Conservation Tillage Systems Field Trials in Lower Austria

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Conservation Tillage Systems

Field Trials in Lower Austria

Rosner,J. and E. Zwatz - Walter: Office of the Lower Austrian Provincial Government,

Frauentorgasse 72, 3430 Tulln - Austria

Klik,A.: University of Agricultural Science, Department of Hydraulics and Rural Water

Management, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien - Austria


damage of settlement after a stormevent


Slaked ditches

Mai 2008 Tulln

Lower Austria

Conventional tillage with interrill

and rill erosion


Interrillerosion

Mulch and direct seed


Cultivation across the slope – no erosion control


Tullnerfeld – Gollarn 2009


Direct drilling – erosion control


Direct drilling

Conventional

seed


Göllersdorf 2nd July 2010


Direct drilling without

disc harrow in front of

seeder


No till drill into straw of winter wheat

Yellow mustard + California bluebell – Phacelia as cover crops


Legumes


Anaerobe straewmat


International tendencies in

Tillage

•1989.............. 10 Mio ha No Till

•2001............ 65 Mio. ha No Till

•2002............ 68 Mio. ha No Till

•2004............ 72 Mio. ha No Till

•2006………. 90 Mio. ha No Till

•2010……….>115 Mio. ha No Till

•Countries:

USA (25 Mio. ha), Canada (12 Mio. ha), Brasil,

Argentina – Latin America > 50 Mio. ha,

Australia (> 10 Mio. ha)

More than 98 % of the No Till land in these

countries


Reasons for No Till

Lowering of production cost

•Fewer passes – less work time less soil

compaction

•Increased productivity – cultivation of larger

area possible

•Reduction of fuel consumption

( 250 l 80 l/ha )

Lower machine use

•Prevention of wind – water – tillage erosion

•Increased humus content

•Improved water retention

•Better yield

Lower carbon dioxide release from the soil

climate – and soil alliance - Kyoto

Agreement


Kuhn Speedliner

Pneumatiic Drill seed

Mulch – und Direct

seeding


Field demonstration Lower Austria August 2009

500 participants


Vaederstad Carrier Drill


Kerner

Vaederstad Rapid


Vaederstad Spirit


Vaederstad Spirit

Vaederstad Seed Hawk


Vaederstad Seed Hawk


Vaederstad Seed Hawk


Corn planter for

No Till

Canada


Kinze 250 corn

planter for no till

Coulter discs

Rotary clod

breaker


No Till sunflower

Tulln 2005


Amazone corn

planter for

mulch and

NoTill


Direct drilling

corn under wet

soil conditions


Matermac

Curved tines


Kuhn Planter 2


Monosem


Gaspardo Regina


Direct drilling

winterwheat into

stubbles of

sunflower


Cultivation Test 2007

Seeding Winter Wheat

into stubbles of

Sunflower


Direct drilling winter wheat into stubbles of

corn Lower Austria 2009


Pioneer crop: : 2009 corn – disc harrow Wintergerste - Mulchseed with Kuhn Speedliner

September 2009

Cover crop seedind July 29th 2010


Risk dry rot

Fusarium sp.

NoTill corn Tulln


occurrence

F. Graminearum 30%

F. Avenaceum 14%

F. Poa 12%

F. Tricinctum 2%

F. Sporotrichoides


Blanking gaps

in corn after

winterrye

covercrop

Wilt plants

Wireworm and

frit fly attracted

by the high

content of

organic matter in

the mulch seed

plots


No Tillage sugar beets

Lower Austria

Yield:

2005…….80 t/ha

2008….> 70 t/ha

Sugar content 2005…17.6 %


Strip – farming

Dill – California Bluebell (Phacelia

tanacetifolia) after Rye – pollen

harvest

NoTill sugarbeets

seeded into mustard


frost

Management of cover

crops

shred

???

