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A AFFICHER !Un Site, un Mail !http://www.snuep.comF.S.U.Lettre d’information du Syndicat National Unitaire de l’Enseignement ProfessionnelN° 018 du 17/12/04snuepnat@snuep.comEn janvier : amplifier l’actionCompte tenu des effets du mouvement de 2003 qui continue à peser, la participation à la grève du7 décembre (autour de 20 % dans les LP) est un point d’appui pour créer, en janvier, une mobilisation à lahauteur des agressions :• Projet de loi d’orientation Fillon : Il vient d’être rejeté par le Conseil Supérieur del’Education. La FSU s’y est fortement opposée. Après la loi Borloo qui favorise à outrancel’apprentissage, le projet Fillon veut réduire par tous les cotés le périmètre de l’enseignementprofessionnel public (déprofessionnalisation des BEP, voire des BAC PRO par la réduction dunombre des filières, généralisation du BAC PRO 3ans, accès limité de la voie professionnelle àl’enseignement supérieur….) pour faire de la place à l’apprentissage dont il veut doubler leseffectifs en LP et envoyer en collège les profs en trop !• La répartition des moyens pour la rentrée 2005 est maintenant connue (voir tableau ciaprès).Même si la part de suppressions qui va incomber à l’enseignement professionnel n’estpas dévoilée, on peut imaginer qu’il sera bien servi ! D’ailleurs déjà certains recteurs ontanticipé : ainsi sur Paris un vaste plan de restructuration, transferts ou fermetures est annoncé, larésistance s’organise, le SNUEP y prend toute sa place, un communiqué intersyndical (voir enannexe) appelle à des actions en direction du rectorat, de la région, de la mairie de Paris. Dèsl’annonce des moyens pour 2005, dans l’académie de Nancy-Metz, la FSU, le SNUEP ontappelé à la grève et aux manifestations. Localement dans de nombreux LP, les personnelsengagent des actions pour maintenir le potentiel de formation dans le service public.• La circulaire sur le passage à la hors-classe est enfin sortie. C’est une remise en causefondamentale du droit à la formation (voir paragraphe ci-après)• La négociation salariale n’avance pas, le ministre répond par la provocation aux revendicationssyndicales de rattrapage du pouvoir d’achat.Face à cette situation le cdfn de la FSU du 13 décembre « estime nécessaire d’aller vers un pland’action les plus unitaires possibles, avec le souci de débat avec les personnels, les parents et pluslargement l’opinion public, d’interpellation du pouvoir et des parlementaires. La FSU considèreindispensable, dans ce cadre, la grève de l’ensemble des personnels de l’éducation courant janvier.(…)Le CDFN propose à l’interfédérale de l’éducation de se réunir avant Noël pour appelerensemble à une journée de grève en janvier. Gréve centrée essentiellement sur les questionséducatives : projet de loi Fillon, moyens, remise en cause des statuts et des droits.De plus « le cdfn affirme la disponibilité de la FSU pour toute action unitaire visant à s’opposerà la politique de régression sociale du gouvernement. Elle confirme sa volonté d’une actionintersyndicale dans la fonction publique tant sur la question des salaires que celle de l’emploi, dudevenir des services publics et de la réforme de l’Etat. ( …) C’est pourquoi le cdfn jugeindispensable le recours à la grève dans les autres ministères et services publics, si possible demanière convergente avec l’Education nationale. »


ContentsChapter1. Introduction 82. Realizing our Future Built on Broadband 122.1 Defining Broadband 162.2 Growth in Broadband 182.3 Regulatory Frameworks for an Internet of Everything 243. Evaluating Global Growth in Broadband:The Need for Policy Leadership 323.1 Target 1: Universal Broadband Policy 323.2 Target 2: Making broadband affordable 393.3 Target 3: Connecting homes to broadband 403.4 Target 4: Getting people online 413.5 Target 5: Achieving gender equalityin access to broadband by 2020 424. Broadband for Driving Sustainable Development 445. Broadband and Education for All: Lessons Learned 565.1 The Dakar Vision: Harnessing ICTs for EFA 565.2 Where Do We Stand? 585.3 ICTs and Broadband as Accelerators for Progresstowards EFA 595.4 Broadband in the Post-2015 Development Agenda:A Call To Action 696. The Changing Economics of Telecom Networks 727. Policy Recommendations to Maximize the Impact ofBroadband 828. Conclusions 88List of AnnexesAnnex 1: List of National Broadband Policies, 2014 90Annex 2: Fixed Broadband Penetration, Worldwide, 2013 (ITU) 96Annex 3: Mobile Broadband Penetration, Worldwide, 2013 (ITU) 98Annex 4: Percentage of Households with Internet,Developing Countries, 2013 (ITU) 100Annex 5: Percentage of Individuals using the Internet,Worldwide, 2013 (ITU) 102Annex 6: Percentage of Individuals using the Internet,Developing Countries, 2013 (ITU) 104Annex 7: Percentage of Individuals using the Internet, LeastDeveloped Countries, 2013 (ITU) 106List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 1075


List of Featured InsightsFeatured Insight 1: Telecommunications are Fundamental to our Civilization(Mr. Carlos Slim Hélu, President, the Carlos SlimFoundation)Featured Insight 2: The Internet is Evolving – from Connected Things toConnected Everything (Cisco Systems)Featured Insight 3: A Call for Regulatory Rebalancing (Dr. Anne Bouverot,Director General, GSMA)Featured Insight 4: Towards Broadband Implementation in Qatar (H.E. Dr.Hessa, ICT Qatar)Featured Insight 5: The State of Broadband in China (Huawei)Featured Insight 6: The Broadband Eco-System: An Engine of Transformationand Progress for Sustainable Development (Dr. RezaJafari, Chairman and CEO, e-Development International)Featured Insight 7: Broadband as a Catalyst for Better Health (Dr. HamadounTouré, Secretary-General, ITU)Featured Insight 8: The mDiabetes Multi-stakeholder Partnership in Senegal(ITU, Alcatel Lucent)Featured Insight 9: Universal Service Funds (USFs) as a Valuable Toolfor Connecting Billions and Achieving the BroadbandCommission Targets (Intel Corporation)Featured Insight 10: Rural Broadband in TYFR Macedonia (H.E. Ivo Ivanovski,Minister of Information Society and Administration of theGovernment of TFYR Macedonia)Featured Insight 11: The Role of Satellite for Achieving “Broadband for All”(Mr. José Manuel Do Rosario Toscano, Director-Generalof ITSO; Dr. Esteban Pacha, Director General, IMSO; Mr.Christian Roisse, Executive Secretary, EUTELSAT IGO)Featured Insight 12: TVWS in Disaster Response – A Breakthrough Technologyfor Rapid Communications after Typhoon Haiyan in thePhilippines (Microsoft)Featured Insight 13: How ICTs can Boost Innovative Education through a MultistakeholderApproach – the Think Big School Programme(Fundación Telefónica)Featured Insight 14: Satellite Communications for Connecting Schools (ITSO,IMSO and EUTELSAT IGO)Featured Insight 15: Network Sharing (IADB/World Bank)Featured Insight 16: Rational Construction Model to Boost the RapidDevelopment of Broadband China (Huawei)Featured Insight 17: Gearing up to G.fast – Operators Get More Bang for theirBucks in Copper (ITU and Alcatel Lucent)Featured Insight 18: Singapore Gains a Super-sized Wireless Innovation Bandwith the Regulatory Framework on TV White Space (Mr.Leong Keng Thai, Deputy Chief Executive/Director-General(Telecoms and Post), IDA of Singapore)Featured Insight 19: Intellectual Property and Ubiquitous Broadband (Mr.Francis Gurry, Director General, WIPO)6


List of FiguresFigure 1: The Structure of this Report (Broadband Commission)Figure 2: Introducing the Future Internet (various)Figure 3: Growth in Speeds for Fixed and Mobile Technologies(Alcatel Lucent, Ericsson)Figure 4: Status of Fixed Broadband (ITU, Point Topic)Figure 5: Status of Mobile Broadband (ITU, Informa)Figure 6: Tablet Specification by Price Band (Deloitte)Figure 7: Who Regulates What in ICT, 2013 (ITU)Figure 8: Policy Leadership in National Broadband Plans (ITU)Figure 9: Fixed Broadband Prices for Developing Countries, 2013 (ITU)Figure 10: Proportion of Households with Internet Access in DevelopingCountries, 2005-2014 (ITU)Figure 11: Internet user penetration, 2005-2014 (ITU)Figure 12: Costs Associated with Different Access Technologies (IADB, World Bank)Figure 13: Cost per Home Passed, Capex, for an Urban Area (Huawei)List of TablesTable 1:Table 2:Table 3:Table 4:Table 5:Table 6:Major Trends in the Mobile Sector (IADB/World Bank)Broadband and the MDGs (ITU)Estimates of Network Investment Needs for Different Regions (ITU)Investing in Different Network Layers (Alcatel Lucent)Capex and Opex Savings for Different Network Deployment Models(IADB, World Bank)Key Policy Interventions for Addressing Infrastructure DeploymentCosts (IADB/World Bank)List of BoxesBox 1:Box 2:Box 3:Box 4:Box 5:Box 6:Box 7:Box 8:Box 9:Box 10:Box 11:Box 12:Box 13:What do we really need all this broadband capacity for? (TeresaMastrangelo, Voice of Broadband)Fourth-Generation Regulation (ITU)Characteristics of a Good Plan (ITU)South Africa Connect (H.E. former Minister of Communications,Yunus Carrim, Government of South Africa)The Six Education For All (EFA) Goals (UNESCO)EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013/14: Key messages (UNESCO)Malaysia’s Frog Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) (UNESCO)Media and Information Literacy to harness broadband (UNESCO)iSchool - Transformative learning in the Zambian classroom (UNESCO)Open Your Tomorrow - Transforming Lebanese Education throughMobile Learning (UNESCO)Enhancing Teacher Education for Bridging the Education Quality Gapin Africa (UNESCO)Mobile Phone Literacy - Empowering Women and Girls (UNESCO)Paris OER Declaration (UNESCO)7


IntroductionHigh-speed, affordable broadbandconnectivity to the Internet isa foundation stone of modernsociety, offering widely recognizedeconomic and social benefits.High-speed broadband is no longerjust cutting-edge technology foran elite few; instead, the steadymarch of connectivity among thebroader population is slowly butsurely transforming our societywith new ways of accessingservices and information.Broadband does not just compriseinfrastructure; today, widespreadbroadband connectivity offersthe prospects of new servicesand an information revolution tochange – and challenge – ourvery approach to development.The Broadband Commissionfor Digital Development aims topromote the adoption of effectivebroadband policies and practicesfor achieving developmentgoals, so everyone can benefitfrom the advantages offered bybroadband. Through this Report,the Broadband Commission seeksto raise awareness and enhanceunderstanding of the importanceof broadband networks, services,and applications to guideinternational broadband policydiscussions and support theFigure 1: The Structure of this ReportPolicies & PolicyLeadershipEducation& ICT SkillsBroadbandfor AllBusinessModels8Broadband forDevelopment


Chapter 1expansion of broadband whereit is most needed. This year, theReport includes a special focuson the importance of integratingICT skills into education to ensurethat the next generation is able tocompete in the digital economy.This Report is structured aroundfour main themes which canhelp us realize the potential ofbroadband for all (Figure 1).Countries should use appropriatepolicies and strategies to makebroadband available, affordableand accessible, as a vitaldevelopment enabler for buildinginclusive, resilient and sustainablemodern-day knowledge societies.It is increasingly essential tointegrate everyone into modern life,with access to digital educationservices, culture, entertainment,healthcare, financial andcommercial services. To achievethis, the public and private sectorshave to work together in closepartnership (Featured Insight 1).As the following chapters show,broadband for all can transformpolicy, social, and developmentoutcomes around the world.Today, we stand on the cusp offulfilling the potential of highspeedbroadband. Indeed,broadband infrastructureand services are essential fornational competitiveness andsuccess in the modern economy– broadband is a key enablerof national competitivenessthrough greater efficiency.9


Chapter 1From left to right:Mr. Carlos Slim Hélu, Presidentof the Carlos Slim Foundation,receiving a WTISD Award fromDr Hamadoun I. Touré,ITU Secretary General,on the occasion of WorldTelecommunication andInformation Society Day(WTISD).From left to right:Dr Hamadoun I. Touré, ITUSecretary-General and co-Vice Chair of the BroadbandCommission for DigitalDevelopment; Paul Kagame,President of Rwanda and co-Chair of the Commission;Irina Bokova, Director-Generalof United Nations Educational,Scientific and CulturalOrganization (UNESCO)and co-Vice Chair of theCommission; andCarlos Slim Helú, Chairman ofGrupo Carso, President of theCarlos Slim Foundation and co-Chair of the Commission.11


Chapter 2Figure 2: Introducing our Future Built on BroadbandSubscriptions (billions)150 M0.5billion200 M0.8billion300 million mobile PCs,tablets and mobilerouter subscriptions1.9 billion smartphonesubscriptions250 M1.3billion350 M2.6billion400 M3.3billion450 M4billion550 M4.5billion600 M5billion650 M5.6billion2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019Mobile PCs, tablets and mobile router subscriptionsSmartphone subscriptionsFigure 2a: High-SpeedMobileBy the end of 2019,there may be 5.6 billionsmartphone subscriptions.Source: Ericsson Mobility ReportJune 2014.Number of Active Services1.2001.000800600400200Figure 2b: Growth inMobile ServicesMobile-enabled services,by vertical, 2005-2013.Source: GSMA, “FinancingInnovation”, July 2014.020052006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013HealthAgricultureEducation & entrepreneurshipFinancial servicesOther13


Chapter 2Back in 2005, the ‘Internet ofThings’ was starting to figure inpeople’s expectations 5 , but it wasimpossible to predict how fastour environment would becomeconnected. ITU predicts thenumber of networked devicescould reach 25 billion by 2020 6 .The content and services availableonline are exploding in linewith connectivity. Chapter 5 byUNESCO examines how broadbandis transforming education. A recentGSMA (2014) survey suggests thateducational and entrepreneurialservices are the fastest-growingmobile-enabled services (Figure2b). Indeed, how people andconsumers are using connectivity ischanging. Services such as Voiceover Internet Protocol (VoIP) andIPTV are increasingly common.Some sources suggest around 1.9billion people now use social mediaactively 7 , equivalent to a quarter ofthe world’s population 8 or nearly40% of total Internet users as aglobal weighted average, accordingto Global Web Index (Figure 2c).Want to know whether your friendsin Europe or Asia have woken upyet? Check Twitter, Facebook orAkamai (Figure 2d). Bankers havelong been used to the activity ofglobal financial markets shiftingwest each day with the rising sun;now, Internet users will becomeaccustomed to social activityfollowing a similar pattern.More sophisticated services (suchas real-time geolocation-basedservices) make data privacy,security and consumer protectionincreasingly urgent issues.Regulation is striving to keep upwith accelerating technologicalchange; however, regulatoryapproaches towards networks,services, spectrum and contentremain highly diverse (Figure 2e).Broadband is vital to underpin thegrowing global digital economy,and developing countries cannotafford to fall behind either intheir roll-out or policy towardsbroadband networks and services,or they risk being excluded fromthe global economy, and the nextstage of the information revolution.Figure 2c: Loud & SocialSocial NetworkPenetration, January 2014,for selected countries, as a% of active Internet users(based on national surveysof Internet users).Source: Global Web Index.Social Network Penetration82%81%76%75%74%74%73%71%68%58%56%54%54%51%51%48%44%42%40%39%37%25%15%12%CanadaUAEUKUSASouth KoreaGermanyAustraliaSingaporeFanceJapanPolandItalyArgentinaSaudi ArabiaRussiaBrazilTurkeyChinaSouth AfricaWeighted AverageMexicoThailandIndonesiaIndia14


Page views per Minute637,445 VM6/30/14 9:10AM GMTFigure 2d: Real-time: HasEurope Woken Up Yet?Page views per minute, forthe European region.Source: Akamai, http://www.akamai.com/html/technology/nui/industry/index.html.Chapter 29:00pm6/29/1411:20pm6/29/141:40am6/30/144:00am6/30/146:20am6/30/148:40am6/30/14% and Number of countries100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%80857467110515964124669581242795311398832 29364816 19 19113148 474011492 93 95261829120Figure 2e: IP-enabledWorldwide regulation& legalization,VoIP 2004-2013 (numberof countries; % totalnumber of countries).Source: ITU WorldTelecommunication RegulatoryDatabase.0%2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013Allowed No framework Closed Banned15


Chapter 22.1Defining BroadbandAnalysis of the growth and currentstatus of broadband dependspartly on how broadband isdefined, since the exact definitionof broadband affects subscriberand growth statistics. ITU’sRadiocommunication Bureau(ITU-R) maintains a categoricaldefinition of clusters of wirelessbroadband terrestrial and satellitetechnologies as IMT-2000 (3G)and IMT-Advanced (encompassingmost 4G technologies), while IMT-2020 will establish the technicalcriteria for 5G technologies 9 .The most salient requirementfor IMT-Advanced included peakservice rates of 100 Mbit/s for highmobility users and 1 Gbit/s forlow mobility users. For the futureIMT-2020, it is expected that thepeak data rate will increase severaltimes more compared with IMT-Advanced. Wireless broadbanddata traffic is projected to increaseby a thousand-fold by 2020 andbeyond. This continued increasein peak service rates is vital forwireless communication networksto meet the demands of futureservices. Even where consumersdo not always need or wantGigabit speeds, the introduction ofnew services is fuelling demand,so countries and operatorsneed to plan for the imminentbroadband world (Figure 3).Technological innovation isessential to successfully addressgrowing user demand andservice trends for 2020, but itis unlikely to be sufficient alone.For wireless, more dedicated andglobally harmonized spectrum isanother essential pillar for IMTdevelopment. Along with thegrowing demand for more spectrumfor mobile broadband, there isalso a need to enhance spectrumharmonization, economies ofscale, affordability, and roamingcapabilities. New regulatorytools and approaches to usingradiofrequency spectrum andoptimizing its use may play acomplementary role in the future.ITU and the OECD have definedbroadband as a capacityof at least 256 kbps in theuplink or downlink speed. TheBroadband Commission forDigital Development has definedbroadband using a cluster ofconcepts, as high-speed Internetaccess which is always-on andcapable of multiple serviceprovision simultaneously 10 . In termsof speed, steady growth continuesin both theoretical and actualaccess speeds or data throughputcapacity. The maximum speedsobtainable via copper through xDSLhave recently increased throughvectoring and the introductionof new standards such as G.fast(Figure 3, top), while the use ofsmall cells is boosting theoreticalmobile speeds and consumerscontinue to upgrade theirsubscriptions. Ericsson forecaststhat the total number of GSM/EDGE subscriptions is about to gointo decline worldwide, as moresubscribers adopt 3G 11 (Figure 3,bottom), although GSM/EDGE willstill be used by 3G subscribersin areas without 3G coverage.16


Throughput Capacity1 Gbps500 Mbps100 Mbps50 Mbps10 Mbps5 MbpsADSLADSL2+ bondingVDSL2 17aVDSL(2) 8bADSL2plus+ vectoring+ G.fastGPONFigure 3: Growth inSpeeds for Fixed andMobile TechnologiesThe evolution of copper– bridging the gapbetween xDSL and fibrespeeds (top); The shiftin subscriptions towardsmobile technologies withhigher speeds (bottom).Source: Alcatel Lucent (topchart), Ericsson Mobility Report,June 2014 (bottom chart).Chapter 21 Mbps1995 2000 2005 2010 2020-203010986.7 billionmobilesubscriptions2.6 BILLIONLTE subscriptionsSubscriptions (billions)765432by the end of 2019102010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019LTE/HSPA/GSM and LTE/CDMAHSPA/GSMGSM/EDGE-onlyTD-SCDMA/GSMCDMA-onlyOther17


Chapter 22.2Growth in BroadbandUsing the ITU definition ofbroadband, both fixed and mobilebroadband deployments continueto grow around the world. ITUestimated that there were 673million fixed broadband linesglobally by the end of 2013 (atotal in line with other estimates 13 ),while ITU data suggest thatthis will rise to 711 million fixedbroadband subscriptions by theend of 2014 14 (Figure 4, top).In terms of technologies, fixedbroadband subscriptions continueto grow via cable and fibreopticplatforms, although thereis evidence to suggest that thetotal number of Digital SubscriberLines (DSL) may have peakedand is now in decline. In termsof end-users, cable and satellitecommunications continue togrow annually at 1.8% and 1.5%,respectively 15 . It remains to be seenhow the most recent developmentsin VDSL2 vectoring and newstandards (such as the new G.faststandards being negotiated at ITUby operators including DeutscheTelekom, Telecom Italia and BT –see Featured Insight 17) will impactcopper. These developmentsoffer operators new prospectsof prolonging the life of existinginfrastructure 16 and could even haltor slow the decline in DSL lines.Today, xDSL still accounts for overhalf or more than five out of everyten fixed broadband lines (denotedas copper or the pink area in Figure4), with fibre optic FTTx and FTTHaccounting for around a quarter ofthe total market for fixed broadband(in the blue and gray areas in Figure4, bottom). Fibre is growing slowlybut steadily – FTTH/FTTB accountfor over a fifth of all connectedhomes in just nine countriesworldwide (of which one is in theArab region, five are in Asia andthree are in Europe 17 ). The FTTHCouncil notes that high householdpenetration of broadband is a keyindicator of market maturity forcountries to develop adequatesubscriber demand to sustain thedevelopment of new services.The top ten countries in the worldfor fixed broadband penetrationare all located in Europe, with theexception of the Rep. of Korea, in6th place. In 2014, there are foureconomies where fixed broadbandpenetration exceeds 40%, upfrom just one (Switzerland) in2013. See Annex 2 for nationalrankings for fixed broadband.In contrast to the strong growthobserved in new markets forfixed broadband up until 2011 18 ,fixed broadband growth may beflattening out globally at around1.5% per annum in terms ofsubscriptions, with Q4 2013 growthlower than both the precedingquarter and year-on-year growth 19 .It is difficult to interpret this asfixed broadband transitioning froma strong growth market to a massmarket, however, since differentregional markets follow differentdynamics. The locus of growth inhousehold broadband connectivityis shifting eastward, with Asia-Pacific accounting for the strongestgrowth in household connectivity.There is some evidence that growthin fibre deployments in Europemay be slower than previouslyexpected, with Point Topic revisingits estimates downward. Forexample, in the UK, Point Topic cutits 2016 forecasts for DSL, FTTxand overall broadband subscribersby 10% based on its previousexpectations from 2011 due toroll-out delays and the ongoingsqueeze in consumer spending 20 .18


22.9%, 163m, Americas1%, 7m, Various Figure 4: Status of0.5%, 3m, AfricaArab States, 12m, 1.6%Fixed BroadbandGeographical distributionof fixed broadbandsubscriptions by region(top); Evolution of fixedAsia & Pacific,313m, 44%broadband subscriptionsby technology,2011- 2013 (bottom).Chapter 2Sources:ITU (top); Point Topic (bottom).24.4%, 173m, EuropeCIS, 40m, 5.7%100%Market share by technology90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%Dec. 2011March 2012June 2012Sept. 2012Dec. 2012March 2013June 2013Sept. 2013Dec. 2013Cable Copper FTTH FTTXMobile broadband (3G and 4G)continues to show the highestgrowth rate of any ICT, growingalmost 20% during 2014. Therewere 191 LTE networks activeby September 2013 21 , while4G Americas anticipates thatthere will be 350 LTE networkscommercial by the end of 2014.Additionally, LTE-Advanced isnow commercially deployed on 9networks in 7 countries worldwide,expected to reach 40 networksby year-end 2014. The reasonsfor LTE deployment are diverse,with a wide range of drivers cited(Figure 5). ITU’s data suggestthat, in comparison with a stockof some 6.9 billion mobile cellularsubscriptions worldwide by theend of 2014, there will be 2.3 billionmobile broadband subscriptions 22 ,although Ericsson’s estimatesare somewhat higher for bothfigures, at 7.1 billion and 2.9 billion,respectively. By the end of 2014,mobile broadband subscriptionswill exceed fixed broadbandsubscriptions by a ratio of over 3:1(up from 2:1, just three years ago).19


Chapter 2Seven economies now have mobilebroadband penetration in excessof 100 active subscriptions percapita (Singapore, Finland, Japan,Australia, Bahrain, Denmarkand Korea ). By the beginning of2014, 26 economies had mobilebroadbandsubscription penetrationin excess of one subscription forevery two inhabitants, comparedwith just 13 countries at thebeginning of 2012 – see Annex 3.Smartphones account for betweena quarter and a third of allmobile subscriptions. Worldwide,smartphone shipments approached(Canalys 23 ) or likely exceeded theone billion mark in 2013 (IDC,2014 24 ). Gartner (2014) reportsthat smartphone shipmentsexceeded shipments of featurephones for the first time ever forthe full year 2013 25 , while Ericsson(2014) estimates that, for Q1 2014,65% of all mobile phones soldwere smartphones, comparedwith around 50% in Q1 2013.The OECD notes that smartphonescan consume up to 35 times moredata than feature phones, andpredicts that consumers will adopt4G more rapidly than 3G 26 . Informaagrees, noting that it took GSMtechnology 6.3 years to achieveits first 100 million users (from1992-1998), whereas LTE (Rel.8)achieved the same milestone in just4.2 years (between 2008-March2013) 27 . The rapid growth of LTEin particular has overtaken allprevious mobile technologies,and LTE is expected to grow evenfaster over the next few years,with 2013 proving a tipping pointin the deployment of LTE 28 .The total number of subscriptionsis of course different from thenumber of subscribers. Thereis considerable uncertainty asto the actual number of uniquemobile phone users. Cisco(2012) estimated that there werealready around 4 billion uniquemobile phone users as long agoas 2011, and that there will be5 billion mobile users by 2016.Ericsson (2014) estimates thatthe milestone of 4.5 billion uniquemobile users was achieved in2013. GSMA (2013) estimatedthis number as lower and later, ataround 3.4 billion unique mobilephone users by the start of 2014.By these estimates, mobile phonesubscriptions outnumber the actualnumber of unique phone users bya ratio of anywhere between 1.5-2.05 globally on average, althoughthis ratio may be much higher forindividual countries, due to multipleSubscriber Identity Module (SIM)card ownership (to take advantageof lower on-network pricing) and/or multi-device ownership, both ofwhich are increasing dramatically.For example, in India, a GSMAsurvey suggested that consumersuse 2.2 SIM cards each on average.Estimates of growth in mobilebroadband are generally higherthan previously predicted.According to Ericsson’s latestforecasts 30 , by 2019, mobilesubscriptions are expectedto reach around 9.2 billion, ofwhich global mobile broadbandsubscriptions could account for 7.6billion, with 5.6 billion smartphones.These are significantly higherthan 2012 predictions of 5 billionin 2017 (Ericsson, 2012 31 ). Theannual growth rate in mobilebroadband subscriptions willdecline from 40% in 2013 to32% in 2014 (Ericsson, 2014).However, these positive growthtrends are mixed with a numberof other factors and challenges,20


