Lebanon Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment - UNEP

Lebanon Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment - UNEP

Lebanon Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment - UNEP


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<strong>Lebanon</strong><strong>Post</strong>-<strong>Conflict</strong> <strong>Environmental</strong> <strong>Assessment</strong>United Nations Environment Programme

Solid and hazardous waste 98Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 100Preliminary observations ............................................................................................................ 100Existing sanitary landfill sites ..................................................................................................... 105Reasons for failed solid waste management initiatives ................................................................ 106Institutional framework ............................................................................................................. 108Legal framework ........................................................................................................................ 108The need to protect water resources ........................................................................................... 108Water resources 110Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 112Overview of water resources ...................................................................................................... 114<strong>Conflict</strong>-related water pollution sources ..................................................................................... 117Surface water ............................................................................................................................. 122Groundwater ............................................................................................................................. 127Wazzani transboundary question ............................................................................................... 128Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 128Coastal and marine environment 130Focus and method of assessment................................................................................................ 132Coastal geology and background ............................................................................................... 134The oil spill ................................................................................................................................ 134Oil spill response ....................................................................................................................... 136Findings .................................................................................................................................... 138Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 143Weapons 144Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 146Weapons of environmental concern ........................................................................................... 146Findings .................................................................................................................................... 150Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 157Main findings and recommendations 160Institutional recommendations .................................................................................................. 162Sectoral recommendations ......................................................................................................... 162AppendicesAppendix I: List of acronyms, abbreviations and units ........................................................... 170Appendix II: List of references ................................................................................................ 172Appendix III: Bibliography and Internet sources ...................................................................... 175Appendix IV: List of contributors ............................................................................................ 180• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •5

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTForewordThe recent conflict in <strong>Lebanon</strong> and in Israel, whichbegan in July 2006 and lasted for more than a monthled to nearly one million Lebanese – over to a quarterof the total population – fleeing their homes.This massive human displacement and destructionor severe damage of approximately 30, 000 housingunits clearly had a very deep impact on the civilianpopulation.Within hours of the ceasefire on 14 August, largenumbers began returning home—a measure ofthe resilience of the Lebanese people but alsorepresenting a huge challenge for the aid workerstrying to deal with the flood of returnees.Removal of the huge amount of rubble generatedby the conflict represented a further challenge butone that got underway surprisingly quickly and, aspart of the reconstruction work, is on-going.One of the most high profile issues of the conflictwas the bombing of the Jiyeh power plant whichresulted in the spillage of thousands of tones ofoil into the Mediterranean Sea. On 5 August, theMinister of Environment of the <strong>Lebanon</strong> formallyrequested <strong>UNEP</strong> to conduct a post-conflictenvironmental assessment of his country. The scopeof <strong>UNEP</strong>’s assessment work was geographicallylimited to <strong>Lebanon</strong>.The findings are presented in this report. Coastalcommunities have been severely affected by the oilpollution washed onto their shores. During andin the immediate aftermath of the conflict, theinternational community (including governmentsand regional organizations) and the Lebanesegovernment worked tirelessly alongside local civilsociety organizations in a massive effort to containthe oil spill and implement clean-up measuresalong the Lebanese coast.One of the outstanding issues of the clean-up workis the urgent need to dispose of large quantitiesof oil contaminated waste. This is a continuingchallenge for those involved in the clean-up effortsand requires the financial and technical support ofthe international community.The type of oil that leaked from the power plant’stanks was heavy and not very mobile. It thereforesank quickly, thus limiting the amount of oil thatwashed up on beaches. The oil currently on theseabed remains of concern and should be cleanedup to prevent any possibility of re-suspension.However, due to its low mobility petroleumhydrocarbon concentrations found in sedimentoutside of the immediate vicinity of the powerplant were only marginally higher than normaland the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrationsin oysters and fish are as expected for that part ofthe Mediterranean. This does indeed bode wellfor the long-term recovery of livelihoods and theenvironment of the area.In the context of weapons used, <strong>UNEP</strong> examinedspecifically the possible use of munitions containingDepleted Uranium. Thirty-two sites were visitedsouth and north of the Litani river and more thanfifty samples taken for laboratory analysis. Thedust, soil and smear samples were analyzed usingmodern, highly sensitive equipment.6 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

FOREWORDI hope it is a measure of comfort for the localpopulations that no evidence of the use of depletedor natural uranium-containing weapons wasfound. However, the large numbers of clusterbombs, which lie unexploded throughout muchof southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>, do constitute a severeimpediment to post-conflict recovery. With largetracts of agricultural land contaminated withunexploded ordnance, this affects the economicand physical well-being of civilian populations andcontinued international assistance is needed to helpthem address this serious issue.In addition, <strong>UNEP</strong> investigated concerns relatingto land contamination, ground and surfacewater, as well as solid and hazardous waste,including asbestos. Where environmental impactswere found, appropriate recommendations forremediation were made.In times of political turmoil, conflict and humansuffering, the environment can often be overlooked.However, the sustainable management of naturalresources can provide the basis for long-termsustainable livelihoods, development and stability.By conducting this assessment, we hope to raisewarnings where urgent measures are needed,provide practical recommendations to avert futuredamage to the environment and strengthen thecommon resource base essential to the well-beingof all Lebanese people.We sincerely thank the Governments of Germany,Norway and Switzerland, who have funded<strong>UNEP</strong>’s assessment activities. We also thank theJoint <strong>UNEP</strong>/OCHA Environment Unit, whichstarted the monitoring of conflict impacts on theenvironment while the conflict was on-going, andplayed an important role in the coordination ofthe oil spill response.This assessment was able to build on the soundwork of the Joint Unit. In addition, the post-conflictenvironmental assessment would not have beenpossible without the support of our colleagues atUNDP, UNDSS and UNMACC. The Ministryof Environment of <strong>Lebanon</strong> has been an active andopen partner in the assessment process, providinginformation and logistical support wherever required.<strong>UNEP</strong> is already in contact with key donors andthe Ministry of Environment regarding projectsto implement some of the recommendations ofthis assessment. We hope that <strong>UNEP</strong> can remain along-term partner of the Lebanese government andpeople as they continue to reconstruct and restoretheir infrastructural and environmental assets.Achim SteinerUnited Nations Under-Secretary-GeneralExecutive Director of theUnited Nations Environment Programme• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •7

IntroductionFrench navy experts on an oil pollutedbeach in Beirut, 1 September 2006.The bombing of the Jiyeh power planton 13 and 15 July caused an oil spillthat affected approximately150 kilometers of <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s coast.© AP Photo

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTIntroductionThe conflict in <strong>Lebanon</strong> and in Israel, whichbegan on 12 July 2006 and ended on 14 Augustwith a ceasefire under UN Security CouncilResolution 1701, was relatively short – lasting 34days. However, the impact on <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s civilianpopulation was significant, with 1,191 peoplereportedly killed and 4,405 injured. In addition,more than 900,000 Lebanese fled their homes.Severe damage was caused to infrastructure, withwide-spread destruction of arterial roads and morethan 100 bridges or overpasses. Beirut airport andsea ports were bombed, and approximately 30,000housing units were destroyed or badly damaged 1 .<strong>UNEP</strong>’s post-conflict environmental assessment wasconducted within the geographical area of <strong>Lebanon</strong>,which is the focus of this report.The environmental impact of the conflict wasbrought to the fore by the bombing of fuelstorage tanks at the Jiyeh thermal power planton 13 and 15 July 2006, which resulted in some10,000 – 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil spilling intothe sea, affecting approximately 150 km of Lebanesecoastline, as well as part of Syria’s coast. As early asthe day of the ceasefire, the Joint <strong>UNEP</strong>/OCHAEnvironment Unit established a presence in Beirutto assist the coordination of the oil spill responsealong the Lebanese coast. The Joint Unit workedclosely with the Ministry of Environment andinternational actors, such as the European Unionand IUCN, to establish an Oil Spill Operationsand Coordination Centre. The Centre played animportant role in coordinating the large amountof aid that was delivered in the form of equipment,monetary contributions and secondment of staff bythe international community in the aftermath of thespill. The Joint Unit also monitored public sourcesto gather information on environmental impactsaside from the oil spill.With concerns regarding the extent of environmentaldamage caused by the oil spill and potentialcontamination of land, air, water and biota as a resultof the conflict, the Lebanese Minister of Environmentrequested <strong>UNEP</strong> on 5 August 2006 to conduct apost-conflict environmental assessment of <strong>Lebanon</strong>.This activity was included in the Government of<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s National Early Recovery Plan, releasedon 31 August 2006. <strong>UNEP</strong> accordingly sent a teamof twelve international environmental experts to<strong>Lebanon</strong> from 30 September to 21 October to carryout a field assessment. The team included experts inthe areas of solid and hazardous waste management,fresh water resources, land-based contamination,marine and coastal management and militaryPromenade in central Beirut10 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INTRODUCTION<strong>UNEP</strong> expert assessing damaged fuel storage tanks at Jiyeh power plantexpertise. The experts were joined by a national teamof consultants that had been established by UNDPand had conducted important preparatory work,including reconnaissance visits to sites, in the tendays prior to the assessment. The <strong>UNEP</strong> team visitedover 100 sites throughout the country and took closeto 200 samples of soil, surface and groundwater,dust, ash, seawater, sediment and marine animals.Samples were sent twice weekly to laboratories foranalysis. Duplicate samples were made availableto the Ministry of Environment for comparativeanalysis. Fifteen Ministry of Environment staffmembers and volunteers and a scientist from theLebanese Atomic Energy Agency, accompaniedthe assessment team in the field. The Joint Unitremained on standby throughout the assessment toassist in the event that acute environmental impactsrequiring immediate attention were discovered.<strong>UNEP</strong> visited 29 potentially contaminatedindustrial and urban sites, where samples werecollected and field observations made. The findingsand detailed laboratory test results, together withappropriate short-, medium- and long-termrecommendations, are discussed in the chaptertitled ‘Industrial and Urban Contamination’.In addition, broader concerns were investigatedin sectors such as solid and hazardous wastemanagement and fresh water resources. <strong>UNEP</strong>’sfindings regarding these sectors are containedin ‘Solid and Hazardous Waste’ and ‘WaterResources’, respectively. The ‘Coastal and MarineEnvironment’ chapter focuses on the mediumtolong-term environmental impacts of the oilspill at the Jiyeh power plant, while the sectiontitled ‘Weapons’ contains <strong>UNEP</strong>’s findings onthe environmental consequences of weaponsused during the conflict. The main findings andrecommendations of the assessment are provided inthe final chapter. In order to distribute the findingsof this report widely, a comprehensive executivesummary has been produced as a stand-alonepublication in French and Arabic.One of the aims of post-conflict environmentalassessments is to obtain baseline data on theenvironment following a conflict, which couldform the basis for further monitoring workand assist the government in formulatingenvironmental management policies, as well asremediation priorities. The data collected willalso add to the global body of knowledge on theenvironmental impacts of conflict. As part ofthe <strong>Lebanon</strong> assessment, <strong>UNEP</strong> will consolidateall the gathered data into a central informationsystem, which will be handed over to the LebaneseMinistry of Environment.<strong>UNEP</strong> is ready to continue its work with theMinistry of Environment to support the post-conflictreconstruction process in <strong>Lebanon</strong> and establish asustainable path towards environmental recovery.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •11

Country ContextA scene from the southern suburbs ofBeirut, which were heavily bombed.An estimated 30,000 housing unitswere destroyed or badly damaged inthe conflict.

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTCountry contextIntroduction<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s mountainous terrain, proximity to thesea and strategic location were decisive factors inshaping its history. In recent years, the country’svaried geographical features – which include alpineregions, coastal plains and fertile plateaus – itstemperate climate, as well as its archeological andcultural wealth, have combined to attract a rapidlygrowing number of tourists. The impact of theJuly-August 2006 conflict on the country’s naturalresources was therefore of particular concern to theLebanese and international community alike.This chapter presents a brief overview of <strong>Lebanon</strong>’sgeography, climate, land cover, ecology andeconomy. The information is drawn from existingsources and is intended to provide a contextualframework for <strong>UNEP</strong>’s assessment work, ratherthan represent an exhaustive study of <strong>Lebanon</strong>’snatural and economic environment.Geography<strong>Lebanon</strong>, officially the Lebanese Republic, is asmall, largely mountainous country located onthe eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. It isbordered by Syria to the north and east, and byIsrael to the south.A fuel tank burns at Rafik Hariri International Airport in Beirut, 14 July 2006© AP PHOTO – HUSSEIN MALLA14 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

COUNTRY CONTEXTMap 1.<strong>Lebanon</strong> – Regional mapUkraine 34°EMoldovaRomania36°NBulgariaTurkeyRussiaGeorgiaArmenia35°E 36°ETURKEY37°E 38°EAssad36°NGreeceCyprusSyriaIraqIranEgyptIsraelKuwaitSaudi ArabiaCYPRUS34°NBeirutLEBANONDamascusSYRIA33°N33°N35°N35°NS e at e rM e d ir a ne a n34°NISRAELTiberias32°NWESTBANKRamallahJerusalemAmmanJORDAN32°NGAZA STRIPDead SeaNational capitalInternational boundaryKilometres0 30 31°N60 90 35°E120 150Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.37°ELakesSources: GIST, Vmap0, SDATL,ESRI, SRTM.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •15

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTMap 2.<strong>Lebanon</strong> – Country map36°ENahr El KebirS e aPalm IslandsNature ReserveWadi AwikWadi AwikHalbat e rM e d ir a n ea nBatrounAmiounWadi BarsaJbeilRuins of ByblosTripoliZghartaEl MinieHorsh EhdenNature ReserveNORTHLEBANONSir Ed DanniyeOuadi Qadisha andthe Forest of the Cedarsof GodBcharreHermelNahr El AssiNahr ElAssiBAALBEK HERMEL34°NWadi TabarjaJouniePhoenician cityof Baalbek.Baalbek34°NBEIRUTBeirutWadi GhadirJdaideBaabdaMOUNTLEBANONAleyZahlehSaidaBeit ed DineAlchouf Cedars Nature ReserveBEQAAJoub JanineSaghbineJezzineRachaiyaOld city of AnjarDamascusArcheological siteof TyreMarjayounNabatiyehNaher El HasbaniHasbeyaNABATIYEHSYRIATyre BeachReserve33°NWadi Merj HineTyre (Sour)SOUTHLEBANONBint JbeilISRAELKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeightsUNDOFThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.36°ECitiesTransportationRailroadPortAirportHydrographyNational capitalMohafaza centreCaza centrePrimary roadLakes and reservoirsRiversBoundariesMohafaza limitInternational boundaryArmistice lineDisengagement LineGolan Heights(United Nations DisengagementUNDOF Observer Force).Natural and cultural SitesUNESCO World Heritage SiteProtected areasSources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais) ; Golan Heights,UNDOF, Armistice Line, Disengagement Line : Vmap0.33°N16 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

COUNTRY CONTEXT<strong>UNEP</strong> and local experts inspect a damaged glass factory in Zahleh<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s total area is approximately 10,452 km².The physical geography of <strong>Lebanon</strong> is influencedby natural systems that extend outside the country.Thus, the Beqaa Valley is part of the Great Riftsystem, which stretches from southern Turkey toMozambique. Because of its mountainous terrain,<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s physical geography is complex andvaried. Land forms, climate, soil, and vegetationchange markedly within short distances.<strong>Lebanon</strong> can be divided into four distinctphysiographic regions 1 :1. The coastal plain, which runs along theMediterranean shore, is a narrow and discontinuousstrip formed of river-deposited alluvium andmarine sediments which alternate with rockybeaches and sandy bays. Hemmed in betweensea and mountain, the sahil is widest near Tripoli,where it is 6.5 km wide. The shoreline is regular,with no deep estuary, gulf, or natural harbor.Generally quite fertile, the maritime plain isespecially productive of fruits and vegetables.2. The <strong>Lebanon</strong> Mountains form the country’ssecond geographic region. They are the highestand most rugged of the whole maritime rangeof mountains and plateaus that start with theAmanus or Nur Mountains in northern Syria andend with the Sinai. The mountain range, which isapproximately 169 km long, is a clearly definedunit with natural boundaries on all four sides:in the north it is separated from the NusayriyahMountains of Syria by the An Nahr al Kabir River;to the south it is bounded by the Al QasmiyahRiver. Its width varies from about 56.5 km nearTripoli to 9.5 km on the southern end. It risesto alpine heights southeast of Tripoli, where AlQurnat as Sawda reaches 3 088 m. At the southernend, the <strong>Lebanon</strong> Mountains give way to the hillsof Galilee, which are lower. Although the limestonecomposition of the mountains provides relativelypoor topsoil, the lower and middle slopes areintensely cultivated.3. The Beqaa Valley – a central highland separatingthe <strong>Lebanon</strong> and the Anti-<strong>Lebanon</strong> mountainranges – is about 177 km in length and 9.6 to16 km wide, with an average elevation of 762 m.Geologically, the Beqaa is the medial part of adepression that extends north to the western bendof the Orontes River in Syria and south to Jordanthrough Al Arabah to Al Aqabah, the eastern armof the Red Sea. The Beqaa, whose soil is fertile dueto alluvial deposits from mountains on either side,is the country’s chief agricultural area.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •17

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTThe Wazzani springs are the main source of water for the Hasbani River during the dry summer season4. The Anti-<strong>Lebanon</strong> Mountains, the easternrange that forms the border with Syria, arealmost equal in length and height to the <strong>Lebanon</strong>Mountains. This fourth geographical region fallsswiftly from Mount Hermon to the HawranPlateau and continues through Jordan southto the Dead Sea. The Barada Gorge divides therange. The Anti-<strong>Lebanon</strong> are more arid, especiallyin their northern parts, than the <strong>Lebanon</strong>Mountains, and are consequently less productiveand more thinly populated.Finally, South <strong>Lebanon</strong> comprises an elevatedplateau that extends a short distance inland fromthe shore of the Mediterranean to the MountHermon foothills in the east.Water resourcesAlthough the country is well watered by manyrivers and streams, there are no navigable rivers,nor is any one river the sole source of irrigationwater. Most rivers in <strong>Lebanon</strong> have their origin insprings, which are often quite large. These springsemerge from the permeable limestone stratacropping out at the 915- to 1,524-metre level inthe <strong>Lebanon</strong> Mountains. Other springs emergefrom alluvial soil and join to form streams whichserve as tributaries to the principal rivers.The Beqaa Valley is watered by two rivers that risein the watershed near Baalbek: the Orontes, whichflows north, and the Litani, which flows southinto the hill region of the southern Beqaa Valley,where it turns to the west and is thereafter calledthe Al Qasmiyah River. The Orontes continues toflow north into Syria and eventually reaches theMediterranean in Turkey. For much of its course,its waters flow through a channel considerablylower than ground surface.The only permanent lake is Buhayrat al Qirawn,about 10 km east of Jezzine. There is one seasonallake, fed by springs, on the eastern slopes of the<strong>Lebanon</strong> Mountains near Yammunah, about 40km southeast of Tripoli.Climate<strong>Lebanon</strong> falls in the Mediterranean climaticregion, which is characterized by a hot, drysummer and a cool, rainy winter; the spring and18 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

COUNTRY CONTEXTautumn seasons are short. Topographical variation,however, causes local modifications of the basic climaticpattern, resulting in a number of micro-climateswithin the country, with contrasting temperatures andrainfall distribution. Conditions vary from a typicalMediterranean climate along the coastal plain and in the<strong>Lebanon</strong> mountain range to a sub-alpine or mountainMediterranean climate on the highest peaks, which arecovered in snow for most of the year. In some of thenorthern plains, the climate is sub-desert incharacter.Along the coast, summers are hot and humid, withlittle or no rain. The daily range of temperature isgenerally not wide, although temperatures may attimes reach above 38°C in the daytime and below16°C at night. Winter is the rainy season, withmajor precipitation occuring from November toApril. The amount of annual rainfall on the coastvaries from year to year, from 600 to 900 mm.In the <strong>Lebanon</strong> Mountains, the gradual increasein altitude produces colder winters with moreprecipitation and snow. In summer, the dailyrange of temperatures is wider and humidity islower than on the coast.The Beqaa Valley, which is shielded from theinfluence of the sea by the <strong>Lebanon</strong> Mountains, hasa wider variation in daily and yearly temperatures,considerably less precipitation and lower humidity.Rainfall ranges from 800 mm in the south to250 mm in the northeast, where it causes theclimate to turn nearly dry.Despite their remoteness from maritime influences, theAnti-<strong>Lebanon</strong> Mountains receive more precipitationthan the Beqaa Valley because of their altitude. Likethose of the <strong>Lebanon</strong> range, the peaks of the Anti-<strong>Lebanon</strong> are covered in snow for most of the year.Land cover and ecologyThe biological wealth of <strong>Lebanon</strong> is intricately linkedto its diverse topography. The country’s differentgeomorphological regions give rise to at least 22 bioclimaticzones 2 and several types of habitats, includingseveral distinct semi-natural habitats that have evolvedand adapted to human activities and pressures.In the last decade special attention has been paidto protecting endangered plant and animal speciesand conserving their habitats in specific parts of thecountry. In addition to eight nature reserves 3 , thereare numerous legally protected areas in <strong>Lebanon</strong>,as well as hundreds of cultural and natural heritagesites, UNESCO world heritage sites, and areasprotected through private initiatives.Harbour of the archeologically important town of Byblos• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •19

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTMap 3.Land use in <strong>Lebanon</strong>36°ENahr El K ebirNahr El KebirWadi AwikNahr El KebirWadi AwikNa her OstoueneHalbar a n ea nS e aBatrounAmiounWadi AsfourNaher Al JaouzTripoliWadi BarsaWadi BarsaAliNaher AbouEl MinieZghartaNaher Abou AliNa h er Ab o u AliN a her El BaredSir Ed DanniyeBcharreHermelNahr El AssiNah r El AssiNahr El Assi34°Nt e rM e d iJounieWadi AnteliasWadi BacchtaWadW adi MadWadi MouhnaneWadi GhazirWadi Fid ari JouniehfounWadi MouhnaneJbeilNaherNaher ElKelbIbrahi mtaniNaher El LiBaalbekNa hr El As si34°NBeirutWadi GhadirJdaideBaabdaAleyNaher BeirutZahlehNaher El LitaniBeit ed DineWadi IklimEl KharroubJoub JanineSaghbineWadiEl MansiyyeSaidaNaher SainikJezzineRachaiyaDamascusWadi South Said aN aher Zahra niNaher El LitaniNaher AbouAssouadHasbeyaNabatiyeh MarjayounNaher El HasbaniWadi AbuZebleTyre (Sour)Land useWetlandsWadi Merj HineWadi AlIzziyeBint JbeilUNDOFWoodlandsWater bodiesGrasslands33°NGolanHeightsUnproductive areasAgricultural areasArtificial areas33°NKilometres Sources : Admin (GIST, Vmap0 for Southern Border) ;Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers, Cities,0 10 20 30 40 50Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use 1998 (SDATL:Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionSchéma Directeur de l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.20 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

COUNTRY CONTEXTVegetationRelative to its size, <strong>Lebanon</strong> has one of the highestdensities of floral diversity in the Mediterraneanbasin 4 and boasts a high percentage of endemicplant species. Vegetation types range fromsubtropical and desert to alpine. Olive trees, figtrees and grapevines are abundant on lower ground,while cedar, maple, juniper, fir, cypress, oak, andpine trees are found at higher altitudes.There is evidence that <strong>Lebanon</strong> was heavily forestedin ancient and medieval times, but most naturalvegetation has been grazed, burnt or cut, and littlehas regenerated. At present, forests and woodlandscover only approximately 13 per cent of the overallarea of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (4.89 per cent dense woodlandsand 8.43 per cent clear woodlands) 5 . Excessivefelling, over-grazing, urban development, fires, andpests currently threaten Lebanese forests 6 . In 2001,the Ministry of Environment initiated a NationalReforestation Plan aimed at restoring the country’sgreen cover to a target of 20 per cent 7 .Fauna<strong>Lebanon</strong> is host to nearly 4,500 known fauna species,of which insects make up 27 per cent 8 . AlthoughStone pinesexcessive hunting has killed off most wild mammals,jackals are still found in the wilder rural regions, andgazelles and rabbits are numerous in the south. Manyvarieties of rodents, including mice and gerbils, andmany types of reptiles, such as lizards and snakes,may be found. Approximately one third of existingmammals are rare, and another 39 per cent arevulnerable species. The wolf, wildcat, mongoose andsquirrel are close to extinction 9 . Deforestation, urbanencroachment, new roads, drainage of wetlands,bio-accumulation of agro-chemical residues, andhunting are the major sources of pressure on themammalian fauna of <strong>Lebanon</strong> 10 .In addition, at least 372 species of birds havebeen recorded on Lebanese territory 11 : thrushes,nightingales, and other songbirds are native to<strong>Lebanon</strong>, but partridges, pigeons, vultures, andeagles, for example, can also be found. A numberof bird species are endangered and the overallpopulation is declining, due to the excessive andinappropriate use of pesticides, the disappearance ofnatural biotopes, urban expansion, and hunting 12 .Finally, over 200 marine fish species from 140 generahave been identified, and an additional 25 species areconfirmed to exist in Lebanese freshwater systems 13 .However, the generaldeterioration of the coast– due to the combinedeffects of concentratedresidential, industrial, andtourism development,infrastructure andactivities – is exertingincreasing pressure onmarine habitats andcoastal ecosystems.Indeed, <strong>Lebanon</strong>’spopulation and economicactivity are concentratedin the coastal zone,which extends overapproximately 162,000ha of coastal plains andmountains (16 per centof <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s surfacearea), is inhabited by anestimated 2.5 millionpeople, and contributesover 70 per cent of<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s GDP 14 .• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •21

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTSoilLebanese soil, which is typically Mediterraneanin character, varies widely in quality and productivity.Because <strong>Lebanon</strong> is predominantlymountainous, its soil is generally very shallow,fragile and prone to erosion. Even in the Beqaaplain, it is rarely more than a few metres deep.The region’s lithology has contributed to thediversification of soil resources, most of which isbase-saturated calcareous soil, except for the sandysoil formed on the basal cretaceous strata. The mostwidely represented types of soil are the Terra-Rossa(red Meditarranean soil) and Rendzinas, whichrepresent about 70 per cent of Lebanese soil 15 .EconomyThe Lebanese economy is chiefly based on theservices sector. Tourism, trade and bankingconstitute the principal sources of both incomeand foreign earnings, with smaller contributionscoming from the industrial and agricultural sectors.While its competitive and free market regime havelong made the country a banking and trading hubamong Arab countries, its pleasant climate andmany historic landmarks have continually attractedlarge numbers of tourists. Tourism is particularlyimportant, as many other areas of the economyalso depend on it, including the construction andreal estate sectors. The services sector employs themajority of the Lebanese workforce and contributesover 70 per cent of the annual gross domesticproduct 16 .The industrial sector ranks second in both workforceand GDP contribution, with 12,03 per cent of<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s GDP in 2000 17 . Most industries in<strong>Lebanon</strong> are light manufacturing plants (more than90 per cent employ less than ten people). Whilethere are 23 industrial branches in <strong>Lebanon</strong> (notincluding water, power and construction activities),the vast majority belong to the following eight 18 :food and beverages, fabricated metal products,non-metallic mineral products, furniture, clothing,wood products, leather products, and textiles. In2005, <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s principal exports were machinery,jewellery, metals, foodstuffs and chemicals.Street vendor in South Beirut22 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

COUNTRY CONTEXTEveryday life in the heavily bombed southern suburbs of Beirut<strong>Lebanon</strong> produces crops in five major categories:cereals, fruit, olives, industrial crops (suchas tobacco and sugar beets) and vegetables.Agricultural production is concentrated in theBeqaa plain, which accounts for 42 per cent ofthe total cultivated land 19 . Livestock productionis also an important activity, particularly in themountains and in the Baalbeck-Hermel area onthe eastern mountain chain, where soil fertility isrelatively low 20 .The 1975-1990 civil war seriously damaged<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s economic infrastructure, but theeconomy witnessed its strongest period ofsustained growth since 1995 in the first half of2006, before the July – August war. Based largelyon the tourism sector, the growth was reversedby the conflict, which damaged infrastructureand trade.A number of international donors agreed to provideaid and assist reconstruction in the wake of the July-August conflict. During the conflict itself, SaudiArabia and Kuwait pledged funds for humanitarianassistance and reconstruction and offered the Banquedu Liban (the central bank) low-interest loans to shoreup the currency. Significant aid continued to arrivefrom other Arab countries in the months after thewar, covering a large portion of total reconstructioncosts 21 . On 31 August 2006, a donor conference heldin Stockholm and attended by ministers from over 60countries, as well as UN, World Bank, InternationalMonetary Fund and Red Cross officials, raised USD940 million for the reconstruction of <strong>Lebanon</strong>.Major contributors at the conference included Qatar,the United States, the Arab Fund for Economic andSocial Development, Saudi Arabia, the EuropeanCommission, the United Arab Emirates, the UnitedKingdom, Italy, Spain and Sweden 22 .• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •23

<strong>Environmental</strong><strong>Assessment</strong><strong>UNEP</strong> expert collecting a soil samplein South Beirut. A number of sites visitedrequire treatment and appropriate disposalof hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT<strong>Environmental</strong>assessment<strong>Post</strong>-conflict environmental assessments seek toprovide an objective scientific assessment of theenvironmental situation in a country immediatelyfollowing a conflict. They aim to inform thegeneral public on environmental risks associatedwith the conflict, and to provide guidance to localgovernment on priority issues to be addressed.They also help the international community tochannel funding and technical assistance to thekey areas of environmental management.Objectives and scope<strong>UNEP</strong>’s post-conflict environmental assessmentin <strong>Lebanon</strong> had three main objectives:1) To obtain baseline data on the environmentin <strong>Lebanon</strong> after the conflict;2) To identify issues of concern constituting athreat to public health and requiring urgentremediation measures, for which the JointUnit remained on standby; and3) To identify other issues of concern that, whilenot requiring urgent remediation, should betaken into consideration during the postconflictreconstruction process, and to developrecommendations for addressing those issuesin a sustainable way.The geographical scope of the assessment wasrestricted to <strong>Lebanon</strong>, though the impacts ofthe conflict may reach beyond its borders. Thescientific areas covered by the <strong>UNEP</strong> teamincluded: surface and groundwater; solid and hazardous waste (including asbestos); contamination of land; marine and coastal contamination; and issues relating to weapons used.<strong>UNEP</strong> team in discussion with site manager of the Maliban glass factory, Zahleh26 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTMap 4.Sites visited during the <strong>UNEP</strong> assessment36°EBeirutJdaideHalbaBaabdaWadi GhadirEl MinieTripoli NORTH LEBANONZghartaSir Ed DanniyeHermelAleyAmiounS e aBatrounBcharre34°NM e d i te r r an e a nBeirutJbeilJounieMOUNT LEBANONJdaideBAALBEK HERMELBaalbek34°NBaabdaAleyZahlehBeit ed DineBEQAAJoub JanineSaghbineSaidaSOUTHJezzineLEBANONRachaiyaDamascusNabatiyeh MarjayounHasbeyaTyre (Sour)NABATIYEHBint JbeilUNDOF33°NKilometers0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeightsSites visited by <strong>UNEP</strong> between 30/09/06 and 21/10/06Main teamMarine teamWeapons team33°NSources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •27

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTDuring the conflict, <strong>UNEP</strong>’s <strong>Post</strong>-<strong>Conflict</strong> Branchtracked the course of hostilities and evaluated thesignificance of various events from an environmentalpoint of view. These activities and an inventorycompiled in collaboration with the Joint Unitwere at the basis of defining the broad scope of theassessment and identifying potential areas of interest.A preliminary list of sites of possible environmentalconcern was compiled based on government reports,press articles and anecdotal information. The list wasthen narrowed down through reconnaissance visitsconducted by Elard s.a.r.l., a local environmentalconsulting firm involved in a post-conflict rapidenvironmental assessment project with UNDPand the Lebanese Ministry of Environment sinceSeptember 2006. In the ten days preceding the<strong>UNEP</strong> mission, Elard visited 75 sites, comprisingthose identified by <strong>UNEP</strong> and additional sitesthe consultants recommended based on localinformation. On the basis of these visual inspectionsand background knowledge, an initial screening wasperformed and the sites were categorized accordingto the following criteria: the degree of visible site contamination; industrial activities conducted at the site; the environmental sensitivity of the area; and the extent of clean-up measures taken.Of the 75 locations that were visited, 16 wereclassified as high priority due to heavy damagesustained during the conflict, while 42 were partiallydamaged, and the remaining 17 had no apparentconflict-related damage. This initial classificationallowed the <strong>UNEP</strong> team to focus the fieldcomponent of its work on sites that were damagedin the 2006 conflict. Additional information wasobtained from local sources during the fieldworkand other site visits were scheduled as necessary.FieldworkFor logistical reasons, the 12 environmentalexperts on the <strong>UNEP</strong> mission were divided intothree teams:1) The main team was constituted of experts inthe areas of waste management, freshwaterresources and land-based contamination;2) The weapons team, which provided militaryexpertise, initially accompanied the main team,but subsequently conducted separate field visits,focusing on areas south of the Litani River; and3) The marine and coastal team consisted ofmarine biologists and coastal environmentexperts, who visited 27 sites along the coastbetween Tyre and Tripoli.The teams were based in Beirut and traveledfrom the capital to sites across <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Thisarrangement allowed the collected water andsoil samples to be kept cool or frozen, and to beshipped twice weekly to laboratories in Europe.In addition, the Lebanese Ministry of Environmentnominated 15 of its staff members and volunteers(environmental science students from local academicinstitutions) to accompany the assessment team,while a scientist from the Lebanese Atomic EnergyCommission accompanied the weapons team.Ministry staff members and volunteers, who werewith the different <strong>UNEP</strong> sub-teams throughout thefield phase, observed the work of the internationalexperts. They assisted the team by ensuring accessto sites – including arranging for permission to begranted to visit restricted areas – and facilitatedcontact with local municipalities.All samples were taken in duplicate; one set wassent for laboratory analysis by <strong>UNEP</strong> and anotherwas made available to the Lebanese Ministry ofEnvironment for its own comparative analysis.In total, the different assessment teams visited morethan one hundred sites throughout <strong>Lebanon</strong>.Remote sensing analysisTo prepare and assist the teams in the field, it wasnecessary to obtain as much information as possibleon sites of interest prior to the mission, regarding: the location of impacted areas (e.g. industrialsites, water networks, nature reserves, forests,cultivated land and residential areas); and the damage to infrastructure (e.g. roads,bridges, airports and ports).On the basis of this preliminary information, aset of maps was drawn to help experts navigateefficiently and safely between sites in <strong>Lebanon</strong>, aswell as within the sites themselves. The process isdescribed in detail below.28 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT the European Union (e.g. the European UnionSatellite Centre and Joint Research Centre); and various media sources.<strong>UNEP</strong> used remote sensing analysis to assistwith identification of pollution hot-spotsStage 1:Satellite data collectionAn overview of the most severely damaged areasin <strong>Lebanon</strong> was obtained from a range of publicsources, including: the UN community (e.g. ReliefWeb, OCHA,HIC, and <strong>UNEP</strong>); the US Department of Homeland Security;Based on this information, very high resolutionimages of the most severely impacted areas wereacquired. The information was cross-checkedand a list of priority areas was defined, for whichpre- and post-conflict images were procured.The pre-conflict images were taken as close aspossible to the start of the conflict, while postconflictimages were taken as close as possibleto the ceasefire on 14 August 2006. Pre-conflictimagery was not, however, available for allimpacted areas.The following satellite coverage was obtained: 1,500 km² were covered by pre- and postconflictvery high resolution Ikonos andQuickBird images (from 1 m to 60 cmresolution); and 3,600 km² (the whole southern region) werecovered by a 10 m SPOT 5 color image.Table 1.Satellite imagery used in the assessmentPre-conflict image<strong>Post</strong>-conflict imageAreaArea name(km 2 )AcquisitionAcquisitionSatellite ResolutionSatellite ResolutiondatedateLiban Lait 25 Ikonos 1 m 11/06/05 Ikonos 1 m 07/08/06Nabatiyeh 125 Ikonos 1 m 17/06/05 Ikonos 1 m 10/09/06El Biyada 130 Ikonos 1 m 20/07/05 Ikonos 1 m 13/09/06Bint Jbeil 240 Ikonos 1 m 17/06/05 Ikonos 1 m 10/09/06Tyre 192 Ikonos 1 m 09/07/05 Ikonos 1 m 14/08/06Baalbek 120 Ikonos 1 m 28/07/05 Ikonos 1 m 10/09/06Beirut 120 Ikonos 1 m 17/06/05 Ikonos 1 m 19/08/06Riyaq 136 Ikonos 1 m 09/07/05 QuickBird 60 cm 06/08/06Marjayoun 140 Ikonos 1 m 17/06/05 Ikonos 1 m 10/09/06Wazzani 48 Ikonos 1 m 17/06/05 Ikonos 1 m 30/08/06Saida 105 Ikonos 1 m 17/06/05 QuickBird 60 cm 09/08/06South<strong>Lebanon</strong>3600 SPOT5 10 m 05/08/06 SPOT 5 10 m 30/08/06• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •29

Wadi TabarjaLEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTMap 5.Coverage of satellite images used36°ENahr El KebirWadi AwikWadi AwikHalbaM e d i te r r an e a nS e aBatrounJbeilEl MinieTripoli NORTH LEBANONWadi BarsaWadi BarsaAmiounZghartaSir Ed DanniyeNaher Abou AliHermelBcharreBAALBEK HERMELNahr El AssiNahr ElAssi34°NWadi AnteliasJounieMOUNT LEBANONBaalbek34°NBeirutWadi GhadirJdaideBaabdaAleyZahlehBeit ed DineBEQAAJoub JanineSaghbineSaidaSOUTHJezzineLEBANONRachaiyaDamascusHasbeyaNabatiyeh MarjayounNaher ElHasbaniTyre (Sour)NABATIYEHWadi Merj HineBint JbeilUNDOF33°NKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeightsPre/post-conflict imagesVery high resolutionSpot 10 m resolutionSources : Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).33°NThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.30 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTStage 2:Damage assessmentThe very high resolution satellite images wereinterpreted in partnership with UNOSAT todetect the damage caused by the conflict anddetermine the nature of damaged sites, accordingto the steps detailed below:i) Using a 500 x 500 m grid and comparing postconflictto pre-conflict images, photo interpretersscanned images for impacted zones (as indicated,for example, by dispersed debris);ii) Interpreters then zoomed in on identifiedimpact zones and compared post-conflict imageswith pre-conflict ones in order to: determine which buildings and building typeswere heavily affected by bombing; determine the exact points of impact; estimate the extent of damage; and note corresponding attributes andcoordinates;iii) A 100 m blast radius was drawn around allidentified bombing sites. All buildings in this blastzone were assumed to be potentially damaged;iv) A post-conflict building count, based on preconflictimagery, was performed with respect tothe blast zone.The photo interpretation approach followed wasconservative, avoiding over-estimation of damage.Later field surveys of bombed sites confirmed avery high correlation with image interpretationresults.The satellite image analysis identified 2,624damaged sites, which it was possible to divideinto 11 classes:1) airport runways;2) agricultural buildings (e.g. greenhouses andstorage facilities);3) bridges;4) buildings – generic (residential, business orindustrial buildings that could not be classifiedfurther with the available satellite imagery);5) fields – cultivated;6) fields – uncultivated;7) industrial buildings;8) irrigation systems;9) residential buildings;10)roads; and11)towers.Table 2 below sets out the number of damagedsites per class and per region:Table 2. Damage assessment based on satellite imageryClassRegion1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 TotalNabatiyeh 3 121 39 9 1 33 206El Biyada 2 125 22 5 154Bint Jbeil 802 41 37 2 81 963Tyre 10 11 119 113 55 3 2 16 212 541Baalbek 69 3 3 21 2 98Beirut 16 2 247 23 6 294Rayak 4 5 4 3 16Marjayoun 3 190 8 6 45 252Wazzani 64 3 1 4 72Saida 14 4 2 8 28TOTAL 20 10 40 1,745 229 121 37 2 16 402 2 2,624• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •31

