Maintworld Magazine 1/2021

- maintenance & asset management

- maintenance & asset management


Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

1/<strong>2021</strong> www.maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

Five Key Benefits of Improving<br />

Operations with Modern p 6<br />

Wireless Vibration Monitoring<br />


Mobius Institute wants to help you<br />



Accredited Certification<br />

Course and accredited certification options for<br />

condition monitoring and reliability practitioners.<br />

Mobius Institute helps condition monitoring, maintenance,<br />

and asset reliability practitioners, business leaders, and<br />

strategic partners achieve the next level of success through<br />

leading-edge training, ISO/IEC 17024 and ISO 18436-1<br />

accredited certification, engaging conferences, and<br />

educational websites.<br />

Course Delivery Options<br />

Training courses where and when you<br />

need them.<br />

Mobius Institute courses are available in the format that best<br />

fits your needs, including instructor-led virtual courses via<br />

GoToWebinar, instructor-led classroom courses, web-based<br />

video courses, private virtual instructor-led courses via<br />

GoToWebinar, or private onsite courses.<br />

Books by Mobius Institute<br />

Achieving optimal performance and<br />

dependability without safety and environmental<br />

incidents are within reach.<br />

Read about Asset Reliability Transformation® [ART] a<br />

step-by-step guide to delivering a value-driven reliability and<br />

performance improvement initiative.<br />

Solve + Learn + Share<br />

MOBIUS CONNECT® knowledge sites,<br />

community, and conferences.<br />

MOBIUS CONNECT is the gateway to knowledge, solutions,<br />

and friendship. Join a community of reliability, maintenance,<br />

and CBM leaders and practitioners to keep on learning, solve<br />

tough problems, and share your knowledge. Or attend a LIVE<br />

training conference.<br />


Training Courses & Accredited Certification<br />

mobiusinstitute.com<br />

and only at Mobius Institute...<br />







Mobius Institute courses feature animations,<br />

interactive simulations, and detailed graphics to<br />

ensure that students enjoy the learning process and<br />

understand the course content.<br />

START HERE: mobiusinstitute.com<br />


learn@mobiusinstitute.com<br />

North America: +1 (239) 600-6828<br />

Australia: (+61) (0)3-5977-4606<br />

Follow us on social:<br />

© Copyright <strong>2021</strong>. Mobius Institute. REV:0321<br />

Mobius Institute Board of Certification (MIBoC) is ISO/IEC 17024 and ISO 18436-1 accredited


Release the<br />

power of data<br />

AFTER OVER 20 YEARS working<br />

with customers within maintenance,<br />

I still do not see much focus<br />

on the output of the CMMS:s. I see<br />

two actions all companies should<br />

take here. First, set the analysis<br />

tools free for all users and bring on<br />

the creativity!<br />

Put effort in providing a userfriendly,<br />

neat, and really attractive<br />

tool for users. Let them be amazed<br />

and baffled by the nice charts and<br />

turning tables of data. Let them<br />

twist the filters like there is no tomorrow.<br />

Throwing the figures around<br />

gets creativity going. Finding new<br />

insights and possibilities you never knew of. More results and more good decisions<br />

will come. New intrapreneurs will step forward.<br />

I am a big fan of securing good data and having valid models of analysis. Users<br />

not used to this will fall into easy traps and might present bad data charts…<br />

there is always a learning curve.<br />

When we within maintenance talk about KPIs and the importance to measure<br />

and benchmark, we absolutely need secured data and valid models. Often<br />

the data tools are built around that, with terrible static reports, printable, for<br />

a few users. I have also seen some pretty good intentions – but very little in 20<br />

years.<br />

So, the second action needed is to set a good maintenance strategy with<br />

defined goals and find needed data-points to measure. The more defined, the<br />

easier to find out your measures. Here you set a few important KPI:s (Key Performance<br />

Indexes) controlling your process. For the every-day running of business<br />

there needs to be another bunch of measures. In order to know what to do<br />

now, how to prioritise the day and week.<br />

We call it to be Data-Driven. Knowing where to put effort, by fact. No estimates,<br />

no fiction, but real data from all that hard work we have put into our<br />

CMMS:s 24-seven for years. All those years... is the data at all in good quality? –<br />

you will not know until you start looking.<br />

At Trivalo we talk about Data-Driven Maintenance in the means of making<br />

both strategic and operational decisions based on good data. No matter<br />

on what level and how manual or automated. It is important that both the<br />

long-term KPI:s and the operational measures are defined, communicated and<br />

visual for all to act upon.<br />

But, I am just saying. While setting your business goals and creating your<br />

dashboards. Do not forget to release the data for all to play with. Analysis is a<br />

free-form art of insights, fuelled by your creativity, and only limited by the tools<br />

provided. Start playing with your data and learn how to move forward.<br />

With love,<br />

4 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong><br />

Mia Ilkko<br />

Senior Consultant Data-Driven Maintenance at Trivalo AB,<br />

B.Sc.; Cert. European Expert in Maintenance Management<br />

24<br />

The auto lubricant devices<br />

have evolved to become<br />

smarter. Many of them not<br />

only dispense the lubricant<br />

but can also set alarms based<br />

on excessive feedback and<br />

low lubricant.

IN THIS ISSUE 1/<strong>2021</strong><br />

32<br />

Digitalisation<br />

in the field<br />

of capital goods cannot be<br />

viewed as an isolated trend,<br />

but must be embedded in<br />

key current trends.<br />

=<br />

38<br />

Keeping<br />

the Lights On<br />

and Preventing Failures.<br />

SPI Inspections provides<br />

customers with topnotch<br />

utility system and<br />

infrastructure inspections.<br />

6<br />

Five Key Benefits of Improving<br />

Operations with Modern Wireless<br />

Vibration Monitoring<br />

10<br />

14<br />

18<br />

The Day After Tomorrow in Asset<br />

Performance<br />

Next Level Energy and Alarm<br />

Management in ICONICS’ Latest Release<br />

We Succeeded, what is Next?<br />

22<br />

Precision Belt Alignment and what it<br />

Entails / Easy<br />

24<br />

Bearing Lubrication Reimagined:<br />

Remote and Real Time Friction<br />

Monitoring and Lubrication<br />

26<br />

Safe Operation of Software-<br />

Controlled Lifts<br />

30<br />

OPC UA including Ethernet TSN<br />

and Ethernet APL for the field: An<br />

intermediate goal has been achieved<br />

32<br />

Digitalisation of Production Systems:<br />

getting smart while keeping out of<br />

harm’s way?<br />

38<br />

42<br />

46<br />

Keeping the Lights On and Preventing<br />

Failures<br />

Cui Solution for Aging Plants.<br />

Maintaining Production During Critical<br />

Maintenance<br />

Creativity Was – and Still Is – Needed in<br />

Teaching and R&D Projects during the<br />

Pandemic Time<br />

48<br />

Monetizing Data in Maintenance: Datadriven<br />

Spare Parts Management –<br />

Part 2<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland tel. +358 29 007 4570 Publisher Omnipress Oy,<br />

Väritehtaankatu 8, 4. kerros, 01300 Vantaa, tel. +358 20 6100, www.omnipress.fi Editor-in-chief Nina Garlo-Melkas tel. +358 50 36 46 491,<br />

nina.garlo@media.fi, Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales Director, tel. +358 358 44 763 2573, ads@maintworld.com Layout Menu Meedia,<br />

www.menuk.ee Subscriptions and Change of Address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members tilaajapalvelu@media.fi<br />

Printed by Reusner, www.reusner.ee Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 5


Five key benefits of improving<br />

operations with modern<br />

wireless vibration monitoring<br />

BY JOSE VERDUGO, vibration portables and wireless product manager, Emerson<br />

As many manufacturing<br />

organisations today move<br />

toward wireless monitoring<br />

technology, they<br />

have more choices than<br />

ever before. Users have<br />

found tremendous savings<br />

through monitoring technology<br />

and yet have had<br />

to guard against drowning<br />

in data or merely looking<br />

at the big picture rather<br />

than details. Either condition<br />

has meant potentially<br />

overlooking issues that can<br />

cause shutdowns.<br />


MONITORING technology will bring users<br />

beyond their previous successes<br />

and assist with data digestion through<br />

organised and understandable views<br />

of conditions. With new technology in<br />

hand, users can now more easily find<br />

and address the root causes of machinery<br />

issues.<br />

It is important to bear in mind clear<br />

guidelines while matching personnel<br />

abilities and available time to the newly<br />

evolved wireless monitoring technologies.<br />

Manufacturers around the globe<br />

who are choosing wireless monitoring<br />

technology have found success by focusing<br />

on key elements such as improved<br />

safety, cost of implementation, decisionmaking<br />

support, intuitive operation, and<br />

overall return on investment.<br />

6 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


Improved Safety<br />

Monitoring for vibration in field equipment<br />

is critical because it can signal bearing wear,<br />

poor lubrication, and more – precursors to<br />

hazardous conditions. But because safety is<br />

the number-one priority in manufacturing<br />

facilities, it is out of the question to send<br />

personnel for route-based monitoring into<br />

areas where a potential safety situation may<br />

arise. However, monitoring must continue.<br />

Recently at a UK processing plant, vibration<br />

on an asset indicated impending failure.<br />

Rather than expose personnel to risk<br />

by performing manual vibration readings,<br />

the facility chose to implement a wireless<br />

vibration monitoring solution. Not only did<br />

the technology enable technicians to make<br />

fewer visits to a potentially hazardous site,<br />

the monitor increased visibility to the condition<br />

before it posed additional risks. Data<br />

was delivered remotely away from the risk<br />

to personnel and the facility team obtained<br />

enough data to trend and find solutions.<br />

Evolving with the technology, this company<br />

could continue to improve their solution<br />

by shifting to a technology that enables<br />

them to move the vibration monitor to<br />

different assets for temporary monitoring.<br />

In addition, they could install a wireless device<br />

– such as Emerson’s AMS Asset Monitor<br />

– that could monitor up to 12 assets<br />

simultaneously. When fewer devices are<br />

required to monitor more assets, the team<br />

needs fewer trips to the field and gains better<br />

visibility.<br />

Cost of Implementation<br />

Cabling and equipment costs can prohibit<br />

continuous, hard-wired online vibration<br />

monitoring. In these cases, organisations<br />

have typically substituted manual measurements<br />

taken via handheld units. But<br />

quite often, manual readings do not enable<br />

the organisation to attain adequate<br />

analysis and trending because the manual<br />

readings require time and expertise. In addition,<br />

to achieve the most accurate picture<br />

of conditions, a facility might need a greater<br />

variety of sensor input options such as<br />

accelerometer placements.<br />

One power producer moved to a wireless<br />

solution that was versatile enough in<br />

its configuration and installation to deliver<br />

savings during implementation. The<br />

organisation needed to monitor a motor<br />

housed in a gas turbine auxiliary compartment<br />

where a cabled monitor would not be<br />

cost effective. Because the compartment<br />

acted as a Faraday cage, they needed easy,<br />

robust wireless connectivity. In addition,<br />

they wanted to measure other rotating<br />

equipment as required without overextending<br />

maintenance personnel.<br />

The solution they found included wireless<br />

transmission and no need for expensive<br />

cabling. It also included a wireless<br />

vibration transmitter that instantly connected<br />

to their network with no additional<br />

wireless infrastructure, such as a repeater.<br />

The transmitter and connected sensors<br />

could be moved as needed and the accelerometer<br />

configuration was flexible enough<br />

to be easily adapted to the situation.<br />

By embracing the next generation of<br />

wireless vibration monitoring – for example<br />

Emerson’s AMS Wireless Vibration<br />

Monitor – the ease and speed in which<br />

the power producer could implement<br />

monitoring of additional equipment could<br />

be increased greatly. With a standalone<br />

device, which includes both transmitter<br />

and sensor, installation and configuration<br />

becomes extremely easy. These devices,<br />

which can be preconfigured or configured<br />

onsite using a wireless gateway or handheld<br />

device, enable the company to place<br />

at any location in the facility immediately<br />

without needing to install and connect<br />

separate sensors to the transmitter. This<br />

gives almost instant access to readings<br />

and complete visibility of the health of that<br />

equipment.In addition, a longer battery<br />

life and field-replaceable batteries means<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 7


