs. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) examines

participants’ unconscious race-related biases, through dual-categorization task that allows

participants to assign stimuli to racial and evaluative categories. The Police Officer’s Dilemma

(POD) task submerses participants in a quick reaction video-game like setting. Participants have

to respond shoot vs. don’t shoot to White vs. Black men holding guns vs. benign objects (Correll,

Judd, Park, &Wittenbrink, 2002). 200 introductory psychology students will be randomly


assigned to complete either the IAT or the POD .Recent findings have shown that those that had

been administered the IAT exhibited guilt (which is important for reducing one’s own prejudice)

when their inner racial biases were brought to their attention (Monteith, Voils, & Ashburn-

Nardo, 2001) and reported increased awareness of their own and others’ implicit bias (Morris &

Asburn-Nardo, 2010). Given the stress of the consequences associated with, theoretically

shooting in the POD “shoot” or “don’t shoot” scenarios however, we hypothesize that there is a

greater potential to raise prejudice awareness among participants not found in the IAT.

Ecological Momentary Assessment of Academic Self-Efficacy: Implications for Theory and

Research

Rebekah Bentle, Kate Denlinger & Tiffany LeFever, Faculty Sponsor: Tim Steenbergh, Indiana

Wesleyan University, Marion

Numerous studies support academic self-efficacy (ASE) as a predictor of students’ academic

performance (e.g., Chemers et al, 2001; Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991). However, past research

has predominantly relied on single assessments of ASE, which cannot detect fluctuations in what

may be a dynamic construct (Bandura, 1977; Mone, Baker, & Jeffries, 1995). We employed a

novel approach to ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Shiffman, Stone & Hufford, 2008)

to gather multiple measures of student ASE across the semester in order to examine self-efficacy,

its fluctuations, and their relationship to academic performance. Freshman completed pre- and

posttest questionnaires including a measure of ASE and then used the iHabit EMA app for

three separate one-week periods (weeks 3,8, and 14). Mean ASE scores over the three weeklong

periods were consistent. However, the mean standard deviation of individuals’ daily self-efficacy

ratings varied across the assessment period.Mean daily ASE scores during week 8 were

significantly correlated with pretest and posttest ASE. Weeks 3 and 14 ASE scores were strongly

correlated with GPA. These findings suggest that ASE is a dynamic construct, and that daily

assessment using EMA may yield improved predictive utility, relative to single assessments.

Further studies may yield new insights about the dynamic nature of self-efficacy.

The Effect of Sensory Manipulation on Postural Sway

Kyle Bohnert & Rachael Moreland, Faculty Sponsor: John Krantz, Hanover College

In this study we examine the effect that the manipulation of primary senses has on posture. We

manipulated the somatosensory, visual, and vestibular systems in order to make each system as

irrelevant as possible to the participant. Participants will be blindfolded in order to disrupt the

visual system, their feet will be iced in order to disrupt the somatosensory system, and they will

be spun in a chair in order to disrupt the vestibular system. Postural sway measurements will be

recorded for each trial using a Wii Fit balance board. The results of each condition will be

analyzed using a Fourier analysis and we will also be examining the total sway of each

participant. We hypothesize that, as more senses are manipulated, postural sway of the

participant will increase.

The Dirt on Grit: Examining Relations with School Adjustment, School Performance, and

Theories of Intelligence

Whitney Borton & Jaclyn Grelle, Faculty Sponsor: Ellen Altermatt, Hanover College


Recent studies have examined the predictive power of grit. Grit, or perseverance and passion for

long-term goals, has been found to be predictive of success in adults and privileged

children. The researchers in this study wanted to determine if grit had the same predictive

power among children with minority and low SES status. This study was also designed to

examine if a child’s theory of intelligence predicted their grit score. The participants were 136

6 th , 7 th , and 8 th grade students from an urban middle school. Of the 133 participants who

indicated ethnicity, 92.5% identified themselves as an ethnicity other than Caucasian. These

students filled out a survey measuring school adjustment, grit, theory of intelligence, selfreported

school performance, and basic demographic information. We expect grit to be

predictive of both higher school adjustment and school performance. We also expect that

children with an incremental theory of intelligence will have higher grit scores.

Social Conformity in Physical vs. Virtual Environments

Rachel Brighton, Brooks Ayers, Eric Carmichael, Philip Hannum & Judie Keen, Faculty

Sponsors: Tim Steenbergh & Christopher Devers, Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion

Social conformity has been defined as the movement from one’s own position to a contradictory

position based on the expressed positions of others in a group (Cialdini & Trost, 1998). In his

pioneering work in this area, Asch (1956) discovered that roughly one-third of participants went

against their better judgment to agree with the incorrect responses of confederates in their group.

Additional studies since then have elucidated the factors associated with conformity in the

physical world; however, little is known about social conformity in the virtual world. Therefore,

this experimental study examined social conformity in physical vs. virtual environments.

Undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either physical or virtual situations in which

they interacted with confederates who presented inaccurate responses. We will examine rates of

conformity between the two groups and explore the factors associated with conformity.

The Effect of Age on Attitudes toward People with Disabilities

Carrie Burkhardt & Lauron Haney, Faculty Sponsor: Ellen Altermatt, Hanover College

This study was designed to evaluate whether participants’ age influences their attitudes toward

physically disabled individuals. Participants will complete an online survey consisting of three

assessments of their attitudes toward disabled individuals: a self-report measure of explicit

attitudes, a projective measure of explicit attitudes (the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward

Persons with Disabilities), and a measure of implicit attitudes. We expect to find a main effect

for age, with older adults possessing more negative attitudes toward people with physical

handicaps than younger adults. We expect the age difference to be greater for implicit than

explicit attitudes in light of new laws, including the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), that

have reinforced more positive attitudes toward people with physical disabilities. In addition, we

expect these effects to be moderated by personal relationships such that the age difference may

be less pronounced among individuals who have had quite a bit of experience with people with

disabilities.

The Effects of Technology Use in Job Position on Attributions and Self-Efficacy

Elizabeth Campbell, Faculty Sponsor: Faye Plascak-Craig, Marian University


The present study is designed to test the effects of technology use on employee attributions and

self-efficacy for different position and experience levels within an organization. Demographics,

work scenarios attributions, and self-efficacy scores will be collected from employees and

students at a Midwestern university. It is expected that those with more job experience and

higher job positions will use internal attributional inferences and report higher self-efficacy than

will those at lower positions and with less job experience.

A Brief Mindfulness Intervention Mitigates Adverse Reactions to Negative Feedback

Xi Chen & Chris Thompson, Faculty Sponsor: Alison O'Malley, Butler University

Negative feedback often fails to stimulate performance improvement, instead arousing negative

emotions, perceptions of unfairness, and rejection of the feedback message (e.g., Anseel &

Lievens, 2006; Cianci, Klein, & Seijts, 2010). We targeted mindfulness, a psychological state

induced by attention focusing (Kabat-Zinn, 2003), as a means of reducing negative emotions

after receiving negative feedback. We examined whether a short mindfulness intervention helped

participants cope more effectively with negative performance feedback. Although mindfulness is

typically developed by practicing over weeks or months, we implemented a short focused

breathing intervention intended to enhance mindfulness in a few minutes (Arch & Clarske,

2006). Participants who listened to a 5-minute mindfulness recording experienced less intense

negative emotional reactions after receiving negative feedback compared to the control group,

who experienced an unfocused attention exercise. Interest and persistence, however, were not

affected by the mindfulness manipulation. This study is among the first to examine positive

psychological principles in order to improve feedback recipients’ reactions to negative feedback.

The Relationship between Music and Mood: an Exploration of Music's Influence on

Undergraduate Students' Emotions

Katherine Clark & Sarah Kuborn, Faculty Sponsor: Marcie Coulter-Kern, Manchester College

Throughout the ages, music has been used as a medium through which individuals have

expressed their various thoughts, emotions, and opinions. Naturally, this has led scientists to

hypothesize that music can have an impact on the thoughts, emotions, and opinions of those who

hear it. The present study examined the effect that music has on mood. A Likert scale was

designed and used to calculate the mood of subjects before and after listening to a playlist of

music. Three separate groups of participants listened to three specific playlists – one containing

classical music, one containing music with positive lyrics, and one containing music with

negative lyrics. A paired-samples t-test was used to analyze the data compiled from each group,

and it was found that music with positive lyrics had a significant impact on mood. These

findings suggest that music does indeed have a profound impact on the emotions of its listeners.

Growth from Pain: The Effects of Counseling, Spirituality, and Gender on Posttraumatic

Growth

Sarah Conway, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Swindell, Anderson University

Posttraumatic growth, defined as “positive psychological change experienced as a result of the

struggle with highly challenging life circumstances” (Calhoun & Tedeschi, 1999, 2001), has

recently come under close examination (Finch & Enders, 2008, p. 421). This study further


investigates the effect of professional counseling, spirituality, and gender on posttraumatic

growth. Specifically, it is predicted that participants who attend counseling for a traumatic event

will have significantly increased posttraumatic growth compared to those who have not attended

counseling. It is also hypothesized that participants who perceive themselves as highly spiritual

will have an increased posttraumatic growth than those who do not perceive themselves as highly

spiritual, and females will have a higher posttraumatic growth than males. Participants were 132

undergraduate volunteers enrolled in General Psychology and Developmental courses attending a

small, Midwestern university. Participants completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory

(PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) and a short, demographic survey that queried participants’

gender, perceived level of spirituality, and counseling experiences. Data will be analyzed using

multivariate analysis of variance.

The Effectiveness of a Two-Week Reflection-Intention Training Program on Lucid Dream

Recall Frequency: A Replication

Matthew Danskey, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Swindell, Anderson University

A lucid dream occurs when, while still dreaming, the dreamer becomes conscious of dreaming.

This study replicates the work of Paulsson and Parker (2005) that tested the effectiveness of a

two-week reflection intention technique on increasing lucid dream recall frequency (LDRF) and

dream recall frequency (DRF). Participants completed a brief questionnaire to establish a

baseline for DRF and LDRF, then over a two-week interval, practiced the reflection-technique

and kept a dream journal. Preliminary analysis of the data using a dependent t-test indicates that

the program was effective for increasing LDRF as compared with the baseline (p = 0.0035),

which confirms the results of the study replicated.

Student Perceptions of Motivation, Promise-fulfillment, Trust, and Engagement Broadens

the Psychological Contract

Christina Davis, Faculty Sponsor: Alison O'Malley, Butler University

Traditionally, the psychological contract has been conceptualized as an informal agreement

between employers and employees at the organizational level. The factors that underlie the

psychological contract are widely regarded as central to understanding the expectations that exist

between organization members (Rousseau, 1995). However, there is no data available to suggest

the same trend in educational settings. This presents a problem in attempting to overcome

student-learning barriers. Our correlational study applied validated scales from psychological

contract literature to an educational setting. We surveyed 115 undergraduates to understand the

implications of upholding the psychological contract in the classroom. We predicted: 1).

Perceptions of promise-fulfillment are positively correlated with student engagment, 2). Student

motivation is positively correlated with student ratings of professor obligations to create

standards and meet them consistently. 3). Negative perceptions of self-motivation and

engagement indicate potential contract violations. Two key findings were, good teaching

(measured by the Teacher-Behavior-Checklist) negatively predicted perceptions of promiseviolations,

B = -0.84, t = -9.94, p < .001, and perceptions of trust positively predicted promisefulfillment,

B = 0.47, t = 6.63, p < .05. Overall, using psychological contracts in education can

clarify expectations students have of instructors and provide pathways for improvement

(Anderson, 1987).


Evaluation of the C.A.R.E. Programs Effectiveness in Regards to Sexual Activity in

Hancock County, Ohio

Joanna Dunten, Cassandra Wimer & Rachel Kochensparger, Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Lloyd,

Huntington University

The rates of adolescent’s premature sexual activity have been decreasing since 1988, according

to the Center for Disease Control 2011 statistics. One possible reason for this decrease could be

the sexual education classes that have been placed in schools. One such class designed by The

Women’s Resource Center of Hancock County (W.R.C.), is the Character, Relationships and

Education program (C.A.R.E.). This program has been sent to every public middle school and

high school in Hancock County, Ohio for the past decade. This program gives sexual education

as well as abstinence education. The effectiveness of the program will be evaluated by

comparing pre-tests that were already given to the students before the intervention and the posttests

given after the intervention. The number of participants that will be analyzed in the current

study will be 2,000 to 4,000. These ANOVA’s will also be compared to the statistics that have

been run for the past 10 years for the C.A.R.E program. Lastly, these statistics will be compared

to national levels of sexual activity in order to evaluate the effectiveness this particular program.

Personality Differences between Nursing, Psychology, and Computer Science

Neil Eliason, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Swindell, Anderson University

The present study investigated personality differences of students and faculty members from

three academic disciplines: Nursing, Psychology, and Computer Science. I hypothesized that

participants from Nursing would demonstrate a high preference for feeling according to the

Myers Briggs Type Inventory, Computer Science a high preference for the thinking type.

Students and faculty from the three academic disciplines completed a three-item demographic

survey and a 20-item questionnaire that surveyed the thinking-feeling continuum of the Myers-

Briggs Type Inventory (Myers, 1962). Data will be analyzed using analysis of variance and

implications will be discussed.

Confront or Not to Confront: How Self-Efficacy and Power Impact the Challenging of

Prejudice

Christal English & Brandon Millspaugh, Faculty Sponsor: Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Indiana

University/Purdue University at Indianapolis

Research shows that confrontation is an effective way to reduce prejudice (Czopp, Monteith, &

Mark, 2006), yet there are many obstacles to challenging prejudice as outlined by The

Confronting Prejudiced Responses Model (Ashburn-Nardo, Morris, & Goodwin, 2008). The

current study tested how confrontation self-efficacy (CSE), defined as individuals’ confidence in

their ability to challenge bias, and perpetrator power over the potential confronter influence the

decision to confront. 120 participants were led to believe they would be working with a fellow

participant (actually a confederate) and were then randomly assigned to one of two conditions:

equal or lower power (in relation to the confederate). After reviewing an article about a Black

Student Union, participants engaged in an electronic chat session with the confederate as part of

a supposed peer review study. During the chat, they witnessed a prejudiced remark, to which

they had the chance to respond. Contrary to predictions, results showed that participants higher


in CSE were significantly less likely to confront. Surprisingly, CSE was related to avoiding

embarrassment and conflict. These results suggest that people higher in CSE more closely

consider potential negative outcomes or consequences of confronting a prejudiced remark.

Episodic Salutary Experiences (ESE): An Active Ingredient in the Religiosity-Health

Relationship

Elizabeth Erb & Elizabeth Kaiser, Faculty Sponsor: R. Brian Giesler, Butler University

Although religiosity has been found to predict physical health in numerous studies, attempts to

unpack this relationship remain noticeably incomplete (McCullough & Willoughby,

2009). Drawing from recent research on the adaptive effects of different types of positive affect

(e.g., Frederickson, 2002; Frederickson, et al., 2008), our work highlights an understudied type

of positive affective state, episodic salutary experiences (ESE), which refers to spontaneous

episodic feelings of inner peace distinct from one’s usual state. In multiple survey studies, a

majority of participants reported experiencing ESE. Episodes are usually, relatively brief, occur

in a number of religious and non-religious contexts, and are perceived as low in intensity but

high in positive valence. Correlational data indicated ESE is distinct from overall positive affect

but is associated positively with both religiosity and physical health. To address whether ESE

mediates the religiosity-health relationship, a cross-sectional survey study was conducted using a

convenience sample of religious undergraduate students (n = 93). ESE, religiosity and physical

health were assessed using self-report measures. To characterize the strength of ESE, several

other variables drawn from the literature were also assessed and tested as potential mediators,

including health-related behaviors, social support from one’s religious group, meaning in life and

self-regulatory ability. Regression based analyses revealed that of the candidate mediators, only

ESE (marginally) met the statistical criteria for mediation, Sobel Z = 1.75, p=.07, thereby

supporting its hypothesized role.

Flashbulb Memories of Sexual vs Emotional Infidelity in Men and Women

Christine Fisher & Ryan Bable, Faculty Sponsor: John Bohannon III, Butler University

Subjects (N=74) recalled discovering sexual and emotional infidelity as personal flashbulb

memories (FBM). Results suggested that women have FBMs for either type of infidelity whereas

males recalling more from sexual infidelity. Lastly, upset participants were more confident in

their recollections.

The Effects of Alcohol on Relationship Satisfaction

Kayla Green & Amanda Kellar, Faculty Sponsor: Bill Altermatt, Hanover College

The current study examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and satisfactions

within interpersonal relationships. The three mediators examined were trust, jealousy, and

conflict. Students in college who were currently in a romantic relationship took a forty-nine

question survey. We asked them to reflect on their feelings towards their partners specifically

when they were consuming alcohol. We expected to find that those with high alcohol

consumption would have higher rates of jealousy, conflict, and trust issues within their

relationships, due to previous research on these three mediators. These would then reduce

relationship satisfaction. We also expect that those couples who consume alcohol less frequently


will have higher levels of relationship satisfaction. This is because the three mediators (trust,

jealousy, and conflict) will be less negatively prevalent within their relationship.

Effect of Implicit Weight Cues on Moral Judgments

Katie Gustafson, Jenna Cooper & Lauren Cox, Faculty Sponsor: Erin Devers, Indiana Wesleyan

University, Marion

In the past several years, researchers have made great discoveries about the topic of embodied

cognition. This theory states that physical things, like weight, texture, and visual cues, can have

an unconscious impact on people’s psychological perceptions and the way that they interact with

the external world (Grafton, 2009.) Specifically, weight has an impact on a person’s thoughts,

such as their first impressions of people (Ackerman, Nocera & Bargh, 2010), perceptions of a

product (Reinhard, 2010), or judgments of importance (Schneider, Rutjens, Jostmann & Lakens,

2011.) The metaphor of weight in everyday conversation also implies importance, as in the

metaphor “weighing between two options” or a “heavy issue.” Because of this, we believe that

the addition of implicit weight cues will result in a change in moral judgments. We hypothesize

that, when given a survey on the importance of Indiana Wesleyan University policies, students

that fill out the survey using a weighted clipboard will be more likely to believe that the rules are

more important, that harsher punishments should be strictly enforced, and that they have broken

the rules fewer times than those who fill out the survey using a light clipboard.

Tylenol Enhances Memory during Social Rejection

Karina Hamamouche & Elizabeth Jennings, Faculty Sponsor: John Bohannon III, Butler

University

There is a reason that romantic rejection and break-ups give people the "blues". Individuals tend

to describe physical pain and social pain with the same terminology (deWall & Baumeister,

2006; Eisenberger et al., 2003; Way, et al., 2009). There is a neurobiological overlap between

the systems that control physical pain and social pain. During both physical pain and social

rejection, the same brain areas (insulae in the central corticol fissure) are quite active. DeWall

(2011) found that individuals who received a dose of acetaminophen had less activity in the

bilateral anterior insula and bilateral posterior insula during a social rejection

stimulation. Because social rejection increases memory (Pajkos, et al. 2011), if subjects are

given acetaminophen during social rejection then the memory enhancement effect should

disappear. This study aims to determine whether or not reducing CNS pain activity can affect

the storage, retrieval, and encoding of autobiographical memories.

The Effects of Voice Tone on Perceived Masculinity

Levi Hamner & Richard McGee, Faculty Sponsor: Bill Altermatt, Hanover College

The purpose of the study is to identify participant’s ideas on how voice tone affect masculinity.

Male and female voice pitch will be varied and will be heard reading a short script. Afterward,

specific questions pertaining to levels of masculinity and femininity will be asked and rated on a

Likert Scale. The study will be completely online. The amount of time required by each

participant should not exceed 30 minutes. There are no risks other than that of everyday life.


Prevalence of Eating Disorder Symptoms in Endurance Athletes and Non-Endurance

Athletes

Allyson Higgenbottom, Faculty Sponsor: Jeff Kellogg, Marian University

The past research indicates that there is a relationship between disordered eating behaviors and

athletes as compared to those who are non-athletes (Cobb, 2006). This study examined the

prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in the more specific endurance athletes as compared to

non-endurance athletes, hypothesizing that endurance athletes should have a higher incidence of

eating disorders as well as subclinical disordered eating behaviors as compared to non-endurance

athletes, and females overall will have a have a higher incidence of eating disorders as compared

to males. The participants were collected from various endurance competition events as well as

internet forums. Participants were asked to fill out the Eating Disorder Examination

Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and a demographic survey. Females reported higher scores than males

on the subscales of eating concern, weight concern, and shape. Gender was also found to be

significant predictor of scores on the shape concern subscale and the weight concern subscale,

for both subscales females could be predictive of higher scores than males. No effect was found

for endurance and non-endurance athletes on the EDE-q scores.

The Effect of Speech Impediments on Perception

Lyndsey Holzinger & Sarah Helms, Faculty Sponsor: Alexis Green, Hanover College

Human beings navigate through daily life socially through a series of actions and reactions to

others, of which language is a big component. How we perceive another human being effects

how we interact with them, and language disruption can have a dramatic impact upon

perceptions. This study is designed to measure the reported perceptions of an individual with a

speech impediment (disfluency). Approximately 200 participants of both genders will be

randomly assigned to listen to an audio file with or without the disfluency. Participants will be

asked to complete an online survey designed to measure their perceptions of the speaker,

empathy, and past exposure to a speaker with an impediment. Our expected results are that

participants will rate the speaker with a disfluency more negatively than the normally speaking

control condition. Prior exposure is expected to have an effect on the negativity or positivity of

perception, as well as possibly altering empathy measures. Current literature discusses how

people think they might perceive someone with a disfluency. This study examines what those

perceptions actually are and whether these perceptions are impacted by prior exposure.

Religiosity and Spirituality: Closeness in Relationships

Rachel Jacobs, Kathryn Eipl & Allison Cooke, Faculty Sponsor: John Krantz, Hanover College

This study investigates the possible links between religiosity/spirituality and levels of overall

closeness in romantic relationships. Religiosity is defined as the aspects of one’s religious

activity, dedication, and belief (Shafranske & Gorsuch, 1984). Spirituality refers to a belief in a

transcendent dimension within the human experience, discovered in moments in which the

individual questions the meaning of personal existence and attempts to place the self within a

broader ontological context (Shafranske & Gorsuch, 1984). Closeness within romantic

relationships was measured using scales that assessed levels of intimacy, commitment, selfdisclosure,

and attachment. We are expecting to find a statistically significant positive correlation


etween religiosity/spirituality and all of the following: intimacy, commitment, self-disclosure,

and attachment.

Choosing the Wrong Snack: A Paradoxical Effect of Priming Healthy Eating Goals

Elizabeth Kaiser, Katherine Adams & Nate Moss, Faculty Sponsor: R. Brian Giesler, Butler

University

Health is declining in many populations due in part to unhealthy food choices, leading to

increased chronic illness and reduced quality of life. Greater insights are needed into processes

that may allow individuals to achieve healthier diets. In the current experiment, we examined

whether non-consciously priming individuals’ health-related goals could affect food choice.

Participants (n=65) were randomly assigned to complete one of two types of word search

puzzles, a manipulation commonly used in priming research. The puzzles contained either

healthy words (e.g. healthy) or control words (e.g., desk). After completing the puzzle,

participants were invited to select a snack from a box containing a mixture of relatively healthy

(e.g., 100 calorie snack packs) and unhealthy (e.g., Dingdongs) snacks. Afterwards, participants

completed some additional measures, including questions about goal commitment and underwent

a funneled debriefing. Overall, snack choice was unaffected by puzzle type. However, puzzle

type interacted with level of commitment to the goal of eating healthy to predict snack choice (p

=.04). Specifically, participants who were not definitely committed to eating healthy were more

likely to select a healthy snack after completing a healthy puzzle than a control

puzzle. Paradoxically, participants who were definitely committed to eating healthy exhibited

the reverse effect: they were more likely to select an unhealthy snack after completing a healthy

puzzle. The majority of participants did not believe the puzzle had affected their behavior,

suggesting the impact of non-conscious goal activation on health behavior may depend upon

level of commitment to the activated goal.