Silage and anaerobic zone in the

plowsole Avoided by roots


Angle iron 6 cm high and 18 cm distant

Roller to squeeze cover crops in fall –

reduction of water consumption


Cover crop roller developed and constructed in Lower

Austria (Hahnekamp, Rosner)

instead of shredding lower fuel consumption and more capacity


yield hayage direct drill test

Lower Austria 2009

direct seed drill

with disc harrow

geen matter hayage Nov. 4th 2009

green matter hayage t/ha Oct. 20th 2009

direct seed drill

without tools

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 t/ha


Soil erosion measurement sites Austria

Pyhra

N = 883mm, T = 8,6°C

Pixendorf

N = 768mm, T = 9,5°C

N = 686mm, T = 8,1°


Experiments started in 1994

soil texture:

sandy silt - loamy silt

plot size: 60 m² ( 4 by 15 m)

slope: 5 - 16 %

crop rotation: corn - winter wheat

corn - winter wheat - sugar -beets

– summer barley -

sunflower - winter wheat

Summer harvest - cover crop spring

cultivation

Parameters investigated: runoff, soil loss,

nutrients, pesticides - herbicides,


6 m

Erosion plots


Measurement site Mistelbach


Sediment flow – grassed waterway


Sample divider

Sedimentcollector

3 % sampled – divided by tubes


Losses in differnet tillage practise

1994 - 2009

Klik et.al

University of Agricultural Science Vienna

Conventional

Tillage mulchseed Direct drilling

Soil loss t/ha 6.1 1.8 1.0

reduction 70% 83%

Corg - loss kg/ha 76.7 27.5 17.8

reduction 64% 75%

N - loss kg/ha 9,2 3.7 2.5

reduction 61% 73%

P - loss kg/ha 4.7 1.3 0.75

reduction 72% 84%

runoff in mm 21,4 20.94 19.37

Herbicide loss

% sprayed 2.20% 1.01% 0.57%

reduction 55% 74%

Herbicide loss

im runoff 1,73% 0,87% 0,17%

reduction 50% 90%

Herbicide loss

In sediment 3.09% 1.16% 1.99%

reduction 62% 36%


Yield in relative % 1994 – 2009 Mistelbach-

Pyhra(St.Pölten)-Pixendorf(Tulln)

Rosner, Zwatz, Wurst, Spieß

Tillage method/ Yield kg

per ha

Mistelbach Pyhra Pixendorf

Conventional

Cultivator – plow

No cover crop

100 100 100

Cultivator – Mulchseed –

Cover Crop: yellow

mustard, california

bluebell, buckwheat, red

clover, oil radish

Cultivator – direct

drilling

Cover crop : 7 kg/ha

California Bluebell, 3 kg/ha

Yellow Mustard

96 103 102

90 110 104

Cultivator – direct

drilling

cover crop : 80 kg/ha

winter rye

89

101

95

Cultivator – direct

drilling

Cover crop :120 kg/ha

summer barley

97

110

112


mm

24,00

runoff in mm

23,00

22,00

conventional

21,00

20,00

19,00

mulchseed

18,00

17,00

direct drilling

16,00

15,00

90

C organic loss kg/ha

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Conventional Mulchseed Direct Drilling


Cultivation Test Tulln and Pixendorf

1999 - 2009

Tillage method Yield %

conventional

Conventional Tillage

Cultivator-Plow-

Seedbedpreparation

Reduced - Chisel Plow

2 x

Reduced Tillage (Disc

Harrow 1x)

Tulln

Pixendorf

100 100

99 100

93 94

No Till NT 90 91


Results Tillage trials

all locations Lower Austria 1999 - 2009

Tillage method Yield %

conventional

Net profit

Conventional Tillage

Cultivator-Plow-

Seedbedpreparation

Reduced - Chisel Plow

2 x

Reduced Tillage (Disc

Harrow 1x)

100 100

99 111

93 108

No Till NT 88 104


Mycotoxin marginal values

Feedstuffs

Common Union 2006

Pigs

DON 500 µg/kg

Breeding Sow

DON 500 µg/kg

ZON 50 µg/kg

Chicken

DON 1500 µg/kg

Feeding Cattle

DON 1000 µg/kg

Food:

Cereals……………………….DON 1250 µg/kg

Durum, corn, oat……………DON 1750 µg/kg

Children`s food……………..DON 200 µg/kg

Cereals……………………… ZON 100 µg/kg


DON values Lower Austria

Semi aride climate

DON чg/kg Pixendorf Pixendorf

2009 mehrjährig

corn % DON

Tillage system NÖ

Conventional Tillage 1590 100

Minimum Tillage < 150 108

(cultivator/disc horrow 2x)