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTSITE NAMEKiam Primary SchoolSITE NUMBER : 9035°36'58"EAcquisition Date: 17/06/05Acquisition Date: 10/09/067434003691200369120033°19'59"N33°19'59"NKiam Primary School743400PCOB Field Mission In <strong>Lebanon</strong>These maps are dedicated to the <strong>UNEP</strong> <strong>Post</strong><strong>Conflict</strong> Branch <strong>Environmental</strong> assessment missionin <strong>Lebanon</strong>.Damages were detected by comparing satellite imagesacquired before and after the conflict.Sites were either chosen on the basis of changedetection analysis, after rapid field assessment anddifferent relevant sources (EURSC, US-DOS, HIC,…).Unosat procured satellite images and performeddamaged sites detection.<strong>UNEP</strong> created final maps.19Meters0 20 40 60 80 10014 62 72<strong>Environmental</strong> Targets Damages detected onUse this space for comments. (indicate sample locations and any comments you should have using dots and arrows).16Damaged <strong>Environmental</strong> TargetIndustrial Buildings93<strong>Environmental</strong> Target that5992 91was intact when satellite imageAgricultural Buildingswas acquired.Residential Buildings90Detected Burnt scars61Unknown BuildingPlanned <strong>Assessment</strong> SitesBridgeBased on Field Rapid <strong>Assessment</strong>and satellite image analysis.Road6058<strong>Environmental</strong> Target: everyFieldelement that could have anWaterimpact on environment if15damaged or destroyed. A 50 m buffer has been drawnaround each impact with the same coloras the damaged sites legend.209489Satellite ImageIkonos (1m).Projection UTM 36 N.Datum WGS 84.Coordinate Systems :In Blue: coordinates expressed in meters, to be usedwith GPS readings (set-up GPS to Meters Coordinates).In Grey: coordinates expressed in DMS (DegreesMinutes Seconds).Layers Sources : GIST, SDATL (Schéma Directeurd’Aménagement du Territoire Libanais), NGA, IUCN,Unesco.35°36'58"EExample of a field map used by the <strong>UNEP</strong>assessment teamStage 3:MappingBased on the above damage evaluation, a set ofmaps was created to assist the field team. Veryprecise location maps were produced for each ofthe planned assessment sites, showing each sitebefore and after conflict.While in the field, the assessment team requestedadditional maps, which were produced in Genevaand rapidly transmitted to Beirut. In total, more than50 field maps were drawn and used to prepare sitevisits, navigate within the sites, gather informationon the ground, plot sample locations, and reportmain field observations to <strong>UNEP</strong> in Geneva.<strong>Assessment</strong> parameters andactivitiesSoil/land contaminationSoil contamination occurs when hazardous ortoxic substances are spilt, dispersed or leakedand can cause harm to humans through directsoil contact or digestion through plants, animalsor groundwater. Potential soil contaminationis evaluated according to the mass and natureof the material that has been spilled. Lists ofhazardous substances and concentrations in soilare in use in many countries 1 . These are derivedfrom scientific evidence regarding health risksemanating from toxic substances, and considerunderground conditions, land use and the depthof the groundwater table. Although such listscan assist scientists, all factors and circumstancesare systematically taken into account in theassessment of potential contamination beforespecific remediation actions are recommended.Contaminated land can lead to surface and/orgroundwater contamination and can have abearing on waste management. Not only does mostcontamination result from waste mismanagement,but its remediation can also generate waste. Thenecessity, extent, most appropriate type and cost ofremedial action can only be determined after thehorizontal and vertical distribution of hazardousmaterials, the history of a site, underground32 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTstructures and groundwater movements areknown. Accordingly, a combination of thefollowing methods was used to assess potentiallycontaminated sites in <strong>Lebanon</strong>: consideration of land use history; visual and sensory inspection; sampling; consideration of geology and hydrology; consideration of soil quality and composition; and consideration of groundwater use.Surface and groundwaterFieldwork comprised site-specific singleinvestigations to examine whether the conflicthad affected water resources, particularly interms of water quality. The objective was toprovide a snapshot of post-conflict contaminantconcentrations (biological, chemical, and physical)and to compare it with national and internationalguidelines. As it was not possible to collect samplesbefore the conflict, other sites were sampled forcomparison (e.g. upstream of targeted sites).The standard approach for the freshwaterassessment was based on the following steps:<strong>UNEP</strong> expert supervises collection of watersample at Bint Jbeil in South <strong>Lebanon</strong> consultations with the site manager on sitehistory, operations and damage sustainedduring the conflict; reconnaissance ground survey, aided by satellitemaps, to define the spatial boundary of the site,characteristics of the surface and groundwatersystem (drainage pattern, relief, groundwaterlevel, soil, geology); identification and location of potential contaminantsources; determination of potential pathways fromcontaminant source areas to water receptors; assessment of seasonal variability (precipitation,flooding, etc.) and how it may affect contaminantmobilization and distribution; and collection of multiple samples, includinggroundwater, surface water, wastewater andpiped water, as appropriate and feasible.Photographs and field notes describing samplinglocations were taken for cross-referencing.The measurement of temperature, electric conductivity,pH, dissolved oxygen and oxygen reduction potentialwas carried out in the field. Laboratory analysisparameters included heavy metals, inorganic minerals,nutrients, VOCs, SVOCs, EPH, PRO and PAH. Nobiological sampling was carried out, but qualitativefield observations of aquatic life were noted.The WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Qualityare internationally used – including in <strong>Lebanon</strong> – asa key reference standard in measuring the safety ofdrinking water. In this assessment, WHO’s Guidelineswere applied only where the water source in questionwas intended for drinking and/or domestic purposes.Specifically, the standards set by WHO were usedin assessing the risk to consumers from microbialand pathogenic contamination. For the chemicalstandards, it should be noted that WHO’s guidelinesare applicable for daily consumption of drinkingwater over a lifetime. This means that exceedingpermissible levels over a short period of time maynot necessarily result in adverse health effects. Finally,snapshot sampling as conducted in the present studydoes not necessarily signify that the water is safe todrink. Water quality needs to be monitored on acontinuous basis. Lebanese standards for drinkingwater and wastewater were used for cross-referencingpurposes in appropriate cases.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •33

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTDutch ValuesThe standards according to which soil and water samples are evaluated are amatter of international debate between experts and authorities. There are severallists worldwide for Verification Values, Precaution Values, Action Values andIntervention Values.For its environmental assessment in <strong>Lebanon</strong>, <strong>UNEP</strong> used the Dutch InterventionValues and <strong>Environmental</strong> Screening or Target Values, for the following reasons:1) Dutch standards have been used around the world for more than two decades;there is hence substantial knowledge of their application within the internationalscientific community;2) Dutch standards are comprehensive in terms of the number and range ofparameters for which standards have been set; and3) Whenever soil or groundwater assessments lead to a need for intervention,Dutch Values can further provide target values for clean-up activities.In the context of water quality, Dutch <strong>Environmental</strong> Screening or Target Valuesindicate concentrations above which there may potentially be adverse risks toaquatic life in the long term. They also suggest values that would need to be achievedto rehabilitate water quality to the natural range; although this should be examinedon a case-by-case basis, to control for natural metal background levels.It should be noted, however, that it is not sufficient simply to compare numbersbased on Dutch Values to decide on remediation measures. Rather, the need forremedial action should be considered in the local context, taking into accountfactors such as land use. For example, an elevated PAH soil concentration thatwould not cause any concern within an industrial location would most certainlyrequire remediation if found within a children’s playground or a vegetable patch.Further, the Dutch list and others – such as the German Soil Protection Act’slists – are designed to evaluate local soil under local conditions. Given thatDutch or German soil is different from Lebanese soil, its comparison to DutchValues must be viewed as a guideline only.The Dutch Values used in the assessment can be accessed at:http://lebanonreport.unep.ch34 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTSolid and hazardous wasteHazardous waste, whose properties render itharmful to human health and/or the environment,may exhibit one or more of the followingcharacteristics: ignitability; corrosiveness; reactivity (explosiveness); and toxicity.The Basel Convention 2 defines hazardous waste asany waste or material that poses a threat to humanhealth and/or the environment. This typicallycovers chemicals and oil by-products that haveno useful purpose and that pose a threat whenimproperly disposed of.The types of hazardous waste that could be expectedas a result of the conflict in <strong>Lebanon</strong> includedhydrocarbons and industrial chemicals (due to thetargeting of industrial plants and equipment), wastefrom oil spill clean-up operations, asbestos fibres(from the demolition of buildings), hazardoushealthcare waste (as a result of deaths and injuriesfrom the conflict), agrochemicals and wastewater.To evaluate the impact of the 2006 conflictwith regard to waste issues, the assessment teamundertook a variety of activities, including: Visiting existing waste disposal facilities; Visiting targeted areas that could provide anindication of the types of waste materials to bedisposed of post-conflict (e.g. housing areas,schools, hospitals, industrial and commerciallocations); and Reviewing relevant documentation, bothdomestic and international, to compilebackground information on the solid wastemanagement sector in <strong>Lebanon</strong> 3 .The assessment of risks linked to asbestos wascarried out in accordance with standard UKpractice and legislation: Walk-round surveys were undertaken at eachsite and supplemented with local knowledgeregarding potential areas of concern andsuitable sampling locations; Samples were collected for analysis frommaterials suspected to contain asbestos. Wherereasonable, materials visually similar to asbestoswere presumed to have the same asbestoscontent as the sampled materials. Where theappearance of materials was consistent withknown non-asbestos containing materials (e.g.man-made mineral fibres and fibreglass-basedmaterials), these were presumed to be nonasbestosin nature; and Photographic records of building materialswere taken at each site.Marine and coastal contaminationThe marine and coastal assessment was carriedout from small boats, using scuba-diving gear,cameras, and oceanographic sampling equipment.A general underwater survey was conducted atmost sites. Where the location was too deep fordiving, water samples only were taken. Landbasedsources of marine and coastal degradationwere also inspected.Three types of underwater sampling wereperformed:<strong>UNEP</strong> expert extracting groundwater sample atJiyeh power plant using a portable bailer Surface sediment (0-2 cm) was collected fromthe sea floor at depths ranging from 2 to 25 m,in 200 ml glass containers. Care was taken not• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •35

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTOn-site measurements of radioactivity at a military base on the outskirts of Beirutto disturb the fine surface flock while takingthe samples. Approximately 100 g of sedimentwere taken per site. While in the field, thesamples were stored on ice in an icebox. Atthe end of each day, the samples were frozenat a temperature of minus 20°C; Oysters (Spondulis spp.) were found andcollected at 22 of the 27 visited sites. Thesamples were stored in an icebox during theday and frozen each evening. Each sampleconsisted of a pooled sample of the soft tissueof four to eight oysters; and Three litre water samples were collected ata depth of 10 metres, either with a Ruttnerwater collector or by diving. Samples weretaken at 12 of the 27 visited sites. The watersamples were stored cool and sent to theAmerican University of Beirut for analysis.In addition, free-floating oil, ash and liquid oilsamples were taken where appropriate, includingat the Jiyeh power plant.The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons(PHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) in bivalves and fish were analysed using gaschromatography. After extraction, samples wereinjected into a HP5890II gas chromatograph witha 30 m, 5 per cent phenyl methyl silicone columnwith a flame ionization detector. Temperatureswere programmed between 50 and 320 °C. Thequantification was calculated according to theEU-ISO 9377-2 standard. After changing thesolvent to methanol, the extract was injectedinto a high pressure liquid chromatograph todetermine PAH concentrations.Petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed accordingto “Determination of EPH” from MassachusettsEP, 1998. PAH levels were determined using amodified method based on the US EPA 8100,which determines PAH concentration using gaschromatography and mass spectrometry.Samples of oil from the site of the fire at theJiyeh power plant were analysed using a gaschromatograph with flame ionization to determinethe distribution of different hydrocarbons(fingerprinting).Water samples were injected into a gaschromatograph with a flame ionization detectorafter extraction using pentane/hexane accordingto the SS-EN ISO 9377-2 standard.36 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTWeapons usedSites were observed visually to assess the type ofammunition used. At a number of sites, weaponparts were found and identified. In addition,discussions were held with the United NationsMine Action Coordination Centre (UNMACC)(South <strong>Lebanon</strong>) and UN Explosive OrdnanceDestruction (EOD) experts, as well as, in somecases, with Lebanese Army EOD experts. Todevelop a comprehensive overview of the types ofammunition used during the conflict, the <strong>UNEP</strong>weapons team visited two EOD camps where thewide range of ammunition remnants found wasdisplayed.Smear sampling was performed according tointernational standards. Areas of no less than20 x 20 cm, usually 40 x 40 cm, were dry smearedon low uranium content smear papers, markedand double-packed for transportation and toavoid cross-contamination. Smear locations werechosen on surfaces untouched by the impact ofthe weapon, in an appropriate range of distancesto the point of impact. Soil and dust samples werealso collected where appropriate.Smear samples were leached in 50 ml 8 M HNO 3for four hours at a temperature of 50°C. Indiumwas added as an internal standard. During theleaching process, the samples were put in anultrasonic bath for one minute. The leachateswere filtered through

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTInterface Meter(Heron dipper T water level meter)An interface meter is used to determine the depthof the water column in a well. Some interfacemeters can detect the interface between a floatinghydrocarbon level and the water level beneath it.Multi-Parameter Field Analyser(MP TROLL 9000)An MP TROLL 9000 was used to measure waterquality parameters. Permanent sensors available inthe MP TROLL 9000 were used to measure pressure,temperature, electrical conductivity, oxygen reductionpotential, pH and dissolved oxygen. Win-Situ softwarewas installed on a laptop to take measurements.Disposable bailersSome water samples were collected with bailers.Agitation and turbidity due to surging and thesudden impact of the sampling device was avoidedby allowing the bailer to descend on its ownuntil it filled. Water was collected in appropriatebottles, which were stored in a cool box.Asbestos sampling kitIn accordance with standard practice and tominimize possible asbestos-related health andsafety concerns, tools and equipment used forthe investigation were restricted to simple handtools including torches, screw drivers, and chisels.No power tools were used. The potential for fibrerelease was minimized by using a dust suppressantspray where required.Geographical Positioning System(Garmin-60 and E-trax, hand-held)In order to corroborate the information compiledfrom remote sensing and to obtain accuratecoordinates of various sampling points, all field teamsused Geographical Positioning Systems (GPS).The weapons team used the following equipmentin the field:The Saphymo-SRAT S.P.P.2 NF scintillometeris designed for uranium exploration in ruggedconditions. The detector is a 1 x 1.5 inch (15.2cm³) NaI(Tl) (sodium iodide activated withthallium) scintillation crystal. The range ofoperation for gamma radiation is 0.02 to 30 μSv/h.The instrument has a built-in audible alarm witha time constant of 0.25 seconds. The thresholdand frequency of the sound alarm can be variedaccording to the strength of the radiation. The unitof measurement is counts per second (cps).The Inspector has very high sensitivity to betaradiation, thanks to its pancake GM-tube. Itslarge (50 mm diameter) window allows formeasurements very close to the source to detectbeta radiation from DU. The detector is ahalogen-quenched Geiger-Müller tube with aneffective diameter of 45 mm. The detector windowcan be covered with a metal lid, which only allowsgamma radiation to reach the detector. When thelid is removed, gamma, beta and alpha radiationis measured. Units of measurement are counts perminute (cpm), counts per second (cps), mR/h orμSv/h. A sound alarm clicks for each radiationevent detected.The Automess Dose Rate Meter AD 6 and itsAlpha-Beta-Gamma Probe AD-17, allow goodquality measurements of radioactivity dose ratesand contamination levels. The AD 6 can beused with a wide range of probes. It is calibratedaccording to internationally accepted standards,allowing direct comparison of results measured.This instrument was mainly used to measureambient dose rates.The Fieldspec Instrument identiFINDER-N/He-3is a hand-held gammaspectrometry system with adose rate meter and a neutron counter. It includesa multi-channel analyser with memory, amplifierand a NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal (Ø 1.2’’ x 1.5’’).It can measure gamma spectrums and performgammaspectrometric analysis, including radionuclideidentification, by using radionuclide libraries.Laboratory analysisThe soil, water, dust and ash samples collectedby the main team were submitted to AlcontrolLaboratories in the UK for analysis. Alcontrolhas ISO 170253 standard accreditation andparticipates in the MCERTS 4 programme ofcertification, as well as the AQUACHECK andCONTEST proficiency testing programmes.38 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTOyster and fish samples were analysed by the IVLSwedish <strong>Environmental</strong> Research Institute inStockholm (Sweden), which undertakes projectassignments and research across the environmentalspectrum. The analysis of petroleum hydrocarbonsin marine water samples was carried out at theAmerican University of Beirut.Weapons-related samples were submitted to theSpiez Laboratories in Switzerland, a governmentalinstitute of the Swiss Ministry of Defense, CivilProtection and Sports. <strong>UNEP</strong> has collaboratedwith the Spiez Laboratories in the field of depleteduranium and other environmental issues since1999. All the laboratories’ departments areaccredited in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025.Limitations and constraints Not all sites of interest could be visitedwithin the three-week time frame of the fieldcomponent of the assessment. Accordingly,some sites were considered representative ofsimilar locations. For instance, two petrolstations were visited as examples of fuellingstations across the country. Security considerations limited access to somesites. The presence of unexploded clusterbombs, in particular, prohibited access tosome areas of interest. Damaged or partiallydemolished buildings were not entered whendeemed structurally unsafe. Pre-conflict satellite imagery was not availablefor all assessed sites. In such cases, the teamhad to rely on post-conflict imagery alone. While the best possible water sampling locationswere selected to cover visited sites – focusingon the contaminant source where feasible – itwas not possible to collect samples at somesites, due to dry season conditions, damagedwell casings and/or because there was no accessto a water source. Where feasible, groundwaterwas purged and examined to ensure that it wasrepresentative of aquifer conditions. Air pollution was an important and visible impactof the recent conflict. However, by the time the<strong>UNEP</strong> team was allowed access to the field, all ofthe primary pollutants had disappeared, limitingthe assessment of this issue.<strong>UNEP</strong> security expert demarcates an unexploded cluster bomblet for deactivation. Unexplodedordnance limited access to numerous sites• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •39

Industrial and UrbanContaminationSmoke rises from the fuel tanks at Jiyehpower plant on 16 July 2006.Hydrocarbon-contamintated soil at thepower plant and a number of other sitesrequire appropriate disposal.© AP Photo – Mohammed Zaatari

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTIndustrial and urbancontaminationThe <strong>UNEP</strong> team visited more than one hundredsites in <strong>Lebanon</strong> in the course of the assessmentbetween 30 September and 21 October 2006.This chapter sets out the findings with respect tospecific sites investigated for sources of industrialand urban contamination. <strong>Environmental</strong> issues invarious sectors, such as freshwater resources, wastemanagement and marine and coastal management,are discussed in the following chapters.Combustible storage andprocessing facilitiesJiyeh thermal power plantThe Jiyeh thermal power plant site, whose totalarea comprises some 40,000 m², is locateddirectly on the coast, approximately 30 km southof Beirut. The underlying ground consists ofCretaceous (Cenomanian - Turonian) limestone.Major faults are not documented in the Ministryof Public Works geological map (1955), but maybe present nonetheless. A visual inspection ofthe shoreline revealed cracks and fissures in therocks, which may have been influenced by karsticphenomena. The ground surface is approximately3 to 10 m above ground level, depending on thedistance to the sea.The relevant parts of the tank farm consist of sixtanks of different sizes:Due to the large number of sample analysesconducted, only selected field and laboratoryresults have been included in this report.However, complete results, as well as Dutchand WHO standards, can be accessed at:http://lebanonreport.unep.chone tank measuring 25,000 m³;two tanks measuring 15,000 m³;two tanks measuring 10,000 m³; andone underground gas oil tank measuring 500 m³.The remains of the fuel storage tanks at the Jiyeh power plant42 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONMap 6.Sampling sites – industrial and urban contamination36°ENahrEl KebirBeirutJdaideWadi AwikWadi AwikNa her OstoueneHalbaNahr El KebirBaabdaWadi GhadirWadi BarsaEl MinieTripoliNORTH LEBANONWadi BarsaN a her El BaredZghartaSir Ed DanniyeHermelNahr El AssiNahr El AssiAley34°NM e d i te r r an e a nS e aBeirutWadi GhadirWadi AnteliasJdaideBaabdaJounieAleyBatrounWadi BacchtaWadW adi MadWadi MouhnaneWadi GhazirWadi Fid ari JouniehfounWadi MouhnaneJbeilNaherIbrahi mMOUNT LEBANONNaher BeirutNaher ElWadi AsfourNaher Al JaouzKelbWadi BarsaAmiounZahlehNaher Abou AliNa h er Ab o u AliNaher ElLitaniBcharretaniNaher El LiNa hr El As siBAALBEK HERMELBaalbekAssiNahr El34°NBeit ed DineWadi IklimEl KharroubBEQAAJoub JanineSaghbineWadiEl MansiyyeSaidaNaher SainikSOUTHJezzineLEBANONRachaiyaDamascusWadi South Said aN aher Zahra niNaher AbouAssouadHasbeyaNabatiyeh MarjayounNaher El HasbaniWadi AbuZebleTyre (Sour)NABATIYEHWadi Merj HineWadi AlIzziyeBint JbeilUNDOF33°NKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeightsSampling sites: industrial and urban contaminationSources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).33°NThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •43

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTThe Jiyeh fuel tanks before the conflictMetres0 20 40 60 80 1002005 © GOOGLE EARTHThe site management reported that two of thelarger tanks were directly hit during the bombingof the site on 13 and 15 July, and that fire engulfedand largely destroyed the remaining tanks.Consequently, only the small underground tankwas still intact at the time of inspection.The total amount of oil burned and spilled as aresult of the air raids has not been ascertained,but up to 75,000 m³ of oil, which was identifiedas heavy IFP – number 6 fuel, could have beenburned, spilled into the sea and leaked into theground. All tanks and pipelines on the site wereseverely damaged by the fire, which is reportedto have burned for a total of 27 days. Much ofthe infrastructure melted under the extremetemperatures and railway tank wagons on trackswithin the compound were also reduced to moltenmetal.The power plant itself, however, was not directlydamaged and has remained in partial operationsince the attack.The inspection of the site revealed that the intenseheat generated by the fire had not only causedthe concrete surface of the tank farm to crackextensively, but had also completely destroyedmuch of the concrete infrastructure, such aspipeline stands. The surface of the whole area wascovered with a thick layer of ash, which in someareas measured up to 0.5 m.On the seashore, a crust of dried oil was found onthe rocks, while fresh oil could still be seen at otherlocations, apparently seeping from cracks in therock. It remains unclear whether this phenomenonis due to an accumulation of oil underneath thegravel at the shore, or rather results from oil thathas seeped into the rock underlying the tank farmand is slowly migrating to the shore.Contaminated landSoil samples were collected within the boundariesof the tank farm to help determine the nature andextent of the ground contamination: Sample no. 1-WM/CL-01 was taken from theash around the actual tanks. The greyish ashresulted either from incomplete combustionor from additives to the fire-fighting water;44 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONThe Jiyeh fuel tanks after the conflictMetres0 20 40 60 80 10009/08/2006 © SPACE IMAGINGSample no. 1-WM/CL-02 was pure productfound in an oil separator. It was black andviscous; andSample no. 1-WM/CL-03 was taken directly bythe seashore at the tank farm and consisted oflimestone gravel and sand mixed with heavy oil.Samples referred to as “JPPV” were collectedsome distance from the power plant and over5-10 m away from the nearest road to avoid theside effects of automobile traffic. These wereeither plant samples collected from leaves, stems,weeds or trees, or soil samples taken from gardens.The soil in all samples was reddish, with clayeycomponents, and mixed with gravel.Though most of the oil released during the attackson the Jiyeh plant either burned or spilled intothe sea, it is likely that a significant proportionseeped into the rock underlying the site. Duringclean-up operations, staff should therefore wearsuitable health and safety equipment, and adhereto appropriate practices and procedures.If present, oil located within cracks and fissuresof the underlying rock might affect groundwaterwells in the vicinity. Further, oil trapped beneaththe site may continue leaking into the sea,thus impacting water quality and local fishingindustries.Due to the very intense temperatures generatedby the fire, the stability of the concrete is likelyto have suffered. Given the potential structuralinstability of the damaged material and the veryhigh risk of settlement, it would be extremelyunwise to construct new tanks upon it.As is shown in table 3 on page 47, no soilsample collected within the power plant itselfhad concentrations of polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAH) above Dutch InterventionValues. The ash sampled from the storage tanksite, however, did contain high PAH levels.The ash cover on the ground is not a contaminatedland hazard (though when it rains hazardousmaterials could dissolve and leach into groundwaterand eventually the sea), but should be consideredas hazardous waste. When removing the ash orworking in affected areas, safety measures mustbe taken (i.e. protective clothing, appropriatebreathing masks, etc.).• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •45

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTAtmospheric pollutionThe military strike on the fuel tanks in Jiyeh resulted in massive oil fires and generated a plumeof smoke stretching for several kilometres. Anecdotal evidence indicates that the fire burnedcontinuously for up to 27 days. The smoke itself would have contained a potentially toxiccocktail of pollutants – including soot, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, methane and arange of hydrocarbons – the combination of which could be expected to cause a significantdegree of environmental pollution and respiratory problems for local residents.However, in the absence of primary data gathered during the conflict, determining the exactextent and impact of the atmospheric pollution caused by fires such as the one at Jiyeh, is anextremely complex scientific undertaking. Approaches based on modelling require extensiveinformation, such as that relating to prevailing atmospheric conditions. When reliable primarydata is not available, the end result of such modelling is, at best, dubious.Consequently, it was not possible for <strong>UNEP</strong>’s post-conflict assessment to examine theenvironmental impacts associated with air pollution, even though it is recognized that it wasprobably one of the most serious environmental impacts of the conflict. The assessment did,however, attempt to address the issue in a limited manner:First, a limited survey of soil quality around the Jiyeh power plant was undertaken to studythe fallout of soot from the fire;Second, smear samples were taken in the immediate vicinity of major bombing sites; andFinally, <strong>UNEP</strong> is working with the American University of Beirut to monitor the quality ofrain and snow in <strong>Lebanon</strong>, to determine whether some of the air pollutants that reachedthe upper atmosphere may return in the form of precipitation.Soil and plant samples were taken from a number of locations around the power plant, at amaximum distance of 4 km from the plant. The analysis of samples collected showed that,even at a distance of several kilometres from the power station, negative impacts on soil qualitycould be identified. The fact that all five soil samples taken from the vicinity of the power plant– covering some 5 km² – showed an average PAH concentration of 1 mg/kg, confirmed thata significant amount of PAH had been deposited in the area.It was not possible, though, to ascertain whether these elevated levels of PAH were the resultof the massive short-term impact of the fire, or whether they were the consequence of poorexhaust gas filtering during normal plant operations. Continuous soot fallout from the powerstation was observed throughout the site inspection. It is unclear whether this occurred as aresult of the conflict, or whether it represents the normal state of operations.Figure 1 demonstrates the similarity of the PAH spectrum in four of the soil samples. Thesample JPPV-CL/WM-03SO shows the lowest PAH concentration, with some of the othersubstances being below the detection limit.A longer-term investigation should be undertaken to determine the source of the elevatedPAH concentrations around the plant. To achieve this goal, soil analysis should be carriedout within a radius of several kilometres. The assessment should take into account both theconflict-related power plant fire and power plant emissions under normal operations.It is recommended that a national registry of people living in close proximity to the power plantbe established, and that their health be tracked henceforth for long-term impacts. Such aprogramme would allow early identification of unusual health trends, such as respiratory andcardiac problems and cancer, and assist in the provision of adequate measures and supportmechanisms.46 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONTable 3.Selected sample results from Jiyeh power plant and its vicinitySample Identity 1-CL-01 1 CL/WM-JPPV-01 2 02 3 03SO 4JPPV- JPPV-CL/WM- CL/WM-JPPV- JPPV- JPPV-04/3 5 04/4 6 03L 7CL/WM- CL/WM- CL/WM-JPPV-CL/WM-03ST 8Dutch ListJPPV-04-1 9 ValueCL/WM- InterventionPAH by GCMSUnitsNaphthalene μg/kg 648 107 327 21 531 652 15

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTDismantling of the fuel storage tanks was ongoing at the time of assessment. The complete absence ofpersonal protective equipment for staff was a concernGroundwaterSamples were collected from two wells locatedup-gradient from the destroyed fuel tanks todetermine if hydrocarbon contamination hadmigrated into the aquifer underlying the site(15-20 m below ground surface). Although thesampling locations were situated uphill fromthe tank farm, fractures in the limestone andgroundwater extraction could potentially haveled to hydrocarbon contamination progressinginto the aquifer as part of the seawater intrusionphenomenon.Laboratory analysis did not detect hydrocarbonsin the samples taken. Nevertheless, givenhydrocarbon volatilization losses and the potentialfor oil compounds to reach and dissolve intogroundwater following rains, follow-up samplingshould be carried out over several months tomonitor potential hydrocarbon contamination.Nickel, selenium and zinc were detected above theenvironmental screening values, but significantlybelow intervention levels. Of greater concern wasthe faecal coliform contamination, which rangedfrom 260-700/100 ml. These elevated coliformlevels place site workers who use the water forwashing at a high risk of cross-contamination andaccidental ingestion of pathogens.Waste managementDuring the site inspection, work was ongoingto dismantle the metal tanks, which were beingcut into sections and transported off the site bytipper-trucks. The complete absence of health andsafety equipment for the individuals participatingin these activities is a matter of concern.It was anticipated that the site would be clearedof all metal recyclables, including railway tracks,wagons and engines, all of which were extensivelydamaged in the fire.Clearly, the most significant waste disposal issueon the site is that of the contaminated soil andmaterial, the exact extent of which could only bedetermined through a thorough site investigation.In addition, the large quantities of ash across thesurface of the site, particularly in the vicinity ofthe fuel tanks, should be considered as hazardouswaste, and should be removed, stored anddisposed of accordingly.AsbestosThe visual inspection of the tank farm and powerstation did not reveal any asbestos-containingmaterial. Rather, significant amounts of manmadeinsulating material, such as mineral wool,were used as thermal insulation for the pipework48 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONtransporting the oil stored in the tanks. The tanksthat were still standing did not appear to have anyinsulating material.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. Undertake a thorough site investigation,using drilling-rigs and equipment such asexcavators and back-hoes for digging trenches,to determine the vertical and horizontal extentof the oil contamination.2. Until the clean-up of contaminated soil iscompleted, conduct follow-up sampling of thetwo wells around the spill site to determinewhether the water has been impacted by thepotential oil spill migration.3. Evaluate the stability of the concrete base of thetank farm to determine whether it is structurallysound. If it is not, it should be removed andreplaced with a new concrete base, prior to theconstruction of new tanks on the site.4. If the concrete platform is to be replaced,the underlying contaminated gravel and soilshould be excavated and replaced with cleansand and gravel, thus creating a stable base fora new concrete surface. A worst case estimateof the volume of contaminated material isapproximately 80,000 m3 (40,000 m² by2 m in depth).5. Collect all the ash from the surface of the site,and treat it as hazardous waste: the materialshould be placed inside resealable drums,appropriately labelled to warn of the potentialhazard, and – in the absence of suitabledisposal options – temporarily stored in asuitable and secure location until a disposaloption is identified.6. Soil with elevated concentrations of hydrocarbonsshould also be treated with the appropriatetechnology, including biological remediation.7. All individuals engaged in site clean-upactivities, such as the dismantling of theobsolete tanks, must be provided with, anduse, appropriate health and safety equipment,including boots, gloves, overalls, hard hats,and disposable masks/respirators.Medium-term recommendations(3 months – 1 year)1. When building a new concrete surface, orrestoring the existing one, concrete bundwalls should be installed to prevent leakage ofoil into the sea, should any future incidentsoccur.2. The source of the elevated PAH concentrationsaround the plant should be verified. To thisend, the analysis of soil from within a radiusof several kilometres should be carried out.The assessment should take into account boththe conflict-related power plant fire and powerplant emissions under normal operation.3. Monitor groundwater around the powerplant to detect potential oil seepage from thedestroyed tanks into the underlying aquifer.4. Monitor seawater and run-off.Long-term recommendations(1 year +)The spilt contents of damaged oil drums addsto the significant contamination of the site1. To protect public health and environmentalquality in the future, enhanced filtertechnologies for the plant’s exhaust fumesshould be employed.2. Continue monitoring programmes.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •49

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTBeirut airport fuel storage tanksThe airport fuel tanks are situated on the easternperimeter of the complex, some 2 km fromthe coast, at 10-12 m above ground level. Theunderlying soil consists of quaternary littoralsands and red soil. After approximately 200 m, thesite is bordered by residential housing, industrialcomplexes and agricultural land.The tank site consists of three tanks of equal size(~ 1,500 m³) set in 40 x 40 m basins with concreteperimeter bund walls. Signage on the tanksindicates that they contain kerosene as Jet FuelA1, which is standard for international airports.Only the northernmost tank was destroyedduring the attacks on the airport, releasing a totalestimated volume of up to 1,500 m³ of kerosene.The relative proportions of kerosene burnt andkerosene leaked into the ground could not bedetermined.At the time of <strong>UNEP</strong>’s visit, the destroyed tankwas already being dismantled, and the scrap metalcut into sections and removed from the site.Inspection of the concrete base of the tank farmrevealed cracks, which may have been due toexcessive heat from the fire, but also to the ageof the concrete.Contaminated landAuguring was not possible at the site due to thehigh content of rocks and gravel in the underlyingsoil. However, two soil samples were collected byhand from the perimeter of the concrete basin,where a breach had been created to facilitate thedismantling of the damaged tank:One sample was taken from soil underneaththe concrete wall of the impounding basin,approximately 0.3 m above ground level;The second soil sample was taken from belowthe perimeter wall, 0.5 m away from theconcrete base of the impounding basin atground surface level.Both samples consisted of the red soil omnipresentin the coastal areas, with a high mineral andgravel content. Results from the two samples areprovided in table 4.Fire fighters try to extinguish the burning fuel storage tank at Beirut’s airport, 13 July 2006© AP PHOTO – HUSSEIN MALLA50 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONThe concrete base of the damaged fuel storage tank at Beirut’s airport was being demolishedTable 4.Selected soil analysis resultsParameter / Sample Identity Unit 5-CL-01 5-CL-02 Dutch Intervention ValueSample depth (bgs) m + 0.3 m - 0.3 mEPH (DRO) (C10-C40) mg/kg 3,918 5,402 5,000PAH by GCMSNaphthalene μg/kg 1,047 956 –Phenanthrene μg/kg 157 518 –Anthracene μg/kg 53 362 –Fluoranthene μg/kg 157 547 –Benz(a)anthracene μg/kg 70 328 –Chrysene μg/kg 78 386 –Benzo(k)fluoranthene μg/kg 35 221 –Benzo(a)pyrene μg/kg 43 356 –Indeno(123cd)pyrene μg/kg 35 242 –Benzo(ghi)perylene μg/kg 52 361 –PAH Dutch List 10 Total μg/kg 1,727 4,277 40,000Acenaphthylene μg/kg 199 547Acenaphthene μg/kg 307 138Fluorene μg/kg 89 189Pyrene μg/kg 217 584Benzo(b)fluoranthene μg/kg 70 433Dibenzo(ah)anthracene μg/kg 11 106PAH EPA 16 Total μg/kg 2,620 6,274 –• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •51

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTThe airport fuel storage tanks before the conflictMetres0 20 40 60 80 10017/06/2005 © SPACE IMAGINGBoth soil samples emitted a strong smell ofkerosene, leading to the conclusion that asignificant amount of the fuel had leaked into theground following the attack on the tank. The soilsamples, however, showed less contaminationthan expected. The sample from the wall of theimpounding basin showed concentrations ofextractable petroleum hydrocarbons (EPH) andpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) belowDutch Intervention Values, while interventionvalues for hydrocarbons were exceeded onlyslightly in the sample taken from below groundsurface.The sampling could not reveal the total extentof the spill, but given that it showed definitesigns of kerosene-contamination, a larger spill(several hundred cubic metres) resulting fromthe attack could not be ruled out.Kerosene contains a large amount of benzene,toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX),which are highly toxic and highly mobile.Hydrocarbon plumes in the groundwatercan reach several hundred metres in length,depending on groundwater movement,biological activity, etc. If water wells are foundin close proximity to the site, the potential forcontamination exists.These concerns will have to be verified by furtherinvestigations and monitoring.Surface and groundwaterNo borehole or surface water was identifiedwithin the site and thus no water samples wererecovered. The oil spill, however, represents apollution risk for the nearby Ghadir stream aswell as for groundwater in the area, particularlyfollowing heavy rainfall. These need to beinvestigated further in future. In addition,hydrocarbon contamination of surface andgroundwater found at the neighbouring El-Twait feedlot site is suspected to originate fromthe airport’s damaged fuel tanks.Waste managementDuring the site inspection, work was ongoingto dismantle the damaged fuel tank, which wasbeing cut into sections and transported off the52 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONThe airport fuel storage tanks after the conflictpy g p g gMetres0 20 40 60 80 10019/08/2006 © SPACE IMAGINGsite by tipper-trucks. The complete absence ofhealth and safety equipment for the individualsparticipating in these activities is a matter ofconcern.Clearly, the most significant waste disposal issueon site is the contaminated soil and material,the exact extent and magnitude of which couldonly be determined through a thorough siteinvestigation.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. Investigate the vertical and horizontal extentof the oil contamination using drilling rigsand, where necessary, appropriate equipmentfor excavating trenches such as excavators orback-hoes.2. Monitor groundwater quality from theneighbouring site, El-Twait feedlot, as well as fromother wells in the vicinity (in a 500 m radius).3. If the presence of water wells is confirmed,investigate the water quality in the wells todetermine any impact from the oil spill.4. Remove the damaged and structurally unsoundconcrete base beneath the dismantled fueltank.5. Remove the contaminated soil and graveland replace with clean material (a worst caseestimate would be an area of 50 x 50 m ofcontamination, with a maximum thickness of10 m, or 25,000 m³ of contaminated soil).6. Construct a new concrete base for the tank toavoid the risk of settlement.7. All individuals engaged in site clean-upactivities, such as the dismantling of theobsolete tank, must be provided with, anduse, appropriate health and safety equipment,including boots, gloves, overalls, hard hats,and disposable masks/respirators.Medium-term recommendations(3 months – 1 year)Establish a groundwater monitoring programme.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •53