Investigating the Relationship between Personality Traits and Desire for Social Distance

from Individuals with Mental Illnesses

Emily Lazar, Faculty Sponsor: Joel Martin, Butler University

Studying the stigmatization of individuals with mental illnesses is a crucial step in combating the

social prejudice against them. One frequently measured expression of mental illness stigma is the

desire for social distance. Past research demonstrates that the personality traits encompassed in

the five-factor model (Costa & McCrae, 1992) significantly predict various types of stigma,

although studies correlating personality traits and mental illness stigma are limited. This study

examined the relationship between personality traits and desire for social distance from an

individual perceived as having a diagnosis of schizophrenia. It departed from previous methods

of assessing stigma via hypothetical constructs (e.g. character vignettes) in favor of a face-toface

interaction. Participants received information about a confederate’s past schizophrenia

diagnosis before engaging in social interaction with them (under the pretext of completing a

cooperative crossword task). Participants’ desire for social distance from the confederate was

measured both by observing specific behavioral reactions and by collecting attitudinal reactions

via a social distance questionnaire. In addition, participants’ personality characteristics were

assessed through a self-report inventory of the Big Five personality traits. The study employed a

correlational design with multiple independent (i.e. personality factors) and dependent (i.e. social


distance measures) variables. Consistent with previous research, it is hypothesized that higher

Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion will be associated with 1) less distance

placed between the participant and the confederate, 2) less time required for the participant to

begin conversing with the confederate, and 3) lower scores on the social distance questionnaire.

Data collection is ongoing.

Music and Academics: How Music can Help or Hinder Performance

Kristine Lewis, Leanna Thompson & Karley Reid, Faculty Sponsor: Amy Bracken, Franklin

College

Every student has a studying routine that he believes works for him. However, many students

are unaware of the possible impact distractions may have on their overall performance. Past

research has attempted to uncover how music may hinder performance by conducting

experiments where participants studied while listening to music or silence, and then were tested

over the material in silence. The main limitation was that there was no condition in which music

was played in both instances. Because of this, the results could be attributed to the differences in

experiences, not the distraction itself. The current study builds on previous research by having a

condition where music is played in both instances. Participants will be male and female Franklin

College students. In the course of the experiment, participants will study material in either

silence or music. Then, after a ten minute break, participants will be tested over the material in

one of the aforementioned conditions. The condition (silence or music) will be randomly chosen

for each participant so that some will have silence in both instances (S-S), some music in both

(M-M), and some will experience the two different conditions for studying and testing (S-M or

M-S). Afterwards, participants will complete a survey and be debriefed as to the nature of the

study. Until that time, the importance of music will be withheld to prevent any bias that may

occur. The researchers hypothesize that the S-S condition will yield the best performance on the

test, followed by the M-M condition. It is hypothesized that the participants experiencing

different conditions for studying and testing, S-M and M-S, will perform worse on the test than

the other two groups. The results of this study will add to the body of research concerning study

habits and performance by adding a variable not addressed before as a way to discern whether

poor performance is a result of music or just the difference between the two situations.

Sleep Deprivation and Delusion Proneness: Influence on Dream Bizarreness

Anna Lezon, Faculty Sponsor: Joel Martin, Butler University

While evidence for many types of psychotic experience exists in the general population, dreams

have been a particularly prominent model for hallucinations and delusions in otherwise healthy

individuals. This definition of “bizarreness” in dreams mirrors the description of psychosis in

schizophrenia patients when their psychosis remits (Colace, 2003). Babkoff et al. (1989) found a

linear association – less sleep caused more waking-state hallucinations. While the relationship

between psychotic symptoms and sleep deprivation is well established, most existing data regard

waking-state psychotic symptomology. The relationship between sleep deprivation and dreamstate

psychotic symptomology has not been investigated. Further, no sleep deprivation study

assessed variables (such as delusion proneness) that have been strongly associated with subclinical

psychotic symptoms in waking-state experiences (Garety et al., 2005). I hypothesized

sleep deprived individuals who show a high degree of delusion proneness will also experience a


greater frequency of bizarre dream elements, as compared to those who are lower in delusion

proneness and not sleep deprived. Thus, I hypothesized there will be an interaction effect

between the two variables of sleep deprivation and delusion proneness. To test this hypothesis,

undergraduate students completed measures of subclinical delusional ideation and typical

dreams. Additionally, participants were instructed to record their dreams in a journal for four

consecutive nights and indicate the number of hours they usually sleep per night and the number

of hours actually slept. Data collection is ongoing currently. Accordingly, results will be

discussed while considering relevant theory.

Adult Sibling Relationships and Communications

Kayla Lighty, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Swindell, Anderson University

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived sibling closeness

and frequency and means of communication. Seventy-two students from a general psychology

course from a small Midwestern university completed the Adult Sibling Relationship

Questionnaire (ASRQ; R. P. Lanthier & C. Stocker, 1992) and a 5-item demographic

questionnaire (surveying gender, age, and frequency and means of communication.). I

hypothesized that the perceived quality of the relationship is positively correlated with frequency

of communication. Data will be analyzed and implications will be discussed.

The Implications of Divided Attention for Theories of False Memory

Matt Lindgren, Faculty Sponsor: Mandy Gingerich, Butler University

Prior psychological research has posited two mechanisms by which false memories may be

reduced: the distinctiveness heuristic and impoverished relational encoding. The distinctiveness

heuristic is a method by which one can infer a presented item to be novel due to an absence of

memorial information about the item (Dodson & Hege, 2005). Alternatively, impoverished

relational encoding suggests that studying distinctive information interferes with encoding

relational information (Dodson & Hege, 2005). These processes are not mutually exclusive,

however there is evidence in support of both. This study aims to find support for one or both of

the mechanisms. Participants studied either a list of words as a control, or a list of anagrams to

provide distinctiveness. At test, participants had either undivided attention or divided attention

by being instructed to keep a mental tally of digits from an audio recording of letters and digits.

The results will be used to determine which method of reducing false recall was employed by

participants. If participants used the distinctiveness heuristic, rates of false recall should be equal

between the control group and anagram group when attention is divided, but higher for the word

group when attention is undivided. This is because the distinctiveness heuristic is used when

recalling information, and it is an effortful process that requires attention. If, however,

impoverished relational encoding is the method employed, participants should have higher rates

of false recall if they studied words, regardless of whether their attention was divided or not.

Because impoverished relational encoding happens automatically during the encoding phase,

dividing attention at test would not affect rates of false recall.

Chronic versus Primed Goal Orientation, Reactions to Negative Feedback, and Leadership

Emergence

Cara Lucas, Faculty Sponsor: Alison O'Malley, Butler University


We expanded Heslin et al.’s (2006) work on implicit person theories to see if individuals primed

with learning goal orientation would be more likely to emerge as leaders. We hypothesized that

individuals who are higher on learning goal orientation will a) have more positive reactions to

negative feedback and b) exhibit higher levels of leadership emergence. Participants completed a

two part online survey. Part one included a measure of chronic goal orientation, a random

assignment to the priming manipulation, and a leadership style questionnaire, on which

participants were told they would receive feedback. After completing part one, participants

received bogus negative feedback about their leadership style via email. Next, they completed

part two which contained questions about their current emotions, feedback reactions, and a

leadership emergence scenario. Our hypothesis that participants primed to adopt learning goal

orientation would be more likely to emerge as a leader was not supported. Our priming

hypothesis was not supported, our exploration of how situationally induced goal orientation

interacts with chronic goal orientation to influence leadership emergence paves the way for

research integrating leadership and goal orientation using a modified prime and alternative

measures of leadership emergence.

Expressed Emotion and Attitudes toward Body Image and Food

Toni Maraldo, Faculty Sponsor: Joel Martin, Butler University

In numerous studies over the years, body image and dysfunctional attitudes toward food have

shown to be related to the genesis of eating disorders. Recent research has particularly focused

on the influence that families have on both the development of eating disorders. In general,

higher levels of expressed emotion are often found in families with children who have either

anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. However, there is a lack of research on sub-clinical

populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the influence that expressed

emotion has on body image and eating attitudes, which are often markers of sub-clinical eating

dysfunction. Ninety-nine female undergraduate students from Butler University completed

questionnaires assessing eating attitudes, restraint, body shape, fear of becoming fat, and

expressed emotion. My hypothesis is that a high level of expressed emotion in families is

positively correlated with dysfunctional attitudes toward food and distorted body image. Pearson

correlations showed that indeed there are significant relationships between high expressed

emotion and negative eating attitudes, increased restraint in eating patterns, poor body image,

and fear of becoming fat in college-aged women. Results will be discussed in light of relevant

theory.

The Effect of Birth Order on Preferred Study Environment

Abbie Mason, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Swindell, Anderson University

This study will examine the relationship between numerical birth order and preferred study

environment in college students. Participants from a General Psychology course at Anderson

University will complete an 87-item survey regarding their study environment habits including

playing music, watching television, and having people present. The survey will produce a

“preferred noise score,” with a higher score indicating a greater tolerance for noise in the

environment. It is predicted that oldest siblings and only children will have lower preferred noise

scores than youngest siblings. Data will be analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. Results and

implications of this study will be discussed.


Experience in Sport Performance, the Practice of Imagery and the Effect of Both On

Performance Anxiety

Sarah McGary, Faculty Sponsor: Jeff Kellogg, Marian University

The present study explores the effect that both experience and imagery practices have on precompetitive

anxiety. There were two groups of imagery used: self-focused and other-focused.

Twelve collegiate NAIA female tennis players volunteered to participate in this study and the six

individuals who played singles were used. It was expected that there would be a significant

difference in pre-competitive anxiety between those who had high experience and those who had

low. It was also expected that those who practiced the self-focused imagery task would have

lower levels of anxiety. There was a significant interaction between overall anxiety and the

experience of the player when percent of serves made was the dependent variable. This indicates

that experience does affect anxiety in relation to one’s performance. An interaction also occurred

between experience and self-confidence pre- and post-imagery, indicating that experience had an

effect on an individual’s self-confidence before and after the imagery task. Experience had a

significant negative correlation with both pre- and post-imagery somatic anxiety. Results were

not able to indicate that there was significant difference in performance between the imagery

tasks.

College Females and Body Image: How They Perceive It and Why.

Becca McIlwain, Faculty Sponser: Carrie A. Lloyd, Huntington University

College-age women are notorious for having negative feelings about their body weight. Nearly

50% of college-age women perceive themselves as overweight (Wardle, Haase, & Steptoe,

2006). The current study will explore the facts behind weight and insecure feelings toward being

overweight experienced by college females. It is hypothesized that the majority of college

females will knowingly give a weight lower than what they actually weight and when asked to

pick a picture that is similar to their own body size, they will select one that is larger due to

negative body image. This study also aims to find the most common negative influence on body

image. Body image is operationally defined as the mental image one has for one’s own body.

Perceived body image will be compared to the women’s body mass index (BMI). A survey will

be given to a randomized sample of college females from a small, private university in rural

Indiana. Each of the 50 participants will first be asked her weight, then officially weighed.

Second, each participant then will have her height measured so as to find her BMI. Third, she

will look at a series of pictures depicting various body sizes and then be asked to choose the one

she feels most closely resembles her own body. Fourth, a survey will be given to formulate each

participant’s body image and influencing factors. The results should support previous research

showing a vast amount of unsatisfied college females in terms of body image and give insight

into reasons why these feelings occur.

If You’re Happy and You Know It, You May Be Old: The Positivity Effect of Aging

Alix McLaughlin & Michael Hernandez, Faculty Sponsor: Tara Lineweaver, Butler University

Older adults tend to remember positively valenced information better than negatively valenced

information (the positivity effect) (Carstensen & Mikels, 2005; Mather & Carstensen, 2003). We

examined to what extent attentional or memory processes are responsible for this effect and


whether younger and older adults are equally adept at directing their attention towards or away

from emotional information based on its relevance. Nineteen young and three older adults

underwent two tasks: the Person Task and the Emotion Task, both of which included an N-back

measure (attention) and a recognition measure (memory). We expected that younger adults

would more successfully filter out irrelevant affective information than older adults, with older

adults demonstrating a positivity preference across both tasks. In contrast to expectations, both

age groups performed worse on the N-Back Person task when faces showed a neutral expression

than when faces were happy or sad. On the Emotion N-Back, younger adults showed better

working memory for facial expressions than older adults, independent of whether the expression

was positive or negative. On the recognition tests, older adults and younger adults recognized

facial expressions equivalently, but young adults better recognized the people portrayed in the

photos regardless of the person’s emotional expression during the N-Back. These results do not

reflect a positivity effect in attention or memory, but do suggest that older adults may have worse

working memory for emotional information than younger adults. In addition, older adults may

have been distracted by irrelevant emotional information leading to poorer memory for the actual

faces.

Conversations with Couples: Source Memory and Confidence with Romantic Couples

Michelle Miller & Luke Waggenspack, Faculty Sponsor: Mandy Gingerich, Butler University

We investigated whether the nature of the relationship between individuals influences internalexternal

source discrimination and recognition accuracy. Results indicate that romantic couples

have higher source accuracy and higher confidence in their accurate source judgments than do

pairs of individuals who are unacquainted.

:) :( and >:| Texts: An Examination of Linguistic Devices

Angela Mion & Amber Sapp, Faculty Sponsor: Tara Lineweaver, Butler University

This study addressed whether college students use shortcuts and pragmatic devices differently

depending on the emotional content of the message they are conveying and whether this depends

on gender. Undergraduate participants read three emotional messages (happy, sad, and angry)

and translated each into a text. We qualitatively analyzed the texts using a modified version of

Varnhagen’s (2010) categories. For shortcuts, the use of lowercase was most common, followed

by inclusion of abbreviations and contractions. For pragmatics, participants frequently used

punctuation for emphasis, with emoticons being next most common, but fairly rare. When we

considered the emotionality of the message, pragmatics and errors were equally common across

happy, sad, and angry messages. However, participants were more likely to include shortcuts

when the message conveyed happy content. We also examined the utilization of four specific

emotional techniques. Acronyms were much more common in angry messages than in either

happy or sad messages. Onomatopoeia emerged in both happy and angry, but not in sad

messages. Similarly, content additions appeared in angry and happy messages more frequently

than sad messages. Finally, emoticons were most prevalent in sad messages, occurred half as

often in happy messages, and were rare in angry communications. Although gender was

included as a variable in all analyses, we found no statistically significant gender effects or

interactions. Thus, unlike gender differences in other forms of emotional expression, men and


women did not differ in their utilization of linguistic devices, including those designed to convey

emotion, in their text messaging.

To Text or To Call, That Is the Question: How Texts and Voicemails Impact Emotion and

Memory

Angela Mion & Amber Sapp, Faculty Sponsor: Tara Lineweaver, Butler University

The purpose of this study was to examine the emotionality and memorability of two forms of

computer-mediated communication: text messaging and voicemail. We randomly assigned 61

undergraduates to one of six conditions: happy text, sad text, angry text, happy voicemail, sad

voicemail, angry voicemail. Participants completed a distracter task that was interrupted by a

previously formulated message that the researcher feigned receiving just before sharing it with

the participant. The content of the emotional messages were identical regardless of the medium

(text or voicemail), but in the text condition, participants read the message, whereas in the

voicemail condition, they listened to it. After a 20-minute delay, participants completed an

incidental memory test during which they recalled all of the details of the message that they

could remember. Then, they reviewed the message again through the same medium before

rating its emotional impact. On the memory test, participants recalled more details from the

voicemail than from the text. The emotional content of the message did not affect how well

participants recalled it. For emotional ratings, participants rated the sad message as less

emotional than either the happy or the angry messages. Emotionality ratings were not impacted

by medium. Taken together, these results indicate text messages and voicemails can have a

similar emotional impact on those who receive them, but differ in how well they are remembered

across time. Thus, sending a message via voicemail is preferable to conveying it via text when

the goal is to ensure the receiver remembers it.

Effects of Confrontation Self-Efficacy and Perceived Confrontation Outcomes on Prejudice

Confrontation

Sarah Mohlke & Samantha McManus, Faculty Sponsor: Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Indiana

University/Purdue University at Indianapolis

Previous research has shown that prejudice confrontation, defined as expressing verbal or

nonverbal disapproval of another’s discriminatory actions, is effective at reducing bias (Czopp,

Monteith, & Mark, 2006). The goal of the present study was to determine whether confrontation

self-efficacy (CSE) and perceived confrontation outcomes promote or discourage prejudice

confrontation. Participants (P=110) were led to believe they would be working with a fellow

participant in an online chat session reviewing articles about IUPUI’s response (positive,

negative, or neutral) to protests of discrimination by the Black Student Union. During the chat

session, the computer-generated partner made a prejudiced comment about the BSU. As part of

a supposed separate study, participants were asked to rate themselves on how prepared they felt

to respond to a prejudiced comment (CSE). We hypothesized that participants who are low in

CSE will be less likely to confront, regardless of the perceived outcome and participants high in

CSE should vary as a function of perceived outcome with increased confrontation in the

positive. Preliminary data analysis indicates that individuals who were high in CSE were almost

twice as likely to actually confront the other participant than were those who rated themselves

lower in CSE. Thus far, results do not vary by perceived outcome. This may suggest that


perceived outcome has no effect on a person’s decision to confront prejudice, or, alternatively,

the perceived outcomes may have to suggest greater difference to have an effect.

The Effects of Stereotypes on Decision Making of Athletic Review Boards

Whitney Moore, Will Conoley & Georard Mitchell, Faculty Sponsor: Amy Bracken, Franklin

College

Individuals today hold many stereotypes against people who are different. In many cases these

stereotypes are unconscious, and people unknowingly make decisions using them. There has

been a vast amount of research looking at these unconscious stereotypes in a courtroom and

interview setting. However, there has been very little research looking at stereotypes in regards

to punishment of athletes for rule infractions. The current study was designed to build off of the

research of unconscious stereotypes and explore whether or not it can be applied to the

punishment of athletes for rule violations. Participants will be male and female Franklin College

students. Each participant will read one of two online articles. The article will be about an athlete

who committed a rule violation. The articles will be identical except the name of the athlete; one

will have a stereotypical White name and the other will have a stereotypical Black name. After

reading the article, participants will be asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the level of

punishment they find sufficient for the rule violation. Upon completion of the questionnaire

participants will be asked to identify the race of the athlete which could influence the severity of

their punishments. The researchers hypothesize that participants will choose a more severe

punishment for the athlete with a stereotypical Black name than they will with a stereotypical

White name. The results of this study will add to the body of knowledge about unconscious

behaviors towards cultural stereotypes and the effects they may have on decision making.

Come Out and Play: Participation in Team Sports Improves Working Memory and

Reduces Distractibility

Elyse Morgan, Shelby True & Suneeta Kercood, Faculty Sponsor: Tara Lineweaver, Butler

University

Exercise can affect working memory, but no studies have examined working memory in groups

of individuals who exercise on a consistent basis, like athletes. Beyond simple exercise,

participation in sports requires visual attention, concentration in the midst of distractions and the

juggling of multiple cognitive and physical tasks simultaneously. These demands may be higher

in the context of team sports (e.g., football, basketball) than individual sports (e.g., swimming,

track) due to the larger amount of relevant information present in the team environment. Our

study examined whether team- versus individual-sport participation is associated with

differences in working memory and susceptibility to distraction. Thirty college athletes

participated in two testing sessions two weeks apart. During each session, they completed five

working memory tasks first in the absence of and later in the presence of a visual

distraction. The two groups of athletes performed similarly across most working memory

tests. However, on a visual-spatial task, individual-sports athletes outperformed team-sports

athletes in the absence of distractions, but team-sports athletes outperformed individual-sports

athletes when visual distractions were present. In contrast, on an auditory task, team-sports

athletes outperformed individual-sports athletes in the absence of distractions, but the two groups

performed equivalently in the presence of distractions. These results suggest that team-sports


and individual-sports athletes do not generally differ in their auditory or visual-spatial working

memory. However, team athletes may be better able to filter out visual distractions while

performing a visual-spatial working memory task, perhaps due to the increased cognitive

demands associated with team-sport participation.

Non-target and Target Observers Reactions to Confrontations of Racism: Investigating

Who Does It, Who Sees It, and How It’s Done

Aaron Moss, Faculty Sponsor: Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

Both non-targets (e.g., Whites) and targets (e.g., minorities) are effective when confronting

perpetrators of prejudice. Yet, non-targets often defer to targets when deciding whether to

confront racism (e.g., Danh et al., 2010), and their perceived responsibility for confronting

depends on their beliefs about how targets might react (Goodwin et al., 2008). We investigated

minorities’ and Whites’ reactions to confrontations of racism. 190 participants (154 non-targets,

34 targets, 2 unspecified) read a scenario where the person confronting a racist remark was an

insulted Black man (victim), another Black man (target), or a White man (non-target).

Confrontations also varied by level of threat posed to the perpetrator: high vs. low. Both nontargets

and targets liked confronters more when they were White and when they confronted in a

less threatening way. However, non-targets and targets differed in their perceptions of confronter

bravery. Non-target observers’ perceptions of confronter bravery were not influenced by

confronter group membership or by level of confrontation threat; target observers, however,

perceived White confronters as significantly braver than Black confronters when confrontation

was highly threatening. Further, when non-target and target participants saw confronters as

brave, their own intentions to confront increased. Findings suggest that non-targets likely

overestimate the likelihood of backlash from targets when they confront discrimination on their

behalf.

The Effect of Familial versus Non-Familial Disruptions on Behavior of Patients in a Private

Mental Health Facility

Meghan Mulvaney & Kari Brown, Faculty Sponsor: Alexis Green, Hanover College

Research has shown that families play a large role in the life of a person with a mental disability

(Hammer, Makiesky-Barrow & Gutwirth, 1978). Two important roles are providing support and

structure in the individual’s life. Instability, such as a schedule disruption, causes the individual

to show signs of anxiety or display physically negative behaviors, for example hitting and

biting. Past experience with individuals with mental disabilities such as autism, mental

retardation, and/or Down syndrome leads us to hypothesize that participants will display more

severe behaviors when there is a disruption in their schedule. We also expect to find that the

behavior is intensified/more severe when there is a familial disruption (visitation of a family

member) as compared to disruptions not involving family. We believe this because the

participants do not live with their family so involvement is much more variable and

inconsistent. This is an archival study on the behavior reports comparing the intensity of the

behavior in relation to the type of disruption. We will also take into account baseline behavior or

a day without any disruption. This study assesses 16 individuals in a private mental

facility, which all have a diagnosis of mental retardation, autism and/or Down syndrome. The


data, including behavior reports and houseparent/homeroom teacher surveys, will be coded based

on severity/frequency. Analysis includes baseline behavior, family related disruption, and nonfamily

disruptions. With our results we hope to be able to provide more information to the

caregivers about behaviors and the importance of stable schedules.

Predictors of Positive and Negative Outcomes within a Correctional Facility

Michelle Painter, Faculty Sponsor: Bill Altermatt, Hanover College

This study examines predictors of outcomes for female inmates at a juvenile correctional facility.

The study was an archival analysis of the records of inmates who were housed at an all-girls

maximum security juvenile correctional facility and released during the six months between June

and December 2010. Records from 111 girls ranging from the age of twelve to nineteen were

used. Some of the outcomes examined were how often an inmate was assigned to segregation or

suicide watch, awards they received, and the duration of time spent within the facility. Some of

the predictors included frequency of exposure to treatment programs within the facility, history

of drug use, medications and psychological diagnoses, and family configuration. Some areas of

special interest include the variables that are associated with treatment conditions such as therapy

and being prescribed anti-psychotic medications, and the relationship between family

configuration (e.g., number of siblings, parental custody) and inmate outcomes.

A Threat to Evolutionary Fitness: How much more do you remember?