25%, 577m, Americas17%, 399m, EuropeAfrica, 172m, 8%Arab States, 92m, 4%Asia & Pacific,920m, 40%Figure 5: Status of MobileBroadbandGeographical distributionof mobile broadbandsubscriptions by region(top); Evolution of mobilebroadband, 2007-2014(middle); Reasons fordeploying LTE, mid-2014(bottom).Chapter 26%, 138m CISSource: ITU (top and middle);Informa Telecoms & Media LTEsurvey of 208 mobile executives,2014 29 (bottom).Note: * Estimate.Average penetration per 100 inhabitants908070605040302010DevelopedWorldDeveloping84*32*21*02007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014Create new revenuestreams based on LTE 16%Responding tocompetitors’ launch 9%4% Licensing or other regulatorypolicy requirements22% Current networks do notoffer sufficient capacityTake first-moveravantage 12%16% Build brand valuetechnology leadershipUsers want greater speeds 21%21


Chapter 2Table 1: Major Trends in the Mobile Sector Impacting Operators’Business ModelsDriving FactorsExamplesMarket Maturity;Slowdown in GrowthDecline in Price of VoiceMobile penetration is reaching saturationin some markets, with gross additionsdriven by second SIMs and churn.Operators are coming underpressure to provide interoperablenetworks and services.Voice Average Revenue Per Minute(ARPMs) and Average RevenuePer User (ARPUs) are falling underpressure from competition.Usage elasticity does not fullycompensate for declines in price.Data Price DeclineIntensifying CompetitionData competition focuses mainly on transport.Price declines to incentivizecustomer usage.Intensifying competition in mature markets.New competitors (such as Mobile VirtualNetwork Operators, resellers) are emerging.Source: IADB/World Bank.Growing User Demandand SophisticationMajority of customers are increasinglyexperienced mobile users.Operator purchasing decisionsare increasingly independentand well-informed.There is growing pressure on spectrum,with increased user demand necessitatingmore efficient use of spectrum, anddemand for more spectrum to beallocated to mobile broadband.as the mobile market consolidatesand transitions from a high-growthmarket to a mass-market.Table 1 highlights some keytrends in the mobile market. Insome countries, there is growingpressure for networks and devicesto become interoperable, withconsumers expecting to transferseamlessly between networks – forexample, Singapore is developinga Nationwide HeterogeneousNetwork (HetNet) to which userscan connect seamlessly andoperate their devices acrossdifferent wireless networks,including cellular and Wi-Fi.22


Box 1: What do we really needall this broadband capacity for?Chapter 2The debate continues as to whether or not consumers really needGigabit speeds. Demand for faster speeds continues to grow. Asspeeds increase however (Figure 3), it is likely that new applicationsand services will adapt to utilize all the newly available bandwidth.Today, there are still not many consumer apps and services thatreally need Gigabit speeds, but such services will arise, judging bythe number of accelerators popping up in Gigabit-enabled cities.Besides new, bandwidth-hungry services, another demand driveris simultaneous mass demand for existing services. According toCiena, if 10% of New York City’s 8 million residents wished to streama movie simultaneously, the capacity of infrastructure needed wouldbe around 1.6 Terabits per second 12 , sufficient to overload existingnetworks. Meeting this demand with existing technologies can be costly.However, failure to provide Terabit capacity could result in lower qualityplaybacks with pixelation, stuttering, jitter and pauses – somethingthat sophisticated modern Internet users may find unacceptable.Various broadband mediums (e.g., copper, fibre, wireless, cable)offer significant upgrades in bandwidth, including Gigabit speeds.Some make more sense than others – for example, in terms of costor time to market. Operators make network upgrade decisions basedon the age of the existing network, cost, competition, and demandfor which services. However, the number one priority for everyoperator should be to make broadband 100% available, whether fixedor mobile. The UN also calls for broadband to also be affordable,which may mean that not everyone needs, or should have, Gigabitbroadband speeds. It is difficult to define a “universal” broadbandspeed target. History clearly demonstrates that technology typicallymoves faster than most people anticipate – so countries and operatorsneed to start planning now for the imminent broadband world.Source: Teresa Mastrangelo, Voice of Broadband newsletter, November 2013; and Ciena at:www.gigaom.com/2014/02/15/the-need-for-speed-why-broadband-network-upgradesare-critical-to-economic-growth/23


Chapter 2The majority of both mobile andsmartphone sales over the nextfive years are likely to originate withthe developing world, based on thegrowth of low-cost smartphones.ABI Research 32 notes that Asia-Pacific accounts for nearly halfof all LTE subscriptions, due toits large population base, rapidLTE network deployment andcost-competitive smartphones.The second greatest contributoris North America with an 18%market share. Ericsson (2014)projects that China and Indiaeach accounted for around 20%of net additions 33 . Deloitte (2014)notes that in these regions, pricesensitivebuyers are having animpact on average sales price(ASPs), with mobile phone ASPsdecreasing overall by 4% in 2013.This sales price threshold ofUS$150 has been hailed as a2.3milestone for the smartphone(Deloitte 2014 34 ). In reality,however, Deloitte (2014) observesthat price is not always thepredominant factor, except forthe poorest consumers, and thatother key factors in the purchasedecision include size or form,weight, processor speed, andmemory capacity (Figure 6).Indeed, tablets and mini-tablets arethe personal devices of choice withmany youngsters and launching amini-tablet costing US$ 50 couldgenerate a very large marketsegment in some countries. Thereis evidence to suggest that salesof tablets may be flattening out– research consultancy IDC hasprojected that shipments of tabletswill grow at 19.4% in 2014, lessthan half the growth in 2013, asmore consumers remain contentwith the devices they already own 35 .Regulatory Frameworks for an Internet of EverythingThe Internet of Things is anotherstrong market generating demandfor broadband. According to somesources, there could be as manyas 9 billion connected devices by2018, roughly equal to the numberof smartphones, smart TVs,tablets, wearable computers, andPCs combined 36 , including kitchenand home appliances, lighting andheating products, and insurancecompany-issued car monitoringdevices that allow motorists topay insurance only for the amountof driving they do. In a paperprepared for the GSM Association,Machina research forecaststhat revenues for applicationsalone (such as toll-taking andcongestion penalties) could amountto US$100 billion by 2020.In the developed world, the vastmajority of connected devices arelikely to be industrial. In terms ofwearable devices, the majoritywill be sports/activity trackers,closely followed by other healthcaredevices, and smart watches (ABIResearch 2014). In terms of thelocations where sports, fitnessand wellness devices will ship,North America (and the U.S. inparticular) is likely to accountfor more than half of the marketfor the Internet of Things, withEurope in second place 37 . Theapplications of connected devicesfor health monitoring are enormous,including in the developing world,where connected devices couldhelp monitor nutritional needsor the outbreaks of epidemics.24


Connectivity< US$100Wi-Fi only< US$100-199Wi-Fi onlyFigure 6:Tablet Specificationby Price BandChapter 2WeightScreen resolutionUp to 300g800 x 480Up to 300g1024 x 600Source: Deloitte TMT Predictions2014.Internal memoryChipsetRear-facing camera4GB to 8GBSingle core at 1.2GHzNone8GB to 16GBDual core at 1.2GHz3MPNote: the specifications refer topopular models in each priceband.Average battery lifeUp to 5 hoursUp to 8 hoursReplacement rateMedium to lowMedium to lowFrequency of usageLowMedium< US$200-299 > US$300ConnectivityWeightWi-Fi onlyUp to 300gWi-Fi & cellular, with 4GUp to 350gScreen resolution2048 x 1536 2048 x 1536Internal memoryChipsetRear-facing cameraAverage battery lifeReplacement rateFrequency of usage16GB to 32GBDual core at 1.5GHz5MPUp to 9 hoursMedium to HighHigh16GB to 128GBQuad core at 1.5GHz5MPUp to 10 hoursMedium to HighHighHowever, connected devicesare only part of the story – theinformation yielded by theseconnected devices could proveeven more valuable. For example,“Google Fit” aims to collectusers’ health data to enablemore informed analysis of healthyhabits and lifestyles, as well aspotential symptoms. Microsoft islaunching a smart watch. Indeed,the move from connected thingsto the ‘Internet of Everything’may be a game-changer, whichsome observers are calling thebiggest fundamental technologicalchange since the development ofthe Internet (Featured Insight 2).Embedding technology into oureveryday environment is likely totranslate into major social changestoo, as it will become more possibleto track people’s movements,activity, interactions and interests,all of which raise major issueswith regards to privacy, securityand personal protection.25


Chapter 2Featured Insight 2:The Internet is Evolving– from Connected Thingsto Connected EverythingThe rise of the Internet of Everythingmay be the biggest fundamentaltechnological change since thedevelopment of the Internet. Already,the Internet of Everything is havinga profound impact, as people,processes, data, things, communities,and countries become increasinglyconnected. The Internet of Everythingrepresents a US$19 trillion globalopportunity to create value overthe next decade through greaterprofits for businesses, as well asimprovements to citizen services, costefficiencies, and increased revenuesfor governments and public sectororganizations (Cisco, 2014). With therise of cloud, mobility and big dataand the Internet of Everything, thetraditional role of IT is changing, andInternet Protocol (IP) networks areplaying a central role in connectingdisparate IT environments. Theexplosive expansion of direct M2Mconnections between context-awaremachines and other physical objectsis changing how we use devicesto improve our daily lives. And theshift in data and analytics ─ fromcentralized, structured, and statictowards distributed, mixed structuredand unstructured, and real-time ─is leading to a new era of real-timeprocessing and decision-making.The migration to IP networks and theability to turn big data into valuable,actionable information offer majoreconomic and social benefits. Thenetwork is a critical accelerator andenabler in all of these transitions,accelerating the utilization of dataand transforming processes toincrease efficiency and decreasecosts. IP networks are now connectingbillions of physical devices, while thisaccelerating volume of data is drivenby four major trends:• IP is fast becoming the commonlanguage for most datacommunication, especiallyproprietary industrial networks.• Billions more people, things,places, processes and deviceswill come online over the next fiveyears.• Existing physically storedinformation is being digitizedin order to record and sharepreviously analogue material. Forexample, the digital share of theworld’s stored information hasincreased from 25% to over 98%over the last decade 38 .• The introduction of InternetProtocol version 6 (IPv6) nowremoves the technical limit on thenumber of devices connected tothe Internet, allowing for trillions oftrillions (i.e. 10 38 ) of devices.Improving the ability of IP networksto transmit data for processing, aswell as enabling networks to create,analyze and act on data insights canaccelerate the positive impact frombig data. Building this capabilitywill require improving networkinfrastructure, enhancing analyticalcapabilities and ‘intelligence’ inthe network through distributedcomputing. Critical challenges willalso need to be addressed, includingrobust industry standards forinteroperability, privacy and security.Source: Dr. Robert Pepper, Vice-Presidentfor Global Technology Policy, Cisco Systems.26


As this hyperconnectedenvironment grows around usand permeates our lives in theInternet of Things, and as thebroadband ecosystem continuesto expand and evolve to includenon-traditional ICT and Internetplayers, as well as providers fromother sectors (such as healthcare,education, energy and finance),there is an urgent and growingneed for the re-thinking of ICTregulation to bring about a moreflexible approach to regulatingissues at different levels (networks,services and apps, etc.). Regulatorscan be seen as facilitators andpartners in promoting developmentand social inclusion. Regulatorscan sponsor and oversee publicprivatepartnerships (PPPs) amongaid donors, governments, ministriesand NGOs, particularly in meetinguniversal access goals for rural,remote and un-served areas.Given the speed with which theICT sector is evolving, countriesneed to update their legislative andregulatory framework to enabletelecom operators and Internetcompanies to compete on a levelplaying-field, while ensuring properconsumer protection and the safetyand security of personal data.Figure 7 shows how regulatoryframeworks among ITU MemberStates differ significantly, accordingto the issue under consideration.Of the 162 regulators in existenceby mid-2014, regulators retainedan overview of ‘traditional’ telecomareas (such as universal access,licensing, spectrum monitoringand price regulation) in over half(between 50-65%) of all 193ITU Member States. However,ITU Member States retainedmuch more diverse regulatoryframeworks with regards toIT, broadcasting content andInternet content (Figure 7).In a converged ICT industry, it mayprove difficult for operators andcontent providers to compete ona level playing-field, if they reportto different authorities on differentissues. There is a need for softerand smarter regulation, free frombias and led by out-of-the-boxthinking. More recently, the growthof integrated communications isleading to calls for “regulatoryrebalancing” (Featured Insight 3).Chapter 2Percentage of Countries100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%Figure 7: Who RegulatesWhat in ICT?Mandate of WorldRegulators, end 2013.Source: ITU TelecommunicationRegulatory Database.10%0%LicensingPriceregulationSpectrummonitoring &enforcementUniversalaccess &serviceBroadcastingcontentInternetcontentInformationtechnologyRegulator Sector Ministry Other Ministry or gov. body Operators Not regulated27


Chapter 2Featured Insight 3:A Call for RegulatoryRebalancingThe state of broadband in 2014cannot be fully reflected withoutacknowledging the still relativelynew, and certainly disruptive,Internet-based voice and messagingservices. Facebook’s acquisitionof WhatsApp this year and theannouncement that voice callingwill be added to WhatsApp servicesare indicative of a trend towardsIP-based communications that aremarketed to the public as free. Thesuccess of Tencent’s WeChat, withnearly 400 million active users, hascontributed to a significant declinein mobile operators’ voice and SMSvolumes in China. In a broadbandcentricworld, the business oftelecommunications must adapt.As communication technologiescontinue to evolve, the stakes arehigh for everyone — consumers,governments and industry. Themobile industry is not standing still; itis developing and introducing nativeIP-based services such as Voiceover LTE and rich communicationservices — so-called ‘greenbutton’ services. Competitionis generating innovations thatbenefit consumers and society.Unfortunately, regulation is notkeeping pace with the changes inthe market. The mobile sector isamong the most intensively regulatedindustry sectors, subject not only tocommon rules governing consumerprotection and privacy, but alsoto a raft of sector-specific rulesrelated to interoperability, security,emergency calls, lawful interceptof customer data, universal servicecontributions and more. It is one ofthe most heavily taxed sectors aroundthe world, facing various industryspecifictaxes, levies and fees.Internet players offering equivalentvoice and messaging servicesare, by and large, subject to noneof these requirements or the costof compliance. A Skype call, forexample, is not bound by thesame rules as a mobile phone call,and this is the basis of the Frenchregulator ARCEP’s ongoing disputewith the company. Many antidiscriminationand data protectionrules apply only to telcos and cablecompanies, despite an increasingamount of communication takingplace via unregulated platforms.It is the GSMA’s position thatthe same service should besubject to the same rules.Consumer awareness reflects theseregulatory double standards. GSMAresearch with over 11,500 mobileusers around the world shows thatthe responsibilities of telecomoperators and content providersfor protecting privacy and personaldata are not widely understood.When asked, for example, whois responsible for safeguardingpersonal information when theydownload an app, 58% answered theresponsibility lies with the mobileoperator. In reality, the mobileoperator has no control whatsoeverover which data a third-party appcaptures from that user’s device.Asymmetric regulation has resultedin an uneven competitive landscapefor services, which heavily favoursthe Internet players. It is theresponsibility of governments tolevel the playing field. A stableand sustainable mobile industry,shaped by healthy competition andmarket forces, is fundamental to thespread of broadband connectivityaround the world. Today, themobile sector is bearing the costsof market distortion created byoutdated regulation. Equitable rulesfor business create an environmentthat, through competition andinnovation, leads to the bestoutcomes for citizens everywhere.Source: Dr. Anne Bouverot,Director-General, GSMA.28


Box 2: Fourth-GenerationRegulationChapter 2Innovative and smart regulatory approaches can foster equaltreatment of market players without placing an extra burden onoperators and service providers. Some of these guidelines include:• Adopt a “light-touch” regulatory approach, intervening only whennecessary, while ensuring that market forces work without constraintsand in favour of innovation;• Ensure principles of fair, equal and non-discriminatory treatment ofall market players for a level playing-field among regulated andunregulated players;• Streamline procedures to facilitate market entry and stimulatecompetition and innovation;• Conduct market analysis to assess the market situation ina converged environment;• Adopt a regulatory framework that eliminates barriers to new entrants;• Include competitive provisions that guarantee a healthy relationshipbetween all authorized players in the relevant market (operators,Internet providers, OTT providers, etc.);• Empower consumers to make informed decisions through thedevelopment of online tools to check download speeds, quality-ofserviceand prices for access and data plans;• Monitor the use of traffic management techniques to ensure they donot unfairly discriminate between market players;• Encourage network and facility sharing through “soft” measures(e.g. cross-sector mapping of infrastructure that enables thecoordination of civil works).• Ensure transparency and openness (e.g. by making market data andregulations available).• Encourage multi-stakeholder consultation on policy andregulatory matters;• Continue to ensure regulatory predictability and foster co-regulationwherever possible; and• Work with all stakeholders to reduce or remove practical barriers tobroadband deployment.Source: Chapter 1, Trends in Telecommunication Reform 2014 report, based on www.itu.int/bestpracticesRegulatory frameworks need tobe reviewed, and revisions needto be carefully considered in orderto avoid sudden changes to ICTregulatory frameworks, whichmight jeopardize investment. Acost-benefit analysis can be usedto evaluate each market andadapt regulation to the specificneeds of the market. ITU hoststhe annual Global Symposium forRegulators 39 (GSR) to keep MemberStates informed about the latestregulatory developments, andto assist them in reviewing andupdating their ICT regulations. Box2 above details key features ofinnovative regulatory approaches.29


Chapter 2ENDNOTES1. ITU Facts & Figures 2014, available from http://www.itu.int/2. ITU Facts & Figures 2014, available from http://www.itu.int/3. GSMA, 2014.4. “Worldwide Smartphone Usage to Grow 25% in 2014”, emarketer,11 June 2014, available at: http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Worldwide-Smartphone-Usage-Grow-25-2014/1010920/1?utm_content=buffer21f3d&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer5. ITU Internet Report, “The Internet of Things” (2005).6. http://www.v3.co.uk/v3-uk/news/2207590/itu-predicts-25-billionnetworked-devices-by-20207. Definitions of ‘active’ social media usage vary widely, includingaccording to the definition of each platform.8. http://adelinapeltea.com/2014-the-state-of-worldwide-internetsocial-media-and-mobile-penetration/9. http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/index.asp?category=studygroups&rlink=rsg5-imt-advanced&lang=en10. “A 2010 Leadership Imperative: The Future Built onBroadband”, September 2010, available from: http://www.broadbandcommission.org/Reports/Report_1.pdf11. Ericsson Mobility Report 2014.12. “The Need for Speed”, Steve Alexander, Ciena, 15 February 2014at: http://gigaom.com/2014/02/15/the-need-for-speed-whybroadband-network-upgrades-are-critical-to-economic-growth/13. “Global broadband subscriber numbers – Q4 2013”, Point Topic, at:http://point-topic.com/free-analysis/global-broadband-subscribernumbers-q4-2013/?utm_campaign=678.6m_fixed_broadband_subscribers_worldwide_at_th&utm_medium=Email&utm_source=CM_pointtopic14. See ITU aggregate data for fixed broadband subscribers, availableat http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx15. Point Topic research, referenced by the joint contribution of IMSO,ITSO and Eutelsat to this report.16. http://www.lightwaveonline.com/articles/2013/08/worldwide-ftthsubscribers-to-grow-23-in-2013-says-abi-research.html17. Namely: UAE; Republic of Korea; Hong Kong, China; Japan;Singapore; Taiwan, China; Lithuania; Sweden; and Latvia, see:http://www.lightwaveonline.com/articles/2014/02/ftth-subscribergrowth-accelerates-says-ftth-council-europe.html18. “2011 Broadband Growth Fastest in Five Years”, BroadbandForum, available at: http://www.broadband-forum.org/news/download/pressreleeases/2012/BBF_IPTV2012.pdf19. “Global broadband subscriber numbers – Q4 2013”, Point Topic,available at: http://point-topic.com/free-analysis/global-broadbandsubscriber-numbers-q4-2013/?utm_campaign=678.6m_fixed_broadband_subscribers_worldwide_at_th&utm_medium=Email&utm_source=CM_pointtopic30


20. Point Topic, “Broadband market experiences continued consumersqueeze, hampered by late FTTx deployment”, available at: http://pointtopic.com/free-analysis/broadband-market-experiences-continuedconsumer-squeeze-hampered-late-fttx-deployment/21. “LTE Industry Insight and Vendor Analysis” (2014), Informa Telecoms andMedia.22. Mobile broadband subscriptions are not necessarily a sub-set of mobilecellular subscriptions, since mobile broadband subscriptions includedongles, which are not counted in mobile cellular subscriptions.23. Canalys (January 2014) estimates total annual mobile phone shipmentsas 998 million for the fifty countries it tracks (http://www.canalys.com/newsroom/android-80-smart-phones-shipped-2013), making it likelythat total global shipments exceeded one billion for 2013.24. http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS2464551425. “Gartner Says Annual Smartphone Sales Surpassed Sales of FeaturePhones for the First Time in 2013”, Gartner (13 February 2014), availableat: http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/266571526. Page 102, OECD Communications Outlook 2013.27. “LTE Industry Insight and Vendor Analysis” (2014), Informa Telecoms andMedia.28. “LTE Industry Insight and Vendor Analysis” (2014), Informa Telecoms andMedia.29. “LTE Industry Insight and Vendor Analysis” (2014), Informa Telecoms andMedia.30. Ericsson Mobility Report 2014.31. Ericsson Traffic & Market report, June 2012, available from:www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2012/traffic_and_market_report_june_2012.pdf32. Analyst Insider from ABI Research, 5 March 2014, available at: https://www.abiresearch.com/analyst-insider/archive/60/33. Ericsson Mobility Report, February 2014.34. Deloitte TMT Predictions (January 2014).35. “Growth in global tablet shipments to slow in 2014: research firm”, IDCvia Reuters, 6 March 2014, Noel Randewich, available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/06/us-technology-tablets-idUSBREA2520R20140306?feedType=RSS&feedName=technologyNews36. http://www.businessinsider.com/growth-in-the-internet-ofthings-2013-1037. ABI Research Analyst Insider, A weekly technology research update fromABI Research, Wednesday - April 16, 2014, available at: https://www.abiresearch.com/analyst-insider/archive/66/38. K.Cukier and V. Mayer-Schoenburger (2013), “The Rise of Big Data:How It’s Changing the Way We Think about the World”, Foreign AffairsMay/June, available at: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139104/kenneth-neil-cukier-and-viktor-mayer-schoenberger/the-rise-of-big-data.39. See www.itu.int/gsr/ for a listing of the annual events.Chapter 231


EvaluatingGlobal Growthin Broadband:The Need for PolicyLeadership32How can the benefits of broadbandbe extended to the entire world’spopulation? Over recent years,governments, policy-makers andregulators have made broadbanda policy imperative, based ongrowing recognition of the impactof broadband on national goals.There is strong evidence to suggestpositive benefits to broadbandin greater economic growth(through productivity gains andemployment), enhanced socialinclusion and citizen engagement.3.1As part of its efforts to promotedigital inclusion, the BroadbandCommission approved four targetsat the Broadband LeadershipSummit in 2011 to monitor theprogress of broadband networkroll-out and the affordability ofservices around the world. Afifth advocacy target on genderequality in access to broadbandwas approved by the Commissionin 2013. This chapter reviewsinternational progress in achievingthese five advocacy targets.Advocacy Target 1: Making broadband policyuniversal – by 2015, all countries should have anational broadband plan or strategy or include broadbandin UAS DefinitionsThe importance of nationalpolicy leadership is now clearlyunderstood by policy-makersand governments around theworld. A clear statement of policyobjectives and/or targets can boostunderstanding and facilitate thenational roll-out of broadband.This statement may often (but notalways) take the form of a NationalBroadband Plan 1 . Today, some140 countries have developed anational plan, strategy, project orpolicy to promote broadband, whilea further 13 countries are planningto introduce such measures inthe near future (Figure 8, top).However, 43 countries still do nothave any form of broadband plan,strategy or policy in place. Thenumber of National BroadbandPlans has grown strongly since2009, partly driven by the financialcrisis, which spurred manyGovernments to respond withstimulus funding for broadband 2 .However, growth in the numberof broadband plans and policies,as tracked by the ITU, has slowedsince last year, as countries entera phase of consolidation andassessment of national progress(Figure 8, bottom). Countrieswhich recently approved a NBP


