Technology Today issue 1 2008 - Raytheon

raytheon

Technology Today issue 1 2008 - Raytheon

Technology

Today

HIGHLIGHTING RAYTHEON’S TECHNOLOGY

Raytheon’s Sensing Technologies

Featuring innovative electro-optical

and radio frequency systems

2008 Issue 1


A Message From Dr. Taylor W. Lawrence

Do you have an idea for an article?

We are always looking for ways to connect

with you — our Engineering, Technology and

Mission Assurance professionals. If you have an

article or an idea for an article regarding

technical achievements, customer solutions,

relationships, Mission Assurance, etc., send it

along. If your topic aligns with a future issue of

Technology Today or is appropriate for an online

article, we will be happy to consider it and will

contact you for more information.

Send your article ideas to

techtodayeditor@raytheon.com.

2 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Vice President of Engineering, Technology and Mission Assurance

Sensing is the first of Raytheon’s core markets, which is appropriate because sensing

is where it all starts. Before our customers can react, shape or control their environments,

they need to understand them.

This is a wide market for Raytheon, both in terms of the customers we serve and

the range of technologies we deploy. Raytheon sensors acquire precise situational

data in the domains of air, space and water, and they span the full electromagnetic

spectrum, from radio waves to gamma waves, and include many different modalities,

from hyperspectral to acoustic sampling.

This issue of Technology Today explores some of Raytheon’s newest capabilities in

the Sensing market — from advances in high-definition infrared focal plane arrays

and ladar sensors, to new applications for small, low-power RF radars. These

advances in turn are providing users like pilots, warfighters and meteorologists

improved speed, resolution and range to more quickly act on the information

they receive.

In this issue’s Leaders Corner column, we hear from Greg Alston, Raytheon’s vice

president of Mission Assurance. Greg has really hit the ground running since joining

us in June, and he discusses how he is developing an integrated enterprise

Mission Assurance vision and strategy to drive organizational assurance and health.

Lastly, I would like to congratulate our newest Excellence in Engineering and

Technology Award recipients. Eighty-six outstanding Raytheon engineers and

technologists were recognized in March with the company’s highest technical

honor. They have achieved technological breakthroughs and demonstrated program

excellence that contributed to the success of our customers and our company. The

new standard of excellence they have set serves as an inspiration to us all.

Until next time …

Dr. Taylor W. Lawrence


View Technology Today online at:

www.raytheon.com/technology_today/current

Technology Today is published

quarterly by the Office of Engineering,

Technology and Mission Assurance.

Vice President

Dr. Taylor W. Lawrence

Managing Editor

Lee Ann Sousa

Senior Editors

Donna Acott

Tom Georgon

Kevin J. Wynn

Art Director

Debra Graham

Photography

Rob Carlson

Bob Casper

Dan Plumpton

Bill Patterson III

Website Design

Joe Walch IV

Publication Coordinator

Dolores Priest

Contributors

Roopa Bhide

Sue Booth

Stephen Diehl

Blythe Marshall

Mike Nason

Marcilene Pribonic

Sean Price

Sharon Stein

Rick Steiner

INSIDE THIS ISSUE

Feature: Raytheon’s Sensing Technologies

Electro-optical Sensors Overview 4

High-Definition Infrared Focal Plane Arrays 5

Next-Generation Lasers for Advanced Active EO Systems

Advanced Radar Functionality at Optical Wavelengths

9

via Coherent Ladar 13

Radio Frequency Sensors Overview

Active Panel Array Technology Enables Affordable

16

Weather Radar 17

Adaptive Land Enhanced Raytheon Radar Technology 20

Leaders Corner: Q&A With Greg Alston

Eye on Technology

21

Architecture & Systems Integration 24

Raytheon Technology Networks Overview 25

RF Systems 26

Materials & Structures 28

Processing Systems

Events

30

SEtdp Graduates 57 Systems Engineers 31

2007 Excellence in Engineering and Technology Awards

Special Interest

Raytheon Engineers Help MathMovesU Students Design

32

Rescue Device

Prognostics and Health Management: Enhancing Mission

34

Assurance as Part of System Development 35

U.S. and International Patents 38

EDITOR’S NOTE

It’s a new year with new challenges; but one thing is constant: our commitment to

delivering world-class solutions using the most innovative technologies we can bring to

bear on not just meeting, but exceeding, our customer’s expectations.

This year’s first two issues will focus on two of our core technology markets, starting

with sensing — from both an electro-optical and RF perspective. You’ll read about

emerging high-definition focal plane array technology and its application in space

surveillance systems, as well as the ALERRT portable perimeter security system now

being field-tested by the U.S. Air Force.

Also in this issue, you’ll learn more about our Excellence in Engineering and Technology

Award winners, and get an early look at Raytheon’s efforts to develop a prognostics and

health management system to ensure that our delivered systems continue operating in

the field to ensure mission success.

Enjoy!

Lee Ann Sousa

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 3


Feature

Electro-optical Sensors

Expanding the Frontiers of

Military Sensing Technology

Humans have always used technology to enhance their

natural abilities to sense and transform the world around

them. Recent technological advances have extended

humans’ color vision to include other forms of electromagnetic

energy (radio frequency, infrared and ultraviolet) with higher spectral

resolution (multi- and hyper-spectral imaging). Active sensors —

radar and ladar (laser radar) — allow us to measure distance with

incredible accuracy and generate 3-D images that circumvent the

diffraction limit. New sensing capabilities are on the horizon that

will add a new temporal dimension to this sensing arsenal (micro-

Doppler vibrometry). This issue’s electro-optical (EO) feature articles

describe Raytheon’s recent advances in sensing technology for a

variety of military, national and civil applications.

For some, the term “night vision” conjures up images of a CNN

broadcast from Baghdad, with its eerie green out-of-focus shots of

anti-aircraft artillery firing blindly against a backdrop of towering

minarets and onion-shaped palace domes. For others, “thermal

imaging” reminds them of blurry pseudo-color thermographic

maps of a house in a TV infomercial, selling them on the need for

high-efficiency window glazing and insulation. Few, however,

would associate either “thermal imaging” or “night vision” with

the sharpness and format of a modern high-definition TV

picture. Yet this is the reality of modern infrared technology

described in our first feature article on the advances in infrared

focal plane arrays from Raytheon Vision Systems in Goleta, Calif.

In a recent article on “Benefits of Eyesafe Laser Technology

(Eye On Technology, Technology Today, Issue 2, 2007), a new lasing

system was described, a system capable of efficiently extracting

1.617 μm eyesafe radiation from a rod of erbium-doped yttrium

aluminum garnet that is directly pumped by laser diodes. While

4 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

adequate for low average power applications such as tactical ranging

and telecommunications, this rod geometry is not well suited

for moderate to high average power laser sources, which are needed

in long-range target illumination, designation, 3-D imaging, and

directed energy weapon systems. The problem is the rod’s shape,

which requires that the heat generated in the lasing process flow

radially from the center to the cooled barrel surface of the rod.

The higher the power, the greater the temperature difference from

center to edge, and the greater the attendant thermal lensing,

stress birefringence (which leads to depolarization), and surface

tension (which eventually leads to rod fracture). In our second

feature article, we introduce a new high-aspect-ratio planar geometry

for the laser gain medium that minimizes the temperature

drop and guides the beam to maintain high extraction efficiency

and good beam quality, even at high lasing powers.

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, one of the greatest inventions

in military sensing technology at the end of the 20th century,

routinely provides useful imagery for the intelligence, surveillance

and reconnaissance community at substantial standoff ranges. In

recent years, Raytheon has extended synthetic aperture sensing

hardware and compatible image formation techniques to the optical

regime, substantially improving the resolution of these venerable

sensors. In solving the atmospheric phase error, platform

motion, and target vibration problems at optical frequencies, our

researchers have not only set the standard for synthetic aperture

ladar image quality, but have opened a new realm of sensing capability:

micro-Doppler vibrometry. In our third feature article, we

explore these advances in coherent ladar sensors, which promise to

further expand military sensing capability in the EO/IR regime.

Bob Byren

rwbyren@raytheon.com


High-Definition Infrared

Focal Plane Arrays

Enhance and Simplify

Space Surveillance Sensors

Feature

Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has been providing light-sensing focal plane arrays for space applications for more than four decades,

encompassing diverse applications, including weather data collection, space astronomy, Earth observation and missile surveillance.

This extensive history of design and fabrication of high-performance focal plane arrays (FPA) for both tactical and strategic applications

has allowed RVS to retain its position as one of the most technically advanced visible and infrared (IR) sensor houses in the country.

The IR FPA consists of an infrared detector, which absorbs photons and generates a small voltage, and a readout integrated circuit (ROIC)

that amplifies the voltage. These two components are hybridized together, with indium interconnects providing the electrical connection

between each pixel in the array. Both the IR detectors and the ROIC are designed in-house at RVS’ Santa Barbara, Calif., facility. The detectors

are fabricated with a variety of techniques and materials to provide application-specific spectral coverage over any portion of the

infrared spectrum. One particular aspect of RVS’ FPA production is focused on missile surveillance for the national missile defense.

A primary mission of the national missile defense is to effectively defend the United States against ballistic missile attack. This has multiple

objectives, including surveillance, tracking, targeting and intercepting ballistic missiles during boost, midcourse or terminal phases. Spacebased

infrared sensors provide a significant portion of the surveillance, tracking and targeting capabilities for the national missile defense.

The satellite systems deploying the IR sensors have evolved over the years and have encompassed the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS),

Continued on page 6

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 5


Feature

Continued from page 5

Space Tracking and Satellite Surveillance

(STSS) system, Overhead Non-Imaging

Infrared (ONIR) system, and Alternative

Infrared Satellite System (AIRSS) efforts.

Raytheon has worked with each of these

efforts to some degree. As sensor technology

matures, each generation of satellite

systems incorporates the available improvements

to provide increased surveillance

capabilities. Advancements made in highdefinition

IR FPA to recently enhance and

simplify space surveillance systems are

discussed here.

Traditionally, FPAs for space surveillance

have necessitated scanning arrays to ensure

complete theater coverage. These involve

complex optics and moving components to

sweep the sensor field of view across a swath

of the potential path of a ballistic missile.

The sensor FOV is incrementally adjusted

until the entire target area has been

encompassed, then the sensor is returned

to the starting configuration and the scan

is repeated. This scan must be completed

within a timeframe adequate to detect rapidly

moving missile threats. Until recently,

the use of scanning arrays was the conventional

approach, and it has proven effective.

Advancements in IR sensor technology

have enabled increased array sizes and

decreased pixel sizes to facilitate the routine

production of large megapixel arrays

(Figure 1). These are now attaining the

technology readiness levels (TRL) necessary

to be deployed in space surveillance satellites.

Space surveillance systems demand

64 x 64

256 x 256

128 x 128

Digital Output

8192 x 8192

8µm

2052 x 2052

InSb/HgCdTe

1344 x 1344

InSb

640 x 480

(InSb&HCT)

1024 x 1024

4096 x 4096

8µm

1980 1990 2000 2005

6 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

highly operable FPAs with low noise, in

either traditional scanning or novel large

format staring arrays, to rapidly survey

large areas.

RVS has demonstrated impressive array

operabilities for large format FPA in formats

up to 4 megapixel (2K x 2K) arrays

with either 15 or 20 µm pixels for short

wavelength and middle wavelength

infrared (MWIR) detectors. MWIR response

has been obtained using either InSb or

HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors. These

detectors exhibit excellent spectral

response characteristics, including both

high and uniform quantum efficiency over

the spectral bands of interest. Advantages

of HgCdTe typically include higher temperature

operation compared to InSb, as well

as the critical inherent tunable spectral

response of HgCdTe, which can be readily

adjusted during semiconductor growth for

short, middle, or long wavelength IR

response. The ROIC requires high data

rates to output the data from more than

four million pixels in each frame at sufficient

frame rates to provide the

necessary coverage.

The FPA module assembly consists of the

ROIC/detector hybrid mated to an adjoining

motherboard with an on-board temperature

sensor and two attached cables, all

mounted on a supporting pedestal. An

example of a space surveillance HgCdTe

MWIR 2Kx2K FPA module assembly is

shown in Figure 2. Primary figures of merit

for IR FPA include both response and signalto-noise

ratio (SNR). A common measure of

2560 x 512

25µm

4096 x 4096

20µm

High-Definition Infrared FPAs

the SNR is the noise equivalent irradiance

(the minimum irradiance necessary to produce

unity SNR). The FPA module in Figure 2

has achieved high operability at temperatures

of 110K with 99.8 percent response

operability (operable pixels exhibit response

within 25 percent of the array mean) and

99.3 percent NEI operability (operable pixels

exhibiting NEI within twice the array mean).

This level of performance is more than sufficient

for ONIR surveillance system needs.

This FPA requires motherboard electronics

on two sides only, allowing it to be close

butted to additional arrays on two sides.

This two-side buttable capability allows up

to four FPAs to be tiled together providing

an effective 16-megapixel (4Kx4K) FPA with

larger sensor field of view coverage. Tiling

multiple IR FPA together to generate a single

large format array is an option RVS has

used successfully in the past for groundbased

astronomy applications, with a 4x4

mosaic of 2Kx2K SWIR FPA modules creating

an effective 64-megapixel FPA (Figure 3).

This same tiling technique can be applied to

the FPA module in Figure 2, or with recent

technological advances, the manufacture of

individual larger format arrays can be used

to provide full continuous Earth coverage for

missile surveillance systems.

Recently, RVS, working jointly with Raytheon

Space and Airborne Systems independent

research and development (IR&D) funding,

has scaled the MWIR 2Kx2K readout integrated

circuit for space surveillance up to

both 2Kx4K and 4Kx4K formats to meet

future system needs. Ongoing develop-

Figure 1. Progression of ROIC format at RVS over time Figure 2. 2Kx2K, 20µm pitch MWIR FPA module assembly


Figure 3. 64-megapixel FPA composed of

sixteen SWIR 2Kx2K FPA modules

ment of the technology to fabricate these

increased format array sizes has focused

on large area uniformity in diverse fields,

including semiconductor growth, wafer and

die polishing for flatness, and high-force

hybridization. A single 4Kx4K ROIC die is

greater than 8 cm on a side. The flatness

requirements are equivalent to having a circu-

ENGINEERING PROFILE

lar lake one mile in diameter with no ripples

across the entire lake greater than three inches

high. Dealing with this type of flatness over

huge thermal ranges requires in-depth understanding

of all the thermal expansion properties

of the materials used. Testing has its own

unique concerns for handling the massive

data throughput capability. To simply output

data from a 16-megapixel array at 30 Hz

requires 0.5 Gbps data rates. This necessitates

low inductance and capacitance wiring

schemes, as well as high-speed computers

with vast amounts of memory capable of

storing and manipulating large arrays of data.

Each of these areas in fabrication and test

of large format IR FPA has now improved to

the point where the manufacture of 4Kx4K

arrays is possible with minimal risk. A single

eight-inch ROIC wafer from 2007 Raytheon

IR&D is shown in Figure 4 containing 2Kx2K,

2Kx4K, and 4Kx4K (4-, 8-, and 16-megapixel)

die. Scaling up to the 16-megapixel FPA

provides larger sensor FOV and improved

Dr. Angelo Scotty Gilmore

Principal Infrared System Engineer

Raytheon Network Centric Systems

Angelo Gilmore is a principal infrared system engineer

in Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS). Current programs

he works on include Alternative InfraRed Satellite

System — a potential vehicle for ONIR to replace

SBIRS HIGH. He was the program manager for this

program for the last year. He also works on independent

research and development efforts (IR&D) to

improve the very long wavelength infrared focal plane

array capabilities at RVS.

Intrigued by physics at a young age, Gilmore recalled,

“I was always interested in how things work, and my

father suggested I study physics to further my understanding

of everyday observations.” Gilmore said. “I was

fascinated by the studies, and in graduate school began

researching alternative energy solutions using solar

power from CdTe photovoltaic detectors.”

According to Gilmore, Raytheon Vision Systems’

infrared group has a large focus on HgCdTe photovoltaic

detectors, and he sees this as a natural step from his

previous experience. As an engineer, he found that his

skills carried over into management, and he began leading

IR&D efforts and small developmental programs.

Feature

Figure 4. Eight-inch SB395 ROIC wafer

with 4Kx4K, 2Kx4K and 2Kx2K die

full Earth coverage of the ballistic missile

theater. Individual larger arrays are advantageous

over tiling multiple smaller FPAs, and

result in 100 percent coverage without the

additional effort required to account for the

gaps between tiled arrays.

Continued on page 8

Gilmore believes the biggest challenges facing his current

programs are the compressed timelines required to

transfer new technologies into viable system solutions.

To help meet that challenge, he said, “Raytheon needs

continuing focus on the transition from development to

production in order to reduce that cycle time and more

rapidly field new technologies.”

Growing up on a ranch, Gilmore developed the solid

work ethic reflected in his philosophy that employees

should “treat everyone as a customer, and give them the

best value you can for their money, work and time.”

Gilmore also believes his competitive nature has its

roots in his position as the youngest of four children.

“The combination of my work ethic and competitive

nature has helped me excel throughout my education,

and now in my career at Raytheon.”