Sarah Pajkos, Faculty Sponsor: John Bohannon III, Butler University

Evolutionary psychologists use Darwin’s theory to study the mating patterns in humans. Sexual

selection is dependent upon the advantage, which certain individuals have over others, which is

exclusively related to reproduction (Darwin, 1871). Nairne (2007) also applied this to memory

by using word lists related and unrelated to survival. Participants remembered significantly more

words from a list related to survival than neutral words. He argued that the human memory has

adapted to solve problems of survival and fitness. By testing a more real-life situation results

can be better generalized to everyday life. Comparing an evolutionary-related event to a nonevolutionary

event provides a look into the effect of harshness on memory. Participants

completed either a dating or directions-giving simulation. The dating sequence consisted of

viewing a video and then writing a date request. Participants then saw either a harsh fitness or a

polite rejection video of their date request. Participants in the faulty-directions condition

completed the same sequence, but were told the person was a potential student and needed

directions. The faulty-direction subjects also received harsh or polite feedback. After their

feedback, all participants completed a memory test including narrative and probed questions. All

participants came back one week later and completed the same memory test. Primary results

show that participants in the romantic-rejection condition remembered significantly more details

than those in the directions-giving condition; furthermore, those who received harsh feedback

remembered more than those who received polite feedback. This supports the theory of a

separate adaptive memory mechanism.

Linking Perceived Attractiveness and Relationship Status: Categorization in Mate

Selection

Andrew Pennington & Nathaniel Hickman, Faculty Sponsor: John Krantz, Hanover College


This study was designed to focus on the effect which relationship status has on perceived

attractiveness. In order to study this effect, facial images were rated by participants on several

factors including attractiveness on a Likert scale from one to six. An effort was made to disguise

the independent variable of relationship status by asking participants to rate factors other than

attractiveness. In order to further disguise this independent variable, each image was presented

with a random name, date of birth, and birthplace in vignette format. Randomly assigned

relationship statuses were included in this vignette to gain ratings of attractiveness for each

image when coupled with the statuses of “Single”, “In a relationship of at least 3 months”, and

“In a relationship of 2 or more years”. Data analysis then focused on the effect of each level of

relationship status on attractiveness. We hypothesize that those individuals who are presented as

being in a longer-term relationship will have higher ratings of attractiveness than the same

individuals when presented as single due to certain relationship skills being attributed to those in

a long-term relationship.

The Effects of Timed Testing on Test Anxiety

Amanda Perkins, Keyonna Farris & Jenna Passereni, Faculty Sponsor: Amy Bracken, Franklin

College

Previous research has shown that tests that have time constraints tend to lead to anxiety in the

test-takers (Onwuegbuzie & Seaman; 1995.) Anxiety during timed testing can cause lack of

focus and mental block. Previous studies focused on debilitating anxiety. This current study

focuses on both debilitating and facilitating anxiety and whether or not anxiety has an impact on

test performance. Alport’s Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) will be the instrument used to

measure the different levels of anxiety the participants’ experience. Participants will be male

and female Franklin College students. A 100 question math test will be administered; the control

group will have no time limit to complete the test, while the experimental group will have a time

limit of 3 minutes. Following the test, all the participants will take the AAT. It is hypothesized

that the individuals within the timed testing group will experience higher levels of debilitating

test anxiety and lower levels of facilitating test anxiety. Those within the control group will

experience lower levels of debilitating test anxiety and higher levels of facilitating test anxiety.

Civic Engagement among University Students

Jessica Perry & Alexandra Strawhun, Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Lloyd, Huntington University

University students have the greatest opportunity for civic engagement, but don’t always have

the willingness or the passion toward social injustice. Four variables pertaining to civic

engagement will be investigated: 1) the amount of university students’ civic engagement, 2) their

attitudes toward civic engagement, 3) their personal values and religious beliefs, and 4) and why

they do or do not spend time involved in civic engagement through either citizenship or

volunteering. One hundred Christian undergraduate university students will be surveyed to

address these issues. This study will attempt to show a decrease in civic engagement in the recent

history, as well as a disjoint between attitudes, values, and religious beliefs and the amount of

involvement.

Positive Reactivity to Using a New iPhone EMA/EMI “App”


Emily Ragsdale, Charles Bainbridge & Nick Howard, Faculty Sponsors: Tim Steenbergh, Doug

Daugherty, Jason Runyan, Lorne Oke & Brian Fry, Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion

Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) allows researchers to study participants in their daily

lives. Our research team has developed an EMA Smartphone app platform, “iHabit TM ”, that not

only gathers data but may facilitate behavior change as well. The current study assesses potential

ways the iHabit app could be used for Ecological Momentary Intervention (EMI) as well as

EMA. We present data from a study of first-semester undergraduates concerning positive

reactivity to the app. This study employed a randomized, controlled trial to study students’ daily

habits over the course of one semester. Freshmen college students, who owned iPhone or iTouch

devices, completed pretest questionnaires measuring different variables. The experimental group

downloaded the app to their device, which randomly queried them about how much time they

had spent in the previous 20 minutes on various activities. At the end of the semester,

participants completed questionnaires that measured perceived influence of using the app. 43.3%

of participants reported changing behavior in response to the app. Additionally, several

participants noted that using it helped them reconsider their time management. We found

correlations between (1) and time spent socializing and between (2) and recreational time spent

on electronic devices. Our preliminary results indicate that the iHabit app may promote positive

behavioral change; however, individual factors seem to influence its effectiveness as an

EMI. We will conclude by (1) outlining several advantages of the iHabit platform identified in

this study and (2) discussing its possible uses and limitations.

Ecological Momentary (iPhone) Assessment: Sleep as a predictor of freshmen outcomes

Necole Reno & Emily Price, Faculty Sponsor: Doug Daugherty, Indiana Wesleyan University,

Marion

In recent years, sleep deprivation has been associated with poor academic performance, low

academic self-efficacy and poor health among undergraduate students (Cukrowics et al, 2006;

Kelly, 2004; Kelly, Kelly, & Clanton, 2001; Pressman et al, 2005). Though current studies focus

on the relationship between sleep and academics, the time between participants’ sleep and their

self-report are a possible limitation. This study examined sleep habits and academic outcomes of

first-semester college students using a new approach to ecological momentary assessment

(EMA) called iHabit. This involved using iPhones and iTouches to provide more ecologically

valid data. Participants completed pre- and posttest questionnaires measuring academic selfefficacy,

stress, and perceived social support. They then were randomly queried about daily

activities and sleep habits over three weeklong periods. Academic success was measured by

semester GPAs, provided by the institution. Results indicated that the bedtimes of students in the

final week of testing were positively correlated with life satisfaction and academic self efficacy.

In addition, a negative correlation between hours of sleep a night and end of semester GPA was

found. In conclusion, we will discuss how using our EMA approach to collect sleep data can add

to previous findings by (a) providing more ecologically valid data, and (b) allowing the

examination of fluctuations in sleep behavior. Additionally, we will discuss how the iHabit app

might be used in the future to influence positive changes in sleeping habits among

undergraduates.

Flashbulb Memories of Dr. Bobby Fong's Resignation


Jasmen Rice & Alex Lange, Faculty Sponsor: John Bohannon III, Butler University

Prior research has found that the resignation of an organization’s leader can serve as a FBM

event, such as the resignation of Margaret Thatcher (Conway, 1995). In Fall 2010, Butler

University’s president, Dr. Bobby Fong, announced his resignation. The purpose of this study

was to investigate if personal relevance influences autobiographical recollection in addition to

known influences such as emotional reaction and rehearsal (Julian, Bohannon & Aue, 2008). 100

participants (77 students; 23 faculty/staff) completed a questionnaire consisting of a narrative

and a set of probe questions regarding their discovery of Dr. Fong’s resignation and a fact

narrative and probed questions about his resignation. There was an interaction of affect by status,

such that employees of Butler University were more upset than students, F(1,98) = 7.55,p = .007.

In addition, there was an interaction of recount by status, such that employees retold there

discovery stories more than students, F(2,97) = 5.53,p = .005.

The Potential Role of Self-Disgust in Homophobia

Sarah Rodenkirch & Jennifer Kelleher, Faculty Sponsor: R. Brian Giesler, Butler University

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-disgust and

homophobia. Prior research has demonstrated that homophobic individuals experience disgust

when exposed to homosexual stimuli (e.g., a picture of two men kissing). It is possible that the

disgust experienced by homophobics in this context might include a self-disgust

component. This may occur for a variety of reasons. For example, because disgust is a common

emotional reaction to the threat of contamination, homophobic individuals who experience

disgust when exposed to homosexual stimuli may fear that homosexuality could or

has 'contaminated' the self, resulting in (at some level) feelings of self-disgust. To investigate

this possibility, participants varying in degree of homophobia will be exposed to homosexual

stimuli or non-homosexual stimuli. Explicit disgust toward homosexuals will then be assessed,

as well as disgust toward the self, which will be assessed indirectly via measures intended to

capture whether participants are attempting to psychologically distance themselves from the

self. Data collection is currently underway.

Gaps in Memories: Evidence of a Hippocampal Refractory Period

Kendall Sauer & Mike Leider, Faculty Sponsor: John Bohannon III, Butler University

Stress and arousal impact memory. High arousal at the time of encoding also improves memory

(Bohannon et al. 2007). Diamond et al. (1994) investigated how stress affected rats’ ability to

learn and memorize a maze; they found that stress impairs memory by affecting the

hippocampus. Stressful situations cause the body to secrete glucocorticoids, these block

hippocampal long-term and short-burst potentiation, meaning that the neurons in the

hippocampus are stuck in a refractory period. The purpose of this study is to find this effect in

humans. 66 Butler University undergraduates participated in a memory study. Participants were

asked to recall their car accident experience. The free response section was organized in a

timeline structure. Affect was measured by level of stress at time of accident, and participants

were asked if they saw the accident coming. Each section of the free response was scored

separately on five different criteria: activity, location, others present, author’s affect and other’s

affect. Major findings were that across the timeline of the free recall. The mean difference for


free recall was significantly different between during and 30 minutes after the accident.

Memories for during were worse than 30 minutes after. The mean difference between 30

minutes after and 2 hours after was significant as well. Memory was significantly worse two

hours after and after its peak at 30 minutes. Overall, this shows that there is a definitive timeline

of memory quality in a stressful event. In previous studies regarding emotionally significant

memories (Gillot, 2009), high memory quality was at the time of encoding, not 30 minutes

after. These results suggest a possible hole in memory, but it is unclear if it is due to stress or

forgetting.

Marriage Proposals: Happy Personal Memories- Do They Last?

Kendall Sauer & Danielle Vaclavik, Faculty Sponsor: John Bohannon III, Butler University

Flashbulb memories (FBM) are the vivid recollection of details surrounding a highly arousing

event (Brown and Kulik, 1977; Bohannon and Symons, 1992).FBM have extensively been

studied in the traumatic, public sector, like September 11 (Bohannon, Gratz & Symons, 2007) or

earthquakes (Er, 2003). However, just recently there has been a shift to look at the FBM that

occur in the personal private world, like tragic breakups (Cardunuto et al, 2009) and car

accidents (Shaneyfelt et al, 2008). These private, yet highly arousing and consequential events,

have been shown to have contain the FBM canonical features that public, traumatic events have

(Brown and Kulik, 1977).

This study evaluated the positive, private FBM surrounding marriage proposals. It did not focus

on whether a marriage proposal qualified as a FBM, but rather if recollections of a pleasant

private memory are as salient as the traumatic. Participants who were engaged, married, or

divorced (n=103) answered a questionnaire about the memory of their marriage proposal. A

strong delay effect and recounts effect, but there were no significant interactions. These

significant effects are parallel to those effects found in the public sphere (Smolck, Buffalo and

Squire 2000; Brown and Kulik, 1977). In addition, the strong FBM features of the positive

memories of marriage proposals indicate that FBM encoding happens in joyous occasions like

traumatic occasions.

Representations of Gender in Disney Full-Length Animated Features Over Time

Ashley Sims, Faculty Sponsor: Stephen Dine Young, Hanover College

Disney has been making full-length animated feature films since 1937. These films have often

studied been studied because they are a major source of entertainment for many children and

potentially could have an impact on their social, emotional and mental development. Previous

studies have focused on gender role messages from the films, usually finding that they contain

stereotypical messages that negatively characterize females (e.g., female characters who are

overly passive). These previous studies have tended to generalize portrayals over the entire

seventy year history of Disney films and have not looked at how those influential messages have

changed over time (even though gender norms have changed over time). Twenty-one of the fifty

“Walt Disney Animated Classics” films will be coded for the “rising action” and the conclusion

of the films, focusing on male and female heroes and villains. The primary hypothesis is that

stereotypical gender behaviors of both male and female heroes will remain consistently high in

the rising action over time. However, in the conclusion the stereotypical behaviors of the heroes


and heroines will decrease over time (reflecting changes in social attitudes). The behavior of

villains will be consistently stereotypical, and even become more exaggerated in recent times

(reflecting an increasingly negative attitude toward these characteristics).

Temperature's Affects on View of Self and God

Rachel Sims & Jana Hunsley, Faculty Sponsor: Erin Devers, Indiana Wesleyan University,

Marion

Temperature affects everyone and no one would attempt to say they are unaffected by it. Many

studies have been conducted on temperature’s effects on people’s views of others and on feeling

included in groups (Ijzerman & Semin, 2009; Zhong & Leonardelli, 2008). The purpose of this

study was to further examine the effects of temperature on people’s view of themselves and God.

First, the participants held a cold or warm pack for about 20 seconds and then reported their

estimate of the pack’s temperature. Then participants completed a survey that measures their

perception of God and a survey which examines their view of themselves. We hypothesize that

the people that hold the warm packs will think of themselves and God more positively while the

people that hold the cold packs will see themselves and God more negatively.

Investigating the Effects of Environmental Stimuli on Affective Responses and Perceptions

Alisha Sink, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Swindell, Anderson University

The present study investigated the effect of music on perceived exertion and actual physical

performance. Specifically, I hypothesized that participants who listened to music (using MP3

players) while exercising would perform at a higher level and perceive less exertion than

participants who exercised without music. Participants consisted of 8 males and 16 females (n =

22) volunteers from physical education classes from a small, Midwestern university. Participants

took part in 20-minute exercise session on two separate days, one day exercising with music and

the other day without music. At the end of the 20-minute activity periods, participants

completed a questionnaire which measured perceived effectiveness of music on exertion,

perceived exertion, mood, and strategies. Data will be analyzed using t-tests; results and

implications will be discussed.

If You’re Happy and You Know It, Concentrate!

Kristi Summers & Addie Allen, Faculty Sponsor: Tara Lineweaver, Butler University

Mind-wandering involves a situation in which a person’s executive control switches from the

current task to unrelated thoughts. Previous research has indicated that individuals mind wander

more often when they are in negative moods than when they are happier. Our study investigated

the impact of mood on the content of mind-wandering. Fifty-three undergraduate students

completed a mood questionnaire before working on a challenging word search puzzle. During

the word search, participants reported whether they were thinking about the task, thinking about

their performance, or having non-task-related thoughts at six randomly-determined, but fixed

time points. In addition, they indicated whether their thoughts were pleasant, neutral, or

unpleasant. Based on their responses to the mood questionnaire, we divided participants into a

pleasant mood group (n = 34) and an unpleasant mood group (n = 19). Consistent with the past

literature, participants in an unpleasant mood demonstrated more mind-wandering than those in a


pleasant mood. In addition, participants in an unpleasant mood reported more unpleasant

thoughts while completing the word search puzzle than those in a pleasant mood. This pattern

was consistent across task-focused thoughts, thoughts about task performance, and non-taskrelated

thoughts. This study replicates findings from the past literature that mind-wandering is

more common when individuals are in an unpleasant than a pleasant mood. It expands on past

research by demonstrating that mood also affects the content of mind-wandering, with

individuals in an unpleasant mood being more likely to have unpleasant thoughts while

completing a complex task.

Mentoring and its Effect on Emotional Intelligence

Meredith Tarplee, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Swindell, Anderson University

This study investigates the role of mentoring on emotional intelligence in middle-school

youth. Specifically, I am hypothesizing a position correlation between mentoring experiences

and emotional intelligence. Participants will be sixth grade students from a middle school

classroom located in a medium-sized Midwestern city. All participants will be given a definition

of mentoring and their mentoring experiences will be surveyed. Then, they will complete a 20-

item questionnaire surveying emotional intelligence (R. Haskett and D. Neidart, 2006). Data

will be analyzed using correlation statistics and implications of the study will be discussed.

Multicultural Teaching Practices: Student Views about the Effect of Multicultural

Teaching Practices on their Education and Learning Environment

Alexis Taylor & Janalee Redden, Faculty Sponsor: Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Indiana

University/Purdue University at Indianapolis

As the world makes strides toward globalization, the demand for improved methods of

multicultural teaching (MT) at the university level has dramatically increased. With growing

diversity on campus, the demand for more multicultural teaching is at an all time high. Although

the demands for MT practices are high, a recent survey at IUPUI revealed that many faculties

continue to refrain from multicultural teaching due to a fear of backlash from both the students

and other faculty members (Khaja, Springer, Bigatti, Gibau, Whiteland, & Grove, 2011). In an

effort to evaluate IUPUI’s goal to incorporate more diversity, a survey on the university’s MT

practices was distributed online to students that attend various schools on campus (N=4000,

primarily juniors and seniors). The 466 respondents that took the survey were asked to respond

to open-ended questions about their perception of multicultural teaching practices on campus.

They were also provided with an opportunity to offer ideas on how the university could advance

in the area of teaching diversity. The open-ended questions were quantified by creating coding

categories which were pulled from common themes from the responses. Preliminary analyses

suggest that the overall reactions to partaking in multicultural teaching practices are being

viewed as being beneficial to student’s future endeavors. The analyses could alleviate some of

the current concerns of the faculty and increase the percent of faculty that choose to participate in

Multicultural Teaching.

The Discrepancy between Expectations and Reality: Satisfaction in Romantic Relationships

Brandi Tedder & Jessica Miller, Faculty Sponsor: Stephen Dine Young, Hanover College


Romantic relationships are a prevalent component of human experience. There have been many

theories formulated concerning the distinct qualities that lead to satisfaction in relationship

satisfaction (commitment, the ability to resolve conflict, etc.). However, it may be that

satisfaction is determined not just by the absolute levels of these qualities, but also by the degree

to which partners expectations for relationship are met by their actual experiences—relationships

will be satisfying for those individuals whose expectations are met, while in contrast, people

whose relationships are incongruent with their expectations are going to feel dissatisfied. The

present study examines the discrepancy between expectations of a romantic relationship and the

reality experienced by participants in their current relationship. Participants will complete three

questionnaires; one to measure actual experiences in relationships, one to measure expectations

of relationships, and one to measure overall relationship satisfaction. To measure actual

experiences, participants will be asked to rate their satisfaction with eight factors previously

found to be integral to romantic relationships: maintenance behaviors, commitment, quality of

communication, conflict resolution, emotional self-disclosure, affection, relational

certainty/security, role within the relationship, and equity. Participants will also complete a

similar questionnaire that will assess their expectations on each of the above factors. To measure

overall relationship satisfaction, the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS) will be employed. We

predict that analyses will reveal that the larger the discrepancy between expectations and reality,

the lower the levels of relationship satisfaction.

The Effects of Gender and Body Mass Index on Body Image

Emily Thalls, Faculty Sponsor: Linda Swindell, Anderson University

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gender and Body Mass Index (BMI) on

overall body image. Body image was measured using an adapted version of the Body Image

Subscale of the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI; Derogatis, 1975). Sixty-four

volunteer undergraduate students drawn from a psychology class at a private Midwestern

university participated. Participants first signed a consent form, then answered a one- item

survey which queried their history of eating disorders. Those who indicated an eating disorder

completed an eight-item filler task that surveyed school satisfaction. Those without a history of

an eating disorder completed a 7-item demographic survey and the Body Image Subscale, which

consisted of twelve questions. It was hypothesized that (1) women will have a lower body image

than men and (2) there will be a negative correlation between BMI and body satisfaction for both

males and females. Results will be analyzed using correlation statistics and t-test; future research

implications will be discussed.

Talking About My Chronic Illness: Implications for Self Care and Post Traumatic Growth

Jordan Thomas, Leah Walker & Carmen Stockberger, Faculty Sponsor: Heather Adams, Ball

State University

This study will explore the influence of communication with others regarding one’s chronic

illness on women’s self-care behaviors and post traumatic growth (PTG). Previous research with

diabetes and cancer patients suggests that positive communications are related to high self-care

(Braitman et al., 2008), but are not related to post traumatic growth (Cordova et al., 2007). We

explore whether these patterns hold true for women with the sometimes more subtle onset

symptoms of lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. For our research we used three


previously transcribed in-depth interviews. Using the computer program Qualrus, we engaged in

a basic thematic analysis. Results will present connections between quality of communication

with self-care and PTG, supported and expanded by participant’s dialog. Implications for family

members of women living with these illnesses will be discussed.

A Developmental Approach: The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Friendship

Quality throughout College

Cam Thompson, Kendra Burnett, Katelyn Skinner & Jacqueline Kells, Faculty Sponsor: Robert

Padgett, Butler University

The current study sought to examine the relationship between self-esteem and friendship quality

across the college years. We predicted that students who report high friendship quality would

also report high self-esteem ratings (and vice versa). We expect this effect to increase in strength

over the college years. Our other hypothesis was that the number of friends one had would be

inversely related to friendship quality. That is, we believed individuals with fewer, close friends

would report higher friendship quality than those with large numbers of friends. Preliminary

results showed that there was indeed an overall positive correlation between self-esteem and

friendship quality. We also found a significant self-esteem by age interaction where the

relationship between self-esteem and friendship quality was in the positive direction for the

typical junior-and senior-age students, but was slightly negative for typical freshman-age

students.

The Effectiveness of Self-Defense Training

Emily Thompson, Amanda Shoup & Stephanie Oetman, Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Lloyd,

Huntington University

Previous studies, such as Weitlauf, Smith, & Cervone (2000), have been focused on the type of

self-defense tools and actions that individuals learn in self-defense classes, rather than how

prepared they feel to prevent an attack after going through the training. An attack is being

operationally defined as any actual or perceived threat to safety; this can include a physical or

sexual attack, as well as muggings. The current study will look at the effectiveness of selfdefense

classes. Specifically, do females that take a self-defense class have lower anxiety and

higher perception of safety than females that do not take self-defense classes? Females who are

in self-defense classes in Steuben County, Indiana will be a part of a quasi-experimental pre-post

test analysis to determine whether self-defense classes are effective in reducing anxiety and

increasing feelings of safety. Two self-defense classes with 10 participants each will be given a

pre-test before the class and a post-test at the end of the class. A control group of twenty

participants will also be included in the study, and will complete the same pre- and- post- tests as

the experimental group. Participants will be 18 years and older and consist of females only. It is

hypothesized that individuals who participate in self-defense training will feel safer and more

confident in their ability to protect themselves in the event of an attack.

The Impact of Financial Issues on Care of Children with ASD: A Parental Perspective

Sharon Turnbow, Faculty Sponsor: Stephen Dine Young, Hanover College


In the US and many other countries, more children are being diagnosed with Autism Spectrum

Disorder (ASD) than ever before. The treatment, management and diagnosis of ASD all carry a

variety of associated costs for parents as well as society as a whole. This study seeks to better

understand the impact these cost have on parents and their ASD children. Tension has developed

between parents and heath care providers in terms of what the providers will cover and to what

extent. To obtain the parental perspective, an online survey that inquires about parents’ opinions

and experiences will be posted across a variety of websites, blogs and other forms of social

media that focus on ASD. This survey covers what type of care children are receiving, the cost of

this care (by insurance, public health and personal resources), and the impact that financial

considerations ultimately have on care. The goals of this study are to bridge the communication

gap between healthcare providers and parents and to increase support and information for parents

of children with ASD.