Chapter 3Figure 8: Policy Leadership in National Broadband PlansWithout a plan, 22%43 countries71% Plan in place,140 countriesCountries with NationalBroadband Plans,Strategies or Policies,World, mid-2014Planning to, 7%13, countriesNumber of Countries1601401201008060402001731385364102123133 134140Number of Countrieswith NationalBroadband Plans,2005-2014Source: ITU.Note: Top chart based on datafor 196 countries. Nationalbroadband plan or strategyincludes: a plan, strategy orpolicy specific to broadband;digital plan, agenda, strategyor policy; ICT plan, strategy,or policy; or a communicationplan, strategy, or policy.2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 201433


Chapter 3include Brunei in 2014, Nigeria (inJuly 2013), South Africa (December2013 – Box 4) and Sierra Leone(currently developing its Plan).Canada launched an EconomicAction Plan in 2014 to promotebroadband roll-out in rural areas 3 .Smart public policies to fosterbroadband should always take intoaccount both sides of the market– namely, supply (e.g., investmentsin broadband networks, adequateproducts & services, affordabilityof smart devices, etc.) and demand(through expanding ICT education,digital skills, entrepreneurshippolicies, support for start-upsetc.). Policies for broadbandshould also consider linkageswith other sectors (Box 3).However, many regulatory andpolicy institutions often still work ina ‘silo’ approach, making decisionsin isolation from other sectors.Policy-makers need to cometogether to formulate commonstrategies on ICT policy alignedwith other major policy areas tomaximize the impact of ICTs onenergy, health, education andclimate 4 . Used wisely, nationalstrategies can be a vehicle forcross-sector collaboration andcross-ministry coordination insupport of a common vision forthe development of broadband.A raft of vital factors needto be reviewed, includinglicensing reforms, competitionregulation and streamlininglocal planning permission –plans are not developed in avacuum, but alongside otherkey policies and laws.Regardless of form, policyobjectives should be consistentover the entire national territoryand ensure coordination atregional and local levels, to betterguarantee successful outcomes.Extending broadband planningto the community level is anotherquestion, however. A recentsurvey of economic planners inthe U.S. reveals that only aroundhalf of respondent communitieshave an economic developmentplan that includes broadbandstrategies and tactics. 48% oflocal State economic developmentagencies either already have aplan with broadband or are in theprocess of writing one that willincorporate broadband (19%),while just over half (a total of52%) do not have a plan includingbroadband infrastructure. 61%of rural respondent communitieshave or are writing a plan thatincludes broadband tactics 5 .All stakeholders in the ICT valuechain must be taken into accountif the full benefits of broadband areto be achieved. A policy focusingsolely on one side of the marketis unlikely to prove successful.A “one-size-fits-all” approach isill-advised for the communicationssector, where inappropriate nationalpolicies can foster or underminecrucial private investment inbroadband infrastructure. Acost-benefit approach shouldbe adopted before implementingany legal and regulatory changesin this dynamic sector.Box 3 summarizes the keycharacteristics of good nationalbroadband strategies. SouthAfrica Connect provides anexcellent example of a policywhich focuses on both supply-sideand demand-side considerations(Box 4). Once a Plan is in place,however, the emphasis must beall about implementation andmoving from plans to action. Qatarprovides an excellent example of aRoadmap identifying clear actions,with responsible counterparties(Featured Insight 4). China hasalso launched a succession ofPlans focusing on implementation(Featured Insight 5).34


Box 3: Characteristics of aGood PlanChapter 3Best practice cases for national broadband plans are by nowbroadly well-established. According to research by ITU, a good Planshould broadly:• Make the case for broadband, specific to the needs andeconomic structure of that country, based on thoroughcontextual market analysis and benchmarking;• Escape ‘silo thinking’ and apply across a range of different sectors;• Be developed in consultation with a broad range ofstakeholders. To ensure effective implementation, there shouldbe a coordinating agency responsible for implementing theplan overall, in conjunction with other involved bodies 6 ;• Consider the vital issue of enforceability/execution. Whois responsible for enacting the Plan? Who will monitorprogress? How will implementation be funded?• Consider both demand and supply side considerations. This may meansupporting the development of human skills, literacy, and demandamong, for example, schools and SMEs, as well as taking into accountthe role of Government in driving demand in many developing countries.• Have a timescale of around 3-5 years, as longer time horizonsare difficult to predict in a fast-changing industry.• Be broadly technology-neutral. Plans should have no majorimplications in terms of favouring specific technologies.• Contain detailed, measurable goals and strategies to allow evaluationof progress. Plans may often also contain consideration of ‘specialinterest groups’, such as schools, hospitals, universities, diverselanguages and access by minorities or people with specific needs.• Address related legislation – e.g. privacy and data protection,security and digital signatures, rights of way, interoperability.• Strike a balance between high-level strategic direction anddetail. Plans should allow implementing agencies someflexibility in how they should go about implementation.Source: ITU/Cisco (2013), “Planning for Progress: Why National Broadband Plans Matter”,available from www.broadbandcommission.org35


Chapter 3Featured Insight 4:Towards BroadbandImplementation in QatarQatar’s National Broadband Plan(QNBP) was released late in 2013.It provides the guidelines andactions Qatar needs to follow overthe next decade to ensure theopportunities offered by broadbandtechnology are maximized. Theplan aims to support and promotebroadband market development,involving multi-stakeholdersfrom both the public and privatesectors, to ensure both supply anddemand sides are addressed.The Plan should help providehigh-quality, affordable and highspeedbroadband services to all,in order to support the human,social, economic and environmentaldevelopment of Qatar, for thebenefit of both the nation and itsresidents. To track the fulfilment ofthe National Broadband initiative,Qatar’s Plan proposes four targets:• Everyone should be able to choosebetween at least two broadbandproviders by 2016.• 95% of households should havethe ability to access affordable andhigh-quality broadband serviceof at least 100 Mbit/s effectivedownload and 50 Mbit/s effectiveupload speeds by 2016.• All businesses, schools, hospitalsand government institutions areto have high-quality access to atleast 1 Gbit/s effective symmetricalspeeds by 2016.• Digital literacy is to be expandedto the whole population by 2016,along with guarantees aboutusers’ digital privacy, protectionof personal data, and freedom ofopinion and expression.Four action areas were identified askey to achieve the plan’s targets:(1) supporting healthy competition;(2) efficient management ofresources; (3) ensuring take-up;(4) maximizing the benefits ofbroadband. Forty detailed andstakeholder-specific policy actionshave been defined in a Roadmap,with clear responsibilities definedfor all stakeholders. Thirteen workinggroups will lead the implementationof specific policy actions in eachsector, with cooperation from thededicated Program ManagementOffice, under the supervision ofa high-level National BroadbandSteering Committee to ensure thatactions are implemented.In addition, Qatar is introducingits 2020 E-Government Strategy &National Cyber Security Strategy, aswell as a unique Strategy addressingthe needs of people with disabilitiesfor assistive technology throughthe Ministry’s Center for AssistiveTechnology (Mada). Qatar realizesthat, while increasing demand forbroadband is vital for its economy, itsunique position and characteristicsmake it a lucrative target for cyberattacks,hence its focus on deliveringa holistic and safe digital ecosystem.These strategies also contribute tothe implementation of QNBP, as theyaddress vital policy actions.Source: H.E. Dr. Hessa Al Jaber, Minister ofInformation & Communication Technology,Qatar.36


Featured Insight 5:The State of Broadbandin ChinaChina’s national broadband networkhas experienced rapid growth overrecent years. Fixed broadbandsubscribers increased by 11 millionin the first six months of 2013 andtotalled 181 million by mid-2013.Total investment for broadbandnetwork infrastructure in China willbe 1.6 trillion RMB (c.US$ 250 billion),while total investment in relevantindustries is expected to exceed4.8 trillion RMB (US$ 700 billion)by 2015. Given China’s changingdemographics and the scale ofinvestments needed, alongside risingspeed and demand for capacity, thedevelopment of “Broadband China”to date has been significant. It hasbeen achieved through governmentpolicy support, broadband servicedevelopment and industrialinnovation in technology and apps.Key Government policies to boost thesteady development of BroadbandChina have included:• Continuously improve broadbandas a strategic national asset. TheChina Development and ReformCommission, Ministry of Industryand Information Technology andother Ministries issued the “Adviceof Implementing and PopularisingHigher speed BroadbandProject” in 2012 and “Advice ofImplementing Broadband China2013 Special Action” in 2013. TheState Council issued “BroadbandChina Strategy & ImplementationPlan” to promote broadbanddevelopment in August 2013.• Implement FTTH network accessin new buildings. The Ministryof Housing and Urban China hasissued several regulations toboost broadband deploymentand application. “Residentialand Residential Building FTTHCommunications FacilitiesConstruction Engineering DesignSpecifications” and “Residentialand Residential Building FTTHCommunications FacilitiesConstruction and AcceptanceNorms” aim to solve the difficultyof residential wiring projects. FTTHCommunications for new buildingdemand encourages carriers toshare network access and opticalfiber resources. The strategy isdesigned to break the existingmonopolies of China Unicom in thenorth of China and China Telecomin the south by encouraging andsupporting market competition.• Support rural and undevelopedregions. Operators may showonly limited enthusiasm aboutinvesting in broadband at thecounty level and in undevelopedregions due to low returns oninvestment. The government hasimplemented a universal serviceobligation (USO) and compensationscheme with tax incentives to boostbroadband universal deployment.The “Broadband China” strategyclassified broadband networkconstruction and operation in “TheEncouraged Industries Directory inwestern regions”, and broadbandservice in the “PreferentialIndustrial Catalogue for ForeignInvestment in middle and westernregions” to promote broadbandnetwork investment in provincialregions.• Attract private capital funding.Very soon, the Chinese governmentwill open the broadband accessmarket to private capital andencourage private capital to setup broadband access enterpriseswhich cooperate with incumbentcarriers to provide broadbandservices. These policies willpromote broadband marketcompetition and boost thedevelopment of “BroadbandChina”.Source: Huawei.Chapter 337


Chapter 3Box 4: South Africa’s NewNational Broadband Policy:South Africa ConnectIn recognition of broadband’s potential to drive economic growthand development, the Government of South Africa has developed aBroadband Policy, South Africa Connect, to create opportunities, whileensuring social and economic inclusion. This Policy was approvedby the Government and gazetted by H.E. the former Minister ofCommunications, Mr Yunus Carrim, in December 2013. This Policy takesforward the National Development Plan of the country. It reflects thecommitment of the Government of South Africa to creating an enablingenvironment for investment in the roll-out of broadband infrastructure andfor the production of content, applications and services to drive demand.The Policy identifies a range of demand- and supply-side policyinterventions necessary to achieve ambitious, but achievable, targets.A universal average download speed of 100 Mbps by 2030 hasbeen set. Progressive targets have been set for an average userexperience speed of 5 Mbps to be available to 50% of the populationby 2016, and to 90% by 2020, with quality of service and prices tobe monitored by the regulator. Specific targets have also been set forschools and clinics and for public sector connectivity. These targetswill be reviewed regularly, if necessary. The plan focuses on theneed for effective partnerships between the public/private sectors.These policy interventions are reflected in a four-pronged strategy:1. The Digital Readiness pillar addresses institutional andadministrative impediments.2. The Digital Development pillar aims to digitally enable governmentby identifying key activities.3. The Digital Future pillar focuses on creating suitable conditions forto the development of next-generation infrastructure and services.4. The Digital Opportunity pillar is based on stimulating demand,including through general awareness and e-literacy campaigns, toformal skills development.Through this policy, South Africa aims to mobilize the capabilities,resources and energy of its public and private sectors,together with civil society, to connect South Africans.Source: Former Minister of Communications,Yunus Carrim, Dept. of Communications of South Africa.38


3.2Advocacy Target 2: Making broadband affordable –by 2015, entry-level broadband services should bemade affordable in developing countries through adequateregulation and market forcesThe price of broadband accessis critical in expanding access tobroadband in developing countries.Broadband is becoming moreaffordable around the world –over the past five years, fixedbroadbandprices as a share ofGNI per capita have droppedby 65% 7 . By 2013, the majorityof countries had reached theCommission’s target of offeringbasic fixed-broadband services at10% in Figure 9).Competition is widely recognizedas the most effective mechanismto date to lower prices, althoughpolicy-makers can also addressaffordability by regular monitoring,price regulation, potentialsubsidies, and tiered services.ITU’s most recent researchsuggests that duopolies canrealize some falls in prices, butthat markets with at least threelicensed operators experiencethe greatest falls in prices 10 .Chapter 3Number of countries706050403020100357126 3019151525 5 40-2 2-5 5-8 8-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 >50Figure 9: Fixedbroadband subbasketfor DevelopingCountries, 2013Source: ITU.Fixed broadband prices, as a percentage of monthly GNI p.c., 2013Developed countriesDeveloping countries39


Chapter 33.3Advocacy Target 3: Connecting homes tobroadband – by 2015, 40% of households indeveloping countries should have Internet accessAccess to broadband or theInternet at home is one of themore inclusive ways of bringingpeople online. At home, allhousehold members can haveaccess – no matter whether theyhave jobs, go to school, are maleor female, children, adults, orelderly. Research has shown thatchildren with Internet access athome perform better in school.Children using the Internet athome are usually under parentalguidance and better protectedagainst online dangers.The Republic of Korea has thehighest household Internetpenetration in the world, at 98.1%.Household penetration is nowabove 50% in 27 developingeconomies worldwide. Globalgrowth in household Internetaccess can be broken down intotwo opposing trends. Globally,44% of total households will beconnected by the end of 2014(Figure 10). However, Internetaccess for households indeveloped countries has slowedin its growth since 2009, andis nearing saturation, with overthree-quarters of householdsalready connected to the Internet.Although developing countriesshow an accelerating trend inInternet access from 2010 onwards,the proportion of households indeveloping countries with accessto the Internet currently falls shortof the target, at just 31.2%. By2015, only 34% of households indeveloping countries are likely tobe connected to the Internet, andthe target of 40% only looks set tobe achieved by 2017 at the earliest.This global average masks strongregional disparities in access – forexample, in Africa, only one tenth ofhouseholds have Internet access.For national rankings, see Annex 4.Figure 10: Proportion ofhouseholds with Internetaccess, 2005-2014Source: ITU WorldTelecommunicationDevelopment Indicators.Note: * Denotes an estimate.Average penetration (per 100 inhabitants)100908070605040302010DevelopedWorldDeveloping78*44*31*02005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 201440


3.4Advocacy Target 4: Getting people online - by2015, Internet user penetration should reach 60%worldwide, 50% in developing countries and 15% in LDCsBy the end of 2014, some 2.9billion people or 40.4% of theworld’s population will be online 11 ,up from 2.3 billion people in 2011(equivalent to 32% penetration).However, over two thirds of peoplein developing countries will stillremain unconnected, as will over90% of people in the world’s48 LDCs. The global target of60% Internet user penetrationis unlikely to be achieved bynext year, even though Internetuser penetration is approachingsaturation in developedeconomies, at around 78%.The top ten countries in theworld for Internet usage at thebeginning of 2014 are all locatedin Europe, and all have Internetpenetration of over 90%. Thereare 77 economies where morethan half the population nowhas access to the Internet. Fornational rankings, see Annexes 5,6 and 7. According to ITU data,the milestone of 3 billion Internetusers will be achieved in 2015, afull year ahead of the scheduleestimated by Boston ConsultingGroup (BCG) back in 2012 12 .This implies that global growth inInternet usage is happening morequickly than previously anticipated.In the developing world, Internetpenetration will reach 32.4% bythe end of 2014 (compared with24% in 2011) and under 10% inLDCs (Figure 11). Internet userpenetration in developing countriesis unlikely to achieve the targetof 50% until 2020. Over half theworld’s population or more than4 billion people are still not usingthe Internet regularly or activelyyet, of whom more than 90% livein the developing world. For thenational rankings of developingcountries, see Annex 6. One waygovernments can get more peopleonline is through the deployment ofUniversal Service Funds (USFs) 13 .Chapter 3Average penetration (per 100 inhabitants)100908070605040302010DevelopedWorld78*Developing40*32*Figure 11: Internet userpenetration, 2005-2014Source: ITU WorldTelecommunicationDevelopment Indicators.Note: * Denotes an estimate.02005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 201441


Chapter 33.5Advocacy Target 5: Achieving gender equality inaccess to broadband by 2020Gender equality in accessto broadband is essential forempowering women and girlsthrough equal access to newtechnologies to acquire ICT skillsand better-paid jobs, accessinformation, and redress someof the inequalities they face intheir everyday lives. If womenand girls are unable to enjoy thesame access to ICTs, and relevantcontent, they can find themselvesat a serious disadvantage inbecoming fully literate, learningabout and exercising theirrights, participating in publicand policy-making processesand accessing skilled jobs 14 .Sex-disaggregated data are notyet widely available for broadbandconnectivity. Based on Internetusage data as a proxy, ITU (2013)estimated there were 1.3 billionfemale Internet users by 2013,compared with 1.5 billion menand boys online, equivalent to aglobal gender gap of some 200million fewer women and girlsonline 15 in 2013. This gender gapwas more pronounced in thedeveloping world, where 16%fewer women than men used theInternet, compared with only 2%fewer women than men in thedeveloped world (ITU, 2013 16 ).prioritizing (or failing to prioritize)women’s access to ICTs, educationand knowledge. To be successful,these actions should tackle theroot causes of the existing genderinequalities in societies, i.e. therange of factors of socio-economicand political nature which affectgender divides and biasedattitudes and cultural beliefs.ITU, its Members and NGOsare promoting concepts ofm-learning and digital literacy. ITUand telecentre.org Foundationlaunched the Telecentre WomenDigital Literacy Campaign in April2011 with the goal of training onemillion women to become digitallyliterate. By January 2014, over onemillion poor and marginalizedwomen have been empoweredthrough this initiative 17 .UNESCO is assisting its MemberStates in formulating andimplementing national informationpolicies in a gender-inclusivemanner, empowering womenthrough access to information andknowledge and the use of ICTs.For example, the OER Declarationprovides recommendationsto Member States on genderequal perspectives in promotingand using OER to widenaccess to education.ITU’s research suggests that, inmany countries, women are comingonline more slowly and later thanmen, impacting women’s abilityto use the Internet to accessinformation and develop the vitalICT skills needed to participateon an equal footing with menin the digital economy. Withoutcoordinated action among varioussectors, it will be difficult toeliminate the gender digital divide,given entrenched cultural barriersThese initiatives aim to raiseawareness about girls’ andwomen’s role and participationin accessing information, andto increase the number ofwomen accessing, using anddeveloping ICTs, OERs, OA andFOSS materials. It is hopedthat these activities will guidenational stakeholders in adoptingenabling policies with a stronggender equity perspective toreduce the digital gender gap.42


Endnotes1. See GSR 2011 Discussion Paper on “Setting National BroadbandPolicies, Strategies and Plans”, by Dr Robert Horton, SeniorTelecommunications Expert, available at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR11/documents/03-Broadband%20Policies-E.pdf2. “Confronting the Crisis: ICT Stimulus Plans for Economic Growth” (ITU,2009), ITU, Geneva.3. http://www.budget.gc.ca/2014/docs/plan/pdf/budget2014-eng.pdf4. ITU/Cisco (2013), “Planning for Progress: Why National Broadband PlansMatter”, available from: www.broadbandcommission.org5. “Community Broadband Snapshot Report: The Broadband-DrivenEconomy”.6. How to Plan It, Fund It, Measure It”, IEDC (right chart), available at:http://cjspeaks.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/IEDC-2014-report.pdf.7. ITU Measuring the Information Society 2013, Geneva.8. ICT Facts and Figures 2013, ITU, Geneva.9. Thanki, Richard, “The Economic Significance of License-ExemptSpectrum to the Future of the Internet”, June 2012.10. ITU Measuring the Information Society report 2014, forthcoming.11. ITU “The World in 2014: ICT Facts & Figures”, available from: http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/facts/default.aspx12. “The Connected World: The Internet Economy in the G20”, BostonConsulting Group (BCG) Report, March 2012.13. “Universal Service Funds and Digital Inclusion for All”, Discussion Paperfor GSR 2013, Lynne A. Dorward, available at: http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Regulatory-Market/Documents/USF_final-en.pdf.14. “Doubling Digital Opportunities: Enhancing the Inclusion of Women andGirls in the Information Society” Broadband Commission (2013), at:http://www.broadbandcommission.org/Documents/working-groups/bbdoubling-digital-2013.pdf15. ITU ICT Facts & Figures 2013, available from www.itu.int16. ITU ICT Facts & Figures 2013, available from www.itu.int17. http://women.telecentre.orgChapter 343


Broadbandfor DrivingSustainableDevelopmentThe real power of broadbandlies in its potential to improvedevelopment outcomes in thedeveloping world. There is todaygrowing evidence that broadbandis making a tangible differencein the lives of people aroundthe world. Broadband and ICTscan play a fundamental role ingiving people voice and accessto knowledge, information andeducation and supporting thedevelopment of new skills andemployment opportunities. TheUN Rio+20 Conference in June2012 recognized that “it is essentialto work toward improved accessto ICTs, especially broadbandnetworks and services, andbridge the digital divide” 1 .One clear trend in this regardis the development of a morecomplex broadband ecosystemin trying to address the complexchallenges of human development(Featured Insight 6). In seeking touse ICTs to help tackle complexproblems of human development,more diverse stakeholders areinvolved. Broadband providersmust work with health workers orwith financial service providers(e.g. banks and money transferservices) to understand theirneeds and requirements, despitetheir different backgrounds.Featured Insight 6:The Expanding BroadbandEco-System – An Engineof Transformation andProgress for SustainableDevelopmentBroadband has come a long wayin a very short period of time. FourExabytes (4.0x10 18 ) of informationwere generated in 2012, more thanwas produced over the past fivethousand years 2 . “Digital”, “Mobile”,“e- and -m” are now an integralpart of our language, as well asdaily references to many productsand services that serve our globalcommunity – e-Health, m-Health,e-Education and m-Education, toname a few. Business processes andbusiness models of our organizationsare continuing to transform and createa demand for knowledge workers.Yet, we have a long way to go.Broadband has to be integratedinto new business models forstrategic success. Collaborativemodels are needed for innovation,commitments, resource-sharingand participation to serve the manydiverse needs and demands of oursocieties. Job creation and economicempowerment are vital means ofbridging development gaps.The broadband ecosystem initiallyinvolved NGOs, network operators,academia, hardware and softwareproviders, ICT policy-makers andregulators. As broadband spreadsinto more diverse sectors, publishersand content providers, social44


Chapter 4networks, healthcare providersand major players in other verticalindustries (such as finance,agriculture and manufacturing)have to be taken into account, interms of their needs, expectationsand influence in shaping the futureof broadband. We have to promoteand be willing to share the risksand the rewards in reconciling thesometimes different interests ofdiverse organizations. Collectivebusiness models must now includecollaborative innovation and befocused on the changing socioeconomicneeds and demand.For example, there is evidenceto suggest that universities andcolleges in the U.S. may not beable to create and produce therequired number of nurses throughtraditional educational systems 3 .However, the use of broadband andonline education in combinationwith telemedicine and in-personeducation could enable hospitals toreach their goals and boost capacity.I am currently working with severaluniversities in the U.S., which areusing broadband and distance/online learning to train nurses.Other educational and healthcareorganizations in Europe and Asia areinvolved in similar initiatives as well.Source: Dr. Reza Jafari, Chairman and CEO,e-Development International.ICTs are today promoting theachievement of all three pillarsof sustainable developmentdefined by the UN’s frameworkfor post-2015 development:social development; economicdevelopment; and environmentalprotection 4 . ICTs are empoweringbillions of people by helping themmake more informed decisions,from providing access to educationor health information to makingelectronic payments enablingpeople to set aside valuablesavings and survive economicshocks.Mobile phones are todayincreasingly powerful portalsgranting access to the online world,making people more informedand enabling them to exercisechoice and make better decisions,improving their lives and livelihoods.Table 2 outlines some of the waysin which broadband, and especiallymobile broadband, is makinga difference and improving thelives of people around the world.Broadband connectivity is not asubstitute or panacea, but whenintegrated with existing systems,it can enhance service delivery orfacilitate new services and to helpdeliver the best results (Table 2).45


Chapter 4Table 2: Broadband ICTs and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)End Poverty& HungerGrowing evidence suggests that broadband can boost GDP incomes, helpingcombat poverty and hunger 5 . A number of studies have found that ICTs are a majordriver of economic growth, as well as improved productivity 6 , reduced transactioncosts and job creation 7 .The World Bank (2009) found that a 10% increase inbroadband penetration may boost economic growth by between 0.43-1.38% 8 .Further country case studies suggest an even stronger impact of fixed and/or mobilebroadband in individual countries, depending on their economic structure 9 .UniversalEducationGender EqualityChild HealthMaternal healthHIV/AIDSEnvironmentPartnershipBroadband-powered applications and content can be powerful levers for achievingbroader education goals – see Chapter 5. Many Governments and NGOs are nowproviding schools with PCs to foster a sound primary education – for example, the iSchoolprogramme in Zambia is transforming learning through interactive ICT content – see Box9. A number of countries (e.g. Turkey, Lebanon and Uruguay) are providing students andteachers with laptops as a tool for improving education. In Singapore, the ‘NEU PC PlusProgramme’ offers new laptops bundled with broadband service to low-income studentsand people with disabilities. The Education Support Network (EsNET) of OneWorldAfricais training primary school teachers in the use of ICTs to improve educational outcomes 10 .Intel (2013) has estimated that closing the global digital gender gap could add US$13-18billion to global GDP 11 . Various studies have reported that men and women are using ICTsdifferently, with men generally using ICTs more and using more sophisticated apps – forexample, in a selection of Arab countries, men use ICTs more extensively for e-commercethan women 12 . For mobile telephony, the GSMA (2010) has estimated that closing themobile gender gap could increase revenues for mobile operators by US$ 13 billion 13 .The Millennium Villages have equipped Community Health Workers (CHWs) with mobilephones to improve access and quality of healthcare services. ChildCount+ is a communityhealth platform aimed at registering patients, monitoring nutrition, and promptingimmunizations to improve child survival and maternal health 14 , which tracks vital signs suchas weight, body mass index, white cell count etc. and issues automated SMS messages toprompt CHWs to provide treatments or take other action. ChildCount+ helps CHWs registerchildren under five to monitor their health status 15 . A project funded by UBS helps provideMobile Phones for Integrated Health and Early Childhood Care and Development in Kenya 16 .ChildCount+ has added support for maternal health by registering all pregnant mothersand providing support for antenatal care, as well as the launch of a software module inGhana, aspiring to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV 17 . Hospitals connected viabroadband networks are also enabling remote diagnosis and support for maternal health.For example, WE CARE Solar in Nigeria provides healthcare workers and midwives withmobile phones and reliable lighting using solar electricity to facilitate safer deliveries.ACT 2015: Crowdout Aids 18 is a movement led by UNAIDS and civil society partnersto develop a global community of activists to drive an online conversation about HIV/AIDS and encourage Governments to respond, by providing tools for young peopleto take action in their communities. ICTs can be used to bring information aboutHIV, treatments and access to confidential medical records closer to patients 19 .The ICT sector has been estimated to contribute 2-2.5% of GHG emissions, includingradio communications systems and equipment – however, ICTs could enable energyefficiency across other sectors. ICTs have the capacity to deliver carbon savingsfive times greater than the sector’s own total emissions – equivalent to more than7.8 Gt by 2020 or 15% reduction of global emissions, for only a small increase in ICTemissions 20 . Smart electricity grids that adjust rates for peak energy usage could saveUS$200-500 billion per year by 2025, according to the McKinsey Global Institute 21 .The benefits of new technologies, especially ICTs, should be made available incooperation with the private sector 22 . In conjunction with public sector policyleadership, the private sector has driven expansion in the markets for fixed andmobile broadband. Many National Broadband Plans focus on the importanceof PPPs for expanding access to broadband networks and services – in 2013,more than six out of ten Plans include reference to the role of PPPs 23 .46