Five years after joining Raytheon, Gilmore remains

excited about his work. “Designing and developing

cutting-edge technologies that will make a difference

to our country’s success continually excites me,” he

said, noting, “Mission Assurance is not just a catch

phrase in the field, and the products we make help

our soldiers succeed.”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 7


Feature

Continued from page 7

Current Raytheon IR&D has funded the

prove-in of all the key fabrication steps

required for this burgeoning technology.

Highlights of these recent IR&D efforts

include the design and fabrication of IR

FPA-specific 4Kx4K ROICs; dramatic

improvements to six-inch wafer, molecular

beam epitaxy grown, HgCdTe detector uniformity;

and the successful generation of a

mock-up 4Kx4K array, to prove in the large

format hybridization process. Routine fabrication

of silicon ROIC wafers at RVS has

ensured the handling procedures are in

place for processing wafer up to eight inches

in diameter. All this work leaves only the

final step of fabrication and test of an IR

FPA module in the 4Kx4K array format,

ENGINEERING PROFILE

8 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

planned in 2008. To the author’s knowledge,

this will be the largest individual IR

FPA fabricated to date. Each of these key

efforts acts to reduce the manufacturing

risk and improve the producibility of large

format infrared FPA for space surveillance.

In the future, large format staring arrays

providing wide FOV coverage will replace

complex scanning arrays in satellite surveillance

systems. These staring arrays will

eliminate the system-level moving components

such as gimbals and pointing mirrors

required for conventional scanning arrays.

Staring arrays will prove advantageous in

terms of the primary considerations for

satellite systems, including size, weight,

power and reliability. The incorporation of

staring IR FPAs will simplify the satellite

David M. Filgas

Engineering Fellow

Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems

David Filgas is an engineering fellow at Space and

Airborne Systems. Current programs he works on

include K2, NSEP, SALTI, and IRAD projects related to

development of laser systems for a variety of applications.

Filgas has studied lasers since college. While working for

an electrical engineering degree, he undertook a junioryear

internship with a large laser company, and then as a

senior, became involved with a laser startup company. He

has worked in the laser field ever since. “I fell in love with

lasers,” he said. “Looking back now, I have to chuckle when

my parents remind me that my first word was ‘light.’”

His prior career experiences helped Filgas build a foundation

for his success after he joined Raytheon five years

ago. After finishing a master’s degree, he worked for a

large technology company, but left after a year “to escape

the big-company bureaucracy.”

He then went to work for a small startup company developing

the highest power solid-state industrial laser in the

world at that time. “I loved being on the technological

cutting edge and the experience of working in a small

company,” he said. “In a startup company, you have to

wear a lot of hats.” In addition to being the chief laser scientist,

he designed system components using CAD, programmed

control systems, built production lasers,

installed and serviced lasers in the field, conducted sales

visits, and performed laser application studies. “I think

High-Definition Infrared FPAs

sensor system through fewer moving components

leading to drastic reductions in the

system weight. Reducing the number of

moving components will also make it easier

to satisfy the overall system reliability

requirements. The enhancements in

satellite surveillance made possible by large

format staring arrays include 100 percent

continuous full Earth coverage at higher

frame rates than prior satellite systems.

Future generations of satellite surveillance

sensors will take advantage of the fundamental

advancements provided by

Raytheon’s large format staring IR FPAs

to improve the nation’s missile defense

network capabilities.

Dr. Angelo Scotty Gilmore

angelo_s_gilmore@raytheon.com

Contributors: Stefan Baur, James Bangs

the broad range of experiences I had working in a small

company taught me to consider many larger system

issues during the design process.”

For Filgas, one of the most rewarding aspects of his

work is being on the leading edge of technology. “There’s

a real satisfaction in doing things that have never been

done before. We’re fortunate to have jobs where we can

actually turn our inventions and designs into reality.”

Offering others advice for success at Raytheon, Filgas

said, “I believe we can all benefit from staying involved

with multiple projects. It helps avoid getting burned out

on a particular program, and there are always benefits

from cross-pollinating the experiences of one program

with those of another.”

The challenges Filgas sees in current programs hark back

to his large-company experiences. “Doing fast-paced

development work in a large organization like Raytheon

is difficult. Developmental programs could really benefit

from much more streamlined processes than we’re currently

using,” he said, citing supply-chain delays as an

example. In addition to their schedule impacts, delays

impact our budgets because charge numbers tend to

dwindle away while we wait for parts.”

Filgas believes that streamlining processes is essential for

Raytheon’s mission. “If we don’t develop state-of-the-art

systems for our forces in a timely fashion, someone else

will — and it might not be one of our allies. It being a

large potential growth area for Raytheon, I believe that

the laser technologies we’re developing can save lives.”


To maintain an advantage in today’s

battlespace, our forces require the

ability to engage targets at longer

ranges and see them with higher resolution.

Active electro-optical (EO) systems

address this need, providing important mission

capabilities such as ranging, tracking,

marking, designating, 3-D imaging (ladar),

chemical and biological agent detection,

and laser defense using high-energy lasers

(HELs). Compared to passive EO systems

(FLIR or camera) or active radio frequency

(RF) systems (radar), active EO systems allow

us to increase both range and resolution

and also to perform new types of missions.

A critical component of any active EO

system is the laser used to illuminate the

target. To offer our customers the highest

performance systems, we must utilize

advanced lasers meeting ever more

challenging requirements in the areas of

laser power, beam quality, efficiency, size

and weight.

Lasers are inherently inefficient, converting

only a portion of the electrical input power

into useful laser output power. The size,

weight and input power of a laser system

are largely driven by two factors: 1) the

average output power of the laser and 2)

its efficiency. In the design of our active EO

systems, we typically optimize the system

design to minimize the required average

power from the laser and then optimize the

laser design for high efficiency. All lasers

require a “gain medium,” a material that

can emit a laser beam, and a “pump

source,” a means of exciting atoms in the

gain medium so that they emit light.

Historically, most military laser systems have

used arclamps to excite the laser gain medium

with resulting efficiencies of just a few

percent. During the past decade, efficiencies

of 20 percent or more have been

achieved by diode-pumped solid-state lasers

due to development of high-power laser

diodes as a more efficient means of exiting

the gain medium, as well as advances in

the gain medium configurations utilized.

While laser diode pumping is a key factor in

enabling high efficiency, scaling laser-output

power while maintaining high beam quality

necessitates improvements in the geometry

of the gain medium itself. Due to the fact

that lasers are not 100 percent efficient,

significant amounts of waste heat are

generated in the gain medium during laser

operation. This waste heat can create

distortions in the gain medium, adversely

affecting important properties of the laser

beam. Raytheon has long been at the

forefront of laser technology development

for military applications, and is currently

focused on advanced laser architectures

that leverage the benefits of laser diode

pumping and address the shortcomings

of conventional laser gain medium

Feature

Next-Generation Lasers

for Advanced

Active EO Systems

architectures such

as the venerable cylindrical

rod and, more recently, bulk

slab geometries. The optimal gain

medium geometry for a given application

varies, depending on the average power

and laser waveform, but all of the

advanced gain medium geometries

employed by Raytheon seek to minimize

the amount of waste heat and remove the

waste heat from the gain medium in a

manner that minimizes adverse effects on

the quality of the laser beam. The goal of

minimizing adverse thermal gradients within

the gain medium has led Raytheon to

focus on three primary gain medium

geometries for advanced laser systems:

microchip lasers, fiber lasers and planar

waveguide lasers.

Microchip lasers are very simple, robust

devices for applications requiring up to

~1W of average laser power. They can be

operated in a pulsed mode with pulse energies

up to ~1mJ and pulse widths as short

as ~1 nanosecond, enabling peak powers

up to 1MW. Fiber lasers and planar waveguide

lasers both enable scaling of laser

average power up to the kW level by using

gain medium geometries with large surface-

Continued on page 10

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 9


Feature Next-Generation Lasers

Continued from page 9

area-to-volume ratios that provide efficient

cooling of the gain medium and minimize

adverse thermal effects. Both can also be

efficiently pumped by laser diodes. In a

fiber laser, the gain medium is configured

as a long filament, while in a planar waveguide

(PWG), the gain medium is configured

as a thin sheet. Fiber lasers are well

suited to applications with average powers

up to 1kW when the pulse energy does not

exceed a few mJ. Planar waveguide lasers

are currently being developed by Raytheon

for applications with average powers ranging

from 10kW. The PWG has the

potential to scale in average power to the MW

level and produce pulse energies up to >1 J.

Fiber lasers evolved out of the telecom

community beginning in the late 1980s,

when they were invented to enable massive

increases in data throughput by directly

amplifying the packets of laser light that

carry information in fibers around the planet

and under the oceans. During the past

15 years or so, the power capability of fiber

lasers has increased five orders of magnitude,

from 10s of mW to several kW.

Raytheon is now actively exploring how

these efficient, versatile laser sources can be

inserted into advanced defense systems.

Figure 1 shows a fiber-based master oscillator,

power amplifier configuration. The fiber

gain medium is formed into a 10 cm coil,

Micro-laser

Remote fiber pigtailed pump diodes

Passively cooled fiber

~ 10 cm coil

10 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

and it is excited by several pump diodes.

Note that the pump power is directly coupled

into the gain fiber through conventional

passive fibers, thereby avoiding any

free-space optics in the pump coupling

function. A micro-laser generates a weak

signal containing the properties appropriate

for the intended application: wavelength,

spectral bandwidth, temporal profile, beam

quality, etc.; the fiber amplifier adds the

power. We see that, unlike most other

types of lasers, there are essentially no freespace

optics in the signal channel — just

robust, flexible fibers — and there is no

need for a rigid, thermally stable optical

bench. The inset shows the cross-section of

a state-of-the-art cladding-pumped fiber

amplifier. The active core occupies just a

fraction of the fiber, with most of the

cross-sectional area being made available

to receive the diode pump power. The fiber

is made sufficiently long that nearly all of

the pump power is ultimately absorbed by

the core, despite the small relative size of

the core. Typical dimensions are core

diameter ~ 20 μm, and pump cladding

diameter ~ 400 μm.

In addition to the packaging features of

fiber lasers, they are also among the most

efficient lasers ever built. One major factor

leading to the high efficiency has to do

with the tiny core along the fiber axis that

contains the laser ion (typically Yb or Er),

the pump light and the signal light. Since

the pump and signal are closely confined

Cladding-pumped fiber amplifier

Cross-section

Robust single-mode

output beam quality

Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing a fiber-based master oscillator, power amplifier laser

system. Inset shows the cross-section of a cladding-pumped fiber amplifier.

Core

Pump cladding

Outer cladding

(typ. polymer)

within the fiber, and the interaction length

can be made very long (many meters, if

necessary), very efficient conversion can

occur from the pump power to signal

power. Commercial fiber lasers typically

demonstrate more than 70 percent power

conversion efficiency from the pump to

signal. Another feature is that the tiny core

size does not allow anything but the lowest-order

transverse spatial profile, which

rigorously forces the beam divergence of

the output signal to the minimum value

allowed by fundamental physical laws.

These and other features are summarized

in Table 1.

Table 1. Features of Fiber Lasers

High efficiency, due to the excellent

spatial overlap of the pump and signal

Rigorously single-mode outputs

Favorable thermal geometry with a large

surface-to-volume ratio

Compact size and considerable

packaging flexibility

Recent technical breakthroughs

allowing power scaling to > 1kW with

a single fiber

Evolving all-fiber architectures free of any

free-space propagation of signal beams

Common pump-diode technology developed

for bulk crystalline solid-state lasers

A foundation in the telecom culture,

with mature materials and processes that

offer robust components with long

operational lifetimes

Not listed in Table 1 is “high power.” This is

because the same tiny core that makes fiber

lasers efficient and ensures excellent beam

quality also makes it difficult to produce

high-peak or average powers without either

degrading some other performance parameter

of interest, or causing severe damage

to the fiber medium. However, the laser

community is actively working on innovative

fiber laser designs that, hopefully, will

retain all of the key performance features

listed in Table 1, while allowing power scaling

by several orders of magnitude.

Raytheon is pursuing a proprietary

approach to accomplishing these objectives,

and we anticipate significant new power

capabilities in the next few years.


Near-term Raytheon applications of fiber

lasers have been in various versions of laser

sensors, including a state-of-the-art coherent

laser radar system. In the commercial

world, fiber lasers are becoming the laser of

choice in a number of laser processing

applications, most significantly in the marking

area where they essentially dominate all

other options.

Planar Waveguide Lasers (PWGs), are

high aspect ratio sandwich-type structures

consisting of a high-index active core surrounded

by lower index claddings. A PWG

is essentially a one-dimensional fiber in

which the thin transverse axis is guided and

the wide transverse axis is unguided. The

core, typically 5 to 200 μm thick, may be

single-mode or multimode and may be

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Figure 2. Planar waveguide gain medium showing pump insertion and output beam

James Mason

Senior Principal Fellow

Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems

When Jim Mason walked in the doors of Texas

Instruments — later part of Raytheon — 42 years ago,

he knew he found a home.

Mason was given opportunities to work on challenging

projects with the most advanced technologies; to work

with brilliant and motivated people; to support the

defense of our nation; and to get a paycheck on top of

all of that. After 42 years, you can still see his excitement.

“If you are excited about working with technology,

Raytheon is a great place to work!” he declared.

For the last 10 years Mason has worked on millimeter

wave (MMW) active electronically scanned arrays

(AESA) and MMW technology at Ka-band and W-band

frequencies. As part of this effort, Mason invented and

developed the low-cost MMW AESA concept. “This

radically different and eloquently simple concept is a

solution that is obvious to everybody,” Mason said,

“once they see it.” The low-cost AESA concept reduced

the per-channel cost by 10 times. This technology has

now been applied to the multibillion dollar, multifunction

RF System program.

AESA design technology covers a broad range of technology

disciplines, including RF, digital, power, monolithic

microwave integrated circuits, software, thermal,

materials and processes. The very high packaging densities

of this equipment makes it a particularly difficult

design challenge. Everything is interrelated and interconnected.

“It reminds me of the PBS TV show called

Feature

Continued on page 12

Connections,” Mason said. “It takes a person with a

broad experience base to span this technology breadth

and provide the leadership to connect the dots.”

The most rewarding aspect of his job, Mason said, is the

challenge. “There’s a fortune cookie that says, ‘My greatest

joy in life is accomplishing what others say is impossible.’

This is the challenge that I live for,” Mason said.

“Leading a team of less experienced design engineers

and showing them how to ask the right questions,

makes it even more rewarding. You can see the excitement

of the team build and we get closer and closer to a

solution. When this magic moment occurs, the dynamics

of the team are completely transformed.”

Mason is a strong believer in visualization, and it’s one

of the primary tools he uses when he invents something

new. “It’s a powerful technique that can be applied to all

aspects of a program, as well as your life. If you can see

it you can make it happen. It takes practice and a lot of

scientific background knowledge, but if you can develop

this ability, you can change the world.” It helps,

Mason said, to spend time with children. “Not only is it

fun, but they will teach you how to think like a child.

That’s what you need to be an inventor.”

Reflecting on what aspect of his job keeps him up at

night, Mason relates a “conversation” that he might have

with his subconscious. “You know that problem that

you asked me to work on several days ago? Well I’ve got

the answer. Hope you are ready to get started, because

I can’t sleep.” He commits many of his most difficult

problems to his subconscious, and his mind, he said,

“Let’s me know when it’s ready.”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 11


Feature Next-Generation Lasers

Continued from page 11

core- or cladding-pumped. The guiding

structure allows high pump absorption efficiency.

The high aspect ratio offers a large

surface-area-to-volume ratio for efficient

cooling and a high power loading limit.

With an aspect ratio of 100:1 or higher, a

100kW-class PWG will require only 30 to

40cm of length. The guided propagation of

the signal beam in the thin core of a PWG

cancels thermal lensing, permitting a wide

operating power range with low optical

distortion. The high intensity in a PWG

(~1MW/cm 2 ) provides very efficient power

extraction (fiber lasers run ~100MW/cm 2 ).

If designed with a low numerical aperture,

PWGs can provide very high gain with low

amplified spontaneous emission.

Raytheon has been the leader in laser

amplifier power scaling, previously setting

world records for the highest output power

from a single rod, 2.6kW, and the highest

output power from a single zigzag slab,

8kW. The planar waveguide architecture is

a natural evolution from zigzag slabs as the

aspect ratio is increased. Advances in slab

fabrication capability have enabled the creation

of planar waveguides with aspect

ratios of 100:1 and higher in the sizes

required for weapon-class lasers. Raytheon

presented data on a record-setting highpower

Yb:YAG planar waveguide amplifier

at SSDLTR 2006. This device demonstrated

single-pass small signal gains up to 1,200

(240W output with a 200mW input beam)

and 16.1kW output power in a single-pass

MOPA with G=160 (100W input beam).

Electrical to optical efficiency at 16kW output

power was 20 percent. The results were

in excellent agreement with Raytheon’s

laser kinetics models. Raytheon’s models

predict no major technical obstacles to

power scaling even up to the MW level.

Slab fabrication capabilities currently support

fabrication of 100kW-class PWG

devices. Further power scaling will require

additional slab fabrication process development.