the user can plan for less maintenance and<br />

fewer trips to the asset being monitored. All<br />

these capabilities mean faster deployment,<br />

less engineering, and quicker return on<br />

investment.<br />

Decision-Making Support<br />

Effective decision making relies on many<br />

factors. For example, if operators receive<br />

unfocused alerts or alerts presented in a<br />

confusing format, they can become distracted.<br />

To remain focused on the correct<br />

problems and find ways to solve them, personnel<br />

should have effective tools such as<br />

online vibration monitoring.<br />

Online vibration monitoring can help<br />

predict when a failure will occur and alert<br />

maintenance to prevent unexpected shutdown.<br />

When personnel receive alerts via<br />

wireless, they can more simply make the<br />

right decisions because they have the information<br />

at their fingertips.<br />

In addition, wireless technology is an<br />

enabler to help focus personnel’s attention<br />

on the most important tasks to enable efficiency.<br />

Solutions have offered alerts delivered<br />

as intuitive health values that many<br />

plant personnel can quickly interpret.<br />

As users evolve with the wireless vibration<br />

monitoring technology, they will be<br />

able to receive alerts and interpret great<br />

amounts of data from a variety of platforms.<br />

In fact, the latest monitoring advances<br />

make it possible for users, through Emerson’s<br />

PeakVue Plus analytics, to immediately<br />

determine the root cause of the defect<br />

on a given machine. This power can provide<br />

them a more sophisticated look at asset<br />

health, including overall values, analysis parameter<br />

trends, spectrums, and waveforms.<br />

Intuitive Operation<br />

Without intuitive operation, vibration<br />

monitors might provide data without<br />

follow-up from the facility team – ease of<br />

use is key for follow-up action. Recently, another<br />

UK end user needed their operators<br />

to have information available easily and<br />

quickly, so they chose to implement a solution<br />

where vibration data was transmitted<br />

directly from equipment to the control<br />

system.<br />

More than simply data, their solution<br />

involved an intuitive health score through<br />

Emerson’s PeakVue technology. The data<br />

could be trended to determine when the<br />

equipment was going to fail. This solution<br />

enabled improvement of maintenance<br />

scheduling while avoided taking equipment<br />

offline when failure was not imminent. And<br />

because the information was continuous<br />







and always available, personnel did not<br />

need to wait for collection or its subsequent<br />

analysis.<br />

As wireless vibration monitoring<br />

evolves, the users of PeakVue technology<br />

can choose monitoring devices that are<br />

supported through embedded prescriptive<br />

analytics powered by technology such as<br />

PeakVue Plus. The embedded intelligence<br />

enables teams quickly and easily to differentiate<br />

between mechanical problems<br />

– such as rolling element bearing defects<br />

– and root-cause issues such as insufficient<br />

lubrication.<br />

Return on Investment<br />

Assets that are monitored using wireless<br />

vibration can significantly impact the plant.<br />

Facilities find that they incur reduced impact<br />

when make repairs are made during<br />

scheduled rather than unscheduled downtime.<br />

Return on investment is often found<br />

by avoiding total asset failure, which can often<br />

cause irreparable damage and requires<br />

costly replacements of entire assets.<br />

A recent case proved the point at a power<br />

company that relied on a primary motor<br />

for continued operation. A shut down for a<br />

total overhaul would have reduced output<br />

capacity by 200MW and cost as much as<br />

£50,000 in lost revenue. Using a wireless<br />

vibration transmitter, the facility optimised<br />

their time and fixed the motor when market<br />

conditions minimised financial impact,<br />

and ran throughout the interim with<br />

wireless vibration monitoring continuing<br />

through the overhaul. The data that was<br />

sent to the control system in that interval<br />

freed up maintenance to do other jobs and<br />

keep their maintenance schedule.<br />

The next step for the company could be<br />

to choose a wireless monitor that can be<br />

immediately placed on the equipment to be<br />

monitored without the need for any wiring.<br />

This less complicated and less costly solution<br />

helps to speeds the return on investment<br />

for the user.<br />

Conclusion<br />

In general, evolutions in vibration monitoring<br />

have provided a true alternative to<br />

route-based and continuous monitoring<br />

using hard-wired devices. Users now can<br />

choose a solution that provides the raw<br />

data for deep-diving in tandem with the<br />

prescriptive analytics and tools to diagnose<br />

the underlying problems. Wireless has built<br />

a foundation for strong benefits discussed<br />

here and has expanded so much in recent<br />

years that users can take those benefits to<br />

new heights by updating and expanding<br />

their wireless technology.<br />

8 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


The Day After Tomorrow<br />

in Asset Performance<br />

Peter Hinssen is an entrepreneur, focused on start-ups for almost 20 years. He is a<br />

technologist at heart. About eight years ago, he decided to spend more time on telling<br />

the story about technology. He started teaching at MIT in Boston and London Business<br />

School (UK), and wrote a few books on how technology is changing the world.<br />


Peter Hissen is a serial entrepreneur, advisor,<br />

keynote speaker and author, Peter lectures<br />

at various business schools such as<br />

the London Business School (UK) and MIT<br />

in Boston. Peter has founded nexxworks to<br />

help organizations become fluid, innovate<br />

and thrive in 'The Day After Tomorrow'.<br />

10 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


Peter will be talking at the Asset Performance<br />

Awards about how companies<br />

and technical services can prepare for<br />

the future. How can you help your company<br />

in staying relevant The Day After<br />

Tomorrow?<br />

Peter, you will be present as a<br />

keynote speaker at the Asset<br />

Performance Awards. Can you<br />

explain where your interest in the<br />

industry comes from?<br />

It is a little bit personal because my father<br />

worked in the oil and gas industry<br />

his entire life, specifically Maintenance<br />

and everything that deals with process<br />

control. So, when I was a kid, it was all I<br />

heard from my dad coming home. And I<br />

think the evolution that you see in this<br />

industry is fascinating. New technologies<br />

are changing, in my opinion, tremendously:<br />

dealing with assets, managing<br />

performance, and thinking about prediction<br />

is going to change tremendously. So,<br />

I'm very excited to be part of this.<br />

Can you give some examples of<br />

technologies that will impact our<br />

world?<br />

Big Data. I mean, this is an industry that<br />

has always been interested in information.<br />

But now Big Data is becoming<br />

abundant. We have technologies to deal<br />

with that. We have machine learning,<br />

artificial intelligence, all these mechanisms<br />

of connectivity. I think if you put<br />

it all together, it's piling up technology<br />

after technology that is fundamentally<br />

changing how we think about how to<br />

deal with data. And I think it will have a<br />

tremendous impact on this industry.<br />

What do you think the main<br />

challenge of the industry today is?<br />

We're currently in a disruptive era. I<br />

use this word carefully, but it indicates<br />

a constant acceleration and the need to<br />

follow that speed. Lots of companies see<br />

a huge conflict between possibilities and<br />

reality. So this gap and tension between<br />

what is possible and what you do day to<br />

day is a big challenge. We need to take a<br />

huge leap in skills and technology. This<br />

is also an opportunity to become more<br />

critical of your company. Performance<br />

plays an important rule. And the reason<br />

why your company exists is absolutely<br />

core. But be careful what you wish for.<br />

Because once you enter the spotlight,<br />

you've got to deliver. Take up your role<br />

and realise it.<br />

What makes it so difficult to take up<br />

this role?<br />

Being able to tell the story and carry it<br />

out. Storytelling is key. IT people should<br />

be rock stars, but most of the time<br />

they're not so communicative. That's<br />

because they don't have the skills to tell<br />

their story. If you go from predictive<br />

maintenance to Asset Performance in a<br />

connected world, then you have so many<br />

touchpoints, that you have to broaden<br />

your gaze. You need more skills and<br />

competences. Your suppliers change.<br />

Your partners change. And everything<br />

becomes more fluid.<br />

In your book ‘The Day After<br />

Tomorrow’, you're talking about<br />

what is going wrong in companies<br />

today. What is your vision?<br />

Well, I have a very simple idea of how<br />

much time companies spend on today,<br />

tomorrow, the day after tomorrow. Most<br />

companies are very busy with today.<br />

And when they look at the future, they<br />

often extrapolate today, they think that<br />

tomorrow is approximately the same.<br />

But we're now facing so many different<br />

changes that there might be changes in<br />

business models or in technologies or<br />

new players coming onto the market.<br />

We have to think about this disruption,<br />

'this is the day after tomorrow', and how<br />

you deal with that. When I talk about<br />

today, tomorrow, the after tomorrow,<br />

many people say they dedicate 70-20-10<br />

percent of their time on it. The reality<br />

is we spend 93 percent of our time today,<br />

maybe 7 percent thinking about<br />

tomorrow and virtually none in the day<br />

after tomorrow. And I think in many<br />

industries, this was okay and in the 20th<br />

century. But we're now fully in the 21st<br />

century. That doesn't work anymore. We<br />

have to be much more flexible and agile.<br />

And that's why the day after tomorrow is<br />

more important than ever before.<br />

You will also talk about two<br />

interesting concepts: staying<br />

essential and staying relevant. How<br />

can we achieve that?<br />

Of course, you want to be essential. You<br />

want to do something that makes sense.<br />

If you do predictive maintenance, that<br />

is essential. If you work for customers,<br />

you're hoping that you are vital for<br />

that customer. But the other question<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 11