In terms of health, broadband andICTs are having real impact on thedelivery of healthcare services inunderdeveloped and rural areas,leading to improved response timesin emergency situations, reducedisolation, and better training andequipment for healthcare workers.Broadband and ICTs are helpingachieve real advances in healthcare(Featured Insight 7). On a nationalscale, broadband can help ensurethat health systems or networks nolonger work in isolation, and canhelp connect up these systems tonational repositories and ministerialdatabases to provide nationaldigital health records. Governmentsand health agencies are able tocreate accurate and reliable healthrecords for growing numbers ofcitizens, leading to improved careand higher life expectancy. Evenmore importantly, ICTs may beengendering a whole new approachto healthcare by enabling peopleto be better informed and engagein prevention through betterhygiene, rather than treatment.A Price Waterhouse & Coopersstudy estimated in 2013 thatmobile health could potentiallysave 1 million lives by 2017 inSub-Saharan Africa and couldgenerate $400 billion of savingsin developed countries in 2017 24 .Efficient cross-sector collaborationbetween health and ICTs isparticularly important in thedevelopment and scaling ofmHealth. The cooperation signedbetween ITU and WHO in 2012to support countries in thedevelopment of mHealth projectsand strategies around Non-Communicable Diseases (“BeHe@lthy, Be Mobile) is an initiativewhich is already encouraging thiscross-sector work to develop(see Featured Insight 8).Featured Insight 7:Broadband as a Catalystfor Better HealthICTs and broadband are changingthe world in ways we could not haveimagined even ten years ago, whileinnovation and progress continue toaccelerate. Broadband is bringingtechnological advances to the serviceof all humanity, and putting peopleat the centre, through the use ofinnovative real-life applications infields such as healthcare.In the 21st century, and in shaping thepost-2015 development agenda, wecannot ignore the vital role that ICTsand broadband will play in improvingthe lives of every single person onthe planet. Clearly, we all recognizethis – so ICTs need to play a centralrole in the post-2015 developmentprocess. This is crucial, becauseso much development dependson healthcare-related goals andtargets – and ICTs and broadbandwill play a gigantic role in achievingthese. Without the power of ICTs, itis extremely difficult to combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases.Broadband services are enablinghuge advances in the provision ofhealthcare services worldwide – andespecially in the developing world,where the gap between healthcareavailability and healthcare provisionis widest. Key benefits which canbe achieved through access to ICTsinclude:• Improved access to health adviceand emergency services;• Training for healthcare workers,especially in remote areas;• Better telemedicine, patientmonitoring, patient information andmanagement of records; and• The tracking of epidemics, diseasesurveillance and data collection.ICTs have the potential to savemillions of lives a year. Assmartphones become morewidespread, a growing numberof healthcare apps will beChapter 447


Chapter 4developed. These apps can makea real difference on the ground –even where there are no Internetconnections available. For example,there are simple but revolutionaryapps that can be used to diagnosemalaria on the spot. These appstypically process a picture taken bythe phone of a blood sample, detectmalaria parasites, quantify howmany parasites are in the sample,and even highlight the parasitesin the photo. Once these data areuploaded online by phone, they canthen be used to spot and monitordisease trends, helping to play avital role in prevention as well as intreatment. Each week brings us newand ingenious apps, many of whichhave often been developed locally, toaddress local issues. However, usingthe Internet, the reach and impact ofa single app may prove to be global,just as human innovation is virtuallyunlimited.Source: Dr. Hamadoun Touré, Secretary-General, ITU.Featured Insight 8:The mDiabetes multistakeholderpartnershipin SenegalThe “Be He@lthy, Be Mobile”initiative signed between ITU andWHO in the fall of 2012 has alreadyhelped trigger the beginnings ofa large-scale ambitious mHealthproject in Senegal to addressdiabetes. The “Be He@lthy, BeMobile” initiative supports countriesin setting up large-scale projectsthat use mobile technology (inparticular text messaging and apps)to control, prevent and managenon-communicable diseases such asdiabetes, cancer and heart disease.Launched in 2013, the initiative isalso working on an mCessation fortobacco programme in Costa Rica,an mCervical cancer programmein Zambia and has plans to roll outmHypertension and mWellnessprogrammes in other countries.Diabetes has traditionally beenviewed as a disease of rich countries.However, estimates of diabetesprevalence show that four out of fivepeople with diabetes live in low- andmiddle-income countries 25 . Someestimates show that as many as 80%of cases are undiagnosed in lowerincome countries 26 . Many peoplemay not even know that they havediabetes as they are unaware of thecauses and symptoms of diabetes,and often have limited access tohealth services, particularly inrural areas. Lack of diagnosis andmanagement of diabetes can triggerserious consequences (includingheart disease, stroke, blindness,kidney failure and severe foot soresthat may lead to amputation 27 ).The mDiabetes project in Senegalaims to address some of thesechallenges by using mobile phonesto increase awareness among thepopulation about diabetes symptomsand sending preventive messages,as well as educating patients abouthow to better manage their disease.An important part of the programmeconsists of educating health workersabout the disease. The first phaseof the project was launched in June2014, sending free text messagesthat aim to increase awareness andhelp people with diabetes to avoidcomplications triggered by fastingand feasting during Ramadan.What is unique about the projectis the true cross-sector and multistakeholdernature of the partnership,which includes ITU, WHO, theMinistry of Health and the Ministryof Communication of Senegal, thelocal diabetes eco-system (such asASSAD, the Senegalese diabetespatients’ association), the diabetesexpert Centre Marc Sankalé, aswell as the private sector (includingthe mobile operator Sonatel, BUPA,Alcatel-Lucent and partners fromthe pharmaceutical industry). Thismulti-stakeholder partnership is asolid base to build a national projectwith financially sustainable modelsto ensure the long-term viability ofsolutions.Source: ITU and Alcatel Lucent.48


The deployment of broadband andICT networks in remote and ruralareas faces particular challenges,including low population density,challenging geography and lowerincomes in rural areas, which canall eat into operating margins,making it difficult for networksto remain commercially viable(see Chapter 6). Some argue thatthe challenge for rural, and oftenless commercially viable areas(with low population density andlower market demand) lies not inimplementation, but in the fundingand investment in services.In reviewing the history of Internetgrowth, there are several stagesin the expansion of the Internetand access device affordability.Initially, subscription-basedservices helped the first two billionusers to access the Internet.Prepaid-based services enablednearly another one billion users tocome online, for whom long-termbroadband subscriptions werenot easily affordable. As the focusshifts to bringing the next four(to seven) billion people online,their low income levels may needdifferent strategies to connectivity.One possible approach is verylow-cost mobile phones. Anotherapproach has been shared accesswhich can occur in e.g. schoolsand community centers equippedwith basic IT equipment (PCs,printers, scanners etc.). Bothapproaches can be facilitated andaccelerated by the use of UniversalService Funds (USFs), many ofwhich have funds collected butunfortunately still not utilized. Onepath to connect the next billionusers is elaborated in FeaturedInsight 9, which examines the useof USFs for expanding the marketand connecting more people.These challenges can be overcomesuccessfully at the national level,as shown by the experienceof TFYR Macedonia with ruralbroadband (Featured Insight 10).Featured Insight 9:USFs as a valuable tool forconnecting billions andachieving the BroadbandCommission targetsThe social and economic benefitsof broadband are by now wellknown.Studies by ITU 28 show thatthe economic benefits of broadbandincrease with penetration, and thereis a threshold to reach before the fullbenefits are achieved. The digitaldivide is therefore also an economicdivide, which may be increasing overtime. The Broadband Commissionhas established goals for countries toclose these gaps, and good progresshas been achieved; however, manycommunities still remain unserved,particularly low-income and remotepopulations. In fact, over 4 billionpeople still lack Internet connections(ITU, 2014), creating a formidabletask ahead, as shown in the BoxFigure overleaf.Gaps in access, affordability,awareness, and skills still need tobe addressed. Market mechanismshave done well to connect the firsttwo billion, and new business models(including PPPs) are well on the wayto connecting the third billion. Forexample, the pre-paid model alongwith facilities competition has madethe cell phone nearly ubiquitous.Applying the pre-paid model tobroadband has quickly broughtmillions more people online 29 .Connecting the remaining 4 billionpeople with broadband Internetaccess requires some publicintervention, recognizing thatmarket forces are not sufficient inthe near term. USFs are a valuabletool to address these gaps, andbest practices from around theworld demonstrate viable uses.For example, in Malaysia, the USFprovided netbooks and subscriptionsto more than one million low-incomestudents, which nearly doubledhousehold Internet penetration in twoyears. Turkey is using USFs and otherfunds to transform the educationsystem, providing electronicwhiteboards, laptops, and tablets,along with a 21st century curriculaand teacher training 30 , which haveincreased broadband use.Chapter 449


Chapter 4However, the remaining billions inthe lower tiers of the pyramid livein remote areas and have extremelylow incomes, so shared access(i.e., through telecentres, libraries,and schools) remains an effectivesolution over the short-term. Sharedaccess provides a number ofbenefits, including: low-cost accessto devices and the Internet, digitalskills training, and e-governmentservices. Most successful USFs haveestablished hundreds or thousandsof telecentres in remote areas. InColombia, Malaysia, Pakistan, orGhana, telecentres are providingInternet access to millions ofunderserved villagers, along withessential skills and services. In Indiaand Bangladesh, there are tens ofthousands of Internet centres, somemanaged by villagers where theyact as agents of the banks (with billpaying, and microloan financing) oragents of the Government.Sadly, despite the benefits of USFs,many of the funds around the worldremain underutilized. For example,one recent ITU study shows that, of69 funds reviewed, the majority hadlittle to no activity, and at the time,less than half permitted deploymentsfor broadband. Additional factorsimpacting use include capacity tomanage the fund, and autonomy andindependence. In all, out of US$23.2billion available in 2010/2011,US$11.8 billion remained unused.Connecting the masses will bringgreat benefits. We have the USFsand examples available to make asignificant impact, so let’s use them.Source: Intel Corporation.Featured Insight 10:Rural Broadband inTFYR MacedoniaThe project, “Rural Broadband in680 locations”, is a Governmentalprogramme for information societydevelopment in the country’s ruralregions with the main purpose ofclosing the digital gap. The projecthas been operational since 2009,and provides free Internet through680 Wi-Fi kiosks in rural locationswith undeveloped infrastructure.Its fundamental aim is to bridgethe digital gap between urban andrural regions, as well as encouragingoperators to invest in broadband andBox Figure 1:Extending BroadbandAccess to EveryoneSource: Intel.2B1BContract(Unlimited)Broadband3BPrepaidBroadband4B6B5BMobilePhone AccessShared Access(CommunityCenters,Schools, Libraries)USF Target Area7B50


expanding infrastructure in areaswhere RoI is unsatisfactory.The institution in charge for thisproject is the Ministry of InformationSociety and Administration. Byproviding 680 Wi-Fi kiosks indifferent rural municipalities, Internetis offered free for four years. Thenumber of Wi-Fi kiosks per regionranges from 13 in the North to 84 inthe South-East of Macedonia, with anaverage of 52 kiosks per region. Theproject intends to:• Increase the percentage of Internetusers in the country;• Improve the business climate andincrease FDI;• Retain Macedonia’s position as aregional innovator;• Stimulate democracy, as wellas benefits offered by ICTs ineducation and user mobility;• Increase network infrastructure.The project has proved verysuccessful, according to an evaluationby a World Bank team in November2013. It has enabled access toInternet for the first time for manysettlements, and the benefits are fargreater than originally expected.The Internet is increasingly used byresidents in hard-to-reach and remoteareas. This project enables citizensto obtain easily information in fieldsof interest: agriculture, farming,education etc. For example, they cansimply access public online services,without any need to travel hundredsof kilometers. Furthermore, they cancommunicate with their relatives andfriends living abroad.Source: H.E. Ivo Ivanovski, Minister ofInformation Society & Administration,Government of TFYR Macedonia.Different technologies offerdifferent advantages, but it isclear that satellite communicationsoffer major potential for deploying‘universal’ broadband servicesrapidly to large numbers ofpeople instantaneously. Satellitebroadband connections canbe deployed rapidly withoutlarge investments in terrestrialinfrastructure – users onlyneed a satellite antenna and amodem to obtain broadbandaccess, at virtually zero marginalcost (Featured Insight 11).The latest satellite technologiesare very advanced in termsof their reliability, speed ofdeployment, and security, andthe next generation will deliverhigher transmission speedscompeting with other broadbandtechnologies in speed and costs(Featured Insight 11). Today,satellite communication systemsare being used to offer telehealthand distance learning applications.Broadband ICTs can also playa major role in saving lives,especially in a world impacted byclimate change, where up to 70%of the world’s population lives inareas at risk of flooding near thecoastline or river basins 31 . Satellitecommunications can provide swiftresponse in disaster situations,where terrestrial infrastructure mayhave been destroyed and speedis critical. New innovations suchas the development of cognitiveradio and white space radiotechnologies can also play a role insaving lives (Featured Insight 12).Chapter 451


Chapter 4Featured Insight 11:The Role of Satellitefor Achieving“Broadband for All”Many modern broadbandapplications (such as multimediavideoconferencing and softwaredistribution) are now based ondistributing information to numerouswidely dispersed sites. Satellitesare well-suited for carrying theseservices, as they offer widespreadservice provision, and can be usedto service many users and solve theexpensive ‘last-mile’ issue. Satellitesare attractive for the interconnectionof high-speed networks over largegeographical areas. While muchbroadband communication iscurrently carried via terrestrial links,satellites will play a greater role infuture 32 .Satellites are a powerful andrelatively inexpensive tool, especiallyfor video links between multipleusers. Their costs are constantlydecreasing and satellites are a testedand reliable means for broadbandcommunication. Broadband satellitesystems have developed enormouslyto meet fast-growing demand,and now play an important rolein air-space-ground integratedcommunications networks 33 .Significant efforts have been madeby European institutions and industryto deploy satellite broadbandsolutions to offer ubiquitousbroadband, especially in ruralareas, at subscription prices andwith performance comparable toADSL 34 . With the latest KA-SAT highthroughput communications andspot-beam technology, end-userscan benefit from 20 Mbps linksdownstream and 6 Mbps upstream,regardless of their location 35 . Verysoon, the development of groundsegment technology will enableEutelsat to offer higher broadbandspeeds and services with the samecapacity. European manufacturers arecarrying out R&D in new generationsof high-throughput satellites (HTS)capable of providing 50-100 Mbps by2020 (Box Table 1).Satellite communications canalso be used in conjunction withor as a complement to terrestrialinfrastructures to enable 100%broadband coverage of the planet.Subject to limits imposed by nationallaws, governments and industryshould remain aware of satellitebroadband services for citizens,institutions and firms to implementnational ICT policies and publicpriorities for broadband.Satellite can play a vital rolein overcoming isolation due tothe absence or limited extentof terrestrial infrastructure, thusproviding connectivity to unservedand/or underserved regions. TheEuropean Commission announcedin mid-October 2013 that every EUhousehold was now able to have abasic broadband connection, giventhe pan-European availability ofsatellite broadband. Ms. NeelieKroes, Vice-President of the EuropeanCommission, specifically referred tothe use of satellite 36 .In Asia, satellite connectivity offerssignificant benefits across the region,especially in areas outside hubs(such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyoand Seoul), where broadband costsremain high, fibre infrastructureremains poor and where there isa need for 3G cellular backhaulacross large distances. Large areasacross Africa, the Middle East, andLatin America are characterizedby low population densities, poorinfrastructure and high connectivity costs.The role of satellite systems wasrecognized by ITU Member Statesat WTDC-2014 in three Resolutionsacknowledging the benefits thatsatellites provide to remote areas,and in helping bridge the digitaldivide between urban, remoteand rural regions with inadequatecoverage via conventional fixed-lineservices. For example, in the CookIslands, broadband, 3G/4G voiceand video services delivered viaO3b’s satellite network mean thatresidents can now experience fibrelikeInternet speeds via PCs and 3Gmobile devices for the first time.52


Box Table 1: Advances in Satellite Broadband TechnologiesTimeline 2005 2010 2015 2020Chapter 4GenerationKu-bandsatellitesFirstgenerationmulti beamKa-bandsatellitesSecondgenerationmulti beamKa-bandsatellitesThirdgenerationmulti beamKa-bandsatellitesServicecapabilityInternetbroadbandHigh speedInternetbroadbandSuperfastInternetbroadbandVery highspeedInternetbroadbandMaximumservice rateCapacityper satellite2-3 Mbps 10-2 Mbps 30-50 Mbps 100 Mbps5 50-100 150-200 >500Users persatellite100.000Several100.000sUp to1 million>1 millionSource: ISI EuropeanTechnology Platform.Almost 30 years ago, Intelsat beganits Satellites for Health and RuralEducation (SHARE) programmeto provide telemedicine andeducation at a distance using satellitecommunications. Project SHAREoffered free satellite capacity totest telehealth and rural and remoteeducational projects all over theworld. Most dramatically, Chinabegan its national educationaltelevision programme under theauspices of Intelsat’s Project SHARE.This network has over 90,000antennae in operation in all partsof China and reaches over 3 millionstudents. Indeed Project SHARE hassupported some 20 projects and 43countries around the world over itsthirty-year lifetime.Today, Intelsat is a founding partnerin South Africa’s Mindset Networkdelivering high-quality educational,health and vocational programmingvia web, off-line and mobile phoneapplications. Intelsat also helpedestablish a VSAT network in Moroccoto support the mission of Children’sNational Telemedicine initiative.Such networks provide a rangeof telehealth benefits includingdelivering health services to remotecommunities, reducing the need fortravel, providing timely access toservices and specialists, improvingthe ability to identify developingconditions and educating, trainingand supporting remote healthcareworkers. For example, Intelsat’s Epicnext-generation satellites provideadvanced, next-generation solutionsfor telemedicine and distancelearning applications to improve healthand educational outcomes in ruraland remote communities worldwide.The O3b network offers wholesalebroadband capacity for ‘middlemile’back-haul service provision toISPs, government agencies, mobile& wireless operators (for backhaulto support 2G, 3G, and 4G) and firms(e.g. oil, gas and mining).Today, the use of hybrid satelliteand terrestrial systems is also beingconsidered for broadband, wheresatellites are used to feed terminalsat local centres and terrestrialretransmission via wireless is usedfor last-mile connectivity. While muchbroadband communication today iscarried via terrestrial links, a new eraof satellite connectivity is dawning.Source: Mr. José Manuel Do Rosario Toscano,Director-General, ITSO; Dr. Esteban Pacha,Director General, IMSO; Mr. ChristianRoisse, Executive Secretary, Eutelsat IGO.53


Chapter 4Featured Insight 12:TVWS in Disaster Response– A Breakthrough forRapid Communicationsafter Typhoon Haiyanin the PhilippinesIn late 2013, the Philippinegovernment’s ICT Office wasworking with local partners on theECOFISH project to use TV whitespaces (TVWS) and Windows tabletsto improve fisherfolk registrationand sustain biodiversity in Boholprovince. After a magnitude 7.2earthquake struck Bohol on October15, the project’s equipment wasrepurposed to help relief efforts andprovide Skype calling and Internetaccess to hospitals, disaster reliefcentres, and the general public.Two weeks later, on 8 November2013, Typhoon Haiyan struck as thedeadliest typhoon on record in thePhilippines, killing at least 6,268people and the strongest stormrecorded at landfall in terms of windspeed. Its impact was devastating,affecting around eleven millionpeople, with many left homeless.Relief efforts were hampered by theloss of communications infrastructure.The day after the typhoon, theICT Office assembled a ‘package’consisting of one VSAT, three TVWSradios, and two WiFi routers to bedispatched to Tacloban. Due to verydifficult conditions, it was nine daysbefore the team was able to reachTacloban. The local team decided toinstall the TVWS equipment in Palonear Tacloban.Once the equipment was in andthe locations for network nodesestablished, the network wasset up and switched on in hours.The resulting network providedimmediate two-way voice and datawireless communications for anyonewith a functioning device (suchas a handset, laptop, tablet), whocame within range of the network.ECOFISH project equipment wasdeployed near Tacloban to createconnectivity hotspots and providefree Skype calling for relief workersand survivors gathered in a schoolevacuation centre, as well as voiceand data transfers (messaging,picture uploads, file transfers, etc).The network initially covered adistance of 1 km, but eventuallyextended reach to between 3-5 km,providing speeds of 3-5 Mbps. Overthe following weeks, its capacityand robustness were able to provideusers with sufficient bandwidthand throughput, illustrating thepotential for TVWS to be used indisaster response and the need to beprepared to deploy such solutionsimmediately after a disaster.Prior to the deployment of the TVWSnetwork, anyone who wanted toaccess communications had to attenda government centre to access thesatellite link – a journey that wasdangerous, challenging, and longin the wake of the typhoon. Thenetwork deployment extended thisreach dramatically, at under a tenthof the cost of viable alternatives, andprovided communications duringdisaster relief efforts.A number of partners helpedestablish the TVWS network,including the firm Nityo Infotech,Microsoft, the development agencies,USAID and NetHope. The TVWSsystem has proved the potential ofTVWS technologies as a solutionto the “last-mile” problem ofconnecting far-flung communitiesto the Internet. Internet connectivitywas vital to speeding up disasterrelief and recovery efforts in both theBohol and Haiyan events, enablingcommunication between NGOsand their home bases. The Internetconnection is since being used by theschool in lessons.Source: Microsoft.54


Endnotes1. Outcome Document of the Rio+20 Summit.2. Did you Know Technology and Internet Statistics, www.wsiforall.com3. US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment Projections:2012-2022 Summary (2013).4. As defined by the Rio+20 Conference.5. For example, see Annex 1 of “The State of Broadband 2012: Achieving DigitalInclusion for All” report.6. Booz & Co. (2009), “Digital Highways: The Role of Government in 21st-CenturyInfrastructure”.7. The Internet Matters study by the McKinsey Global Institute (2011) found that2.4 jobs are created through Internet industry for every job lost.8. World Bank ICT 4 Development Report 2009.9. See for example, the case studies of broadband in Panama and the Philippines,https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/publications/bbreports.html10. http://africa.oneworld.net/development/ict-access-1/teachers-embrace-icts/11. Intel, “Women and the Web” report, January 2013.12. “Doubling Digital Opportunities: Enhancing the Inclusion of Women and Girls inthe Information Society”, Broadband Commission (2013).13. GSM Association (2010), Women & Mobile: A Global Opportunity, available at:www.vitalwaveconsulting.com/pdf/Women-Mobile.pdf14. http://www.childcount.org/about/15. “Scaling up Mobile Health: Elements Necessary for the Successful Scale up ofmHealth in Developing Countries”, Actevis Consulting Group.16. http://itu4u.wordpress.com/2014/05/02/case-studies-on-ehealth-achievingmdgs/17. http://www.childcount.org/about/18. http://www.crowdoutaids.org/wordpress/19. http://africa.oneworld.net/development/hiv/icts-and-the-fight-against-hiv-aidspandemic20. “Smart 2020: Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age”.21. http://www.businessinsider.com/growth-in-the-internet-of-things-market-2-2014-2#ixzz2vdillE2B22. MDG Target 8F: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/global.shtml23. ITU/Cisco (2013), “Planning for Progress: Why National Broadband PlansMatter”, available from www.broadbandcommission.org24. PWC February 2013 “The Impact of the Connected Life Over the Next Five Years”.25. http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas/5e/diabetes-in-low-middle-and-high-incomecountries26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2430001827. http://www.who.int/features/2014/mobile-phones-diabetes-ramadan/en/28. ITU studies by Dr. Raul Katz, available at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/broadband/ITU-BB-Reports_Impact-of-Broadband-on-the-Economy.pdf29. Chapter 1.6, World Economic Forum Global IT Report 2012.30. http://fatihprojesi.meb.gov.tr/tr/english.php31. World Economic Forum Global Risks Report 2012.32. Friedman, D. (1999), “Broadband access via satellite”, Computer Networks,Volume 31.33. Tian, Q. et al (2014), Journal of Posts and Telecommunications, Volume 20.34. N.Chuberre, O.Johnson (2013), Satellite broadband in Europe: Meeting theobjectives of the Digital Agenda, Eurescomm.35. Mohr, N. (2013). Satellite broadband: An ADSL and fibre alternative for those inremote areas, TechRadar Newsletter.36. Satellite connections are now available in all 28 countries SPEECH/13/829 byNeelie Kroes, 17/10/2013: “Every European digital on a connected continent”.Chapter 455