High Faith and No Faith Predict Physical Well-Being: More Evidence for a Curvilinear

Relationship between Religiosity and Health in Young Adults

Jenna Wheaton & Haley Cole, Faculty Sponsor: R. Brian Giesler, Butler University

Although numerous studies focusing on religiosity and physical health have revealed a positive

linear relationship between these two constructs, investigations occasionally fail to find this

association. Moreover, evidence for a linear relationship tends to be found most consistently in

older populations and in research focusing on mortality as the primary measure of health and /or

organized religious attendance as the primary measure of religiosity. The present study presents

data from four samples of young adults using several different measures of self-reported health

and religiosity to demonstrate that these two variables often exhibit a curvilinear

relationship. Samples ranged in size from 46 to 233 and were composed primarily of Christian,

undergraduate students from a Midwestern university. Across studies, religiosity was assessed

using different combinations of the following: 1) previously validated, multi-item measures of

intrinsic religiosity, 2) single item, global measures of level of religiosity, 3) frequency of prayer,

and 4) frequency of religious attendance. Physical health was assessed using some combination

of the following: 1) symptom counts, 2) single item global measures of general health, 3)

number of recent physician visits and 4) a single item indicating the extent to which health

interferes with desired activities. In most samples, no linear relationship was found between

religiosity and physical health. However, regression analyses revealed a significant quadratic

relationship in all four samples (p’s < .05). ANOVA based analyses categorizing participants by

level of religiosity were used to show significant differences in health across religious groups,

with the most religious and most secular consistently reporting the highest levels of health

compared to those who were low to moderate in their level of faith. These findings suggest that

the relationship between health and religiosity may be more complex than usually assumed,

particularly in younger populations.

Relationship between Aggressive Driving and Various Types of Music

Ora Whitehead & Karen Davidson, Faculty Sponsor: Matt Ringenberg, Valparaiso University

This research study focused on the relationship between aggressive driving and various types of

music; to see what factors i.e. age, consumption of alcohol, and genre of music affects the

individual while driving. Recent studies have indicated that different genres of music can affect


ones driving. Among other articles that have been read over studies agree that age, consumption

of alcohol, and genre of music does affect the individuals driving. Recent studies have indicated

that different genres of music can affect ones driving aggressiveness along with other, more

established factors such as alcohol consumption and age. Our hypothesis #1 (control): There is

no relationship between aggressiveness due to age, consumption of alcohol, and the genre of

music. Hypothesis #2: There is an increase of aggressiveness while driving due to the, the music

them listening to while driving. Consequently the researchers are hypothesizing that aggressive

driving is related to type of music listened to by the driver.

The survey will include over 100 students, faculty, and staff from Valparaiso University in

Valparaiso, Indiana. Each participant is asked to fill out a questionnaire asking their age, gender,

& alcohol consumption. Then there is going be five surveys they will be asked to fill out after

they listen to a particular genre of music. Students, faculty, and staff who participated in this

study were given a verbal explanation regarding the purpose of this study and to assure them that

confidentiality will be carry out throughout this process. What is going happen is that, the

participant participating are going to simulate while closing their eyes and listen to music, and

see which kind of music makes them feel more aggressive. The music that will be focus on in

this study is going be rap, rock, and heavy mental. Once the participants are finish they will fill

out the questionnaire and see if music, age and alcohol have a correlation to aggressive driving.

The Effects of Listening to High Beat per Minute Music during a Cardio Workout on Body

Satisfaction

Emily Williams & Shelby Henderzahs, Faculty Sponsor: Alexis Green, Hanover College

There have been many studies done that positively associate exercise with an increase in body

satisfaction. Other studies have positively correlated listening to high beat-per-minute music

while exercising with an overall increased level of performance. There has yet to be a study to

link all of these variables together. Therefore, the present study examines the effects of high and

low beat-per-minute music on an individual’s performance relating to his or her body

satisfaction. A total of 17 participants (9 females and 8 males) performed two 10-min cardio

workout sessions on a treadmill. The participants were counter balanced between two different

playlist conditions. The music listened to during each condition was either a high beat-perminute

playlist (147 beats or more per minute) or a low beat-per-minute playlist (120 beats or

less per minute). During each session measures of mile-per-hour and heart rate were recorded.

After each session was completed measures of perceived exertion were recorded using the Borg

Physical Exertion Scale as well as measures of body image satisfaction were recorded using a

gender specific Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire. We expect to find that participants in the

high beat-per-minute condition will have a higher heart rate, run at a higher mph, have a higher

physical exertion, and therefore have an overall higher body satisfaction compared to the low

beat per minute condition. Overall the present study hopes to bring knowledge to an

understudied field of psychology related to body satisfaction and it hopes to give insight to future

Behaviors among Mothers that May Serve as Risk Factors for Postpartum Depression

Audrey Winkle, Faculty Sponsor: Bruce Mac Murray, Anderson University


According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2010), every minute in the United States about eight

women enter into a new chapter of their lives by becoming new mothers or by adding another

child to their family. Women experience a spectrum of different emotions during their journey

into motherhood. While some mothers spend the beginning of their child’s life experiencing

feelings of intense joy, according to the Harvard Mental Health Letter (2011), as many as 10% to

15% of mothers will spend the precious first moments of their child’s life experiencing feelings

of deep depression, known as Postpartum Depression. Postpartum Depression is a serious illness

which causes a moderate to severe depression after the birth of a child. Despite the fact that over

twelve million of America’s mothers suffer from Postpartum Depression, little has been

determined as to what causes this potentially deadly illness. This study seeks to examine the

potential link between the behavior of mothers and the development of Postpartum Depression.

The behaviors in question as potential causes of Postpartum Depression in this study include:

alcohol use, drug use, sexual behaviors, eating disorders behaviors and self mutilation behaviors.

Participants in this study will be selected using a simple random sampling method. Women are

eligible to be chosen for the study after checking in to the Indiana University Hospital Riley

Perinatal Center in Indianapolis, Indiana to give birth. The study will take place over 31 weeks.

Participants will be randomly selected each day for inclusion in the study. Postpartum

Depression will be assessed in this study by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

(EPDS). In this study, Postpartum Depression was defined as the onset of Major Depressive,

Manic, or Mixed Episodes of Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, Bipolar II Disorder

or Brief Psychotic Disorder within four weeks after childbirth. The behaviors of the mothers in

this study will be gathered and assessed using a survey approach. The mothers behaviors will be

measured using the Behaviors Assessment, which was created for this study, as well as by using:

the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ), the Michigan Assessment Screening Test - Drug

(MAST-AD), the Sexual Experience Scale, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-3), and the

Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM). The predicted findings of this study are

expected to suggest that participation in the behaviors in question will have a positive correlation

to the development of maternal Postpartum Depression. It is hypothesized that participation in

alcohol use, drug use, sexual behaviors, eating disorder behaviors and/ or self mutilation

behaviors will put a mother at risk for the development of Postpartum Depression in the

postnatal period. It is also hypothesized that simultaneous presence of the behaviors in question

will contribute to a greater likelihood of the development of maternal Postpartum Depression.

The Effects of Music as a Mnemonic Device on Memory Recall

Rachaellen Wooddell, Anna Tuley & Josiah Wareham, Faculty Sponsor: Amy Bracken, Franklin

College

Past research has shown that music can be an overall distraction to memory. Studies have shown

music to be detrimental to the learning process when there is no connection between the music

and subject material. However, when subject material has a connection to the music, learning

and recall can be improved. The study improves upon previous research by incorporating

elements from prior studies that were suggested to have a positive effect on recall. Past research

suggested that parameters such as slow tempo, steady rhythm, and familiarity produced higher

recall rate. This experiment will link familiarity, rhythm, and melody with memorization of text.

Participants will consist of male and female college students enrolled in psychology courses at

Franklin College. The experimental group of participants will hear a list of unfamiliar words and


their definitions sung on each note of a familiar melody, while the control group simply hears the

words and definitions read aloud. Music in this study will be played in a minor key with a slow

tempo, which past research has indicated results in improved memory. The text that participants

will be instructed to memorize was used in a recent study by Martens et al. (2011). The

researchers hypothesize that the group that hears the sung text will demonstrate enhanced

memory compared to the group that hears the text simply read. The results of this study will shed

light on a possible role for music in memory enhancement.

SOCIOLOGY

Strippers Rights and Safety in the United States

Emily Beatty, Amanda Rychtanek & Madeline Schuttey, Faculty Sponsor: Matt Ringenberg,

Valparaiso University

In the United States exotic dancers are denied their rights to work in a safe and secure work

environment. Strippers are faced with a variety of abuses on a daily basis and struggle to deal

with the negative perceptions and social stigma in their communities. Perceptions of this

legalized form of sexual entertainment are connected to the perceptions of prostitutes but differ

because of the inability for the strippers to have physical contact with the audience. Dancers are

stereotyped to perform the same services as a prostitute. Therefore there is a distinction between

the two. Women enter this area of the sexual industry because they are coerced into believing

they will make a sufficient living due to the perceived unlimited income potential and will be

protected by laws that regulate the strip clubs activity. Women in this sex industry are more at

risk for physical abuse, psychological abuse, verbal threats, and sexual assault that are

understood to be under-reported. Women in the sex industry do not feel safe going to the police

or counseling services which puts these women at risk for suicide, depression, and emotional

trauma, lack of control over their emotions, poverty and a continuous cycle of a lack of

education. The aim of this study was to find a correlation between unsafe work environment and

the negative connotations created by the social stigma in the communities. These findings raise

awareness of the injustices occurring in strip clubs and their effects on the women participating

in this profession.

Love and Family

Paisley Benberry, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

The purpose of this research is to investigate how one's relationship with their mother affects

their marriage stability. The research is quantitative using secondary data from the third wave of

the National Survey of Families & Households. The national sample consisted of 13,007 people

that over sampled Blacks, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans, single-parent families, families

with step children, cohabiting couples, and recently married persons. Previous literature explores


aspects of parent/adult relationships, views on the concept of marriage and family, and

cohabitation and the decision on whether to get married or not. The literature shows that one's

relationship with their parents has an effect on marriage stability and satisfaction. The current

research is important because it aims to add on to previous literature on a topic that is easily

overlooked when discussing divorce rates and the evolution of the concept of family in the

United States.

Language and "Fact-Based" Obstetrical Practices: Exploring Societal Pressures on

Childbirth in a Technocratic System

Emily Bohall, Faculty Sponsor: JoAnn Martin, Earlham College

Individual experiences of childbirth in Indiana are interpreted in regard to the standardized

processes of obstetrical practice in hospital settings. Open-ended interviews with women who

prefer vaginal births, as well as supplementary material from doulas, midwives and other health

care personnel, indicate patterns in the impact of technological practices on interventions used,

readjusting the organization of birth. Narratives of women’s intents and intuitions often conflict

with biomedical narratives of obstetrical practice. The language of persuasion and adaptation are

analyzed, acknowledging theoretical issues in relation to different forms and producers of

knowledge present within the setting.

Filling in the Cracks: Measuring the Effectiveness of First Light Child Advocacy Center

Justin Bradford, Natalie Schmidt, Renee Weisenbeck & Rebecca Fleischer. Faculty Sponsor:

Katti Sneed, Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion

Children must re-experience abuse and neglect as they tell their story repeatedly to social service

workers and law enforcement officers. Child Protective Services and social service workers are

constantly striving to develop methods of investigation which assure accurate evidence

collection and avoid re-victimization. First Light Child Advocacy Center of Grant County is a

key member of a multidisciplinary team including the police department and Department of

Child Services. Their method of investigation gathers information through one interview with the

child rather than multiple interviews. This retrospective, quantitative study will discover if a

difference exists between the prosecution rates of Grant County molestation cases prior to the

implementation of First Light Child Advocacy Center (1999-2003) and after (2004-2008). The

study findings will assist First Light Child Advocacy Center with potential funding, further

research, and community education.

What Did You Do?!: Family and Friends Reactions to College Students' Tattoos

Benjamin Brodie & Kara Taylor, Faculty Sponsor: Elizabeth Whitaker, Central Michigan

University

Tattoos have become more visible in youth over the past few years. While many college students

are anticipating entering the work force and still may be financially dependent on their parents in

some way, many still adorn colorful body art despite disapproval from conventional others. The

normalization of body art has been taking place despite stigmas placed upon visible tattoos,

through this study; we hope to understand the reactions of others to Central Michigan University

college students with tattoos by their peers, family members and co-workers or bosses.


The Relationship between Physical Exercise and Academic Success in College Students

Rachel Brummer, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

This study will examine the effect of a college student's amount of physical exercise on his or her

academic performance. It is hypothesized that the more days a college student exercises during a

typical week, the higher his or her GPA is. Data will be collected via a survey and will ask each

participant to indicate the type of exercise he or she engages in most often, the number of days

per week he or she exercises, and his or her GPA. A probability sample will be taken from the

study population, which consists of undergraduate college students who attend Butler University

in Indianapolis, Ind., by using a cluster sample. Data will be analyzed using SPSS.

College Prerequisites: Racial Sentiment?

J R Bullard, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

Feelings of racial inequality still exist and have evolved into more subtle forms of

prejudices. One category of subtle racism is aversive racism, which includes pro-in-group

feelings such as Whites’ fear and mistrust of Blacks, due to out-group biases (Dovido et al.

2002). The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in students’ racial sentiments in

accordance with their selected college major. This study is an attempt to fill a hole in the

existing literature by seeking to determine if subtle forms of aversive racism are filtering students

into specific college majors. The participants for this study are from a small, private university

and are either first year students or fourth year students, from an array of majors and diverse

backgrounds. The participants completed a survey that obtained their demographic information

for comparison purposes and assessed their feelings of racism using the most recent widely used

racism scale derived by Brigham (1993). Along with the previous literature on successes of

diversity centered educational workshops (Rudman, Ashmore, & Gary 2001), this study will

examine the differences in students’ feelings of racism in the university’s colleges that have

majors with a greater emphasis on diversity versus colleges that have less diversity focused

majors. The main hypotheses of this study are: 1. There is a relationship between chosen college

major and a student’s feelings of racism, 2. Students in more liberal arts related majors have less

feelings of racism, and 3. First year students’ feelings of racism will be significantly less related

to chosen major than those of fourth year students within their respective majors.

Media Representations of the Female Body and its Effects on Female Teenagers

Yunet Calderon, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

The purpose of this research is to analyze the effects of media representation of the female image

in teenage girls and younger generations. Research has proven that the media portrayal of

females depicts an image that speaks of violence, discrimination, sexualization, and inequality;

research also proves that the media influences peoples’ perception of how the world should be

and what is expected from a specific group or gender. Another important point that the research

makes is that these particular ideas are becoming more widely explored within the male image,

but still women are used more often. With this in hand, this research plans to analyze if four

teenage drama television shows portray this same type of images, which in return will influence

its audience. Through a content analysis of these four shows, aspects such as body size, number

of male and female characters, their age, race, body type they fall into, and what is the story line


of each particular episode, I plan on discovering whether or not the four popular shows go along

with the image of women.

Youth Sports and Their Effects on Status Offenses and Crime

Craig Carson, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

The purpose of this study was to determine if youth sports actually decreases the likelihood of

children committing deviant acts. The term youth involves children not yet in high school.

Through a retrospective survey we will find out what kind of deviance is being committed such

as status offenses, criminal offenses, and disciplinary action through school and/or the law. The

participants in the survey involved multiple sports teams from Bellarmine University.

What Motivates College Women to Run?

Virginia Christ, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not a relationship exists between the factors

that motivate college women to engage in running as a routine form of regular exercise and their

perceived body image. A routine runner will be defined as a woman who has been running 3

times a week for at least 30 minutes for the past 3 months or longer. These females will be asked

to complete an electronically distributed survey. The first portion of the survey will measure the

varying motivational factors through assessing an individual’s level of amotivation, external

regulation, introjeted regulation, and intrinsic motivation. The second portion of the survey will

measure an individual’s body image. This study will add to the growing body of literature related

to physical activity and motivation due to the focus specifically on the sport of

running. Previous research has found that differing reasons for engaging in physical activity not

only impact regular and long-term participation in an activity, but also have an impact on the

mental health of an individual. In understanding the motives that drive women to run, one may

be able to better promote adherence to the activity as well as help prevent women from adapting

adverse cognitions towards running.

Does Membership in a Social Greek Organization Increase Feelings of Division and

Stratification Between Members?

Katelin Clark, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

Social Greek organizations are an important part of campus life for many colleges and

universities across the United States. For many campuses, including Butler University, Greek

organizations are portrayed as a close-knit community, where all members get along and

participate as one entity. The purpose of the study is to determine and analyze the relationships

between Greek students at Butler University. This study explores the concepts of community,

competition, and division amongst Greek organizations at Butler. The study will analyze

individual members’ feelings and perceptions of their own organizations, as well as of other

Greek organizations. This study will provide an in-depth look at the complex and varied

relationships between Greek organizations on Butler University’s campus.

High School GPA in Students Living in One Parent or Two Parent Homes


Elizabeth Curry, Ashley Welch & Jessica Stump, Faculty Sponsor: Katti Sneed, Indiana

Wesleyan University, Marion

The educational system is continuously being challenged to meet state standards by making

changes to meet the unique needs of its students. Therefore, this quantitative study will provide

school systems with increased knowledge to better serve their constituents. The purpose of this

study is to determine whether there is a difference in the GPA’s of high school student living in

one parent homes versus two parent homes. Demographic surveys will be distributed to students

in study hall periods at various high schools in a county in central Indiana. Due to home life

stability it is expected that on average student residing in two parent homes will have higher

GPAs then students residing in single parent homes.

The Effect of Anonymity on Anti-Social Responses

Kendall Dillard, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

This study seeks to explore the affect anonymity has on respondent’s tendency to give anti-social

responses to stimuli. The study surveyed students at a private university, with permission from

the institution focusing specifically on students in social science courses.

College Athletes Feelings Towards Abusing NCAA Banned Substances (Alcohol,

Marijuana, Spit Tobacco, and Steroids)- Does Playing Time and Season Make a Difference

in Substance Abuse?

Nathan Driggers, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

The purpose of this study is to determine the most prevalent reasons for drug abuse among

athletes, and their general feelings towards specific drugs. The four main NCAA banned drugs

to be studied are Alcohol, Marijuana, Spit Tobacco, and Steroids. In the past, alcohol,

marijuana, and spit tobacco have been the most widely abused, while steroids have been

considered to be the most advantageous to physical advancement in the sport. The study directs

us towards answering the questions of whether student athletes are more likely to be abused inseason

vs. out-of-season. It will also determine if the amount of playing time a player receives

directly affects their substance abuse behaviors. The study will be conducted using a

convenience sample at a small private mid-western university.

Racial Discrepancies in Sentencing in Relation to Crack and Powder Cocaine

Kendra Dye, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

For several years dating all the way back to 1986 there have been discrepancies between powder

and crack cocaine. There are four different offenses that cocaine can be classified under 1) Drug

Offenses 2) Drug Related 3) Drug Possession 4) Drug Trafficking. In Kentucky these break

down into three subcategories of Possession, Sale, and Trafficking. These specifically carry

either Class B or Class C felonies. These are not as simple as they appear and one of the main

dependents is race, causing the discrepancies. Many state laws are made based off Federal Laws,

so I will look at previous Federal Laws and modify or create a new sentencing law for the State

of Kentucky.


Gender Roles in Popular Adolescent Television Shows

Margaret Hamilton, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

The purpose of this study was to examine four popular television shows geared toward

adolescents and determine the prevalence of gender roles and stereotypes. By identifying the

roles that female and male characters display in these shows, the researcher hoped to discover if

characters continued to promote gender stereotypes. This study was conducted using content

analysis. It is important to examine the current popular television shows viewed by

adolescents. Through this research, the extent to which females and males are exposed to

stereotypical gender roles is discovered. The researcher chose four television shows popular

among adolescents: The Secret Life of the American Teenager, Degrassi, Gossip Girl, and

iCarly. These shows were chosen because they consistently appeared on lists of popular

television shows for adolescents between the ages of 12-18.

Impacting At-risk Youth through Mentoring Relationships

Lauren Hettinger, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

For years, research has been able to pinpoint contributing factors to why certain youth are at-risk

for low academic achievement. These children are victims of a cycle of generations trapped in

the factors of this position such as low SES, single-parent homes, and environmental dangers.

Recently, research has begun to take an interest in at-risk youth who have managed to beat the

odds and reach higher levels of education than socially predicted. One possible influence was the

quality of extracurricular activities that youth can be involved notably one-on-one mentorship

from an encouraging adult. An Indianapolis based organization, College Mentors for Kids

(CMFK), has made it their mission to better the lives of students by matching young students

with a college mentor through weekly activities. This type of mentoring is relatively young, but

society has seemed to place a great deal of trust in it despite the lack of extensive research on its

fruitfulness. CMFK evaluates their programming at the close of each academic year through

surveying the mentees, mentors, teachers, and parents. This study analyzes the responses of the

mentees in how CMFK has impacted their perceptions of education as well as how conclusive

that is in comparison to how the teachers, parents, and mentors identify the effectiveness of the

programming.

The Failure of the Current "War on Drugs"

Braydon Hobbs, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

There are many difficult issues Americans have to deal with on a daily basis. These issues could

be proverty problems, criminal issues, drug abuse problems, or anything in between. These are

problems at the individual level, but United States, as a whole, has problems as well. They deal

with matters that go much deeper than individual issues. A prime example of one of those issues

is the "War on Drugs". Mexico and the United States have been addressing this serious problem

for many decades and things seem to be getting worse. The war, so far, has been accompanied by

bloodshed, chaos, corruption and a total outrage by drug cartels in various cities. The drug

market and drug cartels, in the U.S. and Mexico, have escalated to increasingly high numbers.

The purpose of this research is to show the negativity that the war on drugs has created. It is also


going to look at what college educated students know about the war on drugs, and how the media

is not showing the real causes of the war.

Butler Student-Athletes and Experiences with Alienation

Grant Hunter, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible experiences of alienation of the Butler

student-athlete from the general student population at Butler University. Data was collected

using an online survey, which was distributed through the student-athlete e-mail directory. The

sample population, therefore, consisted of only varsity student-athletes at Butler University, as

recreational teams and leagues were not approached to be part of the study. Variables such as

class year, sport, and time spent a week on sport were compared against responses to questions in

regards to how the athletes label themselves, feel connected to the student body, and how they

spend their free time. My hypothesis is that those student-athletes who have higher time

commitments to their sport will report feeling less connected to the general student population

than those who have lower time commitments. Also, those who label themselves as more of an

"athlete" than a "student" at Butler University will also report feeling less connected as well.

The Effects of Race and Gender on the Viewing of Stereotypes in Film

Adithya Jayakar, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

Racial and gender stereotypes are both large issues within society and these stereotypes are often

portrayed by the media. The film and television industries are two of the largest industries in the

world and are able to help shape people’s opinions about many subjects. There have been many

studies about stereotypes in films and television shows, and many studies on how one’s own race

and gender help form opinions about someone of a different race and/or gender. This study,

however, is to find a link between someone’s race and gender and their views towards

stereotypes in film and TV. Participants in this study were asked to watch ten clips from seven

different films and TV shows and answer the question “Does this clip show a stereotype, yes or

no and why?” Using these answers it should be possible to see if someone’s own race and

gender affects how they view stereotypes in film.

Television Violence and Its Connection to Violent Behaviors in Elementary and Middle

School Aged Children

Dennis Kight, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

Television is one of the most influential media outlets, especially to children who are at crucial

developmental stages. The purpose of this research is to identify, if possible, a link between

violent behaviors in elementary and middle school aged children and violence viewed through

television. This research uses secondary data from many scholarly sources to collect data on

adolescent aggression, television programing, and previous research on the connection between

the two. The second stage of this research involves measuring the collected data and determining

the validity of the connection between violence in the aforementioned subject population, and

violence in television programs. The hopes of this research are to find, if possible, the link

between the two variables, with the intentions of aiding in future research and policies involving

childhood development and violence.


The Effects of the Authoritative Parenting Style: Measuring Academic Success and Self-

Efficacy

Ashley McGrath, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine

University

The purpose of this research is to measure academic success and the level of self-efficacy of

college aged individuals that is a result of being subject to the Authoritative parenting style. The

study requires these individuals to identify which parenting style their parent(s) used, categorized

by three of the four parenting styles developed by Diana Baumrind (1967): Authoritative,

Authoritarian, and Permissive. These parenting styles were developed as means to categorize

similar behavioral characteristics among parents and can be identified using the “Parenting

Authority Questionnaire” (PAQ). Previous research suggests that the 'ideal' parenting style,

Authoritative parenting, has been associated with academic success and higher levels of selfefficacy.

