Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities Activities for Primary 6
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Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities Activities for Primary 6

Areas of learning / Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities ReferencesTitleArea of LearningThinking Skills and PersonalCapabilitiesPageLanguage &LiteracyMathematics &NumeracyPersonalDevelopment &MutualUnderstandingThe ArtsWorld AroundUsICTManagingInformationThinking,Problem Solving& DecisionMakingBeing CreativeWorking withOthersSelfManagementEurovisionDecision4 Get In Order 18 AdditionSurvey22 Raiders(Extract A) 25 The Vikings inIreland(Extract B)31 Viking Raids 41 Life Cycles 44 Water 48 Cinderella 56 Dance Off 61 BibliographyandReferencesWebsites- 3 -

Title: Eurovision DecisionArea of Learning:Mathematics and NumeracyPossible Learning Intention:Use available clues to help present information in a meaningful way.Thinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Managing Information: Develop methods for collating and recordinginformation.Working With Others: Work with their peers to reach agreementsActivity:The children have to use two different sets of clue cards to piece togetherinformation to produce a “Top Ten” results table for the 2007 Eurovision SongContest and to solve problems based on a promotional tour for the Irishrepresentatives in the 2008 contest.Classroom Management:The pupils can work in pairs or groups of 3. They will need access to the cluecards, distance chart, a calculator and a political map of Europe showingcountries and capital cities. They will also need recording paper and pencil. Thepupils may benefit from regular review to discuss strategies and derived facts.How It Works:Challenge 11. Give each group a set of “2007 ESC Top 10 Cards”, country clues and a blankresults table. Explain that the pupils have to read the information on thecards to help them produce the “top ten” results table for the 2007Eurovision Song Contest.Challenge 21. Using the country clues list, identify which letters represents which country2. Discuss what the pupils may need to help them (e.g. calculator, map ofEurope).3. Pupils work together in their group to produce the results table.- 4 -

Challenge 31. Give each group a set of “Irish Promotional Tour ESC 2008 Travel Cards”.Tell the pupils they must read the information on the cards and answer thequestions on the question cards.2. Discuss what the pupils may need to help them (e.g. calculator, distancechart, map of Europe)3. Pupils work together in their group to produce solutions to the questioncards.Challenge 41. When the results of the Eurovision Song Contest 2008 are available (24May 2008) pupils can create a set of clue cards for a new “top ten” tablewhich other pupils can use.2. Pupils will need to spend some time planning how they will approach the task– roles within the group, information they will need, etc.3. Pupils draft the set of cards and produce a final copy using ICT.Metacognition:In order for learners to strengthen their thinking strategies they need time toplan, adapt and evaluate their thinking (see Reflective Thinking Grid – page 2).Making Connections:• Produce profiles of the participating countries in Eurovision 2008 (TWAU –Geography)• Design a Logo for Eurovision 2008 (Art and Design)• Watch the previews of the songs (available online for download) and write areport including type of song, description of preview video, etc.(Language and Literacy).Useful Websites:The songs in the 2008 Eurovision Song Contest can be downloaded from thefollowing sites:■■■ 5 -

Pupil Resource SheetEurovision 2007 Top Ten ResultsYou will need a set of cards on which you will find clues to help youpiece together information to complete a table of results for theTop 10 performing countries in the Eurovision Song Contest 2007.Think about:‣ You have the set of clue cards. Do you need any furtherinformation or equipment to help you complete the task?‣ How will you organise the information that you have?‣ How will you record your work?Further Challenges‣ Find out the Top Ten results for the 2008 Eurovision SongContest final. Create a set of clue cards and present themto another group to trial them. Produce a final copy of yourcards using ICT so that they can be used as a problemsolvingactivity for another class.- 6 -

Eurovision Decision : Challenge 12007 ESC Top 10 CardsPupil Resource SheetCountry D achieved 5 th placingand scored 19 points more thancountry J.Country G finished in 4 thposition and achieved 24 pointsmore than country A.Read the information on all ofthe cards and complete theEurovision 2007 Top Tenresults table.Country H achieved a score of145 points which was 36 pointshigher than the total score forcountry C.Country I was placed betweencountry E and country B andscored 96 points more thancountry AWhat was the range of scoresin the Top Ten results table?Country E scored more pointsthan any other country and wassix places above country A.Which two countries togetherscored a total of 380 points?- 7 -

Eurovision Decision : Challenge 12007 ESC Top 10 CardsPupil Resource SheetCountry B achieved 207 pointswhich was two places lower and61 points lower thancountry E.How many of the top tencountries achieved anodd total?Country J scored 69 points lessthan country B but was twoplaces abovecountry C.Country A achieved 139 pointsand was ranked 3 places abovecountry C.How many of the top tencountries achieved a totalwhich is a multiple of 3?Country H was two places lowerthan country G and achieved 7points more thancountry J.Country F was placed just belowcountry J and scored 107points less than the countryin 2 nd position.What was the total number ofpoints awarded to the top tencountries?- 8 -

Pupil Resource SheetEurovision 2007 Top Ten Results TablePOSITION LETTER COUNTRY SCORE12345678910- 9 -

Eurovision Decision : Challenge 2Pupil Resource SheetEurovision 2007 – Top Ten CountriesLETTER CLUE COUNTRYABCDEFGHIJThis country is due East of the southerntip of Italy across the Ionian Sea.This country has a border with Finland andalso with Latvia.This country is located between Romaniaand Ukraine.This country has a port called Varnu onthe Black Sea.This country is the host country forEurovision 2008.This country is east of Austria, has aborder with Romania and has a capital citybeginning with B.This country has a long northern coastlineon the Black Sea.This country is the only country which hasa border with both Latvia and Lithuania.This country has a capital city called Kiev.This country is east of Turkey, South ofGeorgia, West of Azerbaijan and North ofIran.- 10 -

Eurovision Decision : Challenge 3Pupil Resource SheetIrish Promotional Tour ESC 2008In the 2007 Eurovision Song Contest Ireland achieved their mostdisappointing result ever coming last in the contest with just 5 points.This year the television broadcaster RTE want to do everything possibleto achieve a better result so they have decided to provide funding for apromotional tour which will allow the Irish song to be heard in severalcountries before the contest takes place.Details of the tour are provided on the travel cards. The tour begins andends in Dublin. Your task is to provide solutions to any of the travel cardswhich contain questions.:Think about‣ You have the set of travel cards. Do you need any furtherinformation or equipment to help you complete the task?‣ How will you organise the information that you have?‣ How will you record your work?Further Challenges‣ Work out a way in which the Irish Representative, DustinThe Turkey, can visit all the countries on the tour bycovering the least distance possible.‣ The European Broadcasting Union has decided to establishnew Headquarters in one of the 12 cities. The city which willbe chosen is the one which will require the shortest totaldistance for all of the other 11 countries to reachHeadquarters. Which city will be chosen?- 11 -