is, how relevant are you? And I think<br />

there's a very clear difference between<br />

essential and relevant. And I think an<br />

exampleis the telecoms industry. If you<br />

look at telecoms 10 years ago, a telecom<br />

operator was essential. You needed a<br />

SIM card, and they were relevant, they<br />

gave you added value. In today’s world,<br />

they are still essential, because you still<br />

need that SIM card. But the relevance<br />

has dropped. And therefore, if whatever<br />

capacity you have in an organization,<br />

whatever position you have in dealing<br />

with the outside world, that is the core<br />

question, are you essential? I hope you<br />

are. But how can you make sure that<br />

your relevance doesn't go down?<br />

And that brings us to the maintenance<br />

and quality department. They<br />

don't add value directly to the product.<br />

The customer doesn't pay for<br />

maintenance that was necessary to<br />

produce his product. But it is essential.<br />

So, what would your tip be to<br />

staying relevant?<br />

Well, I think it's because we're in an age<br />

where everything is interconnected. So,<br />

if you look at an organization, they are<br />

not silos anymore. We're in this network<br />

age, everything is connected to everything.<br />

So, when you say that your customer<br />

doesn't pay for the maintenance<br />

directly, that's true, but your customer<br />

will feel, see, and understand whether<br />

this is something which is integral in<br />

terms of quality thinking or performance<br />

management. And in the end, if<br />

your company wants to be flexible and<br />

fast and agile, you have to incorporate<br />

that into every part of the organization.<br />

Every fibre, every node, every element<br />

has to understand that you are part of a<br />

bigger picture, and you have to keep reinventing<br />

itself to be both essential and<br />

relevant for the outside world.<br />

On the other hand, in our industry,<br />

there are a lot of service providers.<br />

They are companies that perform<br />

maintenance activities and make<br />

services. How is this new and how<br />

will they need to evolve?<br />

We're more and more in this age of networks,<br />

thinking about ecosystems, the<br />

role that they play is different. We're<br />

beginning to see the old "I supply a<br />

product and that's it" is over. It's more<br />

and more a service type of activity. And<br />

what you see is, instead of the traditional<br />

boundaries, we get fluidity, we have<br />

more and more of that network and ecosystem<br />

type thinking. And that means<br />

that you're going to have new players<br />

entering the market very, very quickly.<br />

You're going to have traditional players<br />

who must reinvent themselves. And you<br />

have different types of partnerships and<br />

agreements that we need to figure out.<br />

And I think figuring out what your role<br />

is, as an external provider in this sea of<br />

fluidity in a connected world is going to<br />

be very fascinating.<br />

This connectivity is entering a lot of<br />

factories. They are experimenting,<br />

but we see some reluctance and<br />

difficulties to scale up. How can you<br />

solve that?<br />

Well, I think we're in a phase where a lot<br />

of the technologies are emerging. Take<br />

something like AI or machine learning<br />

that's relatively new. Most people don't<br />

understand it very well, there is a huge<br />

skill gap that we need to fill, because<br />

we need to train and prepare people for<br />

that. But a lot of things are just trying<br />

out, companies are experimenting and<br />

figuring out how to apply this, but it's a<br />

very early game.<br />

If you compare that to the PC industry,<br />

this was the time where we had<br />

Commodores and Ataris, and not the<br />

established industry like we have today.<br />

We're going through that phase. And if<br />

you're too early, you're going to burn a<br />

lot of money and not get a lot of results.<br />

But if you wait too long, you probably<br />

run the risk of becoming completely<br />

obsolete. I think it's making sure that<br />

you're constantly in tune that you're<br />

constantly alert that you follow this as<br />

closely as possible and make the right<br />

move at the right time. But you can only<br />

do that if you are prepared.<br />

How can people prepare for this skill<br />

challenge?<br />

I think they have to make time for it.<br />

Time is the biggest issue. To put your<br />

day-to-day work at the side is difficult,<br />

but you really must invest in these skills.<br />

Experiment at first, like tinkering with a<br />

fuse until something blows up. There are<br />

so many possibilities, also online, to test<br />

and try out different stuff. Everybody<br />

talks about life- long learning, but most<br />

managers don't do it themselves.<br />

Why should people attend your<br />

keynote at the Asset Performance<br />

4.0 Conference?<br />

I think this is one of the most fascinating<br />

industries that for a long time, has<br />

already worked with data. But it's now<br />

making a quantum leap. I'd love to talk<br />

about how I see that evolving, I hope to<br />

inspire you to maybe even do more than<br />

what you're doing today. But above all,<br />

to prepare us for, I think, a very disruptive<br />

wave that is going to affect everyone.<br />

And I think if we understand this,<br />

we can all actually come out even better<br />

as a result.<br />


CHECK OUT more information<br />

on the Asset Performance 4.0 Hybrid<br />

Conference & Exhibition <strong>2021</strong> via<br />

www.assetperformance.eu/<strong>2021</strong><br />

12 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>

Scan me<br />

Hybrid Conference & Exhibition<br />

October 26-28, <strong>2021</strong><br />

Antwerp, Belgium<br />

The 4th Industrial revolution, IoT and predictive<br />

analytics are bringing unseen possibilities in<br />

maintenance, reliability and condition monitoring.<br />

The Asset Performance 4.0 Conference & Exhibition offers a<br />

unique opportunity to learn how new 4.0 technologies and<br />

fundamentals in operations, maintenance and asset<br />

management reinforce each other in order to achieve higher<br />

equipment reliability and cost performance in asset intensive<br />

industries.<br />



√<br />

3 day conference with workshops & in-depth expert<br />

presentations.<br />


√<br />

Exhibition with +50 exhibitors.<br />

√<br />

+100 presentations to watch live or online when you want.<br />

√<br />

Extensive networking opportunities with peers & experts.<br />

√<br />

Keynote by Peter Hinssen (entrepreneur & MIT lecturer).<br />

√<br />

Register now & get access to an extensive database of<br />

+100 recordings of the conference sessions of Asset<br />

Performance 4.0 2020.<br />



Powered by<br />



Next Level Energy and<br />

Alarm Management in<br />

ICONICS’ Latest Release<br />

ICONICS is a global automation software provider of advanced industry 4.0 Webenabled<br />

OPC UA and BACnet certified visualization, analytics, and mobile software<br />

solutions for any energy, manufacturing, industrial, or building automation application.<br />

This year marks a few milestones. Within <strong>2021</strong>, ICONICS will mark its 35th year of<br />

operations, doing so within its first full year as a group company of Mitsubishi Electric<br />

Corporation, itself celebrating the 100th anniversary of its establishment.<br />

THIS YEAR also marks the release of<br />

the latest version of ICONICS Suite:<br />

version 10.97. With this latest release,<br />

ICONICS has addressed a wide variety<br />

of customer challenges through innovative<br />

technological solutions and<br />

enhancements across its automation<br />


Senior Director of<br />

Global Marketing,<br />

ICONICS,<br />

melissa@iconics.com<br />

software lineup of data visualization,<br />

archiving/rapid retrieval, analytics,<br />

mobile apps, and edge to cloud connectivity.<br />

Some of the new additions<br />

include ICONICS’ connected field service<br />

software, CFSWorX’, integration<br />

with Maximo, ServiceNow, and Azure<br />

14 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>




Active Directory and support for load<br />

balancing. The Data Exporter within<br />

ICONICS’ high-speed data historian,<br />

Hyper Historian, now supports Azure<br />

Data Lake Generation 2 and other scalable<br />

cloud storage services. Also newly<br />

added are Sankey Diagram controls,<br />

available for use across any of ICON-<br />

ICS’ visualization environments on any<br />

desktop, laptop, web browser, or smart<br />

device.<br />

This issue of <strong>Maintworld</strong> highlights<br />

energy management and condition<br />

monitoring in maintenance applications.<br />

Solutions for both of these requirements<br />

are included within version<br />

10.97 of ICONICS Suite, as well.<br />

Energy AnalytiX® for Energy<br />

Management<br />

Energy management systems help to<br />

deliver rich platform and browserindependent<br />

real-time visualization<br />

of energy use. Such software can address<br />

any size application, from a single<br />

building to an entire campus or multisite<br />

enterprise. Energy management<br />

system software also involves monitoring,<br />

analyzing, and improving organizational<br />

assets. It helps to optimize en-<br />

ergy usage of buildings and equipment<br />

and can help identify energy-related efficiency<br />

issues in production processes.<br />

It also helps to simplify workflow for<br />

maintenance personnel and field operatives.<br />

With such software tools, users<br />

can create IT firewall-friendly, secure<br />

custom energy dashboards and kiosks<br />

to view reports for analysis of energy<br />

consumption patterns, resource usage,<br />

and progress on sustainability efforts.<br />

Maintenance personnel, site managers,<br />

and building engineers can quickly<br />

and intuitively navigate energy-related<br />

data and discover opportunities for improvement.<br />

ICONICS’ energy management system<br />

software, Energy AnalytiX®, provides<br />

open universal data connectivity<br />

and enterprise integration to a wide variety<br />

of building management systems<br />

(BMS), SCADA, enterprise resource<br />

planning (ERP), and control systems.<br />

Managers of commercial or government<br />

buildings, university campuses,<br />

and industrial plants can use this revolutionary<br />

smart energy software solution<br />

to configure, customize, operate,<br />

and improve. Energy AnalytiX includes<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 15