With its world-record demonstration,

Raytheon has proven the applicability of the

planar waveguide laser architecture for use

12 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Figure 3. 16kW planar waveguide MOPA configuration hardware under test

in compact, efficient, weapon-class,

solid-state lasers.

Future Trends

Emerging requirements for efficient,

compact lasers that operate in the desirable

1,500nm wavelength window (also referred

to as “eye-safe” wavelength regime) have

spawned efforts to develop lasers based on

the resonantly pumped Er ion. In addition

to operating in this desirable wavelength

band, resonantly pumped Er lasers offer

the potential of extremely high efficiency

and — perhaps more importantly — low

thermal waste heat generation due to the

extremely small quantum defect made possible

by the Er ion energy level energetics

and dynamics (illustrated in Figure 4).

2 F5/2

Pump

941 nm

~9% Waste Heat

2 F7/2

Yb:YAG

10902

10624 cm

10327

-1

Laser

Transition

1029 nm

785

612

565

0

Figure 4. Energy level structure for Yb:YAG and Er:YAG

cm-1

Raytheon has demonstrated 57 percent

slope efficiency in ErYAG (shown in Figure

5) and others have recently achieved >81

percent efficiencies from the same material.

More recently, Raytheon has demonstrated

ultra-low quantum defect operation

(


Output Power [W]

15

10

5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50

Input Power [W]

1645nm Er:YAG laser pumped at 1534nm

CW Operation: 32% slope efficiency with

respect to incident power (57% with

respect to absorbed power)

Figure 5. Resonantly pumped ErYAG laser

results showing high efficiencies

transmitter/system — especially when

implemented in conjunction with the PWG

gain architecture/geometry.

Summary

Advanced active EO systems will be

critical to providing a competitive advantage

to our forces for the foreseeable

future. To maintain its position as a leading

provider of these systems, Raytheon is

actively maintaining a leadership position

in the development of the next-generation

lasers that power these active EO systems.

Development of advanced laser architectures,

such as fiber and planar waveguide

lasers, along with advances in laser diode

technology and gain medium materials,

will fuel Raytheon’s growth in this expanding

market segment.

David Filgas

dmfilgas@raytheon.com

Co-authors: Dr. David Rockwell and

Dr. Kalin Spariosu

Prior to the discovery of the laser in

1960, optical range measurements

depended on the use of incoherent

spark sources that suffered from large pulse

widths and high-beam divergence. The

laser’s narrow, high-energy pulses and highly

collimated monochromatic beam made

for an ideal source and revolutionized

rangefinder accuracy and functionality. It

was soon realized that these narrowlinewidth

sources would make heterodyne

detection possible in the infrared (IR) and

optical spectral range.

Laser radar (or ladar — laser detection and

ranging) is an extension of conventional

microwave radar techniques to much shorter

wavelengths (by a factor of 100,000).

Like microwave radar, ladar can simultaneously

measure range, velocity, reflectivity,

and azimuth and elevation angles. Ladar is

well suited for precise measurements useful

in target classification and recognition, but

ill suited for wide-area search because of

the time and energy required.

Laser radars, with their optical wavelengths

and active sensing, behave like forwardlooking

infrared sensors in terms of angular

resolution, and like microwave radars in

terms of range and velocity measuring

capability. However, coherent effects and

extreme wavelength differences give rise

to phenomena not seen in these more

traditional sensors.

For example, coherence of the laser transmitter

causes speckle in the return from

optically rough target surfaces. The apparent

brightness of individual scene pixels

may fluctuate wildly, giving visually poor

intensity imagery unless considerable scene

averaging is applied, which requires more

time on target and more consumed energy.

Often, ladar images are better displayed as

range rather than intensity images.

Feature

Raytheon Achieves Advanced Radar

Functionality at Optical Wavelengths

via Coherent Ladar

The extremely short wavelengths typical of

ladars move the noise floors well into the

quantum dominated regime. Thermal noise

is the driving limit in sensitivity in radars,

however, in ladars the quantized photon

energy in the signal and background light

drive the noise floor sensitivity. As the

wavelengths approach visible light, the

signal itself becomes noise-like and the

detection threshold becomes roughly one

photon. In addition, the short wavelengths

give rise to huge Doppler shifts that may

require processing bandwidths far greater

than needed in conventional radar.

Coherent Ladar Capabilities at Raytheon

Coherent ladar became viable in the early

1980s with the development of frequency

stable CO2 laser transmitters. Raytheon

(then Hughes Aircraft) was in the forefront

of the technology development, flying the

first frequency modulated (FM) ladars in

1981–86. Radar waveforms such as Linear

FM Chirps were used. In the late 1980s,

diode-pumped solid-state lasers replaced

the CO2 gas lasers as the preferred transmitters

for ladar, due to their simpler and

more robust designs.

Inverse Synthetic Aperture Ladar

During the mid-1990s, Raytheon developed

and demonstrated one of the first flyable

coherent ladar systems to measure space

object microdynamics for discrimination

between precision decoys and RVs for the

Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). The

Advanced Discriminating Ladar Transceiver

(ADLT) sensor used a short wavelength,

coherent mode-locked, solid-state transceiver

and inverse synthetic aperture ladar processing

to provide range-resolved Doppler

imagery of the target. The laser transmitter

used a fiber-optic laser waveform generator,

which produced the coherent, high-bandwidth

waveform and amplified this signal

within a multi-stage diode-pumped, solid-state

Continued on page 14

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 13


Feature

Continued from page 13

amplifier with extremely high efficiency and

high gain. The challenges that were overcome

during the demonstration phase of

the ADLT program included development of

a fiber-based waveform generator, widebandwidth

signal processing (~1 GHz), and

a high laser amplifier gain (~3,000) requiring

a new laser material (Nd:YVO 4 ). The

success of the ADLT demonstration proved

that coherent ladar has a much higher payoff

than simpler direct detection systems, by

allowing a multitude of waveforms to

extract subtle discriminating target features.

Synthetic Aperture Ladar

In January 2003, Raytheon was awarded

DARPA’s Synthetic Aperture Ladar for

Tactical Imaging (SALTI) Program. The program

culminated on Feb. 17, 2006, with

production of the world’s first synthetic

aperture ladar image from an airborne platform.

This success dramatically advanced

state-of-the-art ladar research by transitioning

ladar technology from the lab to actual

flight demonstrations.

SALTI is an imaging synthetic aperture ladar

that operates at optical wavelengths.

Traditional radar components, such as

exciters, antennas and waveguides, have all

been replaced by their optical equivalents:

14 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

lenses, mirrors, and beam splitters to enable

control of optical waveforms. Optical ladars

exploit platform motion to synthesize a synthetic

aperture in exactly the same manner as

RF radars; significant differences include dwelltime

and beam-footprint on the ground.

The result is a narrow field-of-view imaging

sensor capable of producing ultra-high resolution

2-D and 3-D images of the target.

SALTI’s success is built on several years of

intense work overcoming many difficult

problems confronting optical ladars: atmospherics,

vibration and motion compensation,

Doppler processing and laser phase

noise. The random nature of the atmosphere

introduces phase-noise into signals,

resulting in degraded pulse compression.

Slow-time image compression requires

Doppler knowledge beyond that obtainable

via inertial navigation systems and intertial

measurement unit instrumentation; new

motion compensation techniques had to be

invented. Modern radars employ state-of-theart,

sub-Hz clock oscillators. In comparison,

the best 1.55 μm laser sources have kHz-level

linewidths — again, new solutions had to

be invented to surmount these problems.

After flying 30-plus successful missions over

land and water, SALTI has demonstrated the

imaging capabilities achievable through

optical SAR. In conjunction with modern

Vibration Ladar Sensor maps ground vibration response to detect buried objects.

Coherent Ladar

radars, optical SAR offers very powerful

capabilities to augment persistent track and

assured ID mission requirements. With the

upcoming SALTI Phase IV & V programs,

Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems

(SAS) is preparing to transition the SALTI

technology toward a deliverable long-range

sensor system for our customers.

Vibration Ladar

Using the ladar technology base developed

under the SALTI imaging ladar program,

Raytheon SAS has embarked into the vibrometric

sensor market.

Our goal is to develop an instrument capable

of watching the surface of the Earth

vibrate, similar to high-speed photography

of a drum head, or the resultant waves of a

water drop rippling across the surface of a

mill pond. Specialized signal processing will

enable the warfighter to isolate and detect

vibrations from objects buried in the Earth.

Vibrometric sensing contains a number of

unique and interesting scientific challenges

to overcome. First and foremost is the issue

of platform motion: How can signal processing

detect faint vibrations on the

ground’s surface while driving over a rocky,

gravel road that induces massive random

vibrations into the gimbaled optical sensor?

Raytheon researchers working on SALTI had

begun to investigate this question, focusing

on the goal of augmenting SALTI’s already

impressive imaging capabilities with vibrometry.

Our research team designed and built

a table-top laser Doppler vibrometer and

began testing platform motion detection

and compensation algorithms. A successful

Independent Research and Development

(IR&D) project in fiscal year 2007 led to

patentable intellectual property and patent

applications are underway.

Ongoing and Future IR&D Efforts:

Receivers

Raytheon SAS ladar researchers quickly realized

that ladar sensors generate raw data

streams comparable to modern active electronically

scanned array radars. Consequently,

ladar and radar architects and signal processing

specialists collaborated, resulting in a


significant transfer of knowledge. Specifics

include radar pulse compression, phase compensation

(“pre-warp”), Hilbert transforms,

and Chirp-Z transforms, just to name a few.

Doppler centroiding is one of the most serious

issues confronting ladars operating in

the near-infrared eyesafe wavelength band

(1.55 μm). This effect arises from the

Doppler relationship between platform

velocity and optical wavelength. Thus,

ladars demand very stringent timing

requirements between wideband sensor

data and narrowband line-of-sight (LOS)

servo-control mechanisms. Traditional

passive IR LOS mechanisms think in two

dimensions, known as angle–angle space.

In comparison, ladar LOS mechanisms must

ENGINEERING PROFILE

think in three dimensions: angle–angle and

range. As a result, ladar receivers are evolving

rapidly, incorporating commonly used

real-time radar processing techniques,

including in-phase and quadrature processing,

digital filtering and decimation.

These demands have led to the concept of

a fully integrated ladar LOS servo controller,

exciter and receiver, which is similar in concept

to active electronically scanned array

(AESA) radars but with appropriate modifications

for ladar. Currently, ladar and radar

technologists across Raytheon are sharing

information on architectures, wideband

data formats, data transmission and data

storage techniques. As ladar receivers

continue to evolve and incorporate radar

Jéan-Paul Bulot

Principal Multi-Disciplined Engineer

Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems

Jéan-Paul Bulot is an architect and research scientist

working on several coherent ladar programs led by

Space and Airborne Systems’ Advanced Concepts and

Technology: SALTI, SAVi and NSEP. He is also the principal

investigator and a part-time member of multiple

internal research and development teams working on

ultra-high bandwidth coherent waveforms, advanced

ladar speckle noise reduction techniques, laser doppler

vibrometry and vibrometric algorithms.

“My job is to stretch the boundary of what’s possible, to

illuminate the path of new scientific discoveries

enabling my customer goals,” according to Bulot.

Bulot believes his drive to become an engineer began

early. “There’s this famous family photo of me spinning

a soup can at the age of three,” he recalled. “By sixteen I

knew I was going to be an engineer of some sort.”

His career at Raytheon began in 2000, when Maurice

Halmos, senior ladar scientist, and Lou Klaras, senior

laser electronics engineer, were looking for creative

minds to tackle difficult multi-disciplinary problems in

ladar. A good friend and fellow Georgia Tech engineer

already working at Raytheon sent Bulot’s resume to

Klaras and, according to Bulot, “It’s been a nonstop

rollercoaster ever since.”

Bulot cites many reasons for the success he has found in

his career. “I grew up without TV in a family that

encouraged independence, creativity, self-reliance and

Feature

technology lessons learned, Raytheon SAS

is well positioned to provide this blending

of RF and photonics technologies into an

integrated active sensor system capable of

significant stand-off ranges with remarkable

synthetic aperture image clarity. The

enhanced sensing capability afforded by

Raytheon’s coherent ladar systems will allow

the sensing platforms to perform their

critical target detection, identification and

handoff missions while remaining out of

harm’s way.

Dr. Maurice J Halmos

mjhalmos@raytheon.com

Co-authors: Jean-Paul Bulot and

Dr. Matthew J. Klotz

the idea of being able to self-educate,” he said. “I am

particularly grateful that my parents instilled the idea

that there is always positive learning to be discovered,

even in failures.”

“My engineering is akin to my big-wave surfing: I seek

the path of balance in a rapidly and dynamically changing

environment. Failure is my friend and feedback

mechanism that tells me if my intuition is correct. I

trust my team — I champion their successes. Where I

perceive shortcomings, I lend a hand, and if I don’t

know the answer I find someone who does.”

This collaborative approach is seen in Bulot’s commitment

to teaching and mentoring junior engineers, a

commitment he sees as mutually beneficial. “Explaining

an idea empowers the student to grow in skill and

progress forward in life and career, while offering the

teacher a fresh viewpoint and opportunity to further

probe and improve the true understanding of how

something works.”

His work at Raytheon allows Bulot to continually learn

and grow by interacting with a diverse group of

employees committed to success. “I enjoy working with

individuals who exhibit excellence in all manner of

their professional and personal lives; it’s fascinating and

inspiring to have the opportunity to discuss a broad

spectrum of ideas and I appreciate differing points of

view. I believe life offers the opportunity to be both a

student and a teacher everyday; as the famous woodworker

George Nakashima once said, ‘work can be a

form of yoga for the mind.’”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 15


Feature

Radio Frequency Sensors

Small, Low-Power Radars Satisfy Big Needs

When we think of Raytheon and radars, we usually think of large missile defense radars like the Sea-Based X-band Radar, early

warning radars like the PAVE PAWS, or fighter aircraft radars for the U.S. Navy’s F/A-18. However, the advancement of solidstate

radio frequency (RF) active circuit technology and packaging during the past several years has enabled the proliferation of

more affordable active phased array antennas to many more applications. In this issue you will read about small radars used to protect military

aircraft and their crew from intruders after they land in remote areas, and an exciting new system on the horizon with the potential to

provide significantly improved warning for severe weather on a very local scale.

When one thinks of RF and networks, it is usually in the context of communications. Radars, however, may also be used in networks so

that they operate autonomously or together to do their job. Think of having the ability to simultaneously view a football game from several

angles, much like what happens inside the control-room truck of a television crew covering the event. The director has the complex task

of scanning the various camera options as the play unfolds and deciding which camera to select for what gets aired. A network of radars

essentially operates similarly. Each radar may observe, from different vantage points, the same phenomena, and when the information is

re-constructed and processed we see a lot of details about what we are observing. In the medical world, CT scans (computed tomography)

work similarly, using X-rays to form a 3-D image of the body. In this case, we use RF and the antennas are fixed while the weather is moving;

whereas, in CT scans, we are stationary while the X-ray machine moves (well sort of, we actually move as well, so that many slices

may be taken as the X-ray machine moves around us in a circle). This technique allows us to observe more details of the weather as it

develops and ultimately improve accuracy and warning times for severe weather such as tornadoes.

Landing military aircraft in areas of the world where our soldiers are in harm’s way is very dangerous to the soldiers and the aircraft and its

contents. A new system has been devised using millimeter wave radars that allow our warfighters to deploy sensors around the perimeter

of the aircraft to provide warning against intruders. This frees up the soldiers to perform tasks relevant to the aircraft’s contents, and it

requires less manpower for standing watch.

Mike Sarcione

michael_g_sarcione@raytheon.com

16 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY


Feature

Active Panel Array Technology

Enables Affordable Weather Radar

Today’s weather forecasting and

warning infrastructure uses data

from high-power radars that have

helped meteorologists improve forecasts

significantly in the past 20-plus years.

Despite having substantial capability to

measure wind and rainfall and to diagnose

storms, these long-range radars have limited

ability to observe the lowest and most

critical part of the atmosphere owing to the

Earth’s curvature. This prevents the radars

from observing the behavior of tornadoes

and other hazards at or near ground level.

As a result, one in five tornadoes goes

undetected by current technology, and

80 percent of all tornado warnings turn

out to be false alarms.

Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems (IDS),

in partnership with a team of academic 1 ,

government and industrial collaborators,

has formed a National Science Foundation

Engineering Research Center (ERC) called

the Center for Collaborative Adaptive

Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) to

address this problem. CASA is researching

a new weather hazard forecasting and

warning technology based on low-cost,

dense networks of radars that operate at

short range, communicate with one

another, and adjust their sensing strategies

in direct response to the evolving weather

and to changing end-user needs. In contrast

to today’s large weather radars with

10-meter-diameter antennas, the antennas

in CASA networks are expected to be onemeter

in diameter with electronics that are

about the size of a personal computer. This

small size allows these radars to be placed

on existing cellular towers and rooftops,

enabling them to comprehensively map

damaging winds and heavy rainfall from

the top of storms down to the critical

boundary layer region beneath the view

of current technology.