Eurovision Decision : Challenge 3Irish Promotional Tour ESC 2008 Travel CardsPupil Resource SheetSlovenia is the destination hereaches after his four day visitto France.After spending 4 days in theUnited Kingdom he flies toBelarus where he spends twodays.On what date does thepromotional tour end?From Estonia he flies on toSpain.Two days later he leavesIceland and flies to Austriawhere he spends 3 days.On 7 th March 2008 Dustin TheTurkey leaves Dublin and fliesto Estonia where he spends 2days.United Kingdom is thedestination after Austria.When the tour reached Belarus,how many kilometres had beentravelled?- 12 -

Eurovision Decision : Challenge 3Irish Promotional Tour ESC 2008 Travel CardsPupil Resource SheetTwo days after arriving inSlovenia he flies back to Dublin.He spends just one day inCroatia before flying toIceland.On 14 th March he goes into arestaurant to buy a meal. Hepays the bill using the localcurrency. What currency didhe use?After spending three days inSpain he travels on to Croatia.After just one day in Cyprusthe tour continues in Finland.How many kilometres did DustinThe Turkey fly during theentire tour?He stays for three days inFinland and then flies toFrance.From Belarus he flies on toCyprus.- 13 -

Eurovision Decision : Challenge 3Pupil Resource Sheet- 14 -

Eurovision Decision : Challenge 3Pupil Resource Sheet- 15 -

Teacher InformationEurovision 2007 Answer SheetPOSITION LETTER COUNTRY SCORE1 E Serbia 2682 I Ukraine 2353 B Russia 2074 G Turkey 1635 D Bulgaria 1576 H Belarus 1457 A Greece 1398 J Armenia 1389 F Hungary 12810 C Moldova 109Challenge 1. Answers to additional questions: 2 of the top ten countries achieved a total which is a multiple of 3 Countries I and H achieved a total of 380 points 7 countries scored an odd total The range of top ten results was 159 points Total points awarded to top ten countries was 1689- 16 -

Teacher InformationEurovision Decision : Challenge 3Irish Promotional Tour ESC 2008SOLUTIONSQuestion CardsWhen the tour reached Belarus, how many kilometres had beentravelled? Answer : 15654 kilometresHow many kilometres did Dustin The Turkey fly during the entiretour? Answer : 25189 kilometresOn 14 th March he went into a restaurant to buy a meal. Whatcurrency did he use? Answer : Icelandic Krona (plural – kronur)On what date does the promotional tour end? Answer : 3 rd April2008Further Challenges‣ The shortest distance to visit all 12 cities is 12690 kilometresRoute is Dublin – Reykjavik – Helsinki – Tallinn – Minsk – Nicosia– Zagreb – Ljubljana – Vienna – Madrid – Paris – London –Dublin‣ The city chosen as EBU Headquarters would be Vienna. The totaldistance from all 11 cities to Vienna is 14988 kilometres.- 17 -

Title: Get In Order!Area of Learning:Mathematics and NumeracyPossible Learning Intention:Explore and order fractionsThinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Thinking, Problem-Solving and Decision-Making:Identify and order patterns and relationships through a range of strategies.Self Management:Become self-directed by working on their own or with a group.Activity:The activity challenges the children to compare the size of fractions of a rangeof fraction families.Classroom Management:The activity can be carried out with a partner or working in a small group.Dominoes with a blank should be removed before the activity starts (this mayprovide some useful discussions within/between groups).How It Works:The children use a selection of dominoes – working either as a large group or in2s/3s.Each domino should be considered as a fraction and placed on the blanknumberline (0 to 1).Children should be encouraged to justify their placement of each domino (e.g.“this 2/3 goes here because it is larger than a half, but less than 1”).The activity encourages the players to compare and order fractions, articulatingtheir reasoning and justifying their fraction placement.Possible modifications:• Use a 0-6 numberline and ask the children to invert their dominoes (e.g.2/3 becomes 3/2) – order the fractions as before.• Turn the dominoes sideways to represent a decimal on the 0-6 number line(5/4 becomes 5.4), then order as before.• Predict whether the next (unseen) domino is higher or lower than the lastchosen (brings in notion of probability too).- 18 -

• Other work with blank number line involving thousands. Numbers can begenerated by using two dominoes or four dice.Metacognition:In order for learners to develop and strengthen their thinking strategies theyneed time to plan, adapt and evaluate their thinking. The justification offraction placement is the key to this activity – children should be encouraged toidentify other situations where it is necessary to justify decisions.Making Connections:• Using a historical timeline, with significant dates (TWAU)- 19 -

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Number Lines0 10 6- 21 -

Title: Addition SurveyArea of Learning:Mathematics and NumeracyPossible Learning Intention:Collect, collate and analyse information regarding mental mathematics.Thinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Managing Information: Use a range of methods for collating, recording andrepresenting informationSelf-management: Organise and plan how to go about a task.Activity:This activity will focus on planning and collating information on how people carryout mental calculations involving addition.Classroom Management:The children work in small groups to discuss methods and work individually or inpairs to carry out research.How It Works:The children are presented with the task (see Pupil Resource Sheet) and aregiven planning time. The task is to see how most people will do six given additioncalculations. The children have to time each person, record the methods usedand their age group. The children have to decide how to finally represent theirresults and see if there are common methods of calculations in each age group.Metacognition:In order for learners to develop and strengthen their thinking strategies theyneed time to plan, adapt and evaluate their thinking (see Reflective ThinkingGrid).Making Connections: Looking at how people in different age groups approach tasks. Collecting raw data in any area of learning.- 22 -

Pupil Resource SheetAddition SurveyYou are going to carry out a survey to find out how most people doaddition calculations.Give as many people as possible the following six sums to do:3 + 18 =24 + 25 =4 + 8 + 9 + 2 + 6 =76 + 68 =448 + 297 =£1.99 + £1.99 + £1.99 =Tell the people in your survey that they can try to do thecalculations “in their head” or they can use pencil and paper.Record how long they take to do the sums and what method they use.Try to get each person to explain to you how they performed each ofthe calculations.Bring all of the results of your survey into school.In a small group, discuss what you found out from your survey andhow you could present the results.- 23 -

Pupil Resource SheetAddition SurveyCalculation Answer Method3 + 1824 + 254 + 8 + 9 + 2 + 676 + 68448 + 297£1.99+£1.99+£1.99Time Taken :Working Out :Age Group ofperson :6 – 1516 – 2526 – 3536 – 4546 – 5556 – 6566 – 75over 75- 24 -