built-in calculations, KPIs, analytics,<br />

data historian, reporting, and the rich<br />

visualization needed to take decisive<br />

action to reduce and manage utility<br />

costs and consumption.<br />

Energy AnalytiX can be deployed<br />

quickly in order to more swiftly<br />

achieve return on investment. Integration<br />

with a wide variety of existing<br />

meters, coupled with preconfigured<br />

charts, helps to reduce the engineering<br />

time involved. It can also help<br />

realize cost savings through informed<br />

decision-making, as organizations<br />

frequently seek ways to reduce consumption,<br />

monitor conditions, lower<br />

energy costs, and minimize carbon<br />

emissions. Energy AnalytiX provides<br />

in-depth comparison and visualization<br />

of energy costs.<br />

16 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong><br />





ICONICS energy management software<br />

comes with the ability to provide<br />

standard cost, consumption, and carbon<br />

reports. Charts can include consumption<br />

(electric, wind, solar, steam, gas,<br />

water, and/or cogen), costs (electricity,<br />

steam, water, and/or gas), conditions<br />

(occupants, equipment runtime, sun, air<br />

handling unit, zone footage, outside air<br />

temperature [OAT], and/or component<br />

count), and carbon (carbon dioxide and/<br />

or methane). Energy AnalytiX can also<br />

integrate with a wide array of meter<br />

types, featuring compatibility with manufacturers<br />

in multiple energy-related<br />

categories (electric, wind, solar, steam,<br />

gas, water, and/or cogen), which helps<br />

toward quicker configuration and ROI.<br />

With Energy AnalytiX, users are able<br />

to drill down into the causes of abnormal<br />

energy use. Asset-based management<br />

provides setup and configuration<br />

to any level of aggregation. Users can<br />

drill down to specific sources of energy<br />

efficiencies and locate suspected consumption<br />

offenders. The software is also<br />

widely scalable, from a single building<br />

to a large campus to a global enterprise<br />

location portfolio to even an entire city.<br />

In the latest version 10.97 release,




VERSION 10.97<br />

Visit https://iconics.com/Downloads/<br />

Download-ICONICS-Suite to download<br />

a trial copy of the latest version<br />

of ICONICS Suite, including both<br />

Energy AnalytiX and the new Hyper<br />

Alarm Server.<br />

Energy AnalytiX’ data model and sample<br />

dashboards have been updated to<br />

utilize the previously mentioned Sankey<br />

Diagram control. Sankey diagrams help<br />

illustrate information flow between<br />

different sources and destinations.<br />

The Sankey diagram expects a dataset<br />

with three columns: a source, a destination,<br />

and a weight. In runtime, the diagram<br />

intelligently draws the correctly<br />

weighted lines between each source and<br />

destination. Optionally, gains and losses<br />

can also be visualized, while the colors<br />

and shapes of the nodes and links can be<br />

extensively customized, if desired.<br />

Condition Monitoring and<br />

Improved Alarm Management<br />

ICONICS provides multiple software<br />

tools capable of condition monitoring,<br />





as well as remote systems management.<br />

One aspect of condition monitoring that<br />

ICONICS has advanced, specifically for<br />

its version 10.97 release, is alarm management,<br />

with the result being its new<br />

Hyper Alarm Server product. Hyper<br />

Alarm Server offers ISA 18.2-compliant<br />

and redundant alarming using all new<br />

technology, allowing for better performance,<br />

more control, native integration<br />

with ICONICS product communications,<br />

and easy, intuitive configuration<br />

via ICONICS’ asset-based management<br />

system, AssetWorX.<br />

ICONICS Suite version 10.97 still<br />

includes the existing AlarmWorX64<br />

Server solution, but users are encouraged<br />

to experience the added benefits of<br />

Hyper Alarm Server. One such feature<br />

enables access to historical data for each<br />

tag, making it even easier to configure<br />

rate-of-change or similar alarm types.<br />

Another allows for unlimited related<br />

values, empowering users to analyze<br />

alarm information from a creative array<br />

of new angles. ICONICS believes Hyper<br />

Alarm Server represents the future of<br />

advanced SCADA systems for its unparalleled<br />

performance and extensive<br />

functionality.<br />

Also new in the Hyper Alarm<br />

Server, users are able to define alarm<br />

types, which act as a template or class<br />

for alarm tags. The type defines the<br />

core logic behind an alarm, its states<br />

or conditions, when it is evaluated,<br />

and more. The sample Hyper Alarm<br />

Server configuration includes several<br />

of the most common alarm types. In<br />

comparison, AlarmWorX64 Server<br />

had a set of hard-coded alarm types –<br />

such as digital or limit – that worked<br />

in very specific ways. Users with specific<br />

needs could not always get the<br />

alarm behavior they needed. Hyper<br />

Alarm Server alarm types give users<br />

the freedom to customize the way<br />

alarms work without having to implement<br />

counterintuitive workarounds<br />

or request product enhancements.<br />

Hyper Alarm Server is also available<br />

for edge devices running ICONICS’<br />

Internet of Things compatibility software,<br />

IoTWorX.<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 17


We succeeded,<br />

what is next?<br />

Back in the fourth quarter of 2019, SDT<br />

team assisted LUBExpert implementation<br />

(parallel to Condition Monitoring<br />

implementation) in wastewater facility<br />

in SE Europe, with the primary target of<br />

improving lubrication practice on 180<br />

assets (more or less 700 bearings).<br />

THIS TASK MIGHT sound simple and straightforward, still it<br />

highly depended on many real condition facts. A relatively<br />

small team was working on several improvements at the same<br />

time: Condition Monitoring (CM) and Lubrication. A small<br />

team, in this case, means: two technicians engaged in CM activities,<br />

one grease technician and the maintenance manager<br />

playing the role of reliability engineer, lube manager, CM engineer<br />

as well as many others. Certainly, it was not an easy task<br />

for the team, and certainly it was not as it should have been, but<br />

that was the reality and what was approved by decision makers.<br />

Obviously, that was one of those situations when management<br />

gives you less than you need to succeed, promising to give<br />

you more once you succeed. Catch-22, but it is something we<br />

face often, making the process more challenging and rewarding.<br />

To make it happen, our grease technician was trained to the<br />

level of LUBExpert Strategist, understanding Why job needs<br />

to be done, What needs to be done and How, and being able to<br />

perform entire setup, execution and reporting. Proper selection<br />

of lubricants, controlled purchase process, proper storage,<br />

cleanliness… all was included in the process, of course. Once<br />

started, the gained experience resulted in growing confidence,<br />

increased work efficiency, well organized work orders and<br />

smooth execution. Once grease guy, now LUBExpert Strategist.<br />

However, there was another aspect of implementation that<br />

was highly important for the success of the entire program. Do<br />

more than required with less than needed.<br />

Critical point of implementation was the proper positioning<br />

of each department (CM and Lube) and interdepartmental cooperation,<br />

considering available resources. The approach applied<br />

(knowing LUBExpert’s capabilities) was to erase departmental<br />

fences and silos and set it more like an army formation:<br />

• first line of defence – grease bearings right and eliminate<br />

mayor cause of failures;<br />

• scouting – frequent data collection and trending, share data<br />

and locate anomalies;<br />

• light calvary – collect dynamic (TWF, FFT) data for analytic<br />

purposes;<br />

• heavy artillery – deeper analysis, problem definition, root<br />

cause definition (and elimination).<br />

Lots of work and lots of tasks<br />

for a small team.<br />

As usual, Pareto’s 80:20, fits in from all angles. 80 percent of<br />

problems come from 20 percent of activities, 20 percent of<br />

problems require 80 percent of available time to be analysed …<br />

and so on.<br />

Although it may sound ambitious, we assigned first two tasks<br />

to our Lube team/technician:<br />

• First line of defence – Lubrication department job, for sure<br />

• Scouting – CM job, normally<br />

Some call it a burden too big, some think it is impossible, we<br />

consider it an integral part of LUBExpert strategy. Whoever<br />

is taking care of Lubrication, has his hands-on assets more<br />

18 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>

frequently than anyone else in the Reliability team, and has<br />

the most interactive relationship with the asset. LUBExpert<br />

Specialist (in this case also Strategist) is collecting data for<br />

Lubrication purposes, has an opportunity to monitor and<br />

trend data before and after replenishment condition, possess<br />

the data collected and analysed during replenishment.<br />

Knowing that, LUBExpert Strategy easily takes care of<br />

the first two tasks, bringing huge benefits to the CM team by<br />

giving them the most valuable data, and consequently time!<br />

More available time for deeper analysis, problem definition,<br />

root cause search.<br />

At the end of the first year of the LUBExpert program implementation:<br />

• Lube technician took care of 35 – 40 bearings per day (per shift)<br />

• That includes work task preparation, data collection,<br />

on-site analysis based on triggered alarms, LUBExpert<br />

guided grease replenishment, data overview and possible<br />

strategy corrections, and reporting.<br />

• All bearings showed an excellent response (as one in<br />

the picture 1 below), operating at minimum friction and<br />

wear level:<br />

• Process statistics (as shown in picture 2 below) showed<br />

high level of performance, correct lubrication practice and<br />

strategy settings, as well as additional observations and condition<br />

assessments:<br />

• Q4 2020 compared to Q4 2019 shows significant decrease<br />

of bearings related failures in rotating assets;<br />

• Q4 2020 shows no Lubrication related failures, except<br />

ones inherited from previous period;<br />

• Full traceability and detailed data about each process<br />

achieved;<br />

• Data shows that most of the previously used interval and<br />

quantity plans were incorrect;


• LUBExpert Strategy was successfully implemented.<br />

In addition:<br />

• Lube technician delivered 12.500 Ultrasound readings to<br />

CM team, including static trend graphs, triggered alarms, before<br />

and after grease replenishment values, all relevant events, all<br />

taken actions;<br />

• Lube technician delivered 18 “Suspected bearing failure”<br />

warnings to CM team;<br />

• Lube technician delivered 10 “Safety risk” warnings to everyone’s<br />

attention.<br />

First year of the implemented program can now be safely declared<br />

as successful. As usual, once you succeed, there comes the question:<br />

“What’s next?”<br />

For the Lube team, “next” equals expanding the program to the<br />

entire plant and sustaining top performance.<br />

For the CM team, “next” equals covering more assets, covering<br />

more failure modes, digging deeper into analysis to define a root<br />

cause, suggesting corrections to remove root cause, and suggesting<br />

improvements.<br />

So, first, we need to look at the accomplished results and assigned<br />

tasks, once again emphasising the necessity to remove departmental<br />

division and silos mindset and conclude that both tasks<br />

are actually one. The question that we really needed to answer was:<br />

“How can the Lube team further assist the CM team to accomplish<br />

more with less or the same resources?”<br />

Again, more work on Lube tech shoulders?<br />

Not really, the answer is: LUBExpert Dynamic.<br />

LUBExpert Dynamic is equipped with an additional feature:<br />

collects Dynamic data (TWF, FFT) while performing usual LUBExpert<br />

work. No additional time needed, no additional training<br />

needed, no additional efforts, only additional benefits. Those benefits<br />

are exactly what the CM team needs to accomplish.<br />

Now, out of four army style operating segments, we can add<br />

one more to Lube team without creating any additional stress on<br />

our Lube tech, but freeing huge amount of time for our CM team:<br />

• First line of defence – Lubrication department job, for sure<br />

• Scouting – CM job, normally<br />

• Light calvary – collect dynamic (TWF, FFT) data for analytic<br />

purposes<br />

What does it mean for Lube tech during his daily work? Absolutely<br />

nothing.<br />

• Dynamic data is collected in the background.<br />

• Remember this from above?<br />

• Lube technician delivered 12.500 Ultrasound readings to<br />

the CM team, including static trend graphs, triggered alarms,<br />

before and after grease replenishment values, all relevant<br />

events, all actions taken.<br />

Now add the same amount of Time Waveform and Spectra, that<br />

normally requires the work of an additional technician.<br />

One more task off the shoulders of the CM team and a huge<br />

opportunity for them to increase coverage, dig deeper and have<br />

more time for analysis and problem solving.<br />

Each Condition Monitoring team knows exactly how big this<br />

benefit is and how it improves CM efficiency.<br />

Here is how it looks like in the first week of implementation.<br />

Bearing successfully greased with declared condition as “Suspected<br />

bearing failure”, TWF and Spectra collected before and<br />

after grease replenishment (picture 3):<br />

Before grease replenishment<br />

After grease replenishment<br />

Lubrication as part of Condition Monitoring? Well, shouldn’t it be that way? The first line of defence has just become a Maginot line.<br />

20 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>

LUBExpert<br />

Grease Bearings Right<br />





The LUBExpert Dynamic Option delivers advanced analysis of bearing condition.<br />

During grease replenishment, dynamic data is captured in the background.<br />

These outcomes are fed to the condition monitoring team<br />

to help assess real-time bearing condition.<br />



Precision belt alignment<br />

and what it entails.<br />

JOHN LAMBERT, Benchmark PDM.<br />

John has a lifetime of experience measuring and<br />

aligning machines. He is also a contributor to the ANSI/<br />

ASA standard for rotating machinery. BENCHMARK<br />

PDM Inc. provides the industry with instruments for<br />

reliable machinery installation and maintenance.<br />

The term Precision Maintenance is<br />

popular in today's maintenance world.<br />

What it means in a simplistic way, is<br />

to work to a known set of tolerances.<br />

FOR EXAMPLE, when we overhaul a machine<br />

– say a gearbox or pump – precision<br />

maintenance promotes that we measure<br />

the bearing bores not only for the diameter<br />

but also the ovality, how round it is.<br />

This is to ensure good bearing fits and<br />

there is a known tolerance for this work.<br />

Unfortunately, many may take that care<br />

during an overhaul but then they install<br />

that machine back onto a base that is not<br />

flat and now the machine's casing that<br />

they have measured precisely is distorted<br />

because of the base. There is also a known<br />

standard for base flatness however, many<br />

do not know this or have the capability of<br />

measuring it. The point about precision<br />

maintenance is that the precision needs<br />

to be all inclusive from start to finish.<br />

Precision Maintenance includes the<br />

overhaul and the installation, and it is the<br />

22 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong><br />

key factor in machine (asset) reliability.<br />

Fortunately, we have known standards<br />

that we can use for shaft-to-shaft<br />

driven machines (ANSI standard) but<br />

not belt driven machines. Have you<br />

ever conceded how imprecise belt<br />

driven machines are installed? And<br />

that it is a fact that the maintenance<br />

industry spends millions each year<br />

replacing sheaves, pulleys, and belts?<br />

Most of these installations are done<br />

well before their full life expectancy is<br />

reached.<br />

A major reason for this is that we do<br />

not install these drives to a standard<br />

tolerance as there does not appear to<br />

be any for belt alignment – one published<br />

from a recognized organisation<br />

like ISO or ANSI. If you search the internet<br />

you will find Guidelines such as<br />

the one below which comes from Ludeca<br />

who’s a known expert company in<br />

the field of alignment and this is one of<br />

the only ones we currently use.


Surprisingly, we do not see too much information from<br />

the belt manufacturers and what we do see is not particularly<br />

good. From one large North American manufacturer, in their<br />

Technical Information Library, they provide a paper showing<br />

the right and wrong way to use a string to align two sheaves.<br />

This is a major reason why we have premature belt failure. By<br />

promoting the use of string or even a straightedge, prompts<br />

the belief that close enough is good enough.<br />

The company also says that a general rule of thumb is to get<br />

the alignment within 0.5 degrees for V-belts. Can you imagine<br />

a tradesman using string and trying to get a tolerance of 0.5<br />

degrees? You would think the days of using a string or for that<br />

matter a straightedge are in the past, but they are not unfortunately.<br />

At a minimum you should be using a visual Laser based<br />

alignment system or better still, a digital laser belt alignment<br />

system.<br />

Belt drives systems have changed. It is rare to see a single<br />

(strand) belt drive system, most are multiple (strand) belts. We<br />

also have flatback (banded) V belts (as on the main picture) as<br />

well as timing belts which are much more common. This means<br />

these belt drives are much more susceptible to misalignment. To<br />

align these belts requires a great degree of accuracy. Rather 0.1<br />

degree than 0.5. We still need to measure the same parameters<br />

which are explained in the picture below.<br />

Angular misalignment in<br />

vertical plane<br />

Angular misalignment in the<br />

horizontal plane (aka Toe-out<br />

and toe-in)<br />

Parallel / Offset misalignment<br />

in the axial plane<br />

A combination of misalignments<br />

is probably most common<br />

Notice that in the graphic above, in each form of misalignment<br />

the belt runs against the wall of the sheave groove. Obviously,<br />

this is the cause of the belts drying out becoming hard<br />

and then brittle due to the increased friction. It is the reason<br />

why the hardened belt wears out the sheave. It is also the reason<br />

why sheave grooves do not wear evenly, and therefore we do not<br />

recommend that you use them to align the sheave. Just a small<br />

amount of sheave wear might cause an angular deviation when<br />

aligning. For example, 0.1° equals almost 70 thou (1.8 mm) offset<br />

at 40 inches (1 meter). If you are using a laser system, we recommend<br />

that you use the walls of the sheaves and align them.<br />

The reason why is that it is a large flat (machined) surface area<br />

that we can attach to and have the laser beam be parallel to this<br />

surface, it is the reference point from which we measure. Your<br />

target or detector is mounted on the other sheave wall surface.<br />

Now let me tell you what the most ignored issue in belt<br />

alignment is. It is the fact that many sheave walls (faces) are<br />

mismatched, meaning not the same width. When we used string,<br />

straightedges and even some models of visual laser system, we<br />

never aligned them correctly because we never compensated<br />

for this variable offset. And just like belt drives have changed, so<br />

have the tools we can use to align them. If you are using a digital<br />

laser system you can quite easily input the sheave wall dimensions<br />

and the laser system will automatically compensate for<br />

you. If you want precision alignment you will need a digital laser<br />

alignment system for this reason alone.<br />

Different sheave wall (face)<br />

width will cause problem if<br />

not taken into consideration.<br />

Left picture, As Found. Right picture, As Left. With a digital tool this can be documented.<br />

