Tar Reforming The Topsoe Approach - Bioenergi

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Tar Reforming The Topsoe Approach - Bioenergi

Biomass gasification and tar reforming:

the Topsoe approach

Poul E. Højlund Nielsen, R&D Division

HALDOR TOPSØE A/S


Biomass gasification activities

Tar reforming

– Sponsored by EUDP

• Possible Gasolution project

– Sponsored by Energinet.dk

• Biomass based SNG production

• Biomass based gasoline production

– DOE demonstration


CO 2 abatement

by increased use of biomass and waste

• Reduced consumption of fossil fuel

• Increased demand for flexible power production

• Continued demand for liquid fuels

• Availability of low-quality fuels and conversion of

these


Gasification

Biomass

Natural gas

Coal

Waste

CO

CO 2

H 2

Syngas

Hydrogen

Methanol

DME

Gasoline

SNG

Power

Ammonia


Biomass gasifiers


Tar reforming

• Biomass gasification (except black

liquor) is usually based on fluidised bed

– Carbona, FW, Repotech etc

BIOMASS

GASIFIER

TAR REFORMER

The outlet temperature is restricted by ash

stickiness

Tar formation (C 6+ ), ~500 ppm 1 %

• Energy loss, fouling, waste water treatment

etc.

Tar reforming layouts

– Dusty tar reformer

ASH

• Monoliths operating with dust in the gas

– Clean tar reformer

• Hot gas filtration and pellet type catalyst


Tar reforming

• 1. Increased gas production

• 2. Convert heavy polyaromatic components

to an extent that allows the syngas to cool

for further processing without fouling or

precipitation

• 3. Utilise the high temperature levels from

gasification for increased efficiency


Tar reforming layouts

• Dusty Clean tar tar reformer

–– Chemicals, Combined SNG heat and gasoline power etc. applications

– Higher catalyst load

• Low pressure drop

– Clean syngas

• Course clean up

• Avoiding dust accumulation is the major

challenge

– Can design to preserve or convert

methane


”Dirty” vs. ”clean” tar reforming:

coated monolith vs. catalyst pellets

Monolith, coated w/ catalyst

Catalyst pellet, bulk catalyst

* Low ∆P: can handle dusty environments.

* Low density of active material.

* Higher ∆P: dust sensitive.

* High density of active material.


The “magic” tar reformer

• Removes the tar by hydrogenation

• Equilibrates all catalytic reactions except

2CO = C + CO 2

CH 4 = C + 2 H 2


The “magic” tar reformer

• 2 easy reactions

H 2 O + CO ⇄ H 2 + CO 2

H 2 O + COS ⇄ H 2 S + CO 2

• Always (almost) in equilibrium


The “magic” tar reformer

• 4 difficult reactions

CH 4 + H 2 O ⇄ CO + 3H 2

C n H 2n + H 2 → nCH 4

Tar + H 2 → mCH 4

2NH 3 ⇄ N 2 + 3H 2

• Requires catalytic activity and heat for CH 4 conversion in

presence of dust/ash !!


Conversion (%)

Current activities

• Monoliths for Skive Fjernvarme CHP, 20 MW

– 3rd delivery, 3-4m 3 /load

• Clean reformer piloting at GTI, ~4 MW

• Laboratory tests on model gas

Methane Naphthalene Toluene Tar (C6+) --> C1

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Time (hrs)

Gas Composition (balance He):

CH 4 (%) = 5.9

CO (%) = 15.6

CO 2 (%) = 22.3

H 2 (%) = 24.9

H 2 O (%) = 28.0

NH 3 (%) = 0.25

H 2 S (ppm) = 50

Toluene (ppm) = 1430

Naphtalene (ppm) = 350


Technical status

• Dirty reformer (dust containing gas)

– GTI pilot test: High conversion of tars and

ammonia (1200 Nm 3 /h pilot, 72 monoliths

– Skive Fjernvarme (600 monoliths)

• Stable operation and no signs of tar or

ammonia slip at high load.


Clean tar reforming

• Hot gas filtration followed by pellet bed

tar reforming

– Increased robustness and operability

BIOMASS

GASIFIER

HOT GAS FILTER

– Can meet SNG, BTL requirements

• Commercial projects, cooperation with

Carbona

CLEAN

TAR REFORMER

– EON Bi2G, prefeed. (300 MW) SNG

• Convert tars, conserve methane

ASH

– UPM Kymmene, prefeed (300 MW), BTL

• Convert tars and methane

• Chicago piloting, 5 MW

– Test financed by EON and UPM

– Proof of concept & design basis


Clean tar reforming

• Gas Technology Institute, USA, ~4 MW.

– One week GTI run #10 finished in October, testing three newly

developed catalysts. Demonstrating high tar conversion and both

high and low (Bio2G) methane conversion.

– TIGAS, biomass to gasoline, 3 x ~30 day runs starting in the

autumn of 2012.


Bio SNG

• GOBIGAS

– EON, 20 MW small commercial unit, under

construction, Gothenburg, Sweden

• EON, Bio2G 300 MW, Prefeed, Sweden

• Learned

– Simplified SNG layout for biomass

gasification feed gas

Tar reforming economy

• Opex: ~Cost neutral

– Increased gas production

• Competitive compared to washes (bio

diesel, olga etc)


GASIFIER

TAR REFORMER

Wood to Gasoline Demonstration Project

Green Gasoline From Wood Using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Processes

BIOMASS

BIOMASS

GASIFIER

TAR REFORMER

2 atm (Air)

Gas MeOH/DME

/ Gasoline

Cleaning

Synthesis

Synthesis

http://www.energy.gov/news2009/releases.htm

ASH

OXYGEN

23 bbl/d


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