Title: RaidersArea of Learning:Language and LiteracyPossible Learning Intentions:Be able to ask and answer focused questionsBe able to listen to a text and give a personal responseBe able to identify and empathise with the thoughts and feelings of a characterThinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Being Creative: Experiment with different modes of thinkinge.g. visualisationWorking with Others: Listen actively and share opinions with othersActivity:After the teacher reads a text to the class the children interpret theirunderstanding of the thoughts and feelings of the characters throughquestioning and drama. Teachers may choose some/all of the activities outlinedin the ‘How It Works’ section.Classroom Management:Small groupsHow It Works:1. The teacher reads and discusses the story with the children, perhaps in ashared reading session.2. Using the ‘I Wonder’ sheet, children are given the opportunity to give apersonal response to the text by formulating their own questions.3. Identify one scene from the story, for example : from “There are menfighting everywhere” – “Look out!”4. In groups of 3-4 the children make a still tableau with each person in thegroup representing one character, creating a frozen moment from this scene.Allow time for discussion of characters, their personalities, thoughts andfeelings, and trying out. Then on signal, “freeze”, all groups hold their positions.5. When all are still, the teacher moves around and touches a character fromthe groups in turn. On being touched each “character” speaks out the thoughtsin their heads at that moment (in role). e.g. The teacher says “At that moment Ithought to myself . . .”- 25 -

6. After a number of participants have had the opportunity to speak, theteacher can also ask some groups to demonstrate their “frame” and then comeout of role and explain why the group decided to depict the scene in the waythey did and how others might have depicted it differently, explain what theythought the characters were feeling or what they might do next. Other childrencould ask questions of the group or individual characters. Groups could thenimprove their frame as a result of the discussion.Metacognition:In the plenary discuss the thinking skills children are developing while they areparticipating in the task. For example : reflect, empathise, justify or givereasons, predict, identify thoughts and feelings, respond , imagine.This activity encourages children to think more deeply about the characters andexpress their thoughts in actions and words. Encourage them to reflect on howwell they were able to empathise, thinking about the text and by using theirimagination to build on the clues in the text.Children could also reflect on and evaluate their own contribution to the groupand how well they worked together as a group.Making Connections:Freeze frames can be created using:• Stories, Poems, Picture books, Fables (Language and Literacy)• Paintings (The Arts – Art and Design)• Photographs or historical accounts of events or places (TWAU)• Environmental or moral issues, eg from news articles (RE, PDMU orTWAU).For further ideas and explanation of the approach:Active Learning and Teaching Methods Booklet (page 30) CCEAThinking It Through: Developing Language and Numeracy Skills ThroughThinking and Drama Activities Gill Thompson & Huw Evans- 26 -

EXTRACT ARAIDERS(When Jack Watson sleeps in an old tent in the garden he goes through a time-slip andfinds himself back in the time of the Viking raids. His name is Edric and he and hissister Elfreda are the children of a brave Saxon chief).As soon as I was inside the tent, I lay down and closed my eyes.It is cool, dark and silent. No birds are singing. It is early dawn and I am on my way tothe riverbank looking for firewood. I should have collected it yesterday, but I forgot.When I reach the high ground, overlooking the river, I look down.Then I freeze.A long narrow boat, with a dragon’s head on the front, is gliding silently along. Thereare round metal things hanging over the sides, and I realise they are shields. The oarsdip in and out of the water without a sound. My mouth goes dry. I am almost tooterrified to move, but some instinct warns me to drop to my stomach, out of sight. Icrawl to the edge and watch. The boat pulls up by the bank. It is full of huge men, withlong fair hair underneath iron helmets.Raiders!They are quiet, intent and menacing. I have never seen so many men make so littlenoise.With hardly a sound, they spill out of the boat, lifting off their round shields to takewith them. They are all carrying axes and swords. They look like giants. Then theybegin to creep purposefully towards the village. My village, where Father and Motherand Elfreda are asleep.And I remember what the stranger told us about the terrible things the raiders haddone in his village. I am horribly afraid. I reach for my wooden swallow. I need it nowto bring me luck. It is not there. I must have forgotten to pick it up. It must be in thehut. I try not to think of this as an ill omen.Trying desperately to keep out of sight, I wriggle backwards until I cannot see theraiders any more. Then I leap to my feet and start to run, faster than I have ever runin my life. My feet skim over the rough grass.My heart is pounding, and I am terrified, but I dare not stop. I have to warn them.Only when I reach the fence do I dare to look over my shoulder. The raiders are not in- 27 -

sight yet, but I know they cannot be far behind. I run inside and bar the gate. Then Irace to the nearest hut and bang on the door.“Raiders!” I shout. “Help! Raiders! Help!”I don’t wait for an answer, but run to the next hut.“Raiders!”I can hear people stirring behind me as I race through the village. I cannot stop until Ihave warned Father.Suddenly I hear a loud splintering noise behind me as the raiders attack the gate withtheir axes. Then they surge into the village, with terrible, bloodcurdling cries.As I reach our hut, the door opens and Father comes out brandishing his sword.“Well done, Edric,” he cries. “We’re ready for them!”Then I realise everyone is awake. There is a lot of shouting and the clash of swords andspears. We Anglo-Saxons may not be as big as them, but we are fierce when we’rethreatened. We won’t give in without a fight.“Look after your mother and sister, Edric” calls Father as he charges into the battle.The noise is deafening now. I turn and see the other women and children huddled atthe fence, away from the fighting.Mother and Elfreda are in the hut. Mother is looking desperately worried, but Elfreda’seyes are sparking with excitement. “I want to join in!” she says.“Oh Elfreda!” I say, exasperated, as I hurry them out of the hut.Then Elfreda sees what is happening, and hears all the shouting and the fearful clashingof weapons. She picks up a stout stick and as we reach the others she says bravely,“Don’t worry about us, Edric. I’ll look after Mother and the other children.” And Iknow she won’t give in without a fight, either.“I must go and help Father!” I cry, and hurry off to find him.There are men fighting everywhere, but I can’t see Father. Then a huge hand isclamped over my mouth. I struggle and find myself in the grip of an enormous raider.He is incredibly strong and I am paralysed with terror. I cannot even scream. Andsuddenly Father is here. His sword is battered and has smears of blood on it. I havenever seen him look so fierce. “Leave my son alone!” he bellows, charging at the man.- 28 -