Broadbandand Educationfor all: LessonslearntThis Chapter has beencontributed by the UnitedNations Educational, Scientific& Cultural Organization(UNESCO).This Chapter by UNESCO reviewsthe contribution of broadband toeducation in developing countriesin the context of the Educationfor All (EFA) agenda. The deadlineof 2015 is fast approaching andthe process is well-advancedfor defining a new post-2015development framework, includinga specific goal for education. Itis interesting to examine to whatextent progress towards EFA goalshas been successfully supportedby broadband and ICTs. This5.1The Dakar Vision:Harnessing ICTs for EFASince the advent of the Internetand the development of digitaltechnologies, it has becomeincreasingly clear that countries,including the Least DevelopedCountries (LDCs), cannot affordto overlook the importance ofICTs for improved access to,equity, quality and relevance ofeducation. Policy-makers haverealized that, in an increasinglyglobalized world, knowledge andskills pave the way for knowledgebasedsocieties and economies.In April 2000, at the WorldEducation Forum in Dakar, 164Governments committed tochapter does not aim to providea comprehensive assessment ofeducational achievement (whichis already underway in the run-upto 2015). Rather, it showcases anumber of promising initiatives,which provide important referencesfor the ongoing discussionsabout the post-2015 educationallandscape. This chapter offersindications as to how broadbandand ICTs can work as enablers fora renewed push towards achievinggood quality education for all.achieving EFA goals and targets forevery citizen and for every society.They agreed on six EFA goalswhich were considered essential,attainable and affordable, givenstrong international and countrycommitment (see Box 5 below).They unanimously adopted astrategy, “Harness new ICTs tohelp achieve EFA goals”, stressingthe links between education andtechnology as key enablers forsustainable development, andadvocating the affordable use ofICTs to bridge the 'digital divide',and to reach specific groups,especially girls and women.56


Chapter 5Box 5: The Six EducationFor All (EFA) GoalsGoal 1: Earlychildhood careand educationGoal 2: Universalprimary educationGoal 3: Youthand adult skillsGoal 4: AdultliteracyGoal 5: Genderparity andequalityGoal 6: Qualityof educationExpanding and improving comprehensive earlychildhood care and education, especially for themost vulnerable and disadvantaged children.Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularlygirls, children in difficult circumstances andthose belonging to ethnic minorities, haveaccess to and complete free and compulsoryprimary education of good quality.Ensuring that the learning needs ofall young people and adults are metthrough equitable access to appropriatelearning and life skills programmes.Achieving a 50% improvement in levelsof adult literacy by 2015, especially forwomen, and equitable access to basicand continuing education for all adults.Eliminating gender disparities in primary andsecondary education by 2005, and achievinggender equality in education by 2015, with a focuson ensuring girls’ full and equal access to andachievement in basic education of good quality.Improving all aspects of the quality ofeducation and ensuring excellence sothat recognized and measurable learningoutcomes are achieved by all, especially inliteracy, numeracy and essential life skills.Source: The DakarFramework for Action,UNESCO 2000.57


Chapter 5This Chapter examines how themilestone vision established inDakar has been translated bygovernments into national EFApolicies and actions, particularlyin developing countries and5.2Where Do We Stand Now?The present global educationlandscape is contrasting.UNESCO’s 11th EFA GlobalMonitoring Report 1 provides anupdate on countries’ progresstowards the global education goalsagreed in 2000. It highlights that,while progress has been madeLDCs. It provides examples toillustrate how the use of ICTsis helping these countries toaddress issues of access, equity,quality and relevance, as part oftheir commitments in Dakar.in achieving some of the goals,EFA largely remains an unfinishedbusiness. With new priorities likelyto emerge beyond 2015, educationshould lie at the heart of the post-2015 global development agendaas a foundation for empowermentand advancement (Box 6).Box 6: EFA Global MonitoringReport 2013/14: Key Messages• By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the EFA goals.• There is a global learning crisis that is hitting the disadvantaged hardest.• There were 31 million girls out of school in 2011, of whom 55% areexpected never to enrol.• Reflecting years of poor education quality and unmet learning needs,493 million women are illiterate, accounting for almost two-thirds ofthe world’s 774 million illiterate adults.• Good quality education can only be achieved with goodquality teachers.• To achieve EFA by 2015, an additional 5.3 million teachers areneeded to give every child around the world a quality education.This includes 1.6 million new teachers and 3.7 million additionalteachers to replace those who will retire or leave the profession.• Global education goals after 2015 must track progress ofthe marginalized.Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013/14 Teaching and learning:achieving quality for all.58


5.3ICTs and Broadband as Acceleratorsfor Progress towards EFAThere are several strategies thathave to be effectively implementedto generate the conditions forbroadband and ICTs to contributeto educational development,including: the creation of holisticlearning environments; capacitybuildingand empowerment ofstudents and teachers to usetechnology in meaningfulways; content and curriculumdevelopment to facilitate theintegration of ICTs; assessmentof authentic learning; addressingthe gender gap; and exploitingemerging opportunities such asmobile learning and the use ofOERs. The following sectionshighlight a number of promisinginitiatives in these areas.Chapter 55.3.1Creating an enablinglearning environmentAccess to quality education forall is an imperative for buildinginclusive and participatoryknowledge societies helped bytechnological development andgrowing connectivity to the Internet.With ever faster connection speedsthrough broadband, a growingnumber of governments arerecognizing the vast potential thatbroadband technologies carry toenhance learning opportunities,to transform the teaching andlearning environment, to increaseaccess to quality content that islinguistically and culturally diverse,and ultimately to rethink andtransform their education systems.Provided it is available andaffordable to all, broadbandpoweredapplications andquality content can be powerfullevers for achieving EFA goals.Inclusive, universal and equitablebroadband roll-out can be atremendous accelerator forpersonal development. Around theworld, there is a growing body ofresearch, government initiativesand promising practices whichsupport the view that, whentechnology is properly implementedin a systemic and coherent waywith teachers’ commitment andsupport, then students can developmeaningful knowledge, skills,values and attitudes, which canempower them for lifelong learningand gainful employment. However,access to broadband is only onepart of the picture – developinghuman capacity is vital, especiallyfor teachers and teacher trainers.Several successful policy initiativesin support of EFA have been putin place in many countries, thanksto the rapid development ofdigital technologies. For example,Malaysia is committed to achievingan education system that servesthe needs of its younger generationto meet the demands of the 21stcentury. Malaysia’s EducationBlueprint 2013-2025, launched inSeptember 2013, focuses on fivekey pillars – access, quality, equity,unity and efficiency. Malaysia’snationwide Frog Virtual LearningEnvironment aims to deliver aholistic learning experience to allprimary and secondary schoolsin the country (see Box 7).59


Chapter 5Box 7: Malaysia’s Frog VirtualLearning Environment (VLE)Malaysia is currently implementing its Frog Virtual Learning Environment(VLE) as a platform for teaching and learning in all primary andsecondary schools. VLE is a part of the broader Malaysia EducationBlueprint, 2013-2025, which aims to ensure that Malaysian studentslearn how to use ICTs, and can leverage them to enhance learning.Under the 1BestariNet initiative, all 10,013 schools in Malaysia must beprovided with broadband access via either a 2-4 Mbps or 4-10 Mbpsconnectivity. The 2-4 Mbps bandwidth is for rural and remote schoolsvia VSAT, while the 4-10 Mbps bandwidth uses wireless 4G technology.Since this is a nationwide programme, there are many challengessuch as: (i) ensuring the necessary infrastructure is put in place;(ii) ensuring all stakeholders are provided with access IDs;(iii) managing change; (iv) undertaking training programmes forschool principals, teachers and students; (v) ensuring quality VLEresources; and (vi) constant monitoring and evaluation of the VLE.The most challenging tasks are in training and managing change. Atotal of 17,000 school principals and teachers have been trained onthe use of VLE in teaching and learning, while a substantial numberof students have also undergone training since its implementationin January 2012. The Ministry of Education (MOE) has created agroup of 451 Champion Schools, which are given more focus andprovided with three levels of training to enable them to be effectivechange agents: Level 1 is the “Inspire and Enable” phase; Level 2the “Empower” phase; and Level, 3 the “Immersion” phase. Eachtraining phase is progressive and aimed at developing basic toadvanced skills in the use of VLE. The training is also geared towardsthe development of a community of practitioners, whereby teachersare encouraged to develop training materials and learning sites. Todate, some 4,000 learning sites have been developed by teachers.As in any newly developed programme implemented on a nationalbasis, continuous evaluation is undertaken to gauge programmeeffectiveness in delivering the desired goals and objectives. A livedashboard has been created to allow schools and decision-makersat the MOE to monitor the progress of infrastructure developmentand the use of VLE (http://www.frogasia.com/v3/aboutus/).Source: UNESCO Regional Office in Bangkok.60


5.3.2Empowering learnerswith technologyThe ability of broadband toconnect the unconnected andimprove education and students’learning experiences is undisputed.Digital inclusion still remains abig challenge, and countries arecontinuously looking for the bestways in which technology andICTs can provide solutions toreach the unreached and enhancetraditional delivery modes andpedagogies. Some examples candemonstrate how governmentsare striving to empower learnerswith technology, often with thecontribution of the private sector.The Broadband for All Initiative inSouth Africa is one example of aPPP between government, nongovernmentalorganizations andindustry, designed to addressdigital inclusion by narrowing thedivide between the connectedand unconnected. The projectaims to build a novel ecosystemusing wireless mesh networksfor delivering broadbandinfrastructure in underservedareas. South Africa has around26,500 primary and secondaryschools, of which at least 17,000are in remote rural villages withoutInternet connectivity. Providingbroadband access to theseschools could enhance educationquality and reduce inequalities.Today’s learners live in anknowledge-based and globallyinterconnected society, largelydriven by digital technologies. Toacquire 21st century skills, studentsshould be empowered as selfdirectedlearners, critical thinkers,problem-solvers and independentlifelong learners. To achieve thisvision, many countries, includingdeveloping countries, have initiatedlearner-centred programmes tomotivate youth to learn and performat school, and are introducing newliteracy concepts such as mediaand information literacy (Box 8).To reap the benefits of broadbandin education, it is importantthat governments put in placeconsistent policies for educationand technology, as well assustained financial investments. Forexample, Rwanda’s governmenthas begun efforts to reform itseducation system to develop21st century learning skills andto provide each of its 2.5 millionchildren in primary schools withhis or her own laptop. In theframework of the One Laptop perChild (OLPC) project, by the endof 2012, 210,000 laptops weredeployed to 217 schools acrossthe country. Capacity-buildingfor heads of schools, teachersand local technicians has beenthe crucial priority for the OLPCRwanda. Training of 981 teachersfrom 150 schools has beenconducted in the initial phase.Another example is Zambia, which,like other developing countries,faces significant challenges withdelivering education. These includeshortages of teachers, books andlearning material, large class sizesand a continuing dependence onrote learning. The iSchool Zambiaproject (Box 9), a multi-stakeholderinitiative between the Ministryof Education, Intel, CambridgeUniversity and the University ofZambia, takes advantage of therapid spread and growing use ofInternet technologies to delivereducation services. FeaturedInsight 13 describes how multistakeholderpartnerships canprovide innovative new approachesto education and entrepreneurship.Chapter 561


Chapter 5Box 8: Media and InformationLiteracy to Harness thePower of BroadbandWith rapid advances in ICTs, traditional notions of literacy havestruggled to keep up with modern demands. The challenges arealso linked to a growing influence of media and the need for bettermanagement of information and knowledge in the professional andsocietal spheres. Media and Information Literacy (MIL) representsa set of knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to access, analyse,evaluate, use, produce and communicate information, mediacontent and knowledge in an ethical way in order to engage inpersonal, professional and societal activities. UNESCO believesthat every citizen needs to learn more about the opportunitiesand threats coming from virtual world and manage resources.A central component of UNESCO’s Media and Information Literacystrategy, the Global MIL Assessment Framework (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002246/224655e.pdf) enables MemberStates to carry out comprehensive assessments of the informationand media environment, and to monitor at the regional and nationallevel the extent to which citizens have acquired MIL competencies,particularly targeting teachers in service and training. This evidencebasedinformation subsequently helps Member States to monitor theimplementation of education and ICT policies in developing 21st centurycapacities, and to design new strategies and plans to suit their needs.Source: UNESCO.Box 9: iSchool – TransformativeLearning in the Zambian ClassroomiSchool is a complete blended eLearning solution that covers theentire Zambian primary curriculum. It provides detailed lesson plansfor teachers (some 6,000 in total) guiding them towards interactiveenquiry-based learning. For students, there are thousands of fun,colourful, interactive multimedia lessons, available in English and in 8local languages. For teachers, there is also a one-year professionaldevelopment course guiding them towards the new style of learning.iSchool uses the ZEduPad, a low-cost low-power tablet, which comespre-loaded with all the iSchool learning content, and which can berun off solar power. The same iSchool content is also available viafree-standing purpose-built netbook devices, or via the web. Thereare home, school and teacher versions. Broadband Internet can nowbring modern eLearning to isolated schools. It is estimated that closeto 160,000 of direct beneficiaries by 2015 will be children of lowincomefamilies, with around 50% of these beneficiaries being girls.Source: www.businessinnovationfacility.org/page/project-profile-ischool-internetconnectivity-in-zambian-schools62


Featured Insight 13: HowICTs can boost innovativeeducation througha multi-stakeholderapproach – The ThinkBig School ProgrammeThe Think Big School is a pan-European programme that welcomesyoung people into a world of ideasand technology, giving them theopportunity to practise the principlesof entrepreneurship by creating andexpressing themselves on digitalplatforms. The programme aims topromote an entrepreneurial spiritamong young people and to enablethem to realize their ideas, as well asgiving visibility to their endeavoursand projects, so other young peoplemay get inspired, thus creating amultiplier effect. It exposes youngpeople from all backgrounds to5.3.3the possibilities of technology.To accompany them, Telefónicaprovides support through its ownemployees and resources. Thisprogramme has been developedin collaboration with TelefónicaFoundation, Junior AchievementYoung Enterprise and the MozillaFoundation. Think Big Schooloperates across Europe engaginga wide range of stakeholders toensure that the possibilities of digitaleducation are open to all. Since 2010,the programme has supported over6,500 projects and trained a total of11,200 young people in six Europeancountries (Spain, Germany, Slovakia,Ireland, the U.K. and the CzechRepublic). Over 5,000 Telefónicaemployees are involved in theprogramme every year.Source: Fundación Telefónica.Making use of existing devices: paving the wayto mobile learningUptake of ICTs is acceleratingworldwide, with mobile broadbandrecognized as the fastest growingtechnology in human history. Muchof the growth in mobile broadbandhas occurred in the developingworld, which accounts for 90%of global net additions for mobilecellular and 82% of global netadditions of total new Internetusers since early 2010. Over recentyears, the promise of one-tooneICT solutions have shiftedfrom laptops to newer and moremobile technologies, includingtablet computers and mobilephones. Due to their convenience,ease of use, affordability andubiquity, mobile technologies arebeing increasingly explored in aneffort to support authentic andrelevant learning and teaching.In 2013, UNESCO publishedits Policy Guidelines for MobileLearning 2 , which help policymakersunderstand the benefitsof mobile learning to advanceprogress towards EFA. Oneprogramme which follows theseguidelines closely is the Open YourTomorrow programme (Box 10), aninnovative initiative launched in May2013 in Lebanon, which illustrateshow mobile learning can be scaledup to serve the needs of the overalleducation system, particularly inthe context of a nationwide effort.Chapter 563


Chapter 5Box 10: Open YourTomorrow – TransformingLebanese Educationthrough Mobile LearningOpen Your Tomorrow is an innovative initiative driven by theMinister of Telecommunications in collaboration with the Ministerof Education and Higher Education and implemented by localsolution provider, Triple C. The initiative will create a disruptiveenvironment for successful educational transformation acrossLebanon. Students will gain access to the quality educationthey deserve, while all the citizens of Lebanon can benefitfrom the economic opportunities generated in two phases:Phase 1: The plan is to make 15,000 tablets available forstudents aged 6-18 (outside the schools), through the mobileoperators Alfa and Touch at a subsidized fee. An additional1,500 tablets should be given for free to public school studentsin grade 10 as part of their pilot for integrating classroomtechnology. The tablets will have a 3G data package and highquality educational and entertainment content for free.Phase 2: An estimated number of 400,000 tabletswill have been delivered in the first year.The programme is designed to (i) transform teachers’ mindsets;(ii) equip schools with integrated tablets and safe Internet access;(iii) enable students with high-quality content and technologyto teach them 21st century skills; (iv) establish industriesrelated to digital content and mobile app development.Source: http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/education-solutions/lebanonopen-your-tomorrow.html.64


5.3.4Preparing digitallycompetent teachersTeachers are central to achievingMDGs and EFA targets by 2015 andbeyond. According to new globalprojections from the UNESCOInstitute for Statistics, chronicshortages of teachers will persistbeyond 2015 for decades to come,if current trends continue. Theworld needs an extra 3.3 millionprimary teachers and 5.1 millionlower secondary teachers inclassrooms by 2030 to provide allchildren with basic education 3 .Governments must step up effortsto recruit more than 1.6 millionteachers to achieve universalprimary education (UPE) by 2015.However, teachers cannot shoulderthis responsibility alone. Teacherscan only shine in the right context,with well-designed curriculaand assessment strategies toimprove teaching and learning.Without the buy-in of teachersas key players, any large-scaletechnology plan is doomedto fail. It is vital to articulate aclear and sustainable nationalplan for training and motivatingteachers to adopt innovative usesof digital technologies insideand outside the classroom.In order for teachers to facilitatedigital, information, ICT and medialiteracy, teachers must themselveshave multiple competencies. Theuse of broadband holds greatexpectations for teachers to accesshigh-quality teaching resourcesand engage in collaborativeprofessional development 4 .According to available research, thecost of broadband and informationtechnology is falling year on year 5 .Any-time, any-place access toteaching and learning, thanksto the penetration of technology(including low-cost laptops, tablets,eReaders, and smartphones),has the potential to change thetraditional delivery of education.Teachers must be trained onhow to use these technologies,as there are no quick fixes toimproving the quality of educationand student performance.As part of its efforts to helpdeveloping countries reach EFAGoal 6 (Improving all aspects of thequality of education and ensuringexcellence of all), UNESCO hasundertaken projects in Mexico,Nigeria, Pakistan, and Senegal, inpartnership with Nokia, to integratemobile technologies into teacherprofessional development in waysthat enhance both teacher capacityand pedagogical practices. UNESCOis also working to improve the skillsof teachers and to promotecompetency standards. Its flagshipICT Competency Framework forTeachers (ICT CFT 6 ) sets guidelinesto help teachers develop skills andcompetencies to make the mostof ICTs to support better learning.This framework has become a wellknowninternational reference interms of empowerment of teachersand the pedagogical use of technology.UNESCO’s strong commitmentto assisting developing countriesformulate national policies toimprove education quality andintegrate ICTs in teacher trainingis illustrated by the ongoingUNESCO-China Funds-in-Trustproject, “Enhancing TeacherEducation for Bridging theEducation Quality Gap in Africa”,launched at the 2012 GlobalEducation for All Meeting (Box 11).Chapter 565


Chapter 5Box 11: Enhancing TeacherEducation for Bridging theEducation QualityGap in AfricaThis four-year project is being implemented in eight Sub-Saharan African countries: Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, the DemocraticRepublic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Liberia, Namibia, Tanzaniaand Uganda. It aims to boost the capacities of Ministries andteacher training institutes (TTIs) in pre-service and in-serviceteacher training through the use of ICTs, mobile learning,and knowledge production and sharing. More specifically,it seeks to enhance the capacity of existing key TTIs in:• Providing quality pre-service programmes to increasethe supply of qualified teachers, particularly throughICT-supported distance training programmes;• Supporting in-service teachers’ professional development,notably through blended learning modalities and programmesscaling up successful ICT-enabled innovations; and• Training teachers in ICT competences to improvethe quality of teaching and learning.The project also supports networks of TTIs that are exchanginginformation on effective strategies and practices in teacher trainingwith policy-makers, institutional leaders and other stakeholders.Source: https://en.unesco.org/enhancing-teacher-education-bridging-educationquality-gap-africa5.3.5Technology as a game changer in bridgingthe gender divideDespite recent advances in girls’education, a generation of youngwomen has been left behind, whocomprise around 61% of today’silliterate youth. The gender gap isespecially wide in South and WestAsia, where two out of three peoplewho cannot read are young women.Comparisons reveal widespreadilliteracy – in 9 of 41 low- andlower middle-income countries,more than half of 15- to 24-yearoldsare not literate 7 . Broadbandtechnology and services canhelp empower girls and womenwith literacy and life skills.UNESCO’s Mobile PhoneLiteracy – Empowering Womenand Girls project provides onegood example of this (Box 12).66


Box 12: Mobile PhoneLiteracy – EmpoweringWomen and GirlsChapter 5In 2013, UNESCO conducted a series of regional studies todocument challenges, lessons learned and good practicesin initiatives from around the world aimed at empoweringwomen and/or girls through education via innovative mobiletechnology-based learning and information programmes.On the basis of this work, successful and sustainableimplementation of mobile technology-enabled literacy projects:• recognize the potential and limitations of the use of mobilephones for women’s and girls’ literacy development inprogramme design, implementation and follow-up;• ensure political commitment early on;• establish strong partnerships with organizations with relevantexpertise and an understanding of the local context;• develop programmes which are simple and flexible, able to quicklyassess, adapt and improve upon programme delivery methods;• understand the educational (and other) needs oftarget beneficiaries;• develop local and culturally appropriate content, relevantand useful to the women and girls beneficiaries;• build a broader mobile learning eco-system and create theright conditions, structures and spaces for learning whichtake into consideration practical needs and infrastructure;• engage with the local community and ensure support fromthe male community members; and• embed ways to ensure sustainability beyond specific projecttimelines.Source: UNESCO.67


Chapter 55.3.6Enhancing the quality and relevance ofeducation with Open Educational ResourcesBroadband Internet has acceleratedaccess to affordable, accessibleand equitable education, as wellas access to high-quality digitallearning and teaching resources 8 .The “Open Educational Resources”(OER) movement is among themost extraordinary advances thataccess to broadband Internethas enabled over the last years.This term designates “teaching,learning and research materials inany medium, digital or otherwise,that reside in the public domainor have been released under anopen license that permits nocostaccess, use, adaptationand redistribution by others withno or limited restrictions” 9 .The development of multilingualdigital content and the creation oflocal content (as well as contentin local languages) are criticalfor fostering a digitally inclusivesociety. High-quality OER cansave teachers significant time andeffort on resource developmentand help advance student learninginside and outside the classroom.Open sharing of resourcescan also expand collaboration,encourage the improvement ofavailable materials, and aid in thedissemination of best practices.UNESCO believes that there isa clear role for governmentalsupport of OER. The ParisOER Declaration 10 of the WorldOpen Educational Resources(OER) Congress (Box 13) callson all governments to supportthe use of OER, particularly forpublicly-funded educationalmaterials. UNESCO has adoptedan Open Access Policy grantingirrevocable right of access tocopy, use, distribute, transmitand make derivative works inany format. OER policies andpractices are emerging, at bothnational and international levels.The European Commission’sBox 13: Paris OERDeclaration 2012a) Foster awareness and use of OER;b) Facilitate enabling environments for use of ICTs;c) Reinforce the development of strategies and policies on OER;d) Promote the understanding and use of open licensing frameworks;e) Support capacity-building for the sustainabledevelopment of quality learning materials;f) Foster strategic alliances for OER;g) Encourage development and adaptation of OER ina variety of languages and cultural contexts;h) Encourage research on OER;i) Facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of OER;j) Encourage the open licensing of educational materials producedwith public funds.Source: The Paris OER Declaration.68


Opening Up Education initiativelooks to increase the use of digitaltechnologies for learning and toencourage the development ofOER and policies across the E.U.In France, this project is beingimplemented via satellite solutions,which offer considerable potentialfor connecting up a number ofschools simultaneously (FeaturedInsight 14).Featured Insight 14:Satellite Communicationsfor Connecting schoolsThe latest generation of satellites(including High-ThroughputSatellites or HTS, such as Eutelsat’sKA-SAT) are ‘game-changers’, asthey have removed performanceand cost barriers to the delivery ofconsumer-grade Internet access.Satellites can now complementor even replace terrestrial linkswhere user experience, profitability,sustainability and affordabilitycreate a solid business case or socialreturns. Educational establishments(such as schools and universities)are important stakeholders, withclear social returns on connectingup these institutions simultaneously5.4and efficiently with high-speedbroadband access.Providing all schools in E.U. countrieswith broadband is one of thenew priorities of the EuropeanCommission, as shown by its recent“Opening up Education” initiative,which aims at connecting “everyschool, ideally including connectivityto individual classrooms”. On6 February 2014, the FrenchMinister for the Digital Economy,announced a €5 million plan toconnect 16,000 schools by theyear end, referring in particular tothe satellite broadband solution.The satellite industry is alreadystrongly committed to bridgingthe digital divide in education.Indeed, the French Minister’splan builds on the successful pilotproject Connect’Ecoles (22 Frenchschools connected to EutelsatTooway services), which buildson the successful connection of3,500 Turkish schools to EutelsatTooway services in 2013, a projectrecently extended to 15,000 schools.Initiatives of this nature could bemade more widely available all overEurope and further afield.Source: IMSO, ITSO and EUTELSAT IGOjoint contribution.The Role of ICTs and Broadband in the Post-2015Development Agenda: A Call To ActionThis Chapter has highlighted sixkey strategies that have beenused in a number of countries tocreate the conditions for moreeffective use of broadband andICTs in education. However,what will the future bring? Inthe context of the ongoingdiscussions about the post-2015development agenda, somechallenges remain unaddressed.For example, participants at thefirst African Ministerial Forum onICT Integration in Education andTraining (December 2013, Tunis)stressed that “Africa cannot permititself to remain on the sidelinesof the scientific, technologicaland media revolution that placesknowledge economies andsocieties in a dominant positionin the globalization process” andcalled on governments acrossthe region to continue to investin ICTs as a means of economicacceleration, notably by takingadvantage of the continent’sdemographic dividend to trainhigh-quality human capital.Equity issues still persist in theprovision of access for all to ICTs,including Internet connectivity.As we have seen, most of theactions initiated by governmentsin developing countries have sofar addressed the digital divideas a largely technical challenge;however, there is a second digitalChapter 569