This approach can achieve breakthrough

improvements in resolution and update

Figure 1. CASA test network data

times, leading to significant reductions in

tornado false alarms; quantitative precipitation

estimation for more accurate flood

prediction; fine-scale wind field imaging;

and the estimation of thermodynamic state

variables for use in short-term numerical

forecasting and other applications such as

airborne hazard dispersion forecasting. In

addition to the radars and their associated

hardware and data communication infrastructure,

a new generation of meteorological

software is being developed to target

the resources in these radars in order to

simultaneously support emergency managers

and government and private industry

organizations that need weather data for

making critical decisions.

Field tests reveal that this technology offers

observing capabilities fundamentally

beyond today’s state of the art. The background

image in Figure 1 shows a thunderstorm

observed using a 4-radar test network

deployed in “Tornado Alley.” At 500-meter

spatial resolution, the system is capable of

resolving critical substructure within the

storm cell that cannot be resolved with the

coarser resolution, more distant WSR-88D

radars deployed operationally today.

At a typical spacing of 30 km, 10,000 of

these radars would be required to blanket

the contiguous United States. Such radars

would require only 10’s of W of average

transmitter power, yet they would be capable

of fine-scale storm mapping throughout

the entire troposphere — from the critical

low troposphere “gap” region below 3 km,

up to the tops of storms. Such networks

thus have the potential to supplement — or

perhaps replace — the large networks in

use today.

Blanket deployment of thousands of small

radar nodes across an entire nation is but

one of several possible future deployment

strategies for this technology. Additional

strategies would include selective deployment

of smaller networks in heavy population

areas, geographic regions particularly

prone to wind hazards or flash floods,

valleys within mountainous regions, or

specific regions where it is particularly

important to improve observation of lowlevel

meteorological phenomena. Cost,

maintenance and reliability issues, as well

as aesthetics, motivate the use of small

(approximately 1-meter diameter, 2-degree

beamwidth) antennas that could be

installed on either low-cost towers or

existing infrastructure elements (such as

rooftops or cellular communication towers).

The cost to deploy and operate such

a network will include the upfront cost of

the radars and their associated communication

and computation infrastructure, along

with the recurring costs to maintain the

systems; buy or rent land and space on

towers/rooftops; and provide for data

communication between the radars,

operations and control centers, and users.

These costs, in addition to numerous

technological and system-level tradeoffs,

need to be balanced to ultimately develop

an effective system design.

Phased arrays are a key enabling technology

in many production radars today and a

desirable technology for use in dense

networks since they do not require

Continued on page 18

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 17


Feature

Continued from page 17

maintenance of moving parts and they

permit flexibility in beam steering. A particular

challenge in realizing cost-effective

dense networks composed of thousands of

radars will be to achieve a design that can

be volume-manufactured for approximately

$10,000 per array (current dollars). Several

thousand transmit/receive (T/R) channels are

needed to realize a phased array capable of

electronically steering a 2-degree beam in

two dimensions over the desired scan range

of these radars. The realization of such an

antenna will benefit from leveraging commodity

silicon RF semiconductors to achieve

T/R functions, in combination with very

low-cost packaging, fabrication and

assembly techniques. Below, we describe a

promising architecture and prototype of a

phased array that can be manufactured

using processes similar to those for making

low-cost computer boards.

System Performance/Cost Objective and

Active Panel Array Approach

The air-cooled panel array is the “building

block” for a larger, active phased array. The

strategy for reducing cost is based on the

following four objectives:

1. Significant reduction in printed wiring

board (PWB) fabrication and assembly

process steps

Fabrication: One image and etch, one

lamination, one drill and plate

Assembly: One solder reflow operation

to attach all components

2. Significant reduction in components

Surface mount “flip-chip” MMICs and

components

Modular: Highly integrated RF, DC and

logic PWB manifold

Environmental coatings/protection

tailored to application

3. Reliance on established technology

Incorporation of mature and advanced

technologies as required

Low-power designs (


Slot Coupling to Radiator: A slot coupled

feed to stacked patches simplifies PWB

fabrication while providing excellent RF

performance.

Beamformer Circuits: Untrimmed ink

resistors are used because of lower

fabrication cost. The tolerance of the

ink resistor has been incorporated into

the design.

DC. High-current power plane is located

on the layer directly below the surface

mount MMIC layer.

Logic. Logic lines are routed between

each unit cell’s RF isolation cage.

Modeled dual-linear polarized performance,

including a radome, is summarized:

VSWR < 2:1 for maximum scan

angle of 65 degrees

Ohmic loss < 1dB

Minimum/Maximum cross-polarization:

-29dB/ -11dB

Progress

A prototype active T/R channel panel array,

the building block for a 1m2 weather radar,

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Amplitude (dB)

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30

-35

-40

-60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Azimuth (deg)

was assembled with “flip-chip” MMICs and

tested. Figure 4 shows active receive, linearhorizontal

polarized patterns of the T/R

channel panel array at 9.5GHz; the dotted

line is cross-polarization.

Future Plans

In 2008, Raytheon will assemble a panel

array. It will be integrated and tested with a

DC/DC converter panel (using COTS converters)

and a receiver-exciter (REX) panel

Angelo Puzella

Program Manager, Low-Cost Active Arrays

Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems

0

Hcut

Hcut

Advanced Technology Program Manager Angelo Puzella

believes it’s important for engineers to think outside the

numbers, facts and figures that are central to their jobs.

By doing this, he said, they can spark their creativity. “If

you’re looking around you at other things, you might see

something that triggers an idea,” he said.

Puzella himself has found many opportunities to apply

this approach to his own 25-year Raytheon career. An

annual visitor to Italy (his wife is from Milan), Puzella

has acquired an appreciation for classical architecture

among the Roman ruins and renaissance architecture

of Florence. From looking at temples, amphitheaters,

aqueducts and churches, he said, you can see the

underlying building block: the simple arch. “This

common engineering building block served to raise

huge vaulted domes and span great ravines, built civic

and religious institutions, and provided the necessary

infrastructure for ancient civilizations.”

Amplitude (dB)

0

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30

-35

Vcut

Vcut

Figure 4. 128 T/R channel panel array: active component side

Feature

-40

-60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Elevation (deg)

(also using COTS components) in the

prototype 1m 2 array frame with radome.

The first fully populated 1m 2 weather radar

will be field-tested in 2009.

Angelo Puzella

angelo_puzella@raytheon.com

Co-author: David J. McLaughlin

1 The core academic partners of the CASA team are the University

of Massachusetts Amherst (lead university), University of

Oklahoma, Colorado State University, and University of Puerto

Rico at Mayaguez.

As part of IDS’ Advanced Technology, Puzella has carried

the idea of a common building block to active phased

arrays: a panel array composed of the same materials;

fabricated and assembled in the same fashion; and used

to assemble a larger, active phased array for various

applications. The active panel array is similar to a computer

board and the key is to leverage commercial manufacturing

to incorporate mature or advanced semiconductor

technologies as needed. The potential applications

for panel arrays range from weather radars to battlefield

radars and terrestrial and satellite communications.

“The ultimate goal for panel array technology,” Puzella

said, “would to be as ubiquitous and useful as the arch

has been throughout the past 2,000 years.”

To achieve this, Puzella believes, it’s important to take

risks. “The commercial world is full of examples of people

taking risks, of using trial and error and inspiration.

If you can push something forward like this panel, other

applications come up for it.”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 19


Feature

Adaptive Land

Enhanced Raytheon

Radar Technology

“Small radar” provides big protection

AC-17 Globemaster III lands on a

remote airfield under the cover of

darkness. Forward-deployed

warfighters emerge and quickly perform

their mission. One of the warfighters opens

a case that contains tripods, batteries, sensors

and communication equipment. Within

minutes, a secured zone of protection is

established around the entire aircraft,

extending at least 100 meters from each

sensor head. Throughout the night, the

warfighters perform their duties with the

confidence that no one will approach their

aircraft undetected.

Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems (IDS)

has made this concept a reality. A perimeter

security system for aircraft protection has

already been field-tested by the U.S. Air

Force, and Raytheon continues to make

enhancements to have the system ready with

the most current and advanced technology.

The sensor used for the aircraft protection

concept is a millimeter-wave multi-beam

radar that has been internally developed by

IDS Engineering’s Advanced Technology

group. Known as an Adaptive Land

Enhanced Raytheon Radar Technology

(ALERRT) sensor, it can be configured to

operate in multiple perimeter security

scenarios that require portable or fixed

asset protection.

An ALERRT sensor weighs a mere two

pounds, is the size of a paperback book,

and is battery-powered. It can be mounted

on tripods, fences and buildings. Designed

for low-power consumption, an ALERRT

sensor is ideal for missions where line

power may not be available for an extended

period of time. An ALERRT sensor can be

used in a wired or wireless configuration,

20 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

with the detection of vehicle

or personnel presence

transmitted to a display unit.

For large, multiple, or irregularly

shaped assets, the ALERRT sensors

can be networked to provide expanded

zones of protection. Each sensor provides a

detection range of 100 meters and at least

100 degrees of coverage.

The fielded system mentioned earlier in

this article is the Aircraft Self-Protection

Security System (ASPSS) developed for the

Electronic Systems Center, Hanscom Air

Force Base, Bedford, Mass. Using four

ALERRT sensors, along with wireless

communication equipment and a handheld

user display, the Air Force is able to provide

complete 360-degree coverage of a single

An ALERRT sensor is easily mountable on

tripods, fences and buildings.

An ALERRT sensor weighs about 2 pounds.

aircraft. Using the handheld user display,

the aircraft security personnel can configure

the system and with a quick glance monitor

the secured zone of protection.

Additional ALERRT sensors increase coverage

and enable protection of multiple aircraft

parked together. Given the large dimensions

of many military transport aircraft, it is

crucial to have 360-degree coverage during

nighttime and adverse weather conditions.

The ALERRT sensors used in the ASPSS

give aircraft security personnel low-cost

detection capabilities in various environmental

conditions. This is accomplished

without the use of additional personnel,

artificial lighting or other technologies.

The ALERRT sensor can be adapted beyond

military perimeter security for other applications,

such as FAA runway incursion detection

and cleared-zone facility security for

important assets like sensitive communications

components or ammunition depots.

In addition, the ALERRT sensor can be

integrated with other sensor technologies

to form a layered defense in more complex

protection scenarios.

The mission of Raytheon IDS is to provide

warfighters with the most reliable and

affordable protection of persons and property.

And this is exactly the value that the

ALERRT sensor adds when integrated into

the highly portable, low-power perimeter

security system.

David Hall

david_l_hall@raytheon.com


LEADERS CORNER

Greg Alston

Vice President,

Mission Assurance

Recently, Technology Today sat down

with Greg Alston, Raytheon vice

president of Mission Assurance.

Alston joined the company last June,

after more than 30 years with the U.S. Air

Force, where he most recently served as

a civilian senior executive in the role of

deputy chief of safety and executive

director of the Air Force Safety Center.

He was also a command pilot with more

than 2,000 flying hours in the F-4, F-16,

AT-38 and F-117A.

Alston discussed how he is leveraging

his Air Force safety experience to develop

an integrated enterprise Mission Assurance

vision and strategy at Raytheon, the importance

of organizational assurance, and

what Mission Assurance means to him.

TT: There seems to be several definitions

for Mission Assurance. Do you have a

standard one?

GA: That’s a challenge because there really

isn’t a standard definition. I’m currently

working on a dissertation titled

“Comprehensive Mission Assurance” and

interestingly, there’s not a lot of research

on the subject. They don’t know how to

package and define it.

TT: Why is it so hard to define?

GA: First of all, you need to determine

what mission you are assuring. And, you

can’t just assure one mission. For instance,

at Raytheon we have several missions,

starting with customer success. To support

customer success, we also need to assure

our corporate success, production success

and organizational success. These are all

interrelated, and they build and count on

each other.

TT: Then what are some of the leading

definitions of Mission Assurance?

GA: From research, a common theme is

“the belief, or conviction, that mission

objectives will be satisfactorily achieved.”

There is also the definition of Christopher

Alberts and Audrey Dorofee in their report

Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol which

describes it as “establishing a reasonable

degree of confidence in mission success.”

Even at Raytheon, the businesses have

slightly different definitions. The closest we

come to a common definition is “the discipline

to manage inherent risk and to allocate

resources to ensure mission success in

collaboration with our customers and suppliers.”

This is a risk-based definition,

which I believe is an essential foundation.

TT: Why is risk important?

GA: All action bears risk. We need risk for

successful action and mission success. If

we have too little risk, that equates to

inadequate action, and we fail in absolute

mission success. At the other extreme, too

much risk results in strained resources, and

we again fail to achieve mission success.

The right amount of measured, controlled

risk is what drives mission success.

In the end, we need to look at risk as a

resource. It’s a resource like a medicine.

You need medicine to stay alive, but if you

take too much, it can kill you. If you don’t

get enough, it can kill you. If you have the

right amount, you stay alive and you’re

healthy. So risk is like that, you can’t live

without it. By definition it’s one of our

resources we have to have. We have to coexist

with risk.

TT: Will risk be one of the things you’re

focusing on in 2008?

GA: This year we are looking at better

integrating Mission Assurance across the

enterprise, and a big part of that is looking

at organizational risk through a concept

called organizational assurance, which

helps identify normalizations of deviance.

TT: Normalizations of deviance?

GA: Yes, it’s a strange phrase, used by

Diane Vaughan in her book, The

Challenger Launch Decision. What it refers

to is when you deviate from a good standard,

you allow substandard performance.

You may have the best processes, but if

you accept substandard performance, this

can lead to undue risk. What it means is

this: What you tolerate today becomes

normalized tomorrow.

There are famous cases where the cause of

a crash or disaster wasn’t because of poor

processes or individual performance, but

because the organizations failed as a

whole. Things like scheduling pressures

caused managers to deviate from a good

standard, and say launch when they otherwise

would not have. It’s about the discipline

to do the right thing. In some cases people

were breaking the rules and the leaders

were allowing it to happen. So in these

cases you had leadership problems and

you had discipline problems that presented

organizational risks that led to mission failures.

Normalizations of deviance are often seen

when cutting corners, especially when it is

allowed by management. If a programmer

Continued on page 22

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 21


LEADERS CORNER

Continued from page 21

says, “I’ve got to meet this deadline,” and

doesn’t follow a rule, to me, that has introduced

an unnecessary risk. The schedule

has taken precedence over delivering a

good, sound product. So in such a case you

start with a quality problem and it just

snowballs. Often, because of cutting corners,

the product isn’t quite right, and then

you have to rework it. Costs start going up.

Delays happen. So in this example, the

programmer tried to get it out the door

quickly by cutting corners at the risk of

quality and risked an unhappy customer.

Leaders and managers need to hold people

accountable for knowingly breaking a rule

or not doing the right things. If they don’t,

others will see that poor behavior is tolerated,

and a normalization of deviance will

exist throughout the community.

TT: How do you eliminate normalizations of

deviance and organizational risks?

GA: It starts with core values, and how well

they are embraced. Raytheon is fortunate to

have wonderful core values. They are fundamentally

what we need for Mission

Assurance. It begins by treating people with

dignity and respect, and taking care of their

needs. Integrity is also key. If we don’t have

that we don’t have anything.

Of course, no organization is perfect because

they are made up of us, people. People are

fallible. It’s the human factor. You can’t

change that. You can only change the conditions

in which we work. That's what organizational

assurance is all about: people —

human factors — and a healthy organization

that demonstrates top performance.

Typically, avoiding normalizations of

deviance is as simple as practicing core values

and holding others accountable to them. It is

focusing on organizational health, and identifying

what’s tolerated by leadership.

It starts with the individual. If your job is to

torque a bolt and you over torque it, and

your supervisor knows that you’ve done it

three times that day, you might think: “I'm

not going to tell anybody.” The part may

fail when the customer uses the product.

That person has to know that he or she

needs to speak up, always. My motto is

never walk past a problem.

22 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

This is the next level of Mission

Assurance — making sure the organization

is healthy. Leadership is responsible for making

sure that the organization works. If the

organization is healthy, the processes will be

shaped, focused, agreed upon and will

work to make quality products. If the

organization is not healthy — that is, has

undue organizational risks — processes may

not work, and this may lead to mission failure.

A healthy organization has positive

dynamics like strong teamwork and communication,

and good leadership. It has

the discipline to follow the good standards

that have been set.

TT: So what actions can you take or tools

can you use to improve organizational

assurance?

GA: There are three tools we are looking to

develop in partnership with the businesses.

One will be about mission risk assessment

or organizational risk assessment, and is

called an organizational assurance assessment.

It’s where a psychologist leads a team

through a series of careful processes and

methodologies to find breakdowns within

an organization that are leading to mission

failure. He or she will take a week to go in

and dig down into an organization, conduct

interviews and do the analysis. Follow-on

normally takes about two weeks. It’s a little

intrusive, but it works and the process has

been adopted by some of our customers.

The second tool is a risk assessment and

mitigation process — or RAMP tool. It identifies

hazards in any aspect of an organization.