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTPetrol station on the SaidahighwayNumerous petrol stations throughout <strong>Lebanon</strong>were reportedly targeted during the conflict.While some uncertainty about the exact numberof petrol stations hit remains, official governmentreports state that 22 such sites were damaged. Thepetrol station on the Saida highway was inspectedas a representative example.Located mid-way between Jiyeh and Saida, thestation is situated approximately 50 m from theseashore and 10-15 m above sea level. The areacomprises some 1,500 m². The neighbourhoodis over 90 per cent agricultural, and less than 10per cent residential.The underground strata consist of red clayon Cretaceous (Turonian and Cenomanian)limestone. A 15 m deep well is located directlywithin the site, but was found to be dry. Therewere no other wells in the vicinity.The petrol station had stored different types offuel in a number of underground storage tanks,including 95 octane gasoline, 98 octane gasoline,and two different brands of diesel fuel in tanks of20,000 l each.Furthermore, a considerable number of used tyreswere stored at the perimeter of the site, and asignificant volume of various detergents was keptin the building itself, though much of it had beendamaged by the fire.Contaminated landThe presence of a large crater made clear thatthe underground tanks in front of the buildinghad been hit directly by a bomb, setting thebuilding and stockpiled tyres ablaze. However,an inspection of the underground tank itself didnot reveal any evidence of burning, and there waslittle, if any, odour of gasoline in the area. It wastherefore concluded that the tank itself was empty,or near empty, at the time of the attack.However, the very strong odour of hydrocarbonsemanating from the 15 m deep water well stronglysuggested fuel had been released and had migratedfrom the underground tanks, whether fromconflict-related impacts or operational leaks.The underlying limestone in this area is knownto be interspersed with faults and fissures, and isprobably influenced by karstic erosion. Hazardoussubstances, such as hydrocarbons, may thuspotentially reach groundwater supplies.The severely damaged Saida fuel station with bomb crater in the foreground54 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONRecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. Due to the nature and scope of the <strong>UNEP</strong>assessment, not all of the 22 petrol stationscould be assessed. It is, however, important thateach of the impacted stations is systematicallyevaluated following similar protocols.2. The heavily damaged building should bedismantled and the destroyed undergroundtanks excavated.<strong>UNEP</strong> experts inspect a damaged fuel tankAnother matter of concern is the fact that agriculturalareas directly adjacent to the petrol stationcould suffer from the impact of gasoline on theirirrigation water.A soil sample consisting of quartz sand mixed withash from the burnt tyres was collected.Surface and groundwaterDue to the fact that the well was dry at the timeof inspection, it was not possible to collect watersamples at the petrol station. Given the evidentoil spill, it is likely that gasoline and diesel fuelseeped into the groundwater. Sampling shouldtherefore be carried out in the near future.Waste managementA number of waste management issues wereobserved at the site, though they were fairlylimited in extent and potential impact.As mentioned above, a large number of waste tyreswere stockpiled towards the rear of the site andmany burned to ash as a result of the bombing.Further, the soil in the immediate vicinity ofthe underground tanks is likely to have elevatedconcentrations of hydrocarbons, due to fuel beingreleased.The final waste management concern relates tothe numerous bottles and packages of detergent,many of which were damaged in the blaze.3. If it is the intention to re-establish a petrolstation in this location, the remaining tanksshould be checked for leaks.4. If the site is to be abandoned, the remainingtanks should be emptied and excavated,or alternatively left in situ and filled withconcrete.5. After the on site infrastructure is dismantled,a comprehensive soil and groundwaterinvestigation is recommended to estimatethe amount of fuel that leaked into theunderground and its potential impact. Thesource of drinking and irrigation water forthe adjacent agricultural and residential areasshould also be investigated.6. All waste materials within the site, includingtyres, ash, partially burnt detergent bottlesand containers, should be collected, containedand ultimately disposed of in an engineeredsanitary landfill site.7. Having determined the extent of soil contaminationthrough further investigations,all contaminated soil should be excavated andremoved for treatment and disposal, before theremaining void is back-filled with clean sandand rubble.Medium-term recommendations(3 months – 1 year)If significant contamination levels are foundfollowing the proposed groundwater and soilmonitoring exercise, a groundwater monitoringprogramme should be initiated.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •55

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTSafieddine gas refill stationThe Safieddine domestic gas refill station issituated approximately 3.5 km southeast of theTyre city centre, 1 km from the seashore, and20 m above sea level.The rear of the site consists of a car salescompound containing approximately 50 carsand pickup trucks, while the front of the sitecomprises the domestic gas service forecourt,where the gas (propane) was stored in a 72,000 kgabove-ground tank.The geological setting for the site is within theQuaternary arable sediments of the Tyre coastal area,with underlying Tertiary or Quaternary limestone.There was no information available regarding thedepth of the groundwater table at this location.The land use in the immediate vicinity is agricultural,consisting mainly of banana plantations. Thenearest residential buildings are located 600-800 maway from the site.It was clear from initial site observations thatthe propane tank had suffered a direct hit, hadexploded, and come to rest several metres awayin one of the banana fields nearby, setting fire tothe field, the adjacent car-sales compound andnumerous trees.Waste managementThough they were fairly limited in extent andpotential impact, a number of waste managementissues were observed at the site.As mentioned above, there were approximately 50burnt car shells. Further, the concrete surface of the carcompound and tree leaves were covered in a thin layerof dust and soot, presumably as a result of the fire.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. The possibility of recycling the metal from thederelict vehicles should be explored. If it is nota viable option, the vehicle shells should beremoved from the site, and taken to a sanitarylandfill for disposal.2. The thin layer of ash should be collected, placedinside secure re-sealable drums, and transportedto a sanitary landfill site for disposal, as rainmay cause leacheate to migrate towards thegroundwater. Due to the potentially hazardousnature of the ash, personnel involved in theclean-up activities should be provided withappropriate health and safety equipment, inparticular breathing masks.ContaminatedlandUpon combustion,propane gas is oxidizedand forms carbondioxide and water.Consequently, except forburnt trees, there wereno significant impactson soil or groundwaterfrom this site.Surface andgroundwaterNo borehole or surfacewater was identifiedon site and thus nowater samples wererecovered. No follow-upgroundwater sampling isconsidered necessary.Cars damaged in the explosion of the gas refill station56 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONFactories and plantsTransmed warehouseThe site, which covers an area of approximately2,000 m 2 , is located immediately east of Beirut’sRafik Hariri International Airport, within theChoueifat industrial area.The site lies upon the Quaternary sediments ofthe coastal zone, with underlying Tertiary orCretaceous limestone. The groundwater level is35 m below ground.The warehouse, which was almost totallydestroyed, was used for the storage of variousdomestic items, such as cleaning products,detergents and soaps. A significant number oflead acid batteries were also stored on woodenracks in the basement. The nature of the damageindicated that the building had been hit by adeep-penetrating (‘bunker buster’) bomb, and bya number of smaller bombs.At the time of the team’s inspection, some limitedclean-up activities had commenced, though therewas still a significant amount of work ahead toclear the site.Contaminated landAt a number of locations, the thick concrete baseof the site had cracked extensively, probably fromthe impact of the bomb. The potential pollutionpathways thus created constitute a matter ofconcern, particularly during the rainy season.In the basement, a thick layer of grey ash-likesubstance was found, as thick as 0.25 m inplaces, which was presumably due to the impactof the ‘bunker buster’ bomb. The immense heatand shock wave of the explosion had obviouslypulverized the concrete, exposing the underlyingsteel structure. In addition, there were large pilesof burnt batteries.A dust sample taken for laboratory analysis toverify the composition of the powder was screenedfor aluminium, magnesium and phosphorus.Results are shown in table 7.Table 5.AluminiumMagnesiumPhosphorusDust analysis results5,481 mg/kg2 742mg/kg319 mg/kgThe Transmed facility was extensively damaged during the conflict• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •57

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTTransmed warehouse before the conflictMetres0 10 20 30 40 5017/06/2005 © SPACE IMAGINGNot only was the level of aluminium in thedust compatible with that of concrete, but themagnesium and phosphorus concentrations werenot exceptionally high. These results led to theconclusion that the dust in the basement wascomposed of pulverized concrete.Surface and groundwaterGroundwater on the site, which is located at a depth of35-40 m below ground level, is used for bothwarehouse sanitation and by factory workersto wash and bathe. Given the large number ofdamaged containers of household products found,there is a significant risk that products such asdetergents and cleaning solvents could be mobilized– particularly during periods of heavy rainfall – andimpact underlying groundwater resources.On site analysis was carried out using portableequipment, and water samples were collected forlaboratory analysis both at the site itself (50aGW1)and down-gradient from the area (50aGW2). Afurther sample was taken from an undergrounddesalinization plant on site (50aWW1).The water in the desalinization tank was foundto be stagnant and potentially contaminated. Thetank itself was properly cemented, but may havedeveloped small fractures as a result of the attackand may thus have been leaking its contents intothe sub-surface, from where it could migrate tothe underlying aquifer.Table 6. Sample no: 50aGW1 (E731518, N3744808)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBOD mg/litre 10 NilCOD mg/litre 74 NilSodium mg/litre 412.50 200EPH μg/litre 135 Nil58 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONTransmed warehouse after the conflictMetres0 10 20 30 40 5019/08/2006 © SPACE IMAGINGTable 7. Sample no: 50aGW2 (E731416, N3744720)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBOD mg/litre 3 NilCOD mg/litre 65 NilSodium mg/litre 825 200Zinc μg/litre 1173 NilTable 8. Sample no: 50aWW1 (E731544, N3744785)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBoron μg/litre 8224 500Selenium μg/litre 12 10BOD mg/litre 157 NilCOD mg/litre 735 NilSodium mg/litre 1050 200EPH μg/litre 12706 NilOn site water analysis showed that both wellsdemonstrated high salinity, which may be dueto salt water intrusion, given the site’s proximityto the coast.The groundwater down-gradient from the site wasmore saline than the groundwater at the site itself,despite both wells being relatively close to each other,indicating possible over-exploitation of groundwaterat the down-gradient well. It was reported that 6,000l of water are pumped each day.Extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (EPH)were detected at levels of 135 μg/litre in oneof the groundwater samples, and in very highconcentrations – 12,706 μg/litre – in the• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •59

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTwastewater, suggesting that a surface hydrocarbon leakcontaminating the wastewater had migrated to theunderlying aquifer. The EPH detected were mediumto heavy hydrocarbon compounds (C10-C40), mostlikely diesel fuel, which are known for their persistenceand long-lasting environmental impacts. Nickel andselenium exceeded environmental screening valuesbut were significantly below intervention levels. Zinc,however, was measured at an elevated concentration(1173 μg/litre) in one of the groundwater samples,significantly above the intervention threshold.Waste managementThe extensive destruction of the Transmed sitegenerated a significant amount of solid waste to bedisposed of, much of which is hazardous in nature.Disposal should include but not necessarily belimited to the following:demolition waste, composed primarily of steel beams,aluminium sheeting and concrete rubble;crates and containers of household cleaningproducts such as detergents and soaps;large quantities of burnt lead acid batteries; anda few vehicle wrecks found on site.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. The clean-up of the Tansmed site should becompleted with minimum delay to minimizethe general risk of pollutants being flushed intothe groundwater through heavy rainfall.2. Demolition material should be removed fromthe site and disposed of, although it is likelythat the steel beams and aluminium sheets willhave sufficient value to make recycling and reuseviable within local markets.3. The burnt and damaged batteries should beremoved from the site, and disposed of. Again,it is possible that some components of thebatteries, such as the lead, may be attractive forthe local recycling market.4. The thick layer of ash in the basement shouldbe collected, preferably in re-sealable drums anddisposed of in a sanitary landfill site. Care shouldbe taken when handling this product, as theprimary constituent, calcium oxide, is an irritantfor skin and eyes. Appropriate health and safetyequipment, including gloves, boots, overalls andbreathing masks must be issued and used.5. The potential to recycle the metal from thederelict vehicles should be explored. If this isnot a viable option, the vehicle shells should beremoved from the site and taken to a sanitarylandfill for disposal.6. EPH levels are elevated in both the groundwatersamples and the wastewater sample, suggestingthat a surface hydrocarbon leak has resulted incontamination of the wastewater and migrationto the underlying aquifer. The source of theelevated hydrocarbon readings should befurther investigated, the extent and magnitudeof contamination determined and correctiveaction taken to prevent further migration fromthe source.<strong>UNEP</strong> expert collects smear samples close to the point of impact of a ‘bunker buster’ bomb60 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONThe interior of the damaged Transmed facility• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •61

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT<strong>Lebanon</strong> Company for CartonMince and IndustryThis site is situated immediately east of the Transmedsite, within the Choueifat industrial area.It covers an area of approximately 1,700 m 2 and isapproximately 10-12 m above sea level. To the north,the site is bounded by the Ghadir River. It is locatedin the same geological and geomorphological settingof Quaternary red soils with underlying Tertiary orCretaceous limestone as the Transmed site.The plant’s primary operation is the sorting andpackaging of waste plastic and paper, prior todispatching to local processing plants.The main building appeared to have taken a direct hitfrom a missile, causing a fire throughout the plant.A large amount of ash (some 50-100 m³) fromburnt plastic and paper products, containingparticles of wood and plastic, had been dumpedin the vicinity of the river.Contaminated landFrom a contaminated land perspective, the onlymatter of concern is the possible toxic nature of theash that was dumped on the banks of the adjacentstream. A sample of the ash was collected forlaboratory analysis; results are provided in table 9.Table 9.Parameter /Sample IdentityAsh analysis resultsUnits50B-WH-01DutchInterventionValueArsenic mg/kg

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONWork has been partially resumed at the <strong>Lebanon</strong> Company for Carton Mince and IndustryThe ash sample showed a zinc concentrationslightly above Dutch Intervention Values,indicating that the ash was the result of a plasticwaste fire. A second ash sample collected on thefirst floor of the main building showed an elevatedantimony concentration (120 mg/kg).Given that the ash has the potential to impactnegatively on the water quality in the river, andultimately on the marine environment, it shouldbe removed from the river bank and disposed ofin a sanitary landfill.Surface and groundwaterOn <strong>UNEP</strong>’s initial visit, substantial quantities ofdebris ash were stockpiled along 75 to 100 m ofthe banks of the Ghadir stream, which forms thenortheastern boundary of the site. A follow-upvisit by <strong>UNEP</strong> after heavy rainfall in mid-Octoberrevealed that all of the ash had been swept awayinto the stream.Laboratory analysis of the ash indicated elevatedlevels of several heavy metals and toxic organiccompounds, including dioxins and PAH. Thisrepresents a significant pollution load for theGhadir River and for the down-stream coastalenvironment, which constitutes the ultimate sinkfor the effluent. In addition, there is a possibilitythat the ash may settle on the riverbed, from whereit may migrate and contaminate the underlyinggroundwater.Two water samples were collected from the river(50bSW1 and 50bSW2) down-gradient and upgradientfrom the location of the ash. The latter samplewas taken for inference of baseline conditions.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •63

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTTable 10. Sample no: 50bSW1 (E731687, N3744796)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBOD mg/litre 625 NilCOD mg/litre 1735 NilSodium mg/litre 222 200EPH μg/litre 1103 NilTable 11. Sample no: 50bSW2 (E731741, N3744707)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBOD mg/litre 769 NilCOD mg/litre 2680 NilSodium mg/litre 228 200EPH μg/litre 2580 NilThe results showed that the surface water washighly saline, which might have been due to localpollution or to local geological formations.Due to high biological oxygen demand (BOD)and chemical oxygen demand (COD) readings,dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations weremeasured between 1-1.25 mg/litre, which iswell below the level required to support fishpopulations and most aquatic life. This wasconfirmed by field observations.In addition, the upstream river water was brownin color and the vegetation along the banks of theriver was withered and dry, whereas it was greenfurther away from the water. This phenomenonmay be explained by high nitrate levels in the river,which typically result from inadequate sewagetreatment in urban areas.The results of the analysis showed a noticeabledifference in BOD, COD, and EPH levelsbetween the water samples collected up- andAsh from the burnt plastic goods stockpiled beside the Ghadir River64 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONDuring a follow-up visit all the ash (see photo on the previous page) had been washed away following heavy rainfalldown-gradient. At both sampling locations,however, the concentrations of BOD and CODsignificantly exceeded the environmental limitvalues for wastewater set by the Lebanese Ministryof Environment. The presence of hydrocarboncontamination is also a cause for concern.Waste managementThe partial destruction and subsequent burningof the factory generated significant quantities ofpotentially hazardous ash, possibly containingdioxins, resulting from the combustion of thelarge volume of plastics and paper stockpiled onsite. This material is leaching into and having anadverse affect upon the river water.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. Clean-up of the site should be undertaken toprevent further ash leaching into the river, ifindeed there is any ash left on the site afterrecent heavy rainfall.2. Given the high antimony concentrationswithin the rubble and ash on the first floorof the main building, this material should bedisposed of in a sanitary landfill site ratherthan dumped on adjacent land or buried.3. If a sanitary landfill is not available, or refuses toaccept the ash and rubble, the material shouldbe stored in re-sealable containers and placedin a safe location, protected from the rain, untila suitable disposal option is found.4. Care should be taken when handling theash, as it may be an irritant to skin and eyes;appropriate health and safety equipment mustbe issued and used, including gloves, boots,overalls and breathing masks.5. After use, the drums should preferably bedisposed of to prevent their reuse and the riskof contamination of whatever commoditymay be stored inside them.6. Sediment in the stream should be monitoredto locate the ash flushed into the streamduring the rain. If located, the stream shouldbe dredged and the waste handled as indicatedin steps 2 to 3.7. A toxicity characteristics leaching process(EPA) test should be performed on the ashto determine whether it is hazardous prior todisposal in a sanitary landfill site.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •65

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTAl Arz Lilnasiej textile factoryThe Al Arz Lilnasiej textile factory, which islocated in Al Khyara - Al Manara (Zahleh area),is surrounded by agricultural land, primarily olivetrees and vineyards. It covers some 6,000 m 2 andis situated approximately 1,050 m above sea level.The groundwater level (obtained from a nearbywell) is 170 m below ground surface.The zone is at the transition of an outcrop ofwhite marls and limestone to fertile valley clays.The geological map (Ministry of Public Works,1955) and the hydrogeological map (UnitedNations, 1967) indicate Eocene to Oligocenereef complexes. The limestone contains widespreadfaults and is referred to as ‘merokarstic’(influenced by fluvial erosion).The factory was found to have been completelydestroyed. Mixed in with the piles of rubblewere machines and equipment used in the textileweaving process, including numerous spindles.Contaminated landFrom a contaminated land perspective, theprincipal environmental impact of the air strikeon the textile factory was the spill of machine oiland of textile industry special fluids and dyes.The quantity of machine oil spilt at the generatorcould not be estimated, as the whole site wasburied under demolition waste comprising steelbeams and debris. Besides, the serious health andsafety risks made sampling in the vicinity of thegenerator impossible.The spill covered some 100 m² of the actual site,and could be traced several metres down the site’saccess road. Most of the lubricant oil, however,was still inside the containers, and a comparativelysmall amount had leaked out.The fluids spilled consisted of a substantialquantity of conning oil, an emulsion used mainlyfor the treatment of textile fibres in the productionprocess. According to the manufacturer of thisproduct, conning oil is a mineral oil-basedchemical used in the spinning/yarning process. Itis composed of 90 per cent mineral oil and 10 percent emulsifier, mixed with ethoxylated alcohol,and can be diluted with water.Samples were taken directly from the originalsubstance and from the soil surface. The oil wasof a straw or honey colour, while the soil was abrownish yellow. Due to the hardness and highproportion of gravel in the soil, auguring to asignificant depth was not possible.The GC-FID fingerprint of the oil product showedthe characteristics of used lubricant oil. The soilanalysis detected levels of aliphatic hydrocarbonsover three times above the Dutch InterventionValues, as indicated in table 12.<strong>UNEP</strong> inspects the damaged structure of the textile factory66 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONTable 12. Hydrocarbon analysis resultsParameter /Sample IdentityUnits50B-WH-01DutchInterventionValueEPH (DRO) (C10-C40) mg/kg 18,829 5,000PAHsAnthracene μg/kg

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTMaliban glass factoryThe Maliban glass factory is located in Taanayel,on the arable lands of the Beqaa Valley. The site,which is underlain by mainly Quaternary redsoils, is surrounded by agricultural and industrialor commercial areas. The village of Bar Elias lies1 km to the southeast.The factory complex covers a total area of36,000 m² and is situated approximately860 m above sea level. The groundwater table is11 m below ground surface.According to the factory manager, the followingchemicals were used in the production of glass:sodium carbonate;sodium sulphate;sodium feldspar;selenium salts;silica sand; andchromium salts.The complex originally comprised severalbuildings including offices, production areas andthree glass ovens. The factory and office buildingswere completely destroyed in an air raid duringthe conflict, but the chimney stacks for the threeovens still stand.Contaminated landSome 1,000 – 2,000 tons of sodium carbonateand approximately 10 tons of chromium salts werefound in a former storage area whose roof hadbeen destroyed, exposing the salts to weather.Sodium carbonate is not toxic as such, butreacts with water to form a strong alkalinesolution. Hence, the substantial amount of saltsstored at the site constitutes a potential hazardfor groundwater, particularly during heavyrainfall when much of this material could bemobilized.A view of the destroyed glass factory, with remaining chimney stacks in the background68 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONChemicals used in glass production will leach into the groundwater unless relocated under coverThe same applies to the chromium salt(Cr 2O 3) supplies that were found within thecomplex. Recommendations were given to thefactory manager to collect the chromium saltimmediately and store it in a dry place for laterreuse. The manager was further informed thatburial of the chromium salt, which he intended,was not advised due to potential impacts ongroundwater.Two samples were collected in a part of thefactory in which, according to the manager, thetin-organic chemicals had been employed. Onesample was taken in the immediate vicinity ofthe machine with which the substance was used.The other was taken from an area where anothermachine had obviously leaked oil. Both samplesconsisted of a mixture of rubble and dust fromthe building debris. No reliable informationcould be obtained about the state of the concretefloor, as the whole area was made virtuallyinaccessible by debris and twisted metal.The results of the sample analysis are providedin table 13.Table 13. Rubble/dust analysis resultsSample IdentityUnits8-CL-WM-018-CL/WM-02DutchInterventionValueAluminium mg/kg - 5931 -Magnesium mg/kg - 1808 -Phosphorus mg/kg - 556 -Tin mg/kg - - -/**organo-tin-compounds: 2,500 μg/kgEPH (DRO) (C10-C40) mg/kg 92,287 49,679 5,000PAH by GCMSNaphthalene μg/kg 8,456 1,828Phenanthrene μg/kg 2,069 413Anthracene μg/kg 241 81Fluoranthene μg/kg 754 208Benz(a)anthracene μg/kg 28

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTThe levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons in thedust and rubble samples collected close to thedestroyed machinery indicate that some machineoil was spilt. Due to the relatively small amountsof oil in the machines, the possibility of moreextensive soil contamination was discounted.Surface and groundwaterA groundwater sample was collected downgradientfrom the site to determine whether anypollutants originating on site had migrated intothe underlying aquifer.Field measurements indicate that the water ismarginally brackish. This may be due to salinereturn drainage from surrounding agriculturalland, as well as to rock water interaction.Meanwhile, laboratory analysis detected levels ofchromium (Cr +3 ) (1 μg/litre) at the environmentalscreening threshold, while nickel and zinc exceedthe target value. The chromium is likely to haveoriginated from the chromium salts used inthe factory. The faecal coliform count was alsoexceptionally high (1200/100 ml), indicatingsignificant sewage contamination and presentinga very high risk for users.A water sample was also taken from a sub-surfacestorage tank at the site to determine whether itcontains any pollutants that could migrate if itsintegrity had been compromised in the air raid.In terms of their physical parameters, the qualityof the storage and groundwater is similar. Theslightly elevated levels of BOD and CODin the water from the storage tank (see table14) are most likely due to the fact that it hadremained stagnant for the previous three months.Copper, nickel, selenium and zinc were detectedabove environmental screening criteria. Thegroundwater does not appear to be affectedby the polluted storage water, though seepagefrom the tank could potentially contaminate theshallow underlying aquifer.Waste managementThe extensive destruction of the Maliban glassfactory generated a significant amount of solidwaste to be disposed of, some of which ispotentially hazardous in nature. Disposal shouldinclude but not necessarily be limited to thefollowing:demolition waste, composed primarily of steelbeams, aluminium sheeting, and concreterubble;heavy mechanical equipment used in the glassmakingprocess;chemicals used in the glass-making process,including chromium salt (Cr 2O 3) and sodiumcarbonate; andisolated areas of soil contaminated with spiltlubricating oils.AsbestosGenerally, the insulation material found on thesite was man-made mineral wool and modernceramic fibres used for the insulation of thekilns. Very little material appeared to containasbestos.In the storage area, a single-story building had anasbestos flue pipe, as well as an asbestos cementsoffit board above the door. Both, however,were in good condition and considered fit forpurpose.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. To avoid the risk of heavily impacting thegroundwater, both the sodium and thechromium salts should be recovered andrelocated to an area protected from rain beforethe rainy season starts.Table 14. Sample no: 8WW1 (E766749, N3732018)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBOD mg/litre 2 NilCOD mg/litre 84 Nil70 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATION<strong>UNEP</strong> team with Ministry of Environment counterparts inspect glass factory for radiation2. The stagnant water in the storage tank shouldbe removed as early as possible to avoidgroundwater pollution.3. The debris and rubble should be removed fromthe site as soon as possible. It is anticipatedthat much of the demolition waste will havea recycling value in the local market, and willtherefore not need to be disposed of.4. Removing the rubble will reveal the actualextent of any oil spills that may be hiddenunderneath.5. Any contaminated soil should be excavatedand disposed of appropriately.6. Due to the elevated faecal coliform levels,the site management should be advised notto use groundwater other than for industrialprocessing operations.Medium-term recommendations(3 months – 1 year)The groundwater in the vicinity of the site shouldbe tested on a regular basis to ensure that saltsand other chemicals used in the glass-makingprocess are not leaching into the relatively shallowgroundwater.Long-term recommendations(1 year +)Measures should be implemented to ensure thatpotential pollutants are handled appropriately fromthe perspective of personal and environmentalsafety.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •71

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTLamartine Food IndustryThe site is located in the Beqaa Valley, approximately2 km northeast of the Maliban glass factory, in thesame geological and geomorphological setting.Given that the factory produced chewing gumand sweets, it was not expected that hazardoussubstances would be found on site. The plantwas completely destroyed in a bombing. Theremaining structure is very unstable and is notsafe to enter.Contaminated landAs a result of the bomb blast and ensuing fire,several cubic metres of ash were found inside thefactory complex. However, laboratory analysis ofthis material established that it did not containhazardous substances.In addition, isolated areas of oil spillage werenoted in proximity to equipment, and smallquantities of spilled glucose were identifiedaround the factory.The omnipresent fine dust was analysed for tracesof materials from deep-penetrating bombs, butthe results, as shown in table 15, did not indicateelevated levels of aluminium, magnesium, orphosphorus:Table 15.AluminiumMagnesiumPhosphorusDust analysis results12,070 mg/kg5,621 mg/kg729 mg/kgIndeed, the aluminium concentration withinthe dust corresponds to the average aluminiumconcentration of concrete, which is 1.7 per cent.The magnesium and phosphorus concentrations arenot high either, leading to the conclusion that thedust in the factory was generated by the enormousheat and shock wave from the bomb and its impacton the concrete structure of the building.Surface and groundwaterThe risk of pollution from the glucose spillage islimited, due to its semi-solid state, non-toxic nature,and the depth of the local aquifer (about 80 m belowground level). Direct risks for public health are furtherdiminished by the fact that residents in the areareceive drinking water through a mains pipeline.On site field measurements were within acceptablelimits. Laboratory analysis identified nickel,selenium and zinc in concentrations marginallyabove their environmental screening thresholdsbut significantly below intervention values.The site of the destroyed Lamartine Food Industry72 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONDemolition waste at Lamartine Food Industry requires disposalThe main source of contamination was found tobe biological, as a very high faecal coliform countof 500/100 ml was detected, indicating significantsewage contamination. Nitrate (18.3 mg/litre) was alsofound above natural background levels, also indicatingsewage and/or agricultural run-off pollutionDespite the relatively low risk of contamination,precautionary measures should be taken to preventimpact on groundwater during heavy rainfall, inparticular that of other potential contaminantsources, such as oil spills that were not visibleduring the visit due to wreckage. This wouldinclude removing the spilled glucose, buildingrubble and waste materials from the site.Waste managementThe extensive destruction of the Lamartine foodfactory generated a significant amount of solidwaste requiring appropriate disposal, includingbut not necessarily limited to the following:demolition waste, composed primarily of steelbeams, aluminium sheeting, and concreterubble;heavy mechanical equipment used in the foodprocessing industry;isolated spillages of glucose powder; andseveral cubic metres of ash resulting from thefire in the factory.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. The debris and rubble should be removed fromthe site as soon as possible. It is anticipatedthat much of the demolition waste will havea recycling value in the local market, and willtherefore not need to be disposed of.2. Removing the rubble will reveal the extent ofany oil spill that may be hidden underneath.3. Any contaminated soil should be excavatedand disposed of.4. The spilled glucose should be removed as a matterof priority to prevent the material being washedinto the groundwater during heavy rainfall.5. The ash should be collected and placed insidere-sealable containers. This material shouldthen be disposed of in a sanitary landfill site,with leachate collection and treatment.6. Due to the fact that the ash may be irritating forskin and eyes, personal protective equipmentshould be made available to staff involved inthe clean-up activities. At minimum, it shouldinclude: gloves, boots, overalls, and breathingmasks of suitable specification.7. Due to the elevated faecal coliform levels, thesite management should be advised to usepotable quality water unless the industrialprocesses ensure disinfection.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •73

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTGhabris detergent factoryThe site is located 3.5 km east of the Tyre city centre.The area covers 600 m² and is approximately 75 mabove sea level. The geological setting is within theQuaternary arable sediments of the Tyre coastalarea, with underlying Tertiary or Quaternarylimestone. The groundwater table can be found60-70 m below ground surface.The neighbourhood consists of residential andcommercial buildings. According to informationprovided by the local consultants, the site waspreviously home to a detergent factory, althoughthe building had been totally demolished at thetime of the site inspection and most of the rubblehad already been removed.Except for a small area showing signs of machineoil leakage, no obvious spills could be observed. Afaint smell of chlorine detergent was present, butthe source of the smell could not be located.Contaminated landAs virtually all of the rubble and debris had alreadybeen removed from the site, and there were noobvious signs of contamination, there was little causefor concern from a contaminated land perspective.Surface and groundwaterWater samples were taken from a storage tankwithin the factory and from a groundwater sourceused by local residents. The storage tank was filledwith wastewater which had been contaminated bythe fallout of the bombing. As most of the housesin the immediate vicinity of the factory werefound to have underground freshwater storagetanks, it was considered possible that, duringprolonged periods of heavy rainfall, overflow fromthe wastewater tank and leachate from the factorydebris may pollute residential storage tanks.Field measurements taken of water in the fieldusing portable equipment were found to be withinthe natural range for all parameters.A groundwater sample was taken 20 m fromthe source of pollution for laboratory analysis,which showed the groundwater to be highlycontaminated. Several PAHs were found to beconsiderably above intervention threshold values,including the highly toxic benzo(a)pyrene, whichis a known carcinogen.Both ammonia and phosphate concentrations,almost certainly originating from the polyphosphatedetergents manufactured by the GhabrisGhabris detergent factory before the conflictMetres0 20 40 60 80 10020/07/2003 © SPACE IMAGING74 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONfactory, were very high, measuring 2,073.5 mg/l and43.7 mg/l respectively.Zinc and nickel were also detected at concentrationsslightly above environmental screening values, butsubstantially below the intervention requirement.It was not possible to determine whether thecontamination found within the groundwaterpre-dated the conflict, or whether it was as a resultof the bombing of the factory.Waste managementGiven that the site had been largely cleared ofrubble and debris, there are few, if any, remainingwaste management issues.However, illegal dumping of waste was observedon the site, which is potentially prejudicial topublic health through the breeding of rats andother disease vectors.AsbestosWhile most of the rubble had been removed fromthe site, a small amount (approximately 5m²) ofmaterial near the road appeared to contain asbestos.Laboratory analysis subsequently identified thematerial as chrysotile (white asbestos). Although itwas not possible to ascertain the exact origin of thematerial, it was believed to be from roofing sheets.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. The water quality of water wells in theneighbourhood should be monitored toensure that the possible spill of householddetergents does not pose a health hazard forlocal residents.2. A detailed survey of the area should beconducted to delineate the extent of the offsitegroundwater contamination. Appropriateremedial measures should be proposed basedon the findings.3. The local municipality, with the support ofthe Ministry of Environment should erectnotices on the site to discourage the illegaldumping of waste. Further initiatives, such asmonitoring and prosecution activities shouldbe undertaken as necessary.Ghabris detergent factory after the conflictpy g p g gMetres0 20 40 60 80 10014/08/2006 © SPACE IMAGING• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •75

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTEbl Saqi asphalt plantThe site of the Ebl Saqi asphalt plant is about12,000 m² in size, and is situated 600 m above sealevel. The surrounding land is used as follows:a limestone quarry is located 300 m to thesouthwest of the asphalt plant;there is an industrial plant to the northeast,some 150 m from the complex;a residential building, possibly housingagricultural workers, can be found some250 m to the northwest; andwithin the valley itself, there are extensive oliveand fruit tree plantations.The site is located at the transition of an outcropof white marls and limestone to fertile valleyclays. The geological map (Ministry of PublicWorks, 1955) and the hydrogeological map(United Nations, 1967) indicate Eocene toOligocene reef complexes. The limestone containswidespread faults and is referred to as ‘merokarstic’(influenced by fluvial erosion).The relevant equipment on site consisted of:two 15,000 l asphalt heating tanks;one 10,000 l diesel fuel tank;a burner unit to heat the asphalt; anda mixing unit.A water well was located close to the abovementioneddomestic building, some 250 mfrom the site. The water team determined thegroundwater table to be located 180 m belowground surface.Contaminated landThe asphalt tanks were located on a concretesurface. As it was covered by a mixture of graveland sand, its state could not be determined.A compacted layer of clay made auguring below adepth of 0.3 m impossible. However, four sampleswere taken from the immediate vicinity of thetanks, including:ES-CL/WM-01: oily sand from the surface;ES-CL/WM-02: gravel and sand from theconcrete slab close to the tanks;ES-CL/WM-03: clay (0.1-0.3 m belowground surface) from approximately 3 mnortheast of the asphalt tank; andES-CL/WM-04: clay (0.1-0.3 m belowground surface), approximately 6 m northeastof the asphalt tank.All samples showed signs of diesel contamination,and two (nos. 01 and 02) showed signs of asphaltcontamination.A damaged diesel tank in the Ebl Saqi asphalt plant76 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONTable 16.Sample IdentitySoil analysis resultsUnitsES-WM/CL-01ES-WM/CL-02ES-WM/CL-03ES-WM/CL04DutchInterventionValueEPH (DRO) (C10-C40) mg/kg 29,481 25,768 22,833 7,563 5,000EPH (DRO) (C10-C40) mg/kg – – – –GRO (C4-C10) μg/kg – –

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTOverall, the water analysisof dissolved constituentsshowed that there was noimpact on groundwaterfrom the spillage of asphaltand diesel oil within theplant. The results couldtherefore serve as a baselinefor future monitoring ofpotential contaminantseepage into the underlyingaquifer, which could bebrought about by rainfall.Waste managementSolid waste was observedto be present on site inthe form of hydrocarboncontaminated soil andscrap metal from thedamaged tank.AsbestosMaterial similar to asbestos cement roof sheets wasseen on a number of the site’s buildings. However,the material was found to be in generally goodcondition and fit for purpose.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. It is highly recommended that the extent of thesoil contamination be vertically and horizontallyevaluated, and that the hazard to the underlyingaquifer be assessed within two to three months.2. The contaminated soil should be excavated,disposed of and treated.3. Biological contamination of the drinkingwater supplied from the Ebl Saqi boreholeshould be double-checked and, if confirmed,appropriate remedial measures to preventcontamination should be taken.Medium-term recommendations(3 months – 1 year)1. Safety measures for the storage tanks shouldbe improved to avoid spills. In particular, theA pool of diesel and asphalt in the vicinity of the damaged tankstanks should be located within bunded areas,or impounding basins. These structures shouldbe built during the reconstruction of the siteand, if applicable, after the contaminated soilhas been removed and replaced.2. A groundwater monitoring programmeshould be introduced.3. The company should introduce goodenvironmental management practices inits plant operations, as this would not onlyprevent future spills and losses, but wouldalso save energy, fuels, raw materials andsupplies.4. A further improvement to the site would bethe provision, and use, of health and safetyequipment for the staff, along with accessto detergents and eye-rinsing facilities andassociated equipment.Long-term recommendations(1 year +)If additional monitoring confirms biologicalcontamination of the groundwater, measures forwater purification should be considered.78 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONAgricultural facilitiesLiban Lait dairy plantThe site, which covers approximately 20,000 m²,is located 19 km northeast of Zahleh in the BeqaaValley, approximately 1,000 m above sea level. Thearea consists of agricultural land (> 90 per cent)and a few residential buildings.The geological setting is within the Quaternaryarable sediments of the Beqaa Valley. Groundwaterwas established at 700 m below ground level.The Liban Lait dairy factory, whose operationsstarted in the year 2000, was an ultramodernplant that produced and packaged milk products.The factory was completely destroyed during theconflict.Three tanks were found on site, including:a diesel tank (50,000 l);a gasoline tank (35,000 l); andan oil sludge tank (2,500 l).In addition to the above, site maintenance staffreported that a tank containing nitric acid hadbeen destroyed during the bombing.Contaminated landThe three tanks on site survived the conflictapparently intact. Consequently, there were noissues of concern regarding them.However, the pipe leading from the gasoline tank tothe generators appeared to have been repaired in atemporary manner (a water hose was plugged looselyinto a steel pipe), leading to a (presumably) minor spillaround the hose, which was not conflict-related.A pile of electronic waste in the southernmost cornerof the site, and several empty 20 l plastic containersof motor oil and hydrochloric acid a few metres awaywere considered cause for slight concern.A rubbish dump was also visited some 1.5 kmfrom the plant, where it appeared that most wasteproducts from the process were dumped.Two samples were collected for laboratory analysis.Sample no. 13-CL/WM-01 was taken from thesmall-scale spill at the diesel tank, about 10 cmbelow ground level. Sample no. 13-CL/WM-02 wastaken from a pile of ash deposited on a strip of barrenland some 800 m to the west of the factory. The ashwas deposited among other residues, such as burntyoghurt and juice packages from the dairy factory,and veterinary medical waste from the farm.A view of the destroyed Liban Lait dairy complex• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •79

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTLiban Lait dairy plant before the conflictMetres0 20 40 60 80 10020/07/2003 © SPACE IMAGINGTable 17. Soil and ash analysis resultsSample IdentityUnits13-CL/WM-01Spill atgasoline tank13-CL/WM-02Waste dump site(ash sample)DutchInterventionValueAluminium mg/kg – 25,850 –Arsenic mg/kg – – 55Cadmium mg/kg –

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONLiban Lait dairy plant after the conflictpy g p g gMetres0 20 40 60 80 10014/08/2006 © SPACE IMAGINGobtained using portable equipment. According tofield measurements, the quality of groundwaterwas potable. Laboratory analysis detectedchromium (Cr +3 ) and zinc concentrations aboveenvironmental screening values, but substantiallybelow intervention requirements.Unless there are undertermined cracks andfissures, the risk to groundwater is consideredquite low, due to the limited pollution sourcesand the deep aquifer which is overlain by relativelyimpermeable strata.Waste managementThe destruction of the dairy plant generated asignificant amount of waste requiring appropriatedisposal, including but not necessarily limited tothe following:demolition waste, composed primarily of steelbeams, aluminium sheeting, and concreterubble;a small localized leak in the vicinity of thediesel fuel tank;the pile of electronic waste in the southernmostcorner of the site; andseveral empty plastic containers (20 l) ofmotor oil and hydrochloric acid.Perhaps of greater concern was the fact that thefactory appeared to be operating, or using, a dumpsite approximately 1.5 km from the plant, whereall solid waste was apparently dumped. At thetime of the inspection, hazardous healthcare waste(HHCW) relating to the cattle was found in thewaste stream. This, in addition to the potentiallytoxic ash, poses serious risks for the health andsafety of local residents, particularly children.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. Before the generator fuelled by the tanks isoperated, the hose-pipeline connection shouldbe repaired adequately.2. The horizontal and vertical extent of thelocalized spill should be investigated further.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •81