Use of Food Pantries for Low-income Families

Whitney Merrin, Rebecca Kineman & Stephenie Dorsey, Faculty Sponsor: Katti Sneed, Indiana

Wesleyan University, Marion

The Food Stamp Program was designed to ensure that Americans who fell beneath the poverty

line, had enough food to support their families. In reality, however, families on food stamps

regularly rely on additional sources for food. The purpose of this study is to discover the number

of individuals who receive food stamps while simultaneously obtain supplemental groceries from

three local food pantries in Grant County. This quantitative descriptive study focuses on the

details of demographics, as well as, other vital information in order to gain a real picture of those

affected by food shortages. The findings gleaned from this study will enable advocates to

petition for legislative reform. In addition, the food pantries will be more equipped to serve the

needs of the community.

Satisfaction Levels within Nursing Homes: Females and Males

Jessica Miller, Lauren Harris, Sheryl ODonnell & Michael Baldridge, Faculty Sponsor: Katti

Sneed, Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion

With the rising health care costs in geriatrics, administers of nursing homes need to give families

reassurance that their relatives living in these health care facilities are satisfied. The intent of this

study is to compare the differences of satisfaction levels in males and females over the age of

sixty-five residing in nursing homes. The study will explore and compare the difference in

satisfaction levels with the use of a scale completed by residents of selected nursing homes. The

study is expected to provide useful information to health care facilities and the social workers

providing services to elderly individuals. The findings will allow health care facilities and their

employees to determine the best possible care plan for their clients. This will be a quantitative

comparison study that hopes to improve the quality of life for nursing home residents.

Correlations between Juvenile Recidivism and their Living Status in Grant County


Kayla Moore, Jade Tarr, Brittany Webber & Paul Taylor, Faculty Sponsor: Katti Sneed, Indiana

Wesleyan University, Marion

This research study explores different family structures in Marion Indiana, especially that of the

skipped-generation family. These family structures are compared in terms of recidivism rates via

statistics provided by the Grant County Probation Department. While surrounding literature may

lead to the belief that recidivism rates are higher among family structures that have grandparents

as their primary caregiver, the research is inconclusive. Recent studies are showing that any

family structure without two parents is going to suffer (Benda, Corwyn & Nancy, 2001) and in

Marion, this has held true as only 8% of our juvenile delinquents had both parents at home. This

study is dedicated to discovering if the family structure not only suffers from missing parents,

but from having grandparents who have problems of age, money, physical weakness, and in

some cases abuse from the juveniles in their care. This study will assist courts and judges in

determining the least detrimental action when placing children outside of their biological parents

by studying the effectiveness of skipped-generation families, in comparison with other family

structures as they affect recidivism.

Recidivism Rate of Probation

Larisha Reed, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

Criminals who are not considered a threat to society and who have been sentenced to probation

have lower recidivism rates due to community treatment and the ability to reestablish themselves

in society during treatment. The current study analyzes data from the United States Department

of Justice and Bureau of Justice Statics to answer the question: does probation work to reduce

recidivism rates? A survey was given to male and female inmates in local jails before the spring

of 2002 with a sample size of 6,982. Participants had to be currently under-arrest or already in

jail to complete the survey and the research did not have previous knowledge of the participants’

criminal history so the population was not bias. Participants were inmates held in institutions

during the 1999 census of jails plus the jail census after the ‘99 census but not before spring

2002. Two-part process was taken to select the population; the first stage selection focused on

chosen jails and the second selection focused on inmates to participate in the survey.

Commonality in the Perquisition of Casual Sex Partners

Cody Sanders, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

The phrases, "hooking up" and "one night stand" are becoming a part of ordinary language as the

act they describe- casual sex- becomes more popular and seemingly more accepted. Casual

sexual encounters are becoming a more common event, especially with college aged adults

where 7 out of 10 claim to have had such an encounter in the past year. There are factors that

have inevitably lead to the acceptance of engaging in sexual intercourse with an acquaintance or

even a complete stranger, which can be uncovered through content analysis. In addition, trends

are noticable in the way partner selection is carried out when seeking a casual sex partner.

Research and analysis will demonstrate as "casual" and seemingly random as hooking up is

depicted and in many cases understood, there's actually a commonality in the people who

actively seek casual sexual encounters.


ROTC Cadet Social Lives: Who do Cadets Associate With?

Cory Seaton, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

The purpose of this research was to see who ROTC cadets chose to spend their free time with.

By asking specific questions the researcher hoped to discover why ROTC cadets chose to spend

their free time with individuals they chose. The study was conducted using a convenience survey

of bith Army and Air Force ROTC cadets at a public mid-western university.

To What Extent is there a Correlation between Career Choice and the Degree of Life

Satisfaction?

Erin Shannon, Andrea Miller, Leslie Whonsetler & Patricia Hoffman, Faculty Sponsor: Katti

Sneed, Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion

This quantitative study will determine if career choice is correlated to the degree of life

satisfaction experienced at any one point during life. Through the random sampling of one

hundred adults from local department stores, gender differences regarding life satisfaction will

be established. Analysis of the Life Satisfaction surveys will yield participants’ own

explanations that complicate and sometimes even challenge the assumptions about how career

choice correlates with life satisfaction. The importance of this study was to break stereotypes of

career choice that determine one’s outlook on life, where life satisfaction comes from and to

determine which gender experiences more life satisfaction. If this study is successful, it could

eliminate career stereotypes, show how career choice influences satisfaction and identify how

career choice may not affect life satisfaction.

The Profile of an Anti-Muslim Hate Crime Offender

Amanda Skeate, Faculty Sponsor: Curtis Bergstrand, Bellarmine University

The profile of the general individual who commits a hate crime (bias crime or ethnoviolence) has

been researched extensively. In the wake of 9/11 and the related surge in terrorist attacks and

plots, a need has arisen for the profile of an anti-Islam bias crime offender. With the help of the

General Social Survey, a regression analysis was run, using a multitude of different variables

aimed at generating a comprehensive typology of those who would commit hate crimes

specifically against Muslims.

Living Homeless: The Interactions between Homeless Individuals and the Community in

Which They Reside

Lena Walsh & Rachel Okerstrom, Faculty Sponsor: Matt Ringenberg, Valparaiso University

The purpose of this study was to, through personal testimonies of homeless individuals and

surveys of community members (e.g. college students and community adults), asses the public’s

knowledge and views of the homeless population in Valparaiso, Indiana in order to see if there

was a correlation between how the homeless individuals feel they are treated in the community

and how the community views and treats them. It was hypothesized that there will be a

negatively correlated relationship between how the individuals feel they are treated by the larger

system of the community and how the community views them.

Previous studies have uncovered a negative relationship between community members and the

subsystem of homeless individuals. One study analyzes the individual use of an all-night bus


system as a form of shelter and the surrounding community's belief that these individuals are

taking advantage of the bus system; that the system is improperly being used for a night’s sleep,

not to get from one location to another as intended (Cazares and Nichols, 2011). In another

study, Yi Ling Wong stresses the struggle that community members feel on how to treat

homeless individuals, often turning to discrimination (Wong, 2009).

The sample for this study included Valparaiso University students, community church goers, and

general Valparaiso community members. All were given a survey to outline personal views on

homelessness. Another sampling, through surveys and interviewing, was taken from homeless

individuals living in Valparaiso to expose their views on treatment. This was the first study of its

kind in the Valparaiso area. The data will be useful in guiding the community in how to have

successful interactions between the subsystem of homeless individuals and the system of the

community at large. This study will also be useful in improving current services in order to better

meet the needs of people living homeless in Valparaiso.

Valparaiso University Campus Climate Survey: “How Chilly Is it in Valpo?”

Erica Wickstrom & Nicole Hudson, Faculty Sponsor: Matt Ringenberg, Valparaiso University

Institutions of higher education in the United States have a history of racial and sexual

discrimination and oppression. The consequences for unfriendly campus climates are serious;

Gurin found that students of color who experience “cool” climates are more likely to

demonstrate depressed graduation rates and decreased satisfaction of university experiences

(Gurin et. al. 2004). The aim of this study was to holistically assess Valparaiso University’s

campus climate based on an enhanced version of the Univeristy of Toledo’s campus climate

survey. These researchers focused on comparing the results of students who self-identified as

minorities, specifically Black, Latino, Asian, international, and LGBTQ students, with the results

of students who did not identify as minorities. Surveys were administered via e-mail to the entire

Valparaiso University community with an anticipated response rate of 200. Leaders of

multicultural student organizations and VU professors were contacted individually to encourage

students to participate. This is the first time that a campus climate survey has been completed at

Valparaiso University, and also is one of the first surveys of its kind to address multiple levels of

diversity. The results offered unique insights into the experiences of all students, which were

useful in addressing the current campus climate on both micro and macro levels.

Arab-American Opinions of the Arab Spring

Hannah Wysong, Faculty Sponsor: Krista Cline, Butler University

The Arab Spring of 2011 changed that region and the world. This study will explore Arab-

American perceptions and opinions of the Arab Spring through a mixed methods survey. Data

from the surveys will be analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. It will look into how

Arab-Americans view the events and what they think should be done going forward, by both

Arab countries and the United States. These opinions are significant because Arab-Americans

have knowledge of and at least some affinity with the Arab world, but also live in the United

States - a first world, democratic country. Because Arab-Americans have an understanding of

and connection to both the East and the West, how they feel about the changes, and what should


e done about them, could be important information to know as the United States and other

countries attempt to navigate this new world.

VISUAL ART

Art as Propaganda: WPA Posters in Ten Styles

Rachel Anderson, Faculty Sponsor: Elizabeth Mix, Butler University

Art has always been a form of propaganda, but when one looks back at the style of poster used

during World War II in America, it is almost comical what the administration was trying to

accomplish. In their effort to employ Americans, the Works Progress Administration (a part of

FDR's New Deal), employed artists to create posters that told Americans to breast feed their

children or brush their teeth. Although these posters were all created in different styles, their

messages were nearly all absurdly obvious and fairly unnecessary. I've created my own version

of ten posters that were actually printed, using nearly the same language, in ten different styles

ranging from ancient Greece, to Rococo, to Japanese ink drawings, to postmodernism.

Trees

Kaylin Beckwith, Faculty Sponsor: Elizabeth Mix, Butler University

To a person living in an estate, to a person living in a shack, and to the person living in the

streets, a tree is the same object. It is a plant that grows tall, consists of a trunk and branches,

and produces leaves. However, to any one of these individuals a tree can evoke different

thoughts. A businessman may see it as ‘in the way of a new building’. A workingman may see

it for the products created from it, such as lumber, paper, or firewood. Other people might see a

tree as shade from the sun, a producer of a leaf pile to jump in, or a home for various

creatures. When I see a tree, I feel a strange sense of attraction. A tree, to me, is an object that is

sturdy, resilient, and diverse in a world that does not promote such things. For this reason, I

chose to create depictions of trees across cultures, time periods, and styles in visual culture

history.

Heart, Volume 1: An Exercise in Color

Julie Bickel, Faculty Sponsor: Elizabeth Mix, Butler University

The Project Heart is a graphic story; the first volume, which I am presenting for the URC, is 22

pages in length. There are two versions, one in black and white and one in color (the line art and

text remain the same).

The Art The color version was done with Copic markers and a few touches of computer

editing. After studying and experimenting a bit, I learned a few tricks for shading, blending

colors, fixing mistakes, and the differences between coloring large expanses and small details. A

few tips I learned were to work quickly and to keep the page wet—the Colorless Blender marker


helped with that! Dried color means ugly hard lines, whereas wet paper means smooth hues. It’s

a lot like watercolor paint in that regard, and it can also be “reactivated” and “reworked” in

similar ways. Copying one’s work onto regular printer paper with laser toner is also a great way

to ensure one’s original work isn’t ruined. Surprisingly, Copic markers work well on both thick

art board and standard copier paper.

The black and white version shares the same outline as the colored version, but was edited and

completed digitally with a program called Manga Studio Debut 4.0. To give it value and depth, I

added screentones (the shades of gray that, upon closer inspection, resemble newsprint “dots”).

The point of the exercise—coloring it twice—was to determine which, if either, was more

effective at telling the story. I’m inclined to believe it’s the black and white version, as the

colored version can be a little overwhelming at times.

The Story Rebellious high school teenager Gwen is just trying to live her life the way she wants,

without the stupid rules and expectations foisted upon her by others. That includes lying to get

her way. Meanwhile, her guardian angel, Rick, is forced to try to get her to shape up her act, lest

her lies cost her something much more than she’s willing to pay: her soul. But she’s been

ignoring him long enough: is she really worth the trouble? She may not be now that she’s got

the attention of Dorian, the son of Satan himself!

Pembertons

Haley Deiser, Faculty Sponsor: Elizabeth Mix, Butler University

Pembertons Shoes is a custom shoe design business created in 2010 by Haley Deiser. I have been

designing shoes since 2009, but officially opened for business in 2010. Within three years, I have

sold more than 200 pairs of hand-crafted customizable shoes, with Sharpie permanent markers,

through word of mouth and Facebook and Twitter. I am currently working on a website with a

blog.

In 2009, I had my friends sign a pair of canvas shoes. That night, I doodled around their

signatures and created my first pair of Pembertons. I later etched the # 5 on the bottom of the

shoes. The # 5 represents my lucky number, that way I would always walk with luck. College

was going to be the first time my friends and I would be separated from one another. I wasn’t

afraid of losing my friends in college, but more afraid of losing myself. I wanted to take my

friends with me to college, so I did. On my feet. It was my little secret.

In fall of 2011, I designed for indie pop-rock sensation, Walk the Moon. I collaborated with

WTM and designed shoes for them to wear at their Anna Sun Official Music Video Release

Party in Cincinnati, OH. I had my own merch table where I passed out business cards, took

orders had sample shoes. This was my first experience in creating a guys line.

My latest endeavors include designing for a wedding reception. I created 70‘s themed

Pembertons for all the bridesmaids. Now, I am currently working on commercials for my shoes

and I am so excited!


How You See ME

Lindsey Drake, Faculty Sponsor: Elizabeth Mix, Butler University

To the unassuming mind, glasses have but one purpose: enhancing vision. But glasses do not

only make clear the vision of the wearer; those lenses are a two way street. By wearing glasses,

you chose how people see you. Are you intelligent? Stylish? Sexy? Quirky? Colorful? Somber?

Armed with this new perspective, I explored through the past. Assigning adjectives with cultures

and movements, I imagined how our ancestors wanted to be seen. Using mixed media and

graphic design, my exhibit displays glasses that speak for past civilizations and interact with the

audience to help them discover how they want to be seen.

Movie Posters as Art

Eric Ellis, Faculty Sponsor: Elizabeth Mix, Butler University

I believe I’ve always had an eye for design. I appreciate when things are aesthetically and

logically laid out; I detest the use of Comic Sans—those kinds of things. In this presentation, I

hope to present three separate movie posters representative of their respective eras of art history:

postmodernism, abstract expressionism, and surrealism. For each, I employ traits and

characteristics of the era to effectively “advertise” each. I believe it is helpful to imagine

styles/eras of art with a contemporary eye—something to make the intangible/inaccessible

aspects of postmodernism, abstract expressionism, and surrealism more approachable and

understandable.

Doodles on Canvas

Nicholas Smith, Faculty Sponsors: Margaret Brabant & Elizabeth Mix, Butler University

I have always been a "doodler", and never really viewed my "doodling" as real art. I was in a

great art program in high school, and drew/painted many pieces, but these were usually

traditional still lifes and portraits. I was good at painting, but it didn't really satisfy me. After

graduating from high school, I didn't do any visual art for about 3 years, simply because I viewed

it as work and not something that I enjoyed doing. I did, however, continue to "doodle" during

class, something I usually can't help but do.

I enjoy doodling during class because the drawings don't represent anything and they don't mean

anything. It is simply mindless doodling that I do while listening to my professor, with no plan

and no goal. There is never a vision of how the piece will turn out, therefore I struggle with not

knowing when to stop on a particular piece, but I like to stop when I feel it has a nice balance to

it.

These pieces were made after I realized that my "doodles" were actually real art, and that I

should put them on some nicer surfaces other than notebook paper. I encourage the viewer to tilt

your head and look at the art from different angles, as no one way is up. Each piece was created

over an extended period of time, and each was made using several layers of different mediums

including acrylic paint, pencil, ink pens, markers, wood floor polish, heavy gloss, and others.

Art History in a Nutshell


Carly Sobolewski, Faculty Sponsor: Elizabeth Mix, Butler University

I enjoy creating tiny, heavily detailed works of art that play with words and scale. Material that

was covered in my visual culture class inspired this piece, which can be interpreted as paying

homage to (but also as a critique of) the discipline of art history. It was difficult to choose which

art movements to represent, and from those movements which specific works to illustrate.

Ultimately, I chose to create pieces that would be more recognizable and those whose

characteristics I could capture effectively. Starting from the left, the pieces are in chronological

order based on various art movements and styles, ranging from prehistoric rock paintings to

Warhol-inspired pop art. I like a good challenge, and working with a non-traditional materials to

create miniature masterpieces was definitely challenging. It’s art history in a nutshell...literally!

POSTER PRESENTATIONS

Oscar Romero

ANTHROPOLOGY

Kevin Williams II, Faculty Sponsor: Gerald Waite

Oscar Romero fought for peace in El Salvador despite the opposition he received from the

Vatican and the local government.

BIOLOGY

Comparative Analysis of the Late Regulatory Genes (FoxB and Hex) Required for Skeleton

Formation in Sea Urchins

Kayla Ako-Asare, Emily Miller & Saira Tekelenburg, Faculty Sponsor: Laura Romano, Denison

University

Sea urchins are marine invertebrates belonging to the Phylum Echinodermata. Their larval

skeleton is produced during embryonic development by primary mesenchyme cells in a process

known as skeletogenesis. Our lab seeks to understand differences in skeletogenesis between the

ancestral pencil urchin, Eucidaris tribuloides, and the modern purple urchin, Strongylocentrotus

purpuratus. For example, there is a difference in the timing of ingression of the mesenchyme

cells that may be due to differences in the expression of the genes that regulate


skeletogenesis. Our lab has been working to clone and characterize the eight "late regulatory

genes" in the pencil urchin. These genes (Dri, Erg, FoxB, FoxN2/3, FoxO, Hex, Tel, and Tgif)

have already been characterized in the purple urchin. I have contributed to work on FoxB and

Hex. We have cloned these genes and compared their sequences to that of the purple urchin. In

addition, we have designed and tested primers that were used by a collaborator for quantitative

polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a quantitative approach for characterizing gene

expression. Finally, we have prepared RNA probes and performed whole mount in situ

hybridization (WMISH), a qualitative approach for characterizing gene expression. Preliminary

results indicate subtle differences in gene expression that may underlie differences in

skeletogenesis. Future work will provide more information on the molecular basis of phenotypic

variation between these two species of sea urchin.

Physiological effects of Red Bull and Sugar-free Red Bull on Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

Catherine Batz, Faculty Sponsor: Ryan Dombkowski, St. Mary’s University

Energy beverage (EB) consumption has increased dramatically since the US debut of Red Bull ®

(RB) in 1997. In the US, the market for these beverages targets a college-aged demographic,

which prompted the interest for this study. EBs contain combinations of caffeine, guarana,

ginseng, sugars, amino acids, and a number of vitamins. While anecdotal evidence links EB

consumption to various cardiovascular and neurological pathology, the exact physiological

effects of EBs has yet to be established. This study examined and compared the effects of 12

weeks of consumption of two dilutions, 10% and 20%, of RB and sugar-free RB on food and

fluid consumption, weight gain, blood glucose, hematocrit, blood pressure, and cardiac and renal

mass in female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32). Rats consumed 10% and 20% RB at three times

the rate of water or sugar-free RB throughout the experimental period. Sugar-free RB

consistently promoted increased food consumption and resulted in a corresponding increase in

body weight. Both dilutions of RB and the 20% dilution of sugar-free RB resulted in increased

systolic blood pressures at the end of the treatment period. The 20% dilutions of RB and sugarfree

RB both increased renal mass by 19% over controls. Hematocrit, blood glucose, and cardiac

mass did not significantly differ in any treatment groups. Moderate consumption of RB and

sugar-free RB results in physiological changes in appetite, blood pressure, and renal mass which

should be further investigated to understand their role in EB pathophysiology.

Analysis of Transcriptional Job-Sharing between Two RNA Polymerases of Pelargonium X

hortorum

Thomas Bilbo, Faculty Sponsor: Peter Kuhlman, Denison University

Chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacterial endosymbionts around a billion years ago and over

time the majority of their cyanobacterial genes were lost or transferred to the nucleus of the host

cell. In plastids of higher plants, gene expression is dependent on two different transcription

machineries: a nuclear-encoded RNA polymerase (NEP) and a plastid-encoded RNA polymerase

(PEP). Each RNAP serves a unique and crucial transcriptional role, transcribing a specific set of

genes. In the plant Pelargonium, the normally conservative rpo genes encoding the subunits of

the PEP are extremely divergent compared to related species yet the polymerase is still

functional. One explanation is that the job-sharing between the RNAPs has changed dramatically

as a response to this divergence. Here, I present an investigation into the transcriptional activity


of NEP and PEP in Pelargonium. In order to study RNAPs independently, PEP-deficient plants

were generated by means of antibiotics treatment. The most effective treatment appears to be

topical treatment of antibiotics to growing leaf shoots. Initial gene expression profiles for the two

RNAPs are presented.

A Baseline Study of Population Levels of Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans) at Selected Patch

Reefs of the Androsian (Bahamas) Barrier Reef Complex

Aaron Brattain & Lauren Oberley, Faculty Sponsor: Larry Wiedman, University of St. Francis

The population of the Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans) has grown along the western Atlantic sea

board in the US and nearby Caribbean countries over the past 13 years, since they were first

found off the coast of Florida in 1999. The first documentation of them in the Bahamas came in

January, 2005. Within these years this invasive, predatory fish has become increasingly

problematic. Lionfish expansion has more or less followed the Atlantic Current, which spans

from the eastern coast of the United States down to the Caribbean and they have also recently

started showing up in the Gulf of Mexico. This colorful species has been an aquarist favorite and

is known for the poisonous dorsal spines and unusual reproductive cycle. Lionfish release their

young into the open water of the Atlantic Current, doing so allows for the young to relocate to

other areas that thrive with food resources. The rapid expansions of their geographic boundaries

are placing new pressures on local and community fish that are indigenous to the coral heads and

reefs throughout the Caribbean. Preys do not know to fear these ambush predators and larger

predator have not developed methods or a taste for these invaders. This research is phase one of

a baseline study of population counts of multiple locations off the eastern coast of the Andros

Island, Bahamas. Anecdotal data has been gleaned from class journals of students to these

locations during field studies classes at the University of Saint Francis since lionfish were first

noted. These population counts will be continued in future years at the same locations. This will

allow for the determination of whether the population of lionfish are increasing, decreasing, and

at what rates, or are remaining constant. Other concurrent studies at some of the locations will

assist in determining relationships between the lionfish densities and that of other indigenous

fishes at these sites.

Does Leaf and Flower Damage Induce Anti-Herbivore Defenses in Raphanus sativus Petals

and Have an Effect on Female Fitness?

Samantha Case, Faculty Sponsor: Andrew McCall, Denison University

As plants continually interact with herbivores, adaptations of constitutive or inducible defenses

are necessary to maintain fitness. Although chemical defenses have been found in the petals of

Raphanus sativus it is still unknown if they are induced or if they have any effect on female

fitness. In this study, we investigated whether previous damage to leaves by Spodoptera exigua

larvae induced defenses in later flowers. We also looked to see if there was an overall effect of

damage on female fitness. Our results showed that S. exigua larvae that fed on the petals of

previously damaged plants weighed significantly less then those that fed on petals from the

untouched control plants, demonstrating that induction of defense occurs in these flowers. Our

results also showed that experimentally damaged plants did not produce significantly fewer

flower stems than the untouched control plants, suggesting little cost of induced defenses.