With a roar, the raider pushes me aside and turns to Father. He has a heavy axe in hishand. He whirls it round his head. The axe cuts the sword in two, as if it was no morethan a twig. Father is left holding the stump as the Viking lifts his axe again.“Father!” I scream. “Look out!”Father dodges as the axe falls where his head would have been. But the axe has caughthis shoulder, and I see blood spurt out from the deep wound. His sword arm dangles,useless. I must help him. What can I do?Then I remember my lucky swallow, still in the hut. It is my last hope. But as I turn, Isee our roof is now alight. I must hurry.I dive in, snatch up my swallow from the bench, when I see the raider raise his axeagain.I am so angry I don’t stop to think. I stand in the doorway and fling the wooden swallowat him with all my might. To my great satisfaction it hits him on the forehead.Startled, he staggers back and drops the axe. Father grabs it.“Well done Edric!” he says, glancing over his shoulder at me.Then his eyes widen with horror.“The roof!” he cries. “Look out!”But before I can move, everything goes black.Extract taken from Raiders by Lynne BentonPublished by Heinemann- 29 -

Pupil Resource SheetI Wonder….- 30 -

Title: The Vikings in IrelandArea of Learning:Language and LiteracyPossible Learning Intentions:Compare and contrast using similarities and differences.Understand that authors will use different writing styles depending on theaudience and purpose.Thinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Thinking, Problem Solving and Decision Making: Pupils will compare andcontrast effectively.Being Creative: Generate, combine ideas and opinionsActivity:Pupils will examine the way in which authors use different writing stylesdepending on the purpose and audience.Classroom Management:The children work in small groups to discuss and analyse the two extracts. Eachgroup will be provided with one A3 copy of the ‘compare and contrast’ thinkingframe and one A4 copy of the ‘story elements’ sheet per group.How It Works:The children have access to both extracts and the teacher has a flexible set ofnotes for the lesson. The teacher notes provide further guidance and keyquestions the teacher may wish to ask. The children also have a thinking framewhich identifies the criteria upon which they should compare and contrast theextracts. Finally the children are encouraged to think about which extract wouldbe better at informing a third party about the Vikings.Metacognition:In order for learners to strengthen their thinking strategies they need time toplan, adapt and evaluate their thinking (see Reflective Thinking Grid – page 2).Making Connections:Comparing and contrasting two characters from stories to understand how thetwo characters responded differently to conditions in the story.(Language and Literacy)- 31 -

NOTES for TEACHERS(Please note that the print in bold provides a possible teacher script)INTRODUCTIONThink about a time when you heard a story that was similar to one youalready knew. Try to recall the similarities that reminded you that you hadheard a story like this before.What were some of the differences between the two stories?When you noticed similarities and differences, you were “comparing andcontrasting.”We’re going to read extracts from two different stories which are aboutthe Vikings.THINKING ACTIVELYRead the two extracts and compare and contrast them using the thinkingdiagram. Identify similarities and record them in the ‘How alike?’ section.Then look for ways in which the two extracts are different and record themunder ‘How different?’Write the differences on the lines under ‘How different?’For example, ‘The Vikings in Ireland’ by Morgan takes place on a Viking longboat whereas ‘Raiders’ by Lynne takes place on land in Anglo Saxon days.The term which describes this difference is SETTING.In order to structure children’s thinking, teachers may wish to select from someor all of the following characteristics using the prompt questions.Think about the following differences as you read through both stories usingthe questions to help you.SETTINGWhere and when is the story located – past, present, future, real orimaginary world?How has the author created the setting? eg by describing it or throughdialogue between characters.CHARACTERWho are the characters in the story (can you name them)?How would you describe them?PLOT/CONTENTWhat happens in the passage?What are the key events?- 32 -

POINT OF VIEWWhat do the characters in the story think?What do the other characters think?LANGUAGE/DIALOGUEWhich tense is used?How are the sentences written?What punctuation is used? Why?What speech is included?PURPOSE/AUDIENCEWho was the author writing for?Why did they choose to write in this style?How are the stories alike? After they have finished reading the story, ask 4 or5 pupils to report one similarity they have found. Record their responses on aflipchart or A3 version of the thinking frame. Draw out the pupils thoughts byasking for clarification or extension of the answers, etc.POSSIBLE ANSWERS: Both extracts are written for children. Raiders in bothstories are Vikings and there are descriptions of Viking boats in each. Bothextracts have the same title. They both take place at the coast. A child is thekey character in both extracts and the stories are written from a child’s pointof view. We learn about the feelings of the key characters. Weapons areincluded in each extract and these are used for fighting and attacking byraiders.How are the stories different? (Record differences on A3 version)POSSIBLE ANSWERS:SETTING:Extract A – ‘Raiders’ by Lynne – set in an old tent in the garden - in his dream -set on land in Anglo Saxon times and happens on one day. Set in the present witha time-slip.Extract B – ‘The Vikings in Ireland’ by Morgan - set on a Viking longship andtakes place over a period of years.CHARACTERExtract A – ‘Raiders’ by Lynne – key character is Jack Wilson. In his dream hebecomes Edric, an Anglo Saxon child. There are 4 named characters. Edric, hissister Elfreda, his Father and Mother.Extract B – ‘The Vikings in Ireland’ by Morgan – key character is a Viking Raiderwho is a child.- 33 -

PLOT/EVENTSExtract A – ‘Raiders’ by Lynne – Boy falls asleep. Raiders arrive on the shore. Heruns to warn his father. Raiders attack the village. He warns his family. Edric iscaptured by a raider. Father attempts to rescue him and is injured. Edric throwshis swallow at the raider. Father shouts warning.Extract B – ‘The Vikings in Ireland’ by Morgan – Boy is on longship. Facts aboutViking life – boat building, trading, beginning of raiding. Other Viking lands.Discovery of Ireland. Return to narrative of Viking child.POINT OF VIEWExtract A – ‘Raiders’ by Lynne – written from a Anglo Saxon child’s point of view.Extract B – ‘The Vikings in Ireland’ by Morgan - written from the Viking point ofview.LANGUAGE/DIALOGUEExtract A – ‘Raiders’ by Lynne – written in the 1 st person in narrative, recountstyle. Present tense. Includes much shorter sentences and a greater variety ofpunctuation is included. Action verbs used are stronger and more powerful.Includes a considerable amount of dialogue.Extract B – ‘The Vikings in Ireland’ by Morgan - written mainly in the past tense,3 rd person. The sentences are much longer and include many more connectives.There is no dialogue.PURPOSE AND AUDIENCEExtract A – ‘Raiders’ by Lynne – fiction text written to excite and involve thereader and to tell a story.Extract B – ‘The Vikings in Ireland’ by Morgan – non-fiction text written toinform children about the Vikings.Now let’s think about the similarities and differences on your diagram.There are many true things that we could say about the two stories thatmay not be very important. For example, both stories are written forchildren. However, many stories are written for children. That similaritydoes not tell us anything important about these two stories. We want tobase our understanding of the stories on factors that are important. Drawa line through any similarities and differences that are not important.Now let’s think about something interesting that you have learned about thetwo stories based on your comparing and contrasting. What do thesimilarities and differences you have noted tell you about the way in whichauthors use different writing styles depending on the audience and purpose?In the bottom box, write one sentence that expresses a conclusion, thinking- 34 -