Another reason is that if you are trying to use Precision<br />

Maintenance Techniques you will want documentation. And<br />

a digital laser can give a quantifiable, measurable result, a<br />

numeric value. If we are using string, straightedge or even<br />

visual lasers, there is no quantifiable result. But more than<br />

this, it will give you a documented result including an As<br />

Found and an As Left result. It will also tell you whether the<br />

sheave wall has been compensated for. This is important<br />

because along precision maintenance, asset reliability goes<br />

hand in hand and if you did have to do breakdown analysis<br />

on this machine without documentation, you would only be<br />

guessing as to what happened during the installation.<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 23


Bearing Lubrication Reimagined:<br />

Remote and Real Time Friction<br />

Monitoring and Lubrication<br />

What if we could lubricate our bearings remotely, from any device, making sure<br />

that the right amount and right lubricant are always used – and even better, based<br />

on bearing condition? Then we would address the 3 main lubrication issues which<br />

cause most of early bearing failures. Today this is already possible. Using ultrasonic<br />

sensors and single point lubrication devices, all connected to a central system, we<br />

can now bring lubrication practices to a whole new level!<br />

Prevention in place of<br />

monitoring<br />

We have a serious problem with bearing<br />

condition monitoring! Technology is<br />

making it easier and more cost-effective<br />

to monitor our bearings in real-time and<br />

as a result, we are seeing sensors and<br />

systems being installed on equipment at<br />

an exponential rate.<br />

There is a race from these monitoring<br />

systems to detect the onset of failure<br />

(Point P on the P-F curve) at the earliest<br />

possible point. And this race to detect<br />

a failure is a serious problem. We are<br />

spending more money and extra TIME<br />

to detect a failure when we should be<br />

preventing that failure in the first place.<br />

Addressing lubrication<br />

issues – the root of most<br />

bearing failures<br />

It is no secret that over 80% of<br />

premature bearings failures can be<br />

traced back to lubrication related<br />

issues. These issues can be put into<br />

three general categories: inadequate<br />

lubrication (over or under lubricated),<br />

wrong lubricant, and contamination.<br />

When it comes to addressing<br />

premature bearing failure, reducing<br />

the impact on just one of these issues<br />

can have a large impact on the bearing<br />

life. But when we start to address<br />

all three, then we can reach excellence<br />

in our lubrication programs.<br />

It’s all about the friction levels<br />

A lot of expertise needs to be designed into<br />

the bearing selection and lubrication requirements,<br />

no technology will likely ever<br />

replace the need for trained and experienced<br />

lubrication experts. But when it boils<br />

down to it, it is all about friction - that’s why<br />

they are called anti-friction bearings.<br />

Once the correct bearing is installed<br />

properly and the right lubricant is chosen,<br />

it comes down to managing that friction in<br />

the bearing by using the correct regreasing<br />

volume and frequency. Simple to understand<br />

but often difficult to put into practice.<br />

24 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


Time based lubrication<br />

vs condition-based: using<br />

ultrasound to avoid under and<br />

over-lubrication<br />

One technique is to use time-based lubrication.<br />

In this case, regreasing is done based<br />

on time, with a predetermined amount of<br />

grease. This method is often based on an<br />

ideal calculation that is not reflective of the<br />

real-life condition that influences the friction<br />

in the bearing. This often leads to under<br />

greasing or over greasing the bearing.<br />

A step-change in lubrication practices<br />

came with condition-based lubrication.<br />

Using ultrasound to measure the friction<br />

in real-time to determine exactly when<br />

lubrication (and how much) is required to<br />

bring the friction back to or near the ideal<br />

level. Moving to ultrasound-assisted lubrication<br />

will ensure we do not over or under<br />

lubricate but has still not addressed the two<br />

other lubrication related issues: using the<br />

correct lubricant, and contamination.<br />

What about automatic<br />

lubricators?<br />

To address these two other lubrication<br />

issues many have turned to automatic lubrication<br />

devices or auto lubers. Automatic<br />










lubrication provides a safer and more convenient<br />

method of supplying the precise<br />

amount of lubricant into the bearings on a<br />

more frequent basis.<br />

These devices ensure we always use the<br />

correct grease stored in the device but also<br />

reduce or eliminate the possibility of contamination<br />

caused by the operational environment.<br />

These devices are time-based and<br />

set to dispense lubricant on a set frequency<br />

or run time.<br />

The auto lubricant devices have evolved<br />

to become smarter. Many of them not only<br />

dispense the lubricant but can also set<br />

alarms based on excessive feedback and low<br />

lubricant.<br />

The best of two worlds:<br />

SmartLube – single point<br />

lubricator, remotely operated,<br />

based on friction levels<br />

We have two solutions addressing the different<br />

aspects of the common lubrication<br />

issues. On one side we have ultrasoundassisted<br />

lubrication, using friction to determine<br />

when and how much lubrication is<br />

required. Combined with good lubrication<br />

practices, it will provide benefits but still<br />

requires an investment in time and training<br />

to ensure the proper lubricant is used to reduce<br />

the potential of contamination.<br />

On the other side, we have automatic lubrication<br />

devices ensuring the correct, contaminant-free<br />

lubricant but still based on<br />

time or running hours versus the condition<br />

or friction in the bearing, often still leading<br />

to not optimizing lubrication frequency.<br />

What if we were able to combine the<br />

proven precision and best practice of condition-based<br />

lubrication using ultrasound<br />

with the convenience, safety, and accuracy<br />

of automatic lubrication devices? We would<br />

then have a solution that allows us to lubricate<br />

our bearings only when required by<br />

measuring friction and ensuring we always<br />

use the correct, contaminant-free lubricant<br />

every time. That’s exactly what the Smart-<br />

Lube from UE Systems does.<br />

Lubricate based on friction,<br />

from any device, anywhere<br />

When we use technology to make all this<br />

remotely operated, we can now monitor<br />

the real-time friction of our bearings and,<br />

when needed, remotely dispense the correct<br />

lubricant. All this with the confidence<br />

that the lubricant is getting to the bearing<br />

with real-time alerts and notifications from<br />

any internet-connected device, anywhere<br />

in the world!<br />

The OnTrak SmartLube by UE Systems<br />

has the power of real-time bearing<br />

friction monitoring and the convenience,<br />

safety, and accuracy of single-point bearing<br />

lubricators. Lubrication experts can now<br />

lubricate remotely with confidence from<br />

anywhere, anytime, on any device.<br />

How does it work?<br />

This disruptive device works with a simple<br />

concept: ultrasonic sensors are permanently<br />

mounted on the bearings to monitor<br />

friction levels. All this data is sent to a<br />

central processing unit – the OnTrak – and<br />

can be viewed in dashboards using any internet-connected<br />

device. The OnTrak then<br />

is also connected to single point lubrication<br />

devices. Based on the friction levels and on<br />

setup alarms, we now have the possibility to<br />

tell the OnTrak that a certain bearing needs<br />

lubricant. The OnTrak will then instruct<br />

the SmartLube – single point lubricator – to<br />

dispense lubricant, just the right amount.<br />

And the best part: all can be done remotely,<br />

anywhere, anytime.<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 25


Safe operation<br />

of softwarecontrolled<br />

lifts<br />

Is this lift safe to use until its next periodic inspection?<br />

Lift experts and maintenance personnel are expected<br />

to answer this question clearly and unambiguously –<br />

potentially challenging in practice, as safety functions<br />

in modern lifts are software-monitored and digitally<br />

controlled. The solution is based on effective and<br />

continuous verification of the firmware’s product<br />

safety and its safety in use.<br />

TEXT and PHOTOS: DR. ROLF ZÖLLNER, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH<br />

TO ENSURE LIFT SAFETY even in the<br />

presence of faults, demands on lift safety<br />

components such as safety gears have<br />

always been subject to high demands.<br />

In Germany the same as in the rest of<br />

Europe, lifts may only use safety components<br />

that have passed type examination<br />

(assessing design, construction, material,<br />

workmanship, load limits, etc.) and<br />

proved that they always fulfil their safety<br />

functions reliably.<br />

Type examined for safety<br />

functions<br />

As technological change leaps forward,<br />

many safety functions that used to be<br />

mechanical are now embedded systems,<br />

monitored and controlled by hardware<br />

and software (HW/SW) systems. Modern<br />

lifts contain safety circuits, with a<br />

typical architecture including sensors,<br />

logic units and actuators (hardware),<br />

that digitally generate, process, evaluate<br />

data (software) and trigger actuators.<br />

Lift shaft information systems, for<br />

example, identify safety-relevant faults<br />

in the dynamic behaviour of the lift and<br />

reliably place the lift in a safe operational<br />

state. In regular operation they monitor<br />

the lift’s position whilst travelling as well<br />

as its levelling accuracy, and allow the<br />

precise measurement of other dynamic<br />

parameters such as acceleration and<br />

speed.<br />

The qualified data provided by these<br />

systems can be used to identify safetyrelevant<br />

faults and initiate effective<br />

countermeasures. In this context the<br />

HW/SW system must reliably identify<br />

all hazardous operational states and<br />

process them correctly, the detection of<br />

overspeed travelling being one example.<br />

On the other hand, however, the system<br />

shall also minimise “false positives”,<br />

such as triggering the safety gear unnecessary<br />

in regular safe operation.<br />

Stickers raise questions<br />

Inspectors often find control units<br />

bearing only a sticker with the version<br />

number of the installed software version<br />

(SW) but no indication of when the<br />

26 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>





sticker was affixed or whether the information<br />

is still up-to-date and correct.<br />

Has the SW been updated meanwhile,<br />

or perhaps even a new version installed?<br />

If so, is the update qualified and suitable<br />

for the HW-setup, who performed the<br />

update or installation and why, and does<br />

it impact on the safety functions? When<br />

the lift is connected to the Internet, is<br />

manipulation by unauthorised parties<br />

excluded? Can the company rule out unauthorised<br />

or unintentional manipulation<br />

by, say, a service technician?<br />

In periodic inspections, these questions<br />

are often hard to answer. The<br />

inspectors must search for evidence,<br />

review documentation and access authorisations<br />

and, in particular, check test<br />

results and information from the original<br />

type examination, which informs<br />

about the system configuration and the<br />

SW installed in the examined type that<br />

was approved for use in a safety function<br />

… and of course qualified SW-updates. If<br />

the experts cannot determine without<br />

doubt that the control unit SW is still the<br />

same as in type examination, they cannot<br />

confirm that its use will be safe.<br />

Working together:<br />

Hard- and software<br />

SW testing and qualification are thus<br />

clearly essential parts of type examination<br />

as they ensure the functional safety<br />

of the lift system in case of a fault.<br />

While SW updates may be executed<br />

and new versions developed and installed,<br />

the important principles of the<br />

safety life cycle of SW development must<br />

be complied with in the same way as it is<br />

done with HW. Yet, this is not always sufficiently<br />

guaranteed.<br />

The methods and qualities for ensuring<br />

the reliability and effectiveness of<br />

safety-related functions required in SW<br />

development differ from those required<br />

for hardware components. That is because<br />

SW is subject to systematic and<br />

IEC 61508 “Functional Safety of Electrical/<br />

Electronic/Programmable Electronic<br />

Safety-related Systems (E/E/PE)”<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 27