It then breaks out associated risks and

quantifies them, and rank orders them. It

can answer questions like, what’s the

biggest risk to your organization? And then

it quantifies the risk mitigation. So we can

tell a business leader that “17 percent of all

your risk is this, or that, 6 percent is in this

or that area, etc.” and here's the mitigation

strategy — quantified of course. It can tell a

leader the best mitigation strategies he or

she can implement with considerations of

cost, time, mission impact, organizational

impact and available technology. We can

tell leaders that if they apply a particular

mitigation strategy, they will reduce their

risk by such and such percent. And if they

do “x” strategy, it will also have a positive

effect on “y” and “z” hazards, so they get

Q&A With Greg Alston

more bang for the buck, and the strategy is

quantified by percentage of possible overall

risk reduction.

The third tool is what we’re going to call

RMAT — Raytheon Mission Assurance Tool.

It’s a very non-intrusive tool, a 15-minute

online survey. The theory here is to canvass

all of Raytheon. It will point out which

organizations have a problem in different

areas where Mission Assurance may be

affected, and will red-flag them. It’ll be a

quick and easy way for us to identify where

there’s a problem, and we can address our

time and resources on that precise area. We

still need to develop the exact questions,

and we will be tapping people from all the

businesses to help craft them.

TT: How else are you partnering with

the businesses?

GA: Again, one of our focus areas for 2008

is to better integrate Mission Assurance

across the enterprise. However, our businesses

are all unique and have

different needs. We have organizations that

focus on a range of products and

systems, like software, hardware, radar and

missiles. All these different organizations

have different requirements, different

processes. So tailored Mission Assurance for

each business is going to be important.

There can’t be a one-size-fits-all Mission

Assurance.

This year we are looking at what we already

do at Raytheon to build good teamwork,

develop leaders, assess our organizations,

etc. We will look at new tools we can bring

into play, and at ensuring we don’t duplicate

anything. We will look at what

processes are good, which ones aren’t, and

which need to be modified. These assessments

and determinations are probably different

for each business.

In general, the businesses have built a

strong process-focused foundation for

Mission Assurance. However, the process

alone cannot deliver the product. As I’ve

said, it takes a good, healthy organization.

We may end up with a tailored approach to

Mission Assurance at Raytheon, but there

are some fundamental things that we can

all embrace that are standard.


Certain processes are sacred and must be followed.

We all really need to strive for organizational

health. We need to make sure to

embrace our core values. We need to keep

an eye out for normalizations of deviance.

The tools we are developing will give the

businesses the critical means to look into

their organizations to monitor these things.

TT: Will you be forming a Mission Assurance

Council with the businesses?

GA: For now, we’ve started by creating a

Raytheon Mission Assurance Action Group or

RMAAG. I’ve engaged the businesses and

they’ve embraced it. The RMAAG includes

Mission Assurance people from the businesses

in a forum that allows us to get together

and talk about the issues. We can look for

things we can share that some businesses

are already doing, and that others are not

doing, but should be. We can talk things

over and get some clarity on just how different

each one should be, and understand

what the commonalities are, share best practices,

and maybe get rid of processes we

don’t need. We can work as a group. That

would be a prelude to a possible Mission

Assurance Council.

TT: You joined Raytheon from the customer

community. How would you rate us at

Mission Assurance compared to our peers?

GA: I think that we do Mission Assurance

very well. I see us as world class. However, I

see our competitors doing well in this area,

too. My goal is to be a world apart, and

leave those guys behind.

TT: You’ve been a warfighter. What does

Raytheon’s commitment to Mission

Assurance mean to you personally?

GA: “No doubt” is important to me.

My son-in-law is an F-22 pilot. Whatever we

put on his airplane is important to

my daughter and my grandkids. At the end

of the day it’s really about two

things: winning the engagement, and assuring

the lives of our warfighters. Imagine

being a warfighter in the fray. There is

already high risk all around

him or her. The last thing he or she

needs to think or worry about is whether or

not the equipment is going to work

the way we, Raytheon, promised. It’s got to

work, all the time.

Supporting Math and Science Education

When you help a student master the Pythagorean theorem,

you could be supporting a future engineer who will master

nanotechnology. That’s why Raytheon created MathMovesUTM , a national initiative

designed to show middle school students that they can master math, and that it will

take them to lots of cool places. Raytheon is also proud to support MATHCOUNTS ® ,

which motivates more than 500,000 middle school students to sharpen their math

skills each year. By working to improve our children’s proficiency in math and science

today, we’re giving them what they need to improve our world tomorrow.

www.MathMovesU.com

© 2008 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.

“Customer Success Is Our Mission” is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company.

MathMovesU is a trademark of Raytheon Company.

MATHCOUNTS is a registered trademark of the MATHCOUNTS Foundation.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 23


onTechnology

NCOIC NCAT: Analyzing Network-Centricity

to Enhance Interoperability

To attain rapid, efficient, cost-effective

functionality, many systems designers adopt

the principles of network-centric operations

(NCO). An outgrowth of the concept of network-centric

warfare, NCO seeks to harness

the power of information and interoperability,

enabled by both policy and technology,

to provide a competitive advantage to stakeholders

in any marketplace. Applying NCO in

practice, however, challenges would-be

adopters to rapidly transform their business,

government or civil agency.

The Network Centric Operations Industry

Consortium (NCOIC) plays an important

role in meeting this challenge. NCOIC facilitates

NCO by identifying existing and

emerging common open standards and recommending

patterns of open-standard use.

To perform this role, NCOIC has developed

a number of evaluation tools, which are

currently being used by global agencies and

governments to identify net-centric requirements

and measure net-centricity.

Raytheon’s Leadership Role in NCOIC

Raytheon, a founding executive member of

NCOIC, provides leadership to the consortium

with more than 20 active participants on

teams and work groups. Governance and

strategic counsel are provided by the executive

council, which is currently led by the

executive council chair — retired Adm.

Robert C. “Willie” Williamson, U.S. Navy —

who is vice president of ICS International

Programs for Network Centric Systems.

Within the tool suite for NCO measurement is

the Network Centric Analysis Tool (NCAT).

NCAT facilitates analyzing architectures,

frameworks and reference models against

industry standards. NCOIC uses NCAT and

other tools in the suite to complete this

analysis and then to evaluate operational

domains to understand the requirements of,

and obstacles to, achieving net-centricity.

24 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

ARCHITECTURE & SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

To measure the degree of net-readiness of

missions and systems, NCAT assesses interoperability

goals as specified in or derived

from the customer mission statement, mission

needs and solutions to needs. NCAT also

helps to measure the net-centric interoperability

of the systems created to meet those

needs. Not only does NCAT provide a snapshot

of the progress in developing system

interoperability, it provides feedback and closes

the loop for iterative interoperability

improvements. A positive NCAT assessment

can provide ample confidence that the system

will work in a network-centric environment.

The original NCAT was spreadsheet-based,

and measured the net-centricity of a concept

or system relative to the net-centric

checklist produced by the U.S. Office of the

Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks

and Information Integration (NII). A more

collaborative engine was developed to support

geographically distributed teams and

improve NCAT’s usability.

The new NCAT v2 is a Web-based tool that

allows users to select from a wide range of

tailorable interoperability criteria. The metrics

derived from using NCAT provide insight

into the level of interoperability resulting

from a design process. Consequently, NCAT

may be valuable in generating or understanding

customer mission models and

domain general architectures. NCAT may also

be useful in evaluating the net-centricity or

net-enablement of alternative options in

trade study analyses. Member organizations

use NCAT to perform self-assessments and to

evaluate potential net-centricity of systems

being developed with their customers.

Two vendors provided engines for the NCAT

evaluation. Microsoft provided a version

based on SharePoint ® team services, and

Pavone provided a Java technology version

through IBM. Each platform shares

common content and offers different

advantages. Both engines use SQL databases

and are Web-enabled. They can be used

in the open Internet or a closed intranet, or

they can stand alone on a single personal

computer. Each program can tailor NCAT’s

questions and prioritize the value of the

responses to suit a particular environment.

Progress can be assessed based on planned

goals and actual results. Data exchanges are

available using XML and other standard means.

NCAT assesses compliance via predefined

questions and multiple-choice answers.

Questions are grouped into tailorable profiles

such as Information Assurance and

Data Strategy. Assessments are performed

by individuals. NCAT can aggregate the

responses from multiple assessors into survey

results. Reporting mechanisms are available

to publish, summarize and quantify the

results. All data is protected using rolebased

access controls, ensuring the data is

kept private and not openly visible. For

more details, visit the NCOIC website

(https://www.ncoic.org/technology/deliverables/ncat).

Instances of both engines are

available for evaluation on publicly available

servers and also on Raytheon internal

servers on ORION.

Status

NCOIC tools are currently being used

together successfully to achieve interoperable

nodes in systems, systems of systems,

or families of systems and to develop recommendations

for various mission teams,

including global aviation transformation,

mobile emergency communications

interoperability, NATO interoperability,

and sense-and-respond logistics.

NCOIC’s work helps NCO stakeholders to

move from their diverse enterprise models

to net-centricity among their applications.

The consortium works to ensure that the

products, concepts of operations, and new

marketplace capabilities for all NCO

YESTERDAY…TODAY…TOMORROW


stakeholders around the globe —

whether civil, military or government —

are created with the knowledge that

the standards they apply will allow

them to function with others in the

market space.

Mike Beauford

mike_beauford@raytheon.com

NCOIC and NCAT are trademarks of the Network

Centric Operations Industry Consortium.

SharePoint is a registered trademark of Microsoft

Corporation.

Java is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.

NCOIC is committed to increasing adoption

of NCO concepts and to encouraging

the use of NCO infrastructure and methodology.

The organization is developing an

education and outreach program to ensure

free and wide availability of tools and

resource materials.

Established in September 2004, NCOIC is a

not-for-profit international corporation

committed to integrating existing and

emerging open standards into a common,

evolving global framework that employs a

common set of principles and processes to

assist with the rapid global deployment of

network-centric applications. NCOIC has a

global membership of leading defense

firms, educational institutions, government

agencies, information technology providers,

service providers, standards groups, and

systems integrators.

The consortium works with a multinational,

multi-agency advisory council, which

provides executive expertise and an operational

world view. Global participants within

NCOIC also contribute to the planning

and implementation activities, ensuring

that the consortium’s technical approach

remains global in perspective and open.

Leveraging Technology and Talent

YESTERDAY…TODAY…TOMORROW

A critical challenge for Raytheon is to more fully leverage our talents and technologies across

the enterprise. For example:

How can we take a cutting-edge technology solution developed at one location or business and

use it to benefit other Raytheon businesses and customers?

How should we most effectively share technology experience across our diverse, talented and

geographically distributed Raytheon engineering community?

To grow as a Mission Systems Integrator, how do we best integrate our products and

technologies across our businesses?

The Raytheon Technology Networks (TNs) were created a decade ago to address this challenge.

The Raytheon Technology Networks are engineering networking communities across Raytheon

that are formally organized, officially recognized and chartered to foster cross-business communication

and collaboration. These networks give engineers the opportunity to share new technical

advances, challenges, common technical interests, and Raytheon and customer perspectives that

drive our technological direction, experiences, lessons learned and best practices. Each network

promotes a One Company cross-business spirit to encourage technical collaboration, team

building and knowledge sharing.

Membership in the TNs is open to any interested Raytheon engineer; non-engineers may also

join. The networks are organized by technology areas, and there are currently six TNs: Electro-

Optical Systems (EOSTN), Mechanical and Material Systems (MMTN), Processing Systems

(PSTN), RF Systems (RFSTN), Systems Engineering (SETN) and Software (SWTN). Each TN

sponsors a number of Technology Interest Groups (TIGs) that focus on specific technologies or

related disciplines. (Standards and Real-Time Java are two examples of TIGs.) Each year the TNs

also facilitate a number of special projects and workshops that are associated with their specific

disciplines and interests.

The Technology Networks improve Raytheon’s ability to address its Mission Systems Integration

(MSI) business. MSI demands a synthesis of Raytheon’s diverse capabilities, technologies, and

systems architectures that can only be achieved by cross-business technical collaboration. This

collaboration is, to a large degree, enabled by the Technology Networks through their TIGs,

symposia and workshops.

Uniform architecture standards and processes, for example, have become a focal point of the

Systems and Enterprise Architecture TIG. Modeling and simulation advances, supported by the

Modeling and Simulation TIG, are also crucial to reducing cost and risk in large-scale systems

integration. The TNs are a proven vehicle for crossing company boundaries and sharing information.

As systems become more complex, interoperable and networked, the need to learn and share

will become even more critical, as will the TNs’ role in this process.

In addition to the TIGs, each Technology Network sponsors an annual symposium. These

gatherings provide a tremendous opportunity for Raytheon engineers to share new ideas,

technical approaches and experiences. In this environment, valuable connections are made,

seasoned engineers learn what’s happening outside of their local businesses, and new engineers

experience first-hand the diversity and technical direction of the company.

Raytheon employees can find further information on the Technology Networks at

http://home.ray.com/rayeng/technetworks/welcome.html, or contact Rick Steiner at

fsteiner@raytheon.com. To learn how to join a TIG, visit

http://home.ray.com/rayeng/technetworks/how2join_a_tig_portal.html.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 25


onTechnology

Frequency Control Solutions Center

Delivers Award-Winning RF Performance

Throughout Raytheon

When a Raytheon system must both

generate and precisely control radio frequencies

(RF), characteristics such as noise,

frequency stability, bandwidth and power

will affect overall performance. The

Raytheon Frequency Control Solutions

(FCS) center is an acknowledged technology

leader in developing RF solutions based

on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and

microwave devices. So far, FCS has produced

more than 30,000 RF modules.

FCS was created by consolidating the

former SAW and microwave operations

groups at the Integrated Defense Systems

(IDS) Integrated Air Defense Center in

Andover, Mass. The center manufactures

SAW filters and low-phase-noise oscillators,

as well as complex microwave assemblies,

such as transmit-receive and frequency

synthesizer modules.

Raytheon RF Components’ production

wafer fabrication has been newly combined

with FCS in 2008. This 250,000 sq. ft.

facility contains a 25,000 sq. ft. gallium

arsenide production foundry with a

class-100 clean room that provides customers

with leading-edge custom monolithic

microwave integrated circuit, module

and multifunction solutions for defense

and other performance-driven applications.

The FCS group focuses on Performance,

Relationships and Solutions — the three

pillars of Raytheon Customer Focused

Marketing — to provide customers with

the world’s lowest-noise, SAW-based products

and microwave modules.

Performance

Whether designing a prototype SAW oscillator

with the world’s lowest phase noise,

or driving down the cycle time and cost of

producing a complex microwave module,

FCS is dedicated to achieving excellence in

performance, while meeting or exceeding

26 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

customer expectations. For example, implementing

lean production methods on the

SAW-matched filter used in Space and

Airborne Systems’ (SAS) Firefinder program

resulted in a 16-fold increase in production

capacity, a 10-fold increase in efficiency,

and significantly reduced cycle times.

Work is organized into cells that focus on

continuous improvement and use the

Virtual Business System (VBS) relational

database to provide real-time monitoring

of various metrics, including work-inprocess,

cycle time and earned value. VBS

also uses each component’s serial number

to provide a detailed tracking of the component’s

technical performance.

The FCS 55,000 sq. ft. production area

includes both class-100K and class-10K

clean rooms, along with a 24,000 sq. ft.

area dedicated to volume production of RF

modules. Processes performed include

automated epoxy die attach, wire and ribbon

bonding, hermetic device seam-sealing,

eutectic soldering and the Raytheonproprietary

All Quartz Package device that

includes hermetic glass frit-sealed packages

with laser trim of frequency after sealing.

Ion-beam milling is used to etch grooves

into the quartz resonators for the lowest

RF SYSTEMS

possible phase noise. Laser interferometry

and atomic force microscopy are used to

precisely control groove depths with an

accuracy of better than 50 nm.

The FCS’s RF measurement capabilities

range from 30 MHz to 26.5 GHz, and

automated equipment can perform 60,000

RF measurements per second, including a

full two-port S-parameter characterization

in both receive and transmit modes. Screen

rooms facilitate phase-noise measurements

to -180 dBc.

Relationships

FCS supports all Raytheon businesses and is

a proven partner across Raytheon for programs

such as Patriot, THAAD, HARM and

JLENS, plus numerous others. New programs

in development include SeaRAM, Aegis, SRP

and DDG 1000, along with several secure

programs. FCS has also used shared independent

research and development programs

with both IDS and SAS to ensure

that the products developed complement

customers’ emerging requirements.

Solutions

Raytheon’s FCS is widely recognized as

producing the world’s highest-performing

SAW-based oscillators. Our products’

performance attributes, such as phase

noise and frequency stability, are typically

three to 10 times better than those of

products available from other industry

sources. Achieving aging rates of less than

1 ppm/year, Raytheon SAW resonators use

a patented All-Quartz-Package (AQP) to

achieve the world’s best SAW device stability.

YESTERDAY…TODAY…TOMORROW


AQP resonators are combined with the

associated electronics to form a highly reliable

and precise RF oscillator. To remove

any chemical impurities and thereby ensure

excellent aging performance, resonators

are sealed at temperatures exceeding

400ºC and vacuum of less than 10 -9 torr.

Performance attributes include phase noise

of better than -140 dBc at a 1 kHz offset

and total frequency stability of 10 ppm

over the product life. Phase noise during

vibration is also generally specified, and

FCS maintains the necessary test equipment

to perform operations testing over

the full mix of anticipated environmental

conditions. Vibration isolation techniques

are often employed to minimize any phasenoise

degradation on the oscillator as a

result of mechanical vibration.