about which text you think would be most useful if you were telling someoneabout the Vikings and why.THINKING ABOUT THINKINGLet’s focus our attention on how we thought about the two extracts.The kind of thinking we did was called ‘comparing and contrasting’.What did we do to compare and contrast?How did the way we compared and contrasted the extracts differfrom the way we usually read stories in class?Did the thinking frame help in any way?Do you think this was a valuable way to think about the two extracts?APPLYING THINKINGCompare and contrast two characters from stories you have read recently tounderstand how the two characters responded differently to conditions inthe story.- 35 -

EXTRACT BThe Vikings in IrelandThe dragon-headed longship came nosing out of the sea mist. Oars rose and fellin rhythm. The boy standing in the prow of the longship had blond hair and blueeyes that glittered with excitement. He was the captain’s son and this was thefirst time to ‘go viking’.To go viking meant to go sea-raiding. A longship with a square sail and oars couldtravel anywhere there was enough water. The Scandinavian land we know todayas Norway had many miles of coastline and the people who lived there looked tothe sea for support. They also farmed, although farming was not easy in theirclimate; the summers were short and winters were long. Not every crop wouldgrow in land where some of the ground was too steep or too rocky to plough.The Norsemen were almost totally dependent upon fishing to support themselvesand their families. Life was hard.From the earliest times, Scandinavian people had built boats. At first theirboats were dugout canoes, made from hallowing out a single tree-trunk. Theyalso made boats of hides which were stretched over wooden frames and lashedtogether with leather thongs. These were simple fishing boats and were used totravel only short distances. But as time passed, they learned to build largervessels. These then made it possible for them to take longer voyages andexplore the seas around them.They discovered that people in other lands conducted extensive trade,exchanging their goods and produce for other items they needed or wanted.Some of these items were luxury goods, things Scandinavian people did not haveand they wanted to take part in trade too. But they were not wealthy, beingbarely able to feed and clothe themselves, and did not have much surplus fortheir traders to use. Still, they sent ships out along the trade routes and did asmuch business as they could.- 36 -

It was not long before the Norsemen began plundering their neighbours. It mayhave begun almost by accident, with men in a boat running out of supplies andputting ashore to steal what they needed from some coastal settlement. Butbefore long they realised that sea-raiding could provide them with a whole newsource of wealth.Soon armed adventurers were attacking settlements all around the North Sea.These were not peaceful traders, but wild and reckless men. As they met withincreasing success, they became bolder and bolder. They killed any defendersthey found, stole their valuables and captured women and children to sell asslaves.Norway was not the only home of sea-raiders. The success of the Norseencouraged shipowners from the more fertile land of Denmark – the Danes – togo Viking too. Other raiders came from the Hebrides and the Orkney Islands.They all belonged to the Scandinavian race, and thought of themselves asNorthmen. But the people who learned to fear them called them … Vikings.In AD 795 a Viking longship had approached the coast of Ireland for the firsttime. Those aboard observed that much of the land was covered with forests.When they got back to Norway, the adventurers talked excitedly of the greenisland they had found, where great trees grew, as timber was a valuable ship –building commodity.The longship in which the Norse boy rode was the second to visit Ireland,arriving in AD797. As they left the bank of mist behind, he squinted against theglare of reflected light from the sea. Ahead of them he saw several offshoreislands. On the nearest, he could make out a stone chapel and a cluster of round,wattle-and-timber buildings. Although the boy did not realiseit, the buildings were part of a Christian monastery on theisland now known as Lambay, off the coast of Skerries in northCounty Dublin.The oarsmen put their backs into their rowing and the longshipsped forward like a seabird. The boy listened with pleasure to- 37 -

the hiss of the sea rushing past. With one hand he reached out and stroked thedeeply carved, brightly painted prow. It looked like a ferocious dragon rising outof the waves. The sight of the prow struck terror into the hearts of landpeople, but he knew the dragon as a friend. He had watched his father andolder brothers carve and paint the wood themselves. Together with theirkinsmen they had built the longship on the shores of their fjord: a deep, narrowsea inlet. One lay just below their farm.Extract taken from: ‘The Vikings in Ireland’ by Morgan LlywelynISBN : 0862784212 Published by O’Brien.- 38 -

Pupil Resource SheetCOMPARE AND CONTRAST – THINKING FRAME‘Raiders’by Lynne Benton‘The Vikings in Ireland’by Morgan LlywelynHow alike?How different?SettingCharacterPlot.Point ofviewLanguage/DialoguePurpose/AudienceWhich text do you think would be most useful if you were tellingsomeone about the Vikings? Why?- 39 -

Pupil Resource SheetSTORY ELEMENTSSETTINGWhere and when is the story located – past, present, future,real or imaginary world?How has the author created the setting? eg by describing itor through dialogue between characters.CHARACTERWho are the characters in the story (can you name them)?How would you describe them?PLOT/CONTENTWhat happens in the passage?What are the key events?POINT OF VIEWWhat do the characters in the story think?What do the other characters think?LANGUAGE/DIALOGUEWhich tense is used?How are the sentences written?What punctuation is used? Why?What speech is included?PURPOSE/AUDIENCEWho was the author writing for?Why did they choose to write in this style?- 40 -

Title: Viking RaidsArea of Learning: The World Around UsPossible Learning Intention:Be able to identify long and short term consequences of Viking RaidsThinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Thinking Problems Solving and Decision Making:Examine evidence and make links between possible causes and effectsWorking with Others: Be able to work with peers to reach agreements andmanage disagreements.Activity:Identifying short and long term effects of Viking Raids and placing them on aripple diagram.Classroom Management:The activity can be carried out by pairs or small groups.How It Works:Children will understand how to use ripple diagrams -(see Active Learning booklet Curriculum Support box)Children will have completed some work on the Vikings and in groups/pairsdiscuss, and record, the possible consequences of Viking Raids.Groups/pairs share and compare lists in order to agree a common list ofconsequences; these can be written on cards/slips of paper.Groups/pairs decide which are short/long term consequences and place in theappropriate circle on the diagram.The groups/pairs report back to each other debating and justifying theirchoices.Metacognition:In order for learners to strengthen their thinking strategies they need time toplan, adapt and evaluate their thinking (see Reflective Thinking Grid – page 2).Making Connections:• Cutting down rainforests (TWAU)• Decision of Prodigal Son to take his inheritance (RE)• Consequences of stealing or smoking (PDMU).- 41 -