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTHHCW from the dairy plant at the local dump site. Such items represent a serious risk for the healthand safety of local residentsIf it is determined that only negligibleamounts of fuel were spilt, and that thelocal neighbourhood’s water is suppliedfrom deep wells, such as the one locatednear the plant, no further measures will berequired.3. The operation of the dump site should bediscontinued and another – official – disposalsite used.4. The HHCW in the rubbish tip should becollected immediately and disposed of in ahospital incinerator or autoclave. If this isnot possible, deep burial, and the immediateapplication of cover material may suffice asa short-term option until more appropriatesolutions are found.Medium-term recommendations(3 months – 1 year)1. The company should work with the localmunicipality to identify suitable wastedisposal facilities in the vicinity.2. It is recommended that the Ministry ofEnvironment monitor industrial plants’ wastedisposal practices to ensure that they meetappropriate standards.Long-term recommendations (1 year +)1. It is recommended that the Ministry ofEnvironment and local municipalities create awaste inventory to detail and track the wastemanagement practices of commercial entities.Management plans should be prepared for eachcommercial waste generator to ensure that thecorrect procedures are applied and enforced.82 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONEl-Twait feedlot, BeirutThe farm, which covers an area of approximately7,000 m², is situated immediately to the east ofthe Choueifat industrial area, and is thus in thesame geological and geomorphological setting ofQuaternary red soil, with underlying Tertiary orCretaceous limestone. The site is 10-12 m abovesea level, and the groundwater table is 12.5 mbelow ground surface.Prior to the conflict, the site housed a farm thatbred cattle and small livestock, but it was completelydestroyed during the aerial bombardment, reportedlykilling some 175 cows and 430 sheep. At the time of<strong>UNEP</strong>’s visit, the site was covered in rotting animalcarcasses, and there were numerous smoulderingpiles where carcasses were being burnt, generatingboth odour and smoke nuisance to the immediateenvironment. Animal carcasses were also seen next toand within a small river running through the site.Contaminated landThe obvious threat to the environment isbacteriological in nature, and could largely beaddressed through appropriate waste disposalpractices. No agricultural chemicals were foundduring the site inspection.Waste managementThe major waste management issue on siterelated to the countless rotting animal carcassesthat required appropriate disposal rather thanincomplete burning on open fires, the temperaturesof which were unlikely to destroy all pathogenicbacteria.A secondary, relatively simple, problem relatedto the dismantling and disposal of the damagedstructures on site, which were primarily timberanimal pens.Piles of rotting animal carcasses across the site are contaminating surface water and presenta risk for public health• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •83

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTEl-Twait feedlot before the conflictMetres0 20 40 60 80 10017/06/2005 © SPACE IMAGINGSurface and groundwaterThe worst water-related concern is the contaminationof the Ghadir stream – which formsthe site’s southern boundary – by the numerousdead animal carcasses. Furthermore, giventhat the water table at the site is very shallow(12.5 m below ground level), the possibilityof groundwater pollution is a concern. Watersamples were collected from surface water, riverwater (50cSW1) and groundwater (50cGW1).Laboratory analysis indicated exceptionally high totalcoliform (2,240,000/100 ml) and faecal coliform(1,480,000/100 ml) contamination of the Ghadirstream. Elevated faecal coliform counts (13,000/100ml) were also found in the groundwater. Thesecounts are considerably greater than those in samplestaken some 500 m upstream, suggesting that thedead animal carcasses contributed significantly tothe pollution load. Groundwater from neighbouringsites had a coliform count of less than 10/100 ml.Table 18. Sample no: 50cSW1 (E731533, N3744945)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBoron μg/litre 894 500BOD mg/litre 625 NilCOD mg/litre 1710 NilSodium mg/litre 216 200EPH μg/litre 4149 NilGRO μg/litre 8574 NilToluene μg/litre 6210 700Table 19. Sample no: 50cGW1 (E731572, N3744982)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBoron μg/litre 878 500BOD mg/litre 23 NilCOD mg/litre 211 NilSodium mg/litre 291 200EPH μg/litre 56 NilGRO μg/litre 75 Nil84 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONEl-Twait feedlot after the conflictMetres0 20 40 60 80 10019/08/2006 © SPACE IMAGINGElevated levels of extractable petroleumhydrocarbons (EPH) and gasoline range organic(GRO) were also detected in both the groundwaterand surface water. As neither EPH nor GRO werefound in samples taken some 500 m upstream, themost likely source for the petroleum contaminationis the destroyed tanks at Beirut airport, which isimmediately adjacent to the feedlot (less than300 m). Toluene and ethylbenzene were also foundin the stream in concentrations significantly aboveDutch Intervention Values. The site managerreported that rainfall had washed some of thepetroleum into the stream and the well.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. The carcasses on site should all be removedand disposed of either by incineration, orwithin specific cells of a sanitary landfill sitethat manages leachate.2. Any extraction of water downstream from thissite should cease immediately.3. The whole area should be thoroughlydisinfected prior to the dismantling andremoval of the damaged structures, such asthe animal pens. Once the animal carcassesare removed, the bacterial contamination ofthe soil will diminish rapidly.4. Staff involved in the disinfection anddismantling of the site should be issuedappropriate personal protective equipment,including boots, gloves, overalls, hard-hats,and breathing masks. At the completion ofeach day, items such as gloves and overallsshould be treated as hazardous waste anddisposed of accordingly.5. Further investigation is required to ascertainwhether the source of the hydrocarbonloading of both the groundwater and surfacewater is the destruction of the fuel tanks atthe Beirut airport.6. A detailed survey should be conducted todetermine the extent and magnitude of thegroundwater contamination. Based on surveyresults, remedial measures, including a ‘pumpand-treat’system, should be proposed.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •85

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTAl Maalaka aquaculture farmThe Al Maalaka aquaculture farm is located50 km east of Tripoli and 3 km south of Hermel,on the Al-Assi (Orontes) River, which flows northinto Syria.The aquaculture farm is 620 m above sea level andcovers an area of approximately 40,000 m². Thegeological setting is within Miocene and Plioceneconglomerates and limestone. The neighbouringarea comprises a few buildings, probably arecreation camp.The fish farm produced and packed trout, whichwere grown in six 5 x 15 m ponds fed by waterfrom the adjacent river.Much of the infrastructure, including drainagechannels and a number of the concrete ponds, wasextensively damaged in the bombing of the site.One of the ponds had a substantial impact crater,and all of the fish in it had died, presumably fromthe shock waves of explosions.Contaminated landNo relevant chemicals or hazardous substanceswere found during the site inspection. Accordingly,there were no significant concerns regardingcontaminated land at this particular site.Surface and groundwaterFresh water from the river flowed into theaquaculture complex, mixed with the water inthe damaged ponds, and was then dischargedback into the river. The water in the pondscontained numerous dead fish and algal blooms,and appeared to be highly contaminated.Fish feed and other chemicals with the potentialto cause contamination if flushed into the riverwere also seen on site.Accordingly, river water samples were collected atthe site and upstream, to determine what impact,if any, the stagnant water from the damaged fishponds was having on river water quality.On site analysis of water from the Al-Assi Riverindicated a pH below neutral range, suggestingpollution. Although the pH is not above levelsthat would lead to fish and macro-invertebratemortality, it nevertheless represents a stress factorfor aquatic life.Laboratory analysis revealed chromium (Cr +3 )selenium and zinc concentrations aboveenvironmental screening criteria, but below theintervention criteria. This was expected, as lowerpH can induce the release of heavy metals fromsoil minerals. At the same time, the analysis ofA view of the destroyed Al Maalaka fish farm86 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONTable 20.Sample no: 74WW1 – Wastewater on siteLaboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsCOD mg/litre 42 NilSodium mg/litre 1110 200Chloride mg/litre 2284 250demolition waste, composed primarily ofconcrete rubble;a limited quantity of fish feed; andnumerous rotting fish carcasses.AsbestosDead fish and algae in a remaining channelthe water in the fish ponds also showed zincconcentrations above intervention values, andwas hence likely to be the source of the elevatedzinc levels in river water.Naphthalene, a toxic PAH hydrocarbon, wasdetected in both pond (ng144/l) and river water(ng89/l) at concentrations marginally above theintervention value. Potential sources includedsolvents and antiseptics used to disinfect the fishtanks, and/or fuel oil. In addition, high salinitywas found within the damaged fish ponds.Overall, it is considered that the shelling of theaquaculture farms caused a serious water pollutionevent, but that the main impact of the incidentappears to be largely over. This is mainly dueto contaminant dilution by the high river flowdischarge rates, which typically peak in July.However, the residual contaminant in the fishponds represents a more chronic pollution threatand should be remediated.Waste managementThe destruction of the aquaculture farm generateda modest amount of solid waste requiringappropriate handling and disposal, including:Most of the structures within the site wereextensively damaged. Approximately 50 m 2 ofmaterial that appeared to contain asbestos wasseen among the rubble. Laboratory analysisconfirmed the material to be Chrysotile (whiteasbestos). In a number of locations, it was possibleto identify the origin of the material as asbestoscement roof sheeting.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. Spoilt fish feed and dead fish should becollected and disposed of in a sanitary landfillsite. If no such facility is available, burial in adeep trench would be an appropriate low-costsolution.2. As the stagnant water in the fish pondshas PAH levels above intervention values,it should be recovered and treated usingappropriate biological techniques.3. The stagnant water in fish tanks where noPAH was detected could be drained in a stagedmanner, relying on natural attenuation by thefast-flowing highly oxygenated river water torapidly dilute and disperse the pollutants.The drainage should ideally be done duringperiods of high river discharge.4. The tanks should be desludged and the algaemats removed. The sludge should be placed ina compost bin to promote anaerobic organicdegradation, disposed of in a sanitary landfill,or buried as in recommendation 1.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •87

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTUrban ContaminationHaret Hreik Security Square,southern BeirutThe site is a heavily populated residential area inthe southern suburbs of Beirut commonly referredto as Dahia, with high-rise buildings six to twelvestoreys high.Security Square, which falls under the HaretHreik municipality, is approximately 20,000m² in size, and 35-40 m above sea level. Manybuildings in Security Square were destroyed orsustained serious damage. At the time of the siteinspection, however, the considerable task ofrubble removal was well underway.Initial observations suggested that the majorenvironmental problem related to the managementof the debris and rubble, as well as the dustproblems associated with this activity.Waste managementThe destruction of the Haret Hreik SecuritySquare in southern Beirut generated a significantamount of solid waste requiring appropriatedisposal.It should be recognized, however, that at the timeof the site inspection, the clean-up operation waswell underway, and that significant progress hadbeen made in a relatively short period of time. Thesite was a hub of activity, with hundreds of heavytrucks and machines involved in the demolition ofdamaged structures, backfilling of bomb craters,clearing of sites and transportation of rubble fortreatment and disposal.Arguably the most significant impact of the initialdestruction and the subsequent clean-up activitiesis the dust it produces. The level of dust nuisancerecorded by <strong>UNEP</strong> varied according to proximityto the trucks, with the highest reading being1,470 μg/m 3 as compared to an acceptable levelA severely damaged building in the southern suburbs of Beirut88 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONDahia residents gathering corrugated iron from building rubbleof 150 μg/m 3 . Therefore, appropriate mitigatorymeasures to control the dust problem, and theassociated health impacts, should be implementedas a matter of priority.In sum, the waste management issues included,but were not necessarily restricted to:huge volumes of demolition waste, composedprimarily of :– concrete rubble;– steel beams; and– aluminium sheeting;numerous derelict motor vehicles; andlocalized areas of soil and rubble contaminatedwith fuel oil.Contaminated landThe presence of many small generators in therubble is a common problem. According toresidents, these generators are operated in nearlyevery building by one or more of the residents,and the energy generated is sold as a backupduring the frequent power black-outs.In front of one of the generator rooms, a smallamount of machine oil had seeped into the ground.In addition, the whole room smelled of diesel fuel andoil. A sample was collected for laboratory analysis.Table 21.Parameter /Sample IdentitySample no: 44B-CL-01Unit44B-CL-01DutchInterventionValueSample depth bgs m 0.0EPH (DRO) (C10-C40) mg/kg 17,442 5,000PAH by GCMSNaphthalene μg/kg 1,655 –Phenanthrene μg/kg 4,946 –Anthracene μg/kg 602 –Fluoranthene μg/kg 903 –Benz(a)anthracene μg/kg 217 –Chrysene μg/kg 565 –Benzo(k)fluoranthene μg/kg 130 –Benzo(a)pyrene μg/kg 174 –Indeno(123cd)pyrene μg/kg 444 –Benzo(ghi)perylene μg/kg 556 –PAH Dutch List 10 Total μg/kg 10,192 40,000XAcenaphthylene μg/kg 460XAcenaphthene μg/kg 723XFluorene μg/kg 2,213XBenzo(b)fluoranthene μg/kg 261XDibenzo(ah)anthracene μg/kg 278XPyrene μg/kg 2,151PAH 16 Total μg/kg 16,278 –The analysis of the sample shows that the substancespilled in front of the generator was diesel. TheDutch Intervention Value is exceeded more thanthreefold. The size of the spill (approximately2 m²) and the relatively good condition of thefuel drums inside the generator room led to theconclusion that:• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •89

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTHaret Hreik Security Square before the conflictMeters0 20 40 60 80 10017/06/2005 © SPACE IMAGINGThe observed spill was minor;Soil remediation would not be necessary; andThe polluted soil could be excavated at a laterstage of the general clean-up.It should be noted that in a residential suburbsuch the Haret Hreik Security Square, whereover 50 per cent of the buildings were destroyed,soil contamination from small sources like theabove have a comparatively low priority withinthe overall clean-up programme.Surface and groundwaterAs a result of the extensive damage to the area’sinfrastructure, both sewage and water pipelines weredamaged and leaking significantly. Accordingly watersamples were collected from all available sources– domestic (44TW1 and 44TW2), wastewater(44WW1) and groundwater (44GW1) – to establishthe water quality at the site and measure the impactsof the damage.The on site measurements and selected laboratoryresults are provided in tables 22, 23 and 24.Table 22.Sample no: 44TW2 (Water line from Beirut)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBOD mg/litre 1 NilCOD mg/litre 11 NilTable 23. Sample no: 44WW1 (Wastewater)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBoron μg/litre 1088 500Chloride mg/litre 606 250BOD mg/litre 144 NilCOD mg/litre 367 NilTotal Coliforms Count/100 ml 410000 3Faecal Coliforms Count/100 ml 360000 Nil90 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONHaret Hreik Security Square after the conflictMeters0 20 40 60 80 10019/08/2006 © SPACE IMAGINGTable 24. Sample no: 44GW1 (Groundwater sample)Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsBoron μg/litre 1594 500Selenium μg/litre 72 10Sodium mg/litre 6975 200Tap water, supplied by the Beirut WaterEstablishment from Ain Al-Delbeh, is onlyused for domestic non-drinking purposes, aslocal residents buy their drinking supplies fromvendors. On site sample analysis indicated that tapwater was brackish and not of potable quality.The main problem with the piped water, however,is the detection of both total and faecal coliformcounts at levels that pose an intermediate riskto consumers even if the water is only used fordomestic non-drinking purposes, due to the riskof accidental ingestion of pathogens.The source of this microbial contamination could bethe cross-contamination of the water supply by sewagelines that are derelict and/or were damaged duringthe conflict. For other tested parameters, laboratoryanalysis indicates that the tap water does not exceedLebanese or WHO drinking quality standards.Sewage lines damaged in the recent conflictresulted in substantial wastewater spillage inthe vicinity of Security Square. As expected, theanalysis of the spill water indicated high BODand COD levels, as well as elevated faecal coliformcounts which could potentially impact surfaceand groundwater receptors and act as a potentialsource of disease to the local community.At the time of the sampling, some local residentshad started to return to their homes and this trendrapidly increased with the start of the new schoolyear. Exposure to pathogens from the stagnantpools is considered to represent a moderate riskfor residents.It was also observed that the reparation of thedamaged pipelines was generally of sub-standardquality and could lead to a continuation of thecontamination in the longer term.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •91

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTA scene from the Dahia neighbourhoodAsbestosAt one location in the area of inspection, the materialcovering some external pipes had the appearanceof asbestos cement. The material, however, was ingood condition, and fit for purpose.RecommendationsUrgent short-term measures(0 – 3 months)1. During the general clean-up, areas that canbe identified as having suffered small oilspillages should, as far as possible, be handledseparately. The hydrocarbon-contaminatedmaterial should be disposed of separately inregular landfills, instead of being used in landreclamation projects.2. Alternatively, if suitable land is available, soilwith elevated concentrations of hydrocarbonscould be biologically remediated.3. In urgent cases, the potentially negativeconsequences of mixing small quantities ofcontaminated rubble with large volumes of cleanrubble should be weighed against the urgency ofclean-up and the technical options for the site.4. During the clean-up activities and indeedthroughout the rebuilding programme,workers should be provided with appropriatepersonal protective equipment includingoveralls, boots, gloves and breathing masks.5. Due to the negative health consequences ofthe substantial amounts of dust generated onsite, largely as a result of the movement ofheavy trucks, dust control measures shouldbe adopted, such as spraying water over thesurface of dirt roads.6. Due to the risk of ingesting pathogens fromcontaminated water, responsible authoritiesshould advise all residents to routinely boil tapwater even when it is only used for domesticpurposes.7. An environmental sanitary inspection of thewater/wastewater system in Haret Hreik ingeneral and in Dahia in particular should beundertaken, with a view to identifying sourcesof potential contamination.8. Based on the findings of the above-mentionedassessment, damaged water and sewagepipelines and septic tanks should be repairedas a matter of urgency – preferably in advanceof the residents’ return.9. Technical guidelines on best practice inwater and wastewater network rehabilitationshould be provided, with a specific focus onsystem designs that prevent potential crosscontamination.10.Public signs should be erected to deterresidents, especially children, from makingcontact with stagnant pools.92 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONHannawiyah supermarketThe site is located 7 km southeast of thetown of Tyre, near the Hannawiyah towncentre. It occupies an area of approximately1,200 m², and is situated 240 m above sea level.The geological setting is within Cretaceouslimestone; the surrounding land use is mainlyresidential.The line of goods carried by the supermarket isreported by local residents to have compriseddomestic items such as detergents, packaged foodsand fresh vegetables.The building was completely destroyed duringthe conflict, but clean-up was undertaken rapidlyand all the rubble had been removed at the timeof inspection.Contaminated landThere were no major concerns regardingcontaminated land on this site. Two minor (eachless than 0.5 m 3 ) oil spills were observed, but theirimpact on the environment could be considerednegligible.Surface and groundwaterUsing a portable bailer, experts collected samplesfrom a water supply pipeline originating from theRas El-Ain springs near Tyre (HSPW1) and froma sub-surface wastewater tank (HSWW1).Table 25.Laboratory AnalysisParameter Unit Concentration WHO StandardsTotal Coliforms Count/100 ml 20 3Faecal Coliforms Count/100ml

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTA young inhabitant of Zabqine tries a hard hat on for sizeLaboratory analysis found the drinking water(HSPW1) to be within natural range for theparameters measured. Slight faecal coliformcontamination, however, was reported (

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONZabqineThe village of Zabqine is located 5 km southwest ofQana, and is approximately 400 m above sea level.The geological setting is within Cretaceous limestoneand marls. The surrounding land is mainly used forresidential and commercial purposes.The village sustained considerable damage in theconflict, and a significant amount of debris andrubble was in the process of being cleared at thetime of <strong>UNEP</strong>’s visit.Contaminated landThe primary issue of concern at this site was anelectricity transformer that had been destroyed,presumably by rubble falling from a neighbouringbuilding. The electricity pole on which it wasmounted seemed undamaged. By the time of thesite inspection, however, the damaged transformerhad already been replaced with a new one, andhad been removed from the site.Only a small (1 x 1 m) patch of oil-stained soilremained. A soil sample was taken directly fromthe patch of oil for laboratory analysis, in order todetermine if the transformer oil was contaminatedwith polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It consisted ofbrownish soil mixed with concrete residue and rubblefrom the impact on the neighbouring building.As expected, the sample analysis confirmed thepresence of PCBs in a limited area. As the quantityof oil that leaked from the old transformer wasrelatively small, the disposal of the contaminatedsoil (approximately 0.5 to 1 m³) is a matter ofwaste management.Given that this spill was relatively insignificant,risks for people living in the neighbourhood or forthe groundwater resources are not expected.Surface and groundwaterA rainwater sub-surface storage tank was identifiednear the site of the old transformer, and a watersample was taken to determine if any pollutionfrom the transformer oil spillage had occurred.Laboratory analysis indicated that none of theparameters measured, including hydrocarbons,exceeded their environmental screening values.Slight faecal coliform contamination, however,was reported (

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTTable 27.Hydrocarbon analysis resultsSample IdentityUnitsMethod DetectionDutch InterventionGEN1-CL/WM/01LimitValueEPH (DRO) (C10-C40) mg/kg

INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN CONTAMINATIONKhiam prisonKhiam is situated approximately 4 km from theIsraeli border, near Bint Jbeil. The prison, which waslocated on the outskirts of the village, was completelydestroyed during the conflict. <strong>UNEP</strong> visited thesite of the former prison during a follow-up visit toKhiam on 20 and 21 November 2006.Contaminated landApproximately twenty burnt car wrecks and a scrapmetal heap were found on site. Three soil samplesof the omnipresent red clay were taken outside theprison, close to the car park. A sample taken 8 – 15 mfrom the street and 0 – 5 cm below ground level,showed a lead concentration of 6,340 ppm (mg/kg).This is significantly above the average traffic-relatedlead levels of up to 115 ppm (measured 3 m from theroadside), indicated in the Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong>’sState of the Environment Report (2001).The source of the elevated lead concentration ismost likely to be the batteries of the burnt cars,but could also be the smoke plume generated bythe burning cars or the scrap metal deposited onthe site. The possible spill of lead-containing fuelgasoline was ruled out, as no gasoline smell wasdetected.Given that lead is well absorbed by the red clayfound at the site, the substrate would act as anatural buffer against migration, immobilizingthe lead and ensuring that the contaminationremains localized.RecommendationsAlthough the levels of lead found at the siteare significantly above the Dutch InterventionValue of 530 mg/kg, no remediation measuresare considered necessary due to the localized andstatic nature of the contamination.Burnt car batteries are likely to be the source of elevated lead concentrations at the site of the formerKhiam prison• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •97

Solid and HazardousWasteA fleet of tipper trucks queue at theOuzaii dump site. The conflict generateda massive amount of debris and buildingrubble, which requires appropriatemanagement and disposal.© AP Photo – Dimitri Messinis

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTSolid and hazardouswasteIntroductionTo develop an understanding of the wastemanagement situation in <strong>Lebanon</strong>, and to gaugethe extent of the waste-related impacts of theconflict with Israel, the assessment team inspectedthe following waste management facilities:closed Normandy dump site, Beirut;Ouzaii rubble disposal site, Beirut;rubble disposal site in the Al-Aitam areamunicipality of (Bourj el Barajina) in Beirut;Tyre dump site;Khiam rubble disposal site;Zahleh sanitary landfill site;Naameh sanitary landfill site, Chouf;Bsalim inert waste disposal site, Metn;Karantina waste processing plant, Beirut; andwaste composting plant, Beirut.In addition, all the conflict-impacted sites visited bythe main team, as discussed in the ‘Industrial andUrban Contamination’ section, were also examinedfrom a waste management perspective.Due to the large number of sampleanalyses conducted, only selectedfield and laboratory results have beenincluded in this report. However,complete results can be accessed at:http://lebanonreport.unep.chPreliminary observationsThe findings of the investigation make clear thatthe management of solid waste remains one ofthe most critical environmental problems in<strong>Lebanon</strong> today. With the exception of Beirut andMount <strong>Lebanon</strong>, which have engineered disposalsites, virtually every town and village in <strong>Lebanon</strong>operates a dump site with the result that there areover 700 dump sites throughout the country.Given that the production of waste is reportedto be growing at four per cent per annum,representing an overall growth of some 60 percent between 2006 and 2030 1 , these serious wastemanagement problems need to be addressed asa matter of national priority. In addition, thepopulation in <strong>Lebanon</strong> almost doubles during thesummer tourism season, exerting further pressureon the weak waste management system.A view of the Tyre dump site, which is a source of dust, smoke, odours and disease vectors100 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTEMap 7.Sampling sites – solid and hazardous waste36°ENahr El K ebirNahr El KebirBeirutJdaideWadi AwikWadi AwikNa her OstoueneHalbaNahr El KebirBaabdaWadi GhadirWadi BarsaEl MinieTripoliNORTH LEBANONAliN a her El BaredNahr El AssiAleyWadi BarsaNaher AbouZghartaSir Ed DanniyeHermelNah r El Assi34°NM e d i te r r an e a nS e aBeirutWadi GhadirWadi AnteliasJdaideBaabdaJounieAleyBatrounWadi BacchtaWadW adi MadWadi MouhnaneWadi GhazirWadi Fid ari JouniehfounWadi MouhnaneJbeilNaherIbrahi mMOUNT LEBANONNaher BeirutAmiounNaher ElWadi AsfourNaher Al JaouzKelbWadi BarsaNaher Abou AliNa h er Ab o u AliZahlehBcharretaniNaher El LiNa hr El As siNahr ElAssiBAALBEK HERMELBaalbek34°NBeit ed DineWadi IklimEl KharroubBEQAAJoub JanineSaghbineWadiEl MansiyyeSaidaNaher SainikSOUTHJezzineLEBANONRachaiyaDamascusWadi South Said aN aher Zahra niNaher El LitaniNaher AbouAssouadHasbeyaNabatiyeh MarjayounNaher El HasbaniWadi AbuZebleTyre (Sour)NABATIYEHWadi Merj HineWadi AlIzziyeBint JbeilUNDOF33°NKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeightsSampling sites : solid and hazardous wasteSources: Admin (GIST); Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).33°NThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •101

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTAsbestos MonitoringGenerally speaking, all the sites that had been bombed were derelict, though some of thelocations had already been cleared, and removal of the debris was underway in others.Asbestos-containing building materials are not expected in modern buildings, and themajority of destroyed or damaged buildings encountered during the assessment wereof relatively modern construction, with most reported to be less that ten years old. Insites where the buildings were older, however, such as the Al Maalaka fish farm and theBint Jbeil school, asbestos cement building products were observed and sampled.Asbestos cement products were noted in several locations, but no source could beidentified on site. It is possible that most of the asbestos building products had beenremoved from the sites, together with the general rubble, or that the asbestos cementproducts had been brought to the sites from elsewhere and dumped there.Asbestos cement is generally considered to present a low risk to human health.Following suitable training and the development of an appropriate, safe method ofwork, it should be possible for local personnel to undertake a programme of collectionof asbestos cement debris.Collected materials would need to be suitably contained, transported and disposedof at a landfill site able to take such waste. This work would require supervision andmonitoring by suitably experienced and qualified personnel.Sites at which no asbestos materials were noted should not be considered to be free fromasbestos until the security situation allows for a detailed and complete inspection of thearea to be undertaken. Where sewage pipes were damaged, the presence of asbestoscontaining materials should be investigated, as such pipes frequently contain asbestos.The assessment also revealed that many dump sitesthroughout <strong>Lebanon</strong> are situated in unsuitablelocations, including old quarries, river valleys,and areas by the seashore or adjacent to majorwater courses.This critical situation has clearly been compoundedby the recent conflict. Many existing sites havebecome overrun with demolition material, andnumerous new dump sites have been developed todeal with the added burden. Further, and perhapsmore seriously, considerably more hazardoushealthcare waste (HHCW) – due to the highnumber of deaths and injuries in the conflict – isreported to be mixed in with municipal waste andfinding its way into the disposal sites.With the exception of those containing onlydemolition waste, every site the <strong>UNEP</strong> teamvisited was found to be causing contaminationof both ground and surface water throughthe uncontrolled discharge of leachate, thecomplex network of fissures in the undergroundlimestone allowing pollutants to move rapidly andunpredictably to the underlying aquifers.Another obvious threat to public health is the risk ofconsuming contaminated meat products, as sheep,goats and cattle were seen grazing in dump sitescontaining a variety of hazardous materials, suchas medical, slaughterhouse and industrial waste.In addition, inspected dump sites were found tobe responsible for a proliferation of several disease102 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTEvectors, including flies, mosquitoes and rodents,while the routine burning of waste materialsfrequently subjected residents to noxious fumes.One example of a dump site creating seriousenvironmental and public health issues is the site<strong>UNEP</strong> inspected in Tyre.The recent conflict has exacerbated the Lebanesewaste management situation in many respects,including:• During the conflict, the general breakdown inthe delivery of municipal services, includingwaste collection, resulted in a build-up ofuncollected waste in close proximity to housesand surface watercourses;• Following the conflict, existing dump sitesbecame overwhelmed with rubble anddemolition material, and numerous new dumpsites were hastily created, such as the ones atOuzaii and in Bourj el Barajina municipality;• As a result of the oil spill from the Jiyeh powerplant, several thousand cubic metres of oilcontaminatedwaste materials collected duringclean-up operations require disposal;• Due to the many deaths and injuries causedby the conflict, larger than usual quantitiesof hazardous healthcare waste (HHCW)are reported to have been disposed of in themunicipal waste stream, posing a serious riskto the health of staff involved in the collectionand disposal of waste, and in particular,to low-income individuals, often children,engaged in waste-picking and scavengingactivities; and• There is a risk that the rubble and debrisgenerated by the conflict may be contaminatedby asbestos. If this were the case, it wouldpresent serious long-term health risks tothose involved in the site clean-up activitiesand those working at the waste disposal sitesreceiving the material.View of the Ouzaii rubble disposal site from the sea• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •103

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTThe dump site at Ouzaii, developed recently tocater for the large volumes of demolition wastecreated by the conflict, does not pose a significantrisk to water resources, thanks mainly to the inertnature of the run-off. The site at Khiam, however,is situated in a winter water way and does pose arisk of contamination. Both sites were found tocause a number of nuisances and public healthrisks for those working on, and living adjacentto, the sites, including:dust;smoke;noise; andsafety risks relating to the large number ofheavy vehicles entering and manoeuvringaround the sites, with little if any supervision,and the almost complete absence of personalprotective equipment (PPE) for staff andcontractors on site.Dust readings were recorded by the mission teamat a number of sites visited. The results of thisexercise are summarized in the box below.A further serious concern is the almost completeabsence of basic personal protective equipment(PPE) for staff and contractors working on thevarious waste disposal sites. As a minimum,individuals should be provided with:safety boots;gloves;overalls;torches;breathing masks; anda helmet.Once provided, employers should ensure that theuse of appropriate personal protective equipmentis a condition for working on any site.Dust MonitoringDust monitoring was carried out by the <strong>UNEP</strong> team using a hand-held Personal DataRam. The values recorded are time weighed average values for 10 minutes per location.The values obtained were compared against the National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQ)Standards provided by the United States <strong>Environmental</strong> Protection Agency.The NAAQ standard for dust concentration in air is 150 μg/m 3 . The readingsat the Khiam dump site and the Ouzaii dump site were found to be 363 and1,834 μg/m 3 respectively.Clearly, both sites are generating unacceptably high levels of dust which – ifunaddressed – will impact negatively on the health of site workers and that ofmembers of the public visiting or passing in close proximity to the sites.Further, it should be noted that high dust readings were not restricted to dumpsites only. Indeed, readings as high as 1,470 micrograms/m 3 were recorded in theHaret Hreik suburb of Beirut, where massive clean-up operations were ongoing.On all sites where dust generation represents a threat to the health of workers and thegeneral public, a number of measures should be introduced as a matter of priority:The areas of operation should be made inaccessible to the general public and regularlysprayed with water to suppress dust generation from vehicle movements;Speed limits should be implemented and enforced by site staff;Face masks should be issued to all staff, and their use enforced; andWorker rotation should be introduced to minimize individual exposure to dust.104 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTEThe Khiam dump site illustrates the high levels of dust generation at most rubble disposal sitesExisting sanitary landfill sitesIn addition to numerous dump sites, two sanitarylandfill sites were visited to determine whether thisrelatively sophisticated technology was affordable andsustainable in the Lebanese context:the Naameh sanitary landfill site, Beirut; andthe Zahleh sanitary landfill site, Beqaa Valley.The two sites operate on very different scales: theZahleh landfill site serves some 150,000 people,while the Naameh landfill site serves most ofBeirut and Mount <strong>Lebanon</strong> (excluding cazaJbel), with a combined population of close to twomillion people.Despite the different scale of operation, both sitesbroadly meet the criteria for sanitary landfill sites,as they have features such as:synthetic, low permeability base membranes;electronic weigh-bridge for recording incomingwaste;leachate collection and preliminary treatment;landfill gas management systems, with flaring;waste sorting;waste recycling; andwaste composting (for Beirut and most ofMount <strong>Lebanon</strong>).In addition, both the Zahleh and the Naamehlandfill sites are operated by private contractors.It is recognized by the Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong> 2that where private contractors have been engaged,improvements in the quality of services providedhave been realized, and there is consequently adesire on the part of the government (which issupported by <strong>UNEP</strong>) to extend the participationof the private sector in service delivery.Despite the similarities in features, the two sitesrepresent extremely different models of funding,contracting and operation. As a consequence,there is a wide variation in the cost of the servicesoffered to the public, with the Zahleh landfilloffering excellent value for money.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •105

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTThe lack of basic health and safety equipment, as seen here at the Ouzaii dump site, is a serious concernIt is reported that the Council for Development andReconstruction (CDR), which answers directly tothe Prime Minister, pays for the operation of bothsites. However, it is understood that in addition, themunicipality of Zahleh charges other municipalitiesfor the use of the site on a tonnage basis 3 . Thesefunds, which are reportedly invested, are to be usedfor the maintenance of the existing site and for theconstruction of a new landfill in the future. On thesurface, this appears to be an extremely promisingapproach. The cost of the service is, however,problematic for some municipalities and shouldbe passed on to the waste generator to accord fullywith the ‘polluter pays’ principle.It is further reported that under the World BankSWEMP 4 project, a total of ten regional landfillsites were identified for development, but that onlythe Zahleh landfill was eventually constructed. Thereasons for this are complex, but relate, at leastin part, to the very high level of objection fromlocal residents to any landfill construction (knownglobally as the ‘not-in my-back-yard’ phenomenon).The Zahleh landfill’s success is apparently due to thepro-active role of the mayor and municipality, whowork in close collaboration with local NGOs, andother municipalities. There are, however, concernsregarding the location of the site.Reasons for failed solid wastemanagement initiativesThe development of the Zahleh landfill site andthe closure of the Normandy dump site in Beirutare examples of successful projects in the wastemanagement sector of <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Unfortunately, thereare numerous examples of solid waste managementplans that have failed despite funding from theinternational community and the existence ofsuitable geological and environmental conditions.106 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTEThe primary reason for this situation appears to bestrong community opposition to the constructionof new sanitary landfill sites throughout <strong>Lebanon</strong>,which is compounded by insufficient publiceducation and consultation exercises with localresidents. Local authorities are understandablyreluctant to approve the construction of regionallandfills within their communities, as theimportation of waste from other areas is perceivedas extremely negative and unpopular amongst thelocal electorate.The absence of appropriate legislation to regulatewaste management activities, which arethe responsibility of local municipalities, isanother disincentive for the development ofengineered solutions. It is, however, understoodthat a draft law is being prepared under theongoing METAP (Mediterranean <strong>Environmental</strong>Technical Assistance Programme), funded by theEU and managed by the World Bank.Open dump sites – with all of their associatedhealth and environmental consequences – arethe norm in <strong>Lebanon</strong>, with Beirut and Mount<strong>Lebanon</strong> being the only exceptions. In recognitionof this problem, the European Union (throughits Management Support Consultant InvestmentPlanning Programme) funded a 2005 studyby Raji Maasri 5 on the existence and potentialrehabilitation of dump sites throughout thecountry.Maasri’s report, which provides a significant amountof background information on waste managementin <strong>Lebanon</strong>, makes a distinction between severaldifferent categories of dump sites:Sites contracted and managed by CentralGovernment, such as the one in Tripoli, whoseoperations are controlled by a consultant; somecontainment measures, such as gas collectionand flaring, with the daily application of covermaterial, are implemented there, but there isno base liner and no leachate recirculation ortreatment;Sites contracted and managed by municipalities,such as the ones at Saida and Hbaline, whereaccess is controlled and cover material isperiodically applied;Sites contracted and managed by municipalities,but where no control is exercized, such as thesites at Kayyal in Baalbek;Sites contracted by municipalities andmanaged by the private sector;Sites owned and managed by the private sector,such as Srar, where access is controlled andcover material is periodically applied; andCompletely unmanaged sites, such as roadsidesites often located down steep slopes, whereneither access nor operations are controlled.The Zahleh sanitary landfill, where good use of cover material minimizes problems with odours and pests• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •107

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTInstitutional frameworkThere are several key players in <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s wastemanagement sector, at both the national and subnationallevels, including:At the national level:The Ministry of Interior and Municipalities(MoIM), which is responsible for the activitiesof the municipalities;This situation is aggravated by the fact that thereis no mechanism by which either the MoIMor the CDR report back to the MoE. Little, ifany, corrective measures are therefore taken, andpenalties are rarely enforced.Legal frameworkThe Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong> has signed anumber of national laws and regulations, as wellas international treaties, including:The Ministry of Environment (MoE), whichis responsible for developing solid wastemanagement strategies and for monitoringwaste management services, such as theoperations of waste disposal sites;The Ministry of Finance, which is financing allsolid waste management projects in Beirut andZahleh through the Council for Developmentand Reconstruction (CDR); andThe CDR which, under the authority ofthe Prime Minister, has been responsible forimplementing a waste management plan in theGreater Beirut area, and has developed proposalsfor establishing waste management infrastructureand services elsewhere in the country.the Basel Convention;the Convention on the Prevention of MarinePollution by Dumping of Wastes and OtherMatter;the Protocol Concerning MediterraneanSpecially Protected Areas and Protocol for theProtection of the Mediterranean Sea againstPollution from Land-based Sources; andthe Kyoto Protocol to the UN FrameworkConvention on Climate Change.The lack of a country-wide land use system whichcould dictate the protection of certain zones due totheir natural, cultural or socio-economic resources,exacerbates the difficulties of adhering to national andinternational laws relating to waste management.At the sub-national level:Local municipalities are responsible for collectingand transporting waste. Indeed, the 2005National Physical Master Plan for the LebaneseTerritory articulates the vision that municipalitiesshould become more independent in managingtheir solid waste, and should rely less on centralgovernment and the CDR in the future.The MoE is primarily responsible for monitoringthe operations of the few existing landfills and themany dump sites. Although they constantly receivecomplaints from members of the public regardingsmoke and odour nuisances in particular, MoEstaff are unable to take direct action. Rather, theyare required to communicate information relatingto disposal sites to the Ministry of Interior andMunicipalities (MoIM), as those are the responsibilityof the respective municipalities. Information aboutsanitary landfill sites must be communicated to theCDR, who finances the operations.This situation may soon be improved, however,thanks to the production of the National PhysicalPlan of the Lebanese Territories (NPPLT) 6 , whichis understood to be currently awaiting ratificationby the Council of Ministers.The need to protect waterresourcesThe NPPLT prioritizes the closure of dumpsites, as it recognizes that the “fractures and karstnetworks facilitate point and non-point sourcespollutants to percolate and infiltrate deep into theground, thus making groundwater vulnerable”.The document goes on to stress the need to protectthe Lebanese natural and cultural heritage.Because <strong>Lebanon</strong> receives a reasonable amount ofrain and its geology is mainly karstic in nature,fairly extensive surface and groundwater resourceshave developed. These factors have in turn allowedthe development of a thriving agricultural sector.108 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTEThe dump site in the Bourj el Barajina municipality, which has been created to deal with conflict-related debrisAccordingly, it is essential that <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s waterresources be protected.However, the prevalent open dumping of solidwaste is contaminating the sea, surface waterchannels, groundwater aquifers and springs, andis impacting negatively on both drinking andirrigation water.Addressing the problems associated with dumpsites, and providing suitable alternatives throughan integrated waste management strategy,including a network of sanitary landfill sites,waste recycling and composting, should clearlybe a national priority.An important early step in this process is theestablishment of priority dump sites to be closed.From a scientific and environmental perspective,priority for closure and/or upgrading should begiven to those sites impacting most negativelyon water resources and/or public health. Otherimportant considerations should be whether analternative waste disposal site exists, and whetherthe dump site in question can be upgraded to anengineered landfill.Further, there is a need to educate wastegenerators, and to put mechanisms in placeto ensure compliance with legal requirements,such as those addressing the illegal dumping ofwaste.<strong>UNEP</strong> found that the Zahleh landfill site providesan excellent working model that could bereplicated throughout <strong>Lebanon</strong>. The many positivecomponents of the site’s operations include thelead taken by the mayor and local municipality,the active participation of local NGOs, and thecooperation of other municipalities. All of theabove factors have combined to provide the regionwith an excellent and affordable site.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •109