FCS microwave assemblies use a combination

of printed circuit board and hybrid

packaging technologies. Of particular note

are transmit–receive integrated microwave

modules (TRIMMs), which FCS manufactures

in production volumes for phased

array radars. The TRIMM provides the final

stage of RF transmit power amplification,

phase shifting and receive signal conversion.

Our gallium nitride (GaN) investment provides

a roadmap for significantly higher

performance, lower cost, lighter and smaller

solutions for next-generation radar, missile

seekers, and advanced communications

and sensor systems. GaN is a disruptive

high-power semiconductor technology that

will enable a new class of microwave and

millimeter wave RF systems envisioned for

the near future. This performance gives

Raytheon a strategic advantage in the development

of next-generation defense systems.

FCS played an integral part in the successful

effort to win the National Shingo Silver

Prize Award in 2007.

More information on FCS can be found

under Raytheon’s Products and Services tab

at Raytheon Company: Products & Services:

Andover Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)

Fabrication Facility.

Roger L. Clark

roger_l_clark@raytheon.com

Contributor: John Finkenaur

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Radar:

An Idea Whose Time Has Come?

Recent research shows that multiple-input

multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems

may dramatically improve the performance

of communication systems. MIMO radar, a

more recent development of the same concept,

has been used by MIT Lincoln

Laboratory and academic researchers, as well

as by Raytheon and our competitors.

A MIMO radar system transmits independent

waveforms from multiple spatially separated

antennas, and receives the signals on

multiple spatially separated antennas. This

article discusses the MIMO radar concept,

the benefits and challenges associated with

this approach, and directions for future

investigation. The discussion concerns a

MIMO system that consists of a transmit

array with widely spaced elements such

that each element views a different aspect

of the target.

MIMO Radar System Advantages

Researchers believe that MIMO radars can

offer significant advantages over phased

arrays and other radar architectures,

because MIMO radars can increase the

number of available degrees of freedom.

These additional degrees of freedom can be

exploited to improve resolution, mitigate

clutter, and enhance classification performance.

Researchers postulate that MIMO

radar systems can also improve angular

estimation and direction-finding accuracy.

In the standard MIMO radar configuration,

a significant loss in the signal-to-noise

ratio (SNR) is expected because of the

non-coherent combination of orthogonal

waveforms inherent in MIMO radars. When

configured in sparse aperture, however,

MIMO radars can achieve significant SNR

gain. Also, unlike the beamforming system

commonly used in conventional radars —

which uses the high correlation between

signals either transmitted or received by an

YESTERDAY…TODAY…TOMORROW

RF SYSTEMS

Transmitter N

Transmitter 2

Transmitter 1

The MIMO radar architecture

Receiver 1

Receiver N

Receiver 2

array — the MIMO concept can exploit the

independence between signals at the array

elements to capitalize on target scintillations,

thereby improving radar performance.

There are two general classes of MIMO

radar systems. In the first class, all transmitters

have the same autocorrelation characteristics,

and the transmit antenna locations

are also the receive locations. In the second

class, the antennas are widely distributed,

and each transmitter antenna has a distinct

waveform (similar to a sparse array).

Challenges and Mitigations

Although the MIMO radar architecture provides

additional degrees of freedom that

can be exploited to improve radar performance,

several authors, at both MIT Lincoln

Laboratory and Raytheon, have questioned

how well MIMOs would perform in real

radar applications. In particular, questions

have been posed about potential SNR loss,

compared to phased arrays, caused by the

previously mentioned non-coherent combination

of orthogonal waveforms. Questions

have also been raised about the robustness

and efficiency of MIMO radars and their

ability to mitigate multiple sidelobe effects.

Recent research has addressed some of

these issues. SNR loss may be mitigated by

using a coherent transmit and receive strategy.

This strategy allows a MIMO radar to

transmit coherently from all the apertures,

thereby potentially improving overall system

Continued on page 28

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 27


RF SYSTEMS (continued)

Continued from page 27

SNR. With respect to a MIMO radar system’s

robustness, efficiency and ability to

mitigate multiple sidelobe effects, the performance

evaluation is usually done in

terms of the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB),

which is a lower minimum mean square

error (MSE) bound on the performance of

all unbiased MIMO estimators. However,

CRB is mostly used for angle-of-arrival estimation,

and it ignores the effects of sidelobe-induced

errors. The Weiss-Weinstein

bound (WWB) can also be used to evaluate

the lower bound MSE performance of all

MIMO unbiased estimators. The WWB

bound includes the effects of multiple sidelobes

and provides a more accurate theoretical

platform for comparing the performance

of MIMO versus phased array radars.

Future directions

A MIMO communication system is clearly a

good idea because of the inherent advantages

provided by its architecture. MIMO

radar is a derivative of MIMO communication

systems, but it is still widely considered

to be a research topic. Under the right conditions,

however, MIMO radars can offer

significant advantages, such as better performance

in a multipath environment, limited

bandwidth and power requirements,

and adaptive degrees of freedom. In particular,

robustness to multipath — especially

for shipborne radars — appears to be a

promising application of MIMO radar;

although, standard methods using phased

arrays can effectively compete.

Several other keys areas of radar performance

may also benefit from MIMO technology.

In particular, over-the-horizon radar

28 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

systems have inherent characteristics such

as limited bandwidth at HF, severe ionospheric

multipath, challenging clutter environment

and poor angular resolution; many

of these could be reduced or eliminated

through a MIMO approach. As noted

above, MIMO radar’s coherent transmit and

receive capability can enhance resolution;

mitigate clutter; and improve detection,

tracking and classification performance.

MIMO radars can also effectively use commercial-off–the-shelf

(COTS) MIMO technology

to reduce development time and cost.

When MIMO is compared to phased array

radars, however, other issues arise. The

complexity and feasibility of calibrating

both receive and transmit paths for tropospheric

and ionospheric errors, radar hardware

errors, and multipath require some

significant design considerations and tradeoffs

compared to phased array technology.

Moreover, standard MIMO radars can suffer

substantial SNR loss relative to phased

arrays, as discussed above. Finally, in many

cases, current phased array radars using

simpler, less expensive and less risky algorithms

can achieve some of the same

advantages as MIMO radars.

With all of its advantages and disadvantages,

however, MIMO radar — and the development

of the required technology to make it

an effective system — are worth investigating.

Future radar requirements will challenge

the capabilities of current systems and

require the investigation of other approaches.

MIMO radars may provide a platform to

address some of these challenges.

Dr. Pierre-Richard Cornely

pierre-richard_j_cornely@raytheon.com

onTechnology

Raytheon and

CALCE:

Partners in

Lead-Free Research

The aerospace–defense industry is

addressing new environmental regulations

and their effects on electronic equipment

performance. The European Union’s

Restrictions on the Use of Hazardous

Substances (RoHS) regulations have

changed supply-chain scope, causing more

suppliers to provide components/assemblies

with lead-free materials (as interconnection

or finish) rather than the traditional

tin-lead. Raytheon supports reducing hazardous

substances, but our responsibility to

our customers requires us to ask how well

these materials will perform in harsh-use

environments.

Because this issue concerns many defense

and aerospace companies (system integrators

and multi-tier suppliers) the industry

has created several working groups and

consortia to address performance issues,

risks and mitigation plans and practices.

This article discusses Raytheon’s successful

collaboration with the University of

Maryland Center for Advanced Life-Cycle

Engineering (CALCE ® ) consortium in

researching lead-free materials.

The Challenges

Differences between various lead-free solders

and the traditionally used eutectic tinlead

(63Sn-37Pb) can affect equipment

performance. As the primary interconnection

for electronic components, solder is a

critical material. However, the relative newness

of lead-free solders in

aerospace–defense applications limits the

amount of data available for evaluating

interconnection performance. Real-time

field data is always preferred to accelerated

life testing and modeling, but the relatively

swift implementation of RoHS has prevented

the timely acquisition of such data.

Although the aerospace–defense industry is

exempt from the ban on lead, the problem

still affects us; many of our commercially

obtained items will contain lead-free materials

as suppliers change their products to

YESTERDAY…TODAY…TOMORROW


The industry continues to study the

formation mechanisms of tin whiskers.

Shown here are tin whiskers “grown” in a

room temperature environment.

meet the needs of larger-market-share

customers. Lead-free surface finishes also

present risks. For example, pure tin finishes

are prone to tin whisker growth, which

can cause equipment failure. The

Raytheon–CALCE partnership is an important

resource in meeting these challenges.

The CALCE Connection

Raytheon’s relationship with CALCE began

during the restructuring of the Raytheon,

Hughes Aircraft, TI Defense Systems and

E-Systems legacy organizations. These

organizations’ “hardcore” electronic packaging

personnel created a composite of

their company standards and cooperated on

common issues. For example, in response to

the Perry Initiative1 in 1996, the new

Raytheon Commercialization team worked

on integrating commercial technologies into

aerospace–defense systems. Manufacturing,

reliability, quality, components, design,

materials and process engineering

disciplines participated.

The changeover from mil-spec packaging of

microcircuits to the commercial plastic encapsulated

microcircuits (PEMs) was in full gear.

The legacy TI Defense Systems had been a

charter member of the CALCE Consortium.

Raytheon Commercialization team members

quickly understood that we needed access to

CALCE’s PEMs studies, and we jointly found

funding to make it happen. This was the

first time that CALCE membership helped

us. It would not be the last.

Benefits

Raytheon uses CALCE as a major resource

in researching lead-free materials. The

Raytheon–CALCE partnership:

Provides corporate teams (RoHS team, Tin

Whisker core team, Mechanical and

Materials Technology Network’s Lead-free

and Tin Whisker Technical Interest Group

[and its Processing Systems TN counter-

part]) with data and information. For

example, in a 2003 project, thermal-cycle

data between lead-free and standard tinlead

solder was obtained via a test vehicle

typical of an aerospace-defense working

environment. This was a first. A longterm-reliability

study provided first-time

data on lead-free thermal cycling performance

at -55C to +125C for over

3000 cycles of test.

Allowed Raytheon to create and lead the

national Raytheon–CALCE Tin Whisker

Group, whose weekly teleconferences

have continued for more than five years with

participation by more than 110 government,

industry and academia sites. These

telecons have improved our understanding

of tin whisker growth mechanisms

and mitigation strategies (see Figure).

Has enabled a Raytheon–Navy Mantech

project on tin whisker risk mitigation. Our

association with CALCE helped us win

the proposal solicitation, and we used

CALCE resources as part of the project

team. This project recently enabled a

related MDA SBIR Phase I project, with

about $1.5 million of government funding

applied to the two projects so far.

This shows that CALCE membership not

only helps us solve technology insertion

problems, but can also help us obtain

government funding for our work.

Provides all Raytheon engineers with

many additional resources, including use

of online tools such as calcePWA and

calceFAST software for state-of-the-art

modeling of lead-free effects on circuit

card assembly reliability and performance;

CALCE reliability simulation software;

CALCE research data; online books/references;

open forums; special conference

YESTERDAY…TODAY…TOMORROW

MATERIALS & STRUCTURES

proceedings — even limited consultation

with CALCE researchers.

In addition, the consortium averages 35

projects annually, primarily on technology

insertion and failure modes associated with

new technologies. This practical guidance

helps members understand challenges to

inserting a technology into a product line.

For example, two changes in commercial

electronics profoundly affect every Raytheon

program: shifting to PEMs and adapting to

lead-free solders, surface finishes and the

resulting tin whiskers risk.

Support

Raytheon’s University Relations organization

effectively supports the Raytheon–CALCE

partnership and acknowledges its contributions.

Managing the partnership as a corporate

entity gives all Raytheon employees

access to the CALCE members website and

resource. In fact, more than 400 Raytheon

engineers, domestically or internationally,

have accessed CALCE’s database.

A Model of Success

Raytheon’s CALCE Consortium participation

exemplifies a successful, effective university

partnership. By exploiting the synergies

between an aerospace–defense company

and a world-class research and academic

organization, a critical industry challenge

is being addressed so that Raytheon can

continue to provide quality products and

maintain customer confidence.

Tony Rafanelli,

anthony_j_rafanelli@raytheon.com

Co-author: Bill Rollins

1http:home.ray.com/ar/sec30.htm CALCE is a registered trademark of the University of

Maryland College Park.

calceFAST is a trademark of the University of Maryland

College Park.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 29


onTechnology

Using Ontologies and Semantic Web Technologies

to Enable Interoperability

The Intelligent Systems Technology

Interest Group (TIG), a part of the

Processing Systems Technology Network

(PSTN), hosted a workshop on how to

leverage ontologies 1 and semantic Web

technologies to enable interoperability.

Raytheon’s customers have been addressing

the interoperability challenge for several

years. The growing number of deployed systems

and the need to make them interact

are driving this process. Workshop participants

examined ways to overcome this challenge

by using techniques from cognitive

and intelligent systems technology.

A major product created at the workshop

was the cognitive systems maturity curve

shown in Figure 1. This curve illustrates the

levels of technology maturity needed to

achieve more “cognitive-enabled” systems.

The x-axis depicts the range of cognitive

capability, from recovery and discovery up

through intelligence and question-answering,

and eventually to reasoning. The y-axis

shows the amount of metadata needed to

move from a weak semantic environment

to a strong one.

The maturity curve crosses several levels.

The higher the level, the more interoperability

is supported; but this support also

requires the use of more automation and

cognition. Also apparent in Figure 1 is that

related mechanisms and technologies

appear within the interoperability level they

sustain, with each grey dot identifying a

significant capability transition point.

The maturity curve begins with syntactic

interoperability, where the most basic data

interchanges can occur. The next level is

structural interoperability, where segments

of the information structure, such as

schemas, are now exchangeable as well.

The next level is true semantic interoperability,

but even here there are sub-levels. The

further up the curve a system resides, the

more efficient the exchange becomes with

30 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Strong

Semantics

Increasing Metadata

Weak

Semantics

List

Taxonomy

Glossary

Controlled Vocabulary

more cognitive capabilities being applied;

but more metadata is also needed to leverage

these capabilities. The workshop participants’

final assessment was that Raytheon

needs to develop these technologies quickly

so that we can provide our customers with

more complete interoperability solutions.

Raytheon is moving from simply using relational

database technologies and extensible

modeling language (XML) for codifying data

to using Web services for data interchange

in our Service Oriented Architectures.

Furthermore, we are leveraging Unified

Modeling Language (UML ® ) for the definition

and construction of systems using

Model Driven Architecture (MDA ® ) techniques.

We are now beginning to use the

resource description framework and the

Web Ontology Language technologies to

capture semantic relationships. As these

technologies mature, and their use becomes

more prevalent in our solutions, Raytheon

will continue to move up the curve of

semantic interoperability, where the real

breakthroughs in interoperability will

be achieved.

PROCESSING SYSTEMS

Logical Theory

Temporal

Modal Logic

Modal Logic

First Order Logic

Description Logic

DAML+OIL, OWL

Conceptual Model

RDF/S

UML

Semantic Interoperability

Thesaurus Topic Map

Relational Model, XML

ER Model

DB Schema, XML Schema

Increasing Cognitive Capability

Structural Interoperability

Syntactic Interoperability

Recovery Discovery Intelligence Question Answering Reasoning

Figure 1. Cognitive Systems Maturity Curve. The various technologies that enable cognitive

and intelligent systems are shown relative to their ability to represent semantics.

Because many of the issues relating to interoperability

also relate to architectures, the

workshop participants leveraged the

Zachman Framework 2 to capture a matrix

that will be used to shape the questions

and answers to “what, how, where, who,

when, and why” of the capabilities necessary

for moving up the maturity curve.

These steps have now been incorporated

into the cognitive systems strategy for the

TIG going forward.

For more information contact the authors.

Rick Wood, richard_j_wood@raytheon.com

Jim Jacobs, jim_jacobs@raytheon.com

Paul Work, paul_r_work@raytheon.com

1Ontology is defined as an accounting of a conceptualization

of the kinds of things that must exist, and facts

about those things, as sortal types, that must be true in

all possible worlds. These facts and conceptualizations

are generally necessary, a priori knowledge that cannot

be otherwise, and known independent of observation of

the world.

2For information on the Zachman Framework, visit

http://www.zifa.com/ and http://www.zachmaninternational.com/2/Home.asp

MDA and UML are registered trademarks of the Object

Management Group.

YESTERDAY…TODAY…TOMORROW


Raytheon

Systems Engineering Technical Development Program

SEtdp Graduates 57

Systems Engineers

The Systems Engineering Technical

Development Program (SEtdp) conducted a

graduation ceremony for Waves 14 and 15

on Nov. 15. This was the fourth such event

in 2007, and last year more than 210 engineers

completed this challenging program

intended to accelerate the development of

systems engineers from across the enterprise.

Fifty-seven students — engineers from

across the enterprise — celebrated their

program completion at the ceremony held

in Arlington, Va. Raytheon Engineering

leaders also participated: Brian Wells

(Corporate), Robert Smith (IDS) Kevin Kuehn

(IIS), Scott Whatmough (NCS), Bob Lepore

(RMS), and Pete Gould (SAS). Ben Mesick,

ET&MA Engineering learning leader from

Leadership and Innovative Learning, also

attended. Dr. Mitchell Springer from RTSC

was keynote speaker at the dinner.