Pupil Resource SheetRipple Diagram : Viking RaidsThe words below show some of the possible consequences of Viking RaidsPlace the words on the ripple chart.Place the short term consequences near the centre of the chart.Place the words describing long term consequences nearer the outside of thechart.LootingBetter housingDifferent foodsDeathTradingNew fashionsHouses burnedNew religionHungerAngerNew townsViking words used in EnglishChange in lawsStolen children- 42 -

Pupil Resource SheetRipple DiagramWhat were the effects of the Viking raids?- 43 -

Title: Life CyclesArea of Learning:Language and LiteracyPossible Learning Intentions:Write for a variety of purposes and audiences, selecting, planning and usingappropriate style and form.Thinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Managing Information: Communicate with a sense of audience and purpose.Thinking, Problem-Solving and Decision-Making:Examine options and weigh up pros and cons.Activity:Use information to label a cyclical diagram. The diagram is to be used byyounger children so it is important to make sure the labels are written for theappropriate age group.Classroom Management:Groups of two or moreHow It Works:• Look at a collection of information books aimed at children aged 9-11 andcompare them with books written for 4-5 year olds. Discuss the differencesin the language and layout, e.g. text size, amount of text, pictures and use oftechnical language.• Explain that they are going to consider this in more detail by analyzing a textfor older children and making it applicable for a younger child.• In groups give the children a copy of the text (Pupil Resource Sheet – LifeCycle of the Frog) to read and discuss its suitability for younger children.• Share the cyclical diagram (Pupil Resource Sheet). How might this be used topresent the information to younger children? Why is it called a ‘cyclicaldiagram’? Do pictures help younger children understand the text? Would achild unable to read still get information from this diagram?- 44 -

Use the information to label the cyclical diagramWhole class evaluation on group diagrams, with reference to vocabulary andsentence structureMetacognition:In order for learners to strengthen their thinking strategies they need time toplan, adapt and evaluate their thinking (see Reflective Thinking Grid – page 2).Making Connections:• Persuasive writing – debating or advertising (Language and Literacy)• Write and illustrate a story book for younger children (Language andLiteracy/The Arts)• Characters/from history or fiction – alternative scenarios and or events(TWAU/Language and Literacy).- 45 -

Pupil Resource SheetLIFE CYCLE OF THE FROGRead the text below.Frogs are amphibians – animals that are capable of living onwater and on land. Frogs lay eggs in water because they areprone to desiccation. Their eggs are also surrounded by ajelly-like substance which ensures the developing embryo willhave the necessary energy for growth.The eggs hatch into fish-like, swimming creatures calledtadpoles. These tadpoles have external gills and suckers toattach themselves to the source of their food. With fourweeks progress the external gills are replaced by internalones. Therefore, the tadpole is enabled to swim freely.Tadpoles eat a variety of things including pond weed andinsects. As they grow in size they undergo a complete changeor metamorphosis. It firstly develops back legs, then frontlegs. Finally its tail shortens until a tiny frog is ready toemerge from the water. This process can take about threemonths.When mature, the frog will return to the pond to lay its eggsand begin the process again.- 46 -

Life Cycle DiagramPupil Resource Sheet

Title: WaterArea of Learning:Language and LiteracyPossible Learning Intentions:• Use language to affect the reader or engage attention.• Develop increasing competence in the use of grammar and punctuation tocreate clarity of meaning.Thinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Being Creative: Make ideas real by experimenting with different outcomes.Self Management: Be self directed by working on their own or with a group.Activity:Children discuss poems on water and, using various formats, construct their ownpoems. This activity is best carried out after children have explored the topicof ‘water’.Classroom Management:Groups of 2-4.How It Works:• The children read and discuss the poem Water (Pupil Resource Sheet 1),drawing upon previous knowledge.• Refer to the last four lines of the poem. Discuss the message the poet istrying to convey and why the water might ‘never return’?• Prior to writing their own poems, children will examine the poet’s use ofadjectives and verbs to affect the reader or engage attention.• Using the spider diagrams (Pupil Resource Sheets 2 and 3), children willcreate different adjectives and verbs to affect the reader or engageattention.• At this point the teacher will decide whether the children write their ownwater poems or make use of Pupil Resource Sheet 4 or the suggestions onTeacher Information Sheets 1 and 2 to scaffold their writing.Metacognition:In order for learners to strengthen their thinking strategies they need time toplan, adapt and evaluate their thinking (see Reflective Thinking Grid – page 2).- 48 -

Pupil Resource Sheet 1WaterSend it cascading over waterfalls,And break it with a roaring crash across the rocks.Wash in it, cool with it, drink it, heat with it,Keep fish in it, kill people by the sheer force of it.Put out fires with it, splash in it, open your eyes in it,Journey across to France in it,Freeze it and break glass as it expands,Heat it and put it in radiators to warm the body,Or just make cement and build with it.Let it pour from the sky and in tiny droplets,And leave it as dew to make the daffodils sparkle in spring.Let it flow in rivers, make electricity from it,Run it along the gutters, washing the stone, and sail boatson it.Water flowers with it, wash cars with it, make fountains ofit,But most of allJust leave it shimmering in a river or a poolAnd watch, but watch carefully or it will go,And never return.Jonathan Kingsman

Pupil Resource Sheet 2In pairs use a spider diagram to find as many adjectivesyou can to describe water.Remember to use resources around the classroom.refreshingWater- 50 -

Pupil Resource Sheet 3Find verbs that can be used when writing about water.Use a spider diagram to help you collate your work.Remember to use resources around the classroom.reviveWater- 51 -

Pupil Resource Sheet 4Water PoemIn pairsUse a dictionary and a thesaurus to find the most descriptive wordsyou can to complete the two verses of the poem below.Water is _______________ , water is _______________ [2 adjectives]We use it to _______________ and _______________ [2 verbs]Water is _______________ , water is _______________ [2 adjectives]We use it to _______________ and _______________ [2 verbs]________________________________________________________Now share your poem with another group. Can you improve the poemby using other verbs or adjectives? Write your new poem below.Water is _______________ , water is _______________ [2 adjectives]We use it to _______________ and _______________ [2 verbs]Water is _______________ , water is _______________ [2 adjectives]We use it to _______________ and _______________ [2 verbs]________________________________________________________- 52 -