Directive 2014/33/EC of<br />

the European Parliament<br />

and of the Council of 26<br />

February 2014 on the<br />

approximation of the laws<br />

of the Member States<br />

relating to lifts and safety<br />

components for lifts<br />

DIN EN ISO 9001 “Quality Management Systems – Requirements”<br />

intended errors only – failure rates and<br />

reliability data cannot be calculated as<br />

it is common practice in HW qualifications.<br />

All professional methods are characterised<br />

by typical quality assurance<br />

activities as clear goals, instructions,<br />

responsibilities, and authorities. Feedback,<br />

meetings, test environments and<br />

simulations keep developers informed of<br />

important findings about shortcomings,<br />

incompatibilities, programming errors<br />

or malfunctions, while milestones in<br />

important project phases ensure sourcecode<br />

verification and SW validation. In<br />

this context, experts rely on traceability,<br />

the four-eye principle (two-man rule)<br />

and other proven and tested quality assurance<br />

measures to prevent systematic<br />

faults.<br />

Unlike HW, SW is not subject to wear<br />

and tear, i.e. there are no random faults.<br />

Causes of systematic faults include inadequate<br />

implementation of the requirements<br />

in SW specifications, unsystematic<br />

use of anchor links and variables or<br />

insufficient test coverage. These faults<br />

must be excluded through efficient quality<br />

assurance.<br />

28 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


Functional safety<br />

requirements<br />

Safety-related electrical, electronic and<br />

programmable electronic systems (E/E/<br />

PE systems) are considered to achieve<br />

the intended risk reduction if they fulfil<br />

the requirements of the IEC 61508 series<br />

of standards [1]. Part 3 of this series<br />

specifies the requirements regarding<br />

safety-related software. This part defines<br />

safety life cycle, tools to be used and<br />

the documentation quality. It is thus<br />

particularly relevant for software and<br />

applies to all PESSRAL (=Programmable<br />

Electronic Systems in Safety-Related<br />

Applications for Lifts) in the scope of Directive<br />

2014/33/EU [2] in the EU.<br />

In addition to special software-related<br />

requirements, IEC 61508 also addresses<br />

general requirements for safety<br />

functions realised as HW/SW systems<br />

which ensure reliable achievement of<br />

the necessary Safety Integrity Level<br />

(SIL) which indicates the expected risk<br />

reduction to be achieved through the<br />

specific PESSRAL.<br />

A functional safety management system<br />

according to IEC 61508 is critical in<br />

this context. Like the ISO 9001 standard<br />








[3], it establishes quality assurance along<br />

the supply chain, demanding that HW<br />

and SW suppliers, but also inspection<br />

organisations establish functional safety<br />

and apply it correctly.<br />

Furnishing proof of<br />

safe lift use<br />

The existing system configuration must<br />

thus be documented in an equally thorough<br />

and traceable manner as every<br />

safety-related change to the lift system<br />

(e.g. sensor replacement, firmware<br />

update). Compliance with this requirement<br />

is generally ensured in the form<br />

of a suitable configuration management<br />

system.<br />

In periodic inspection, a sticker or note<br />

with a QR code is often found in the lift<br />

documentation. By scanning the code and<br />

entering the correct password, the expert<br />

can access the entire documentation of<br />

the lift. The digital file includes all relevant<br />

information at a glance. In case of remote<br />

software updates, the expert verifies the<br />

integrity of data transmission.<br />

Further evidence and certificates by<br />

accredited bodies then prove that cybersecurity<br />

measures correspond to the state<br />

of the art and that the lift control unit is<br />

protected against software manipulation<br />

and malware. Information on these aspects<br />

can be found in the IEC 62443 series of<br />

standards [4].<br />

This type of documentation answers all<br />

questions on IT security and functional<br />

safety, enabling experts to confirm that use<br />

of the lift will be safe until the next periodic<br />

inspection. This “futuristic” form of verification<br />

has already become reality as all<br />

stakeholders have realised that it supports<br />

easy and continuous verification of lift<br />

safety, which benefits everybody – and lift<br />

users in particular.<br />

Reveal Your Potential<br />

Get a Reliability and Maintenance Assessment<br />

Call us +1 919-847-8764


OPC UA including Ethernet TSN<br />

and Ethernet APL for the field:<br />



At SPS 2018, in Nuremberg, Germany the FLC initiative was founded<br />

under the umbrella of the OPC Foundation. A total of 27 companies,<br />

including the largest automation manufacturers in the world, have joined the<br />

initiative's Steering Committee, supporting it financially as well as with man-power<br />

and technical know-how.<br />

PETER LUTZ, OPC Foundation, peter.lutz@opcfoundation.org<br />

THE COMMON GOAL is to expand the scope<br />

of OPC UA down to the field level and to<br />

establish OPC UA as a uniform and consistent<br />

communication standard in factory<br />

and process automation. In the technical<br />

working groups, which are open to all<br />

members of the OPC Foundation, a total of<br />

over 320 experts from more than 65 companies<br />

are currently working to develop<br />

appropriate concepts and specifications.<br />

OPC UA at the field level - the<br />

system architecture<br />

The extensions specified by the FLC Initiative<br />

are based on the OPC UA Framework<br />

(IEC 62541), which enables a secure and<br />

reliable, manufacturer and platformindependent<br />

information exchange. Controllers<br />

and field devices support both, the<br />

connection-oriented client/server communication<br />

model and the publish/subscribe<br />

extensions, which are indispensable for<br />

communication at the field level due to the<br />

corresponding requirements for flexibility,<br />

efficiency and determinism. The security<br />

mechanisms specified in OPC UA are also<br />

used, which, among other things, support<br />

authentication, signing and encryption of<br />

the data to be transported and can be used<br />

for both client/server and publish/subscribe<br />

communication relationships.<br />

The initial release candidate of the FLC<br />

30 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong><br />

Initiative, completed in November 2020,<br />

consists of four specification parts (OPC<br />

UA Parts 80-83) and focuses on C2C communication<br />

(controller-to-controller) for<br />

the exchange of process and configuration<br />

data by means of peer-to peer-connections<br />

and a basic diagnosis.<br />

Work on the safety solution for OPC UA<br />

(OPC UA Safety) is also very advanced. A<br />

first OPC UA Safety specification, which is<br />

based on client-server mechanisms which<br />

arose from a Joint Working Group with<br />

Profibus & Profinet International (PI), was<br />

already adopted in November 2019 (Part<br />

15, OPC 10000-15). A revision of the OPC<br />

UA Safety specification will be available<br />

shortly, which describes the extensions for<br />

OPC UA publish / subscribe and the parameterization<br />

of safety participants. The<br />

special thing about the safety concept for<br />

OPC UA is, among other things, that safe<br />

participants can be dynamically integrated<br />

into the communication, with a unique<br />

identification, even while a machine or system<br />

is in operation.<br />

Progress can also be reported with<br />

regard to motion. A working group has<br />

been developing an OPC UA-based motion<br />

solution since mid-2020. OPC UA Motion<br />

comprises the specification of motion control<br />

functions for various types of motion<br />

devices such as controllers, standard drives,<br />

frequency converters and servo drives. The<br />

FLC Steering Committee has agreed to<br />

base the work on the CIP Motion and Sercos<br />

specifications and to adapt them to the<br />

OPC UA information modeling and system<br />

architecture, taking into account the relevant<br />

Industry 4.0 use cases. The fact that, as<br />

with safety, existing concepts and specifications<br />

are being used, the specification work<br />

can be significantly accelerated.<br />

The combination with TSN, APL<br />

and 5G<br />

The OPC UA Framework is fundamentally<br />

transport-agnostic and can therefore be<br />

flexibly used with various underlying communication<br />

protocols and transmission<br />

physics. Ethernet Time-Sensitive Networking<br />

(Ethernet TSN) and the Ethernet Advanced<br />

Physical Layer (Ethernet APL) are<br />

considered by the OPC Foundation as important<br />

elements of the strategy to expand<br />

OPC UA to all use cases and requirements<br />

in factory and process automation and the<br />

vision to create a completely scalable, industrial<br />

interoperability solution.<br />

The combination with TSN<br />

By using Ethernet TSN, deterministic<br />

data transmission via OPC UA is facilitated,<br />

which is particularly indispensable for<br />

demanding automation applications. In<br />

addition, TSN allows different applications


the supply of energy and data via a common,<br />

twisted 2-wire cable, and protective measures<br />

for safe use in hazardous areas. This makes<br />

Ethernet APL the enabling technology for<br />

the use of OPC UA and other Ethernet-based<br />

protocols in the process industry. Due to the<br />

special importance of this technology, the<br />

OPC Foundation joined the Advanced Physical<br />

Layer (APL) project group in June 2020<br />

to develop and promote APL together with<br />

other non-profit organizations and various<br />

industrial partners.<br />

The combination with 5G<br />

Data exchange via OPC UA is not limited to<br />

wired or wireless Ethernet communication.<br />

Support for the 5G mobile communications<br />

standard is also on the OPC Foundation's<br />

development horizon. The mapping to 5G<br />

will be seamlessly integrated into the existing<br />

OPC UA architecture, so that all protocol and<br />

profile extensions of the FLC initiative can be<br />

used, not only via Ethernet and Ethernet TSN,<br />

but also via 5G in the future.<br />

and protocols to be operated using standardized<br />

hardware and a common network<br />

infrastructure. This enables convergent<br />

industrial automation networks to be<br />

implemented in which various IT and OT<br />

protocols can coexist. A Working Group of<br />

the FLC Initiative is currently working out<br />

which TSN sub-standards shall be mandatory<br />

for OPC UA-based end devices and<br />

infrastructure components to meet the<br />

specified requirements for performance,<br />

flexibility and ease-of-use. The OPC Foundation<br />

has given a clear commitment to the<br />

TSN-IA (Industrial Automation) profile,<br />

which is being developed by the IEC/IEEE<br />

60802 working group. For this reason, the<br />

OPC Foundation has entered into liaison<br />

agreements with the standardization bodies<br />

IEC SC65C and IEEE 802.1.<br />

The combination with APL<br />

Ethernet APL describes a physical layer<br />

for Ethernet that was specially developed<br />

for the requirements of the process industry.<br />

Ethernet APL enables data transmission<br />

at high speeds over long distances,<br />

Figure: Semantic interoperability with OPC UA from the sensor to the cloud<br />

Summary<br />

The OPC UA (IEC 62541) framework, with<br />

extensions for the field level, specified by the<br />

FLC Initiative, in combination with underlying<br />

communication standards such as APL,<br />

TSN, and, in the future, 5G, offers a complete,<br />

open, standardized and interoperable solution.<br />

It not only fulfills the requirements of<br />

industrial communication, but, at the same<br />

time, enables consistency and semantic interoperability<br />

from the field level to the cloud<br />

and vice versa (Fig. 5). With this approach - in<br />

combination with the various companion<br />

specifications - information is made available<br />

with a standardized semantics directly at the<br />

data source.<br />

Use cases to consider: A flow meter offers<br />

directly standardized "OPC UA flow<br />

measuring data" the moment the APL cable<br />

is plugged in. And analogously, servo drives<br />

directly process standardized "OPC UA<br />

drive setpoints” and provide standardized<br />

“OPC UA actual drive values” as soon as<br />

they are integrated into a machine network<br />

with Ethernet TSN.<br />



• FLC Initiative Technical Paper<br />

• APL White Paper<br />

• FLC webinar presentations /<br />

recordings<br />


1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 31


Figure 1: Digitalisation of production systems<br />

Digitalisation of production<br />

systems: getting smart while<br />

keeping out of harm’s way?<br />

When embarking on their digitalisation / IIot course, machine and plant manufacturers<br />