Minimum Tillage


DON чg/kg Hollabrunn Tulln

Tillage system NÖ

2009 corn

2008

winterwheat

Conventional Tillage 298 252

Minimum Tillage < 150 106

(cultivator/disc horrow 2x)

Minimum Tillage < NWG 126

(cultivator/disc harrow 1x)

No Tillage < NWG 219


DON чg/kg

Tulln

Several years

Tillage system NÖ

Conventional Tillage 1019

Minimum Tillage 2028

(cultivator/disc horrow 2x)

Minimum Tillage 934

(cultivator/disc harrow 1x)

No Tillage 661


Fungicide Test Tulln 2006

Triticum Durum

No Tillage

Disc Harrow 1x

Sw ing Gold + Caramba

82

230 Pronto Plus

Without Fungicide

460

Sw ing Gold + Caramba

110

Pronto Plus 600

Without Fungicide

820

Chisel Plow 2x

Conventional

Tillage

Sw ing Gold + Caramba

90

Pronto Plus

630

Without Fungicide

Sw ing Gold + Caramba

100

680

Pronto Plus

490

Without Fungicide

810

0 200 400 600 800 1000

DON ppm


Figure 1: number and weight of Earthworms 0-30 cm

2004 - 2006

No Tillage

Minimum Tillage Disc Harrow

Conventional Tillage Chisel Plow -

Plow

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Eartworms g/m²

Earthworms/m²


Tests of CO 2 emission by cultivation

CT

RT

NT

Fuel consumption(l/ha) 57,38 28,37 6,19

Working time(min/ha) 125,51 56,94 14,58

CO 2 Emissionfactor 3,15:

70,00

60,00

180,76 kg CO 2 /ha 89,36 kg CO 2 /ha 19,50 kg CO 2 /ha

seeding(rotary cultivator+seed drill 3 m)

CT und RT; NT:Väderstad 3 m)

50,00

40,00

19,46

Plow 4 plowshare, 1,52

m)

Disc harrow (3 m)

30,00

20,00

32,19

23,78

10,00

0,00

5,74

4,59

6,19

CT RT NT


l/ha

40

fuel consumption l/ha Obersiebenbrunn sandy soil August 2009

35

30

9,9

mulch seed drill

deep cultivator

cultivator-wing shares

6,8

cultivator doublespread- wingshares

rotary cultivator+seeddrill

25

plow

disc harrow

20

17,5

16,7

15

10

5

7,6

7,4

8,7

7,7

0

plow cultivator cultivator +

deep

cultivator

mulch

direct

drilling


CO 2 emission kg/ha Obersiebenbrunn August 2009

100

90

mulch seed drill

deep cultivator

80

26,3

cultivator-wing shares

cultivator doublespread- wingshares

17,9

rotary cultivator+seeddrill

70

plow

disc harrow

60

50

46,4

44,3

40

30

21,4

20

10

20,2

19,7

22,9

20,3

0

plow cultivator cultivator +

deep

cultivator

mulch

direct

drilling


fuel consumption and CO2 emission

Hollabrunn 2010

100

94

l/ha

CO2 emission/ha

90

90

80

70

60

50

40

41,4

39,3

36

30

20

15,7

14 14

10

6,1 6,1

0

disc

harrow +

plow +

rotary

cultivation

seed drill

cultivator +

deeper

loosing +

mulchseed

cultivator +

rotary

cultivation

seed drill

mulchseed

with discs

mulchseed

without

discs


Conclusion

•Mulch –and direct –seeding systems are fully developed and

go well in practice.

•The economical benefits must not ignore the nutrient –

pesticide and soil movement (erosion).

•Cereal – maize crop rotation need a shallow mulch of crop

residuals for a fast decomposition as a phytosanitary need.

•After harvest the growth of volunteer cereals has to be

interrupted, they stand for a green bridge for plant diseases

like barley yellow dwarf virus or Fusarium sp. and pests like

aphids as a vector for the virus (“green bridge)

•An immediately seeding of cover crops after harvest for a

good development of the green manure.

•The production of Mycotoxins by Fusarium disease (Dry

Rot) is to be interrupted by shallow soil tillage and an

adopted crop rotation, fungicides are sometimes necessary.

•A reduction of the costs is possible and usefull.

•A prescription is not possible and depends from the crop

rotation and natural situation.

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