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News From Non -Aligned

News From Non -Aligned World Non-Aligned Movement striving for social development By IINS Research Team The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) came into existence during the first conference of Heads of State of nonaligned countries that took place in Belgrade in September 1961. Representing newly-independent developing countries, the movement and its policies can be directly linked to the decolonisation process with the initial years of political engagement in world affairs characterised by anti-imperialist slogans and the denunciation of colonialism, apartheid and racism. The movement since its inception has always believed in promoting the rule of law and respect for it at all levels which will ensure the maintenance of international peace and security, achieving socioeconomic development. The movement emphasizes that it is necessary for developing countries to work hand in hand to reach a target reform of global financial and economic governance and structural design in order to establish an even-handed, clear and autonomous international system. The aspirations of this type need sustained economic growth in developing countries to achieve their aims which are essentially eradication of poverty, food, health, education, employment, housing and social integration. The members of the Non-Aligned movement committed themselves to these goals in the Copenhagen summit. The Cartagena summit was marked by affirmation towards the achievement of these goals, inclusion of effective international cooperation was also included in the proclamation. The leaders of various states also recalled the commitment by the world leaders during the World Social Summit that the eradication of poverty requires decisive national and international cooperation. The eradication of poverty more than its ethical dilemma for a nation is a social and economic imperative and can only be achieved through a multi-dimensional approach which combines programs targeted to meet the basic needs of all and ensure access of all opportunities, resources and protection of everyone. Nationally governments need to substantially increase public expenditure for social development, developed countries and international organizations need to assist in providing both the required financial and technological resources. The leaders stressed that such an investment would underline solidarity and increase equity, productivity and welfare. Community services need to ensure full participation in social sector, the leaders promised to tackle these problems with modern services which increases wider coverage and ensures a better quality of resources. Social development is the first step towards progress, which ensure better conditions of equity, economic productivity, social solidarity and political participation, the greatest priority shall still be given to the more vulnerable social strata and to the least developed countries. These goals if achieved would lead to better employment opportunities, the social strategy should further emphasize the development of human resources in order to take full advantage of opportunities. The leaders reiterated that education should be one of the foundations to achieve social and economic development. The leaders also declared that such development policies should incorporate social security systems which include health services and improving the efficiency of social security programs for the most vulnerable group. A healthy habitat is indispensable for the improvement of the standard of living of each member states population. There should be adequate public services, disaster prevention and response mechanisms. The heads of various governments renewed their commitment to promote social integration and attain economic stability, ensure the promotion of justice and defense of all human rights and the propagation of values of democracy and the spirit of solidarity. It was further called on all states to endorse the principles of United Nations and following its guidelines urged nations to define terrorism and to differentiate it from the struggle for national liberation and to ensure effective measures for concerted action . The sanctity of freedom of speech and the right to selfdetermination. In this context it was also stressed that movements of people struggling against colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation did not constitute terrorism. February, 2018 (14)

Mwalimu Nyerere’s legacy in the Non- Aligned Movement By Dr. Pawan Mathur Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere (1922–1999), the first president of the United Republic of Tanzania (1964–1985) was a prominent figure in Non-Aligned Movement. Nyerere embraced NAM as a symbol of Third World Unity. Nyerere supported the principles of the NAM on detente, disarmament, development, anti-colonialism and the struggle for a reshaping of the international economic order. Nyerere called for an active involvement in world politics to achieve the principles enshrined in the Non-Aligned Movement. At the Sixth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries held in Havana, Cuba in 1979, Nyerere remarked that “the Non-Aligned Conference is not an organization of neutrals bound to some kind of neutrality in international arguments. On the contrary, we have positive policy commitments of our own. First we are a group of States committed to fight against imperialism in all its forms. The Non- Aligned States are, by definition, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist, and we are committed to the struggle against those forces”. Nyerere develop the philosophical basis of African socialism in what he referred to as Ujamaa. When Tanzania became a republic and he was elected president in 1962, he pointed out that in the new society under construction, development must be human-centered and closely linked to freedom: ‘For the truth is that development means development of the people. Development brings freedom, provided it is development of the people”. In January 1967, President Nyerere presented to the Tanzania African National Union (TANU), the country’s ruling party, a program to be implemented throughout Tanzanian society as the basis of a socialist policy. This program, which TANU adopted, became known as the Arusha Declaration. The Declaration emphasized the following key policies of socialism and self-reliance: (1) the need to build a society where no person exploits another, everybody works and reaps a fair return for their labour; all major means of production and exchange in the nation are controlled and owned wholly or in part by the peasants through their democratically elected government News From Non -Aligned World and cooperatives; (2) the need to de-emphasize the importance of money and industries as starting points of development; and (3) The need to de-emphasize urban development and focus on rural development. The Arusha Declaration was one of the most important statements of principle in relation to the development problems facing the developing world. Nyerere furthered his principles in what he referred as the Economic South. Nyerere was nominated to chair the South Commission at the NAM meeting in 1986. He recognized the need to strengthen South- South cooperation in international affairs. In 1987 the South Commission was formally established under expresident Nyerere’s chairmanship and subsequently produced its report The Challenge to the South in 1990 which called for greater South-South cooperation. He chaired the South Commission from 1987 to 1989, when it became the South Centre. Nyerere reiterated his commitment towards establishing South-South cooperation at various international forums. At the Opening Ceremony of the Second Meeting of the Council of Representatives at the U.N. Trusteeship Council in New York on the 21st September “Nyerere called for an active involvement in world politics to achieve the principles enshrined in the Non-Aligned Movement. At the Sixth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries held in Havana, Cuba in 1979, Nyerere remarked that “the Non-Aligned Conference is not an organization of neutrals bound to some kind of neutrality in international arguments. On the contrary, we have positive policy commitments of our own. First we are a group of States committed to fight against imperialism in all its forms. The Non- Aligned States are, by definition, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist, and we are committed to the struggle against those forces” 1998, he stated that “If we in the developing countries arc to shape our own destiny, and participate fully in shaping the future and the nature of the world in which we live in, we have to have an effective voice. But we will not have that effective voice if we do not work (15) February, 2018

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here - Center on International Cooperation - New York University