Water ResourcesRain water reservoirs, like this one inBint Jbeil, are one of the main sourcesof communal water in <strong>Lebanon</strong>

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTWater resourcesIntroductionIn the arid Middle East, <strong>Lebanon</strong> is distinguishedby its relatively large freshwater supplies. Giventhat the country benefits from one of the highestwater per capita ratios in the region, freshwateris perhaps its single most important naturalresource. The protection and sustainable useof its water wealth have accordingly been oneof <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s major development challenges,particularly as forecasts predict that the countryis likely to experience a water deficit within thenext ten to fifteen years 1 .The heavy damage incurred by the country’s civiland water infrastructure during the 2006 conflictdisrupted the supply, distribution and managementof water resources, and rendered them vulnerableto contamination risks. Moreover, the targeting ofindustrial facilities raised concerns about potentialpollution of surface and groundwater.To consider the cumulative impacts of the conflicton the water sector as a whole, it is essential tounderstand the pre-conflict state of water resources,including stressors and water quality conditions.Due to the large number of sample analysesconducted, only selected field and laboratoryresults have been included in this report.However, complete results, as well as Dutchand WHO standards, can be accessed at:http://lebanonreport.unep.chThis chapter, therefore, attempts to contextualizethe results of the water quality sampling, fieldobservations and stakeholder consultationswithin the overall water management situationin <strong>Lebanon</strong>. The discussion also considers, asappropriate, the significance of conflict-relatedwater degradation within hydrologic spatial units(i.e. at the aquifer or catchment level). Finally,other issues such as land-based sources of marinepollution and transboundary water disputes arealso addressed.While preliminary results are indicative of thesignificance of potential contamination andprovide a basis for recommending remedial actionsand further studies, the limitations of watersampling in determining the conflict’s impact onwater quality should be recognized. Sample analysisMonitoring of surface water quality using portable analytical equipment in the Choueifat industrial area in Beirut112 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WATER RESOURCESMap 8.Sampling sites – water resources36°ENahr El K ebirNahr El KebirBeirutJdaideWadi AwikWadi AwikNa her OstoueneHalbaNahr El KebirBaabdaWadi GhadirWadi BarsaEl MinieTripoliNORTH LEBANONAliN a her El BaredNahr El AssiAleyWadi BarsaNaher AbouZghartaSir Ed DanniyeHermelNah r El Assi34°NM e d i te r r an e a nS e aBeirutWadi GhadirWadi AnteliasJdaideBaabdaJounieAleyBatrounWadi BacchtaWadW adi MadWadi MouhnaneWadi GhazirWadi Fid ari JouniehfounWadi MouhnaneJbeilNaherIbrahi mMOUNT LEBANONNaher BeirutAmiounNaher ElWadi AsfourNaher Al JaouzKelbWadi BarsaNaher Abou AliNa h er Ab o u AliZahlehBcharretaniNaher El LiNa hr El As siNahr ElAssiBAALBEK HERMELBaalbek34°NBeit ed DineWadi IklimEl KharroubBEQAAJoub JanineSaghbineWadiEl MansiyyeSaidaNaher SainikSOUTHJezzineLEBANONRachaiyaDamascusWadi South Said aN aher Zahra niNaher El LitaniNaher AbouAssouadHasbeyaNabatiyeh MarjayounNaher El HasbaniWadi AbuZebleTyre (Sour)NABATIYEHWadi Merj HineWadi AlIzziyeBint JbeilUNDOF33°NKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeightsSampling sites : water resourcesSources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).33°NThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •113

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTresults present a snapshot of existing conditionsat a particular point in time; they are thereforetemporally insufficient to make a full assessmentof the magnitude and severity of conflict-relatedwater pollution. Since the collection of sampleswas carried out before the onset of the rainyseason (November-April), the mobilization ofcontaminants may have not yet occurred. Ideally,monitoring should be designed over an extendedtime range (i.e. hydrological calendar) to verifythe trend in potential contaminant diffusion inreceiving water systems. It is hence difficult togeneralize or draw firm conclusions about theoverall impact of conflict-related water pollutionfrom a single field exercise.Overview of water resourcesSome forty streams and rivers and two thousandsprings originate in <strong>Lebanon</strong>, making it one of themain headwater regions of the Levant. The averageannual rainfall is estimated at 823 mm 2 . As it istopographically more elevated than its neighbours,the direction of drainage is outward from <strong>Lebanon</strong>,with only minor external inflow. Thus, unlike mostother countries in the region, <strong>Lebanon</strong> enjoys acertain “hydrological autonomy”, generating andcontrolling the majority of its water resources.Most of the streams and rivers discharge directlyinto the Mediterranean Sea, but two significanttransboundary rivers arise in <strong>Lebanon</strong>: the Hasbani,a tributary of the Jordan River, and the Al-Assi(Orontes) that runs north-east into Syria.Less than 25 per cent of <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s estimated averageyearly precipitation of 8.6 billion m 3 is consideredto be realistically recoverable as exploitablesurface and groundwater. Seventeen of <strong>Lebanon</strong>’sforty major rivers are perennial – all originatingfrom karstic springs – and the rest are seasonal.The majority of the perennial rivers flow westfrom the Mount <strong>Lebanon</strong> range and dischargeinto the Mediterranean Sea. The Litani, whichoriginates in the Beqaa plain, is entirely within<strong>Lebanon</strong>, while the Kebir, Al-Assi and Hasbanirivers are shared with its neighbours 3 . The maincatchments that could potentially have been affectedby the conflict include the Litani, Hasbani,Al-Assi, Abou Assouad, El-Zahrani, Saitani, Awali,Damour, and the seasonal Ghadir stream.Groundwater accounts for 20 to 50 per cent of<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s two billion m 3 of total net exploitablewater. The distinguishing characteristic of<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s hydrogeology is a highly developedkarstic network in the Jurassic and Cretaceouslimestone layers. As the limestone formationsare heavily fissured and fractured, recharge ofthe aquifers by rainfall and snowmelt is relativelyrapid, despite the depth of the groundwatertable, which typically ranges from 50 to 300 m.At the same time, these geologic features rendergroundwater susceptible to leaching and pollutionseepage. The lack of adequate licensing control andmonitoring of well water withdrawal is the mainproblem undermining sustainable groundwatermanagement.Table 29. Approximate annual water balanceDescriptionYearly average flows [million m³]Precipitation 8,600Evapotranspiration 4,300Surface water flow to neighbouring countries 670• Flow to Syria 510– Al-Assi (Orontes) River 415– El-Kebir River 95• Flow to Israel 160Groundwater seepage 1,030Net potential surface and groundwater available 2,600Net exploitable surface and groundwater 2,000Source: Adapted from <strong>Lebanon</strong> State of the Environment Report, MoE/LEDO, 2001.114 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WATER RESOURCESMap 9.Watershed and wastewater outfalls in <strong>Lebanon</strong>36°Er a ne a nS e aKoura (1)Wadi BarsaWadi AwikN a her EWadi Awikl BaredNa her OstoueneHalbaTripoli (5)El MinieTripoliWadAkkar (2)i BarsaZghartaSir Ed DanniyeNahr El KebirNahrEHermell KebirNahr ElAssiNahr El Assit e rM e d iBatroun (4)Jbeil (5)BatrounW adi MadfounWadi BacchtaWadi MouhnaneWadi MouhnaneWadi AsfourNaher Al JaouzWadi BarsaAmiounNaher Abou AliNa h er Ab o u AliBcharreNa hr El As siAssiNahr ElJbeilWadi Fid arNaherIbrahi m34°NKesrouan (6)Metn (7)Beirut (7)JounieWadi AnteliasWadi GhazirWadi JouniehNaher ElKelbtaniNaher El LiBaalbek34°NBeirutBaabda (3)Aley (1)Wadi GhadirJdaideBaabdaAleyNaher BeirutZahlehNaher ElLitaniChouf (3)Beit ed DineWadi IklimEl KharroubJoub JanineSaghbineWadiEl MansiyyeSaida (6)SaidaWadi South Said aNaher SainikJezzineRachaiyaDamascusN aher Zahra niNaher AbouAssouadHasbeyaNabatiyeh MarjayounNaher El HasbaniTyre (3)Wadi AbuZebleTyre (Sour)Wadi Merj HineWadi AlIzziyeBint JbeilUNDOF33°NKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeights36°EWatershed33°NWastewater outfallSaida (6):number of outfalls.Sources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).Outfall : adapted from CDR/LACECO (2000).The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •115

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTWater qualityThe quality of surface and groundwater hashistorically been impaired by untreated domesticsewage disposal, agricultural run-off, industrialeffluents and leachate from open dumping.Because there is no systematic monitoring ofeffluent discharges and enforced ambient waterquality in <strong>Lebanon</strong>, it is difficult to accuratelyquantify pollution loads discharged into waterbodies. The most recent estimates available,however, indicate a substantial increase inpollution loads, with annual domestic wastewaterreleases growing by 53 per cent from 1995 to 249millionm 3 in 2001. A study from 1995 estimatedindustrial effluents at about 22.3 million m 3 peryear. More recent extrapolations have almostdoubled this volume, to 43 million m 3 in 2001.Most of the domestic and industrial dischargeends up in the sea 4 .Water pollution from diffuse non-point sourcesis also an issue of concern due to the substantialgrowth in agrochemical application. In 2005, anestimated 7,510 tonnes of pesticides and 75,829tons of chemical fertilisers were imported 5 .Uncontrolled over-pumping of groundwaterin coastal agglomerations – particularly in andaround Beirut – has lead to water table draw-downand serious seawater intrusion into groundwater.Screening studies show elevated salinity levelsin coastal groundwater compared with baselinefigures from the 1960s 6 .Available data on surface and groundwater qualityis based on sporadic and ad-hoc studies conductedby various institutions. Moreover, informationon effluent disposal routes is insufficient. Theknowledge base to underpin and measure conflictrelatedsurface and groundwater pollutionrequires temporally continuous water samplingand monitoring, something <strong>Lebanon</strong> presentlylacks. As a result, it is difficult to identify andseparate with accuracy the pre-conflict pollutionlegacy from that generated by the war.WastewaterUntreated wastewater, mainly domestic but alsoincreasingly industrial, is the principal threatto <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s waters. It is difficult to qualifythe composition of this chronic pollution load– whose combined waste stream in 2001 wasestimated at 293 million m 3 – and its consequentimpact on water quality. As most of this pollutedwater finds its way into the Mediterranean Sea,it is the coastal and marine environment thatis perhaps most adversely affected. Indeed,there are approximately 53 wastewater outfallsstrewn along <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s coastline. The severityof the impact is reflected in the fact that of theten coastal areas monitored by the NationalCentre for Marine Sciences, only one stationwas deemed suitable for bathing, as all othersexceeded WHO’s faecal coliform standards forrecreational waters 7 .According to a housing census in 1998, lessthan 60 per cent of buildings in <strong>Lebanon</strong> wereconnected to sewage networks 8 . Although thespate of reconstruction that the country hasundergone over the past several years has extendednetwork coverage and building sewer connectivity,the situation remains wanting. Most of the housesin rural areas use cesspools and septic tankswhich, due to poor design and maintenance, aresusceptible to seepage and considered an importantsource of faecal contamination of groundwater.Moreover, sewage sludge is typically disposed ofon land, or dumped in empty boreholes, readilypolluting groundwater. While major projectsto extend sewage networks are underway, theiroperation is dependent on their connection totreatment plants.There is an acute deficiency in wastewatertreatment capacity in <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Not only is theGhadir treatment plant serving the southernsuburbs of the Greater Beirut Area the onlyoperational facility in the country, but it onlyprovides basic primary wastewater treatment priorto discharging into the sea. A feasibility study hasbeen completed to upgrade the Ghadir plant,but funding has not been secured. Thirty-ninewastewater treatment plants are at various stages ofdevelopment: ten under construction, twenty-twounder preparation, and seven without funding 9 .Despite these ambitious plans, implementationhas been slow. Small-scale wastewater treatmentprojects have been implemented in rural areas inrecent years, but their success has been mixed.Finally, there are no existing or planned facilitiesfor industrial wastewater treatment in <strong>Lebanon</strong>.116 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WATER RESOURCES<strong>Conflict</strong>-related water pollutionsourcesWhile the potential for conflict-related toxiccontamination of surface and groundwater couldbe significant locally, it is considered to be low onthe national level for two principal reasons:(i) Military targets consisted mainly of residentialand civil infrastructure, which typicallycontain relatively small chemical pollutantsources; and(ii) The lack of a heavy industrial base in <strong>Lebanon</strong>and the spatially dispersed targeting of facilitiesduring the conflict restricted the potential fora significant hazardous waste stream.Moreover, several firms stopped their operationsand emptied storage tanks during the conflict,thereby minimizing potential pollution.On the other hand, significant damage to thewater supply and wastewater infrastructureposes a threat to drinking water supplies andsanitation services and could lead to increases innutrient loading, as well as engender or aggravatebacteriological and pathogenic groundwatercontamination.Damaged industrial facilitiesIn view of <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s predominantly lightmanufacturing industry and fairly limited use ofchemicals and hazardous substances, the overallrisk of water contamination due to the conflict wasconsidered to be low. This was generally confirmed by<strong>UNEP</strong>, as relatively few chemical spills and leakageswere observed during the site visits. Nevertheless,the targeting of light manufacturing plants andstorage warehouses did create a significant sourceof localized water pollution in specific cases.One of the main zones impacted during the conflictwas the Choueifat industrial area, located nearthe airport on the southern outskirts of Beirut.Reconnaissance information indicated that atleast thirteen sites in Choueifat were targetedand either damaged or totally destroyed. Giventhat fires consumed considerable quantitiesof industrial materials and goods at the sites,substantial waste residue, contaminated soil and ashrepresent a potential pollution source for surfaceand groundwater. Specifically, a cluster of threeenterprises located in close proximity (Transmed,<strong>Lebanon</strong> Company for Carton Mince and Industryand El-Twait feedlot) represents a contaminatedhotspot requiring remedial action to remove thewaste, and conduct detailed water quality surveyingand regular monitoring.Water sampling at the El-Twait feedlot in the Choueifat industrial area• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •117

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTStagnant water pools from damaged water mains in Haret HreikThe Ghadir stream that traverses the Choueifatindustrial area prior to discharging into theMediterranean Sea was found to be especiallythreatened by pollution. Laboratory analysis ofseveral samples from the stream detected thepresence of heavy metals and volatile organiccompounds (VOCs). On site testing of dissolvedoxygen showed it to be significantly below thelevels required to support most aquatic organisms.Laboratory tests confirmed that the low dissolvedoxygen levels were due to excessive chemical andbiological demand. At the same time, however,it should be noted that the Ghadir was heavilypolluted prior to the conflict by industrial andsewage effluent discharge, which continues totake place. Given the high levels of pre-existingcontamination, it was difficult to assess thepollution load generated by the conflict.Groundwater analysis detected contamination bya number of heavy metals and toxic benzene (acarcinogen), with levels generally above standardenvironmental screening values. Precipitation islikely to lead to the migration of contaminants tothe groundwater. Indeed, a groundwater sampletaken after the first rainfall in October 2006showed considerably elevated values for severalelements including arsenic, copper, nickel andselenium, as compared to a sample taken beforethe rain event. A notable increase in nitrate andnitrite levels was also measured and found to beslightly in excess of WHO drinking water qualitystandards for the latter.Damaged water and wastewater facilitiesYears of conflict and poor maintenance have leftthe aging water and sanitation infrastructure– whose construction pre-dates the 1970s civilwar – in a derelict state. Water system losses areestimated to reach 50 per cent of the total supply,and groundwater contamination from leakysewers has been a chronic issue of concern 10 . Therehabilitation and expansion of the water supplyand wastewater collection infrastructure haveaccordingly been one of the main goals of thereconstruction drive launched by the Governmentof <strong>Lebanon</strong> in the mid-1990s. The 2006 conflictnot only stalled rehabilitation efforts but alsocaused considerable damage to water supply andwastewater operations. Indeed, the LebaneseGovernment has reported that 45 main and 285secondary water distribution networks, as wellas 38 main and 120 secondary sewage disposal118 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WATER RESOURCESsystems, were destroyed or damaged during theconflict 11 . Wreckage on such a scale will invariablyaggravate sewage-related pollution and watersupply losses.In terms of damage to water facilities, theareas most affected by the 2006 conflict werethe southern suburbs of Beirut (Dahia) andSouth <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Within Dahia, Haret Hreikmunicipality was the main devastation zone.Southern suburbs of Beirut: Haret HreikThe direct physical impact on the overall watersupply and sewage network in Haret Hreik wasrelatively limited despite intensive bombing,most likely due to the fact that there were nomajor pumping stations or storage tanks in thearea. Primary pipelines in the main streets wereruptured in the attacks, but most were alreadyrepaired when <strong>UNEP</strong> visited the southernsuburbs. Problems were mainly anticipated withthe secondary pipeline connections to damagedbuildings that would be manifested only oncethey became operational. While the repair ofprimary pipelines is the duty of the municipalityand/or water establishment, secondary connectionmains are the responsibility of building owners.The rehabilitation of the secondary lines was incertain cases carried out hastily and appearedto be of poor standard. On two such occasions,secondary sewer and water pipelines were seen inclose proximity, even directly overlying each otherin certain sections, presenting an obvious crosscontaminationrisk of sewage with the drinkingwater supply. Moreover, clogging of the sewersby debris from the impact of the bombing coulddisrupt the functioning of the system and leadto overflow. It is therefore recommended thatthe sewers be cleansed and that new fittings beinstalled to improve system efficiency and preventpollution.Laboratory analysis revealed elevated levels ofboth total (12,000 - 16,000/100 ml) and faecal(60/100 ml) coliform in tap water samples takenfrom recently rehabilitated buildings in HaretHreik. Although the source of these samples isreportedly not used by the inhabitants for drinking,it is evident that the water is faecally polluted bysewage and is thus not suitable for any domesticusage. The World Health Organization (WHO)recommends that potable quality water also beused for washing and other domestic chores, dueto the risk of cross-contamination and ingestionof pathogens. As such, the tested tap water isconsidered to present a low to intermediate riskfor consumers. Although a third drinking watersample showed no faecal coliform contamination,total coliform was detected, indicating inadequatetreatment or ingress of foreign material. Thiswater, supplied by the Beirut Water Establishmentfrom Ain Al-Delbeh, was found to be brackishwith an electric conductivity ranging between1917-2205 μS/cm, and sodium concentration of192-198 mg/l. These elevated values are close tothe maximum acceptable threshold for drinkingwater; if used for domestic purposes, the watershould be diluted with fresh water.In view of these findings, it is recommendedthat pending the implementation of adequatedisinfection measures, an alternate water source beprovided to the inhabitants of Haret Hreik. Thehealth and environmental risks created by damagedor leaky mains (particularly secondary conveyors)require that a thorough sanitary inspection of thesewers in the southern suburbs be undertaken toidentify potential hazards. Overall, municipaland local water authorities, as well as NGOs,have performed well and efficiently in repairingthe water supply network after the conflict.Nevertheless, technical guidance on best practicein sewer and water supply design and rehabilitationshould be provided to the municipalities and civilsociety organizations engaged in such work toprevent cross-contamination.The significant and widespread destructionof high-rise apartment buildings, houses,supermarkets, restaurants, cars and workshopsin the southern suburbs also generated multiplepotential sources of water contamination, such ashousehold chemicals (e.g. detergents and solvents),electrical appliances, fuel, and organic matterpresent in the demolition waste. A sample fromimpounded rainwater taken to analyse washoutfrom the conflict-generated debris showedvalues above environmental screening criteria forchromium, copper, nickel, selenium and toluene.Naphthalene levels were also considerable, atalmost two and half times over interventionremedial values. Finally, the laboratory analysisdetected high nitrite levels (6.93 mg/l), probably• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •119

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENToriginating from explosives, as the coliform countthat would otherwise have pointed to sewage wasinsignificant. The potential for the mobilizationof contaminants in demolition waste, and fortheir subsequent infiltration into groundwater, istherefore considerable. Although the water table isrelatively deep (40 - 60 m) the high permeabilityof the underlying calcareous earth entails thatthe pollution could reach the groundwater fairlyrapidly.Following the first rains in late October,basements of damaged buildings were floodedand demolition excavations filled with water.The resulting stagnant water poses an additionalsignificant environmental and health hazard,as it provides a habitat for pests and diseasevectors. If it were to contaminate drinking watersupplies, it could lead to waterborne diseases,such as hepatitis, diarrhoea, cholera, typhus, anddysentery. In this regard, it should be noted thatmany inhabitants had returned to their destroyedhomes by October 2006, and that children hadstarted to report to schools.The analysis of a household groundwater sampledetected values above environmental screeninglevels for several heavy metals including arsenic,chromium, lead and selenium. Zinc was measuredat levels approaching the threshold requiringremedial intervention action. Due to the lackof groundwater baseline data for the southernsuburbs of Beirut, it was not possible to concludethat the contamination was solely conflict-relatedrather than the legacy of pre-existing pollution.Nevertheless, the conflict undoubtedly contributedto the pollution loads and worsened the situation.Groundwater was found to be highly saline withan electric conductivity of 34,378 μS/cm andsodium concentration of 6,975 mg/l; as such, itis deemed unsuitable for domestic usage. Highsalinity levels are due to intensive groundwaterabstraction, which results in seawater intrusioninto the freshwater aquifer.South <strong>Lebanon</strong>The towns and villages of southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>were subject to intensive shelling during the2006 conflict. The impact on the water andWater trapped in the excavation site of a destroyed building in Security Square, in Haret Hreik120 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WATER RESOURCESLeacheate from the Tyre dump site mixeswith irrigation waters before reaching theMediterranean Seasanitation infrastructure was considerable: watertransmission lines, water tanks, pumping stations,artesian wells and water treatment systems were allaffected. Water and sanitation services in the southwere disrupted and effectively came to a halt.Immediately following the end of the hostilities,many inhabitants of the south had to rely onemergency tankering and bottled water providedby relief agencies. UNICEF alone providedan estimated three million litres. At the timeof <strong>UNEP</strong>’s mission, during the reconstructionphase, the Director of the South <strong>Lebanon</strong> WaterEstablishment reported that the main problemremains the rehabilitation of the water distributionnetwork despite the reparation of a considerablepart of the main transmission pipes. Some of thedamaged pipelines, constructed from asbestosfibre more than sixty years ago – such as the onefrom the Nabeh El-Tasseh spring to Aanknoun– need to be replaced. Although not a seriousproblem, asbestos ingested in water could increasethe risk of developing intestinal polyps.Ras El-Ain, south of Tyre, is a historic spring(Solomon wells) and one of the main regionalwater supply stations for the districts of Tyre andBint Jbeil. The detection of faecal coliforms andnitrate (20.1 mg/l) in water samples collectedthere, albeit at concentrations below WHOdrinking water guidelines, is a cause for concernas it indicates sewage contamination. The springis located within a few hundred metres of Tyre’snon-sanitary dump, which represents a potentialpollution source. The analysis of leachate from thedump, which flows directly into the sea, revealedextremely high ammonia (NH 3) levels (1,694mg/l) and BOD load (12,960 mg/l). Biologicalcontamination, however, should not pose a healthrisk to the population as water from Ras El-Ain isdisinfected prior to distribution. A water sampletaken at the Hannawiyah supermarket – whichwas bombed and totally destroyed during theconflict – from a pipe supplied by Ras El-Ain,showed the presence of faecal coliform, but atlevels (30 mg/l according to WHO 12 )in drinking water is a potential health hazard, asit can cause methaemoglobinaemia or so-called‘blue-baby syndrome’ in newborn infants, as wellas in adults with a particular enzyme deficiency.Analysis of wastewater spill within the destroyedHannawiyah supermarket revealed elevatedphosphate (22.43 mg/l) and boron (3,246 ug/l)concentrations, posing a risk of groundwatercontamination. Laundry detergents were a likelysource for this pollution.Fakhr El-Din pumping station, which suppliesthe town of Nabatiyeh with drinking water, isan example of an artesian well targeted duringthe conflict. <strong>UNEP</strong> observed that two of the sixFakhr El-Din well installations had been damaged(wells number 4 and 6). It was also reported thatwater production in several wells had significantlydiminished, dropping from 35 to 10-22 m 3 /s. Thiswas either due to the damage sustained to the wellcasing, or to the impact of the explosion on theunderlying geological structure.Laboratory analysis of a sample from Fakhr El-Din well number 1 showed it to have elevatedlevels of both total (200/100 ml) and faecal(80/100 ml) coliform. These concentrations are• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •121

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTabove both Lebanese and WHO drinking waterquality guidelines, and represent an intermediaterisk for consumers. These contamination problems,which reportedly pre-dated the conflict, were dueto overflowing sewage pipelines following heavyrains. This situation was confirmed by the <strong>UNEP</strong>team, who observed sewage spill some 20 mfrom one of the well heads. The water authoritieswere aware of this pollution and were pumpingthe groundwater continuously in an attemptto draw the contamination out of the aquifer.It is more important, however, to prevent thecontamination from occurring at all. This requiresproper sewer system design and maintenanceof control overflows. It should be noted that atthe time of the assessment, no water was beingdistributed from the contaminated well, so thatthe population was not at risk. While the pollutionsource pre-dated the conflict, the overall situationwas compounded by the war, including in terms ofservice and response capacity. Laboratory analysisof samples collected from other wells, includingfrom the Nabaa El-Tasseh spring, did not detectany coliform contamination. Nitrate, however,was detected above natural levels (18.3-18.9 mg/l)and the pH (5.74) was acidic in one of the wellsamples from Fakhr El-Din. A possible cause foracidic pH is bacterial nitrification, from sewageand/or agricultural run-off, for example.The inhabitants of Bayad, one of the devastatedneighbourhoods of Nabatiyeh, reportedwidespread cases of severe diarrhoea immediatelyafter their return, and suspected the cause to bewater contamination. At the time of the <strong>UNEP</strong>visit in October, however, only a few childrenwere reportedly still suffering from diarrhoea.Laboratory analysis did not detect any coliformin the drinking water. Of the heavy metal andchemical contaminants analysed, only copper andzinc concentrations exceeded their environmentalscreening values, but these were well belowWHO’s drinking water quality guidelines. Thehigher values of copper and zinc were probablydue to corrosion from pipework and fittings.Acidic pH and high calcium concentrations,which were detected in the Bayad water sample,are known to increase corrosion rates.Rainwater collection reservoirs are one of themain communal water supply sources in southern<strong>Lebanon</strong>. Thirty-one reservoirs were reported tohave been struck during the conflict, of whichthirteen were completely destroyed. Althoughthe Bint Jbeil reservoir was only lightly damagedby the shelling, Bint Jbeil town was heavilyhit and most of the market centre, as well assurrounding residential areas, were reduced torubble. The devastated zone falls within thereservoir’s catchment, which lies in a downstreampathway. Hence, potential contaminants fromthe debris are likely to be washed out by therains and trapped in the reservoir. Moreover,the reservoir is not lined, making it possible forpotential pollution to reach the groundwater.Laboratory analysis of the reservoir water didnot find any of the contaminants to exceed theirenvironmental screening criteria. However, faecalcoliform at concentrations of 100/100 ml weredetected, indicating that in addition to being nonpotable,the water is also unsuitable for domesticpurposes due to the risk of cross-contamination.There is clearly a need to protect the reservoirfrom potential catchment pollution, which wasworsened by the conflict. It is also recommendedthat follow-up water quality testing be undertakenfollowing the onset of the rains.Sewage infrastructure in the heavily targetedtowns and villages of the south, particularly inBint Jbeil, Khiam, Nabatiyeh, Aita El-Chaab andSiddiqine, was not adequately assessed. Septictanks need to be inspected; damaged tanks shouldbe replaced, and unharmed ones desludged. Whileinadequate disposal and treatment of sewage isa chronic problem in the south, the breakdownof sanitary services due to the 2006 conflictaggravated the situation.Surface waterAs noted previously, <strong>UNEP</strong>’s water sampling wascarried out in early to mid-October, when river andstream flows were at their minimum base levels.Moreover, many seasonal watercourses were stilldry, so that it was not possible to sample themduring the mission. Given that 90 per cent of<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s total rainfall occurs between Novemberand April 13 , the potential mobilization of conflictgeneratedcontaminants in affected catchments andtheir diffusion in the surface water environmentcould contribute to water quality changes duringthe next rainy season. Based on field observationsof pollution sources at damaged sites, including122 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WATER RESOURCEStoxicants, <strong>UNEP</strong>’s qualitative assessment of theoverall risk of conflict-related pollution to surfacewaters is relatively low. However, pollution loadsmay have a potentially significant impact on waterchemistry in certain locations. The examination ofconflict-related pollution was further constrainedby limited historical water quality data for surfacewaters. In view of the difficulty of estimatingpollution loads from the extensive distributionof targeted sites and the high seasonal variabilityin water flows, a more detailed assessment wouldrequire follow-up temporal sampling which tookthe precipitation regime into account.<strong>UNEP</strong> identified two point sources of surfacewater pollution.Aquaculture farmsThe first was caused by the shelling and destructionof aquaculture farms along the Al-Assi River nearHermel, close to the Syrian border in the northernBeqaa. Sixty fisheries were reported to have beendestroyed or damaged during the conflict. Basedon preliminary reconnaissance information, <strong>UNEP</strong>visited two of the worst affected sites – the BaytTashim and Al-Maalaka fish farms – which wereamong the leading trout cultivating operationsin the country. At least one of the farms had afish feed processing unit. Both sites were totallydestroyed and lay abandoned at the time of themission. Photographic documentation examinedby <strong>UNEP</strong> indicated that the strike had caused amassive fish kill estimated at 300 tons. While mostof the dead fish was burnt, substantial amounts ofdecomposing fish were still visible on one of thefarms. <strong>UNEP</strong> found the principle contaminantsource to be the fish feed, chemical disinfectantsand antibiotics used in the operation of the fishfarm. Indeed, substantial amounts of spoilt fishfeed, which could be a source of ammonia, nitrite,nitrate and phosphate pollution, were seen in andaround the fish tanks at Al-Maalaka.Analysis of samples from the Al-Assi Riverdetected pH values marginally below normalnatural limits (6.5-7.5). Upstream Al-Maalakaregistered pH 5.9 and downstream Bayt Tashimhad pH 6.3. A sample from stagnant water ina damaged fish tank had a slightly lower pH5.82. While these relatively low levels wereindicative of the presence of a pollutant andrepresented a stressor to aquatic life, the pH wasnevertheless above levels that would lead to fishand macroinvertebrate mortality.The high velocity flows of the Asi River have helped dilute pollution from the destroyed aquaculture farms• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •123

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTThe Ghadir outfall at OuzaiiOne of the river samples had cadmium, seleniumand zinc values above the screening criteria. It wasnot possible to determine the contaminant source,but lower pH is known to increase the solubilityof metals present in soil minerals. Napthelene,a semi-volatile organic compound, was alsodetected marginally above the intervention value(89 ng/l) in one of the river samples. This mayhave been due to fuel oil, and/or antiseptics usedto disinfect fish tanks. Nitrate, which was likely tohave originated from the fish feed, was found atlevels marginally above those expected in naturalwaters. In addition, nutrient loading from feedadditives was observed to have stimulated thegrowth of algal mats in the fish ponds, whichcould deplete dissolved oxygen levels whenthey died and decomposed. However, dissolvedoxygen concentrations in the river water and thefish tanks were within natural range, indicatingthat conditions were not anoxic. Frogs, tadpolesand aquatic insect larva were found to provide abiological indicator of reasonable water quality.<strong>UNEP</strong>’s assessment is that the destruction ofthe Hermel aquaculture farms created an acutepollution event in the first two to three weeks, butdid not generate a continuous or long-term sourceof contamination. As the strike occurred when theAl-Assi was in its high stage – unlike other riversin <strong>Lebanon</strong>, the Al-Assi’s discharge peaks in July 14– the spill represented a single pollution slug thatwas largely diluted by the sizeable volume andhigh velocity of the river flow. The medium- tolonger-term risk to the Al-Assi river ecology istherefore considered low in severity and extent.Nonetheless, remaining contaminants presentin the destroyed fish tanks represent a low-levelpollution risk that should be remediated beforethe onset of the next rains and/or floods to preventoverflow. <strong>UNEP</strong> recommends that plans to cleanup the sites be prepared, taking the possibility ofdecommissioning the facility into account. Plansto reactivate aquaculture farming should furtherinclude collection of baseline water data andmonitoring programme to ensure that it is of asuitable quality.124 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WATER RESOURCESGhadir outfall and land-based sources ofmarine pollutionThe other main point source identified by <strong>UNEP</strong>was the Ghadir outfall, discharging directly into theMediterranean Sea. While the routine industrialdischarge of untreated effluent into the Ghadiris a chronic problem, the damage incurred byChoueifat’s industrial facilities during the conflictinvariably increased the pollution load andconsequently contributed to the degradation ofseawater quality. The Ghadir was sampled in fourdifferent locations in the industrial area and nearits sea outfall. Laboratory analysis showed BODand COD values to be two to seven times greaterthan the permissible “environment limit valuesfor wastewater discharge” set by the LebaneseMinistry of Environment. In addition, faecalcoliform counts revealed that it was more than 2.75orders of magnitude of permissible levels. Theseexceptionally high levels may have been partiallydue to contamination caused by the shelling of anindustrial cattle feedlot. Phosphate concentrationswere also elevated, ranging from 10.62 to 14.88mg/l, which could lead to serious eutrophication inreceiving coastal waters. Finally, toxic compoundslike benzene, naphthalene and toluene alsoconsiderably exceeded intervention levels.Given its impact on both surface water andthe marine environment, <strong>UNEP</strong> recommendsthat industrial and domestic effluent from theheadwater to the outfall of the Ghadir catchmentbe addressed as a matter of priority. This is all themore significant as <strong>Lebanon</strong> is a Contracting Partyto the Barcelona Convention for the Protection ofthe Marine Environment and the Coastal Regionof the Mediterranean, and that it very recentlyendorsed its latest amendments. <strong>Lebanon</strong> has notyet ratified the Protocol for the Protection of theMediterranean Sea against Pollution from Land-Based Sources and Activities.Structural damage and hydrological flowsThe United Nations damage assessment hasreported that 101 bridges and overpasses weredamaged or destroyed during the conflict 15 .Many of these bridges were located over riversand streams. All the crossings on the LitaniRiver, for example, were destroyed. Bridge debrishas clogged rivers and, in some cases, seriouslyreduced their flow capacity, threatening to disruptfish migrations. Moreover, rubble from the warwas dumped into seasonal water courses in someplaces, such as Araya. Although there has beena major drive to rebuild the bridges, <strong>UNEP</strong>observed that in several cases the rubble remainedin the river. If this wreckage is not promptlyremoved, it could cause flooding, particularlywith the onset of the winter rains. During thesummer season, the rubble obstructed riverflow and created stagnant pools, affecting waterquality.Debris from destroyed bridges, such as this one on the Litani River, could lead to flooding in the rainy season• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •125

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTMap 10.Bridges damaged in the conflictDestroyed bridge seen from space,Tyre region.(Ikonos image acquired 14/08/06).36°EHalbaEl MinieTripoliZghartaSir Ed DanniyeHermelAmiounBatrounBcharreS e aJbeil34°Nr a n ea nBeirutJdaideJounieBaalbek34°Nt e rM e d iBaabdaAleyBeit ed DineZahlehJoub JanineSaghbineSaidaJezzineRachaiyaDamascusNabatiyeh MarjayounHasbeyaTyre (Sour)Bint JbeilUNDOF33°NGolanHeightsDamaged bridges33°NKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic Projection36°ESources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).Bridges Damage <strong>Assessment</strong>: HIC.The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.126 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WATER RESOURCESThe analysis of a water sample taken near theQasmieh causeway show that only coppermarginally exceeds the environmental screeningcriteria. However, the <strong>UNEP</strong> team observed thatthe main Qasmieh temporary bypass bridge (onthe lower Litani) was constructed directly on theriverbed. Although culverts have been installed,the deck of the bridge should be raised abovethe riverbed so as not to impede water flow.Poor and hasty construction could also lead tolocalized erosion problems. Guidelines on bestpractice in bridge reconstruction and dismantlingof temporary structures should be provided tomitigate impacts on river ecology.Other structural damage includes the destructionof irrigation and off-take canals, which hasreportedly led to water losses and underminedthe operation of irrigation systems, particularly inTaibe in South <strong>Lebanon</strong>, where a major projectwas underway to irrigate 15,000 ha of land.GroundwaterThe aforementioned caveat regarding theprecipitation regime and the fact that thesampling was conducted during the dry seasonis equally valid when considering the potentialimpact of the 2006 conflict on groundwaterquality. Although intermittent rainfall did occurin late September and October, the risk of surfacecontaminant percolation to the water table withinthis short time frame, particularly given its depth(50 - 300 m), is low. In total, <strong>UNEP</strong> collected 20groundwater samples in the Greater Beirut area, inSouth <strong>Lebanon</strong>, and the Beqaa. The groundwaterquality analysis that was performed can providethe necessary baseline for future monitoringwork.As noted earlier, <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s hydrogeology isdominated by karst, whose unique qualities make itparticularly vulnerable to pollution. Its high sensitivityresults from limited pollutant filtration due to largefractures and high flow rates in the preferentialflow paths of karst conduits. In consequence, selfpurificationand biodegradation can be significantlyreduced. Besides the Beqaa and Al-Assi River valley,and the narrow coastal zone including Beirut, whererelatively shallow unconfined aquifers predominate,the country can generally be classified as karstic. Inareas of through-flow karst, flushing is quite rapidand flows ultimately discharge into the sea, includingvia submarine springs. In other areas of diffuse flowand isolated karst, the flushing of contaminants isa slower process, which may result in a longer-termproblem.The first rains occurred in mid-October 2006,causing the first flush of both conflict fallout andunrelated contaminants into the groundwater.Given <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s karstic hydrogeology characterizedby relatively short residence times, it is expectedthat the contaminants could reach the groundwaterwithin the next few months. Follow-up samplingto gauge evolving groundwater quality conditionsover time should therefore ideally start in Januaryor February 2007. The aquifers most vulnerable toconflict-related pollution are considered to be theLower Cretaceous and Middle Coastal Cretaceousof Mount <strong>Lebanon</strong>, and the Middle CretaceousWestern basin in South <strong>Lebanon</strong>. The latter is oneof the largest aquifers in the country.The water quality analysis found significantchronic biological and pathogenic contaminationof <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s groundwater. All tested samplesbut one indicate the presence of faecal coliform.Three samples had faecal coliform greater than1,000/100 ml, representing a very high level ofcontamination and risk. Three other samplesfrom groundwater sources used for domestic nondrinkingpurposes had a faecal coliform count of260 - 700, representing an unacceptably highly risk.A quarter of the samples had intermediate faecalcoliform counts of 10 - 100, and nearly half wereconsidered to present a low risk. The high levels offaecal coliform are almost certainly due to impropersewage and wastewater disposal. In addition, nitrateconcentrations were above the natural range innearly half of the samples examined. Likely sourcesfor elevated levels of nitrate are agricultural run-offand sewage. Finally, approximately half the samplesalso show a pH below the range for natural waters(< 6.5), which could also be an indication oforganic contamination.The main chemical pollutants detected ingroundwater are heavy metals. The most widelydistributed are zinc and nickel, which exceed theirenvironmental screening criteria in close to threequartersof the analysed samples. However, only thetwo samples taken at the Jiyeh power plant (1,173ug/l) and Transmed (921 ug/l) in Beirut registered• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •127