are often unsure how to approach things, which steps come first, which can wait<br />

and which may be entirely superfluous. This article sums up the current experiences<br />

of mechanical engineering customers of the HARTING Technology Group and shows<br />

how this important but also tremendously multifaceted topic can be mastered.<br />


production systems are omnipresent<br />

in the general reporting media, as well<br />

as featuring heavily in the specialist<br />

media. More and more new keywords<br />

are emerging in the process. Companies<br />

such as Amazon, Uber & Co. are often<br />

cited as examples, demonstrating to the<br />

whole world how digitalisation strategies<br />

can be used to achieve economic success<br />

through the consistent digitalisation of<br />


DIPL.-ING.<br />

Global Industry<br />

Segment Manager<br />

online trade and logistics (Amazon) or<br />

through the digitally mediated use of<br />

existing resources (Uber). Consequently,<br />

OEMs of capital goods are also asking<br />

themselves: Can we achieve similarly<br />

rapid success with digitalisation, and if<br />

so, how?<br />

First of all, the topics of digitalisation<br />

/ IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things)<br />

for production systems need to be further<br />

narrowed down. We will consider<br />

possible digitalisation steps along the<br />

typical machine lifecycle (VDMA [1]),<br />

or more precisely: only those measures<br />

32 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


that relate to products, services or other<br />

performances that can be offered to an<br />

end user. We will not consider entirely<br />

new technologies and business models<br />

which are technically conceivable, but<br />

currently have no legal framework (such<br />

as "Machine-to-Machine Order & Payment",<br />

for example).<br />

One fundamental aspect should be<br />

mentioned in advance. Some experts<br />

question whether digitalisation and IIoT<br />

technologies in mechanical and plant<br />

engineering have any potential at all to<br />

bring about fundamental or even disruptive<br />

changes in existing business models.<br />

As the author, business angel and former<br />

CTO of IBM, Dr. Gunter Dueck, comments<br />

in this context [2]: "When the<br />

Deluge comes, build ships, not dikes ... Are<br />

we building ships to set sail to the digital<br />

future continent? That would mean that<br />

we are looking for digital innovations that<br />

would shape our new age”. The study<br />

"Digitalisation in Mechanical Engineering"<br />

by the Hans Böckler Foundation in<br />

2018 [3] sizes things up in more concrete<br />

terms and quotes an expert from a German<br />

company: "We will definitely remain<br />

mechanical engineers and not become a<br />

software house. But we need software and<br />

networking to sell our machines better<br />

and make sure that they remain attractive.<br />

Based on digitalisation, we want to<br />

help customers to solve their problems better.<br />

Above all, we want to leverage the digital<br />

potentials to ensure that no one comes<br />

between us and our customers. This is a<br />

forward strategy, coupled with a hedging<br />

strategy, so that no disruptor - Amazon,<br />

Google, Microsoft or similar players - ends<br />

up alienating us from our customers". In<br />

the final instance, competitive pressure<br />

leaves OEMs for capital goods no other<br />

option: they must face up to the emerging<br />

digitalisation!<br />

So it is not a question of whether, but<br />

how. The current state of digitalisation<br />

and the necessary priorities in mechanical<br />

and plant engineering, however, are<br />

assessed quite differently by the parties<br />

involved. The IMPULS Foundation of<br />

the VDMA, for example, summarised<br />

the state of affairs in the foreword to a<br />

2016 study [4] as follows: "Industry 4.0<br />

has arrived in German mechanical and<br />

plant engineering. Companies are taking<br />

a leading role, especially as providers of<br />

digitally networked technologies and services<br />

... For customers around the world,<br />

additional added value is being created”.<br />

Gunther Kegel, Chairman of the<br />

Board of Pepperl+Fuchs and current<br />

ZVEI President commented as follows<br />

in an interview in June 2018 [5]: "However,<br />

I do think that ... our pace moving<br />

forward is rather slow. The possibilities<br />

are so diverse that we have to choose very<br />

consciously for which of the many promises<br />

resources are used, degrees of freedom<br />

are allowed and perhaps something new<br />

will be established. It has to be weighed up<br />

what has to be implemented and what not<br />

yet, because it still seems too far away."<br />

The statements show how differently<br />

the situation in mechanical engineering<br />

is assessed by the actors themselves. At<br />

the end of 2019 [6], Commerzbank AG<br />

attempted a quantitative assessment of<br />

Figure 2: Modularity and scalability<br />

as exemplified by HARTING Ethernet<br />

interfaces.<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 33


digitalisation in the German mechanical<br />

engineering industry: "A decisive development<br />

towards the digital company is the<br />

integration of platform solutions, both at<br />

the process and service levels as well as at<br />

the sales level. In the meantime, three out<br />

of four companies in the sector state that<br />

such IIoT platforms are important for<br />

them, and almost 30 percent are already<br />

using corresponding solutions". This<br />

means that more than half of the German<br />

machine and plant manufacturers<br />

had not yet taken any action on the topic<br />

of digitalisation / IIoT. The situation is<br />

similar in other countries with a comparable<br />

mechanical engineering industry.<br />

But what success patterns can be observed<br />

among mechanical engineering<br />

customers of the HARTING Technology<br />

Group and what concrete steps can be<br />

recommended?<br />

As an OEM for production systems, it is<br />

important to identify the most important<br />

players in the field of digitalisation /<br />

IIoT in the industry - and consider their<br />

role, capabilities and interests (see also<br />

VDI/VDE Status Report [9]):<br />

• OEMs - providers of individual machine<br />

modules or complex machines<br />

/ systems - have the know-how to<br />

offer machine users the key functions<br />

as the most important differentiating<br />

feature in an economically<br />

successful manner, and to expand<br />

these functions to include digital<br />

IIoT components and services;<br />

• Suppliers of automation components<br />

- suppliers of PLC, CNC,<br />

Figure 3: HARTING T1 Ethernet<br />

connector for SPE technology in<br />

Ethernet interfaces.<br />





industrial PC, HMI, drive systems,<br />

measurement technology, sensors<br />

etc. - have been mainly producing<br />

digital controller-based systems;<br />

these use digital signals and information<br />

for the direct control of machines<br />

and processes and can also<br />

easily aggregate these further;<br />

• Software providers for production<br />

control at the factory/enterprise<br />

level - providers of ERP, MES<br />

and similar management software<br />

systems - command an extremely<br />

high level of expertise in the control<br />

of business processes and handling<br />

of large data volumes; however, they<br />

rarely have direct access to machine-<br />

and process-related data;<br />

• Platform providers for new<br />

business models - still poorly represented<br />

in the capital goods sector<br />

- are well-known names in the B2C<br />

sector, e.g. Amazon & Co. But there<br />

is also activity in B2B, as the growing<br />

demand for subscription models<br />

("Pay per Use", "Pay per Month",<br />

"Pay per Unit" etc.) is raising hopes<br />

among these providers of being able<br />

to establish themselves in the mar-<br />

ket with benefit and service-oriented<br />

models;<br />

• Associations and co-operations<br />

for digitalisation and IIoT - strategic<br />

alliances between mechanical<br />

engineering and software companies<br />

– are frequently pursuing the goal<br />

of creating an open, manufacturerneutral<br />

IIoT environment and corresponding<br />

standards based on leading<br />

software and communication<br />

technologies (e.g. Open Industry 4.0<br />

Alliance: Endress + Hauser, KUKA,<br />

MULTIVAC, Pepperl + Fuchs, SAP,<br />

SVA, Voith et al.; Open Manufacturing<br />

Platform: BMW and Microsoft,<br />

umati: machine tools, etc.).<br />

• Users/operators of machines<br />

and plants - on the one hand hold<br />

the greatest expert knowledge in<br />

the everyday use of machines and<br />

plants and the associated technologies;<br />

they also know the most about<br />

the problems in the background;<br />

on the other hand, they are also the<br />

strongest "beneficiaries" of ongoing<br />

technical development, including<br />

digitalisation in all its facets.<br />

Moreover, digitalisation in the field of<br />

capital goods cannot be viewed as an<br />

isolated trend, but must be embedded in<br />

key current trends. The most important<br />

ones are:<br />

• "Industry 4.0 / industrial production<br />

of individual products" - End users<br />

expect an increasingly high variability<br />

of manufacturing systems: it<br />

must be possible to manufacture the<br />

widest possible range of products in<br />

small to medium quantities harnessing<br />

the same system;<br />

• Production plants must be scalable<br />

and offer options for cost-effective<br />

subsequent expansion of existing<br />

systems in terms of capacity and<br />

output;<br />

• Declining OEM margins on new installations<br />

combined with high end<br />

user expectations for maintenance<br />

and service make the expansion of<br />

LCC-based business models (LCC<br />

= Life Cycle Costs [1]) with new<br />

business concepts (including maintenance,<br />

service, retrofit services,<br />

e.g. "Predictive Maintenance") more<br />

and more economical for OEMs as<br />

well, and therefore more meaningful;<br />

• Users' expectations of the interoperability<br />

of machine modules and<br />

sub-systems are constantly on the<br />

34 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>




Leak Detection<br />

Bearing Condition Monitoring<br />

Bearing Lubrication<br />

Steam Traps & Valves<br />

Electrical Inspection<br />


CAT & CAT II Ultrasound Training<br />

Onsite Implementation Training<br />

Application Specific Training<br />


Free support & license-free software<br />

Online Courses<br />

Free access to our Learning Center<br />

(webinars, articles, tutorials)<br />


www.uesystems.com<br />

info@uesystems.com<br />




rise; machines and machine modules<br />

from different suppliers should be<br />

as easy as possible to combine in a<br />

single production line. This results<br />

in greater comparability and tougher<br />

competition for OEMs.<br />

All these requirements can only be reconciled<br />

very efficiently in machine and<br />

plant construction, both in technical and<br />

economical terms, if production systems<br />

are consistently modularised, scalable in<br />

various stages of expansion and, in the final<br />

instance, also networkable. Only with<br />

modular networked machines will<br />

one be economically successful in the<br />

long term - more details are described in<br />

the HARTING article on modularisation<br />

"How granular can production technology<br />

be?" [8]. So it is precisely the modularity<br />

and the possibilities of scalability and<br />

expandability of existing systems - a "state<br />

of the art" of "hardware" in modern mechanical<br />

engineering - which from today's<br />

point of view is the key to the success of<br />

digitalisation (IIoT)!<br />

This is also illustrated by two examples<br />

from "related" areas:<br />

• The modularisation of today's<br />

industrial PLC, CNC and HMI systems<br />

is proverbial. The respective<br />

hardware and the development environment<br />

involved here is designed for<br />

each concrete application according<br />

to the principle of "only as much as<br />

necessary"; but if necessary, these can<br />

also be designed for subsequent upgrades,<br />

which applies in particular to<br />

the data interfaces; in this case, subsequent<br />

expansion, the "growth" of<br />

control software in delivered systems<br />

is in principle no problem - and only<br />

limited by the know-how of the given<br />

OEM supplier;<br />

• The scalability of high-performance<br />

drive systems consisting of a<br />

servo-inverter and a servo-motor is<br />

nowadays very often not realised by<br />

the manufacturer via the hardware,<br />

but only through the software (similar<br />

to the "chip tuning" of combustion<br />

engines). Consequently, the hardware<br />

is identical for simple and "high-end"<br />

products, and only the software determines<br />

the functionality and performance<br />

of a concrete system at the<br />

customer's site.<br />

Since the economic success of digitalisation<br />

in the mechanical engineering industry<br />

can vary greatly from segment to segment,<br />

and depends among other things on<br />

company focus and business models, we<br />

Figures 4 and 5: HARTING PushPull RJ45 and M12 X-coded - typical high-performance<br />