Teacher Information 1Children can also be given opportunities to experiment with otherpoems and use their knowledge of adjectives and verbs to developthe following examples.Antonym PoemsWater [n]Clear [adj]Pure [adj]Refreshing [v] Revitalising [v] Reviving [v]Streams [n] rivers[n] … … desert [n] mountain [n]Inviting [v] Life-giving [v] nourishing [v]Barren [adj]Rich [adj]Land [n]Poems structured to limit the amount of words per lineNo of words1 Water2 Pouring quietly3 Through my fingers4 it feels like silk3 as it runs2 quietly away1 Water- 53 -

Teacher Information 2Poems are structured by syllablesNo of syllables2 Water4 running quickly6 cascading down the mountain4 rolling boulders2 mightyPoems where the use of simile is significantWater is like…… a clean mirror…… a silver plate…… an angry horse…… an invading armyetc.This can lead to the following:WaterMirroring the silver moon.Changes to an angry armyInvading the quiet shore.It is friend and foe.Be careful.The following poem was written by a year 8 child and illustrates some ofthe above techniques and concepts.- 54 -

Pupil Resource Sheet 7WaterWritten by a Year 8 Child- 55 -

Title: CinderellaArea of Learning:Language and LiteracyLearning Intention:To examine a text for evidence (Language and Literacy)Thinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Thinking/Problem Solving/Decision Making:To explain and justify opinions and conclusions.Working with others:To respect the views and opinions of others and reach agreements usingnegotiation and compromise.Activity:Matching statement cards to characters from a story.Classroom Management:Groups of 4-5How It Works:Before the lesson, copy a set of ‘Statements’ (Pupil Resource Sheet 2) and a set of‘Character Cards’ (Pupil Resource Sheet 3) for each group of four or five pupils. Cutthem out and put into envelopes, one per group.1. Remind the children what happens in a Critical Challenge, (Teacher InformationSheet). The children read the story of Cinderella (Pupil Resource Sheet 1).2. The first task is to match the statements with the characters, and throughdiscussion the group should reach a consensus on ‘who said what’.3. Move around the groups, scaffolding their thinking if necessary.4. Ask each group to report back on one of the characters, giving the statements theythink should be attributed to that character, and their reasons for thinking so. Thenext group takes the next character, and so on. Remind pupils that they can challengeeach other during feedback as long as they explain and justify their reasons.At the end of the activity the children can be given a critical question to consider nowor at a later stage.Is there a theme or ‘moral’ to the story, and if so, what is it?Metacognition:In order for learners to strengthen their thinking strategies they need time toplan, adapt and evaluate their thinking (see Reflective Thinking Grid – page 2).Making Connections: Characters from a class novel or from an historical period/event- 56 -

Teacher InformationCritical ChallengesCritical Challenges are activities that have been devised to develop a range of thinking skills,and in particular, critical thinking. The activities aim to develop information handling, enquiryskills, reasoning, creative thinking and evaluation. Critical thinking brings together differentelements of the above and involves developing in children the ability to make reasonedjudgements about particular situations or in particular contexts. This, therefore, is about theprocess of analysing, problem solving and decision-making. However, it is not just this process,but rather the process set within certain criteria that begin to define the nature of criticalthinking.During each classroom session the children have a short story or article to 'set the scene',then have some related pieces of information to analyse. Decision-making and problem-solvingactivities flow from this initial analysis. The pieces of information are on small pieces of cardwith one item per card, and the children work in groups completing specified tasks. As thechildren work with the information cards, the teacher moves between groups listening towhat is being said, and observing what is being done with the information.- 57 -

CinderellaPupil Resource Sheet 1Once upon a time there lived an unhappy young girl. She was unhappy because her mother wasdead and her father had married another woman, a widow with two daughters. Her stepmotherdidn't like her one bit and although she fussed over her own daughters and was always spoilingthem with presents, all that Ella got was old clothes and harsh words. She had to work hard allday keeping the cottage clean and tidy, and all she got by way of rest was the chance to sit fora time by the fire each evening. For this reason she got her nickname 'Cinders' or 'Cinderella'.One night as she sat all alone by the fire (everyone else having gone to bed) something amazinghappened - there was a burst of light and a fairy appeared. Now you may not believe in fairies,but I can tell you that neither did Ella until that night!“Don't be scared Cinderella,” said the fairy, “I caught your thoughts on the wind and I knowyou would like to go to the Prince's Ball, and so you shall!”“But look at me - dressed in rags! How can I go to the ball like this?” said Cinderella. The fairysmiled. “Have faith,” she said. “Bring me a large pumpkin and seven mice.” Dutifully, Cinderellaset about finding what the fairy wanted. From the basement she brought seven mice that hadbeen busy nibbling the flour sack. Then she returned for a large pumpkin from the pantry.With a wave of her wand, Cinderella's rags were turned into a beautiful ball gown and on herhead was set a lovely sparkling tiara. Cinderella gasped as she caught sight of herself in themirror. The fairy carried the pumpkin outside and the mice dutifully followed her, just liketrained pets. With another wave of her wand the pumpkin was transformed into a sparklingcarriage and the mice were turned into six fine horses and a footman to drive them. Cinderellacould hardly believe her eyes!“Now my dear,” said the fairy, “go to the ball and have a wonderful time, but remember themagic only lasts until midnight so you must be home by then!”As Cinderella entered the ballroom a hush fell over the room. Everyone stopped to admire herelegance, her beauty, and the graceful way in which she moved. “Who is she?” everyonewhispered, “she's gorgeous!” Of course the prince also noticed her, and was quick to go acrossthe room to welcome her. Bowing deeply the prince asked Cinderella to dance, and much to theannoyance of all the other young ladies present, he danced the whole evening with her. Ofcourse the prince was keen to discover just who she was, but despite his repeated questions,Cinderella remained silent about her name and where she came from. “Let's just enjoy beingtogether because this is the only time it will happen,” she said.Cinderella had a wonderful time, quite beyond her dreams, but all of a sudden she heard thesound of a clock striking the hour - the first stroke of midnight! Without time to say goodbye,Cinderella slipped from the arm of the prince and ran across the room and down the largesteps leading to the driveway, where the horses and carriages stood waiting. Such was herhurry that as she ran she lost one of her shoes and didn't even have time to stop to get it. Theprince, who was now madly in love with Cinderella, quickly followed her outside and down thesteps finding the shoe as he went. As Cinderella disappeared into the night he turned to hisministers and said, “Go and search everywhere for the girl whose foot fits this shoe. I will notrest until the girl is found.”- 58 -