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTzinc concentrations higher than the interventionvalue. In the case of Jiyeh, the high concentrationcould be the result of acidic pH (3.88) conditions,which are known to trigger the release of metals.Further studies are required to determine if theseelevated zinc concentrations are naturally caused ordue to anthropogenic sources. Chromium, copper,lead, selenium and arsenic were also found to bemarginally above screening values. The analysis ofgroundwater collected from a residential area locateddown-gradient of the destroyed Ghabris detergentfactory in Tyre show concentrations for PAH andseveral SVOC/VOCs above intervention values.Benzo(a)pyrene – which is the most dangerous ofthe PAHs – was also found to be above interventionvalue. Given the ability of PAHs to bioaccumulatein fatty tissues and their carcinogenicity in testanimals, this represents a serious water pollutioncase which should be examined in greater detailwith a view to proposing remedial action. Ammonia(NH 3, 2,073.5 mg/l) and phosphate concentrations(43.70 mg/l) are also extremely high, most certainlydue to the polyphosphates in the detergents of theGhabris factory.<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s calcareous coast is characterized byheavily fractured limestone. This raised concernthat the oil spill caused by the destruction ofthe Jiyeh power plant could contaminate coastalgroundwater by way of seawater intrusion, whichis particularly expressed in densely fissured zones.While this phenomenon occurs naturally, ithas been accentuated by the over-extraction ofcoastal groundwater. <strong>UNEP</strong> accordingly collectedgroundwater samples from Mina Daliya in Beirutand from the coastal area immediately north ofJiyeh at Saadiyat, both of which were knownfracture zones that were impacted by the oilspill. Laboratory analysis did not discover solublehydrocarbon concentrations above the detectionlimit. Despite these negative results, <strong>UNEP</strong>recommends that more detailed follow-up studiesbe undertaken, as dense non-aqueous phase liquids(DNAPLs) or the high volatility of hydrocarbonsmay cause the contamination to go unobserved.Wazzani transboundary questionThe Wazzani is one of the main springs feedingthe Hasbani River, one of the principle tributariesof the Jordan River, which in turn flows into LakeTiberias – Israel’s main freshwater reservoir.Tensions between <strong>Lebanon</strong> and Israel over theWazzani springs have flared up regularly fordecades. The dispute regards water sharing andquotas. The last episode between the two countriesdates from mid-September 2002, when <strong>Lebanon</strong>constructed the Wazzani pumping station tosupply water to the villages of the south, to whichIsrael objected. The row was eventually defusedfollowing a joint intervention by the UnitedNations and the European Union.The issue re-emerged following the end of the2006 conflict, when various statements madeby Lebanese officials and media accused Israelof installing a pipeline inside <strong>Lebanon</strong> to pumpwater directly from the Wazzani to Israel. Thepipeline was meant to supply the village ofGhajar, from which Israel did not fully withdrawat the end of the hostilities. On 3 December2006, Israel announced that it would hand overcontrol of Ghajar to UNIFIL, but a transfer datehas not yet been set. Prior to the 2006 conflict,control of Ghajar was divided between Israeland <strong>Lebanon</strong>. When <strong>UNEP</strong> visited the Wazzanipumping station, it observed that water pipelinesrunning towards the village of Ghajar had beenlaid within <strong>Lebanon</strong>. The pumps, however, werenot in operation at the time. The situation remainsuncertain and requires further clarification. Theanalysis of Wazzani water showed it to be withinnatural range.This transboundary water dispute remains asensitive flashpoint. In the longer term, anintegrated water resources management planneeds to be developed to ensure that the waterresources of the upper Jordan River are used in asustainable manner.ConclusionsThe principle conflict-related impact on thewater sector is the considerable damage inflictedon an already dilapidated water supply andwastewater network that was in the process ofundergoing a major rehabilitation upgrade.The cost of damaged water facilities has beenestimated by the Lebanese government at USD80 million. Given that wastewater is one of themajor chronic stressors for <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s freshwaterand marine environment, the conflict represents a128 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WATER RESOURCES<strong>UNEP</strong> team at the Wazzani pumping stationsignificant setback for environmental rehabilitationprospects. Broken and leaky sewer mains not onlycontaminate groundwater but also pose significanthuman health hazards. Water losses and crosscontaminationwill also be worsened as a resultof damaged pipework, increasing the pressureon diminishing water resources. Hard-hit areasinclude Haret Hreik municipality in the southernsuburbs of Beirut, Bint Jbeil, El-Khiam, Nabatiyehand the many other destroyed villages of southern<strong>Lebanon</strong>. In addition, the impairment of the waterand sanitation system will compromise <strong>Lebanon</strong>’sefforts to meet Millennium Development GoalSeven (MDG7) on “environmental sustainability”which, inter alia, aims to reduce by one half theproportion of people without sustainable access tosafe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015.In view of the relatively limited anticipatedpollution load from targeted industrial sites, therisk of toxic contamination is considered to be lowon a national level. Nevertheless, several localizedhotspots, including the Choueifat industrial areaand the Ghabris detergent factory in Tyre, representa threat to water quality and require urgentremedial action. Moreover, it should be emphasizedthat given the potential of pollutant mobilizationduring the rainy season, this assessment snapshotdoes not necessarily signify that the water will besafe in the coming months.One of the main constraints in carrying out thisassessment was the lack of historical baselinedata on water quality to contextualize the sampleanalysis results. <strong>Conflict</strong>-associated pollutionrisks highlight the need to institutionalize asystematic water quality monitoring programmefor both surface and groundwater, which <strong>Lebanon</strong>presently lacks and which is a prerequisite forsustainable water management.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •129

Coastal and MarineEnvironmentVolunteers from local NGO Bahr Loubnanremove oil from the rocky coastline north ofthe Jiyeh power plant.

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTCoastal and marineenvironmentFocus and method ofassessmentThe main goal of the environmental survey of theLebanese coast, which was carried out from 8 to18 October 2006, was to assess the medium- andlong-term impacts of the oil spill that resulted fromthe bombing of fuel tanks at the Jiyeh power plant,south of Beirut, on 13 and 15 July 2006.As <strong>UNEP</strong>’s focus was on the medium- andlonger-term impacts of the oil pollution, sampleswere taken to determine the residual levels ofhydrocarbon compounds in sediment, water andmarine animals, such as molluscs and fish. Areaswhere clean-up operations were still ongoing,such as various beaches and wharfs and the areaadjacent to the Jiyeh power plant, where the spilloriginated, were not investigated in detail. Rather,<strong>UNEP</strong>’s assessment focused on areas beyond theobviously visible impact, to determine the extentDue to the large number of sampleanalyses conducted, only selectedfield and laboratory results have beenincluded in this report. However,complete results can be accessed at:http://lebanonreport.unep.chand magnitude of environmental damage withpossible long-term effects.Samples were taken 100-200 m from the coastline,using scuba-diving gear and oceanographicsampling equipment.This assessment did not investigate the economicimpact of the oil spill on the fishing and tourismindustries. The Food and Agriculture Organizationof the United Nations (FAO) conducted a studyof the conflict-related impact on fisheries, theresults of which can be found in FAO’s November2006 report: <strong>Lebanon</strong> - Damage and Early RecoveryNeeds <strong>Assessment</strong> of Agriculture, Fisheries andForestry, FAO (November 2006).<strong>UNEP</strong> conducted an assessment of the marine and coastal environment, focused on the oil spill,from 10 to 21 October 2006132 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

Wadi Abu ZebleCOASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTMap 11.Sampling sites – coastal and marine assessment36°ENahr El K ebirM e d i te r r an e a nS e aSite 19Site 20Site 21Site 8Site 9Site 18Site 22BatrounW adi MadfounWadi BacchtaSite 23AmiounPalm IslandNature ReserveWadi AsfourNaher Al JaouzWadi BarsaWadi BarsaWadi BarsaNa her OsEl MinieTripoliNORTH LEBANONAliNaher AbouZghartaNaher Abou AliNa h er Ab o u AliWadi AwikN a her EWadi Awikl BaredtoueneHalbaSir Ed DanniyeBcharreNah r El AssiBAALBEK HERMELNahr El KebirNa hr El As siHermelNahr ElAssiNahr El KebirNahr El AssiSite 7JbeilWadi Fid arSite 10NaherIbrahi m34°NSite 11Site 12Site 13Site 6JounieWadi AnteliasWadi GhazirWadi JouniehNaher ElKelbMOUNT LEBANONBaalbek34°NSite 5BeirutJdaideNaher BeirutSite 3Site 4Wadi GhadirBaabdaAleyZahlehSite 2Site 1Site 27Beit ed DineWadi IklimEl KharroubBEQAAJoub JanineSaghbineWadiEl MansiyyeSaidaNaher SainikSOUTHJezzineLEBANONRachaiyaDamascusWadi South Said aN aher Zahra niSite 25Site 26Naher El Lit aniNaher AbouAssouadHasbeyaNabatiyeh MarjayounNaher ElHasbaniTyre (Sour)Site 24NABATIYEHWadi Merj HineWadi AlIzziyeBint JbeilUNDOF33°NKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeightsSampling sites: marine33°NSources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •133

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTCoastal geology and backgroundThe continental shelf ends close to the Lebanesecoast. As a result, the coastline is open, save for thearea outside Tripoli, where a small group of islands– known as the Palm Islands – is situated.A large-scale counter-clockwise current in theeastern Mediterranean transports water towardsthe north, up the Lebanese coast. Given thatevaporation greatly exceeds precipitation and riverrun-off in the area, salinity is higher along thecoast of <strong>Lebanon</strong> and its neighbouring countriesthan it is further to the west.The seabed substrate is a mixture of bare rock,boulders, gravel and sand. A soft sediment bed isfound only in a few areas protected from currents.Several types of marine biotopes – includingrocky, sandy, sludgy, coastal, neritic and oceanic– can be found along the Lebanese coastline andin neritic and oceanic waters, where biocenosesdevelop according to the prevalent geological,physical and chemical conditions.The Lebanese coastline, which is 225 km long, ismostly urbanized. In the Beirut area and to thenorth, numerous cities and towns dot the narrowcoastal strip and reach up the mountainside. South ofBeirut, the coastline is flatter and densely populated.Given that cities in <strong>Lebanon</strong> do not have wastewatertreatment systems, untreated wastewater is releasedinto the Mediterranean along the length of thecoast, leading to high levels of organic pollutantsand human pathogens in many locations 1 .Several industrial plants are located on the coast,such as the Jiyeh power plant south of Beirut and theZouk power plant to the north, as well as the Doraoil terminal and a number of industrial facilitieswithin the capital itself. Others include the <strong>Lebanon</strong>Chemical Company in Salaata, north of Batroun,which manufactures chemical fertilizers, two cementfactories in Chekka, the Deir Imar power plant northof Tripoli, and the refinery owned by the BaddawiInternational Petroleum Company (IPC).There are two Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)in <strong>Lebanon</strong>. The Tyre MPA is located south ofTyre, on a patch of sandy shore. Palm IslandsMPA comprises the group of three islands outsideTripoli, and an area of 500 m around them.The oil spillThe Israeli bombing of storage tanks at the Jiyehpower plant on 13 and 15 July 2006 resulted inthe release of large quantities of fuel oil into theeastern Mediterranean Sea 2 . As it is not possibleto determine with certainty the quantity of oilconsumed in the fire that engulfed the tanks,the exact amount of oil spilled into the searemains unknown, but it is estimated to beapproximately 10,000 – 15,000 tons. The oilcontained in the tanks was heavy IFP–number 6fuel, which has the following key properties:• high viscosity, or resistance to flow, resultingin low mobility of the oil;• high specific gravity (0.95-103);• tendency to break up into tar balls and sinkto the bottom when released into water; and• low volatility, leading to low fuelevaporation.The oil has a density very close to that of seawater.As some of the oil burned, lighter fractions wereremoved and increased its density further. Theoil may also have picked up sand particles as itflowed over land. Consequently, a substantialproportion of the oil spilled at Jiyeh sank whenit came into contact with the water, covering theseabed over an area of a few hundred metres outto sea and an equal distance along the coast.The oil that did not sink was caught in thenorthbound current and transported up theLebanese coast toward Syria. The drift of theoil slick was also influenced by the wind,which blew prevalently to the northeast. Bothfactors prevented the oil from spreading outto sea, pushing it instead against the coastlineand northwards. The worst affected coastalareas were the ones facing west and southwest;areas facing northwest were less affected.Thus, all the peninsulas north of Jiyeh wereparticularly impacted along their southerncoasts, but their northern coasts were protectedfrom contamination. Harbours, coves, cavesand small natural bays were particularlyaffected, as the oil tended to get trapped there.Impacted locations included the biologicallyimportant site of Palm Islands Nature Reserve,archeologically significant areas in Byblos andvarious touristically important beaches.134 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTMap 12.Maximum extent of oil slick36°Er a n ea nS e aPalm IslandsNature ReserveTripoliEl MinieZghartaHalbaSir Ed DanniyeHermelt e rM e d iBatrounAmiounHorsh EhdenNature ReserveOuadi Qadisha andthe Forest of the Cedarsof GodBcharreRuins of ByblosJbeil34°NBeirutJdaideJounieNaher El LitaniPhoenician city ofBaalbek.Baalbek34°NBaabdaAleyZahlehJiyeh Power PlantSaidaBeit ed DineAlchouf Cedars Nature ReserveBEQAAJoub JanineSaghbineJezzineOld city of AnjarRachaiyaDamascusArcheological siteof TyreNabatiyehNahe r El Lita niMarjayounHasbeyaSYRIATyre (Sour)Tyre BeachReserve33°NBint JbeilISRAELKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeightsUNDOFThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.Maximum oil spill extentCommercial portFishing and recreational portFuel oil and othersUNESCO World Heritage SiteProtected areasThe grey area correspondsto the maximum extent ofthe oil slick as depictedby various satellite images.Sources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais) ; Oil extent (DLR).33°N• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •135

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTDue to the high viscosity of the oil spilled, a proportion of it sank to the seabed, particularly in the vicinityof the Jiyeh power plant© MOHAMED EL SARJIOil spill responseThe bombing of the Jiyeh power plant occurredclose to the beginning of the conflict. Hostilitieswere therefore ongoing during the critical early daysof the oil spill response, and security conditionsseverely hampered access to the coastline.One of the first measures taken by the LebaneseMinistry of Environment was to prevent furtherspillage of oil into the sea by constructing sandbarriers at the plant. Following a call for internationalassistance, a number of governments sent equipment,personnel and financial aid within weeks of the spill.Local clean-up work started on 12 August in Byblos,with international efforts commencing a few dayslater. Additional support was provided by the UNand other international organizations, internationaland local NGOs, and regional organizations. Theassistance was coordinated at the global, regionaland national levels.The Joint <strong>UNEP</strong>/OCHA Environment Unit,together with the Ministry of Environment, theEuropean Union, and with technical support fromIUCN, developed and implemented a proposalfor the establishment of an Oil Spill Operationsand Coordination Centre (OSOCC), to ensureeffective clean-up of the oil spill at the nationallevel under the leadership of the Ministry ofEnvironment. On 17 August, a high-level meetingaimed at coordinating and increasing the effortsof the international community in response to thespill was hosted by <strong>UNEP</strong> and the InternationalMaritime Organization (IMO) in Athens. Themeeting agreed to an international assistance actionplan prepared by the Experts Working Group for<strong>Lebanon</strong>, under the supervision of <strong>UNEP</strong>-MAP’sRegional Marine Pollution Emergency ResponseCentre for the Mediterranean Sea (REMPEC), incooperation with the Ministry of Environment.The recovery of mobile oil in ports, confinedareas, economic or socially strategic amenities andheavily polluted sites was designated as a priority.Seven sites were classified as high priority by theMinistry of Environment, with Byblos port andRaouche Fisherman’s Wharf categorized as theprimary priorities. Thirteen confined sites werecategorized as a secondary priority.136 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTThe clean-up effort has involved experts andequipment from a number of countries underthe overall coordination of the OSOCC. TheMinistry of Environment has received equipmentfrom Kuwait, Norway, Cyprus, Finland, France,Sweden, Canada, the USA, Italy, Monaco andSpain. Danish experts from the EU Monitoringand Information Centre formed the EC MarinePollution <strong>Assessment</strong> and Coordination team,which provided training and information on thepreparation of sites for clean-up operations. TheGovernment of France seconded various expertsto REMPEC from its CEDRE centre in Brest.Financial support for the clean-up of the oil spillhas been received from UNDP, the Governmentsof Canada, Switzerland, Monaco and Japan, andfrom OPEC. Specialist contractors have beenentrusted with the recovery of oil from the sea andheavily contaminated wharfs, and local NGOs andvolunteers have played an important role in thecleansing of contaminated beaches.By mid-October, it was estimated that approximately600 m³ of liquid oil had been recovered, themajority of which was removed from the Byblosand Beirut areas. One thousand cubic metres ofoil-contaminated sand, pebbles and debris were alsorecovered from beaches, mainly from the Byblos areaand Ramlet el Bayda. With the help of the Lebaneseand French navies, the Ministry of Environment wasable to extract floating oil from seven sites, includingDalieh Fisherman’s Wharf, Raouche Bay, Byblosport and the Mövenpick marina. The removal ofapproximately 65 m 3 of heavily oil-contaminateddebris concentrated in this area was completed bythe beginning of November 3 .The cleaning of rocks, beaches and man-madestructures is still underway in various sites,including Byblos, Ramlet al Bayda shore andDalieh Fisherman’s Wharf, with the help of variousprivate sector companies. In addition, a teamof Italian divers is working in cooperation withexperts from Greenpeace and Bahr Loubnan torecover sunken oil at Jiyeh, while a company hasbeen contracted to complete the clean-up of thecoast between Byblos (Jbeil) and Anfeh. Finally, theclean-up of the coast between Anfeh and Tripoli,including Palm Islands, is being carried out withfunding from the Swiss Agency for Developmentand Cooperation.The ongoing clean-up of the oil spill has resultedin the accumulation of substantial quantities ofoily solids and oil-contaminated debris and soil.The sustainable disposal of this waste remainsa challenge, as no environmentally acceptabledisposal option, such as biological remediation ormobile incinerators, currently exists in <strong>Lebanon</strong>.Temporary storage of oily waste from clean-up operations• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •137

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTFindingsThe obvious direct impact of the oil spill was theenvironmental damage in the immediate vicinityof the Jiyeh power plant (due to sunken oil) andon the shoreline. However, given that the focusof <strong>UNEP</strong>’s investigation was to determine themedium- to long-term impact of the oil spill and tounderstand how much of the pollution had spreadbeyond those directly affected areas, observationswere made at a number of locations, concentratingon the residual contamination in areas at least200-400 m away from the immediate vicinity ofthe spill and impacted shoreline.Site descriptions and observations are providedin the table below; site numbers reflect the orderin which sites were visited.Table 30.Siten°Date(October)Description of the marine and coastal team’s sample locationsDepth(m)Site descriptions/Samples takenType ofsample taken1 10 8-10 Off the church of Damour. A thick black line of oil visible on the beach front.Visibility moderate. The bottom mostly rocky with small patches of sand. Few fish;maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.2 10 12-14 Slightly north of Damour. A thick black line of oil clearly visible on the beach front.Visibility moderate. The bottom mostly rocky with small patches of sand. Few fish;maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.3 10 20-24 South of Beirut, off a resort and the “Khald Garage Mechanic” workshop. A thickblack line of oil clearly visible on the beach front. Visibility moderate. The bottom amix of rocks and sand. Few fish and oysters seen; maximum size of fish less than15 cm.4 10 2-3 Off <strong>Lebanon</strong> Beach. A thick black line of oil clearly visible on the sandy/stonybeach front. Visibility moderate. The bottom a mix of rocks and sand. Few fish andoysters seen; maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.5 10 3-5 Off the airport and Ouzaii debris site, located on the sea front; material fromthe site was seen being dumped into the water. Visibility close to zero in theshallowest part, but increasing to low further out. The bottom consisted only ofsand. No fish seen.6 10 6-8 Off Mövenpick beach. A very thick black line of oil clearly visible on beach frontand surrounding cliffs. Visibility moderate. The bottom a mix of rocks and sand. Afew droplets of oil seen on the bottom. Moderate presence of fish; maximum sizeof fish less than 15 cm.Oysters andsedimentOysters andsedimentSedimentOysters andsedimentSedimentOysters andsediment7 11 (>45) Off the Ibrahim River outlet, in deep waters. Film of oil visible on the surface. Water8 11 3-8 Off Indevco. A black line of oil clearly visible on the beach front. Visibility moderate.The bottom a mix of rocks and sand. Low to moderate presence of fish; maximumsize of fish less than 15 cm.9 11 10 Off Bwar. A black line of oil clearly visible on the beach front. Visibility moderate.The bottom a mix of rocks and sand. Low to moderate presence of fish; maximumsize of fish less than 15 cm.10 11 10-25 Off Rabyeh Marine Hotel. Oil film seen on the surface and a black line of oil clearlyvisible on the beach front. Visibility moderate. The bottom a mix of rocks and sand.Low to moderate presence of fish; maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.Oysters andsedimentSediment andwaterOysters,sediment andwater11 11 (12) North of Marina Dbayeh. Oil film seen on the surface. Water12 11 (23) Facing the Marina Dbayeh in Jounieh bay. A black line of oil clearly visible on thenorthern beach front, but not further into the bay or on the southern beaches. Themarina itself clearly impacted: oil visible on the walls and on many of the shiphulls. Patches of free floating oil also seen in the marina.Water138 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTTable 30.Description of the marine and coastal team’s sample locations (continued)13 11 (30) Two miles south of Marina Dbayeh. Oil film with thick patches floating on thesurface.Surface water14 12 10-12 Kfaraabida, Fadaaous. A thick black line of oil clearly visible on the beach front.Moderate visibility. The bottom a mix of rocks and sand. Low to moderatepresence of fish; maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.15 12 18 Off a tower and church, between Jbeil and Batroun. A thick black line of oil clearlyvisible on the beach front. Moderate visibility. The bottom a mix of rocks and sand.Low to moderate presence of fish; maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.16 12 12 Immediately north of Tarouel and Ras Amchit. A thick black line of oil clearlyvisible on the beach front. Moderate visibility. The bottom a mix of rocks and sand.Low to moderate presence of fish; maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.17 12 10 200 m south of Byblos/Jbeil harbour. Patches of oil film visible on the surface.Closer to the harbour, oil coverage nearly total. A thick black line of oil also clearlyvisible on the beach front. Moderate visibility. The bottom a mix of rocks and sand.Low to moderate presence of fish; maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.18 13 8 Ras el Chaqaa (north). No oil visible on the beach front. Visibility good. The bottoma mix of rocks and sand. Moderate presence of fish; maximum size of fish lessthan 15 cm.19 13 5-15 Ras el Chaqaa (south). No oil visible on the beach front. Visibility good. The bottoma mix of rocks and sand. Moderate presence of fish; maximum size of fish lessthan 15 cm.20 13 15 Off Salaata harbour. In places, a very thin line of oil visible on the beach front.Visibility good. The bottom a mix of rocks and sand. Moderate presence of fish;maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.21 13 10 Off Batroun harbour. In places, a very thin line of oil visible on the beach front.Visibility good. The bottom a mix of rocks and sand. Moderate presence of fish;maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.22 15 3-6 East of Palm Island. A thick line of oil visible on the beach front. Visibility good. Thebottom predominantly rocks, with small patches of sand. Moderate presence offish; maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.23 15 3-6 East of Sanani Island. A line of oil visible on the beach front. Visibility good. Thebottom predominantly rocks, with small patches of sand. Moderate presence offish; maximum size of fish less than 15 cm.24 17 2-3 Off the sandy beach line of Tyre Marine Park, 2.5 km south of Tyre. Sandy bottom,strewn with occasional rocks, ancient pillars and ceramics. High turbidity and fewfish. No visible contamination.Oysters andsedimentOysters,sediment andwaterOysters,sediment andwaterOysters,sediment andwaterOysters andsedimentOysters,sediment andwaterOysters,sediment andwaterOysters andsedimentOysters,sediment andwaterOysters andsedimentOysters andsediment25 17 12In the northernmost part of Tyre Marine Park. The bottom substrate a combinationof sand and rocks. Few fish. No visible contamination.Oysters,sediment andwater26 17 5 A shipwreck outside the harbour of Tyre. Hardly any visibility due to very highturbidity.27 14 3-8 Immediately off the coast at the Jiyeh power plant. A thin layer of oil floating inpatches on the surface. The rocky beach covered in a thick layer of black tarryoil. Water turbid. Small droplets of oil in the water and on the sandy sea bed.Closer to the power plant, where the bottom was rocky, sunken oil found in thicklayers (10 cm) in depressions between rocks and boulders. Fine sediment anddetritus covering much of the oil. Gastropods seen feeding on the surface of theoil. Schools of small fish abundant. Fishermen seen fishing from land at severallocations around the power plant.Oysters andsedimentOysters• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •139

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTSunken oilThe impact of oil on the environment is determinedby its chemical and physical properites. Shortchainaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene andtoluene, are relatively toxic to most marine life. Spillsof light fuel oils are therefore of greater concern froma toxicity point of view than spills of heavy fuel, withlow concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons.The analysis of oil samples from the Jiyeh tankfarm, taken on 14 October 2006, shows a degraded(weathered) heavy fuel oil with a significantunresolved complex mixture of isomers. It hasa relatively low content of toxic hydrocarbons;environmental problems linked to it are mainlycaused by its physical properties – such as itstendency to stick to objects.Due to its heavy nature, a substantial part of thereleased oil sank to the seabed immediately offthe coast at Jiyeh. The presence of oil would havesmothered marine organisms, inhibiting theirmovements and causing suffocation. At the timeof <strong>UNEP</strong>’s mission, the effort to recover sunken oilwas ongoing.Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) insedimentThe concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons insediment samples range from approximately 50 to500 mg/kg (dry weight). The highest concentrations(over 400 mg/kg) are found in samples collectedfrom sites 1 and 24. Complete results for the analysisof petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations are shownin the table 31.Concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbonsin sediment typically range from 20 to 50mg/kg in non-urbanized coastal areas. Whereanthropogenic activities are intensive, however,sediment concentrations of PHC are often in therange of 50 to several hundred mg/kg 4 . Hencedensely trafficked ship channels and marinas,for example, frequently show concentrations ofseveral hundred mg/kg, while concentrations nearwater-cooled refineries and oil terminals may reachseveral thousand mg/kg 5 . From a toxicologicalpoint of view, it is generally considered that thebiological effects of oil in sediment start to impactmore sensitive organisms at levels in the 50 to100 mg/kg range 6 . More resistant organisms cantolerate concentrations in the range of 1,000 to afew thousand mg/kg.The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons inthe samples collected during <strong>UNEP</strong>’s assessmentare generally at levels expected for shallow watersediment in coastal areas with heavy boating andrun-off from relatively intensive human activitieson land. The higher concentrations (above 300mg/kg) may be an indication of a local source ofcontamination. The contamination at site 1 mayTable 31.Hydrocarbon concentration in sediment and oystersPetroleumPetroleum PetroleumhydrocarbonsinOysterPAH (16 types) PAH (15 types) PAH (15 types)Site hydrocarbons inhydrocarbons inlipidsin sediment in oysters in oyster lipidsN°oystersoyster lipids sediment(%)(mg/kg)(μg/kg)(mg/kg)(mg/kg [ww])(mg/kg lip) (mg/kg [dw])1 45 0.47 9500 443 45.994 20 4.32 67 2.2 3100 105 7.960 36 1.73 - - - 128 9.259 - -4 45 1.0 4200 - - 41 3.95 - - - 93 2.317 - -6 61 0.79 7800 191 3.278 480 618 22 0.83 2600 60 0.624 47 5.79 - - - 107 0.487 - -10 20 1.2 1700 101 0.184 9.1 0.7914 18 0.43 4200 90 1.194 5.4 1.315 18 0.81 2300 89 1.086 4.5 0.5616 29 1.6 1800 75 0.226 21 1.317 51 - - 52 0.654 180 -18 14 0.63 2200 89 0.325 2.3 0.3719 24 1.3 1800 126 0.648 4 0.320 46 0.89 5200 252 0.668 15 1.6921 41 1.4 3000 58 0.266 12 0.8422 35 1.3 2700 - - 5.1 0.3923 24 0.90 2700 - - 2.6 0.2924 27 1.4 1900 499 174.209 4.2 0.30125 14 0.70 2000 161 11.832 3.6 0.5126 32 2.1 1500 88 10.238 12 0.5627 67 1.7 4100 - - 380 20140 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTMarine sediment samples were collected to testhydrocarbon concentrationresult from the July 2006 oil spill, though the sitewith the highest concentration, site 24, is locatedoutside the oil spill area.Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) inoystersOysters and mussels are particularly good indicatorsof petroleum hydrocarbon contamination for severalreasons. First, molluscs have no enzyme systemto metabolize petroleum hydrocarbons (unlikecrustaceans, echinoderms and most other marineorganisms); they consequently bioconcentratefat soluble substances 7 . Second, because theyare filtrating organisms, they are exposed to anydissolved or particulate substance present in thewater. The analysis of filtrating molluscs such asmussels and oysters thus provides an insight intoprevious exposure to substances such as oil.The analysis of oyster tissue samples show levelsranging from 14 to 67 milligrams of petroleumhydrocarbons per kilogram of oyster tissue (wetweight). Full results are presented in table 31. Analternative way to investigate contamination, isto measure petroleum hydrocarbons in relationto the oysters’ fat (lipid) content, as the lipidsact as a solvent for the petroleum hydrocarbons.This method found concentrations in the range of1,500 to 9,500 mg/kg. Results of the analysis ofpetroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in relationto lipid content are also shown in table 31.Elevated concentrations of PHC in the tissue offiltrating organisms – in the range of 10 to 100mg/kg (wet weight) or 50 to 500 mg/kg (dryweight) – are usually found in areas exposedto chronic low-level pollution from intensivehuman activities such as boating and run-offfrom urban areas 8 . In extreme cases involvingoils that emulsify and disperse into the watereasily, concentrations may be significantlyhigher. While the concentrations found in theassessment – ranging from 10 to 70 mg/kg (wetweight) – may partly result from the July 2006oil spill, they may also constitute backgroundlevels for the area. The oyster samples collectedclosest to the origin of the spill (site 27), onlya few metres away from solid oil deposited onthe seabed, show the highest concentrations (67mg/kg), indicating that the oil is not dispersingsignificantly – i.e. not spreading freely – and thatthe tendency to produce dissolved hydrocarbonsis low.Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) in sedimentThe levels of the 16 types of PAH measured rangebetween 0.2 and 174 mg/kg of dry sediment(see table 31 for complete results). Most sitesshow concentrations below 3 mg/kg. The onlysite with a concentration above 50 mg/kg is site24, with a level of 174 mg/kg. Two adjacentsites – sites 25 and 26 – also show comparativelyelevated concentrations. These sites are locatedat a significant distance to the south of the areaimpacted by the July 2006 oil spill.Elevated levels of PAH are usually found inseabed sediment from coastal areas influencedby human activities. Principal sources of PAHinclude fossil-fueled power plants, smelters,incinerators, heavy traffic, forest fires and oilspills. For example, the coastal sediment inshallow waters near urban areas around theSan Diego Bay (USA) has shown levels rangingbetween 1 and 20 mg/kg 9 , while levels of upto 9 mg/kg have been reported in Newark Bay(USA) 10 . In the Mediterranean, concentrationsof up to 0.6 mg/kg have been found for offshoreareas in the Adriatic 11 , and up to 3 mg/kg for thewestern Mediterranean 12 .• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •141

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) in oystersThe concentrations of PAH in oysters collectedfrom all but three sites range between 3 and 50μg/kg (wet weight). Mövenpick Beach (site 6),Jbeil (site 17) and Jiyeh power plant (site 27) showmuch higher levels at 480 μg/kg, 180 μg/kg and380 μg/kg respectively. These sites were all heavilyaffected by the oil spill.PAH concentrations in food items such as smokedfish and meat are often in the range of 5 to 25 μg/kgor more. Marine food items frequently show higherconcentrations than food items from terrestrialenvironments. Several countries, including thosein the EU, impose limits on the concentrations ofindividual PAH types in food. For example, the EUlimits the concentration of Benzo(a)pyrene, a typeof PAH, in mollusc products on the market to 10μg/kg (wet weight) 13 . <strong>UNEP</strong> found Benzo(a)pyreneconcentrations of only 1 to 4.3 μg/kg in all samples,except in samples collected at Mövenpick Beach andthe Jiyeh power plant, which show concentrationsapproximately twice higher than the limit.Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) andpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) in fishFish were collected from fishermen’s catches inthe areas of Aabde, Tripoli, Qualamoun, Jbeil andDora. Species from three different trophic levelswere sampled: red mullet (Mugil barbatus), a demersal speciesthat feeds on sediment; marbled spinefoot (Siganus rivulatus), which isherbivorous and lives near rocky shores; and yellowstripe barracuda (Sphryrena chrysotaenia),a pelagic predator.The results of the analyses are shown in table 32.PHC concentrations are below or slightly abovethe detection limit of 10 mg/kg (wet weight)and are identical for fish from different areas andin species from different trophic levels. Theseconcentrations are low and probably indicate thebackground levels of hydrocarbons in fish in theeastern Mediterranean.The total values of 15 PAH types in fish samples rangebetween 0.2 and 6 μg/kg. Such levels are in the sameorder as concentrations found in fish in other coastalareas of the Atlantic. In the North Sea and the Baltic,PAH concentrations in marine fish are typically in therange of 1 to 4 μg/kg. The levels found in <strong>Lebanon</strong>are therefore probably normal for marine fish in thispart of the Mediterranean.Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in waterThe results of the analyses show that petroleumhydrocarbon levels are below detection limits in allwater samples taken, despite the fact that oil wasvisible on the shoreline near the sites where thesamples were collected. This indicates that the oilis not dispersing significantly and that its tendencyto produce dissolved hydrocarbons is minimal. Itshould be borne in mind that the sampling wasundertaken more than two months after the spill,by which time the oil sheen that was initially visiblein the open sea had diluted and dispersed.Table 32.Hydrocarbon concentration in fishSample # Sample ID Petroleumhydrocarbons(mg/kg [ww])Lipids(%)MR 5184 Yellowstripe barracuda, Aabde

COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT<strong>UNEP</strong> experts consult a local naval map to assistwith the selection of dive sitesConclusionsThe main findings of <strong>UNEP</strong>’s assessment are set outbelow, while recommendations are provided in the finalchapter, ‘Main Findings and Recommendations’: Due to the high viscosity and specific gravity ofthe fuel oil used in Jiyeh, a substantial part of theoil released from the tanks sank to the bottomof the sea in the immediate vicinity of the powerplant, most likely smothering the biota in thesediment and significantly affecting the seabedat Jiyeh. Unless the sunken oil is fully removed,the risk that it may be remobilized remains.The environmental effects observed along thecoast, especially on beaches, are mainly relatedto the physical properties of the oil. Littoralinvertebrates such as gastropods, crustaceans andalgae were coated with oil. Significant mortalitymost probably occured among these organismsduring July and August, particularly on beaches withheavy contamination. Due to the relatively rapidreproduction cycle of these organisms, they are likelyto recover within one to a few years. No significantmortality among sea birds was reported. The oil spill resulted in significant contaminationof the shoreline, which exceeded the localinstitutional capacity to handle such an event.International assistance, consisting of equipmentand expertise, had to be mobilized to carryout specialized clean-up activities. The oil spillimpacted a number of tourist locations such asbeaches and the archeological sites at Byblos andAnfeh. Clean-up is currently ongoing all alongthe Lebanese coastline, under the leadership ofthe Ministry of Environment. The disposal of thecontaminated oil and oily waste collected is themajor remaining issue related to the clean-up. Due to the nature of the spill and the prevailingcurrents, the oil that did not sink in theimmediate vicinity of the power plant wastransported northwards up the coast andreached the shore, thus only adding marginallyto the background concentrations in the seabedsediment at a depth of 4 to 25 metres off thecoast. The levels of petroleum hydrocarbons insediment are equivalent to those generally foundin coastal sediment influenced by activities likeboating, and by run-off from urban areas. The analysis of oil samples from the Jiyeh tankfarm show a degraded (weathered) fuel oil witha significant unresolved complex mixture ofisomers. This kind of oil has a relatively lowcontent of (acute) toxic hydrocarbons andenvironmental problems linked to it are mainlycaused by its physical properties – such as itstendency to stick to objects and surfaces. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAH) in seabed sediment and inmolluscs (oysters) are similar to what is expectedfor coastal areas under the influence of urbanzones, industry and transport. The levels ofpetroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in oyster tissueare in an expected range of concentration forareas under anthropogenic influence. The petroleum hydrocarbon levels found in fishare below or slightly above the detection limit.The concentrations are identical for fish fromdifferent areas and in species from different trophiclevels. These concentrations are low and probablyindicate the background levels of PHC in fishin the eastern Mediterranean. PAH levels arelikewise found to be normal for fish in this area. The analysis of water samples from the area didnot detect any trace of oil in the water columnbeyond the immediate areas of impact. The results of the analyses, together withobservations made during the mission, showthat the coastal area of <strong>Lebanon</strong> is exposedto a number of chronic anthropogenic stressfactors (e.g. the release of untreated sewageand industrial effluent).• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •143

WeaponsUN Mine Action Group expert inspectsa cluster bomb in the village of Ouazaiyehin southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>. It is estimated thatup to one million unexploded clusterbomblets remain in <strong>Lebanon</strong>.© AP Photo – Mohammed Zaatari