Investigation of the Role of the Anaphase Promoting Complex in Regulating Inhibitory

Synaptic Transmission at the C. elegans Neuromuscular Junction

Hitesh Dube, Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Kowalski, Butler University

The human body functions properly due to the nervous system and its specialized cells, neurons,

which communicate via chemical neurotransmitters at synapses. Although much is known how

synaptic transmission occurs, many of its regulatory mechanisms remain unidentified. Previous

experiments identified the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) as a regulator of synaptic

transmission. The APC is a well characterized ubiquitin ligase that signals for cellar protein

degradation; however, its function and target proteins in neurons and at synapses remain

unknown. Using C. elegans roundworms as model organisms, I study APC function in synaptic

transmission by investigating its role at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a specialized synapse

between neurons and muscle cells where a balance of excitatory and inhibitory signaling controls

muscle contraction. Work from our lab has shown that APC activity prevents excessive

contraction at the NMJ, likely by acting in one or both presynaptic motorneuron classes.

Previously, I found that the APC appears to regulate inhibitory signaling, as mutants lacking

APC function behaved similar to inhibitory transmission-defective animals. Preliminary

experiments restoring APC functionality only to inhibitory neurons indicated that APC activity

in inhibitory neurons is sufficient for normal synaptic transmission. Current research is focused

on confirming these rescue studies and using fluorescence microscopy to observe if the APC

localizes to the same parts of inhibitory motorneurons as other essential synaptic proteins.

Information gained from these experiments can be used to understand the APC function at the C.

elegans NMJ and may provide insight into its role in regulating human synaptic transmission.

Water Balance Characteristics Reflect Microhabitat Differences between Two Closely

Related Sand Fiddler Crabs

Sarah Funderburg & Kimberly Lykens, Faculty Sponsors: Matthew Collier & Jay Yoder,

Wittenberg University

Uca panacea and U. pugilator are morphologically similar fiddler crabs that are difficult to

distinguish from each other. Both are active on wet intertidal sand flats and feed on surface

sediments. They are sympatric along the Gulf coast of the United States, but at the southernmost

tip of Florida, the range of U. panacea ends abruptly and U. pugilator continues northward to

Maine. To explore why distribution range may overlap between these two species, we

determined water balance characteristics as an explanation for moisture (habitat)

preference. Briefly, crabs were weighed using an electrobalance for calculation of water loss

rates as a function of temperature based on Arrhenius analysis. There was no difference in body

size (fresh/dry mass) and percentage body water between the sexes or between the two species,

which indicates that water content has not been reduced to adapt to more northern

climates. There was no critical transition temperature where water loss increased rapidly,

implying that these crabs are protected against excessive lethal water loss as the temperature

rises. Whole-body water loss rate was greater, with correspondingly higher activation energy,

for U. panacea (both sexes) than U. pugilator, indicating greater cuticular permeability and

unique requirement by U. panacea for an extreme moisture-rich habitat apparently absent along

the Atlantic coast. We conclude that ranges of fiddler crabs with different water loss rates


overlap because they operate at the microhabitat, not habitat, level, and this is an important

consideration when using these crabs as bioindicators for assessing environmental health.

Influence of Season and Temperature on Capture Rate of Field Mice (Peromyscus spp.) in

Retired Ohio Farmland

Benjamin Hagen & Alec Van Dyke, Faculty Sponsor: Richard Phillips, Wittenberg University

Previous studies in northern latitudes suggest Peromyscus may increase activity during nights

that are warmer, yet several population studies suggest a potential population peak in early

winter. To estimate both population abundance as well as the impact of temperature on capture

probability, we examined capture rates of P maniculatus and P. leucopus in late October and

November to those captured during May, June, and July. Five lines of 11 traps and one line of

10 traps were set 10 meters from one another in study area consisting of forest, forest edge, and

field located in central Ohio. Each trap was opened and baited, (peanut butter and oats) in the

late afternoon and checked at sunrise to determine capture. The results suggest neither

population levels nor temperature impacted seasonal captures rates as no month differed from

any other. Based on over 1,200 trap nights, nightly capture rates ranged from 1.82 to 21.8 %,

with monthly rates ranging from 4.72 ± 1.5% to 7.6 ± 4.2 %. Temperature for capture events

ranged from 2.2 to 30.0 °C, but temperature was not a good predictor of capture rate. Future

studies will examine potential differences among species in activity patterns across seasons and

environmental variables.

An Analysis of White-Crowned Manakin Home Ranges in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Meghan Hennessey & Martin Ventura, Faculty Sponsor: Wendy Tori, Earlham College

Spatial movement patterns can change significantly between individuals of different ages and

sexes. These patterns can be influenced by resource distribution and the interaction with

competitors and potential mates. In lek mating systems, it has been suggested that movement

patterns (i.e., female spatial distribution) can have a strong influence on the clustering and

dispersion of male territories, as well as the evolution of leks. Here we report some preliminary

results of a long-term study in the evolution of lekking behavior in White-crowned

Manakins. Little is known about the movement patterns of this species (particularly during the

non breeding season). We used radiotelemetry and geographic information systems to examine

the movement patterns of 2 females and 2 males (one adult and one juvenile) during the nonbreeding

season in a rainforest of eastern Ecuador. We found that female home ranges can be up

to 4 times larger than male home ranges. Moreover, our results suggest that age may play a role

in individual movement patterns and that juvenile males can have home ranges up to 2 times

larger than adult territorial males. The implications of our results are discussed in light of

previous findings.

Multiple Inseminations of Female Bed Bugs Adversely Affect Water Balance Maintenance

Capability

Derrick Heydinger, Andrew Jajack & Brian Hedges, Faculty Sponsor: Jay Yoder, Wittenberg

University


Reproduction of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, involves piercing of the female

abdomen during insemination by the male paramere, a sharp penile-like organ. Because of the

traumatic nature of this event, significant cuticular damage can result, especially after multiple

matings. To assess the extent of cuticular damage that may occur, water content and water loss

rates were measured in relation to mating frequency through measurement of changes in body

water content in the females after exposure to males in groups of different sizes. A positive

correlation was found between the frequency of mating and water loss rates in females, likely

due to the damage resulting from the insemination event. Water loss rate changes as large as

28% were observed, and the average survivorship was reduced by 22 days in females subjected

to multiple insemination events. Trauma resulting from insemination was determined to be the

sole cause of the changes in water balance maintenance after females that were exposed to males

with no parameres (surgically-removed), females exposed only to females, and isolated females

(unmated) showed no significant changes in body water content. After using a pin to puncture

different body sites, results indicate that survivorship in females is increased by a behavioral

adaptation where the females orient their bodies so that the male paramere punctures the

ectospermalege, a thickened cuticular region that minimizes water loss after

penetration. Further, the alarm pheromones 2-hexenal and 2-octenal prevented any water loss

(i.e., multiple matings), suggesting a possible control method to reduce mating frequency.

Investigation into the Difference in Gender Habitat Selection by Setophaga caerulescens on

Andros Island, Bahamas

Owain Jones, Faculty Sponsor: Larry Wiedman, University of St. Francis

Setophaga caerulescens, or commonly the Black-throated Blue warbler, is a North American

migratory bird species that uses Andros Island, Bahamian as a winter home. The male and

female are visually very different, being defined as two different species when first described for

the bland olive colour of the female. This not the only difference, as it has been evident for many

years that males are far more abundant than the females on Andros Island. To examine this, an

investigation into where the male and female are located in relation to each other throughout

their habitats was performed. Eight males in seven locations and four females in four locations

were identified on Andros Island. Upon recording their time spent in the areas they were

identified, it was shown that males spent the majority of time in the midlevel area of the forest at

approximately ten to twenty-five feet in height. Females split the most of their time between

midlevel and the more dense shrubbery, four to ten feet high, in the same type of habitat. No

males and females were seen at the same time. This investigation then suggests that the females

and males winter independent of each other and two rationales for the difference in numbers can

be stated. The female’s bland olive and abundance in shrubbery can cause for a camouflage

effect, limiting identification numbers. Oppositely, in identifying all males and females possible,

there is a difference in population numbers. This work is aimed to better understand the Blackthroated

Blue warbler and its winter habits. Continuation of this investigation will target

distinguishing between the two rationales obtained.

Screening the Second Chromosome for Dominant Enhancers of the Trio and Abl Mutant

Phenotypes in Drosophila

Eric King, Faculty Sponsor: Eric Liebl, Denison University


Dosage-sensitive genetics is a powerful tool for understanding relationships between genes. By

creating flies with null and hypomorphic alleles, the expression levels of particular genes can be

reduced. We took Drosophila with chromosomal deletions spanning the entire second

chromosome and bred them into the hypomorphic Trio and Abl gene backgrounds. Trio, a

guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, and Abl, a tyrosine kinase, are each involved in a common

signal transduction pathway during the process of axon outgrowth during neuron development

(Liebl et al., 2000). In flies that had a gene deletion in a region having genes involved in the

Trio or Abl regulatory pathway we expected to see a lower survival rate. Performing pupae and

adult counts on these deficient flies in hypomorphic backgrounds, we found several gene regions

and potential genes of interest. Once broad regions of interaction were established, we worked

with narrow subdivisions in order to further close in on which specific gene regions might be

interacting with Trio and Abl. These results will provide insight into a more complete

understanding of axonal growth and has potential to further develop our general model for

protein signaling cascades and cell response.

Investigating the Factors Influencing Migration Orientations of the Wood Frog (Lithobates

sylvaticus)

Mark Magnus, Faculty Sponsor: Rebecca Homan, Denison University

In a study conducted by Homan et al. (2010), it was found that juvenile wood frogs (Lithobates

sylvaticus) dispersed away from their natal pond in a non-random direction each year, but the

direction changed across years. Due to the fact that the study site was a stable environment, the

orientation cues utilized by dispersing juveniles must have had the potential to change across

years. In this study we wanted to test our hypothesis that juvenile wood frogs would detect and

orient toward chemical cues deposited by conspecifics while leaving the pond. We performed Y-

Maze trials in which juveniles could choose to move toward an arm marked by conspecifics or

toward an arm without chemical cues. The results of our study showed that more juveniles made

a choice than did not, meaning our experimental design was effective. However, we were unable

to find any influence of body size, date of capture, or the direction the juveniles were oriented on

the frequency of arm choice. We did find that North-bound frogs significantly chose the positive

over the negative arm and that South-bound frogs tended to do the opposite. The total number of

juveniles captured throughout the season was lowest in the North and greatest in the South,

possibly suggesting a density dependent orientation strategy. By increasing sample sizes in

future years of this study we hope to determine whether these preliminary patterns continue in

years in which the North and South are not the least and most frequent orientation directions,

respectively.

A Preliminary Study of the Secretory Mechanism of the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea

muscipula): Do Carnivorous Plants Have Apocrine or Merocrine Glands?

Caroline Matchett, Faculty Sponsors: Matthew Collier & Kevin Gribbins, Wittenberg University

The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is highly specialized and unique in its method of nutrient

procurement. Flytrap leaves close rapidly in response to prey items coming in contact with

trigger hairs located on the leaf epidermis. Upon closure, glands on the leaf surface secrete

proteolytic enzymes that digest prey over the course of 5-12 days. Although the mechanism of

flytrap leaf closure is well described, the secretory nature of the digestive glands remains poorly


understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the ultrastructure of flytrap leaves and to

determine if they share common features with animal apocrine/eccrine glands. To examine

gland ultrastructure, leaves (N=30), were removed from flytraps immediately after feeding and at

days 3, 6, 9 post-feeding. Samples were cut into 3 equal CS pieces, fixed (Trumps), and

embedded (Embed812). Tissue blocks were sectioned (90nm) using an ultramicrotome and

prepared for normal TEM. Flytrap secretory cells accumulate osmophilic dense materials

apically, suggesting apocrine secretion. Though the cell wall is thin around gland cells it is

improbable that most materials are released in this fashion. Ample evidence was also seen for

merocrine release of materials via exocytotic vesicles. Thus, we hypothesize that flytrap

secretory cells show properties of both apocrine and merocrine secretion. This study provides a

histological mechanism for the exocytosis of both large vesicles and inclusions. Previous studies

concentrated only on enzyme release via the endomembrane system; thus, the present data for

large material release adds new insight to digestion in carnivorous plants.

Energy Efficient Hydroponic Production

Corbett Miller, Faculty Sponsor: Sandra Davis, University of Indianapolis

Hydroponic crop production has been used for many years and it is known to be capable of

producing more crop per square acre over a year than traditional soil based production. One

reason why commercial scale production is not often seen is that the nutrient pumps are usually

run 24 hours a day. With the ever increasing energy costs, this can add up quickly. This

experiment was designed to determine the most energy efficient way of commercial hydroponic

production. Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil) was grown using the nutrient film technique (NFT)

with varying pump cycles. Four experimental groups were grown, each with a different pump

cycle: 1) Group A had the pump running 24 hrs per day; 2) Group B had 1hr on – 1 hr off; 3)

Group C had 1hr on – 1 ½ hrs off; and 4) Group D had 1hr on – 2 hrs off. Each group consisted

of 2; 4’ NFT channels each with 6 holes for individual plants, for a total of 12 plants per group

and 48 plants all together. To eliminate environmental variables this experiment was conducted

in a 76°F interior room with fluorescent lights over each group. All groups drained back to one

reservoir so that pH was maintained between 5.5-6.5 and nutrient strength between 1300-1800

mS/cm. This experiment was repeated three times between November of 2011 and April 7 th of

2012. Growth of plants, harvest weight, and final dry weight was measured in order to accurately

determine the length of time the pumps could be off before it affected the plant’s development.

Energy usage was extrapolated to determine the amount of solar/wind power that would be

needed in order to make a 100% self-sustaining hydroponic greenhouse a reality.

Comparative Analysis of Late Regulatory Genes (FoxN2/3, FoxO and Tgif) Required for

Skeleton Formation in Sea Urchins

Emily Miller, Kayla Ako-Asare & Saira Tekelenburg, Faculty Sponsor: Laura Romano, Denison

University

Sea urchins are marine invertebrates belonging to the Phylum Echinodermata. Their larval

skeleton is produced during embryonic development by primary mesenchyme cells in a process

known as skeletogenesis. Our lab seeks to understand differences in skeletogenesis between the

ancestral pencil urchin, Eucidaris tribuloides, and the modern purple urchin, Strongylocentrotus

purpuratus. For example, there is a difference in the timing of ingression of the mesenchyme


cells that may be due to differences in the expression of the genes that regulate

skeletogenesis. Our lab has been working to clone and characterize the eight "late regulatory

genes" in the pencil urchin. These genes (Dri, Erg, FoxB, FoxN2/3, FoxO, Hex, Tel, and Tgif)

have already been characterized in the purple urchin. I have contributed to work on FoxN2/3,

FoxO and Tgif. We have cloned these genes and compared their sequences to that of the purple

urchin. In addition, we have designed and tested primers that were used by a collaborator for

quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a quantitative approach for characterizing gene

expression. Finally, we have prepared RNA probes and performed whole mount in situ

hybridization (WMISH), a qualitative approach for characterizing gene expression. Preliminary

results indicate subtle differences in gene expression that may underlie differences in

skeletogenesis. Future work will provide more information on the molecular basis of phenotypic

variation between these two species of sea urchin.

The Use of Filamentous Fungi to Convert Human Waste into Consumable Products

Elizabeth Phillippi, Alex Zapata & Blair Mitchell, Faculty Sponsor: Michael Watters, Valparaiso

University

Here we report on the use of filamentous fungi, Neurospora, to reduce human solid waste (feces)

while converting it into fungal biomass which has the potential to be used as a high-protein,

dietary supplement. Although this project was proposed to address two problems inherent to

long-term (greater than one year) space flight: the storage of sufficient food & the management

of accumulated solid waste, it holds the potential to benefit waste management in diverse

situations including livestock confinement operations and sewage treatment facilities. Typically

portrayed as an environmental hazard and source of undesirable odor, feces represent an

untapped resource. Filamentous fungi are natural decomposers with the ability to use this

resource and reduce its environmental impact. Many filamentous fungi are also safe to eat.

We examined fungal growth and composition to determine the conditions which maximize the

rate of conversion of fecal waste into fungal biomass. We compared the effect of the length of

incubation, method of aeration, available surface area, and presence of supplemental salts on

fungal growth and nutritional composition. Rates of conversion and nutritional content were

highly variable, however rates as high as 75% (3.75g of fungus produced from 5g of solid

waste), with fungal protein content up to 50 % were obtained. Additionally fungal growth

reduced the characteristic odor of the media. Some of the primary chemicals responsible for the

odor of solid waste are indole & a range of short chain fatty acids. We present data that the

fungal mass is consuming these chemicals from the media to fuel its own metabolism and thus

acting to eliminate the normally associated odor.

Behavioral Consequences of Eavesdropping in Crayfish

Brandon Quinby, Melody Palmer, Olivia Rivera, Jose Haro & Cody Anspach, Faculty Sponsor:

Vanessa Quinn Purdue North Central

In communication systems signalers send information to receivers and receivers respond in

some manner. Recently, behavioral research has focused on the presence of other observers

eavesdropping on the signalers and receivers in a dyad. In this context, an individual observes

the signaler and receiver and uses this information in future interactions against the original


signaler or another individual. In many species, social interactions play a key role in deciding the

allocation of different resources. Crayfish use aggression as a mechanism to become

dominant. In crayfish, dominance structures and hierarchies are formed by dyadic interactions.

Concerning invertebrates, crustaceans are considered to be ideal models of aggression and

extensive work has provided an insight to the physiological and social effects on

aggression. Previous research has shown that in crayfish eavesdroppers are more likely to lose a

contest after watching an aggressive interaction. This suggests that crayfish are making

behavioral decisions based on the observations made during an eavesdropping event. In this

experiment we set up an interaction arena where two crayfish fought to establish a social

hierarchy, while three crayfish observed the interaction, receiving only visual cues. The three

eavesdropping crayfish were isolated in individual compartments that were built into the

arena. After the first encounter, a second fight was carried out to re-establish social status, in

which one eavesdropper fought the winner, the second eavesdropper fought the loser, and the

third eavesdropper fought a naïve crayfish. This was done to determine if the crayfish were

involved in making behavioral decisions based on observations during eavesdropping

interactions. Our research shows that crayfish with information gained when they observed an

aggressive interaction are more likely to win future aggressive encounters.

Hormonal Consequences of Eavesdropping in the Crayfish Procambarus clarkii

Brandon Quinby, Melody Palmer, Olivia Rivera & Jose Haro, Faculty Sponsor: Vanessa Quinn,

Purdue North Central

Aggressive behavior is speculated to an action of the amine hormone serotonin many species of

crustaceans. In the crayfish Procambarus clarkii exogenous serotonin increases rates of an

aggressive display, the meral spread. Serotonin injection has also been demonstrated to affect

rates, intensity, and duration of aggressive encounters. In our research we examined the affect of

eavesdropping on natural serotonin levels in P. clarkii. Eavesdropping occurs when an individual

observes but does not take part in an aggressive encounter. If eavesdropping provides behavioral

information to an individual we predicted that serotonin would also be altered. We measured

serotonin levels in crayfish that were engaged in an aggressive encounter as well as individual

observing the encounter. Our results show that serotonin is elevated both in the eavesdropping

and interacting crayfish. Thus, eavesdropping can lead to differences in both behavioral and

physiological contexts.

Copperhead Snakes as a Host and the Identification of Host Cues (Kairomones) for Larvae

of Ticks that Transmit Lyme Disease

Benjamin Rausch, Patrick Tomko & Andrew Jajack, Faculty Sponsors: Kevin Gribbins & Jay

Yoder, Wittenberg University

During numerous field encounters with Southern and Northern Copperheads, Agkistrodon

contortrix and mokasen, in locations across eastern United States, we observed larval ticks,

Ixodes scapularis, crawling and feeding on these pit vipers. Larval ticks were attached mainly

between the scales of the head and cloaca, and nymph and adult ticks were rarely associated with

wild Copperheads. To explore chemical cues that immature ticks may use to find snakes, we

determined attraction potentials of larvae to samples of Copperhead and four other snake species'

excreta (feces, uric acid), shed skins, and squalene (common snake skin lipid) in short-range


Petri plate bioassays. Captive snakes had similar temperature, relative humidity, photoperiod,

and dietary histories. Upon contact with snake fecal-treated papers, ticks terminated rapid

crawling, curled their legs, and remained still, with roughly 45% of ticks exhibiting this

arrestment display, as compared to only 8% of resting ticks on untreated papers. Furthermore,

ticks showed little change or movement over one, two, and 12 hours. Similar arrestment by ticks

occurred on uric acid-treated papers without a dose-response. Sheds prompted arrestment,

although not as intensively or for as long a time as exposure to snake excreta. There was,

however, an increase in tick arrestment over time with increasing concentration of

squalene. Thus, excreta and squalene may be strong components of snake host cues in larval

ticks. Because snakes defecate near den sites and are only occasional hosts, cueing in on snake

excreta is likely more important for retaining ticks in habitats where rodent prey are abundant.

Digestive Flexibility in Variable Kingsnake Hatchlings and its Ecological Implication

Benjamin Rausch & Lindsey Korfel, Faculty Sponsors: Kevin Gribbins & Richard Phillips,

Wittenberg University

Studies have shown that the digestive systems of adult snakes have the capacity for up-regulation

and down-regulation, based on feeding habits. This regulation of digestive structures provides

snakes with an ability to conserve energy between prey captures, leading to increased fitness. For

hatchling snakes this process could increase energy preservation that may lead to an increased

survival rate at times of minimal prey captures. To examine the regulation of the digestive

system in 3-month old hatchlings (n=3), we used light microscopy to characterize differences in

luminal histology of the non-glandular and glandular stomach as well as the small and large

intestine between snakes of three types: 90-day fast, 41-day fast and 2-days postprandial. The

non-glandular region of the postprandial snake possessed greater extracellular secretions

compared to the 90-day and 41-day fast, for which no differences were found. The postprandial

glandular stomach contained larger gastric glands as well as greater epithelial hypertrophy. In the

small intestine of the postprandial snake there was consistently superior morphological

development of villi, increased capillary blood flow, larger lacteals, increased intracellular lipid

droplets, and a more conspicuous brush boarder. There were no visual differences in the

histology of the large intestine between treatments. The 90-day and 41-day fasted snakes had

similar histological features of all examined structures. Based on the results of this study, the

digestive system of hatchlings experience the same up-regulation and down-regulation as adults.

Fluctuating Asymmetry's Effect on Fitness Indicators at Varying Incubation Temperatures

in the Variable Kingsnake (Lampropeltis mexicana)

Benjamin Rausch, Chloe Hart, Benjamin Hagen, Derek Metz Stephanie Hurst & Faculty

Sponsor: Richard Phillips, Wittenberg University

The variable kingsnake, Lampropeltis mexicana, occupies a niche with an average mid-year

temperature ranging from 23-32°C. Studies suggest environmental and developmental stress

may increase the asymmetry of bilateral traits therefore indicating low fitness. The goal of this

investigation was to test for possible relationships between fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and

possible fitness indicators (growth rate and frequency of food rejections) between two

temperature treatments (23°C, n=13 and 30°C, n=19), which may invoke gravid females to select

for a specific microclimate to increase hatchling fitness. FA values were analyzed using digital


photographs in Adobe ® Photoshop ® by measuring area (cm 2 ) of 11 head scales and dorsal color

morphology. The absolute value of the FA measurements for both the scales and color were

calculated, removing directionality bias, and summed to quantify each snake with a single FA

measurement. The growth rate (weight gain) and feeding rejections were collected for each

snake for two months post-hatch. The FA between the 23°C and the 30°C treatments was not

significant (p = 0.054). There was no relationship between the amount of FA of each snake and

corresponding growth rates (R 2 = 0.037), as well as for the 23°C treatment (R 2 = 0.16) and the

30°C treatment (R 2 = 0.55). There was also no relationship between FA and frequency of food

rejection (R 2 = 0.017), nor within the treatments of 23°C (R 2 = 0.041) and 30°C (R 2 =

0.11). Based on our results, there was no impact of FA on fitness indicators therefore the amount

of stress induced by the varying incubation temperatures was minimal.