Chapter 5divide – the knowledge dividethat separates those with thecompetencies and skills to makeinnovative use of technology fromthose without. With EFA and theMDGs remaining an unfinishedagenda by 2015, developingand LDCs are increasinglyunder pressure to design andimplement policies addressingthis second digital divide. Thepost-2015 education agenda mustconcentrate and continue effortsto meet the commitments madein 2000, as well as subsequenttargets, with greater attention givento quality and equitable learning,as well as to skills development, inorder to prepare young people tobe active and empowered citizensin increasingly interconnectedknowledge societies 12 .Certainly, universal and affordableaccess to ICTs and broadbandwill play an important role in theimplementation of the post-2015global education agenda towardsachieving “equitable, qualityeducation and lifelong learning forall by 2030”. Quality and relevantteaching and learning, as well asskills for life and work are amongthe five global objectives whichare subject to further debate 11 .Such vision can only succeed witha strong consensus and broadsocial support from all stakeholders– public, private, industry, civilsociety, intergovernmentalorganizations – for further reforms,including the integration ofbroadband ICTs into educationdelivery, content and management.What are the lessons learned so farfrom countries’ efforts to harnessthe full potential of broadband andICTs at the service of EFA goals?Can they inspire the discussions forthe post-2015 agenda in education?Drawing on the review presentedin this chapter, the followingrecommendations emerge:• make ICTs, including broadbandavailable, affordable andaccessible, underpinnedby appropriate policies andstrategies, enabling developingand LDCs to addresspoverty and sustainabledevelopment challenges;• foster digital inclusion supportedby policies and initiatives whichenable learners, includingthose with disabilities, toaccess quality digital educationand digital content in locallanguages, including OER;• develop and implement adequatepolicies to attract, recruit, trainand support quality teachers,and prepare them well to makeinnovative and effective use oftechnology and digital resourcesfor teaching and learning;• make girls’ and women’sempowerment through ICTs,and particularly broadband, apriority to narrow the gendergap in terms of access toand use of technology 13 ;• encourage PPPs to createsynergies and mobilize adequateresources and expertise.In conclusion, given the magnitudeof the challenges to be addressedby and beyond 2015, the Dakarmilestone vision of ensuring qualityeducation for all remains as relevantas ever. The illustrations providedin this chapter reinforce UNESCO’sconviction that educationempowers people by helping themto acquire the skills, knowledge,values and attitudes critical tosecure their needs and enablethe sustainable development oftheir societies. Where there ispolitical will and strong teacherengagement, broadband and ICTshold the potential to help countriescraft a new vision of educationfor the 21st century, and a visionfor quality lifelong education,founded on equity and inclusion.70


Endnotes1. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013/14 Teaching and learning:achieving quality for all. UNESCO, 2014.2. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002196/219641e.pdf3. A teacher for every child: projecting global teacher needs from2015 to 2030, UIS Fact Sheet No. 27, October 20134. The Report “Technology, Broadband and Education - AdvancingThe Education for All Agenda”, published in 2013 by the BroadbandCommission Working Group on Education, and available from www.broadbandcommission.org5. ITU Measuring the Information Society Report 2013, ITU Geneva6. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002134/213475e.pdf7. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013/14, Teaching and learning:achieving quality for all.8. The Report “Technology, Broadband and Education - AdvancingThe Education for All Agenda”, published in 2013 by the BroadbandCommission Working Group on Education, and available from www.broadbandcommission.org9. Outcomes of the UNESCO 2002, Forum on the Impact of OpenCourseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries.10. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/Paris%20OER%20Declaration_01.pdf11. UNESCO’s Participation in the Preparations for a Post-2015Development Agenda (194 EX/14), Paris, 19 February 2014.12. See the work of the Broadband Commission Task Forceon Sustainable Development - most notably, the report,“Transformative Solutions for 2015 and Beyond”, available fromwww.broadbandcommission.org.13. The fifth advocacy target of the Broadband Commission agreed inMarch 2013 at the Eighth Meeting of the Broadband Commissioncalls for gender equality in access to broadband by 2020.Chapter 571


The ChangingEconomics ofTelecom NetworkDeploymentsThis Chapter has beencontributed byMr. Antonio García Zaballos ofthe Inter-AmericanDevelopment Bank (IADB) andMs. Natalija Gelvanovska ofthe World Bank.Previous chapters have shownhow Governments around theglobe are committed to increasingbroadband penetration. A numberof National Broadband Plans(NBPs) establish targets andprioritize fibre-based accessnetworks as providing for “futureproof”high-speed Internet accessfor the simultaneous provision ofbroadband, video and telephonyservices. However, as telecommarkets move from an era of highgrowth into an era of intensifyingcompetition, market consolidationand maturity (Table 1), governmentsface challenges in convincingmarket players to invest at a time ofchanging business models or lessfavourable economic conditions.According to ITU data, 88% ofthe 134 National BroadbandPlans in mid-2013 referencedthe deployment of nationwideinfrastructure. It is clear that bothgovernments and operators seenetwork deployment as a toppriority in extending the reachof and access to broadbandnetworks and services. A numberof NBPs refer to fibre as amore ‘future-proof’ investmentcapable of handling greater datathroughput and simultaneousservice provision. This hasresulted in some very expensiveestimates for next-generationnetwork deployment for differentcountries and regions (Table 3).Planning the deployments oftelecom networks is also becomingmuch more complex, given fastchangingtechnologies and rapidshifts in consumer demand andexpectations, as well as the changein business models, as revenuesare increasingly displaced fromoperators to content players.Modern telecom networks aremade up of several different layers(Table 4), each with a differentpayback period and time horizon.Passive infrastructure in the fixedaccess network can cost around70-80% of the overall investment,with some estimates putting civilengineering works (such as thedigging up of roads to lay downfibre broadband) at around 80% ofthe cost of deploying high-speedbroadband networks 1 . The picturebecomes even more complexwhen different technologies, andhybrid technologies are added in.72


Chapter 6Table 3: Estimates of Network Investment Needs for Different RegionsRegion/CountryAmount Comments SourceLatinAmerica &CaribbeanUS$ 355millionNext-generation networksAHCIETMENAEUR 20-25billionEstimated for 10 Mbps for100% of population and 30Mbps for 50% of population,using a combination of FTTCand LTE technologies.WorldBankEuropeEuropeEUR180-270 bn€82 billionTo achieve DigitalAgenda targetsUniversal Next-Generation AccessECPointTopicSource: Report of the BroadbandCommission Working Groupon Financing and Investment(forthcoming, September 2014).Table 4: Investing in Different Network Layers% ofnetworkcostsPaybackperiodExamplesPassive infrastructurelayerActive infrastructurelayer70-80% 15 years20-30% 5-7 yearsTrenches, ducts,dark fibre, etc.Electronicequipment,OSS, BSSService layerN/AFewmonth –3 yearsContent,services andapplicationsSource: Alcatel Lucent, quoted in“The State of Broadband 2012:Achieving Digital Inclusionfor All”.73


Chapter 6The costs associated with networkdeployments vary significantly,according to such variables as:• Age/structure of existinginfrastructure;• Industry structure;• Population density (for commonclassifications such as urban,peri-urban and rural areas);• Levels of ARPU;• Service take-up;• User demand requirements.• Availability of civil engineeringinfrastructure; and• Speed targets.For example, population densityand user requirements typicallydetermine which technologiesare the most cost-efficient forspecific situations, enablingdifferent technological solutionsto be used across different areas.Markets generally become morecompetitive with higher AverageRevenue Per User (ARPU), higherdemand and greater availability ofcivil infrastructure. The choice ofthe most cost-efficient technologyoften depends on the objectivesin terms of penetration that theGovernment is aiming to achieve,or the retail price set by theoperator (or in some cases, theregulator). Strategic considerationsvis a vis competitors (e.g. firstmoveradvantages) are also key.The major factor resulting in theattractiveness of any particulararea is average deployment cost,which can vary significantly. Forinstance, for FTTH in Europe, thecost per home passed lies between150-540 EUR in urban areas (>500inhabitants/km2), but increasesto 2700 EUR per home passedin rural areas (


Monthly cost per user connected50€45€40€35€30€25€20€15€If we have an objective of reaching a70% penetration rate of broadbandservices in urban areas, the mostinexpensive way to provide theservice is through WiMAXIf we define affordability price at25 euros,then the maximum levelof penetration with FTTH to makethe deployment financiallyattractive would be 30%Figure 12: Monthly CostsAssociated with DifferentAccess Technologies inUrban AreasSource: IADB/World Bank.Chapter 610€1%11% 21% 31% 41% 51% 61% 71% 81% 91%Population Penetration of the serviceFTTH FTTX HFC WiMAX 5 MbpsFibre deployments can proveprohibitively expensive (seethe estimates in Table 3). Onesolution to such cost barriers isthe voluntary sharing of networkinfrastructure. Network sharing isa widely used deployment strategywhich originally attracted majorinterest when mobile broadbandrevenues became decoupled fromcosts to support the exponentialrise in traffic, and operators had toinstigate new measures to activelyreduce operational expenditures(opex) 6 . Informa (2014) notes thatfor network sharing to work bestin a way that proves beneficialto all parties, all participantsmust have similar market power 7 .Informa forecasts that operatorsin developed markets will exercisepassive-network sharing atbest for their LTE networks. Indeveloping markets or the laterstages in developed markets,Informa suggests that networksharing may prove more suitablefor LTE networks, but suggests thatcompetitive issues could preventnetwork sharing from being ascommon for LTE as it is in 2G or3G networks 8 . There is evidenceto suggest that significant costsavings can be realized in bothcapex and opex through networksharing and infrastructure sharing(Featured Insight 15). FeaturedInsight 16 cites the experience ofChina in developing broadbandinfrastructure and services rapidly.75


Chapter 6Featured Insight 15:Network SharingNetwork sharing is a form ofpartnership between telecomoperators aiming to decrease capitalinvestment in infrastructure andlower operational costs through theroll-out and operation of sharednetwork infrastructure. This model isused in a few fixed access networkdeployments and is increasinglypopular in cases of 3G/4G networkroll-out. Under the deal, separatenetworks of participating operatorsare transformed into a single networkinfrastructure that is shared by all theparticipants. In new deployments,each operator may be responsible forcoverage of a certain geographic area.Network outsourcing is apartnership between a telecomoperator and an equipment vendorunder which the equipment vendorbuilds and operates networkinfrastructure over which a telecomoperator purchases capacity neededto provide its services. This kindof partnership is also known as amanaged capacity agreement and iswell-established.Network outsourcing combinedwith network sharing is a formof partnership between telecomoperators and an equipment vendorunder which an equipment vendorbuilds and operates networkinfrastructure that is shared bymultiple operators. For instance, costsavings from network sharing areexpected from both capex and opex,and can reach up to 40% (Figure 13).Source: Huawei.Figure 13: Cost per homepassed, CAPEX, 50%market share overall, foran urban areaSource: Huawei.2.5002.0001.500US$1.0005000GPON XG-PON TWDM-PONPON Architecture1 Operator Network sharing,2 operatorsNetwork sharing,3 operators76


Table 5: Capex and Opex Savings for Different NetworkDeployment ModelsChapter 6Capex savingsOpex savingsOrder ofsavings(to be scaledwith reachof sharing)Site sharing• Site acquisitioncosts• Site preparationcosts (civil works,tower/pole, room/container)• Site rental costs• Site administrationcosts• Basic sitemaintenance costs(tower checks,cleaning etc.)~10%Infrastructuresharing• Above, and...• Infrastructurecosts (power,aircon, alarms,antennas,feeders)• Electricity costs(aircon etc.)• Further sitemaintenance costs(infrastructure)~16-20%Telcoequipmentsharing• Above, and...• Telco equipmentcosts (cabinets,transmissionequipment,TRAUs/BSCs)• Opimization costs• Electricity costs(telco equipment)• Maintenance costs(telco equipment)• Transmission costs• Operation costs~25%Nationalroaming• Above, and...• Further telcoequipment costs(cabinets, TRXs,TRAUs/BSCs)• Opimization costs• Electricity costs(telco equipment)• Maintenance costs(telco equipment)• Operations costs• Possibly radiolicence costs~30%Full sharing• Above, and...• Further telcoequipment costs(core network,core transmisionnetwork)• Related rental,electricity,Maintenance costs• Operation costs~40%Source: IADB/World Bank.77


Chapter 6Featured Insight 16:Rational constructionmodel to boost therapid development ofBroadband ChinaBroadband network constructionrequires huge capital investmentwith long periods before returns oninvestment (RoI) can be realized.Infrastructure-sharing across carrierscan reduce costs and deliverytime. The “Broadband China”strategy encourages infrastructuresynergies between governmentagencies, enterprises and publicinstitutions (such as public facilities,municipal facilities, roads, railways,airports, subways and other publicfacilities). Sharing resources (suchas community & backbone fibremunicipal pipelines, street cabinetand sites) makes FTTH deploymentmore cost-effective. Since broadbandnetwork equipment can offercommercial advantages and affectprofitability, technology-sharingsolutions are complex, so carriersstill need to operate independentlyto maintain rational competition. Thisin turn will promote the sustainableand healthy development of thebroadband market.The strategy of synergy applies tovarious broadband access methods:the aim of national broadbandnetwork is to increase bandwidthaccess speeds and penetration.Infrastructure sharing neednot be limited to FTTH. Variousaccess methods should work in acoordinated way to match differentrequirements. During the earlyimplementation of Broadband China,implementing faster broadbandspeeds required fibre networks,which created huge financialpressures and slowed development.Source: Huawei.Although national strategies andoperators may be focusing onfibre-based networks as one‘future-proof’ way to maximize thelifetime of their investments, recentdevelopments in VDSL2 vectoringand new standards offer operatorsnew prospects of prolonging thelife of their existing infrastructure 9 .The new G.fast standards currentlybeing negotiated at ITU offer theprospects of boosting the accessspeeds possible over a significantproportion of the world’s 1.2 billionfixed copper lines (Featured Insight17). Operators are able to benefitfrom a range of technologicalsolutions in serving customers,where speed, cost and qualityof service are just three of thefactors needed for comprehensivecustomer service delivery.Featured Insight 17:Gearing up to G.fast -Operators Get More Bangfor their Bucks in CopperG.fast is a suite of new ITU broadbandstandards capable of achievinghigh access speeds over very shortdistances, with speeds of up to 1 Gbpspossible at less than one hundredmeters using existing coppertelephone wires. G.fast is optimizedfor short-range deployments withina range of 250 metres of a fibreterminal, which is connected toa dozen or more existing coppertelephone lines leading to nearbypremises. Consumers will have anover-the-counter solution, which theycan self-install without a technician’sassistance. This consumer-friendlyequipment suite will be equipped tosupport bandwidth-intensive servicessuch as Ultra-HD “4K” streaming78


and IPTV, advanced cloud-basedstorage, and communication via HDvideo. G.fast could also be installedin apartment buildings alreadyequipped with fibre terminals toincrease access speeds via theexisting telephone cables.G.fast offers telephone companiesand other operators the prospect ofcapitalizing on their existing bases offixed lines. G.fast technology couldbring speeds close, or equivalent,to fibre without requiring fibreinstallation in the last 250 metres tothe home. It would save significantcosts, time and civil engineeringdisruption. It would also complementfibre infrastructure strategies,because a combination of fibre andG.fast is likely to prove more costefficientthan installing pure FTTH.A large number of leading serviceproviders, chip manufacturers,system vendors and other ITUmembers are actively involvedin developing G.fast. Testing hasconfirmed the standard’s gigabitper-secondcapabilities throughlab and field trials using prototypeequipment based on mature drafts ofthe standard in a range of differentscenarios. G.fast is designed tocoexist with VDSL2, enabling serviceproviders to play to the strengthsof each standard in differentenvironments, switching customersbetween G.fast and VDSL2 in linewith dynamic business models.The physical-layer protocolaspects of G.fast are defined byRecommendation ITU-T G.9701,“Fast Access to Subscriber Terminals- Physical layer specification”,with one standard achieving firststageapproval in 2013. G.fast islikely to be standardized in twophases (up to 106MHz, and up to212MHz). It is likely that G.fast willbe implemented in combination withvectoring – similar to VDSL2, G.fastsuffers from cross-talk if you connectmultiple users / multiple lines, sovectoring is likely to be needed.Chip manufacturers will now scale-upG.fast chip design and testing effortsover the course of the coming year,feeding the results of this work intoITU-T Study Group 15.Source: ITU and Alcatel Lucent.This rapid evolution intelecommunication accesstechnologies is making networkplanning even more complexthan ever. Policy-makers andregulators should avoid makingsimplistic policy pronouncements,but work together in partnershipwith operators and private sectorcompanies to make the bestchoices for their needs. Theyshould also establish specificcriteria to prevent crowding outof private sector investment.Governments can also help fosterinitiatives that will contributeto expanding the frontier ofcommercial viability, new modes ofinfrastructure supply and measuresto decrease deployment costs.For example, innovative modelsfor PPPs between municipalitiesor utility companies and operatorscould address the deployment ofFTTx access networks in urbanareas or backbone deploymentsin more isolated regions. Similarly,more effective constructionprocesses can save time andfinancial resources wheneverinfrastructure deployment istaking place with significantcivil works associated. Table 6summarizes some key policyinterventions for addressinginfrastructure deployment costs.Chapter 679


Chapter 6Table 6: Key Policy Interventions for Addressing Infrastructure Deployment CostsIntervention Definition Examples1. Site Acquisition2. Sharing of existinginfrastructure3. Co-deploymentof new infrastructure/ co-ordinationof civil works4. Pre-conditions forcheaper deploymentof infrastructure5. Effectiveconstructionprocesses6. Review taxationPurchase of sitesfor deploying (fixedand wireless)broadbandnetworksProvision of shareduse of infrastructurefor the purposeof deployingbroadbandnetworksSharing the costsof excavationbetween operatorsand/or utilitycompaniesSpecificrequirements fornewly deployedinfrastructureaiming to ensuresharing ofinfrastructurein futureStreamlining andmaking moretransparentprocesses ofgranting therights of wayand constructionpermissionsStreamline taxationand make it moretransparent• Governments can identify and make available in atransparent and predictable way all sites that canaccommodate telecommunication equipment in adatabase format for improved network design.• Incentives for voluntary infrastructure-sharingvia primary and secondary legislation;• Review prices for infrastructure-sharing;• Ensure effective resolution of disputes;• Build awareness and capacity about frameworksfor infrastructure-sharing for property owners,operators, national and local authorities.• Promote /mandate coordination of civil works;• Develop a database where all plannedcivil works should be published;• Develop Recommendations on possible cost-sharingmodels and reference agreements on co-deployment;• Ensure effective resolution of disputeson coordination of civil works.• Mandate deployment of empty duct(s) wherepossible for roads, water supply etc.;• Mandate specific diameters for empty ductsin areas with high demand for sharing;• Mandate technical requirements for poles andantenna masts with the aim of ensuring sharing.• Review and simplify the rights of way processin cases where infrastructure is deployedover public and private property;• Build awareness and capacity about rights of wayamong property owners, operators & authorities;• Review and simplify permission proceduresand associated administrative procedures.• Review and simplify taxation structures 10 interms of: tax holidays, investment allowances,corporation tax rates and VAT tax rates applicableto telecom services and equipment.Source: IADB/World Bank.80


Endnotes1. European Commission Proposal for a Regulation Of The EuropeanParliament And Of The Council on measures to reduce the costof deploying high-speed electronic communications networks,COM(2013) 147 final, European Commission, March, 2013, at:http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/proposal-regulationeuropean-parliament-and-council-measures-reduce-cost-deployinghigh-speed2. European Investment Bank, 2013.3. IADB Report into Broadband in Latin America, 2014 (forthcoming).4. Broadband access in EU: Situation for July, 2013, EuropeanCommission, 2014, at: http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/broadband-access-eu-situation-1-july-20135. Case of the Reggefiber (The Netherland), FTTH Business Guide,FTTH Council Europe, 2013.6. “LTE Industry Insight and Vendor Analysis” (2014), Informa Telecomsand Media.7. “LTE Industry Insight and Vendor Analysis” (2014), Informa Telecomsand Media.8. “LTE Industry Insight and Vendor Analysis” (2014), Informa Telecomsand Media.9. http://www.lightwaveonline.com/articles/2013/08/worldwide-ftthsubscribers-to-grow-23-in-2013-says-abi-research.html10. “Creating a Favourable Environment for Attracting Financeand Investment in Broadband Infrastructure”, a Report By TheBroadband Commission Working Group on Financing andInvestment (September 2014, forthcoming).Chapter 681


PolicyRecommendationsto Maximizethe Impact ofBroadbandCountries must prioritize bothsupply- and demand-sidepolicies to develop a full rangeof broadband infrastructure,applications and services.National strategies to increase7.1broadband adoption and usemust take into account the fullrange of government actions orpolicies and their impact on thecost to consumers of services,devices and relevant apps.Monitor, Review and Update ICT Regulations andregulatory approaches to spectrumAs noted in Chapter 2, policymakersand regulators mustreview and update their ICTregulatory frameworks to takeinto account the provision ofsimilar services by marketplayers from different industries.They must also help create asupportive environment, encourageinvestment and ensure sufficientavailability of quality spectrum.Governments and regulators andindustry should work together todefine harmonized approachesto infrastructure-sharing, andensure that spectrum is releasedquickly to operators and newentrants. Optimizing approachesto spectrum policy, allocation,and management becomes animportant aspect of governments’overall broadband policy portfolio.Today, policy-makers are alsoconsidering fresh approaches tospectrum management, includingDynamic Spectrum Access (DSA).Featured Insight 18 describesthe experience of Singaporein launching its regulatoryframework on TV white space.While exploring fresh approachesto spectrum management, it isessential to take into account theneeds of different services (e.g.mobile and satellite services,among others). Including coverageobligations in licenses can helpfulfil universal service goals moreefficiently. Depending on thecurrent state of spectrum bandassignation, simultaneous auctionsof different bands (high and lowbands) can also prove helpful, butthese are unlikely to be available inmany countries.82


Chapter 7Featured Insight 18:Singapore Gains aSuper-sized WirelessInnovation Band with itsRegulatory Frameworkon TV White SpaceThe exponential growth of wirelessdata traffic has created a strain oncommunications infrastructure. Overrecent years, government bodies,policy-makers, researchers andindustry players have been searchingfor more efficient and innovativespectrum management solutions andtechnologies. Singapore has beenreviewing spectrum allocation toensure the optimal use of spectrumresources and has also been lookingat Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA).Singapore is among the first countriesto introduce a regulatory frameworkfor the use of TV White Space (TVWS)technology in the TV broadcastband, which should make availableapproximately 180 MHz of spectrumon a licence-exempt basis when itcomes into effect from November 2014.The Singapore White Spaces PilotGroup was formed in April 2012to pursue pilot projects usingTVWS for innovative consumer andbusiness services and applicationsin Singapore. In June 2013, IDASingapore launched a publicconsultation exercise on its proposedregulatory framework for TVWSin the VHF/UHF bands. The finalframework announced in 2014 tookinto account the outcomes fromthe public consultation and set outTVWS equipment requirements,the spectrum channels to bemade available for TVWS use,and how TVWS equipment shouldcommunicate with geo-locationdatabases to identify availablespectrum channels to use, inter alia.It is expected that TVWS shouldusher in wider access and extendedcoverage for wireless broadband. Forexample, TVWS radio can be used toenhance the Wireless@SG free Wi-Fiservice across Singapore. In a TVWStrial undertaken by the SingaporeWhite Space Pilot Group, TVWS wasdeployed as part of the Wireless@SGinfrastructure in a public garden toprovide free Wi-Fi access to visitors ina reliable and cost-efficient manner,without intrusive equipment andwiring build-ups over green spaces.Building a Smart Nation with TVWSSingapore is currently workingtowards its seventh infocommmasterplan, “Infocomm MediaMasterplan 2025”, to become aSmart Nation. The TVWS regulatoryframework is a step towards this,as the additional spectrum madeavailable through the TVWSregulatory framework will ensurethat Singapore efficiently allocatesand uses this available bandwidthto support the growing demandfor data communications.83