SEtdp launched its first class in June 2004.

The program is designed to address the

need to accelerate the development of

Raytheon’s future technical leaders — chief

engineers, lead systems engineers, technical

directors — who will be needed due to the

retirement of key systems engineering talent

across the company, and to address the

demand for systems engineers needed to

help Raytheon’s growth in Mission Systems

Integration and System of Systems areas.

Participants are nominated from the pool of

top engineering talent from across the company

and selected through a screening process.

There are currently 560 participants — 174

active in the program and 386 graduates.

Four additional waves are planned for 2008.

Groups of students form waves that spend

a week at each business headquarters, culminating

in a final week in Arlington, Va.

The program involves 240 hours of classroom

activities. There are six sessions in

SEtdp, and at each session the students

engage in interactive learning activities and

site tours that focus on key technologies

from each business. Sessions are divided

into a series of learning modules that cover

a wide range of topics — from technical

discussions to customer interface skills, from

product lines to theory and application.

Technical presenters are subject matter

experts (SMEs) in their fields, and are prominent

members of the engineering community

who are eager to share their knowledge

and skills. Leadership team members

lead business classes and technical

overviews that allow the wave of crosscompany

participants to learn the depth

and breadth of each of the businesses.

Bob Byren, principal engineering fellow and

EO/IR and Laser Technology area director for

SAS, developed and instructs the Active EO

Sensors module at the first session at SAS.

Bob said that his module gives the students

a sound technical basis from which to make

prudent system trades involving different

sensor and weapon functions.

Commenting on graduating students, Byren

stated, “It has been gratifying to hear back

from our graduates that they have used the

technical information and methodologies

learned in SEtdp to improve their own

effectiveness as systems engineers and

architects and enhance their personal value

to Raytheon.”

Waves also work on a set of class projects,

where the cross-company teams of students

Events

apply their broad expertise to topics of

enterprise-wide impact. The teams work to

address current engineering challenges,

culminating in a formal presentation at

session six.

Many students are SMEs in their technical

areas, and many have returned to the program

as faculty to present one or more

learning modules.

Larry Robinson, Wave 6 graduate, and now

Wave 17 facilitator, said that he appreciates

that, “Raytheon has chosen to invest time

and resources in the development of the

engineering leaders of tomorrow. We are

being proactive … about the engineering gaps

that the industry will face in the near future.”

Graduates of the SEtdp develop an understanding

of the value that One Company

behaviors can have in helping to grow the

business. They bring the knowledge gained

back to their businesses and apply it to their

programs and share what they have learned

with their peers. Several graduates have

gone on to attend the Raytheon Certified

Architect Program to join the growing number

of certified architects across the company.

Others have been promoted to chief engineer

and lead systems engineer positions.

As a recent graduate wrote, “The SEtdp

experience certainly has contributed to my

personal technical growth and to the subsequent

growth of our programs.”

Paul Benton

paul_h_benton@raytheon.com

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 431


Upcoming Engineering and

Technology External Events

INCOSE 2008

Systems Engineering

for the Planet

June 15–19, 2008

Netherlands

http://www.incose.org/symp2008

MILCOMM 2008

Assuring Mission Success

Nov. 17–19, 2008

San Diego Convention Center

www.milcomm.org

NDIA 8th Annual CMMI

Technology Conference

Nov. 17–20, 2008

Hyatt Regency Tech Center

Denver, Colorado

www.ndia.org/meetings/9110

32 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Events

2007

Excellence in

Engineering and Technology Awards

The 2007 Raytheon Excellence in Engineering

and Technology (EiET) Awards were held

March 3, 2008, at the Smithsonian’s National

Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.

The awards, Raytheon’s highest technical

honor, recognize individuals and teams who

have achieved technological breakthroughs

and demonstrated program excellence that

contributed to the success of Raytheon and

our customers.

Eighty-six people were honored during the

dinner and awards ceremony in the museum’s

Milestones of Flight Gallery. The award

recipients comprised 17 team and five individual

examples of excellence, hailing from

every business — including a “One

Company” award and an Information

Technology award.

Gen. John R. Dailey, director of the National

Air and Space Museum, kicked off the program

by welcoming attendees and thanking

Raytheon for its longstanding association with

the museum and Chairman and CEO Bill

Swanson for his unwavering support.

In his opening remarks, Taylor W. Lawrence,

vice president of corporate Engineering,

Technology and Mission Assurance, noted

that it is no coincidence that the first word

in the award’s name is “excellence.”

Excellence is one of Raytheon’s core values,

and has been called out as a virtue since at

least the ancient Greeks. By achieving excellence,

the evening’s honorees inspired him

and the entire company to meet and exceed

a new standard for technical excellence.

After dinner, Swanson delivered the

evening’s keynote remarks, involving the

audience in the spirit of the awards. He

concluded by saying, “It is an honor to

recognize and celebrate your achievements

in engineering and technology.” He was

then joined onstage by Lawrence and

business leaders as each award winner was

personally congratulated.

Master of Ceremonies Mike Doble,

Raytheon director of Strategic

Communications, read citations describing

each award achievement, and gave special

recognition to Bruce Bohannan. As part of

the IIS NPOESS Data Processing Latency

Performance team, Bohannan received the

third Excellence in Engineering and

Technology Award of his career.

Raytheon congratulates and applauds this

year’s winners for helping keep Raytheon on

the leading edge of innovation. To learn more

about the award winners, visit the Raytheon

Excellence in Engineering and Technology

Awards oneRTN spotlight feature at

http://home.ray.com/feature/ray08_

eiet_recap.


One Company

Sense Through the Wall Team

Scott E. Adcook, Carl D. Cook,

Mena J. Ghebranious, Roy G. Hatfield,

Michael D. Lee

VisiBuilding Phase I Team

Jerry M. Grimm, Jacob Kim, Gregory M. Oehler,

Raymond Samaniego, John L. Tomich

Integrated Defense Systems

Joseph A. Preiss (Individual Award)

Joint Fires (JFires) Engineering Team

Anthony J. Curreri, Jr., John P. Kantelis,

Ketul K. Mavani, Alfred A. Pandiscio,

Robert E. Wilcox

Intelligence and Information Systems

Michael O. Tierney (Individual Award)

CAMELHAIR Team

Paul J. Gibbons, Mary E. Neidigh,

Ruth Anne F. Straub, Steven P. Zygmunt

HISIT Development Team

Richard J. Ernst, William C. Howard,

Leith A. Shabbot, Walter R. Smith,

Efrain M. Velazquez

NPOESS Data Processing Latency

Performance Team

Mary Y. Barnhart, Bruce Bohannan,

Dale A. Hargrave, Kenneth E. McConnell,

Jerry L. Thomas

Information Technology

Computational Fluid Dynamics Runtime

Environment Team

Amzie McWhorter, Kurt Elkins

Missile Systems

Reagan Branstetter (Individual Award)

Adaptive Air Vehicle Technology IRAD

Adaptive Control Development Team

Todd M. Fanciullo, Rob J. Fuentes,

Richard E. Hindman, Yung J. Lee,

Joshua Matthews

NCADE Seeker Flight Test

Demonstration Team

Robert G. Allaire, Mark G. Ascher,

William M. Mcnerney, Brent R. Nokleby,

Joseph H. Thomason

Tomahawk Software Team

Martin J. Bremner, Dennis I. Cajayon,

Scott A. Etzenhouser, William H. Martin,

Pamela J. Pruitt

Network Centric Systems

William T. Pacheco (Individual Award)

Events

2007 Excellence in Engineering and Technology Award Winners

FAA Long Range Radar Service Life

Extension Program Team

Miron Catoiu, Peter E. Cornwell, Rick McKerracher,

Peter Mlynarski, Matthew Sullivan

Google Earth/KML Exploitation Disruptive

IRAD Team

John S. Bryan, Demron Ignace,

Stephen C. Johnson, Barry L. Peterson,

Rhys R. Ravelo

MicroLight Radio Development Team

Richard P. Buchanan, Terry E. Flach,

David C. Helsel, Andy D. Ngo,

Thanh M. Nguyen

Raytheon Technical Services Company

Jackal Improvised Explosive Device

Countermeasure System Team

Jeffrey W. Au, Marion P. Hensley,

Kenneth A. Pitcher, Paul G. Ziegler,

Mark A. Merriman

Space and Airborne Systems

Jon Mooney (Individual Award)

Integrated Sensor Is Structure Aperture

Development Team

Mark S. Hauhe, Clifton Quan, Kevin C. Rolston,

Alberto F. Viscarra, David T. Winslow

Morphable Networked Micro-Architecture

Team

William D. Farwell, Lloyd J. Lewins,

Kenneth E. Prager, Stephanie J. Santos,

Michael D. Vahey

Precision Tracking System Team

John L. Abedor, Jonathan S. Bain,

David O. Lahti, Daniel E. Nieuwsma,

Colin N. Sakamoto

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 33


Special Interest

A wildcat is stranded in a flooded area

and you are the only one around who can

rescue him. All you have is glue, masking

tape, rope, string, cardboard, plastic bags,

straws, rubber bands, bubble wrap and

other basic supplies. What do you do?

That’s the scenario 300 middle school

students from Tucson, Ariz., faced Jan. 31

at the second annual MathMovesU Day at

the University of Arizona. It might remind

you of the 1970 Apollo 13 space mission,

in which U.S. astronaut Jim Lovell radioed

mission control saying, “Houston, we have

a problem.” That crew had only basic

material and little time to repair their spacecraft

after losing most of their electrical

power and oxygen supply in space.

Fortunately, NASA’s elite engineers helped

save the Apollo 13 mission by having the

astronauts configure some of the same

materials that the MathMovesU students

used in their competition.

The wildcat is actually the University of

Arizona mascot Wilbur the Wildcat, who

was stranded on top of a simulated mountain

inside the school’s gymnasium. Working

in teams led by Raytheon engineers, the

middle school students used their basic

materials to construct devices to carry Wilbur

to a lower mountain 20 feet away without

ever touching the ground in between.

“I learned how to actually make something,

how it moves, what the speed is and how

your design creates it not to be damaged,”

said 8th grade student Shy Hoffman. “I

would tell my friends, when you really get

to know math, everything looks so cool and

it really makes you want to do more.”

The students who participated are members

of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science

Achievement (MESA) program. MESA is a

national program designed to increase the

number of ethnic-minority, low-income, and

first-generation students who attend a fouryear

university.

34 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Raytheon Engineers Help

MathMovesU Students Design

Rescue Device

“I want to be an engineer because I’m

interested in the projects that we’re doing

so far and the scholarships that they’re

offering in robotics engineering. I think it’s

really cool,” explained 8th grade student

Sierra Perez.

Raytheon engineers in the company’s

Leadership Development Program assisted

the students with their designs. “It was a

great opportunity to work with middle

school students at Raytheon’s MathMovesU

event,” said Noel Manley. “These kids are

important to the future of our nation and

Raytheon. I'm proud to work for a company

that understands the value of investing in

young people.”

Raytheon Missile Systems (MS) engineers,

like those throughout our company, fully

realize the importance of helping to foster

student interest in math and science,” said

Bob Lepore, MS vice president of

Engineering. “Our engineers volunteer

at major events like MathMovesU Day,

but they also visit schools and speak in

classrooms year-round.”

MathMovesU was created by Raytheon to

help reverse the trend in declining math

scores among American middle school students.

The program focuses on driving students

to the MathMovesU.com website,

where they can interact in math games

based on typical school interests such as

sports, music and fashion. Since November

2005, MathMovesU has awarded more

than $2 million in grants and scholarships

to students and teachers.

Get Involved in Raytheon’s Math and

Science Education Programs

MathMovesU is one of several math and

science education programs Raytheon runs

or supports. Thousands of Raytheon

employees volunteer in the community by

tutoring students, coaching MATHCOUNTS ®

and FIRST Robotics teams, and raising

financial support for students and education

programs. For a complete list of

Raytheon’s educational assistance programs

and how you can get involved, contact your

local community relations representative.

Rick Ramirez

rramirez@raytheon.com


The Challenge

To the warfighter, combat systems and

equipment must operate correctly the

first time and every time — whether it

is old, new or somewhere in between. To the

system architect, designer and logistician,

ensuring the equipment keeps working as it

was designed has always been a daunting

challenge. Raytheon is responding to this

challenge by incorporating prognostics and

health management (PHM) into our systems

to ensure they continue operating and predicting

when failure is imminent or likely —

before actual failure. The Raytheon solution

to PHM combines technology, communications

and data processing.

“With more frequency our customers are

requiring prognostics and health

management capability in the products

Raytheon supplies. This initiative is in

lockstep with our Mission Assurance goal

of delivering ‘no doubt’ products

and systems, and plays to our strengths

as an engineering and technology

industry leader. Predicting failures

and anticipating customer needs are

what this is all about.”

– Taylor W. Lawrence

Vice President

Engineering, Technology

and Mission Assurance

Extending Equipment Life Can Impact

Mission Assurance

One of the biggest challenges the

Department of Defense (DoD) currently faces

is how to extend system and equipment life,

while increasing mission assurance. Too often

electronic equipment failures occur during

mission execution when equipment is under

the most stress. This not only degrades mission

assurance, but also stresses the logistics

system that provides spare equipment,

systems and platforms. Applying today’s

after-the-failure detection methods have

resulted in increased mission support costs

and reduced mission assurance.

Mitigating Failures Increases

Mission Assurance

The solution to both extending equipment

field life and increasing mission success is

being provided by a DoD and industry

initiative to predict equipment failures with

enough time to effect repairs before they

impact mission success, by using embedded

prognostics. Currently, system designs do not

have the capability to monitor the subtle, vital

signs that are necessary for detecting incipient

failures and predicting remaining useful

life (RUL), as shown in Figure 1. Embedded

prognostics would add this capability,

enabling a proactive logistics system to

operate, as shown in Figure 2.

To exploit the embedded RUL technologies,

the DoD can take advantage of advanced

Special Interest

Prognostics and Health Management

Enhancing Mission Assurance as Part of System Development

War Planner

4

Equipment

Diagnostics Report

Health Mgmt.

Center

5

URGENT

Equipment

Orders Placed

3

Mission Failed

Report

MISSION READINESS/SUCCESS DATA

FIELD EQUIPMENT ORDERS

FIELD DATA ANALYSIS

Classified

Network

MISSION

LOST

Logistics EQUIPMENT DELIVERY

6

Equipment Delivered

After Next Mission

Future

Prognostics

Scenario

2

Day Old Equipment

Failure Report

ENCRYPTED FIELD REPORTS

Scenario

Existing

Field

Support

Fielded

Equipment

1

Equipment Fails

Resulting in

Mission Lost

7

Equipment Shortage

Aborts Next Mission

Figure 1. Conceptual view of an existing reactive logistics scenario. In existing failure-based

logistics, the failures mostly occur during mission operation resulting in mission loss for that

platform. This data is typically collected off the platform by a maintainer, entered into a

maintenance terminal reported over a classified network to the war planners and health

management center for evaluation. An urgent equipment order is placed with the logistics

center and the parts and/or platforms are packaged, shipped and received by field support.

However, because of this logistic delay cycle, the next mission fails because the equipment is

not mission-ready in time.

FIELD REPAIR

networking architectures to collect and

process the operational data from fielded

systems. This requires platforms to collect

RUL information from individual equipment,

add additional platform-related data, encrypt

it, and transmit the data through a secure

network back to a prognostic and health

management center (PHMC). There, it is

processed into a real-time PHM common

operational picture (COP). The PHM COP is

critical for mission planners and logistic coordinators

to mitigate pending equipment

failures and measure mission readiness.

World-Class Engineering

Raytheon has responded to this challenge

by applying its engineering knowledge,

experience and discipline to provide comprehensive

PHM solutions.

Continued on page 36

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 35


Special Interest

Continued from page 35

There are three levels of PHM concurrently

being developed by Raytheon:

Embedded prognostic technologies

Secure net-centric data communication

and storage

Health management data processing and

control

War Planner

Health Mgmt.

Center

5

Low Priority

Equipment

Orders Placed

MISSION READINESS/SUCCESS DATA

3

Mission Success

Report

FIELD EQUIPMENT ORDERS

Logistics

36 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

4

FIELD DATA ANALYSIS

Equipment

Remaining Useful

Life (RUL) Report

The Joint Strike Fighter program office defined

health management concepts as follows:

Classified

Network

2

Pre-cursor to

Failure Data

Reported

MISSION

ASSURED

EQUIPMENT DELIVERY

6

Equipment Delivered

Before Next Mission

Diagnostics: the process of determining

the state of a component to perform its

function(s)

Prognostics: the predictive diagnostics,

which include determining the remaining

life or time span of proper operation of a

component

ENCRYPTED FIELD REPORTS

Future

Prognostics

Scenario

Field

Support

1

Equipment

Pre-cursor to Failure

Data Detailed

Fielded

Equipment

7

Equipment

Repaired

Before Mission

Figure 2. In a future prognostics-based mission support scenario the platform senses incipient

failures, (failures in process) and equipment failures, and reports a predictive RUL. This

precursor to failure information is automatically collected by the platform and securely

networked back to the war planner and health management center without maintainer

intervention. Low-priority equipment can then be replaced and shipped to the battlefield

using normal logistics capabilities. Since the equipment is delivered before the platform fails

and before the next mission, both missions are assured of failure-free operation.