Temperature's Effect on Growth Rate in Hatchling Variable Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis

Mexicana)

Benjamin Rausch, Gracie Winzeler, & Stephanie Hurst, Faculty Sponsor: Richard Phillips,

Wittenberg University

As a poikilotherm, the variable kingsnake, Lampropeltis mexicana, would theoretically select a

niche that comprises of the organism’s optimal temperature. A variation from this optimal

temperature could influence physiological functions leading to a decreased fitness. To

investigate how temperature affects physiological functions and therefore fitness we incubated

eggs from 5 females at two temperatures (30°C, n=19 and 23°C, n=13) until hatch. Then upon

hatching, half of each clutch was placed into the opposite temperature treatment (i.e. 30°C

incubated now into 23°C) to create four temperature treatments (incubation temperature/growth

temperature respectively): 30°C/30°C (n=10), 30°C/23°C (n=9), 23°C/30°C (n=6) and

23°C/23°C (n=7). Each group was fed a frozen-thawed pinkie mouse (pre-weighed, 2±1 grams)

twice a week. The snakes were checked 24 hours post-feed to see if the offer was

consumed. Once a week, prior to feeding, the snakes were weighed (grams) by a digital

balance. There were no differences found between the initial growth rates of the four treatments,

as well as in just the incubation or growth temperature treatments (ANOVA, p>0.05). A

difference was found between the four treatment groups in respects to food rejection (Χ 2 =3,

12.27, p≤0.05) with the 30°C/23°C treatment rejecting 48% of offered mice. Although initial

growth rates do not deviate between the treatments, there may still be an impact on future weight

gain. We recommend long-term studies of growth rate to determine plasticity of optimal

temperatures.

Resetting the Aging Clock of Neural Stem Cells

Jennifer Romine, Faculty Sponsor: Jinhui Chen, Indiana University/Purdue University at

Indianapolis

The U.S. population is aging. Age-related cognitive decline is a major public health

problem. Developing an approach to treat or delay cognitive decline is critical. Neurogenesis by

neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the hippocampus is related to cognitive function, and is

greatly affected by the aging process. The molecular signaling that regulates age-related decline

in neurogenesis is still poorly understood. Here we took the advantage of a transgenic mouse,

Nestin-GFP, to assess neurogenesis and molecular signaling related to age-related decline in


neurogenesis. We found that the total number of NSCs, including quiescent neural progenitors

(QNPs) and amplifying neural progenitors (ANPs) decreased as the mice aged, but more

importantly, ANPs are more significantly affected than QNPs, leading to further reduction in

number and proliferation of ANPs. We further found that the mTOR signaling pathway is

impaired in NSCs as mice age. Activating the mTOR signaling pathway through Ketamine

injections increased NSC proliferation in aged mice. In contrast, inhibiting the activity of the

mTOR signaling pathway by rapamycin is sufficient to reduce ANP proliferation in young mice.

These results indicate that NSCs becomes more quiescent when the activity of mTOR signaling

is compromised in aged mice, and stimulating the activity of mTOR signaling can overcome the

age-associated decline in NSC proliferation. This data suggests that promoting stem cell

proliferation to enhance neurogenesis may be a potential approach for attenuating cognitive

decline in the aging brain.

A Comparison of the Microhabitat Associations of the Meadow Vole (Microtus

pennsylvanicus) and Peromyscus spp. in Prairie and Forest Environments in Muncie, IN

Kathryn Ruhrold, Faculty Sponsor: Timothy Carter, Ball State University

In the Midwestern United States, two genera of rodents, Microtus and Peromyscus, are

geographically sympatric. However, at the local level, they are often found to be allopatric. This

begs the question whether this allopatry can be attributed to these organisms’ selection for

certain microhabitat characteristics. This study was conducted on the Ball State University

Cooper Farm property in Muncie, Indiana. Sherman live trapping for Meadow Voles (Microtus

pennsylvanicus) and Peromyscus spp. was conducted in both prairie and forest environments

from September of 2011 to March of 2012. Data were collected on soil volumetric water content,

ground cover, vegetation density, vegetation height, and litter depth at trap locations where target

species were caught. These same data were collected at an equivalent number of trap locations

where target species were absent. Preliminary analyses suggest that M. pennsylvanius (n = 7)

and Peromyscus spp. (n = 54) do not segregate themselves based upon soil volumetric water

levels, vegetation cover, vegetation height, or litter depth. However, results do suggest that these

species may potentially select their microhabitat based upon the presence of varying types of

flora. M. pennsylvanicus appears to be more abundant in areas with a higher abundance of

tallgrass and a relatively low abundance of forb and woody vegetation (Tallgrass: 72.1% ± 12.4,

Forb: 7.14% ± 3.76, Woody: 6.43% ± 3.57). Peromyscus spp. also appear to be more abundant in

tallgrass habitat, but not to as great an extent as meadow voles. These species also do not appear

to be as abundant in forb and woody environments. (Tallgrass: 48.33% ± 5.94, Forb: 18.15% ±

4.39, Woody: 23.11% ± 5.26).

Investigation of SUMO Enzymes at the Neuromuscular Junction in C. elegans

Kristen Rush, Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Kowalski, Butler University

The nervous system contains hundreds of neurons. Communication between these neurons

occurs through electrical and chemical signaling known as synaptic transmission, which occurs

at intercellular contacts called synapses. During synaptic transmission, chemical messengers

(neurotransmitters) are released from pre-synaptic neurons and bind receptors on the postsynaptic

cell. This signaling is critical for normal nervous system function and is tightly

regulated. One enzymatic pathway that modulates protein abundance and activity in all cells and


that is critical for proper synaptic transmission is the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier)

pathway, which acts by adding small SUMO polypeptide tags to target proteins. Several synaptic

proteins are modified by SUMOylation; however, little is known about which SUMO enzymes

are involved, we are investigating whether SUMO enzymes control synaptic transmission in

Caenorhabditis elegans roundworms at one specialized synapse type, the neuromuscular

junction (NMJ). This synapse involves a balance of excitatory and inhibitory signaling for

muscle control. To date, no SUMO enzymes that function at the NMJ have been identified

despite known SUMOylated synaptic proteins. Using pharmacologic assays and genetics, we are

testing whether any of the SUMO enzymes in C. elegans regulate NMJ synaptic transmission

and the cell type(s) where they act. We have tested requirements for several SUMO protease

genes in NMJ signaling by genetic mutants and RNA interference. Screening of the remaining

SUMO ligase genes and follow-up characterization is ongoing. Since there are many similarities

between C. elegans and mammalian nervous systems, our results may provide important

information related to human neuronal function.

When Does a Queen Become a Queen During Development? Insights from Gene

Expression in a Harvester Ant

Ben Smith & Natsumi Fearnside, Faculty Sponsor: Chris Smith, Earlham College

Queens and workers in the social insects are a textbook example of phenotypic plasticity, where

the adults of these castes differ dramatically in size, morphology, behavior, lifespan, as well as

reproductive and dispersal capacity. We studied the red harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex

barbatus), a species with genetic caste determination, to map when during development the

queen and worker castes begin to differentiate. We collected larvae from colonies of P.

barbatus in Arizona in late June, and transported them to the lab at Earlham College for analysis.

Each larva was weighed and measured, then longitudinally bisected in liquid nitrogen; one half

was used for microsatellite genotyping (to discern whether it was developing as a queen or

worker) and the other half used for assaying gene expression. Genes involved in translating

nutrition into growth (e.g., insulin and TOR signaling pathways) were assayed across larval

development. Several genes show a clear difference in expression between queens and workers,

suggesting a time point during development when the castes clearly are differentiating. Knowing

when the castes begin to differentiate will now allow for more detailed analyses of the genes

involved in making workers and queens different, including an examination of genes potentially

causal in caste determination, i.e., those genes principally responsible for advanced sociality.

Blood Contamination of Used Dental Anesthetic Cartridges

Emily Svetanoff, Faculty Sponsor: Carmen Salsbury, Butler University

Currently, OSHA does not consider used dental anesthetic cartridges as being a type of regulated

medical waste. This position is based on a small study in which a low percentage of cartridges

examined had evidence of visible blood. The objectives of this study were to determine the

levels of blood contamination in/on used dental anesthetic cartridges and to measure antibacterial

effects after exposure to a local anesthetic solution. Involved were1000 used cartridges of three

anesthetic types coming from an oral surgery clinic. Blood testing involved both visual

observations using a dissecting microscope and chemical analyses. Removed from each cartridge

was either 0.5 mL of residual anesthetic solution or a combination of anesthetic solution plus


added saline. All solutions underwent analyses for minute amounts of blood using Hemastix test

dipsticks. Scoring of visual examinations was on a “positive” or “negative” basis. Scoring

included development of a blue color with values varying from “zero” through “six.” Lidocaine

or physiological buffered saline (PBS) was mixed with four types of bacteria for exposure

periods up to 30 days. Decreases in viable cell counts between the two solutions were measured.

Results. Most cartridges (78.67%) evaluated contained lidocaine. Only 7 of the 1000 cartridges

examined contained visible blood. Over 76% of all cartridges contained blood as detected by

Hemastix testing. Exposure to lidocaine over time produced bacterial death rates similar to those

produced by PBS. Levels of blood contamination in the absence of pronounced antibacterial

activity support the position that dental anesthetic cartridges could be considered as a potential

type of regulated medical waste.

Comparative Analysis of Late Regulatory Genes (Dri, Erg, and Tel) Required for Skeleton

Formation in Sea Urchins

Saira Tekelenburg, Kayla Ako-Asare & Emily Miller, Faculty Sponsor: Laura Romano, Denison

University

Sea urchins are marine invertebrates belonging to the Phylum Echinodermata. Their larval

skeleton is produced during embryonic development by primary mesenchyme cells in a process

known as skeletogenesis. Our lab seeks to understand differences in skeletogenesis between the

ancestral pencil urchin, Eucidaris tribuloides, and the modern purple urchin, Strongylocentrotus

purpuratus. For example, there is a difference in the timing of ingression of the mesenchyme

cells that may be due to differences in the expression of the genes that regulate

skeletogenesis. Our lab has been working to clone and characterize the eight "late regulatory

genes" in the pencil urchin. These genes (dri, erg, foxB, foxN2/3, foxO, hex, tel, and tgif) have

already been characterized in the purple urchin. I have contributed to work on dri, erg, and

tel. We have cloned these genes and compared their sequences to that of the purple urchin. In

addition, we have designed and tested primers that were used by a collaborator for quantitative

polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a quantitative approach for characterizing gene

expression. Finally, we have prepared RNA probes and performed whole mount in situ

hybridization (WMISH), a qualitative approach for characterizing gene expression. Preliminary

results indicate subtle differences in gene expression that may underlie differences in

skeletogenesis. Future work will provide more information on the molecular basis of phenotypic

variation between these two species of sea urchin.

Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Mites Prevents Growth of Entomopathogenic, Allergenic,

and Asthma-inducing Fungi: Evidence for a Cleaning Symbiosis

Patrick Tomko, Faculty Sponsor: Jay Yoder, Wittenberg University

The hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) is commonly kept in science classrooms as

an educational tool or domestically as a pet. However, this cockroach carries high levels of

medically-significant molds, and thus is a public health concern, particularly for children. Nonparasitic

mites (Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi) that reside on some cockroaches, clean the

cockroach's surface, removing debris that serves as a substrate for fungal growth. To test this

mite's capacity for reducing fungi that may benefit the cockroach, we measured the lifespan of

cockroaches, with and without mites, that had been challenged with entomopathogenic soil


fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and followed this by external fungus culturing. Results show

that having mites decreased the amount of M. anisopliae on the cockroach's surface and

increased the lifespan of the cockroach by 65%. The major findings are that reducing the

amount of food (dry pet chow) available to the cockroach also decreases body surface mold and

synergizes with having mites to reduce amount of cockroach-associated molds even further and

also shifts the production of molds to ones that are less medically-significant. Increase in

cockroach survival in the presence of mites implies that this is a mutualistic relationship, one that

is conducive for eliminating fungal pathogens for this cockroach that resides in soil in its native

rainforest habitat. A note for keeping these cockroaches in captivity, not removing mites off

cockroaches, feeding the cockroach less frequently, cleaning cages regularly, and hand washing

will reduce the risk of cockroach mold allergy and associated asthma for those who handle them.

Suitability for Release and Establishment of the Red Velvet Mite to Control Aphids and

Scale Insects in a New Geographic Application Based on Short-term Heat Shock Response

Patrick Tomko, Brian Hedges & Andrew Rosselot, Faculty Sponsor: Jay Yoder, Wittenberg

University

Landscaping projects and associated areas become infested with large numbers of red velvet

mites, Balaustium sp. nr. putmani, between early-spring and mid-summer throughout the

Midwestern United States. These predatory mites feed on plant pests, making them ideal for use

as biological control agents. The distinctive observation about these mites is that they

preferentially assemble in areas of direct sunlight and are extremely dry-adapted. To determine a

range of temperatures that may be most effective for this mite to function properly, larvae,

deutonymphs, and adults (active instars) were exposed to one-hour heat shocks of 2°C

increments from 40-54°C at constant relative humidity, followed by behavioral observations to

determine injury after one and 24 hours. Maximum heat shock survival for all stages was quite

high, implying a heightened resistance to heat stress. Major decrease in survival occurred at

42 o C for larvae, 50 o C for deutonymphs, and 52 o C for adults. High temperature exposure caused

trauma and injury to the mites, but deutonymphs and adults were able to recover from this injury

and survive. In contrast, larvae at these temperatures lacked the ability to recover from heatinduced

injury and subsequently died, and larval death rates increased with increasing heat. The

success of red mites in the Midwest is attributed to a cooler spring that permits establishment of

larvae, followed by a period of heat and drought during summer, which is conducive to

adults. We conclude that red velvet mites could potentially be imported into hot, dry climates for

classical biological control programs for plant pests.

Beneficial Fungal Associates of Bee (Apis mellifera) Hives Exhibit Varied Response to

Fungicide Treatment: Implications for Increased Occurrence of Chalkbrood and

Stonebrood Infestation

Patrick Tomko, Andrew Jajack & Brian Hedges, Faculty Sponsor: Jay Yoder, Wittenberg

University

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies rely on fungal associates that reside inside the comb to

process stored pollen into the usable protein source for developing larvae, bee bread. Several of

these fungal associates exhibit antimycotic properties, and thus may also serve a defensive role

against fungal pathogen, chalkbrood (Ascophaera apis) and stonebrood (Aspergillus flavus). To


analyze the effectiveness of fungi as natural regulators of honey bee fungal pathogens, 13 fungi

recovered from bee bread were examined by paired competition fungus culture. Culturing was

done on bee bread supplemented nonnutritive agar at 30 o C, 100% RH, and in darkness to mimic

bee colony conditions. Results are consistent with the view that the fungus that colonizes a

substrate first is the one that predominates, featuring lower radial growth rates and reduced

conidial output by hoarding resources that limit competition. This growth competition, coupled

with the antimycotic properties of beneficial fungal associates, suggest that these fungi may, in

fact, serve a defensive role in the hive. Following these findings, the fungal isolates were then

cultured onto potato dextrose agar that had been treated with serial dilutions of Pristine ®

fungicide (pyraclostrobin and boscalid) in order to determine the possible effects of fungicide

treatment on the mycofloral balance within the honey bee hive. Results show a widely-varying

response to treatment by the hive associates, suggesting that fungicide treatment could have a

negative effect on colony health by altering the composition of mycoflora that bees use for food

processing, as well as defense against fungal pathogens.

Vine Distribution in a Temperate Forest: Patterns of Virginia Creeper and Wild Grape

Danny Wetli & Scott Meyer, Faculty Sponsors: Vanessa Fox & Bruce Serlin, DePauw

University

Most temperate studies focusing on vine presence and distribution have been in southern

forests. We conducted a study of vine distribution within the DePauw University Nature Park, a

northern wooded area. Within the Nature Park an approximately 3 hectare study site was

selected that was found to contain 5683 trees. Twenty six species of trees were identified and

their locations plotted using ArcGIS. Trees under 8 cm. in diameter were not included in our

analyses. Species distribution showed no distinct pattern. Given the apparent random tree

species distribution, we set out to determine whether the two predominant vine species, Virginia

creeper and wild grape, distributions were also random. Trees within the study site were scored

for presence or absence of vine, along with the tree diameter. Results suggest that Virginia

creeper does not inhabit sugar maple frequently, despite it being the dominant tree species in the

study site. It was also found that grape tends to avoid sassafras. In contrast, both these vines are

found more often within the canopies of walnut and cherry. Our question, why do vines prefer to

grow on some tree species more than others, remains unanswered. Contributing factors may

include bark texture and chemistry, branching pattern and height of trees, as well as canopy

structure. Future experiments will address these factors.

Evidence for the Impact of Reactive Oxygen Species on Branch Density Homeostasis in

Neurospora crassa

Alex Zapata, Tayler Grashel & Jacob Yablonowski, Faculty Sponsor: Michael Watters,

Valparaiso University

In preliminary screens, several functions, most notably, genes involved in the control of reactive

oxygen species (ROS), were identified as playing a role in the process of growth rate

compensation of branch density. The maintenance of branch density under growth at various

temperatures was examined in a selection of mutants in genes known to be important in the

control of ROS. In all ROS control mutants tested, growth was shown to branch tighter when

grown at higher temperatures (which result in faster growth rates) and looser when grown at


lower temperatures (which results in slower growth rates). This can be contrasted with wild-type

Neurospora which branches at the same density under both conditions. We also tested the

impact of environmental agents which lower the concentration of ROS on branching. In tests on

wild type Neurospora, water soluble anti-oxidants (reducing agents), Ascorbic Acid and

Glutathione produced unusual branching patterns. While normal branching shows a gamma

distribution with a single peak, hypha exposed to Ascorbic Acid or Glutathione display a

distribution of branching with two clear maxima. They show an increase in both very closely

spaced branching as well as an increase in more distantly spaced branching.

Identifying the Role of Drosophila Gene Sequoia on Larval Behavior Changes

Yan Zhang, Faculty Sponsor: Eric Liebl, Denison University

Appropriate axon and dendrite morphogenesis is essential for neuronal development in

Drosophila. Development of the intricate network of neuron pathways and synaptic connections

requires complex interactions between molecular signals. Abnormality in neurogenesis may

result in phenotypic changes in animal behaviors. Sequoia is a neural nuclear protein containing

two putative zinc fingers as DNA binding domains. Previous studies reported that sequoia has a

role in dendrite development, axonal targeting of photoreceptor cells and ganglionic branches of

trachea. Our study found a neomorphic mutation of sequoia (mutation 9.17) acted as a dominant

enhancer of the trio hypomorphic mutant phenotype in Drosophila. Interestingly, the survivor

rate of sequoia / trio mutant alleles was not statistically different from that of wild-type alleles

during larvae stage. However, the survival rate of sequoia / trio mutant alleles dropped

dramatically during pupae stage and adult stage. This result indicates sequoia and trio genes are

important for neural development during the larvae stage of Drosophila. We predict there might

be a connection between larvae behavior switch regulated by nervous system and the mutation of

sequoia gene. An animal behavior study is being conducted on the sequoia / trio mutant

Drosophila larvae.

BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

Anderson University Alumni Association Member Study

Andrew Harper & Brett Hollenbeck, Faculty Sponsor: Larry Seibert, Anderson University

University alumni associations are constantly looking for ways to stay in touch with their alumni

and receive larger donations. This study examines the relationship between Anderson University

and its alumni.There is a positive correlation between the strength of the connection that

respondents feel they have with AU, and a number of outcomes - the amount of donations, the

recency of donations, their likelihood to recommend the University to prospective students, their

homecoming attendance, and their overall rating of the Alumni Association. Respondents who

participate in networking with students and other Alums are more likely to feel a strong

connection to the University than those who do not participate in these activities. However, a

large percentage of those who feel a strong connection to the University do not feel that

networking is a prerequisite to having a strong connection with the University. The perception of

the experience that the Anderson University Alumni Association delivers is driven by three key


factors: (1) networking events, (2) the Alumni Association website, and (3) Signatures.

Facebook is the most widely used social medium for respondents to keep up with Alumni news.

This study provides valuable insights about alumni engagement that will enable universities to

determine the best ways to increase financial giving through alumni.

CHEMISTRY

New Neutral Ligands for Transition Metal Catalysis in Aqueous Media

Haley Armstrong & Lindsay Wiener, Faculty Sponsor: Bradley Wile, Ohio Northern University

This poster will describe recent results in the synthesis of new water-soluble ligands featuring

carbohydrate or polyethylene glycol moieties. These ligands are needed to address the growing

interest in Green Chemistry by increasing the range of water-soluble complexes capable of

mediating organic transformations in aqueous solution.

Rediscovering the Past through Modern Chemistry: The Relationship between Analytical

Chemistry and Archaeology

Jacqueline Arroyo, Faculty Sponsor: Christine Shea, Ball State University

Analytical chemistry has become a helpful partner to the field of archaeology. Chemical analysis

and techniques have been used to provide supporting data for archaeological theories. Carbon

dating can provide the accurate age of an object, which can be integral in identifying an objects

culture and removing the flaws of relative dating. Developments with X-ray Fluorescence have

allowed long worn away inscriptions to be brought to light. As chemistry/analytical techniques

have developed over the years, the applicability to archaeology has grown. When the idea was

suggested that a mummy at the Niagara Museum was Ramses I, carbon dating, CT scans, and X-

Rays helped contribute to the now current theory that the mummy is in fact Ramses I. As

Analytical techniques develop, definitive and more in-depth observations can be made about the

mummy and any newly found artifact.

Purification and Characterization of FTT941c, a Putative Essential Esterase from

Francisella tularensis

Alexander Farberg, Faculty Sponsor: Jeremy Johnson, Butler University

Francisella tularensis is a highly communicable type of bacteria that can affect human lymph

nodes, lungs, liver, and kidneys. Amongst the proteins essential to the pathogenicity of F.

tularensis is the putative esterase FTT941c. F. tularensis 941c may cleave ester bonds into acids

and alcohols by hydrolysis reactions. I will present the expression of FTT941c in Escherichia

coli, purification using affinity chromatography, and enzymatic characterization with varying

substrates. For the enzymatic characterization, UV or fluorogenically active substrates with

carbon chains varying from C2-C12 were used. Additionally, FTT941c was active against latent

fluorophores with sterically constrained ester bonds with alkyl, cycloalkyl, aromatic, multiplebond,

ether, and fluorine R-groups. FTT941c was confirmed to be an esterase with high

enzymatic activity (k cat /K m >10 5 M -1 s -1 ) with broad substrate specificity.


Waste Cooking Oil for Biodiesel

Joseph Hall & Amber Mahan, Faculty Sponsor: Shannon Teeters-Kennedy, Franklin College

As our society becomes more environmentally conscious, scientific developments to reduce our

ecological footprints are becoming increasingly important. Harmful emissions from the burning

of fossil fuels continue to be released into the atmosphere at an alarming rate, while also

depleting natural resources. As a result, alternative fuels are becoming more economically

important and more widely available. A procedure and method to produce biodiesel from waste

cooking oil through transesterification reactions has been developed at Franklin College.

Research to characterize and analyze this fuel has been completed using infrared spectrometry,

Bomb Calorimetry, and GC-MS and the results were compared to those for commercially

available diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional fuel value comparisons are being evaluated for

sawdust and corn husks.