Chapter 7The framework will encourageand facilitate businesses andservices providers to develop newwireless services and applications,or utilize TVWS to supplementand enhance existing networks.Business applications may includeM2M communications, smartmetering, outdoor environmentand security monitoring services.Further opportunities which localSMEs and start-ups can explorethrough license-exempt use ofTVWS spectrum include: TVWScomponents and device designand manufacturing; applicationsand services development;consulting; and system integration.Source: Mr. Leong Keng Thai, Deputy ChiefExecutive/Director-General (Telecomsand Post), Infocomm DevelopmentAuthority (IDA) of Singapore.7.2Promote Education for All (EFA), including the useof broadband, as well as the skills and talentsnecessary for broadbandAs explored in Chapter 5,in crafting their post-2015development priorities, countries,and particularly developingcountries and LDCs, should:• foster digital inclusion byintroducing policies and initiativesensuring that every citizenhas access to quality digitaleducation and rich digital contentin local languages and accessibleformats, including to OER.• Enable young people to acquirehigh-level skills and confidenceto successfully develop smartmobile applications for achievingsustainable development,and increasing ICT-enabledyouth employment.• Assess competencies ofcountries to carry out Mediaand information literacy (MIL)initiatives and competencies ofkey professionals and teachers• Put in place adequate policiesto attract, recruit and supportquality teachers, who are digitallyconfident and well-prepared tomake innovative and effective useof ICTs and digital resources.• Make girls’ and women’saccess to ICTs, and particularlybroadband, a key pillar of thepost-2015 global developmentagenda, to narrow thegap in terms of access toand use of technology.• Encourage PPPs in order tobuild capacity and ensureequitable access to technologicalinnovations to fostersustainable socio-economicand human development.The Broadband Commissionalso advocates the promotion ofScience, Technology, Engineeringand Mathematics (STEM) in primaryand secondary education, as wellas open education networks forinnovators and entrepreneurs.84


7.3Reduce taxes and import duties ontelecommunicationICT equipment and servicesImposing new or raising existingtaxes on ICT services andequipment may be counterproductiveand can impactbroadband deployment andadoption adversely. There issignificant evidence to suggestthat reducing taxes and importduties on telecommunication/ICT equipment and servicescould significantly boost levelsof ICT uptake. Tax incentivescan also be given by countrieswith low broadband penetration(such as double depreciation).For example, in 2007, Colombiareduced its VAT rate from 16%to zero for the majority of PCs(both desktops and laptops) tofoster consumer demand for PCsand spur national productivityand competitiveness. IDC(2013) 1 found that Colombia’sPC tax reduction facilitated:• A 110% increase in PC salesrevenue from 2006-2008—morethan twice the average of fiveother countries in the region.• A 83% tax revenue benefit for2007-2008, due to increasednew PC purchases andcomplementary hardware,software, and Internetservice purchases.• A 466% growth in Internet usefrom 2005-2008 (compared with161% growth across the region).• Since 2007, PC unit salesin Colombia have continuedto significantly outpace theregional average. Unsurprisingly,Colombia has extended theperiod for its VAT elimination.Chapter 77.4Accelerate investmentin broadband infrastructureThere has been a significantchange in the level and balance ofrevenues between different playersin the broadband ecosystem(OECD, 2013 2 ). Telecommunicationand broadband access providersneed to explore businessarrangements with Internet contentproviders that will accelerateglobal investment in broadbandinfrastructure, to the mutualbenefit of all, including endconsumers.Internet companiesand Internet content providersneed to contribute to investmentin broadband infrastructure bydebating interconnection issuesand agreeing fees/revenue shareswith other operators andbroadband access providers toaccelerate global investment inbroadband infrastructure (includingIXPs, CDNs, data centres, backhaulfibre investments and otherinfrastructure) and by contributingto a healthy broadband ecosystem.At the national level, this maymean authorizing new marketentrants, eliminating red-tape,encouraging closer collaborationbetween the national investmentpromotion agency (IPA) andthe telecom Ministry and/ortelecom regulator, and workingwith potential new or existingoperators to promote investmentsto help achieve national targets.85


Chapter 77.5Enhance Demand for Broadband Services throughnew initiatives and local contentOne key consideration forgenerating demand is to havegovernments take a more activerole in helping to bridge the digitalliteracy gap through awarenesscampaigns, e-gov portals andprogrammes. For example, digitalliteracy programmes in librariescan help to match citizens withthe skills and knowledge of e-govprogrammes to enhance citizen7.6Engage in Ongoing Monitoring ofICT DevelopmentsPolicy choices must be informedby reliable data and indicators onICT developments in countries.Statistical indicators are alsoessential to assess the impact ofbroadband policies and to trackprogress towards achieving nationaland international broadband goalsand targets (including the targetsset by the Broadband Commission).Data collected at the national levelshould be based on internationally7.7participation and inclusion 3 .Governments should investigateways to expand the demandfor broadband services, as wellas the participation of citizensonline through, for example,E-Government programmes,digital literacy training,awareness campaigns andother initiatives to stimulate thedevelopment of local content.agreed standards and definitions,such as those developed by ITUand the Partnership on MeasuringICT for Development 4 . Datashould be collected to monitorbroadband infrastructure andaccess, price evolution andaffordability, and broadbandusage by individuals, businessesand public organizations(including governments,schools and hospitals).Utilize Universal Service Funds (USFs) to Close theDigital DivideUSFs have been established inmany countries to help connectmarginalized and underservedpopulations. However, whilemany countries have establishedUSFs, many of these funds remainunderutilized. Originally estalishedfor telephone connectivity, fundsare now being transitioned ordeveloped to promote broadbandadoption. According to the 2013ITU report, “Universal ServiceFund and Digital Inclusion forAll”, of the 69 funds surveyed,almost 50% have a low or nolevel of activity. Additionally, ofUS$23.2 billion in funds potentiallyavailable, only US$11.4 billionhave been dispersed 5 . Manybeneficial examples of USFdeployments for broadband exist,both for demand and supply sideprogrammes. Governments mustwork more diligently to use thesemethods to disperse the fundscollected, ensuring that the USFsmeet their mandate of enablingmarginalized and underservedcitizens to get online. Fundsshould also work to improvetheir management capacity,autonomy and independence.86


7.8Review frameworks for Intellectual Property (IP)Intellectual Property (IP) frameworkscan help facilitate digital innovationand protect authors and contentcreators to ensure the health ofthe overall broadband ecosystem.In a converged ICT environment,it is vital to review and updateframeworks for IP to ensure localcontent can flourish. FeaturedInsight 19 describes WIPO’swork on IP and broadband.Featured Insight 19:Intellectual Property (IP)and Ubiquitous BroadbandIn Africa, mobile telephony is provinga game-changer. According to ITUprojected statistics, there will be 630million mobile subscriptions in Africaby the end of 2014, 27% of which willbe broadband. As a result, there hasbeen a boom in digital innovation,with software application developersseizing a large portion of nichemarkets in business, humanitarianrelief and education. For example,in Kenya, the mobile-based moneytransfer service M-Pesa, developedby Safaricom, has become the mostlucrative digital innovation in Africaso far, with over US$ 650 million permonth in transactions. Other appsare following this model in termsof both growth and popularity: inUganda, Mafuta Go gives drivers thelocation of the nearest petrol stationwith the cheapest price. In Kenya,Ushahidi gives relief agencies realtimegeographic mapping of eventssuch as riots or earthquakes throughSMS messaging. In Namibia, thePolytechnic provides an educationalcurriculum via mobile phones. Africais an archetypal example wherenext-generation broadband andcloud-based ICT services have beengaining momentum steadily. All thesedigital innovations are empoweredby IP, which plays a central role in thedevelopment of broadband-enabledinfrastructures.Current broadband-related efforts atWIPO focus on five main pillars:1) WIPO promotes the developmentof content through effective copyrightinfrastructure and international legalframeworks for the stimulation anddiffusion of creativity and knowledgein the broadband-intensive digitalenvironment and ‘Internet of things’or ‘the Internet of everything’, wherecontent services delivered by mobileproviders, as well as innovativesolutions to deliver a variety ofcontent and services, will be key.2) WIPO enhances IP infrastructurefor its Member States throughthe development of innovationecosystems and networks.3) WIPO raises IP awareness topromote creativity and innovationand the distribution and sharing ofbroadband-intensive content.4) WIPO enables PPPs linking publicand private sectors for end-to-enddelivery of services, and developingcollaborative networks for innovationthrough innovation platforms.5) WIPO promotes the use ofopen innovation and collaborativedevelopment models for research.The recent WIPO Conference onOpen Innovation: CollaborativeProjects and the Future of Knowledge,held on 22-23 January 2014 in Genevaconcluded that open innovation isnot only consistent with IP but thatmost open innovation in the era of BigData depends on robust IP regimesfor the protection and diffusion ofinnovations produced through globalcollaborations and community-basedefforts.In summary, intellectual propertydrives broadband and ICTdevelopment, which in turn aredrivers of intellectual property.Source: Mr. Francis Gurry, Director General,World Intellectual Property Organization(WIPO).Chapter 787


ConclusionsThis Report has summarizedthe various policy options opento governments and policymakersto boost the roll-outand deployment of broadbandnetworks and services and toposition their country for futurecompetitiveness in the growingdigital economy. Broadbandnetworks and services are morethan simple infrastructure – theyrepresent a set of transformativetechnologies that promise tochange the way we communicate,work, play and do business.Developing countries cannot affordto remain on the sidelines, as thedigital revolution puts knowledgeeconomies and societies into adominant position with globalglobalization. The real informationrevolution lies in the growingday-by-day use of Internetenableddevices in all parts of ourlives. And it is this era of massconnectivity – delivering small,but incremental changes to theways in which each individual doesthings – that promises to transformdevelopment and global welfare.In terms of ultra-high-speedbroadband, there are still not manyconsumer apps and servicesthat need Gigabit speeds, butsuch services are on their way.Experience shows that technologytypically moves faster thanmost people anticipate – socountries and operators needto start planning now for theimminent broadband world.To help empower their populationsand to cope with this challengesof capacity, Governments mustinitiate and prioritize their NationalBroadband Planning process andinvest in ICTs and digital e-skills asan engine of economic growth anddevelopment. These Plans musttake into account both supply anddemand – equitable deployment ofbroadband cannot be acceleratedby consideration of one side alone.In line with the Commission’stargets, Governments should seekto make broadband available,affordable and accessible byboth men and women alike.Alongside the strong growthin the market, more complexchallenges are emerging. Mostnotably, regulation is not keepingpace with the changes in themarket – Internet players offeringequivalent voice and messagingservices are, by and large, subjectto relatively limited requirements(including consumer protection,privacy, interoperability, security,emergency calls, lawful intercept ofcustomer data, universal service).Asymmetric regulation has resultedin an uneven competitive landscapefor services. Governments andpolicy-makers need to reviewand update their regulatoryframeworks to take into accountevolving models of regulation.It is vital that every countryprioritizes broadband policy intoaccount to shape its future socialand economic development andprosperity, emphasizing boththe supply and demand sides ofthe market. Further, it is crucialto adequately evaluate thealternatives to be implemented inorder to encourage private sectorinvestment. A “one size fits all”policy to broadband roll-out couldhave negative implications forthe ICT market. Finally, a detailedcost-benefit approach shouldbe adopted when evaluatingdifferent public policies andregulatory options to promotethe growth and developmentof broadband in differentcountries around the world.88


Endnotes1. IDC-Colombia, “Estudio Sobre la Exclusion del IVA a los PCs y suImpacto Economico, Competitivo y Fiscal,” Desarrollado para laCamara Colombiana de Informatica y Telecomunicaciones 2009,Carlos Villate and Ricardo Granados.2. OECD Internet Economy Outlook 2013.3. http://ipac.umd.edu/sites/default/files/publications/DigLitBrief2011_1.pdf4. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/5. “Universal Service Funds and Digital Inclusion for All”, DiscussionPaper for GSR 2013, Lynne A. Dorward, available at: http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Regulatory-Market/Documents/USF_final-en.pdf.Chapter 7-889


Annex 1: Target 1 – List of National Broadband PoliciesAnnex 1EconomyPolicyavailable?Year policywas adoptedTitle/detailsAfghanistan yes 2008 Afghanistan National Development Strategy: 1387 – 1391(2008 – 2013) - ANDS in the chapter dedicated to theInformation and Communication TechnologyAlbania yes 2008 The bSEE memorandum (broadband South Eastern Europe)Algeria yes 2008 E-Algérie 2013Andorra noAngola yes 2010 White Book of Information and Communication Technologies:Livro branco das Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação –LBTICAntigua & Barbuda yes 2012 GATE 2012Argentina yes 2010 Plan Nacional de Telecomunicaciones - Argentina ConectadaArmenia yes 2008 Government of Republic of Armenia Decree No35, onApproving The Information Technology Sector DevelopmentConcept Paper Road Map For ‘’Real-Time’’ Armenia:Egovernment, Esecurity, EcommerceAustralia yes 2009 The National Broadband Network (NBN)Austria yes 2010 Broadband Strategy 2020 - Breit Bandstrategie bbs2020Azerbaijan yes 2014 “Azerbaijan 2020: Look Into The Future”. National Strategy forInformation Society Development in Azerbaijan for 2014-2020Bahamas yes 2003 Policy Statement on Electronic Commerce and the BahamianDigital AgendaBahrain yes 2010 National Broadband Network for the Kingdom of BahrainBangladesh yes 2009 Broadband National Policy Act 2009Barbados yes 2010 National Information and Communication TechnologiesStrategic Plan of Barbados 2010-2015Belarus yes 2011 National programme on accelerated development of servicesin the field of information and communication technologies for2011–2015.Belgium yes 2009 België : digitaal hart van EuropaBelize yes 2011 ICT National StrategyBeninplanningBhutan yes 2008 National Broadband Master Plan Implementation Project(NBMIP)Bolivia noBosnia and Herzegovina yes 2008 Decision On The Telecommunication Sector Policy Of BosniaAnd Herzegovina For The Period 2008 – 2012Botswana yes 2004 Botswana’s National ICT Policy, Broadband StrategyBrazil yes 2010 National Broadband Plan (Plano Nacional de Banda Larga -PNBL)Brunei Darussalam yes 2014 National Broadband PolicyBulgaria yes 2009 National Strategy of Broadband Development in the Republic ofBulgariaBurkina Faso yes 2006 Lettre de politique sectorielle 2006-2010Burundi yes 2011 Burundi/ ICT: National Projects for Broadband ConnectivityBurundi Community Telecentre Network (BCTN)Cambodia yes 2011 2015 ASEAN ICT Master Plan / Cambodia ICT developmentStrategy 2011-2015Cameroon noCanada yes 2014 Economic Action Plan 2014 to promote broadband roll out inrural areasCape VerdeplanningCentral African Rep. yes 2006 Politique, Stratégies et plan d'actions de l'édification de laSociété de l'Information en République Centrafricaine90


EconomyPolicyavailable?Year policywas adoptedTitle/detailsChad yes 2007 Plan de développement des technologies de l’Information et dela Communication au Tchad or (PLAN NICI)Chile yes 2013 Agenda Digital Imagina ChileChina yes 2011 Telecom Industry Development Plan 2011-2015Colombia yes 2010 Live Digital - Vive DigitaleComorosplanningCongo yes 2011 Projet de Couverture Nationale (PCN), Projet West Africa CableSystem (WACS), Projet back bone national en fibre optiqueCongo (Dem. Rep.) noCosta Rica yes 2012 Estrategia Nacional de Banda AchaCôte d'Ivoire yes 2010 Objectifs Strategiques du Government de Côte dÍvore enMatiere de Telecommunications et de TICCroatia yes 2011 National broadband development strategy in the Republic ofCroatiaCubaplanningCyprus yes 2012 Digital Strategy for Cyprus ( Digital Strategy for Cyprus whichincludes also the Broadband Plan)Czech Republic yes 2013 State policy in electronic communication: Digital Czech republicv.2.0D.P.R. Korea noDenmark yes 2010 Digital work programme by the Minister of Science, Technologyand InnovationDjibouti yes 2004 Plan d’action national pour l’exploitation des TIC en RépubliqueDominicaplanningDominican Rep. yes 2007 Conectividad Rural de Banda Ancha / E-DominicanaEcuador yes 2011 Estrategia Ecuador Digital 2.0 and Broadband PlanEgypt yes 2011 National Broadband Plan - A Framework for BroadbandDevelopmentEl Salvador noEquatorial Guinea yes 2010 GITGE (Gestor de Infraestructura de Telecomunicaciones deG.E.)Eritrea noEstonia yes 2006 Information Society Development Plan 2013Ethiopia yes 2005 ICT PolicyFiji yes 2011 National Broadband PolicyFinland yes 2005 Broadband 2015 Project: Laajakaista kaikkien ulottuvilleFrance yes 2010 Plan France Très Haut DébitGabon yes 2011 Digital Gabon - Gabon Industriel, Gabon vert et Gabon desServicesGambia yes 2008 The Gambian ICT4D-2012 PlanGeorgia noGermany yes 2009 Breitbandstrategie der BundesregierungGhana yes 2010 Broadband Wireless AccessGreece yes 2006 Digital Strategy 2006-2013Grenada yes 2006 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 2006-2010 /A Strategy And Action Plan for GrenadaGuatemala noGuinea yes 2009 Plan National de fréquences/ Plan de développement del’infrastructure nationale d’information et de communication dela République de Guinée 2001 – 2004Guinea-Bissau noAnnex 191


Annex 1: Target 1 – List of National Broadband PoliciesAnnex 1EconomyPolicyavailable?Year policywas adoptedTitle/detailsGuyana yes 2011 E-GuyanaHaiti noHonduras yes 2010 Resolución NROOS/IOHong Kong, China yes 2008 2008 Digital 21 Strategy - Moving AheadHungary yes 2010 Digital Renewal Action PlanIceland yes 2012 Telecom Policy Statement 2011-2014India yes 2011 National Telecom Policy 2012 and National Optical FibreNetwork PlanIndonesia yes 2010 Priorities Of The Ministry Of Communication And InformationTechnology Year 2010-2014Iran (I.R.) yes 2011 National Information NetworkIraqplanningIreland yes 2008 Ireland's Broadband StrategyIsrael yes 2012 The Communication Initiative: fiber-based national broadbandnetworkItaly yes 2010 “Italia Digitale” Digital Italy PlanJamaica yes 2007 National ICT StrategyJapan yes 2010 New Broadband Super Highway (Haraguchi vision II)Jordan yes 2007 National ICT Strategy of JordanKazakhstan yes 2010 Programme of ICT DevelopmentKenya yes 2006 ICT Masterplan 2012-2017Kiribati noKorea (Rep.) yes 2009 Ultra Broadband Convergence NetworkKuwait noKyrgyzstan yes 2006 Program of Information and Communication TechnologyDevelopmentLao P.D.R. noLatvia yes 2012 Next generation broadband development strategy for year2013-2020Lebanon yes 2008 Lebanese Broadband Stakeholders Group (LBSG)Lesotho yes 2005 ICT Policy for LesothoLiberia yes 2010 Policy for the Telecommunications and InformationCommunications Technology (ICT) 2010-2015Libya noLiechtenstein yes 2006 Communications Act - Law on Electronic CommunicationLithuania yes 2011 Lithuanian Information Society Development Program for 2011-2019Luxembourg yes 2010 Stratégie nationale pour les réseaux à “ultra-haut” débit -“L’ultra-haut” débit pour tousMacao, China noMadagascar noMalawi yes 2003 Integrated ICT-led Socio-Economic Development Policy forMalawiMalaysia yes 2010 National Broadband InitiativeMaldives noMali noMalta yes 2012 Malta's Next Generation BroadbandMarshall Islands yes 2011 National ICT PolicyMauritania no92


EconomyPolicyavailable?Year policywas adoptedTitle/detailsMauritius yes 2012 National Broadband Policy 2012 - 2020 (NBP2012)Mexico yes 2011 Digital AgendaMicronesiaplanningMoldova yes 2010 Hotărâre cu privire la aprobarea Programului de dezvoltare aaccesului la Internet în bandă largă pe anii 2010-2013Monaco noMongolia yes 2011 National program on Broadband Network up to 2015Montenegro yes 2012 Strategy for the Development of Information Society 2012-2016- Montenegro - Digital SocietyMorocco yes 2012 Plan national pour le développement du haut et très haut débitau MarocMozambique yes 2006 National ICT Policy Implementation Strategy 2002 and 2006 -Digital Inclusion in MozambiqueMyanmar noNamibia yes 2009 Telecommunications Policy for the Republic of NamibiaNauru noNepalplanningNetherlands yes 2010 Digital AgendaNew Zealand yes 2010 Ultra fast broadband initiative, Five Point Government ActionPlan for faster broadbandNicaraguaplanningNiger yes 2005 Plan de développement des Technologies de l’Information et dela Communication au Niger / Plan NICI du NigerNigeria yes 2013 National Information and Communication Technology (ict) finaldraft policyNorway yes 2000 eNorway, Brodband requirements in Digital Divident FrequencyAuctionOman yes 2012 National Broadband Strategy: 10 yearsPakistan yes 2007 National Broadband Programme 2007Panama yes 2008 National ICT Strategy 2008-2018 / Red Nacional Internet (RNI)2008Papua New Guinea yes 2011 National ICT Policy and PNG LNG Fibre cable projectParaguay yes 2011 Paraguay 2013 Conectado y Plan Nacional deTelecomunicaciones - PNTPeru yes 2011 Plan Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Banda Ancha en el PéruPhilippines yes 2011 The Philippine Digital Strategy, Transformation 2.0: DigitallyEmpowered NationPoland yes 2014 Narodowy Plan Szeroko Pasmowy / National Broadband PlanPuerto Rico yes 2012 Puerto Rico Broadband Strategic Plan 2012Portugal yes 2012 Agenda Portugal DigitalQatar yes 2011 Qatar’s National ICT Plan 2015: Advancing the Digital AgendaRomania yes 2007 The Regulatory Strategy for the Romanian ElectronicCommunications Sector for 2007-2010Russian Federation yes 2010 Information Society Strategy / Information Society ProgrammeRwanda yes 2006 Regional Connectivity Infrastructure Program (RCIP)S. Tomé & Principe noSamoa yes 2010 Broadband Spectrum PlanSan Marino noSaudi Arabia yes National Initiative to provide broadband servicesSenegal noAnnex 193


Annex 1: Target 1 – List of National Broadband PoliciesAnnex 1EconomyPolicyavailable?Year policywas adoptedTitle/detailsSerbia yes 2009 Broadband Access Development Strategy in the Republic ofSerbia until year 2012: Стратегију развојa широкопојасногприступа у Републици Србији до 2012. годинеSeychelles noSierra Leone noSingapore yes 2005 Intelligent Nation 2015 (or iN2015)Slovakia yes 2006 Operačný Program Informatizácia Spoločnosti (Operationalprogram- Information society)Slovenia yes 2008 Strategija razvoja širokopasovnih omrežij v Republiki SlovenijiSolomon IslandsplanningSomalia noSouth Africa yes 2013 National Broadband PolicySouth Sudan noSpain yes 2010 Plan Avanza: 2005, Plan Avanza 2 aprobado el 16/07/2010Sri Lanka yes 2012 e- Sri LankaSt. Kitts and Nevis yes 2006 National Information and Communications Technology (ICT)Strategic PlanSt. LuciaplanningSt. Vincent and theyesGrenadinesSudan yesSuriname noSwaziland noSweden yes 2009 Broadband Strategy for SwedenSwitzerland yes 2012 Stratégie du Conseil fédéral pour une société de l'informationen SuisseSyria noTajikistan noTanzania yes 2004 National Information Communication and TechnologyBroadband Backbone (NICTBB)TFYR Macedonia yes 2005 National Strategy for the development of ElectronicCommunications with Information TechnologiesThailand yes 2010 The National Broadband PolicyTimor-Leste noTogoplanningTonga yes 2011 Tonga-Fiji Connectivity Project : Pacific Regional ConnectivityProgram (PRCP)Trinidad & Tobago yes 2008 Trinidad & Tobago’s National Information & CommunicationTechnology Strategy-Fastforward- Accelerating into the DigitalFutureTunisia yes 2012 La Stratégie Tunisienne pour le Haut-DébitTurkey yes 2009 Strategy of Transport and Communications, Target 2023, 2009-2013 Strategic Ministerial PlanTurkmenistan noTuvalu noUganda yes 2009 Uganda Broadband Infrastructure Strategy National PositionPaperUkraine no94


EconomyPolicyavailable?United Arab Emirates noYear policywas adoptedTitle/detailsUnited Kingdom yes 2010 Britain’s Superfast Broadband Future, Broadband Delivery UKUnited States yes 2010 Connecting America: The National Broadband PlanUruguay yes 2011 Agenda Digital 2011-2015 / Ceibal Plan (2007)Uzbekistan noVanuatuplanningVatican noVenezuela noViet Nam yes 2010 Master Plan of Viet Nam, from 2010 to 2015; Prime Minister’sDecree 1755 on the approval of a National Strategy onTransforming Viet Nam into an advanced ICT countryYemen noZambia yes 2006 National Information and Communication Technology PolicyZimbabwe yes 2005 National ICT PolicyAnnex 1Summary NotesCountries with National Broadband Policies: 140Countries planning on introducing National Broadband Policies: 13Countries without National Broadband Policies: 43Notes: National Broadband Policies include: NationalBroadband Plans and National Policy with broadband targetadopted (development, ICT, e.t.c.)95


Annex 2: Fixed (wired)-Broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, 2013Annex 2RankEconomyfixed broadbandPenetration 20131 Monaco 44.72 Switzerland 43.03 Denmark 40.24 Netherlands 40.15 France 38.86 Korea (Rep.) 38.07 Norway 36.48 United Kingdom 35.79 Iceland 35.110 Germany 34.611 Andorra 34.612 Belgium 34.413 Luxembourg 33.514 Canada 33.315 Malta 32.816 Sweden 32.617 San Marino 32.518 Liechtenstein 32.519 Finland 30.920 Hong Kong, China 30.821 Belarus 29.822 New Zealand 29.223 Japan 28.824 United States 28.525 Macao, China 26.826 Estonia 26.527 Greece 26.228 Austria 26.029 Singapore 25.730 Israel 25.731 Spain 25.632 Australia 25.033 Slovenia 25.034 Latvia 24.735 St. Kitts and Nevis 24.536 Ireland 24.237 Hungary 24.138 Portugal 23.839 Barbados 23.840 Italy 22.341 Lithuania 22.042 Croatia 21.543 Uruguay 21.144 Cyprus 19.945 Bulgaria 19.046 Romania 17.347 Czech Republic 17.048 Azerbaijan 17.049 Grenada 17.0RankEconomyfixed broadbandPenetration 201350 Russian Federation 16.651 TFYR Macedonia 15.752 Poland 15.653 Slovakia 15.554 Dominica 14.855 Trinidad & Tobago 14.656 Serbia 13.957 Argentina 13.958 St. Lucia 13.759 China 13.660 Moldova 13.461 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 13.462 Bahrain 13.263 Seychelles 12.964 Montenegro 12.865 Mauritius 12.566 Chile 12.367 Bosnia and Herzegovina 11.868 Kazakhstan 11.669 Turkey 11.270 Mexico 11.171 United Arab Emirates 11.172 Georgia 10.273 Brazil 10.174 Lebanon 10.075 Qatar 9.976 Costa Rica 9.777 Colombia 9.378 Ukraine 8.879 Malaysia 8.280 Armenia 7.981 Panama 7.782 Thailand 7.483 Saudi Arabia 7.384 Venezuela 7.385 Tuvalu 7.186 Suriname 6.987 Ecuador 6.388 Maldives 5.889 Albania 5.890 Brunei Darussalam 5.791 Viet Nam 5.692 Iran (I.R.) 5.693 Peru 5.294 Mongolia 4.995 Tunisia 4.896 Jamaica 4.897 Dominican Rep. 4.798 Guyana 4.696