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTWeaponsIntroductionA range of ammunition was launched fromaircrafts, tanks and stationary positions by the IsraeliDefense Forces (IDF) during the July-August 2006conflict. Many strikes resulted in severe damageto property and infrastructure, leading indirectlyto environmental damage. Other weapons couldhave had a direct environmental impact by virtueof their composition, design and strike capabilities.<strong>UNEP</strong> accordingly carried out an investigation ofthe types of munitions used during the conflict,focusing specifically on the possible use of weaponsthat could cause environmental harm, includingmunitions containing depleted uranium (DU).Detailed inspections were undertaken at sites wherethe use of uranium-containing weapons had beenreported. In addition, <strong>UNEP</strong> investigated theoccurrence of possible bombing-related vegetationfires. The environmental implications of theextensive damage to infrastructure are discussed inDue to the large number of sampleanalyses conducted, only selectedfield and laboratory results have beenincluded in this report. However,complete results can be accessed at:http://lebanonreport.unep.chthe ‘Industrial and Urban Contamination’, ‘WaterResources’ and ‘Coastal and Marine Environment’chapters.Weapons of environmental concernDepleted uraniumDepleted uranium (DU) is a highly dense heavymetal generated as a by-product of the uraniumenrichment process. Like all uranium compounds,it is both chemically and radiologically toxic. Withapproximately 60 per cent of the activity of natural (i.e.unprocessed) uranium, DU is mildly radioactive.Unexploded ordnance ready for destruction at a Lebanese Army EOD site146 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WEAPONSMap 13.Sampling sites – assessment of weapons used36°ENahr El K ebirNahr El KebirBeirutJdaideWadi AwikWadi AwikNa her OstoueneHalbaNahr El KebirBaabdaWadi GhadirWadi BarsaEl MinieTripoliNORTH LEBANONAliN a her El BaredNahr El AssiAleyWadi BarsaNaher AbouZghartaSir Ed DanniyeHermelNah r El Assi34°NM e d i te r r an e a nS e aBeirutWadi GhadirWadi AnteliasJdaideBaabdaJounieAleyBatrounWadi BacchtaWadW adi MadWadi MouhnaneWadi GhazirWadi Fid ari JouniehfounWadi MouhnaneJbeilNaherIbrahi mMOUNT LEBANONNaher BeirutAmiounNaher ElWadi AsfourNaher Al JaouzKelbWadi BarsaNaher Abou AliNa h er Ab o u AliZahlehBcharretaniNaher El LiNa hr El As siNahr ElAssiBAALBEK HERMELBaalbek34°NBeit ed DineWadi IklimEl KharroubBEQAAJoub JanineSaghbineWadiEl MansiyyeSaidaNaher SainikSOUTHJezzineLEBANONRachaiyaDamascusWadi South Said aN aher Zahra niNaher El LitaniNaher AbouAssouadHasbeyaNabatiyeh MarjayounNaher El HasbaniWadi AbuZebleTyre (Sour)NABATIYEHWadi Merj HineWadi AlIzziyeBint JbeilUNDOF33°NKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionGolanHeightsSampling sites: weaponsSources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).33°NThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •147

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTWeapons and ammunition used in the 2006 conflictOn 18 August 2006, the UN Mine Action Coordination Centre (UNMACC) of South <strong>Lebanon</strong>issued the following report on weapons and ammunition used during the conflict 1 :a. Aerial bombsSince hostilities began there has been an average of 200 - 300 aerial-delivered bombsdropped daily (recorded by UNIFIL) on areas adjacent to the Blue Line with at least a similarand additional amount dropped on the remainder of South <strong>Lebanon</strong>. This, coupled with theextensive bombing of areas in the southern suburbs of Beirut and Mount <strong>Lebanon</strong>, North<strong>Lebanon</strong>, [and] Bekaa Valley, amount to [a] potential and extensive threat from un-explodedhigh-explosive bombs ranging from 500 lb to 1,000 lb. In southern Beirut, where the principaltargets were supposed underground bunkers this threat may increase to bombs of 2,000lb and upwards. An average of 10 per cent of such ordnance fails to function as designedand remains in the ground as a significant explosive hazard.b. Aerial-delivered missilesAgain, there have been an average of 200 - 300 aerial-delivered missiles fired daily (recorded byUNIFIL) on areas adjacent to the Blue Line with at least a similar and additional amount fired onthe remainder of <strong>Lebanon</strong> in Beirut, Mount <strong>Lebanon</strong>, North <strong>Lebanon</strong> and the Bekaa Valley.c. Ground-launched artilleryFor the initial weeks of the conflict the Israeli Forces maintained a constant delivery ofapproximately 2,000 rounds per day fired (recorded by UNIFIL) on areas adjacent to theBlue Line with at least a similar and additional amount fired on the remainder of South<strong>Lebanon</strong>. In the last weeks immediately preceding the ceasefire this frequency increased toapproximately 6,000 rounds per day. This ordnance constitutes the biggest threat to postceasefire/cessationof hostilities humanitarian operations and, in general, consists of:1) 155 mm High Explosive rounds SP artillery (M109 Doher and Rochev)2) 105 mm High Explosive and HEAT rounds (Merkava Mk 1 & 2)3) 120 mm High Explosive and HEAT rounds (Merkava Mk 3)4) 120 mm heavy mortar5) 160 mm heavy mortar6) 81 mm medium mortar7) 60 mm light mortar8) 160 mm Light Artillery Rocket System (LAR-60): High Explosive or Cluster Munitions warhead.Each launch pod contains 13 or 18 rocket pods; each rocket contains 184 bomblets (Mk2)or 105 bomblets (Mk3) and is designed to give area coverage of 31,400 m 2 per clusterwarhead9) 227 mm M270 MLRS: M77 sub-munition system (similar to M62 or KB1)d. Naval-launched artilleryIsraeli Forces have maintained a constant delivery of approximately 100 - 200 rounds perday fired (recorded by UNIFIL) on areas throughout South <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Naval artillery was alsofired into the southern suburbs of Beirut. This ordnance also constitutes a threat to postceasefire/cessationof hostilities humanitarian operations and, in general, consists of: 76mm High Explosive rounds and Harpoon-type missiles.e. Ground-to-ground combat systemsIDF and Hezbollah have engaged in substantial ground combat operations. To date thesehave mainly been centred on the villages of Marwhin, Bint Jbeil/Marun al Ras and KafaKila/Al Taibe, Marjayoun, Al Qantara, Al Bayyada, Aadaise, and Bayt Yahun. Both sides haveused conventional small arms (up to 50 cal/14.5 mm) and light missile systems. Hezbollahis confirmed as using Milan and other similar anti-armour TOW systems.148 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WEAPONSAlthough it has a wide range of peaceful civilianapplications – such as medical radiation shieldingor counterweights in airplanes – DU is mainlyused for military purposes, such as armouringtanks. Due to its high density, high melting pointand ability to sharpen as it penetrates armourplating, it is also used in anti-tank munitions.DU forms a dust cloud on impact. Given that themetal is pyrophoric (i.e. the reaction of the metal tothe oxygen in air causes it to ignite spontaneously),the dust cloud burns and forms an aerosol offine DU oxide particles. The amount of depleteduranium transformed into dust depends on thetype of munition, the nature of the impact and thetype of target. When a target such as an armouredvehicle is struck by a DU penetrator, most of theDU remains inside as penetrator fragments orreacted dust. Some of it may, however, be dispersedinto the air and be deposited in the surroundingenvironment. DU hits on “soft” surfaces (e.g. nonarmouredvehicles, soft ground, etc.) do not producesignificant amounts of dust compared to “hard”surfaces (e.g. battle tanks, concrete surfaces, etc.).Human exposure to radiation from depleteduranium can be external, through contact with theskin, or internal, through inhalation or ingestion ofdepleted uranium particles. Radiation may result inan increased risk of cancer, with the degree of riskdepending on the part of the body exposed and theradiation dose. Like naturally occurring uraniumand other heavy metals, however, DU is alsochemically toxic. The level of toxicity depends onthe amount ingested and the chemical compositionof the uranium, but exposure to DU – to whichthe liver is the most sensitive organ – can lead tosevere poisoning within hours or days of exposure.DU’s chemical toxicity is usually considered thedominant risk factor, relative to its radioactivity.The extent to which DU can filter through soiland contaminate groundwater, as well as thepossibility of re-suspension of DU dust in the airby wind or human activity, are under investigationin the scientific community.Deep-penetrating munitions(‘bunker busters’)Deep-penetrating munitions are extremely effectivein demolishing hard or deeply buried targets, suchas command bunkers or ammunition stores. Thetechnology for these types of munitions was firstdeveloped in the 1980s and evolved in the 1990swith the creation of sophisticated ‘bunker buster’bombs, which are filled with explosives and havebuilt-in laser guidance systems. A series of custommadebombs that was recently developed to destroyhardened or deeply buried structures can penetratereinforced concrete to a depth ranging from 1.8m to over 6 m. These weapons require very heavywarheads to increase their penetrating ability. Asconcerns were raised about the possible use ofDU-containing ‘bunker buster’ munitions by theIsraeli Defense Forces (IDF) during the conflict,the <strong>UNEP</strong> team investigated this issue.White phosphorus (WP)White phosphorus is a common form of thechemical element phosphorus. It has extensivemilitary application as an incendiary agent, smokescreento conceal troop movements and as anantipersonnel flame compound capable of causingserious burns. White phosphorus is a colourless,white or yellow waxy substance with a garlic-likeodour. It reacts rapidly with oxygen and catches fireeasily. It is used in bombs, artillery and mortar shells,which burst into burning flakes of phosphorus uponimpact, and has a long history of military use foroffensive and target-marking purposes.Burning WP produces a hot, dense, whitesmoke, which is usually not hazardous in theconcentrations produced by a battlefield smokeshell, although breathing WP for short periodsmay cause coughing and irritation of the throatand lungs. Breathing WP for long periods causes acondition known as “phossy jaw”, which results inpoor wound healing of the mouth and breakdownof the jawbone. However, exposure to heavy smokeconcentrations of any kind for an extended period(particularly near the source of emission), does havethe potential to cause illness or even death.In air and surface soil, WP reacts with oxygen to formrelatively harmless chemicals within minutes, while inwater it reacts with oxygen within hours or days andcan accumulate slightly in the bodies of fish living incontaminated water. In deep soil or sediment withvery low oxygen concentration, however, WP mayremain unchanged for many years.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •149

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTCluster bombsCluster bombs consist of a canister containing alarge number of sub-munitions or bomblets. Thebombs are dropped from the air or launched fromthe ground as artillery delivery systems with ananti-personnel, anti-tank or dual purpose, or as anincendiary agent. Once released, the canister breaksapart, resulting in the further release of large quantitiesof sub-munitions. A CBU58 canister, for example,releases 670 BLU63 sub-munitions, while theCBU87 canister releases 202 BLU97 bomblets. Boththese types of cluster bombs were used in the recentconflict in <strong>Lebanon</strong>, contaminating a wide area withsub-munitions. During release, the bomblets areactivated by an internal fuse that can detonate aboveground, on impact, or in a delayed mode. The failurerate of these sub-munitions (‘dud rate’) is known tobe high and many unexploded bomblets remain onthe ground, where they explode under pressure, likelandmines. As such, they represent a severe hazardto the civilian population. They are similar in sizeto a soft drink can and are often covered by dirt ordust from surrounding rubble, making them veryhard to see or recognize. The on-set of rains is likelyto exacerbate the problem.The dispersion of sub-munitions over wideareas of land as a result of unexploded ordnancedoes not pose a direct measurable threat to theenvironment. However, the presence of bombletsseverely restricts or prohibits access to agriculturalland for long periods of time, as mine clearanceteams prioritize urban areas.FindingsNo use of weapons containingdepleted uranium (DU)<strong>UNEP</strong> investigated a number of sites withunderground facilities with the highest probabilityof having been attacked with deep-penetratingammunition. The typical signs pointing to theuse of ‘bunker buster’ munitions include collapsedbuildings with minimal lateral damage and,usually, little or no evidence of burning.Smear sampling of undisturbed surfaces is one ofthe most precise methods for detecting depleteduranium. In <strong>UNEP</strong>’s experience, this methodcan detect the impact of as little as two 30mm DU penetrators of 300 g each and clearlyconfirm the presence of DU within 300 m fromthe target. Given the high sensitivity of themethod, the impact on a hard surface of a ‘bunkerbuster’ containing a DU penetrator weighingThe Transmed Industry in Beirut shows typical damage from the impact of a ‘bunker buster’ bomb150 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WEAPONS© AP PHOTO – LOTFALLAH DAHERInvestigation at KhiamMany reports and rumours circulated in the international press during and directly after the 2006 conflictregarding the use of depleted uranium and/or uranium weapons at a site in Khiam 2 . <strong>UNEP</strong> thereforespecifically investigated this site for uranium and/or depleted uranium contamination.<strong>UNEP</strong> found that two buildings in the Khiam residential area had been destroyed in an air-to-ground attack.Each building was hit by one bomb, resulting in a crater with a defined diameter. The craters were alreadyfilled with rubble when the team visited the site. Lateral damage to the surrounding houses was limited.The on-site dose rate measurements were higher than other assessed sites (where readings were usually20 nSv/h), but were not alarming or outside the natural Lebanese range-laying readings of up to 80 nSv/h.No residue showing a higher radioactive reading was found during an in-depth investigation of the site.Three smear samples and one soil sample were taken at the site for detailed analysis.The laboratory analysis confirmed the higher natural uranium levels present at the site. The analysis of thesoil sample showed 26.2 ± 0.7 [mg238U/kg] with an isotope ratio 235U/238U of 0.00722 ± 0.00001,signifying that uranium with a natural isotope composition was found and that the natural uranium contentin the area (a localized zone of about 100 x 100 m), was higher than average by a factor of about 10. Thisvalue could not a priori be linked to the missile/bomb used to destroy the building and further detailedexamination of the impact site was considered necessary to identify the source. The smear samplestaken from the area showed neither DU, nor enriched uranium, nor a higher than natural uranium content.In addition to the nuclear mass-spectrometric investigation, samples were screened for other metals,including heavy metals. No exceptional results were obtained.Based on a meeting held between the Minister of Environment of <strong>Lebanon</strong> and <strong>UNEP</strong> on 7 November 2006,an additional investigation of the site was undertaken to determine the source of the elevated readings. Thefollow-up visit took place on 20 and 21 November. Further detailed investigations were conducted at thesite and additional samples were collected for laboratory analysis, including from remnants of the bombused in the attack. The results confirmed the original findings that no DU, enriched uranium or higher thannatural uranium levels are present at the site, and that the readings are due to natural causes.The concentration of uranium found in the ambient soil does not pose a health risk.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •151

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTHigh-temperature oven bricks showing elevated radioactivity readingsapproximately 200 kg, which would generate5 - 25 per cent of its mass in DU dust, would bedetected at a distance even greater than 300 mwith the highest probability.The analysis results show no evidence of the useof DU-containing penetrators or metal products.In addition, no DU shrapnel or other radioactiveresidue was found at the sites investigated. Theanalysis of all smear samples taken did not detectDU, enriched uranium, or higher than naturaluranium content. After an extensive investigation,including of sites rumoured to have been hit byDU weapons, it can be stated that the ‘bunkerbuster’ ammunition used by the IDF in theconflict did not contain DU, natural uranium orany other uranium isotope.Radioactivity from other sourcesMilitary vehicle and helicopter impact sites<strong>UNEP</strong> investigated two sites where IDF Merkawatanks had been destroyed (Wadi-El-Hujar andMaroun) and one site where an IDF military helicopterhad crashed (Yatar). On site measurements showed noevidence of the presence of DU: no DU penetrators,DU shrapnel or any other DU-related material couldbe found. However, a melted instrument containingradium was found at the helicopter crash site, causinga high radioactivity reading. Smear samples taken atthe sites confirmed the absence of DU, leading tothe conclusion that the two tanks and the militaryhelicopter were neither armoured with DU, norcarrying DU ammunition.The analysis of other heavy metals indicated thatthe helicopter crash site and surrounding area hadincreased levels of cadmium. This was not surprising,as helicopter navigation systems are well known tocontain nickel-cadmium batteries and cadmium isused in other aeronautic applications.Maliban glass factoryHigher radioactivity readings were registered ina corner of the Maliban glass factory (Zahleh)during the assessment of the facility. The zonewas accordingly investigated in detail. The surfacedose rate measured was 1 mSv/h. The on sitemeasurements to identify the radioisotope(s)indicated, with a probability of over 95 per cent,the presence of thorium-isotopes, but allowed a lowprobability of the presence of isotope Cs-137.The material causing the high readings wasfound to be a box of approximately 30 hightemperatureoven bricks containing large amountsof thorium. These bricks were intended to replace152 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WEAPONSpart of a high-temperature glass-producing oven.Thorium is known to be occasionally used in hightemperature-related applications.The box was separated and marked by expertsfrom the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission(LAEC). The site manager was instructed onfurther steps to be taken, under the guidance ofthe LAEC. In addition, two bricks were taken tothe LAEC laboratories for detailed analysis.The smear sample collected was screened forother metals and showed an arsenic concentrationtypical for glass production industries.Further investigations should be carried out at thehelicopter crash site and the Maliban glass factoryto identify and remove all materials showing highradioactivity.White phosphorus (WP)<strong>UNEP</strong> investigated the use of white phosphorus(WP) during site visits south of the Litani River.Indications were found that WP-containingartillery shells were used as smoke screens or tomark targets. Some shells with WP signatures wereseen in very limited numbers on the open groundclose to villages or towns in the region of Bint Jbeiland Marjayoun. Shells containing active whitephosphorus were also seen during a visit to theLebanese Explosive Ordnance Destruction (EOD)site in the south, at the Marjayoun Army Base.<strong>UNEP</strong>, together with Lebanese Army experts,recovered one unexploded 8.1 cm light greenmortar shell in Deir Mimas, where local residentshad reported seeing white smoke plumes invarious attacks, as well as the ‘strange’ burning ofhouses and olive trees. <strong>UNEP</strong> destroyed the shellwith the assistance of Lebanese EOD experts andconfirmed that it contained WP. WP-containing8.1 cm mortar shells were used mainly in UN areanumber 6 (between the Litani and Awali Rivers).The IDF officially confirmed the use of WP on21 October 2006 3 .The environmental impact of the use of WP in<strong>Lebanon</strong> was limited to the burning of olive treesand houses. However, given that the efficiency ofthe mortar shells was relatively low, the use of WPhas created an EOD problem. Residents of areaswhere this type of ammunition was used shouldbe made aware of its presence and EOD teamsshould take the necessary safety precautions whenconducting their work.A white phosphorus mortar shell was found by <strong>UNEP</strong> at Deir Mimas• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •153

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTLong-term impacts ofweapons-related contaminationThe smear samples taken from a numberof locations show elevated levels of heavymetals. In some cases, these originatedfrom the source of the explosion (i.e. thebombs themselves), and in other cases fromthe targets. In addition to the residents whosuffered physical harm in the bombings, awider section of the population may thereforehave been exposed to heavy metal pollutionresulting from the pollutant cloud generatedby the bombing. Many of these heavy metalshave short- and long-term health impacts,including carcinogenicity, and their potentialeffects should be tracked and treated.It is recommended that a national registry ofpeople living in close proximity to major bombtargets be established, and that their healthbe tracked in the long term to allow earlyidentification of unusual health trends, suchas cancer, and adequate support measuresto be implemented.Other weapons<strong>UNEP</strong> was able to observe unexploded ammunitionor parts of most of the weapon systems thatUNMACC and Mine Action Group (MAG)experts reported as having been used during theconflict. These munitions were seen either duringsite visits, or at the UNMACC and MAG centres,as well as at the two Lebanese Army ExplosiveOrdnance Disposal (EOD) centres in Nabatiyehand Marjayoun. The team studied hundreds ofobjects and pictures and remained in close contactwith MAG EOD experts.All the remnants of weapons found during theperiod of the assessment – including those atthe two Lebanese Army EOD centres – wereidentified as weapons of well-known design.Site-specific health and environmentalconcernsIn a number of villages and towns – includingBint Jbeil, Arnoun, Nabatiyeh and Kaffrah – thelocal population informed the <strong>UNEP</strong> team thatinhabitants had suffered from headaches and skinirritations for a period of time after the attacks andthat a bad odour had prevailed. Residents weretherefore concerned that weapons with a potentiallong-term environmental impact had been used.In some places, such as Arnoun and Nabatiyeh,residents were able to show the team the exact impactsite that caused these effects. <strong>UNEP</strong> investigated thecraters in question and identified the weapons usedas Mark 80-type bombs, particularly the Mark 84(known as a ‘free-fall’ bomb). Indeed, a variety ofMark 84 bomb residue was collected at the sites.This type of bomb is not fully efficient in explosion,and causes surface contamination by unexplodedmaterial or impact dust. Dust contamination canresult in a bad, ‘chemical’ smell, usually provokingheadaches and skin irritations. However, theseeffects are not permanent, as the unexplodedmaterial degrades naturally within a few days.<strong>UNEP</strong> did not find any cause for environmentalconcern relating to weapons used at the sitesinvestigated in the above-mentioned locations.Cluster bombs<strong>UNEP</strong> encountered cluster bombs throughoutits survey of southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Although exactstatistics regarding the number of cluster bombsused in <strong>Lebanon</strong> are not available, there could beup to one million unexploded cluster bomblets inSouth <strong>Lebanon</strong> according to UNMACC reports 4 .Most cluster bombs were delivered by rockets orartillery, with a limited number (BLU-63-typebombs) apparently dropped by aircraft.By 13 November 2006 5 , with approximately 85 percent of southern <strong>Lebanon</strong> assessed, 813 cluster bombstrike locations had been identified, covering an areaof 3,271 ha or 32.7 km². However, uncertaintyremains about the exact location of bombs. Foreach cluster bomb strike, clearance personnel mustcheck an area totaling 196,000 m² to locate (andeventually destroy) all unexploded bomblets. Bythe end of November 2006, more than 58,000bomblets had been cleared and destroyed jointly byUNMACC (and contractors), UNIFIL engineersand the Lebanese Armed Forces, but it is estimatedthat 12 to 15 months will be necessary to clear allcluster bomblets from the region.Between the end of the conflict and 11 November,136 people were injured and 23 killed by cluster154 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WEAPONSsouthern <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s economy and an estimated90 per cent of the local population depends onagriculture for its livelihood 7 .Cluster bomb sub-munitions recovered fromSouth <strong>Lebanon</strong>bombs 6 . <strong>UNEP</strong> agrees with the findings andconclusions of the UN Human Rights Council’sSpecial Rapporteurs (published 2 October 2006),which recognizes the vast number of clusterbombs with a low detonation rate dropped bythe IDF as a major factor impeding the return tonormal life in affected areas.The large number of strikes resulted in afragmentation of the territory, rendering itinaccessible to the local population and affectingsubstantial swathes of land south of the LitaniRiver. Some locations on the northern banks of theLitani, including the villages of Yahmour, Zawtarand Jaouhariye, as well as areas further afield likeNabatiyeh and the southern part of the Jezzinedistrict, were also impacted. While cluster bombsin themselves do not cause direct environmentaldegradation, their principle impact is to deprivelocal communities of access to land and naturalresources. The hills of southern <strong>Lebanon</strong> constituteone of the four core agricultural areas of <strong>Lebanon</strong>,accounting for an estimated 30 per cent of thecountry’s agricultural output. The principle cropscultivated are olive, tobacco, grape and citrus fruit.Moreover, agriculture makes up 70 per cent of<strong>UNEP</strong>’s analysis of cluster bomb strike locationsshows that agricultural land was hardest hit,accounting for 62 per cent of the total clusterbomb-contaminated area (table 33). Of theagricultural areas affected, nearly one quarter ismonoculture olive groves and an additional 15per cent are fields of olive trees mixed with othercrops. Urban/artificial areas were the secondmain impacted land use category (13.4 per cent),followed closely by woodlands (12.6 per cent) andgrasslands (11 per cent). The calculation of theimpacted area was derived using an automatedGIS application model defining a 100 m radiusbuffer around each strike location.The most immediate effect on the agricultural sectorwas the loss of a major part of the 2006 harvest. Theolive harvest season, which normally takes place inOctober and November, was particularly affected, asmany farmers were unable to pick their crop due tothe evident risks posed by cluster bombs. Valuablepasture lands have also been rendered out of bounds,most likely leading to overgrazing in accessible areasand consequent habitat degradation. Indeed, the landscarcity resulting from cluster bomb contaminationhas the potential to generate a new socio-economicdynamic and set in train a cycle of poverty andenvironmental degradation. Faced with growinglivelihood pressures, the local population is morelikely to resort to unsustainable practices and intensifyexploitation of a diminished land base to meet shorttermneeds. One such reported practice is farmerssetting shrubs and bushes afire with the hope thatthis would set off the cluster bombs. Incineration andremoval of the vegetation cover, however, could alsolead to obvious problems of soil and gully erosion.Table 33.Cluster bomb-affected areas in relation to land useLand use class Hectares affected Percentage of total cluster bombs affected areasWoodlands 405 12.6Grasslands 364 11.3Unproductive land (bare rock) 6.5 0.2Agricultural land 2,007 62.4Artificial land (mainly urban) 431 13.4Water bodies 1.2 0.04Total 3,215 100Source: UNMACC – October 2006• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •155

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTMap 14.Land use in cluster bomb strike locations in southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>HasbeyaNaher El LitaniNabatiyehMarjayounTyre (Sour)GolanHeightsUNDOFKilometres0 5 10 15 20 25Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionBint JbeilThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.CBU Contamination bufferWoodlandsAgricultural areasOther land uses848 cluster bomb strikelocations.Combined in 359 areas,3370 hectares.At 21/11/06.Sources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).CBU : UNMACC (United Nations Mine Action Coordination Centreof Southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>).Given that the land’s intrinsic environmentalintegrity is not compromised by the cluster bombs,the situation is reversible. Once the area is clearedof bomblets, there is good potential for economicrecovery and a more balanced use of resources. Thegreatest challenge is the present clearance phase andthe urgent need – which UNMACC has recognized– to prioritize the clearing of agricultural lands,particularly prime areas such as olive groves andfruit orchards that comprise the mainstay of thelocal economy. In the meantime, it is importantto provide alternative livelihood support optionsfor the population of southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>, so thatthey are able to cope in this critical interim periodwithout undermining the natural resource base.<strong>Conflict</strong>-related vegetation firesThe fire season in <strong>Lebanon</strong> typically starts around mid-August and tapers off when the rains begin in mid-October. As the 2006 conflict occurred in summer,when the vegetation was drying out, the potential forfire outbreaks was relatively high. At the same time,given that most of the conflict took place before thestart of the normal fire season, it is likely that most ofthe outbreaks were caused by bombing incineration.This is corroborated by a review of archive satellitedata from NASA’s MODIS Rapid Response System(MRRS), which detected only two fire events insouthern <strong>Lebanon</strong> between 12 July and 13 Augustin 2004 and 2005 respectively, but registered 48 fireevents during the same period in 2006.In total, <strong>UNEP</strong> visited nine sites – six forest standsand three reforestation sites – affected by fires inthe Nabatiyeh and Jezzine regions, as well as severalfire-damaged olive farms. A more detailed surveywas hampered by cluster bomb contamination. Thisrapid qualitative survey is therefore only indicative ofthe vegetation fires’ character and does not provide abasis for determining the size of the impacted area.The only alternative source of information on fireincidents was satellite remote sensing imagery.NASA’s MRRS developed a standard fire detectionalgorithm 8 to identify active fire locations, basedon middle and thermal infrared spectral signaturesof burning vegetation. While it was not possible tomake a quantitative assessment of the burnt areabased on satellite data, the number and frequencyof fire events during the conflict period could beidentified. Satellite images processed by NASA/156 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WEAPONSMRRS were screened and only individual fire eventswere selected. These fire locations were then overlaidon <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s land cover map to determine the typeof vegetation impacted. Fires captured several timeson different satellite overpasses or that continuedto burn for several days were all classified as a singlefire event.As mentioned above, 48 separate fire incidents wereidentified in southern <strong>Lebanon</strong> during the conflictperiod. It should be noted, however, that small firesof less than 100 m 2 – a probable occurrence given<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s typically small and fragmented forestpatches – were likely to go undetected. The majorityof fires broke out in agricultural areas, mainly olivegroves (37.5 per cent), and maquis formations(35 per cent), followed by woodlands (17 per cent)and finally scrub vegetation along roads (8 per cent).Fire outbreaks mostly occurred in a front line along<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s southern border from Naqoura to BintJbeil and to the east and northeast of Nabatiyeh, inclose proximity to the Litani River.In the Nabatiyeh and Jezzine regions, <strong>UNEP</strong>observed relatively small fire scars ranging fromone to ten hectares, found on average every ten tofifteen kilometres. The damage can be classifiedby vegetation type into four groups:(i) Pine trees: Pine trees were potentially themost seriously impacted, particularly the Stonepine (Pinus pinea), which lacks the capacity toregenerate naturally (i.e. sprout new shoots) afterfires. The damage also represents a significantfinancial loss, as the Stone pine’s nuts (snobar) are ofhigh economic value. Moreover, as pines typicallyflourish on sandy soil, the degradation of thevegetation cover increases erosion vulnerability.(ii) Broad leaf species: The impact of fires on broadleaf species was less severe and is largely reversible.Oaks and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) were seento sprout less than two months after the fire.The capacity to regenerate depends on whetherthe crown level has been affected, and on thetemperature of the fires. Nevertheless, the damagecould represent a substantial loss, as it could takedecades for the tree canopy to recover fully.(iii)Maquis scrub vegetation: Although wideareas were affected and the vegetation may betotally charred, this type of plant formation isknown for its fire adaptation. Indeed, grasses,bushes and shrubs grow back either from theroots or from the ground level, rather thanthe apex. Hence, the vegetation is expected torecover fairly rapidly, though erosion hazardsare likely to increase where soil was left bare.(iv)Olive trees: The damage to olive trees representsa significant economic loss to farmers withresultant implications for local livelihoods. Yet,unless the fires are of the hot crown type, olivetrees have a good potential to regenerate.Conclusions<strong>UNEP</strong> investigated the possible use of weaponswith a long-term environmental impact at 32 sitessouth and north of the Litani River. Twenty-fivesites were examined in detail, and the followingconclusions were reached:Scorched maquis scrub and Calabrian pine trees in the Al-Masailah forest reserve• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •157

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTMap 15.Vegetation fires during the conflict in relation to land useAaddoussiyeHoumine et TahtaSarbaRoumineAin QanaLibbayaQnaabeTannouraSarafandMerouaniyeZeftaJarjouaaRihaneSaksakiyeToufahtaHoumine el FaouqaDeir ez ZahraniSejoudArab SalimBabliyeNmairiyeGhassaniyeAadlounHabbouchAaichiyeCharqiye KfourNaher El LitaniDoueirInsarHarouf ZebdineJibchitKfar RoummaneNabatiyé el TahtaNabatiyehKfar TebnitMaifadounDibbineMarjaayounMarjayounQsaibeKfar Sir Qaaqaait ej JisrKhiamSir el GharbiyeZaoutar ech CharqiyeHasbaiyaMimesHasbeyaAin HirchaAin AataTair FilsayAabbassiye Deir Qanoun en Nahr ChahourSourTyre (Sour)Borj ech ChmaliBazouriyeMaarakéMaaroubSrifaQabrikhaEl KleileBatouliyeAin BaalAaititQanaJouayaChehabiyeKfar DounineKhirbit SilimDeir NtarSoultaniyeTebnineChaqraGolanHeightsUNDOFKafraHarisBraachitHadathaMeiss ej JabalNaqouraKilometres0 5 10 15 20 25Lambert Levant Conformal Conic ProjectionYaterDebel OummiyaRmaichAin EbelBent JbailBint JbeilThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.Fire hotspotWoodlandsAgricultural areasOther land uses48 fires detectedbetween 12/07/2006and 13/08/2006in southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>.Sources: Admin (GIST) ; Roads (VMAP); Mohafaza, Caza, Rivers,Cities, Railroads, Airport, Port, Land-Use (SDATL: Schéma Directeurde l'Aménagement du Territoire Libanais).MODIS Hot Spot (NASA MODIS Rapid Response System).Impact on reforestation programmesThe Ministry of Environment’s reforestation programme, financed by the Lebanese Government with anallocation of USD 5 million, comprised a short- and long-term reforestation plan that aimed to increase<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s forested area from the present 13.3 per cent to 20 per cent by 2030. This programme waseffectively halted by the conflict. In southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>, nine sites of 110 ha were reforested under Phase1 of the project and an additional five sites of 75 ha were implemented as part of Phase II in 2005 9 . In thesites visited by <strong>UNEP</strong>, the seedling survival rate from both Phases I and II was generally good, despitethe lack of watering and maintenance services during the dry summer season due to conflict-relatedsecurity constraints. In Zawtar El-Sharqiyah, however, the whole site, covering approximately 15 ha, wasdestroyed by fires and an estimated 12,000 seedlings were lost.It was also reported that the contractor had withdrawn from the Ministry’s reforestation project citing aninability to fulfil the terms and conditions of the agreement, due to the conflict. Thus, the losses from theproject’s abrupt termination, in financial terms as well as spoilt reforestation sites, are quite substantial.A significantly larger surface of natural woodlands were burned, however, than reforested sites, underliningthe potentially high cost of rehabilitating impacted areas. Finally, the consequences of habitat degradationon biodiversity should not be underestimated.<strong>UNEP</strong> recommends that a comprehensive field-based forestry assessment of southern <strong>Lebanon</strong> becarried out to inventory the damage sustained by natural woodlands and reforested areas. Such a surveyshould include reforestation sites of both the Ministry of Environment and civil society organizations(the Association for Forest Development and Conservation, for example, reports that its reforestationprojects in the south were also impaired by conflict-related fires). The damage assessment should serveas a basis for developing a forestry rehabilitation action plan to be carried out in collaboration with theMinistry of Agriculture, concerned municipalities and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of theUnited Nations.158 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

WEAPONS• <strong>UNEP</strong> visited sites showing the highestprobability of having been attacked withdeep penetrating (potentially DU containing)munitions. The team also visited sites rumouredto have been attacked with DU-containingweapons, including a site at Khiam. Followingstrict field procedures, a range of smear, dustand soil samples were collected and analysed atthe Swiss Spiez Laboratory. Analyses detectedneither DU, nor enriched uranium, nor higherthan natural uranium content. No evidenceof DU penetrators, DU-containing metalproducts, or any other radioactive material thatcould be linked to a weapon used was found.• Two radioactive sources, which were not relatedto weapons used in the conflict, were found. AtYatar, a damaged navigation instrument at thecrash site of a military helicopter showed elevatedradiation levels, and thorium-containing hightemperatureoven bricks were found at a glassfactory in Zahleh. The Lebanese Atomic EnergyCommission (LAEC) has been fully informedand is the appropriate authority to decide onfollow-up actions with respect to these sources.• The weapons and remnants of weapons foundduring the assessment were all identified asweapons of well-known design. On the basisof the sites visited, <strong>UNEP</strong> cannot confirm theuse of unconventional weapons by the IDFduring the 2006 conflict.• <strong>UNEP</strong> encountered unexploded cluster bombletsthroughout its site visits in southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Notonly do the unexploded sub-munitions pose agrave physical danger to populations in the affectedareas, but given that 62 per cent of those areasare agricultural land, their presence also seriouslyimpacts livelihoods and sustainable land use.• The use of white phosphorus-containingartillery and mortar ammunition was officiallyrecognized by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF)on 21 October 2006 and was confirmed by<strong>UNEP</strong>’s field investigations.• A significant increase in vegetation fires in southern<strong>Lebanon</strong> between July and August 2006, ascompared to other years, could be ascribed tobombing in the region. A rapid qualitative surveyof forest stands and reforestation sites revealedthat pine trees were potentially the most seriouslyaffected. Damage was also suffered by olive trees,broad leaf species and maquis scrub vegetation.In addition, the government’s reforestationprogramme was effectively halted by the conflict.Fire scar detected near NabatiyehFire detected ona satellite imageNABATYEHMetres0 100 200 300 400 50010/09/2006 © SPACE IMAGINGSOUTHLEBANON• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •159

Main Findings andRecommendationsBadly damaged buildings in Haret HreikSecurity Square, southern Beirut. Theconflict generated a massive amount ofbuilding rubble, overloading existing wastedisposal sites.