Pupil Resource Sheet 2This is absolutely amazing.Nothing like this has happened tome before.Thank you for a wonderfulevening.They make such a lovely couple.You’re a lazy good-for-nothing. Idon’t know why we keep you.These girls are bound to meethandsome young men who willwant to marry them.I only wanted to get married tohave security – a roof over ourheads!You should always look afternumber one. Look after yourselffirst, that’s what I say.I want you to find the person whoowns the shoe.Being wealthy doesn’t lead tohappiness.I would like to help you but Idon’t want to cause trouble.We’re liked more than you.I don’t know what he sees in her –he hasn’t danced with either ofus, yet!I don’t understand what’shappening to me – this is unreal.I wonder who she is, she isbeautiful.This is a wonderful occasion –we’re all lucky to have beeninvited.Goodness always leads tohappiness.I can pick up your thoughts.Negative thoughts always lead tounhappiness.In life, we all get what wedeserve.Who are you and where do youcome from?I want happiness more thananything else.Without her my life will not beworth living.You know I still love you, you willbe happy again.Life was difficult for me withouta wife.- 59 -

Pupil Resource Sheet 3CinderellaPrinceStepmotherFatherPeopleat the BallStepsisters- 60 -

Title : Dance OffArea of Learning:Mathematics and Numeracy, ICT and The ArtsPossible Learning Intention:Use a programmable device to explore position, movement and direction. Discusswork using appropriate language (Mathematics and Numeracy)Thinking Skills/Personal Capabilities:Being Creative:Make ideas real by experimenting with different designs, actions and outcomes.Working with Others:Respect the views and opinions of others and reach agreements using negotiationand compromise.Activity:This activity will focus on planning in order to have 2 programmable devicesdemonstrate a dance routine.Classroom Management:The children work in teams of 2 or 3.How It Works:The children are asked to plan and program a dance routine using 2programmable devices such as Roamer, Pixie or Bee-Bots. They should plan thepath of the robots on squared paper and list the program for each. Children aregiven time to program the robots and solve any problems.Following the planning and practice of their robots “dancing” they should begiven planning time to discuss and plan suitable outfits. The actual competitionshould take place on another day to encourage interested children to thinkfurther about the robots’ pathways and outfits. The day of the dancechampionship can be as elaborate as desired. Creativity should be recognisedand celebrated.Metacognition:In order for learners to develop and strengthen their thinking strategies theyneed time to plan, adapt and evaluate their thinking (see Reflective ThinkingGrid – Page 2).Making Connections: Use programmable devices for other competitions such as robot races,obstacle races or Olympic events. Program devices to illustrate crossing the road.- 61 -

Pupil Resource SheetDance OffYour class has been asked to hold a dance competition for robots such asRoamer, Pixie or Bee-Bots.Each entry will consist of 2 or 3 people and 2 robots.Competition Rules1. Each team will have exactly 10 minutes to plan their robot danceroutine using squared paper. It may be useful to write down the keysyou need for programming.2. Each team will have 10 minutes to practise using their two robots.3. Each team will then have 10 minutes to plan their performance outfits.The ‘Dance Off’ will be held on another day to allow for outfits to be made to fitthe robots and to choose appropriate music to accompany the dance.What about making a leaflet to advertise the final dance off?- 62 -

Bibliography and ReferencesNAME OF BOOK AUTHOR PUBLISHER ISBNPoems for Thinking Robert Fisher Nash PollockPublishingStories for Thinking Robert Fisher Nash PollockPublishingThink it – Map it!Let’s Learn – How toLearn Workshops forKey Stage 2Thinking for LearningImagine That …A Handbook of CreativeLearning Activities forthe ClassroomThinking SkillsA teacher’s guideThinking SkillsAges 8-10Ideas to goStart ThinkingDaily starters to inspirethinking in primaryclassroomsThinking SkillsAges 7-9Thinking ThroughPrimary TeachingHow to…Create anddevelop A ThinkingClassroomGlobal CitizenshipHandbook for PrimaryTeachingTeaching Geography inPrimary SchoolsThinking ThroughPhilosophy Books 1-4Ian Harris & OliverCaviglioliUniversity of theFirst AgeMel Rockett &Simon PercivalStephen BowkettMike Jeffries &Trevor Hancock• Developing Literacy Skills through Science KS2Frances Mackay, Penny Vernon, Linda CorkHopscotch Educational Publishing• Developing Literacy Skills through Geography KS2Frances Mackay, Hopscotch Educational Publishing- 63 -NetworkEducationalPress LtdNetwork EducationalPress LtdNetwork EducationalPress LtdNetwork EducationalPress LtdHopscotch EducationalPublishing1-898255-15-61-898-255-09-11-85539-139-21-85539-097-31-85539-096-51-85539-043-41-902239-92-XSharon Shapiro A & C Black 0-7136-6188-7Marcelo Staricoffand Alan ReesImaginative Minds Ltd 1-904806-02-3Georgie Beasley Scholastic 0-439-98340-1Higgins, Baumfieldand LeatChris KingstonPublishing, Cambridge1-899857-39-7Mike Fleetham LDA 1-85503-378-XMary Young withEilish ComminsFran MartinPaul CleghornChris KingstonPublishing and OxfamChris KingstonPublishingEducational PrintingServices Limited1-899857-47-81-8998-857-83-41-90437441-7

WebsitesWEBSITE AND ADDRESSAspiro for Promoting Assessment in teachingand \Learning for the Advancement of PhilosophicalEnquiry and Reflection in Educationwww.sapere.netTeaching Thinking and Creativity Primary School de Bono with Pictures School Website resources, posters and ideas todevelop thinking skillsLinks to useful sites, articles andresources relating to Thinking andLearning and AssessmentOrganisation offering training andresources for teaching P4C Philosophyfor ChildrenRobert Fisher’s website. He is author ofStories for Thinking, Games for ThinkingSite with ideas and resources forteaching thinking skills. Includesresources and classroom ideas for usingDebono’s Thinking Hats, BloomsTaxonomyLinks to other de Bono sites andinformation about his work.Introduction to Thinking with Picturesmind mapping software to buy). Includesa clear introduction to thining skills andthe strategy of mindmapping which canbe read without buyingIdeas and description of how the schoolteaches thinking skills using Philosophyfor Children. Focuses on KS1, but ideastransfer well to KS2Steve Bowkett Creative Thinking Puzzle Company thinking Literacy Trust Fisher’s Website of Author on the home page to ideasfor thinking creatively in literacy,courses and poems and stories forthinkingPuzzle challenge days –ideasOrganisation to support teachers who aredeveloping thinking skills. Gives simplebackground to philosophical thinking,sample lessons and links to resourcesLinks to resources particularly related tothinking skills through literacyBooks, Web Resources, articles relatedto Thinking through Philosophy approachof Robert Fisher- 64 -

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