RankEconomyfixed broadbandPenetration 201399 Antigua & Barbuda 4.5100 El Salvador 4.5101 Cape Verde 4.3102 Bahamas 4.1103 Algeria 3.3104 Egypt 3.3105 Belize 3.1106 South Africa 3.1107 Jordan 2.8108 Bhutan 2.7109 Oman 2.6110 Philippines 2.6111 Morocco 2.5112 Nicaragua 2.2113 Djibouti 2.0114 Micronesia 2.0115 Sri Lanka 2.0116 Guatemala 1.8117 Tonga 1.6118 Paraguay 1.6119 Syria 1.6120 Kuwait 1.4121 Bolivia 1.3122 Indonesia 1.3123 Namibia 1.3124 Fiji 1.2125 India 1.2126 Kiribati 1.1127 Botswana 1.1128 Uzbekistan 1.1129 Yemen 1.1130 Libya 1.0131 Kyrgyzstan 1.0132 Honduras 0.8133 Senegal 0.8134 Nepal 0.8135 Zimbabwe 0.7136 Bangladesh 0.6137 Pakistan 0.6138 Somalia 0.6139 Gabon 0.5140 S. Tomé & Principe 0.5141 Equatorial Guinea 0.5142 Swaziland 0.3143 Solomon Islands 0.3144 Côte d'Ivoire 0.3145 Ghana 0.3146 Ethiopia 0.3147 Angola 0.2RankEconomyfixed broadbandPenetration 2013148 Cambodia 0.2149 Mauritania 0.2150 Myanmar 0.2151 Comoros 0.2152 Papua New Guinea 0.2153 Lao P.D.R. 0.1154 Kenya 0.1155 Vanuatu 0.1156 Sudan 0.1157 Chad 0.1158 Uganda 0.1159 Lesotho 0.1160 Tanzania 0.1161 Samoa 0.1162 Togo 0.1163 Burkina Faso 0.1164 Cameroon 0.1165 Zambia 0.1166 Tajikistan 0.1167 Mozambique 0.1168 Timor-Leste 0.1169 Madagascar 0.1170 Cuba 0.0171 Benin 0.0172 Niger 0.0173 Turkmenistan 0.0174 Gambia 0.0175 Rwanda 0.0176 Mali 0.0177 Malawi 0.0178 Congo 0.0179 Nigeria 0.0180 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 0.0181 Guinea 0.0182 Afghanistan 0.0183 Eritrea 0.0184 South Sudan 0.0185 Burundi 0.0186 Central African Rep. 0.0187 Guinea-Bissau 0.0188 Liberia 0.0189 D.P.R. Korea 0.0190 Nauru 0.0HaitiIraqMarshall IslandsSierra LeoneVaticann/an/an/an/an/aWorld Average, 2013 9.4Annex 2Notes: The table includes ITU Member States.n/a - not available. Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database.97


Annex 3: Active Mobile-Broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, 2013Annex 3RankEconomymobile broadbandpenetration 20131 Singapore 135.12 Finland 123.53 Japan 120.54 Australia 110.55 Bahrain 109.76 Sweden 108.77 Denmark 107.38 Korea (Rep.) 105.39 Hong Kong, China 95.410 United States 92.811 United Arab Emirates 89.012 United Kingdom 87.213 Norway 85.714 New Zealand 81.315 Luxembourg 80.516 Estonia 77.417 Qatar 76.818 Iceland 74.319 Botswana 74.120 Costa Rica 72.121 Oman 67.322 Ireland 67.223 Spain 67.124 Croatia 65.325 Italy 64.826 Austria 62.827 Netherlands 62.328 Latvia 61.229 Russian Federation 60.130 Bulgaria 58.331 France 57.132 Kazakhstan 56.633 Serbia 54.834 Slovakia 53.635 Fiji 53.536 Thailand 52.337 Brazil 51.538 Lithuania 49.939 Saudi Arabia 49.540 Moldova 47.241 Belgium 46.042 Belarus 45.943 Czech Republic 45.344 Germany 44.745 Switzerland 44.346 Azerbaijan 43.947 Cape Verde 42.648 Lebanon 41.849 Slovenia 41.8RankEconomymobile broadbandpenetration 201350 Barbados 41.551 Malta 40.652 Ghana 39.953 TFYR Macedonia 38.354 Zimbabwe 37.855 Romania 37.656 Portugal 36.757 Greece 36.158 Chile 35.659 Namibia 34.260 Turkey 32.361 Cyprus 31.662 Egypt 31.163 Armenia 31.064 Antigua & Barbuda 30.365 Mauritius 28.866 Jamaica 28.367 Hungary 26.368 Ecuador 26.369 Tunisia 26.170 Maldives 26.171 Sudan 25.572 Dominican Rep. 25.473 Panama 25.274 Albania 24.775 Montenegro 23.176 Kyrgyzstan 22.777 Bosnia and Herzegovina 22.278 China 21.479 Philippines 20.380 Trinidad & Tobago 18.981 Georgia 16.482 Jordan 16.183 Bhutan 15.684 Senegal 15.385 Morocco 15.086 Bolivia 13.987 Nepal 13.088 Malaysia 12.589 Angola 12.190 Honduras 11.791 San Marino 11.192 Congo 10.593 Nigeria 10.194 Seychelles 9.995 Cambodia 9.696 Burkina Faso 9.097 St. Lucia 8.298 Solomon Islands 8.098


RankEconomymobile broadbandpenetration 201399 Colombia 7.9100 Sri Lanka 7.8RankEconomyD.P.R. KoreaDjiboutimobile broadbandpenetration 2013n/an/aAnnex 3101 Lesotho 7.4Equatorial Guinean/a102 S. Tomé & Principe 7.1Gabonn/a103 Brunei Darussalam 6.5Gambian/a104 El Salvador 6.0Guinean/a105 Rwanda 5.8Haitin/a106 St. Kitts and Nevis 5.5Indonesian/a107 Mauritania 5.4Iraqn/a108 Ethiopia 4.8Israeln/a109 Paraguay 4.8Kiribatin/a110 Guatemala 4.4Kuwaitn/a111 Malawi 3.9Lao P.D.R.n/a112 Venezuela 3.7Liberian/a113 India 3.2Libyan/a114 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 3.2Liechtensteinn/a115 Kenya 3.0Marshall Islandsn/a116 Syria 3.0Mexicon/a117 Peru 2.9Micronesian/a118 Tanzania 2.7Monacon/a119 Mali 1.8Mongolian/a120 Nicaragua 1.3Mozambiquen/a121 Afghanistan 1.2Naurun/a122 Iran (I.R.) 1.2Nigern/a123 Myanmar 1.0Papua New Guinean/a124 Grenada 0.8Polandn/a125 Zambia 0.7Samoan/a126 Pakistan 0.5Sierra Leonen/a127 Madagascar 0.4Somalian/a128 Bangladesh 0.4South African/a129 Benin 0.0South Sudann/a130 Cameroon 0.0Surinamen/a131 Chad 0.0Swazilandn/a132 Eritrea 0.0Tajikistann/a133 Guinea-Bissau 0.0Timor-Lesten/a134 Algeria 0.0Togon/a135 Cuba 0.0Tongan/a136 Dominica 0.0Turkmenistann/a137 Guyana 0.0Tuvalun/a138 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 0.0Ugandan/aAndorran/aUkrainen/aArgentinan/aUruguayn/aBahamasn/aUzbekistann/aBelizen/aVanuatun/aBurundin/aVaticann/aCanadan/aViet Namn/aCentral African Rep.n/aYemenn/aComorosn/aWorld Average, 2013 26.7Côte d'Ivoiren/aNotes: The table includes ITU Member States.n/a - not available. Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database.99


Annex 4: Percentage of Households with Internet, Developing Countries, 2013Annex 4Rank EconomyHouse holdinternetPenetration 20131 Korea (Rep.) 98.12 Qatar 96.43 Singapore 86.04 Macao, China 82.65 Bahrain 82.06 Oman 80.17 Hong Kong, China 79.98 United Arab Emirates 76.19 Brunei Darussalam 75.810 Saudi Arabia 72.711 Israel 71.112 Kuwait 71.113 Aruba 69.614 Barbados 66.715 Lebanon 66.216 Cyprus 64.717 Malaysia 64.718 St. Kitts and Nevis 60.019 Kazakhstan 55.020 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 54.121 Argentina 53.922 Uruguay 52.723 Azerbaijan 51.524 Seychelles 50.625 Chile 49.626 Turkey 49.127 Antigua & Barbuda 48.228 Costa Rica 46.729 Morocco 46.030 Trinidad & Tobago 45.031 Jordan 44.932 Mauritius 44.533 China 43.934 Brazil 42.435 Maldives 39.436 Syria 39.437 South Africa 39.438 Iran (I.R.) 35.839 Colombia 35.740 Armenia 35.641 Dominica 35.042 St. Lucia 34.943 Georgia 34.644 Egypt 34.545 Palestine* 33.446 Ghana 31.8Rank EconomyHouse holdinternetPenetration 201347 Panama 31.548 Venezuela 31.549 Grenada 31.050 Mexico 30.751 Sudan 29.352 Ecuador 28.353 Fiji 26.754 Paraguay 26.655 Algeria 23.856 Jamaica 23.557 Philippines 22.958 Cape Verde 22.859 Thailand 22.760 Peru 22.161 Guyana 20.662 Tuvalu 19.763 Suriname 19.064 Dominican Rep. 18.665 Tunisia 18.266 Viet Nam 17.167 Honduras 16.468 Namibia 16.069 Libya 15.970 Iraq 15.671 Bhutan 15.572 Kenya 14.273 Mongolia 14.074 Swaziland 13.475 India 13.076 Sri Lanka 12.777 El Salvador 12.778 Tonga 12.079 Bolivia 11.580 Botswana 10.681 Uzbekistan 9.582 Nicaragua 9.483 Guatemala 9.384 Gabon 8.885 Pakistan 8.386 Angola 7.987 Nigeria 7.888 Kyrgyzstan 7.789 Gambia 7.690 Turkmenistan 7.591 Senegal 6.392 Djibouti 6.1100


Rank EconomyHouse holdinternetPenetration 201393 Malawi 6.094 Zambia 5.995 Indonesia 5.796 Cambodia 5.597 Zimbabwe 5.398 Uganda 5.299 Lao P.D.R. 5.1100 Nepal 4.9101 Yemen 4.7102 Bangladesh 4.6103 Mozambique 4.6104 Cameroon 4.5105 Lesotho 4.3106 Mauritania 4.3107 Tajikistan 4.3108 Solomon Islands 4.2109 Comoros 3.8110 Haiti 3.7111 Tanzania 3.7112 Madagascar 3.7113 Cuba 3.4114 Burkina Faso 3.2115 Mali 3.0116 Benin 2.9117 Papua New Guinea 2.9118 Rwanda 2.9119 Central African Rep. 2.4120 Chad 2.3Rank EconomyHouse holdinternetPenetration 2013121 Ethiopia 2.3122 Myanmar 2.2123 Afghanistan 2.1124 Guinea-Bissau 1.8125 Niger 1.8126 Congo 1.6127 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 1.6128 Côte d'Ivoire 1.5129 Liberia 1.5130 Guinea 1.4131 Togo 1.4132 Eritrea 1.3Bahamasn/aBelizen/aBurundin/aD.P.R. Korean/aEquatorial Guinean/aKiribatin/aMarshall Islandsn/aMicronesian/aS. Tomé & Principe n/aSamoan/aSierra Leonen/aSomalian/aSouth Sudann/aTimor-Lesten/aVanuatun/aAnnex 4Notes: The table includes ITU Member States.n/a - not available. Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.* Not an ITU member, see ITU Resolution 99.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database.101


Annex 5. Percentage of Individuals using the Internet, 2013Annex 5Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 20131 Iceland 96.52 Norway 95.13 Sweden 94.84 Denmark 94.65 Andorra 94.06 Netherlands 94.07 Liechtenstein 93.88 Luxembourg 93.89 Finland 91.510 Monaco 90.711 Bahrain 90.012 United Kingdom 89.813 United Arab Emirates 88.014 Switzerland 86.715 Japan 86.316 Canada 85.817 Qatar 85.318 Korea (Rep.) 84.819 United States 84.220 Germany 84.021 Australia 83.022 New Zealand 82.823 Belgium 82.224 France 81.925 Austria 80.626 Estonia 80.027 St. Kitts and Nevis 80.028 Ireland 78.229 Slovakia 77.930 Kuwait 75.531 Latvia 75.232 Barbados 75.033 Hong Kong, China 74.234 Czech Republic 74.135 Singapore 73.036 Slovenia 72.737 Hungary 72.638 Bahamas 72.039 Spain 71.640 Israel 70.841 Lebanon 70.542 Malta 68.943 Lithuania 68.544 Bosnia and Herzegovina 67.945 Malaysia 67.046 Croatia 66.747 Chile 66.548 Oman 66.549 Macao, China 65.8Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 201350 Cyprus 65.551 Brunei Darussalam 64.552 Trinidad & Tobago 63.853 Antigua & Barbuda 63.454 Poland 62.855 Portugal 62.156 Russian Federation 61.457 TFYR Macedonia 61.258 Saudi Arabia 60.559 Albania 60.160 Argentina 59.961 Greece 59.962 Dominica 59.063 Azerbaijan 58.764 Italy 58.565 Uruguay 58.166 Montenegro 56.867 Morocco 56.068 Venezuela 54.969 Belarus 54.270 Kazakhstan 54.071 Bulgaria 53.172 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 52.073 Colombia 51.774 Brazil 51.675 Serbia 51.576 San Marino 50.877 Seychelles 50.478 Romania 49.879 Egypt 49.680 South Africa 48.981 Moldova 48.882 Armenia 46.383 Turkey 46.384 Costa Rica 46.085 Dominican Rep. 45.986 China 45.887 Jordan 44.288 Maldives 44.189 Viet Nam 43.990 Tunisia 43.891 Mexico 43.592 Georgia 43.193 Panama 42.994 Ukraine 41.895 Ecuador 40.496 Bolivia 39.597 Peru 39.298 Kenya 39.0102


Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 201399 Mauritius 39.0100 Uzbekistan 38.2101 Nigeria 38.0102 Jamaica 37.8103 Cape Verde 37.5104 Suriname 37.4105 Fiji 37.1106 Philippines 37.0107 Tuvalu 37.0108 Paraguay 36.9109 St. Lucia 35.2110 Tonga 35.0111 Grenada 35.0112 Guyana 33.0113 Belize 31.7114 Iran (I.R.) 31.4115 Bhutan 29.9116 Thailand 28.9117 Micronesia 27.8118 Syria 26.2119 Cuba 25.7120 Swaziland 24.7121 Kyrgyzstan 23.4122 El Salvador 23.1123 S. Tomé & Principe 23.0124 Sudan 22.7125 Sri Lanka 21.9126 Senegal 20.9127 Yemen 20.0128 Guatemala 19.7129 Angola 19.1130 Zimbabwe 18.5131 Honduras 17.8132 Mongolia 17.7133 Algeria 16.5134 Libya 16.5135 Equatorial Guinea 16.4136 Uganda 16.2137 Tajikistan 16.0138 Indonesia 15.8139 Nicaragua 15.5140 Zambia 15.4141 Samoa 15.3142 India 15.1143 Botswana 15.0144 Gambia 14.0145 Namibia 13.9146 Nepal 13.3147 Lao P.D.R. 12.5Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 2013148 Ghana 12.3149 Marshall Islands 11.7150 Kiribati 11.5151 Vanuatu 11.3152 Pakistan 10.9153 Haiti 10.6154 Turkmenistan 9.6155 Djibouti 9.5156 Gabon 9.2157 Iraq 9.2158 Rwanda 8.7159 Solomon Islands 8.0160 Congo 6.6161 Comoros 6.5162 Bangladesh 6.5163 Papua New Guinea 6.5164 Cameroon 6.4165 Mauritania 6.2166 Cambodia 6.0167 Afghanistan 5.9168 Malawi 5.4169 Mozambique 5.4170 Lesotho 5.0171 Benin 4.9172 Liberia 4.6173 Togo 4.5174 Burkina Faso 4.4175 Tanzania 4.4176 Central African Rep. 3.5177 Guinea-Bissau 3.1178 Côte d'Ivoire 2.6179 Chad 2.3180 Mali 2.3181 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 2.2182 Madagascar 2.2183 Ethiopia 1.9184 Niger 1.7185 Sierra Leone 1.7186 Guinea 1.6187 Somalia 1.5188 Burundi 1.3189 Myanmar 1.2190 Timor-Leste 1.1191 Eritrea 0.9D.P.R. Korean/aNaurun/aSouth Sudann/aVaticann/aWorld Average, 2013 37.9Annex 5Notes: The table includes ITU Member States.n/a - not available. Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database.103


Annex 6: Percentage of Individuals using the Internet, Developing Countries, 2013Annex 6Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 20131 Bahrain 90.02 United Arab Emirates 88.03 Qatar 85.34 Korea (Rep.) 84.85 St. Kitts and Nevis 80.06 Kuwait 75.57 Barbados 75.08 Hong Kong, China 74.29 Singapore 73.010 Bahamas 72.011 Israel 70.812 Lebanon 70.513 Malaysia 67.014 Chile 66.515 Oman 66.516 Macao, China 65.817 Cyprus 65.518 Brunei Darussalam 64.519 Trinidad & Tobago 63.820 Antigua & Barbuda 63.421 Saudi Arabia 60.522 Argentina 59.923 Dominica 59.024 Azerbaijan 58.725 Uruguay 58.126 Morocco 56.027 Venezuela 54.928 Kazakhstan 54.029 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 52.030 Colombia 51.731 Brazil 51.632 Seychelles 50.433 Egypt 49.634 South Africa 48.935 Palestine* 46.636 Armenia 46.337 Turkey 46.338 Costa Rica 46.039 Dominican Rep. 45.940 China 45.841 Jordan 44.242 Maldives 44.143 Viet Nam 43.944 Tunisia 43.845 Mexico 43.546 Georgia 43.147 Panama 42.948 Ecuador 40.4Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 201349 Bolivia 39.550 Peru 39.251 Kenya 39.052 Mauritius 39.053 Uzbekistan 38.254 Nigeria 38.055 Jamaica 37.856 Cape Verde 37.557 Suriname 37.458 Fiji 37.159 Philippines 37.060 Tuvalu 37.061 Paraguay 36.962 St. Lucia 35.263 Grenada 35.064 Tonga 35.065 Guyana 33.066 Belize 31.767 Iran (I.R.) 31.468 Bhutan 29.969 Thailand 28.970 Micronesia 27.871 Syria 26.272 Cuba 25.773 Swaziland 24.774 Kyrgyzstan 23.475 El Salvador 23.176 S. Tomé & Principe 23.077 Sudan 22.778 Sri Lanka 21.979 Senegal 20.980 Yemen 20.081 Guatemala 19.782 Angola 19.183 Zimbabwe 18.584 Honduras 17.885 Mongolia 17.786 Algeria 16.587 Libya 16.588 Equatorial Guinea 16.489 Uganda 16.290 Tajikistan 16.091 Indonesia 15.892 Nicaragua 15.593 Zambia 15.494 Samoa 15.395 India 15.196 Botswana 15.0104


Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 201397 Gambia 14.098 Namibia 13.999 Nepal 13.3100 Lao P.D.R. 12.5101 Ghana 12.3102 Marshall Islands 11.7103 Kiribati 11.5104 Vanuatu 11.3105 Pakistan 10.9106 Haiti 10.6107 Turkmenistan 9.6108 Djibouti 9.5109 Gabon 9.2110 Iraq 9.2111 Rwanda 8.7112 Solomon Islands 8.0113 Congo 6.6114 Bangladesh 6.5115 Comoros 6.5116 Papua New Guinea 6.5117 Cameroon 6.4118 Mauritania 6.2119 Cambodia 6.0120 Afghanistan 5.9121 Malawi 5.4122 Mozambique 5.4Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 2013123 Lesotho 5.0124 Benin 4.9125 Liberia 4.6126 Togo 4.5127 Burkina Faso 4.4128 Tanzania 4.4129 Central African Rep. 3.5130 Guinea-Bissau 3.1131 Côte d'Ivoire 2.6132 Chad 2.3133 Mali 2.3134 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 2.2135 Madagascar 2.2136 Ethiopia 1.9137 Niger 1.7138 Sierra Leone 1.7139 Guinea 1.6140 Somalia 1.5141 Burundi 1.3142 Myanmar 1.2143 Timor-Leste 1.1144 Eritrea 0.9D.P.R. Korean/aNaurun/aSouth Sudann/aAverage Developing, 2013 29.9Annex 6Notes: The table includes ITU Member States.n/a - not available. Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.* Not an ITU member, see ITU Resolution 99.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database.105


Annex 7: Percentage of Individuals using the Internet, Least Developed Countries (LDCs), 2013Annex 7Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 20131 Tuvalu 37.02 Bhutan 29.93 S. Tomé & Principe 23.04 Sudan 22.75 Senegal 20.96 Yemen 20.07 Angola 19.18 Equatorial Guinea 16.49 Uganda 16.210 Zambia 15.411 Gambia 14.012 Nepal 13.313 Lao P.D.R. 12.514 Kiribati 11.515 Vanuatu 11.316 Haiti 10.617 Djibouti 9.518 Rwanda 8.719 Solomon Islands 8.020 Bangladesh 6.521 Comoros 6.522 Mauritania 6.223 Cambodia 6.024 Afghanistan 5.9Rank Economyinternet userpenetration 201325 Malawi 5.426 Mozambique 5.427 Lesotho 5.028 Benin 4.929 Liberia 4.630 Togo 4.531 Burkina Faso 4.432 Tanzania 4.433 Central African Rep. 3.534 Guinea-Bissau 3.135 Chad 2.336 Mali 2.337 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 2.238 Madagascar 2.239 Ethiopia 1.940 Niger 1.741 Sierra Leone 1.742 Guinea 1.643 Somalia 1.544 Burundi 1.345 Myanmar 1.246 Timor-Leste 1.147 Eritrea 0.9South Sudann/aNotes: The table includes ITU Member States.n/a - not available. Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database.106


List of Acronyms and AbbreviationsADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber LineAIDS Acquired Immuno-Deficiency SyndromeARCEP French regulatorARPM Average Revenue Per MinuteARPU Average Revenue Per UserASP Average Sales PriceCDN Content Distribution NetworkCHWs Community Health WorkersCIS Commonwealth of Independent StatesDSA Dynamic Spectrum AccessDSL Digital Subscriber LineEU European UnionEFA Education For AllFDI Foreign Direct InvestmentFOSS Free and Open Source SoftwareFTTB Fibre-To-The-BuildingFTTH Fibre-To-The-HomeFTTx Fibre-To-The-XGB GigabyteGDP Gross Domestic ProductGHG Green House GasGHz GigahertzGNI Gross National IncomeGPON Gigabit Passive Optical NetworkGSM Global System for Mobile CommunicationsGSMA GSM AssociationGSR Global Symposium for RegulatorsHIV Human Immunodeficiency VirusHTS High-Throughput SatelliteIADB Inter-American Development BankICTs Information and Communication TechnologiesIDA Infocomms Development Authority of SingaporeIMSO International Maritime Satellite OrganizationIMT International Mobile TelecommunicationsIP Internet ProtocolIPA Investment Promotion AgencyIPv6 Internet Protocol version 6IT Information TechnologyITSO International Telecommunications Satellite OrganizationITU International Telecommunication UnionLDCs Least Developed CountriesLTE Long-Term EvolutionMEO Medium Earth Orbit (satellite)MHz Mega-HertzMIL Media and Information LiteracyChapter Acronyms107


AcronymsMP MegapixelMVNO Mobile Virtual Network OperatorM2M Machine-to-MachineNBP National Broadband PlanNGO Non-Governmental OrganizationOA Open AccessOER Open Educational ResourcesOTT Over-The-TopPC Personal ComputerPPPs Public-Private PartnershipsQNBP Qatar’s National Broadband PlanRMB Chinese renminbi currencyRoI Return on InvestmentSIM Subscriber Identity ModuleSME Small- and Medium-sized EnterpriseSTEM Science, Technology, Engineering and MathematicsSWSPG Singapore White Space Pilot GroupTTIs Teacher Training InstitutesTV TelevisionTVWS Television White SpacesUAE United Arab EmiratesUAS Universal Access/ServiceUNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUPE Universal Primary EducationUSF Universal Service FundUSO Universal Service ObligationVDSL Very high bit-rate Digital Subscriber LineVLE Malaysia’s Virtual Learning EnvironmentVoIP Voice over Internet ProtocolVSAT Very Small Aperture TerminalWIPO World Intellectual Property OrganizationWTDC World Telecommunication Development Conference3G Third-generation mobile systems4G Fourth-generation mobile systems108


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