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTMain findings andrecommendationsThe July-August 2006 conflict had a significantimpact on <strong>Lebanon</strong>, and many environmentalissues remain to be addressed. The reconstructionperiod provides an opportunity to developappropriate environmental plans and to enhancethe country’s capacity towards sustainable useof its natural resources, in terms of both theenvironmental impacts of the conflict and preexistingconcerns. The Ministry of Environmentshould play a central role in the implementationof the recommendations below, but will need thesupport and cooperation of other ministries andgovernment departments. In addition, sustainedtechnical and financial assistance from theinternational community is required.<strong>UNEP</strong>’s recommendations are divided into:i) institutional recommendations focused onstrengthening environmental managementgenerally, and ii) sectoral recommendations,which seek to address the problems identified inspecific areas of concern. Detailed site-specificrecommendations are provided in the ‘Industrialand Urban Contamination’ chapter.Institutional recommendations1. Coordination mechanism for environmentalemergency response: In the recent conflict, theabsence of an effective coordination mechanismled to a fragmented response and an inabilityto coordinate the internal response and externalassistance. It is therefore recommended thatthe Ministry of Environment take the lead inestablishing a National Emergency Preparednessand Response Infrastructure and CoordinationMechanism for environmental emergencyresponse, with the assistance of the internationalcommunity, to ensure an effective response toenvironmental emergencies, whether related toconflicts, man-made or natural disasters.2. Institutional strengthening: The Ministryof Environment should be strengthenedas an institution, especially in terms of itsenforcement capacity. Key areas that need to bereinforced are water quality guidelines, wastemanagement, environmental monitoring andenvironmental inspections.3. <strong>Environmental</strong>information:It is recommendedthat <strong>Lebanon</strong> establish national monitoringplans in key environmental sectors such as air,water, forestry and marine resources to informpolicy-making. The information gatheredcould be made available to interested parties,including non-governmental organizationsand the general public, at an environmentalresource centre accessible to the public andthrough appropriate websites.Sectoral recommendationsI. Solid and hazardous wasteDue to the fact that infrastructure was damagedduring the conflict, management of solid wasteis one of the key environmental issues associatedwith the conflict. Demolition rubble: The conflict generatedvast amounts of demolition rubble. The safehandling of the debris is one of the majorchallenges of the recovery process. Existingdump sites have become overloaded withconflict-related demolition rubble, exacerbatingexisting problems with solid waste management,and numerous additional dump sites have beencreated hastily and in sometimes inappropriatelocations to cope with the excess debris. Hazardous healthcare waste: A sharpincrease in hazardous healthcare waste hasbeen experienced as a result of conflict-relateddeaths and injuries. This waste has been mixedinto the normal waste stream and is endingup in routine dump sites, where it constitutesa serious risk to the health and safety of siteworkers and the general public. Oil clean-up waste: Several hundred cubicmetres of oil-contaminated waste materialsthat have been collected during the clean-upoperations of the oil spill from the Jiyeh powerplant require appropriate disposal. Contaminated soil: Thousands of cubicmetres of hydrocarbon-contaminated soilat a number of sites, such as petrol stationsand industrial facilities, potentially requiretreatment and/or appropriate disposal.162 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

MAIN FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONSRecommendations:It is recommended that the Ministry of Environment,in cooperation with the Ministryof Public Works and Transport, take the lead indeveloping and implementing guidelines on the safehandling and environmentally sustainable disposaland reuse of demolition debris. This should besupplemented with the identification of central areasfor processing. In addition, international technicalassistance and donor support should be mobilized toprovide suitable processing equipment (e.g. mobilecrushers) to clusters of municipalities. There are currently no environmentallyacceptable options within <strong>Lebanon</strong> for thedisposal of oily solid waste. It is recommendedthat the Ministry of Environment lead themobilization of international technicalassistance and donor support to establishenvironmentally acceptable disposal solutions(e.g. biological remediation, incineration atcement furnaces with control measures, oruse of mobile incinerators). Measures should be implemented at thenational level to enhance the coping abilityof waste management systems. <strong>UNEP</strong>recommends that the Ministry of Environmentbe assigned the responsibility of developingpriorities, guidelines and legislation to phaseout open dump sites and construct sanitarylandfill sites based on transparent contractingprocedures. The involvement of municipalitiesshould be encouraged, using the Zahlehlandfill site as a model, and private sectorservices should be used where appropriate.Inter-municipal agreements could help solvewaste management problems through costsharingand economies of scale. National procedures should be developedto ensure that hazardous healthcare waste isseparately stored and disposed of with appropriatetechnology. This would involve investment infacilities such as autoclaves or a central incineratorand the training of healthcare staff. The Ministryof Environment would be the appropriate bodyto develop such procedures, in coordination withthe Ministry of Public Health. Staff working with debris at disposal sitesshould be provided with adequate trainingand equipment to ensure that their health,safety and security are protected accordingto best international practice. The mostsignificant concern is exposure to excessivelevels of dust at various sites. With appropriate training and working methods,local personnel could undertake the collectionof asbestos cement debris, which would need tobe suitably contained, transported and disposedof at a landfill site able to deal with such waste.Asbestos cement roof sheets in good conditionshould be left in place until the end of thebuilding’s life, when they can be removed andappropriately disposed of.II. Industrial contamination, soil andfresh water resourcesA total of 36 potentially contaminated sites werevisited, which were representative of a range ofland uses, including: agricultural, commercial,industrial, infrastructure and power generation.Given that the collection of samples was carriedout before the onset of the rainy season (November– April), the mobilization of contaminants wasfairly localized. The condition of <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s freshwater resources should therefore be monitored forlonger-term conflict-related consequences. <strong>UNEP</strong>found the following: Soil contamination: The Jiyeh power plant,Beirut airport fuel storage tanks, and thetwo petrol stations visited showed varyingdegrees of hydrocarbon contamination. Otherindustrial sites – such as the Al Arz textilefactory (Zahleh), Lamartine Food Industry(Zahleh) and the Ghabris detergent factory(Tyre) – demonstrated relatively minor orlocalized levels of contamination. In addition,a number of sites, including the Transmedindustrial facility (Beirut), the LamartineFood Industry and the Lebanese Companyfor Carton Mince & Industry (Beirut) werefound to have the potential to cause futurecontamination due to residual pollutantsremaining on site. Water pollution: Localized contaminationof surface and groundwater has occurredin certain industrial pollution ‘hotspots’,such as the Choueifat industrial area and• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •163

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTthe Ghabris detergent factory in Tyre, wherethe bombing caused chemicals to be releasedinto soil and water sources. In general, therisk of contamination of water sources isconsidered to be low, though this may changeonce rain, run-off, flushing and percolationcommence. Supply and wastewater networks: Prior tothe conflict, the water supply and wastewaternetworks were undergoing rehabilitationthroughout <strong>Lebanon</strong>. These networks wereextensively damaged in the conflict and hencepresent a risk of groundwater contaminationand a potential public health hazard. Poorwastewater management constitutes a majorchronic environmental stress factor, which needsto be addressed in a comprehensive manner.Recommendations: Hydrocarbon-contaminated sites – includingthe Jiyeh power plant, Beirut airport fuel storagetanks, Ebl Saqi asphalt plant and the Saidapetrol station – should be investigated furtherto determine the exact extent and magnitudeof the contamination. Contaminated soilshould be removed for treatment. It is recommended that the Ministries ofEnvironment and Industry remove sources oftoxic pollutants that could impair surface andgroundwater quality and protect wells in heavilycontaminated zones such as the Choueifatindustrial area and the Ghabris detergentfactory. Ash in the Transmed site (Choueifat)and stockpiled chemicals at the Maliban glassfactory (Zahleh) should also be removed as amatter of priority. In addition, the possibility ofan industrial wastewater treatment plant for theChoueifat area should be investigated. The level of contamination from damagedwastewater networks should be assessed indetail. In this regard, it is suggested that theMinistry of Environment and other relevantministries such as Public Health and Energyand Water, as well as municipalities, identifyand address actual and potential contaminationsources representing a risk for public health andthe environment. The reconstruction periodcould, with the support of the internationalcommunity, be used to assess the feasibilityand cost of implementing wastewater treatmenttechnologies (municipal and industrial) in<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s cities and towns. A catchment-wide plan to control the releaseof pollutants into the Ghadir stream shouldbe developed, as the stream is severelycontaminated and constitutes a major sourceof land-based marine pollution. It is suggested that the Ministry of Energyand Water, Ministry of Environment andMinistry of Public Health collaborate toestablish a national programme to monitorthe physical, chemical and biologicalaspects of ambient quality of surface andgroundwater on a continuous basis, as wellas a discharge inspection programme. Thiscould be combined with the World HealthOrganization’s (WHO) plan to help establisha national drinking water quality surveillancesystem. The Ghadir is one of the most pollutedwatercourses in <strong>Lebanon</strong> and a principlesource of land-based marine pollution. Thereis an urgent need to introduce an integratedwater resources management (IWRM)approach, as a pilot project, to remediate thepollution problem in a comprehensive mannerat basin scale. In the long term, an integrated water resourcesmanagement plan needs to be developedto ensure that the water resources of theupper Jordan River are used in a sustainablemanner.III. Weapons usedThe <strong>UNEP</strong> assessment focused on the use ofweapons with potential environmental impacts,including the possible use of weapons containingdepleted uranium (DU). The weapons assessmentteam visited 32 sites, concentrating particularlyon southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>, and reached the followingconclusions: Depleted uranium: Using highly sensitiveequipment, the <strong>UNEP</strong> weapons team visitedsites showing the highest probability of having164 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

MAIN FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONSbeen attacked with deep-penetrating (potentiallyDU-containing) munitions. The team alsovisited sites rumoured to have been attackedwith DU-containing weapons, including a siteat Khiam. Samples were analysed by a leadingSwiss governmental laboratory in the field ofradiation. The results show no evidence of theuse of weapons containing DU, natural uraniumor any other uranium isotope composition. Cluster bombs: At 13 November 2006,UNMACC (South <strong>Lebanon</strong>) had identified 813cluster bomb strike locations and estimates thatup to one million unexploded cluster bombsmay be on the ground in <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Betweenthe end of the conflict and 11 November, 136people were injured and 23 killed by clusterbombs. <strong>UNEP</strong> encountered unexploded clusterbombs throughout its site visits in southern<strong>Lebanon</strong>. These munitions are considered topose a grave risk to the Lebanese populationand are a serious impediment to post-conflictrecovery and reconstruction efforts. In addition,agricultural fields are heavily contaminatedby cluster bombs, affecting the livelihoods ofpopulations in those areas. Fires: The conflict led to the outbreak of firesand the loss of economically valuable treespecies in southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>, and impairedthe Government’s fledgling reforestationprogramme. White phosphorus: <strong>UNEP</strong> found evidenceof the use of white phosphorus-containingmunitions. Their use has been confirmed bythe Israeli Defense Forces.Recommendations: <strong>UNEP</strong> endorses the recommendation ofthe UN Human Rights Council’s SpecialRapporteurs that the clearance of clusterbombs from agricultural fields should beaccelerated with the assistance of bilateral andmultilateral donors, and that the Governmentof Israel should provide full details of its use ofcluster munitions to facilitate the destructionof unexploded ordnance and the clearing ofaffected areas. The environmental impact of whitephosphorus is limited to fires at the time ofimpact. However, residents and unexplodedordnance destruction teams should be alertedto its presence and take the necessary safetyprecautions. The reactivation of the Lebanese government’sreforestation programme should be supportedand burnt areas should be rehabilitated.IV. Air pollutionAlthough air quality was not monitored duringthe conflict, <strong>UNEP</strong> compiled information fromsmear samples in areas that had been heavilybombed, as well as soil samples from the vicinityof the Jiyeh power plant, where bombing-relatedair pollutants may have been deposited. The mainfindings are: Sample results: Smear samples in almost alllocations show the presence of heavy metals,which could result in long-term healthproblems if inhaled. Soil samples around theJiyeh power plant indicate the presence ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),a carcinogenic product generated by theincomplete burning of hydrocarbons. Potential long-term health impacts: Theimplication of the above findings is thatthe population around heavily bombedsites has been exposed to air pollutants,possibly resulting in long-term healthconsequences.Recommendations: It is recommended that a national healthregistry of people who may have beenexposed to air pollution during the conflictbe established. Their health status should bemonitored to identify any adverse, long-termhealth effects. Rain and snow should be monitored duringthe coming seasons to determine whethersome pollutants return to the ground duringprecipitation. Air quality regulations and monitoringsystems should be established in <strong>Lebanon</strong>.• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •165

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT<strong>UNEP</strong> investigates the site of the oil spill at the Jiyeh power plantV. Marine and Coastal EnvironmentThe oil spill caused by the bombing of the Jiyehpower plant contaminated the coastline and hada severe impact on coastal communities. Theongoing conflict impaired local and internationalcapacities to respond to the spill. Nevertheless,a massive containment and clean-up operationwas launched in the weeks following the conflict.Lebanese civil society and governmental, regional,and international organizations provided technicaland financial assistance, equipment and manpower.By the autumn of 2006 an estimated 600 m³ ofliquid oil and 1,000 m³ of oil-contaminated sand,pebbles and debris had been collected. The cleanupis still ongoing. The <strong>UNEP</strong> team, at the timeof assessment, found the following: Sunken oil: Due the high viscosity andspecific gravity of the fuel oil used at Jiyeh,a substantial part of the oil that was releasedinto the sea sank to the sea bottom in theimmediate vicinity of the power plant, mostlikely smothering the biota in the sediment.The risk of its remobilization will remainunless the oil is fully extracted. Coastline contamination: As a result ofprevailing wind conditions and sea currents, mostof the oil that did not sink was pushed againstthe coast and northwards, impacting marinas,wharfs, beaches, property and archeologicallyimportant sites (including Byblos). PAH in seabed sediment: The concentrations ofPAH in seabed sediment and in molluscs beyondthe immediate vicinity of the power plant weresimilar to what is expected in coastal areas underthe influence of urban zones, industry andtransport, with the spill adding marginally tothese background concentrations. Hydrocarbons in oysters: The levels ofpetroleum hydrocarbons in the tissue of oystersbeyond the immediate vicinity of the powerplant were in an expected range of concentrationfor areas under anthropogenic influence. Hydrocarbons in fish: The concentrationsof petroleum hydrocarbons in the samples offish tissue were found to be below or slightlyabove the detection limit. No difference wasdetected between the petroleum hydrocarbonconcentrations in fish from different areas or in166 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

MAIN FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONSspecies from different trophic levels. The levelsare low and probably indicate the backgroundconcentrations of hydrocarbons for fish in theeastern Mediterranean. Likewise, the PAH levelsof fish were found to be normal for that area. Water column: At the time of investigation,oil was no longer detected in the watercolumn. However, the potential for resuspensionremains as long as the oil is presenton the seabed.Recommendations: The sunken oil from the immediate vicinityof Jiyeh should be extracted. During clean-up operations, the remobilizationof oil in sediment, on beaches and stuck tosurfaces should be avoided. The use of steamand high pressure water should thereforebe limited to boats, docks, jetties and otherinfrastructure. Appropriate health and safety practices shouldbe followed during clean-up operations.Workers should wear appropriate protectiveclothing and use equipment. The National Oil Spill Contingency Planshould be reviewed based on the experience ofthe Jiyeh oil spill and lessons learned shouldbe incorporated. It is recommended that the Ministry ofEnvironment, with the support of internationaldonors, monitor concentrations of pollutantsand biological parameters on a routine basisto track the recovery of impacted sites andthe general health of the environment. Thedata provided in this report could, togetherwith existing data, form a baseline for futuremonitoring of coastal and marine sediment andbiota. In view of the low biodiversity levels andgeneral eutrophication of extensive areas, thedischarge of untreated sewage, leachate andindustrial effluent into the marine environmentand over-fishing should be addressed urgentlyat the national and regional levels.Site of a damaged school in Bint Jbeil, southern <strong>Lebanon</strong>• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •167


LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTAppendix IList of acronyms, abbreviations and unitsBOD/COD Biological/Chemical oxygen demandCDR Council for Development and ReconstructionCNRS National Council for Scientific Researchcps Counts per secondºC Degrees CelsiusoFDegrees FahrenheitDO Dissolved oxygenDRO Diesel range organicsDU Depleted uraniumdw/ww Dry/wet weightEOD Explosive ordnance destruction/disposalEPH Extractable petroleum hydrocarbonsEU European UnioneV/uV Ultraviolet (lamp strength for the PID)FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsGC-FID Gas chromatograph-Flame ionization detectorGDP Gross domestic productGIS Geographic information systemGPS Geographic positioning systemGCMS Gas chromatography to mass spectrometryGRO Gasoline range organicsHHCW Hazardous healthcare wasteIDF Israeli Defense ForcesIMO International Maritime OrganizationIPC International Petroleum CompanyISO International Organization for StandardizationIWRM Integrated water resources managementLAEC Lebanese Atomic Energy Commissionmmetres (measurement)m² metres squared (area)m³ metres cubed (volume)MAG Mines Advisory GroupMETAP Mediterranean <strong>Environmental</strong> Technical Assistance Programmemg/kg Milligrams per kilograms170 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

APPENDICESmg/l Milligrams per litreMODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroradiometreMoE Ministry of EnvironmentMoIM Ministry of the Interior and MunicipalitiesMPA Marine protected areaμSv/h Microsieverts per hourNPMPLT National Physical Master Plan for the Lebanese TerritoryOCHA UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsOPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting CountriesORP Oxidation reduction potentialOSOCC Oil Spill Operations and Coordination CentrePAH Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsPCB Polychlorinated biphenylsPHC Petroleum hydrocarbonsPID Photo-ionization detectorPPE Personal protective equipmentppm Parts per millionPRO Petroleum range organicspsi Pounds per square inchREMPEC Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean SeaSDC Swiss Agency for Development and CooperationSoER State of the Environment ReportSVOC Semi-volatile organic compoundsSWM Solid waste managementμg/l Micro-grams per litreμs/cm Micro-siemens per cmUK United KingdomUNDP United Nations Development Programme<strong>UNEP</strong> United Nations Environment Programme<strong>UNEP</strong>-MAP <strong>UNEP</strong> Mediterranean Action PlanUNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in <strong>Lebanon</strong>UNMACC United Nations Mines Action Coordination CentreUNOSAT United Nations Organization for Satellite ImageryUSAID United States Agency for International DevelopmentVOC Volatile organic compoundsWHO World Health OrganizationWP White phosphorus• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •171

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTIntroductionAppendix IIList of references1. United Nations Interim Report – Humanitarian Response in <strong>Lebanon</strong> 12 July to 30 August 2006, p.1;Human Rights Council (2006). Implementation of General Assembly Resolution 60/251 of 15 March 2006Country Context1. Most sources agree on this division; the <strong>Lebanon</strong> State of the Environment report (SoER) adds thesouthern Lebanese plateau as a distinct fifth region (see pp. 145-146)2. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 1463. These are: Al-Shouf Cedar, Bentael, Horsh Ehden, Karm Chbat, Palm Islands, Tannourine CedarsForest, Tyre Coast and Yammouneh; see the “<strong>Lebanon</strong>’s Nature Reserves” series published by INMA,MoE and the Ministry of Tourism, 2005.4. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 1485. <strong>Lebanon</strong> MoE website (http://www.moe.gov.lb/Reforestation/)6. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 1537. <strong>Lebanon</strong> MoE website (http://www.moe.gov.lb/Reforestation/)8. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 1569. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 15610. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 15611. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 15712. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 15713. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 16014. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 172 and 17315. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 16816. EIU Country Report October 2006 (2002 figures), drawn from Hayek J. et al (1999)17. Ministry of Economy and Trade (July 2005). <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s Economic Accounts 1997-200218. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 3519. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 1820. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER, p. 1921. EIU Report October 2006, p. 2222. EIU Report October 2006, p. 22<strong>Environmental</strong> <strong>Assessment</strong>1. For example:i) Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment, Directorate-General for <strong>Environmental</strong>Protection, Department of Soil Protection, The Hague (Netherlands), 2000: Circular on targetvalues and intervention values for soil remediation; and172 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

APPENDICESii) Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Bonn(Germany), 1998: Act on Protection against Harmful Changes to Soil and on Rehabilitation ofContaminated Sites (Federal Soil Protection Act – BbodSchG).2. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal3. i) Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2006). Council for Development and Reconstruction. The ProposedStrategy for Residential Solid Waste Management;ii) Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2005). Council for Development and Reconstruction. The NationalPhysical Master Plan for the Lebanese Territory (NPMPLT);iii) Maasri R. (2005), Technical & Economical Measures for the Rehabilitation & Closure of Solid WasteDump Sites in <strong>Lebanon</strong>; andiv) World Bank, (2000). Strategic Planning Guide for Municipal Solid Waste Management.4. MCERTS: Environment Agency Certification Scheme for Pollution Monitoring EquipmentSolid and Hazardous Waste1. Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2005). Council for Development and Reconstruction. The NationalPhysical Master Plan for the Lebanese Territory (NPMPLT)2. Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2006). Council for Development and Reconstruction. The ProposedStrategy for Residential Solid Waste Management (PSRSWM)3. Site Meeting on 15/10/06, with Ramy Sarkis, GLOBEX Engineering4. World Bank (1996). Solid Waste <strong>Environmental</strong> Management Project (SWEMP)5. Maasri R (2005).6. <strong>Lebanon</strong> NPMPLTWater Resources1. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER2. FAO (1997). Aquastat Country Profile: <strong>Lebanon</strong>3. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER4. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER5. Lebanese Customs Administration6. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER7. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER8. University of Balmand (2004)9. Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Council for Development and Reconstruction (2005). Progress Report10. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER11. Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Presidency of the Council of Ministers – Higher Relief Council. Situationreport no. 78 (19/10/2006)12. WHO (2004)13. In South <strong>Lebanon</strong>, variability in river discharge is even greater, with 68 per cent of flows occurringbetween January and March, while only one per cent occurs between August and October (Farajalla,2005). <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER14. <strong>Lebanon</strong> SoER15. United Nations Virtual Humanitarian Information Centre• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •173

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTCoastal and Marine Environment1. National Centre for Marine Science (CNRS)2. Expert Working Group for <strong>Lebanon</strong> (25/08/06)3. REMPEC, Sitrep 194. See for example National Research Council (2003)5. National Research Council (2003), and Linden O., Larsson U. (1988)6. National Research Council (2003)7. Neff J.M. (1979)8. See for example National Research Council (2003) and Linden O., Larsson U. (1988)9. Anderson J.W., Newton F.C., Hardin J., Tukey R.H. and Richter K.E. (1996)10. Huntley S.L., Bonnevie N.L. and Wenning R.J. (1995)11. Guzella L. and De Paolis A. (1994)12. Lipiatou E. and Saliot A. (1991)13. Commission Regulation EC No 208/2005Weapons1. UNMACC of South <strong>Lebanon</strong> (18/10/06)2. See for example the Daily Star press release (21/08/06), Williams (September 2006), Busby &Williams (October 2006), The Independent press release (28/10/06)3. BBC press release (22/10/06) and HAARETZ press release (22/10/06)4. UNMACC of South <strong>Lebanon</strong> (4/11/06)5. These figures are valid as of 13/11/06. UNMACC is continuously revising the estimates as moreaffected areas are discovered.6. UNMACC of South <strong>Lebanon</strong> website7. Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2004). Council for Development and Reconstruction. Schéma Directeurd’Aménagement du Territoire Libanais – Rapport Final.Beirut,<strong>Lebanon</strong> ; and Governmentof <strong>Lebanon</strong>(2003).Council for Development and Reconstruction. Land cover–land use map of <strong>Lebanon</strong>: Technical Report8. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD14 Fire and Thermal AnomaliesProduct. Each image pixel (i.e. active fire hotspot) flagged in a red box by the MODIS algorithmrepresents the centre ofa1kmpixel.This, however, does not mean that the fire necessarily coversthe entire one square kilometre, but it should be at least 100 m 2 for it to be detectable.9. Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong>, Ministry of Environment website (http://www.moe.gov.lb)Main Findings and Recommendations1. Human Rights Council, (2006). Implementation of General Assembly Resolution 60/251 of 15 March 2006174 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

APPENDICESBibliographyAppendix IIIBibliography and Internet sourcesAnderson J.W. Newton F.C., Hardin J., Tukey R.H. and Richter K.E. (1996). ‘Chemistry and toxicity ofsediments from San Diego Bay, including biomarker (P450 RGS) response’, in <strong>Environmental</strong> Toxicologyand Risk <strong>Assessment</strong>: Biomarkers and Risk <strong>Assessment</strong> (Vol 5), ASTM (American Society for Testing andMaterials) STP 1306, Eds. D.A. Bengtson and D.S. Henshel, PhiladelphiaCaricchia A.M., Chiavarini C., Cremisini C., Marrini F. and Morabito R. (1993). ‘PAHs, PCBs, andDDE in the Northern Adriatic Sea’. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26EHA (2003). The <strong>Environmental</strong> Barometer; contamination of lakes and coastal waters, <strong>Environmental</strong>and Health Department, City of StockholmEuropean Union Information Note (14/10/02): <strong>Lebanon</strong>-Israel dispute about the Wazzani Springspumping stationExpert Working Group for <strong>Lebanon</strong> (25/08/06). <strong>Lebanon</strong> Marine and Coastal Oil Pollution InternationalAssistance Action PlanFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Technical Cooperation Programme <strong>Lebanon</strong>(November 2006). Damage and Early Recovery Needs <strong>Assessment</strong> of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.Rome, ItalyGovernment of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2006). Council for Development and Reconstruction. The Proposed Strategyfor Residential Solid Waste ManagementGovernment of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2005). Council for Development and Reconstruction. The National PhysicalMaster Plan for the Lebanese Territory (NPMPLT)Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2004). Council for Development and Reconstruction. Schéma Directeurd’Aménagement du Territoire Libanais – Rapport Final. Beirut, <strong>Lebanon</strong>Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2003). Council for Development and Reconstruction. Land cover–land usemap of <strong>Lebanon</strong>: Technical ReportGovernment of <strong>Lebanon</strong> Ministry of Agriculture/<strong>UNEP</strong> (1996). Biological Diversity of <strong>Lebanon</strong>Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Ministry of Economy and Trade (July 2005). <strong>Lebanon</strong>’s Economic Accounts1997-2002, BeirutGovernment of <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Ministry of Environment (30/10/06). Guidelines and standards concerningpollutants of air, wastewater and wastewater treatment plants. Decision No. 8/1Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Ministry of Environment and the Lebanese Environment and DevelopmentObservatory (LEDO) (2001). <strong>Lebanon</strong> State of the Environment Report 2001, BeirutGovernment of <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Ministry of Industry (2/08/06). Drinking water standards. Guidelines andstandards concerning pollutants of air, wastewater and wastewater treatment plants. Decision No. 1039Government of <strong>Lebanon</strong>. Presidency of the Council of Ministers – Higher Relief Council (19/10/06).Situation report no. 78• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •175

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTGuzella L. and De Paolis A. (1994). ‘Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the AdriaticSea’. Marine Pollution Bulletin 28Hayek J. et al. (1999). ‘The Structure, Properties, and Main Foundations of the Lebanese Economy’.The Scientific Series in Geography, Grade 11, 110-114. Beirut: Dar HabibHolland P.T., Hickey C.W., Roper D.S. and Trower T.M. (1993). ‘Variability of organic contaminantsin the inter-tidal sandflat sediments from Manukau Harbour, New Zealand’. Archives of <strong>Environmental</strong>and Contamination Toxicology 25Huntley S.L., Bonnevie N.L. and Wenning R.J. (1995). ‘Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon andpetroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment from the Newark Bay estuary, New Jersey’. Archivesof <strong>Environmental</strong> Contamination and Toxicology 28International Atomic Energy Agency (2003). Radiological Conditions in Areas of Kuwait with Residuesof Depleted Uranium – Report by an international group of expertsLinden O., Larsson U. (1988). ‘Effects of chronic oil pollution in a shallow sub-tropical marineenvironment’. Oil and Chemical Pollution 5Linden O., Larsson U. (2002). Marine Environment <strong>Assessment</strong>s of Coastal Ecosystems near Oil Refineriesin the Persian Gulf. Report to <strong>UNEP</strong>Lipiatou E. and Saliot A. (1991). ‘Fluxes and transport of anthropogenic and natural polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons in the western Mediterranean Sea’. Marine Chemistry 32Maasri R. (2005). Technical & Economical Measures for the Rehabilitation & Closure of Solid Waste DumpSites in <strong>Lebanon</strong>McIntosh A.D., Moffat C.F., Packer G. and Webster L. (2004). ‘Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)concentration and composition in framed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in sea loch pre- and post-closureof an aluminium smelter’. Journal of <strong>Environmental</strong> Monitoring 6Neff J.M. (1979). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment. Sources, fates and biologicaleffects. Applied Science Publishers, EnglandNational Research Council (2003). Oil in the Sea III. Inputs, fates and effects. National Academic Press,Washington DCNorena-Barroso E., Gold-Bouchot G., Zapata-Perez O. and Sericano J. (1999). ‘Polynuclear aromatichydrocarbons in American oyster Crassostrea virginica from Terminos Lagoon, Campeche, Mexico’.Maine Pollution Bulletin 38Page D.S., Boehm P.D., Brown J.S., Bence A.E., Douglas G.S. and Neff J.M. (2002). ‘Baseline studieson the bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Prince William Sound, Alaska’. ProceedingsSETAC 23 rd Annual Meeting. Society of <strong>Environmental</strong> Toxicology and ChemistryPage D.S., Boehm P.D., Douglas G.S. and Bence A.E. (1995). ‘Identification of hydrocarbon sourcesin benthic sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oilspill’. In Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Fate and Effects in Alaskan Waters. ASTM (American Society for Testingand Materials) STP 1219. Eds. P.G. Wells, J.N. Butler and J.S. Hughes, PhiladelphiaSNV (2006). Results of <strong>Environmental</strong> Monitoring. Persistent Organic Pollutants. <strong>Environmental</strong> ProtectionAgency, Stockholm176 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

APPENDICESThe Economist Intelligence Unit (2006). Country Report: <strong>Lebanon</strong> (October 2006), London: EIUThe Economist Intelligence Unit (2006). Country Report: <strong>Lebanon</strong> (July 2006), London: EIUUnited Nations Environment Programme (2003). <strong>UNEP</strong> Final Report: Depleted Uranium in Bosniaand Herzegovina - <strong>Post</strong>-<strong>Conflict</strong> <strong>Environmental</strong> <strong>Assessment</strong>United Nations Environment Programme (2002). <strong>UNEP</strong> Final Report: Depleted Uranium in Serbia andMontenegro - <strong>Post</strong>-<strong>Conflict</strong> <strong>Environmental</strong> <strong>Assessment</strong> in the Federal Republic of YugoslaviaUnited Nations Environment Programme (2001). <strong>UNEP</strong> Final Report: Depleted Uranium in Kosovo- <strong>Post</strong>-<strong>Conflict</strong> <strong>Environmental</strong> <strong>Assessment</strong>United Nations Environment Programme (1999). <strong>UNEP</strong> Desk Study: The potential effects on humanhealth and the environment arising from possible use of depleted uranium during the 1999 Kosovo conflictUnited Nations Human Rights Council (2006). Implementation of General Assembly Resolution 60/251of 15 March 2006 entitled “Human Rights Council”University of Balamand in cooperation with the Lebanese-American University and Adelphi Research(2004). Prospects of Efficient Wastewater Management and Water Re-Use in <strong>Lebanon</strong>UNMACC South <strong>Lebanon</strong> (2006). Report of the Mine Action Coordination Centre, South <strong>Lebanon</strong> forthe Month of October 2006. Tyre, <strong>Lebanon</strong>Villenueuve J.P., Carvalho F.P., Fowler S.W. and Cattini C. (1999). ‘Levels and trends of PCBs,chlorinated pesticides and petroleum hydrocarbons in mussels from NW Mediterranean coast:comparison of concentrations in 1973/74 and 1988/89’. Science of the Total Environment 237-238WHO (1997). Guidelines for Drinking-water quality, Vol. 3, 2 nd ed. Surveillance and control of communitysupplies, Geneva, SwitzerlandWHO (1994), Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Vol. 1, 3 rd ed., Geneva, SwitzerlandWorld Bank (2000). Strategic Planning Guide for Municipal Solid Waste ManagementWorld Bank (1996). Solid Waste <strong>Environmental</strong> Management Project (SWEMP)Yaorong Q., Wade T. and Sericano J. (2001). ‘Sources and bioavailability of polynuclear aromatichydrocarbons in Galveston Bay, Texas’. Estuaries 24Internet SourcesBBC News Country Profiles: <strong>Lebanon</strong>http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/country_profiles/default.stmBBC press release, 22/10/06http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6075408.stmEarthTrend Country Profile: <strong>Lebanon</strong>http://earthtrends.wri.orgInternational Crisis Group, ‘<strong>Lebanon</strong> <strong>Conflict</strong> History’http://www.crisisgroup.org• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •177

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTGlobal Security, White Phosphorushttp://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/wp.htmlGovernment of <strong>Lebanon</strong>, Ministry of Environmenthttp://www.moe.gov.lbGovernment of <strong>Lebanon</strong>, Ministry of Environment and the Lebanese Environment andDevelopment Observatory (LEDO), <strong>Lebanon</strong> State of the Environment Report 2001http://www.moe.gov.lb/ledo/soer2001.htmlGovernment of <strong>Lebanon</strong>, Council for Development and Reconstruction. Progress Report 2005http://www.cdr.gov.lb/2005/english/openi.htmHAARETZ press release, 22/10/06http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/777549.htmlIsraeli Committee for a Middle East Free from Atomic, Biological & Chemical Weapons, 05/08/06http://www.redress.btinternet.co.uk/uranium.htmLebanese Customs Administration, South <strong>Lebanon</strong> Water Establishment. Needs <strong>Assessment</strong> Report, 10/09/06http://www.customs.gov.lb/customs/index.htmNetherlands Government Gazette 24/02/00, No 39. English translation. Annexes Circular on targetvalues and intervention values for soil remediationhttp://international.vrom.nl/Docs/internationaal/annexS_I2000.pdfRegional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea (REMPEC)http://www.rempec.org/Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea (REMPEC).(03/10/06). Sitrep 19 Spill in <strong>Lebanon</strong>http://www.rempec.org/newsmore.asp?id=194&lang=enThe CIA Factbook, ‘<strong>Lebanon</strong>’http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/le.htmlThe Daily Star press release, Mohammed Zaatari, 21/08/06. Scientists suspect Israeli arms used inSouth contain radioactive matterhttp://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?article_ID=74891&categ_ID=1&edition_id=1The Independent press release, 28/10/06http://news.independent.co.uk/world/fisk/article1935945.eceThe Independent press release, 28/10/06http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/article1935931.eceThe Independent press release, 30/10/06http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/article1940826.ece<strong>UNEP</strong> press release, 07/11/06. No Evidence of Radioactive Residue in <strong>Lebanon</strong> <strong>Post</strong> <strong>Conflict</strong> <strong>Assessment</strong>http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=485&ArticleID=5416&l=enUnited Nations Virtual Humanitarian Information Centrehttp://www.virtualhic.org/178 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

APPENDICESUNMACC (Mine Action Coordination Centre South <strong>Lebanon</strong>), South <strong>Lebanon</strong> Cluster Bomb Info Sheethttp://www.maccsl.org/reports/Leb%20UXO%20Fact%20Sheet%204%20November,%202006.pdfUruknet.info press release, Rokke D., 26/07/06. Depleted Uranium Situation Worsens RequiringImmediate Actionhttp://www.uruknet.info/?p=25045Williams D. (2006). UN priorities for investigating uranium and other suspected illegal weapons in theIsrael/<strong>Lebanon</strong> conflictwww.eoslifework.co.uk/pdfs/u26leb806.pdfWilliams D. (2006). Eos weapons study in <strong>Lebanon</strong>, September 2006 – interim reporthttp://www.eoslifework.co.uk/pdfs/u26leb19oct.pdfWilliams D. and Busby C. (2006). Evidence of Enriched Uranium in guided weapons employed by theIsraeli Military in <strong>Lebanon</strong> in July 2006 – Preliminary Note. Green Audithttp://www.rainews24.rai.it/ran24/inchieste/documenti/Busby%20<strong>Lebanon</strong>%20Report%2022%5B1%5D.10.06.pdf• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •179

LEBANONPOST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTAppendix IVList of contributorsMembers of the <strong>UNEP</strong> Field <strong>Assessment</strong> Team<strong>UNEP</strong> <strong>Post</strong>-<strong>Conflict</strong> Branch – Senior ManagementMr. Henrik Slotte, ChiefMr. Muralee Thummarukudy, Operations Manager<strong>UNEP</strong> Regional Office for West Asia – Senior ManagementMr. Habib N. El-Habr, Director and Regional RepresentativeMr. A. Basel Al-Yousfi, Deputy Regional DirectorMr. Michael Cowing, Technical Team Leader and Hazardous Waste ExpertMr. Olof Linden, Coastal and Marine ExpertMr. Mattias Rust, Coastal and Marine ExpertMr. Thorsten Kallnischkies, Ground/Surface Water and Contaminated Sites ExpertMr. Edwin Moses, Water Quality ExpertMr. David Smith, Asbestos ExpertMr. Juerg Zaugg, Waste Management ExpertMr. Mario Burger, Weapons and Munitions ExpertMr. Hassan Partow, Water and Environment ExpertMr. Ahmed Ali Ghosn, Institutional <strong>Assessment</strong> ExpertMr. David Meadows, Security and Logistics ExpertMs. Maliza van Eeden, Report CoordinatorSpecial ThanksMr. Vladimir Sakharov, Chief, Joint <strong>UNEP</strong>/OCHA Environment UnitMr. Roy Brooke, Programme Officer, Joint <strong>UNEP</strong>/OCHA Environment UnitMr. René Nijenhuis, Programme Officer, Joint <strong>UNEP</strong>/OCHA Environment UnitMr. Robin El Batah, Administrative Assistant, BeirutMr. Yves Barthélemy, Remote Sensing Expert, ParisMr. Geraint Williams, Laboratory Expert, Alcontrol Laboratories, UKMr. Joe Atwood, Land Contamination Expert, LondonMs. Jihan Seoud, UNDP BeirutMr. James Wyatt, UNDP BeirutMr. Nadim Farjallah, American University of BeirutDr. Imad Soud, American University of BeirutMs. Carol Sokhn, American University of BeirutMr. Alain Retiere, UNOSATMr. Olivier Senegas, UNOSATMr. Salem Darwich, UNOSATDr. Ala Din Alwan, WHODr. Kersten Gutschmidt, WHOMr. Bruce Gordon, WHOMr. David James, FAOMr. Gaby Khalaf, the National Centre for Marine ScienceMr. Darko Domovic, REMPECMs. Hala Kilani, IUCNColonel Michel Al HashemColonel Roland Abou JaoudeCaptain Roger EidMr. Mohamed El Sarji, Bahr LoubnanMr. Issam Sidawi, Palm Island Marine ParkMr. Nasser Saidi, Iantd <strong>Lebanon</strong>The Lebanese Ministry of Environment TeamMs. Rasha Kanj, Service of Conservation of Natural ResourcesMs. Marie Chemaly, Service of Guidance and Awareness180 • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •

APPENDICESMrs. Viviane Sassine Challita, Service of Guidance and AwarenessMr. Yussef Naddaf, Service of Prevention from Technological Impact and Natural DisastersMr. Ramzi Fanous, Service of Planning and ProgrammesMr. Vahakn Kabakian, Development of National Implementation of the Plan for the Management of POPs in <strong>Lebanon</strong>Ms. Manal Moussallem, UN SEA ProjectMs. Ghada Salim Mitri, Service of Guidance and AwarenessMr. Nabil Assaf, Service of Conservation of Natural ResourcesMr. Mohammad Baraki, Service of Protection of Urban EnvironmentMr. Bassam Sabbagh, Service of Protection of Urban EnvironmentMr. Khalil Zein, GIS expertMs. Michelle Bachir, VolunteerMs. Dalia Jawhary, VolunteerMs. Sarine Karajerjian, VolunteerMs. Helene Nasr, Volunteer (Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission)The Elard/UNDP TeamMr. Ramez Kayal, Managing DirectorMr. Ricardo Khoury, Senior Project ManagerMr. Rabih Fayad, Junior Project ManagerMs. Karen Manasfi, Junior Project ManagerMs. Karen Moarkech, Junior Project ManagerMr. Mohamad Baraki, Senior Surveyor/Solid Waste SpecialistMr. Navil Amacha, Senior SurveyorMr. Charbel Mahfoud, Senior SurveyorMs. Mona Hallab, Junior SurveyorMs. Alia Alameddine, Junior SurveyorMr. Kassem Jouni, Junior SurveyorMs. Nayana Madi, Junior Surveyor/Geologist<strong>UNEP</strong> <strong>Post</strong>-<strong>Conflict</strong> BranchMr. Henrik Slotte, ChiefMr. Muralee Thummarukudy, Operations ManagerMr. David Jensen, Policy and Planning CoordinatorMr. Joseph Bartel, ExpertMr. Mario Burger, Senior Scientific AdvisorMs. Rachel Dolores, Project AssistantMs. Silja Halle, Report EditorMr. David Meadows, Programme OfficerMr. Andrew Morton, Project CoordinatorMs. Cecilia Morales, AdvisorMs. Mani Nair, Project AssistantMs. Satu Ojaluoma, Administrative OfficerMs. Elena Orlyk, Project AssistantMr. Hassan Partow, Senior Environment ExpertMr. Matija Potočnik, Media AssistantMr. Gabriel Rocha, Systems AdministratorMs. Joanne Stutz, Programme AssistantMr. Koen Toonen, Project CoordinatorMs. Maliza van Eeden, Associate Programme OfficerMs. Anne-Cécile Vialle, Operations and Research AssistantMr. Alain Wittig, Associate Programme OfficerMr. Richard Wood, Technical CoordinatorMr. Grant Wroe-Street, Project CoordinatorMr. Dawit Yared, Project Assistant• United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme • United Nations Environment Programme •181

Further informationCopies of this report may be ordered from:SMI (Distribution Services) LimitedP.O. Box 119StevenageHertfordshire SG1 4TP, UKTel: +44 1438 748111Fax: +44 1438 748 844<strong>UNEP</strong> has an online bookstore at: http://www.earthprint.comFurther technical information may be obtained from the <strong>UNEP</strong> <strong>Post</strong>-<strong>Conflict</strong> Branch website at:http://postconflict.unep.ch or by email: postconflict@unep.ch

www.unep.orgUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeP.O. Box 30552 Nairobi, KenyaTel: +254 (0)20 762 1234Fax: +254 (0)20 762 3927Email: uneppub@unep.orgIn addition to the significant impact on the civilianpopulation, the July-August 2006 conflict in <strong>Lebanon</strong>and in Israel caused severe damage to infrastructurein <strong>Lebanon</strong> and raised concerns about the possiblecontamination of land,air and water by toxic chemicalsreleased from damaged industrial sites and the typesof weapons used. In addition, the bombing of the Jiyehpower plant, south of Beirut, led to the spillage ofa considerable amount of heavy fuel oil into theMediterranean Sea, which polluted approximately 150kilometres of Lebanese coastline, as well as part ofSyria's coast.In view of these concerns, <strong>UNEP</strong> sent a team of twelveinternational environmental experts to conduct fieldworkin <strong>Lebanon</strong> from 30 September to 21 October2006. The scientific areas investigated included solidand hazardous waste (including asbestos), land andfreshwater contamination, the environmental impactsof weapons used and marine and coastal pollution.<strong>UNEP</strong> visited more than one hundred sites throughout<strong>Lebanon</strong> and took close to two hundred water,soil,ash,dust, sediment and marine samples. These sampleswere sent to three independent laboratories in Europefor analysis.This report presents <strong>UNEP</strong>'s findings of the postconflictenvironmental assessment of <strong>Lebanon</strong> andrecommendations for follow-up actions.ISBN: 978-92-807-2794-4Job No.: DEP/0915/GE

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