(2) Tank Needs

Repair in 2 Days

Mission

Planner

Prognostics Health

Management Center

(PHMC) Coordinator

Healthy Mission

Computer

(3) Deploy

to Front

(1) MC has 2

Days Remaining

Useful Life

(4) Pull Back

Tomorrow

FIELD REPAIR

Healthy Mission Computers

Sick Mission

Computer

(6) One Day Egress

(5) One Day Ingress

Figure 3. The PHM common operational picture provides the integrated capability to receive,

correlate and display a complete system status, including planning applications and theatergenerated

overlays and projections.

Prognostics and Health Management

Health management: The capability to

make appropriate decisions about maintenance

actions based on diagnostic/prognostics

information, available resources

and operational demand

Raytheon recognizes that before mission

planners and logisticians can mitigate incipient

failures, new innovative precursor technologies

and prognostic algorithms must be

integrated into both existing and future

products, and this involves all phases of

product development. These precursor

technologies include:

Physics of failure (PoF) research

Sensor design and signal conditioning

development

Prognostic reasoner algorithm development

Prognostic and Health Management

Capabilities Involve All Engineering

Disciplines

Prognostic development begins by investigating

a product’s PoF mechanism for each of

the product’s technologies (RF digital, power,

mechanical, etc.), over all of the product’s

operational environments (vibration, temperature,

etc.). The PoF data is then integrated

with available experimental field and factory

data to create a technology-specific PoF

model. Prognostic sensors are then integrated

into the product to measure the predictive

parameters specified by the PoF models.

After integrating the technology PoF models

into the overall product PoF model, prognostication

algorithms are applied to predict the

product’s RUL. If necessary, new sensors are

added, or removed, depending on product

models. All aspects of the prognostic design

are made to be programmable to facilitate

prognostic maturation throughout the product’s

life cycle.

Robust Embedded Test Architecture

Raytheon also developed a real-time robust

embedded test architecture (RET-A) that standardizes

the execution and reporting of

embedded diagnostics and prognostics features

and provides a standard product to test

equipment interfaces. RET-A enables efficient

integration of specific PHM technologies and

provides the framework to reuse designs that

leverage companywide embedded prognostic

solutions across multiple products.


PHM Conceptual Overview

Prognostics

Sensor Design

Prognostics Models

and Thresholds

Analysis

Unit

Reasoner Remaining

Useful Life (RUL)

Algorithm Development

Sensors

Collaboration and Leadership

Prognostics –

Temp-Time-Vib-Humidity Models

Voltage

Controls

To leverage investments and reduce stovepipe

developments, Raytheon established the

Mission Support Enterprise Campaign, PHM

Steering Committee and PHM Technical

Interest Group that together provide a One

Raytheon approach to developing PHM solutions

internally, as well as with industry, academia

and our DoD customers. Assuming a

leadership role, Raytheon is also partnering

with universities, industry partners, trade

associations and small businesses. Innovative

solutions learned from these associations are

also being integrated into Raytheon products.

Disruptive Technology

PHM is a disruptive technology that is dramatically

changing how Raytheon develops,

tests, manufactures and deploys products.

New engineering processes and tools are

being developed for each engineering discipline

to enable PHM techniques to be developed

and reused across Raytheon independent

research and development programs.

tb t1 t2

Time

Physics of Failure (PoF) Analysis

for Product Environment is used

to define Reasoner Algorithm

Sensor

Conditioners

One of the cornerstones that make Raytheon

a world-class engineering company is the

adherence to, and evolution of, the Raytheon

Integrated Product Development System.

Tp1

Robust

Embedded

Test Ref

Arch

Special Interest

Engineering Physics of

Failure (PoF) Analysis

PoF Models and

Thresholds

RUL Models and

Reasoner Controls

Reasoner

Remaining Useful

Life Reasoner Design

Engineering Development

Design and Analysis Data

Embedded Solutions

RUL

Remaining

Useful

Life

Figure 4. A deployed PHM standard will improve our competitive postion.

PHM Systems

and Software

Architecture

Design

Remaining

Useful Life

Prediction

As a disruptive technology, PHM is being

deployed throughout all phases of product

development, including:

Internal research and development

Mission Assurance and Mission Support

architectures and applications

System architectures

Product architectures

Design and development

Production testing

Field testing

Warranty contracts

The development and integration of prognostics

and health management technologies

will provide NoDoubt Mission Assurance

for the warfighters who depend on

Raytheon’s systems to work the first time,

and every time. In addition, it is an area of

development that will provide a competitive

advantage that will differentiate Raytheon

from other companies in our markets.

John P. Bergeron

john_ p_ bergeron@raytheon.com

Contributor: Brad Schupp

ENGINEERING PROFILE

John P. Bergeron

Director, Whole

Life Engineering

Raytheon Integrated

Defense Systems

After spending the

first six years of his

career in design and

engineering, John

Bergeron went to the

field for installation

and operation of one

of the products he

worked on. That’s when he discovered his

enjoyment of the hands-on aspect of engineering

from the end-user’s perspective. From

then on, his career focused on after-shipment

services and long-term sustainment.

“Following a product that I designed to the

field made a big difference to me,” Bergeron

said. “I encourage all engineers to spend

some time in the field. It gives you a different

perspective. You see how your design

changes affect the customer when they are

looking over your shoulder and asking, ‘does

it work yet?’”

One of the biggest challenges of Bergeron’s

job is ensuring that the design engineers

understand the importance of product

serviceability for the life of the product. It

helps, Bergeron said, that “the technology

Raytheon delivers is excellent, and I work

with really smart people.” Still, he added,

“I think we could do a better job leveraging

long-term service contracts for our

products by designing the ‘hooks and

handles’ in them.”

Bergeron believes that an important thing

to remember about working with others is,

“Everyone deserves honest and candid

feedback,” he said. “The best performance

review I ever received was also the

toughest, but I appreciated it.”

Reflecting on what about his job excites him,

he said, “The endless opportunities. I just

wish we could do more, faster.” And what

keeps him up at night? “What I don’t

know — and my 18-month-old daughter.”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 37


U.S. Patents

Issued to Raytheon

At Raytheon, we encourage people to

work on technological challenges that keep

America strong and develop innovative

commercial products. Part of that process

is identifying and protecting our intellectual

property. Once again, the U.S. Patent

Office has recognized our engineers and

technologists for their contributions in

their fields of interest. We compliment our

inventors who were awarded patents from

December 2007 through February 2008.

EMMET R. ANDERSON

DAVID G. ANTHONY

DANIEL W. BRUNTON

DAVID G. GARRETT

DANIEL C. HARRISON

JIM R. HICKS

DAVID J. KNAPP

JAMES P. MILLS

FRANK E. SMITH III

WAYNE L. SUNNE

7304296 Optical fiber assembly wrapped across

gimbal axes

JONATHAN J. LYNCH

7304617 Millimeter-wave transreflector and system for

generating a collimated coherent wavefront

FRANK N. CHEUNG

ROBERT J. CODA

7304675 Digital timing rate buffering for

thermal stability of uncooled detectors

ROBERT S. BROWN

7305655 Vertical requirements development

system and method

RALPH E. HUDSON

JOHN P. KILKELLY

JON H. SHERMAN

HELEN L. SUN

7307580 Non-statistical method for compressing and

decompressing complex sar data

RICHARD G. HOFFMAN

7307701 Method and apparatus for detecting

a moving projectile

ROBERT H. HEIL

7308016 System and method for securing signals

CHUNGTE W. CHEN

7308207 Method for identifying an interrogated object

using a dynamic optical tag identification system

MICHAEL C. BAILEY

DAVID VAN LUE

7308761 Integrated getter structure and

method for its preparation and use

STEPHEN C. JACOBSEN

MICHAEL G. MORRISON

SHANE OLSEN

7308848 Pressure control valve having intrinsic

feedback system

38 2008 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

RICHARD J. KOENIG

JAR J. LEE

STAN W. LIVINGSTON

7315288 Antenna arrays using long slot

apertures and balanced feeds

KENNETH J. MCPHILLIPS

ARNOLD W. NOVICK

7315488 Methods and systems for passive range and

depth localization

ROBERT D. SLATER

7315805 Operations and support discrete

event simulation system and method

W T CAREY

BARBARA E. PAUPLIS

EDWARD A. SEGHEZZI

7317427 Adaptive array

JASON W. INGRAM

7319590 Conductive heat transfer system and method

for integrated circuits

MICHAEL K. BURKLAND

DAVID B. HATFIELD

ELAINE E. SEASLY

7319942 Molecular containment film modeling tool

STEVEN J. MANSON

7321364 Automated translation of high order complex

geometry from a CAD model into a surface based

combinatorial geometry format

CLIFTON QUAN

STEPHEN M. SCHILLER

YANMIN ZHANG

7324060 Power divider having unequal power division

and antenna array feed network using such unequal

power dividers

MARWAN KRUNZ

PHILLIP I. ROSENGARD

7324522 Encapsulating packets into a frame for

a network

MILTON BIRNBAUM

KALIN SPARIOSU

7324568 Modulated saturable absorber

controlled laser

CORNELL DRENTEA

7324797 Bragg-cell application to high

probability of intercept receiver

VINH N. ADAMS

PAOLO BARBANO

WESLEY H. DWELLY

DENNIS HEALY

7327307 Radar system with adaptive waveform

processing and methods for adaptively controlling the

shape of a radar ambiguity function

BRIAN L. BALL

CHRISTIAN O. HEMMI

MARC H. MCCULLOUGH

7327313 Two-dimensional quantization method for array

beam scanning

JOHN N. CARBONE

SUSANNAH R. CAMPBELL

RICHARD J. ERNST

JEFFREY D. LEWIS

CARL A. POINDEXTER

RICK D. SCOGGINS

ANDREW L. URQUHART

7328219 System and method for processing

electronic data from multiple data sources

DUKE QUACH

7331795 Spring probe-compliant pin connector

KAPRIEL V. KRIKORIAN

ROBERT A. ROSEN

7333049 Novel waveform ambiguity optimization for

bistatic radar operation

STEPHEN C. JACOBSEN

7333699 Ultra-high density connector

THOMAS K. DOUGHERTY

JOHN J. DRAB

KATHLEEN A. KEHLE

7335552 Improved electrode for thin film

capacitor devices

ROBERTO W. ALM

7335931 Monolithic microwave integrated

circuit compatible fet structure

JAR J. LEE

STAN W. LIVINGSTON

CLIFTON QUAN

7336232 Dual band space-fed array

ROBERT R. GROSS

7336473 Single-path electrical device and

methods for conveying electrical charge

STEVEN J. MANSON

7337154 Method for solving the binary

minimization problem and a variant thereof


International

Patents Issued to Raytheon

Congratulations to Raytheon technologists

from all over the world. We would like to

acknowledge international patents issued

from October 2007 through February 2008.

These inventors are responsible for keeping

the company on the cutting edge, and we

salute their innovation and contributions.

Titles are those on the U.S.-filed patents;

actual titles on foreign counterparts are

sometimes modified and not recorded.

While we strive to list current international

patents, many foreign patents issue much

later than the corresponding U.S. patents

and may not yet be reflected.

AUSTRALIA

FERNANDO BELTRAN

JOSEPH P. BIONDI

RONNI J. CAVENER

ROBERT V. CUMMINGS

JAMES M. MCGUINNIS

THOMAS V. SIKINA

KEITH D. TROTT

ERDEN A. YURTERI

2004302158 Wideband phased array radiator

CANADA

ROBERT S. BECKER

KELLY D. MCHENRY

FREDERICK J. WAGENER

2402415 Projectile for the destruction of large

explosive targets

RICHARD M. LLOYD

2503370 Kinetic energy rod warhead with isotropic

firing of the projectiles

CHINA

THOMAS W. MILLER

CHRISTOPHER W. REED

02818160.3 System and method for subband beamforming

using adaptive weight normalization

DENMARK, FRANCE, GERMANY,

NETHERLANDS, SPAIN, SWEDEN

ROBERT C. ALLISON

BRIAN M. PIERCE

SAMUEL D. TONOMURA

1561243 Highly adaptable heterogeneous power

amplifier IC micro-systems using flip chip and microelectromechanical

technologies on low loss substrates

FRANCE, GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN

ALBERT EZEKIEL

QUOC H. PHAM

1127281 Target acquisition system and radon transform

based method for target azimuth aspect estimation

MARK E. KUSBEL

GARY SALVAIL

CHAD M. WANGSVICK

1461576 Isolating signal divider/combiner and method

of combining signals of first and second frequencies

EDWARD L. ARNN

ROBERT W. BYREN

1483548 Efficient multiple emitter boresight

reference source

KENNETH W. BROWN

JAMES R. GALLIVAN

1676463 Selective layer millimeter-wave

surface-heated system and method

FRANCE, GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN,

ITALY, NETHERLANDS, SPAIN

MICHAEL J. DELCHECCOLO

DELBERT E. LIPPERT

MARK E. RUSSELL

HBARTELD B. VANREES

WALTER G. WOODINGTON

1468250 Docking information system for boats

FRANCE, GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN,

ITALY, SPAIN

MARK B. HANNA

KYLE W. NIX

1446941 Method and apparatus for making a lid

with an optically transmissive window

RICHARD M. WEBER

WILLIAM G. WYATT

1627192 Method and apparatus for extracting

non-condensable gases in a cooling system

BRIAN L. BALL

CHRISTIAN O. HEMMI

MARC H. MCCULLOUGH

1659658 Two-dimensional quantization method for

array beam scanning

GREAT BRITAIN

ROGER BALL

2420867 Sighting device with multifunction

illuminated reticle structure

ISRAEL

DOUGLAS M. KAVNER

156674 System and method for reading license plates

JAPAN

MICHAEL RAY

4053978 Advanced high-speed, multi-level uncooled

bolometer and method for fabricating same

BORIS S. JACOBSON

4056391 Multi-phase transformer system

MEXICO

CARL E. MCGAHA

250965 Method and system for electrical length matching

RUSSIA

GARY G. DEEL

2309484 Solar array concentrator system and method

STEPHEN E. BENNETT

CHRIS E. GESWENDER

KEVIN R. GREENWOOD

2315943 Boot mechanism for complex projectile

base survival

SINGAPORE

GEORGE A. BLAHA

CHRIS E. GESWENDER

SHAWN B. HARLINE

114917 Missile with odd symmetry tail fins

DOUGLAS W. ANDERSON

JOSEPH F. BORCHARD

WILLIAM H. WELLMAN

116343 Monolithic lens/reflector optical component

ROBERT F. ANTONELLI

DAVID W. HARPER

DENNIS M. PAPE

WAYNE L. REED

RICHARD W. SEEMAN

119760 Loading system for securing cargo in the

bed of a vehicle

PERRY MACDONALD

123975 Low-profile circulator

SOUTH KOREA

KENNETH W. BROWN

THOMAS A. DRAKE

123975 Common aperture reflector antenna with

improved feed design

MICHAEL J. DELCHECCOLO

THOMAS W. FRENCH

DELBERT E. LIPPERT

JOSEPH S. PLEVA

MARK E. RUSSELL

HBARTELD B. VANREES

WALTER G. WOODINGTON

767543 Switched beam antenna architecture

MICHAEL J. DELCHECCOLO

JOHN M. FIRDA

MARK E. RUSSEL

776860 Path prediction system and method

MICHAEL J. DELCHECCOLO

JAMES T. HANSON

JOSEPH S. PLEVA

MARK E. RUSSELL

HBARTELD B. VANREES

WALTER G. WOODINGTON

776868 Video amplifier for a radar receiver

ALDON L. BREGANTE

RAO S. RAVURI

WILLIAM H. WELLMAN

778216 Sensor system and method for sensing in an

elevated-temperature environment, with protection

against external heating

SHARON A. ELSWORTH

WILLIAM H. FOSSEY JR

783226 High strength fabric structure and seam

therefor with uniform thickness and a method of

making same

PERRY MACDONALD

785218 Low-profile circulator

TAIWAN

SHANNON V. DAVIDSON

ROBERT J. PETERSON

I287713 System and method for computer cluster

virtualization using dynamic boot images and virtual

disk

ELI BROOKNER

I289680 Efficient technique for estimating elevation

angle when using a broad beam for search in a radar

TURKEY

MARY D. ONEILL

WILLIAM H. WELLMAN

2002 00956 Multicolor staring missile sensor system

Raytheon’s Intellectual Property is

valuable. If you become aware of any

entity that may be using any of

Raytheon’s patented inventions or would

like to license our patented inventions,

please contact your Raytheon IP counsel:

Leonard A. Alkov (SAS) , Horace St. Julian

(MS & RTSC) , Robin R. Loporchio (NCS)

Edward S. Roman (IDS), John J. Snyder (IIS).

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2008 ISSUE 1 39


Copyright © 2008 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.

Approved for public release. Printed in the USA.

Customer Success Is Our Mission is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company.

Raytheon Six Sigma, MathMovesU and NoDoubt are trademarks of Raytheon Company.

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