Characterizing the Effects of SeO2 and Na2¬SeO¬¬¬3 on the Interactions between Metal

Ions and DNA using Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy

Steve Marczak, Faculty Sponsor: Daniel Morris, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

The transition metal ions Fe(II), Cu(II), and Cr(III) undergo reactions with H 2 O 2 to produce

reactive oxygen species that give rise to damage associated with many diseases, clinical

conditions, and aging. These metal ions produce oxidative DNA damage in a site-specific

manner that is related to their abilities to bind to DNA through bases and/or the phosphate

backbone. Selenium is considered an essential dietary trace element. The inorganic selenium

compounds, selenium dioxide (SeO 2 ) and selenite (SeO 3 2- ), exhibit antioxidant properties by

interfering with the binding between metal ions and DNA. We examined the effects of SeO 2 and

SeO 3 2- on the binding between Cr(III) and Cu(II) and DNA using visible absorption

spectroscopy. The results indicate that both Cr(III) and Cu(II) form complexes with SeO 2 and

with SeO 3 2- in aqueous solution. We observe similar results when SeO 2 and SeO 3 2- are

introduced into solution after Cr(III) and Cu(II) are already bound to DNA. We suggest the

possibility of formation of a metal ion coordination complex with the selenium compounds.

Metal ion coordination may be responsible for the antioxidant properties of SeO 2 and SeO 3 2- .

Synthesis of Novel SCS and PCP Pincer Compounds as Potential Catalysts for Transfer

Hydrogenation Reactions of Biomass Substrates

Christopher Matlak, Faculty Sponsor: Todsapon Thananatthanachon, University of Evansville

With the decreasing stores of fossible fuels, there is a strong demand for the chemical

development of novel biofuels. Recent examples have been conversion of cellulose and sugars to

2,5-dimethylfuran and γ-valerolactone utilizing integrative catalytic transformations such as

hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis. We have designed and synthesized a new family of the

metal-pincer complexes as potential multi-functional, homogeneous catalysts for the conversion

of biomass. Synthesis and characterization of a combination of various redox-active SCS and

PCP pincer ligand and transition metals (Fe, Ni and Cu) will be presented. Catalytic properties of

the complexes for the transformation of biomass-derived substrates will be discussed.


Synthesis of Fluorogenic Substrates for the Enzymatic Characterization of RV0045c from

M. Tuberculosis

Kelly McKenna, Faculty Sponsor: Jeremy Johnson, Butler University

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the pathogenic bacterial agent commonly responsible for

tuberculosis, or TB. Although treatment exists for the active form of tuberculosis, no method has

been developed for eliminating M. tuberculosis in its dormant state. One hypothesized method

for the elimination of dormant TB is to develop an inhibitor specific for M. tuberculosis esterases

and lipases, as these esterases and lipases are essential to the survival of dormant TB infection. In

this research, the substrate specificity of the RV0045c esterase from M. tuberculosis was studied

due to the essential role of RV0045c in TB metabolism and its dissimilarity to other esterases.

Two fluorogenic substrates, fluorescein di(ethylbutyloxymethyl ether) and fluorescein

di(phenylbutyloxymethyl ether), were designed to match the binding pocket structure of

RV0045c and to test the substrate specificity of the RV0045c esterase. Both fluorogenic

substrates were synthesized via a three step synthetic process with reasonable yields (1.63% and

5.6%) and purified using column chromatography. Correct purification of final products was

confirmed using liquid chromatography (LC) and HNMR, giving the expected masses and NMR

spectrum. Each substrate was then tested for its stability to hydrolysis in water and the kinetics

for activation by RV0045c. The knowledge gained from this work could lead to treatments

against TB that specifically bind and attack dormant M. tuberculosis by using an appropriate

level of substrate flexibility.

Polymers from Renewable Resources

Stephanie Moore, Faculty Sponsor: Amelia Anderson-Wile, Ohio Northern University

Due to rising prices and depleting supplies of petroleum, the production of materials from

renewable resources is becoming increasingly important. A particularly attractive class of natural

polymers are those derived from cyclic monoterpenes (ie. b-pinene) as they are expected to

display desirable thermal properties due to the presence of the cyclohexane ring in the polymer

backbone. Many commercial terpene resins are produced using cationic polymerization that

often result in low molecular weight polymers and can be sensitive to impurities such as water.

To avoid these types of sensitive reaction conditions, the cationic polymerization behavior of b-

pinene in the presence of boron containing compounds such as [Ph 3 C][B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 ] is currently

being investigated. The polymerizations are being carried out at low reaction temperatures (ie. -

20 to -40 °C) to obtain higher molecular weight polymers. Characterization of the resultant

polymers will be carried out using 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning

calorimetry (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The ultimate goal of this research

described is to produce polymers from renewable resources under water tolerant conditions that

are attractive alternatives to materials obtained from petrochemical sources.

Laser Spectroscopy of Lignin Monomer Analogs

Polina Navotnaya, Alexander Parobek, Rachel Clayton, Faculty Sponsor: Timothy Zwier, Purdue

University

Lignin is a complex biopolymer found in plant cell walls that is used as a support structure for

the plant in order to withstand the environmental conditions in which it lives. This critical


polymer is comprised of three major monomers: coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and p-

coumaryl alchohol. In an attempt to understand the fundamental spectroscopic and photophysical

properties of lignin, we have studied the ultraviolet spectroscopy of three simpler aromatic

molecules with a close structural relationship to the lignin monomers. These four molecules are

known as guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and 4-methyldimethoxyphenol

(MDMP) and are near UV absorbing substituents of the lignin biopolymer. These molecules

were brought into the gas phase by heating or laser desorption, cooled in a supersonic expansion

to very low temperatures ( ~2 K), and interrogated by various laser-based spectroscopic

techniques, including laser-induced fluorescence, resonant two-photon ionization, and dispersed

fluorescence. The LIF spectrum of guiacol and 4-methyl guiacol were much as expected, with

an intense S 0 -S 1 origin transition, and well-resolved vibronic structure above it. The addition of

one more methoxy group to the ring to form DMP and 4-methyl-DMP changes the spectroscopy

dramatically, suggesting a large geometry change and the possibility of the presence of other

excited state(s) in close proximity. Calculations on the excited states will be used to suggest the

reasons for this unusual behavior.

Wittig Reactions in Water and Removal of By-product Using Merrifield Resin

Riya Patel & Elizabeth Shores, Faculty Sponsor: Nazir Khatri, Franklin College

Wittig reaction has been used to generate carbon-carbon double bonds since 1953. Previously,

these reactions were done in organic solvents from hexane to dimethyl sulfoxide. Recently, water

has been used as a medium for this reaction. In this project, the stilbene derivatives have been

synthesized from various aldehydes and benzyltriphenylphosphonium chloride in water medium

containing 10 % sodium hydroxide. The goal is to improve the yields of this reaction by

removing the by-product, triphenyl phosphine oxide, by using Merrifield resin.

Biosynthesis of the Amide and Acyl Moities of Alkamides in Echinacea purpurea

Harry Scott, Mike R. Shepard, Ngun Nawlthang, Robert E. Minto Faculty Sponsor: Robert E.

Minto, Indiana University/Purdue University at Indianapolis

Alkamides are believed to be medicinal compounds naturally produced in a variety of plant

species. Echinacea purpurea, commonly known as purple coneflower, produces a variety of

alkamides that consist of amine (isobutyl- and 2-methylbutylamine) moieties acylated with a

variety of unsaturated fatty acids. To investigate the biosynthetic processes, stable isotope

labeling experiments have been performed that were analyzed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR

methods. The stable isotopic compounds used to probe the biosynthetic pathway of alkamides

were various 13 C labeled glucose substrates as well as 2 H labeled valine. Labeling patterns within

the acyl chain and amide moiety have allowed us to test a hypothetical pathway of alkamide

biosynthesis. Probing the biosynthetic pathway will allow identification of genes and metabolic

processes associated with alkamide production within Echinacea purpurea.

FSH1 Enzyme Characterization

Michael Slack, Faculty Sponsor: Jeremy Johnson, Butler University

Esterases are found in many organisms and are involved in critical processes such as cell

membrane synthesis, metabolism, and neural signaling. Currently, predicting the substrate


specificity and biological function of esterases from their amino acid sequence or even threedimensional

structure remains challenging. Despite high sequence conservation amongst

different esterases, the substrate specificity between even highly homologous esterases is often

unique. The esterase FSH1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a serine-type hydrolase that

belongs to the broadly functional ß-hydrolase superfamily and a close homologue of OVCA2, a

mammalian esterase correlated with ovarian cancer progression. From the hydrophobic nature of

the FSH1 active site pocket, FSH1 was suggested to be an important enzyme for the hydrolysis

of lipidic ester compounds. To determine the substrate specificity of FSH1 and relate its

specificity to its structure, FSH1 was expressed in bacteria, purified to homogeneity, and the

substrate specificity characterized against a diverse group of 22 fluorogenic enzyme substrates.

The enzyme activity analysis indicated that FSH1 does not catalyze the hydrolysis of aliphatic

lipidic esters, but does efficiently hydrolyze short chain alkoxy esters. This broad screen for the

substrate specificity of FSH1 can now be narrowed to more precisely define the biological

activity and substrate specificity for FSH1 and OVCA2.

Energy Transfer in Iodine

Nicholas Takebayashi & Paige Shevlin, Faculty Sponsor: Bryan Lynch, University of Evansville

Vibrational energy transfer is believed to occur from collisions of excited gaseous molecules

with impurities in the sample. To study vibrational energy transfer, iodine was excited via a

tunable dye laser in order to analyze the B to X emission from various vibrational levels of the B

state. Experimental spectra were compared to computer simulations to determine if vibrational

energy transfer had occurred. Energy transfer was visible in low-lying levels (v B =16, 35) of the

B state but was not seen in a higher level closer to dissociation (v B =57).

To further understand vibrational energy transfer, the acquisition of emission from v B =16 was

stepped out in time using a gated integrator (boxcar). Spectra were acquired using short gate

widths starting from initial population of the excited state through later times along the lifetime

decay curve. Results indicate that a finite time exists before collision-induced energy transfer

becomes visible because as the integrator is stepped out in time the vibrational energy transfer

gradually increases in intensity.

EDUCATION

WIWD: Assessing Teachers' Understanding of Engineering

Miles Evans, Faculty Sponsor: Daphne Duncan, Purdue University

Due to an increased demand for engineering education in elementary schools, a need exists for

effective teacher development (Brophy, 2008). The Institute for P-12 Engineering Research and

Learning (INSPIRE), in 2009 and 2010, facilitated week-long engineering professional

development academies for elementary teachers.

Thirty-six teachers attended the academy in 2009, and of this group, twenty-two teachers

returned for the 2010 academy. As part of a battery of assessments, teachers completed the

“What is Engineering/What do Engineers Do” open-ended survey where they answered the two

title questions. Responses to the two questions were coded using a system used previously to

code teacher responses in a photo journal (Duncan, 2011) and based on the Revised Bloom’s


Taxonomy. The coding system was developed to indicate in which cognitive level the teacher

was operating when answering the questions about engineering. When using the coding system,

researchers assign one of the six Bloom’s levels (i.e., Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze,

Evaluate, and Create) to each of the two teacher responses per year. The highest of the two

scores is taken as the teacher’s score for that year. The current study is centered around

refinement of the coding system, establishing an adequate inter-rater reliability, and coding

teacher responses from both 2009 and 2010. After all responses are coded, data will be analyzed.

Results will be used for programmatic evaluation.

The Draw an Engineer Test: Establishing Reliability Evidence for a Coding System

Oksana Kharchenko, Benjamin Horstman, Lynch Bennett, Miles Evans, Daphne Duncan-Wiles,

Nicole Weber &Heidi Diefes-Dux, Faculty Sponsor: Johannes Strobel, Purdue University

Designed using principles of the widely used Draw a Scientist Test (Chambers, 1983), the Draw

an Engineer Test (DAET) is an instrument used for assessing student perceptions of engineering.

The DAET prompts students to draw an engineer doing engineering work, and then asks students

to provide a short description of what the engineer in their drawing is doing. Many current

coding systems rely on an accompanying student interview in order to reliably capture student

perceptions represented in their drawings. These interviews assist researchers in ensuring the

students' true meaning is being coded. To accurately assess student perceptions of engineering, a

team of researchers at a large Midwestern University has developed a coding system to code the

DAET. The current study is testing the coding system to determine if it can be used as a standalone

measure of student perceptions of engineering, thus negating the need for an

accompanying interview. This will be achieved by creating embedded interview questions that

directly correspond to the established coding system and then coding 90 drawings and the

corresponding 90 interviews to determine if the established coding system reliably captures

student perceptions of engineering. A high correlation between the interview codes and the

drawing codes will provide evidence that the DAET coding system can be used as a stand-alone

measure that can be utilized in program assessment to promote engineering literacy in the P-12

curriculum. This study is part of a large-scale research project and builds on previously reported

DAET research.

K-12 Student Attitudes towards Engineering: A Pre/Post Assessment

Aaron Lemcherfi, Brett Kult & Daphne Duncan-Wiles, Faculty Sponsor: Johannes Strobel,

Purdue University

According to the American College Test Company (ACT), less than 6% of the 1.1 million

students who took the ACT exam declared engineering as their career goal in 2002, as compared

to 9% in 1992. In response to this decline, the results of this pilot study will be used to determine

the magnitude of change in student attitudes towards engineering before and following a yearlong

engineering intervention. Participants in the study range from grades two to five. Data were

collected from 12 classrooms at an independent Midwest school. A study published by the

British Department of Psychology provided evidence that the size of objected depicted in

drawings are representative of student attitudes toward those objects; large images are associated

with positive attitudes and smaller images with negative attitudes (Burkitt, Barrett, & Davis,

2003). For this study, data were obtained by prompting students to draw four imagines: a teacher,


a doctor, an engineer, and a scientist. After participating in a year-long engineering intervention

in which teachers taught engineering principles, design, and modeling, students were prompted

to draw the same four images again. Future research includes analyzing and calculating the

pre/post size differences of the depicted images. This will provide evidence about changes in

student attitudes toward engineering when student engineering drawings are compared pre/post,

and when engineering drawings are compared with drawings of other professions pre/post.

Results from this study will used for programmatic evaluation.

Southern Indiana Teachers’ Perceptions on Middle and Elementary School Science

Education

Josh Long & Chelsy Calhoun, Faculty Sponsor: Jeff Thomas, University of Southern Indiana

Teachers from southern Indiana reported on several questions related to middle school and

elementary science education issues. They documented their top rewards and challenges teaching

at this level, the details and/or existence of a science safety plan, the prevalence of inquiry based

science kits (like FOSS) and the existence of a science fair at their school. The data was collected

spring semester 2011 and tabulated summer 2011. It revealed several trends among the rewards

and challenges teachers had from teaching. Additionally, it showed a general amount of

unpreparedness at most schools for science safety. A discrepancy was observed between local

teachers use of inquiry based science kits and Indiana's unfolding policy for implementing them

through the Indiana Science Initiative.

Elementary Classroom Practices that Improve Vision-Related Learning Problems

Erin McClellan, Faculty Sponsor: Sumer Seiki, Illinois Wesleyan University

Current studies show that vision-related learning problems are being under and misdiagnosed in

children (Gould & Gould, 2003; Zaba, 2001). Vision-related learning problems such as

difficulties with tracking, focusing, and eye teaming, can affect a child’s academic success in

school. This literature review discusses how schools and teachers can implement comprehensive

vision exams along with classroom practices to support the academic success of their students

with such vision-related problems to ensure students are visually ready before teaching them to

read. Educating educators about detection and treatment of vision-related learning problems can

help to remedy this current situation.

A Comparative Study on Retention Levels of Elementary Students of Different Ethnicities

Jonas Susaraba, Faculty Sponsor: Daphne Duncan, Purdue University

Understanding how students of different ethnic backgrounds retain information will help us to

improve upon current school curricula to better educate students of diverse demographics. This

study compares 2 nd , 3 rd , and 4 th grade students’ science and engineering content knowledge

retention levels as measured by the Student Knowledge Tests (SKTs) according to ethnic

background. The SKTs were administered to students in a diverse school district in the

Southwest U.S. at the beginning of the school year (pre) and at the end of the school year

following a year-long implementation of engineering curriculum into their classrooms (post).

Student participants consisted of 548 students; 192 Caucasians, 96 African Americans, 191

Hispanics, and 69 Asian/Pacific Islanders. Results indicate that there is a difference between


ethnicities in retention and also how much the students already know prior to testing. Compared

to the pretest scores, students showed approximately equal gains in content knowledge on the

post test. Implications include curriculum targeting performance gaps.

Study Habits of College Females: The Effect They Affect GPA

Alyssa Veers, Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Lloyd, Huntington University

According to a study conducted by Lowe and Cook (2003) College students maintain similar

study habits to those they maintained in secondary school through the end of their freshman year

in college. These students study habits are ineffective for college courses. This study is designed

to determine how college students study and how study habits affect their GPA. A survey will be

given to a random sample of college students. The study group will consist of 40 students that

attend a small rural college. To maintain reliability subjects will also be required to give the

researcher a record of their GPA It is hypothesized that studying with few or no distractions in

addition to a greater amount of studying is the best way for students to learn information thereby

resulting in a higher GPA.

Content-Based Instruction in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom

Kathy Woods, Faculty Sponsor: Sumer Seiki, Illinois Wesleyan University

Much research has been done on English language learners (ELLs) in the United States and the

benefits of content-based instruction for these students (Echevarria, 2004). Content-based

instruction integrates language objectives and content objectives in the same lessons, focusing on

acquiring rather than learning a language. This literature review seeks to uncover the impact of

CBI methods in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom abroad. In the foreign

context, it is important for EFL teachers to understand which of the CBI methods can reach

students most effectively. This study seeks to empower those EFL teaching candidates in their

knowledge of content-based instruction methods, which content-based methods are the most

effective, and for which types of EFL learners CBI may be the most beneficial.

Keeping Interactive Whiteboards Interactive to Motivate Students in Secondary Social

Studies Classrooms

Sylvia Zukowski, Faculty Sponsor: Sumer Seiki, Illinois Wesleyan University

Interactive whiteboards have been rapidly introduced into secondary social studies classrooms

(Deaney, Chapman, & Hennessy, 2009; Smith, Higgins, Wall, & Miller, 2005). Prior research

has indicated that using technology motivates students by engaging them in the learning process

and holding them accountable for their own learning (Heafner, 2004; Wall, Higgins, & Smith,

2005). However, many teachers have not yet had the proper training to utilize the interactive

whiteboards at their full capacity. Interactive whiteboards have, in many cases, simply replaced

the overhead projector. In this teacher-action research I will examine the ways whiteboards can

promote motivation in students, who often view social studies as boring (Schug, Todd, & Berry,

1984). This literature review and pre-service teacher action research proposes methods to fully

incorporate interactive whiteboards into classroom instruction, which promote collaborative

learning and motivate students to learn social studies.


ENGLISH (LITERATURE & CREATIVE WRITING)

The Effects of the Writing Center Tutor Program on Written Communications 2 and 3

Students

Joshua Wyman, Faculty Sponsor: Joel Boehner, Bethel College

The present study addressed the effectiveness of the Bethel College Writing Center on the

writing development of undergraduate students in writing composition courses. Seventy-four

randomly selected students from fourteen Written Communications 2 and three Written

Communications 3 classes participated in the study. Group 1 (n=42) contained participants who

did not visit the Writing Center; group 2 (n=17) incorporated students who rarely used the

service; group 3 had students who frequently visited the center. The participants provided preclass

and post-class writing samples that examined their writing capabilities. The samples were

evaluated by two English professors, and given a score that ranged from 0 to 40. One-hundred

and eighty-nine students in the Written Communications 2 and 3 courses completed a survey that

evaluated their class, gender, race, academic background, and course goals; these participants

were organized into the three groups. Sixty-five students who attended the Writing Center

submitted a survey that analyzed their perception of the service. The results indicated that

students in group 3 exhibited a stronger improvement in scores on the writing assessments (4.34)

compared to group 1 (1.19) and group 2 (2.62). Results were significant when the scores were

compared at each testing time within each group. The results were insignificant when participant

scores were compared between each group. Freshman students, females, Caucasians, and

students with a strong academic background and goals were more likely to use the service;

moreover, all participants had a positive response to the Writing Center service.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES/SCIENCES

Comparative Analysis of Soil pH and Soil Texture in Three Prairie Reconstruction Sites

Varanya Chaiyaperm, Veronica Ibarra & Sviatlana Krainikava, Faculty Sponsors: Joseph Oyugi

& Helen Rarick, City Colleges of Chicago-Wright College

Analysis of the pH and the soil texture properties of reconstructed prairie soils is important in

determining prairie viability, especially when the prairies are reconstructed in an urban

environment. In our study, we performed a comparative analysis of the pH and the clay-silt-sand

composition of three reconstructed urban prairies: a prairie planted in 2007 on the Wright

College campus in an area that had previously been a parking lot-currently not fully restored

(New Prairie), and two other prairies within the vicinity; one planted in 2009 that is about a halfmile

away-not fully restored (Dunning Prairie), and another planted in 2003 on the Wright

College campus-fully restored (Old Prairie). The pH was determined using an Oakton

Waterproof pH spear tester and a LaMotte pH Soil TesTabs Kit. The clay-silt-sand composition

was determined using a LaMotte Soil Texture Unit. The data indicate differences in the pH and

the soil texture of the three reconstructed prairies. These data provide information on proper pH

balance of the soil and the soil texture composition in order to maintain and optimize plant

growth of newly reconstructed prairies in an urban environment.


Variations in Soil Nutrient Properties of Three Prairie Reconstruction Sites

Varanya Chaiyaperm, Veronica Ibarra & Sviatlana Krainikava, Faculty Sponsors: Joseph Oyugi

& Helen Rarick, City Colleges of Chicago-Wright College

A new prairie was reconstructed in 2007 on the southwest side of the Wright College campus on

a disturbed site that had previously been a parking lot. Soil changes through comparative

quantitative soil nutrient analysis were monitored. Variations in the soil nutrients of this newly

reconstructed prairie (called New Prairie) were compared to two other prairies within the

vicinity: one prairie is a half mile away on the Dunning-Read conservation site and was

reconstructed in the summer of 2009 (called Dunning Prairie); the second prairie reconstructed in

2003 is located on the east side of Wright College (called Old Prairie). The levels of the soil

nutrients, nitrate and phosphorus, of all three prairie sites were measured using a colorimetric

chemical reaction technique (LaMotte Professional Soil Testing Outfit). Based on disturbance

status of the New Prairie reconstruction site, we discovered differential quantitative soil nutrient

levels as compared to the Old Prairie and the Dunning Prairie. These data on the variations in

nutrient levels are important in providing information on proper nutrient balance within the soil

to maintain and optimize plant growth in prairies that are reconstructed in urban environments.

Occurrence of Black Spot Disease in Delaware County Streams

Brandon Holsinger, Faculty Sponsor: Jarmila Popovicova, Ball State University

The Bureau of Water Quality in Muncie, IN, conducts fish monitoring every summer to assess

the biotic health of local streams. For this study, conducted in summer 2011, the fish were

analyzed for black spot disease. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation

between cool water streams and the occurrence of black spot disease. The fish were collected

using electro fishing techniques from a boat, tote barge, and a backpack unit in the White River

and its tributaries; fish were collected from cool streams and warm streams in Delaware County.

Upon the collection, the length and weight of fish was recorded and the presence and absence of

black spot disease was also noted. The results showed that cooler streams were positively

correlated with the occurrence of black spot disease.

Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions

Catherine Kramer, Faculty Sponsor: Craig Philipp, Hanover College

Over the course of the Winter 2012 semester, research was conducted on the effect of crosslinked

polymer films on the heavy metal content of aqueous systems. These films can be easily

produced in lab on premises and may be washed and reused indefinitely. Cross-linking allows

for bonding of heavy metals (such as lead and mercury) to the surface of the film and the release

of harmless elements (such as calcium) that are naturally-occurring in river systems. The effects

of these films on the concentration of heavy metals in a variety of areas along the Ohio River

was studied. Not only does this project have the potential for river cleanup projects, but it may

also be useful for many other water purification purposes, as current methods tend to be

unsuccessful with the filtration of heavy metals.

Safety Problems In environmental Drilling Activities: Witnessed in My Internship Summer

2011


David Molin, Faculty Sponsor: Jarmila Popovicova, Ball State University

This paper was written to address some of the most common safety issues that should be

examined when performing environmental drilling activities. My experience in working for an

environmental consulting firm over the summer of 2011 in retrospect has led me to understand

the real need f