data interface in mechanical and plant engineering.<br />

will not make any recommendations here.<br />

In answering these questions, you<br />

should refer to current studies: e.g. "Industrie<br />

4.0 Barometer / Summary 2019"<br />

by MHP [9], the "Market study industrial<br />

communication / Industry 4.0” (“Marktstudie<br />

Industrielle Kommunikation /<br />

Industrie 4.0") by VDMA / M. Rothhöft<br />

[10] or the very recent study “Customer<br />

centricity as opportunity for the digital<br />

breakthrough" (“Kundenzentrierung als<br />

Chance für den digitalen Durchbruch") by<br />

VDMA / McKinsey & Company [11].<br />

How can digitalisation<br />

be shaped and designed<br />

successfully for an OEM?<br />

Evaluating the experience of HARTING<br />

customers in different sub-segments of<br />

the mechanical engineering industry and in<br />

different countries, three aspects must first<br />

be considered:<br />

1. The functions and existing software elements<br />

of the basic, initial system must be<br />

prioritised:<br />

• Key functions that reflect the core competence<br />

of the OEM;<br />

• Basic functions that apply across the<br />

entire system, but do not impact on the<br />

core know-how;<br />

• Add-on or auxiliary functions that are<br />

secondary for the OEM and the end<br />

user, and are usually purchased as<br />

sub-systems;<br />

2. In the next step, collect the expert<br />

knowledge of the end users (customers)<br />

and own experts relevant to possible digitalisation<br />

projects and give preference to<br />

36 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


Figure 6: Han-Modular:<br />

established hybrid power and<br />

data interface for sophisticated<br />

and demanding industrial<br />

applications.<br />

high-priority functions and software elements.<br />

Possibly compare with the knowhow<br />

of competitors and develop a list of<br />

requirements. This list must be modular<br />

throughout and as specific as possible in<br />

terms of prioritised functions and software<br />

elements;<br />

3. Now it is necessary to assess the feasibility<br />

of digitalisation for individual<br />

functional modules; in this step it is advisable<br />

to involve all in-house OEM experts<br />

along the performance and service<br />

provision chain - development & design,<br />

project planning & sales, production &<br />

assembly, documentation, service & aftersales<br />

services. Moreover, assessments<br />

can be obtained from external specialists<br />

and any specifications or standards that<br />

have already been drawn up can serve as<br />

a template (e.g. by umati). Remember the<br />

sentence: "We will definitely remain mechanical<br />

engineers and will not become a<br />

software house".<br />

The biggest challenges for OEMs in<br />

these steps are:<br />

• The contradiction between the diverse<br />

individual requirements of the<br />

customers on the machines and the<br />

economic necessity to keep the number<br />

of modules / processes required<br />

for this (especially for key functions)<br />

small. OEMs are already solving<br />

this problem today by consistently<br />

"breaking down" their systems into<br />

logical units and pursuing modularisation<br />

- in order to act economically<br />

when digitalising here, the following<br />

should be considered.<br />

AS MUCH EXISTING technological and<br />

machine-related data as possible should<br />

be used and aggregated at the "lowest"<br />

modular level for future digitalisation<br />




SYSTEMS.<br />

projects, i.e. utilising existing sources, data<br />

and machine and process models that are<br />

already in place. Particular attention should<br />

be paid to the previously unused or little<br />

used "intelligence" of the automation components,<br />

such as drives, sensors for machine<br />

or process states, etc.<br />

AT ALL HIGHER levels (edge and above) the<br />

most open, future-oriented standards possible<br />

for physical interfaces should be relied<br />

on, as well as the latest software and communication<br />

protocols.<br />

• Too broadly designed and not very<br />

concretely elaborated targets in combination<br />

with unduly high expectations<br />

regarding the economic effects of<br />

digitalisation will result in frustration.<br />

On the one hand, relevant projects are<br />

often overloaded with expectations<br />

on the part of the OEM management,<br />

while on the other hand, they are also<br />

insufficiently equipped with resources.<br />

For the development, implementation<br />

and ongoing support of digitalisation<br />

projects, it is therefore advisable not<br />

to want to achieve everything right<br />

away. Rather, the following should be<br />

considered:<br />

SUB-PROJECTS should be defined in terms<br />

of modules and focus on high-priority key<br />

functions;<br />

THE DESIGN of the interfaces on the<br />

physical level as well as on the data level<br />

should always correspond to the latest<br />

state of the art and be open for subsequent<br />

software updates and extensions<br />

(especially for end users);<br />

THE PARTICIPANTS should be divided<br />

into interdisciplinary project groups, so<br />

that on the one hand a constant dynamic<br />

exchange of information can take place,<br />

while on the other hand, access to the<br />

management level of the OEM is possible<br />

at any time at short notice for the purpose<br />

of correcting objectives and targets;<br />

Consequently, the overriding rule is<br />

as follows: If the modularity of digitalisation<br />

projects (the "software") follows<br />

the modularity of machines and systems<br />

(the "hardware") and features the latest<br />

physical and data interfaces, as an OEM,<br />

you will then be providing an economically<br />

and technically optimal system for<br />

the current customer requirements.<br />

Such systems are also best equipped<br />

to cope with the constantly growing and<br />

partly still unknown future requirements!<br />

Interfaces play an important role<br />

in modular networked production<br />

systems: they are the "lifelines, nerve<br />

pathways and synapses" and create the<br />

necessary infrastructure for the module<br />

and machine transitions, the edge area,<br />

the factory and other superordinate levels.<br />

The HARTING Technology Group<br />

provides solutions for all interfaces<br />

that are essential in modern and future<br />

control, drive, HMI and communication<br />

technology for production systems, in<br />

order to implement and advance digitalisation<br />

in this area without functional<br />

restrictions.<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 37


Keeping the Lights On and Preventing<br />

Failures with the FLIR Si124<br />

SPI Inspections provides their customers with top-notch utility system and<br />

infrastructure inspections, relying on their extensive experience in the field and<br />

advanced inspection technology. The team uses UAVs, FLIR thermal cameras, and<br />

other high-tech equipment to deliver qualified inspection services and independent<br />

verification of construction standards and monitoring of power systems.<br />

RECENTLY, the team at SPI Inspections<br />

test-ran the new FLIR Si124 acoustic<br />

imaging camera. Built with 124 microphones,<br />

the Si124 produces a precise<br />

acoustic image that visually displays<br />

ultrasonic information in real time on<br />

top of a digital camera picture. This allows<br />

the user to visually pinpoint the<br />

source of the sound.<br />

The founders of SPI Inspections<br />

have more than 100 years of combined<br />

experience working with utility systems,<br />

from building power lines to<br />

inspecting substations. “We’ve been<br />

around the block a few times,” says Elton<br />

Hunter, Field Manager at SPI. “Our<br />

background is basically power, from<br />

where it's made in the generating facility<br />

to where the meter is—either the<br />

The FLIR Si124 is a lightweight, one-handed<br />

solution that can identify issues up to 10<br />

times faster than with traditional methods.<br />

meter on your home or the meter on<br />

your business.”<br />

“We've really assisted our customers,”<br />

says Hunter. “Our goal is to make their<br />

systems work better, safer, and be more<br />

reliable.” The team at SPI Inspections<br />

found the FLIR Si124 to be an invaluable<br />

asset in detecting partial discharge, a<br />

sign of approaching or imminent failure<br />

in power infrastructure.<br />

The Tools of Inspection<br />

The journey of electricity from power<br />

plant to lightbulb in your home presents<br />

plenty of opportunities for failure if infrastructure<br />

isn’t properly maintained.<br />

SPI uses their extensive experience to<br />

recognize when an element needs maintenance,<br />

aided by advanced technology.<br />

38 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


The FLIR GF77 offers both radiometric temperature measurement and the ability to<br />

detect a wide range of gases by simply changing lenses.<br />

SPI Inspections that their tools are ready<br />

for the job. “It's very user friendly,” says<br />

Hunter about the Si124. “Within a halfdozen<br />

hours, we were very confident<br />

working with it.”<br />

“The camera has wonderful clarity<br />

for us in the field,” Hunter continues.<br />

He said his team appreciated the quality<br />

of the images, ease of download to a<br />

laptop or the cloud, and the functionality<br />

of the user interface. “We're guys that<br />

have been in construction for 40-plus<br />

years—we've got arthritis and big swollen<br />

fat hands hitting hammers and stuff.<br />

The user interfaces—the keys, the touch<br />

boards—are very user friendly. We found<br />

them very easy to work with.”<br />




“We bring a lot of technological tools to<br />

the trade,” says Hunter. Among the tools<br />

in their arsenal is the FLIR GF77 gas<br />

detection camera, which allows them to<br />

spot sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) leaks in<br />

electrical installations as well as detect<br />

hot spots. The GF77 is a multi-use camera<br />

that can detect a range of gases just<br />

by changing out the lens. When equipped<br />

with an HR Lens, the camera can visualize<br />

sulfur hexafluoride, while an LR<br />

Lens allows the camera to see methane,<br />

ethylene, ammonia, and other gas emissions.<br />

The camera is also calibrated for<br />

temperature, so it functions as a standard<br />

thermography camera use to reveal a<br />

wide range of utility issues.<br />

Having relied on FLIR gas detection<br />

cameras for previous inspections, the<br />

SPI team was excited to get their hands<br />

on the Si124 and see what it could do.<br />

Though acoustic imaging cameras are<br />

often used to locate pressurized leaks in<br />

compressed air systems, the Si124 is also<br />

a very effective tool for detecting partial<br />

discharge from high-voltage systems.<br />

Partial discharge—caused by a breakdown<br />

in electrical insulation—can be<br />

detected when the air around the breakdown<br />

becomes ionized, creating a phenomenon<br />

called “corona.” Corona can<br />

be quickly detected by acoustic imaging,<br />

identified by a “meatball” of sound in the<br />

image. “For us, that's invaluable,” says<br />

Hunter.<br />

Almost invisible electrical utility issues are quickly detected with the Si124.<br />

The team had previously been using<br />

ultraviolet technology to detect corona<br />

and were pleased to find that the Si124<br />

achieved about the same result for a fifth<br />

of the price. “The Si124 basically does<br />

the same job and it's very easy to use,”<br />

explains Brett Fleming, Corporate Manager<br />

at SPI Inspections.<br />

Intuitive and Accessible<br />

Features<br />

Because so much of their work is done<br />

in the field, it’s important to the team at<br />

The Si124 made it much easier to<br />

spot failures from the ground. During<br />

their test run of the camera, they found<br />

a failure on a power line 220 feet up in<br />

the air, a difficult issue to detect. “With<br />

our drones we could, but we would have<br />

known where to look,” says Hunter. “Because<br />

of our field experience we were<br />

able to pick it out and zoom in on it,<br />

then we knew that there was a bit of a<br />

problem up there.”<br />

“That's a 25-million-dollar failure<br />

on a line that's only five years old,” he<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 39


The Si124 can detect issues up to 100<br />

m (328 ft) away, keeping inspectors<br />

on the ground and out of danger.<br />

remarks. With the Si124 they were able<br />

to catch the problem early, before the<br />

cost to fix it became nearly that high.<br />

Safely Accessing<br />

Dangerous Areas<br />

Electrical substations and other utility<br />

infrastructure present numerous<br />

hazards for workers and inspectors.<br />

When the team confronted a particularly<br />

dangerous area inside the substation<br />

where a capacitor bank had come<br />

down, they were required to stay outside<br />

the chain-link fence enclosing the<br />

area. They were pleased to find that<br />

the Si124 could look through the fence<br />

to assess the situation.<br />

“We were able to walk right up, and<br />

we could look right through the chainlink<br />

fence. Because there's 124 microphones<br />

on the front of the camera and<br />

then one little tiny camera,” Hunter<br />

explains, “that camera was able to<br />

look right through that two by two<br />

inch square and keep our people safe,<br />

which is a huge advantage for us being<br />

in the field.”<br />

Catching Problems Before<br />

They Become Catastrophes<br />

SPI’s goal during inspections is to catch<br />

issues before they’re allowed to escalate<br />

too far. Spotting partial discharge and corona<br />

early with tools like the Si124 helps<br />

them anticipate failures and keep the<br />

lights on for their clients. “It allows us to<br />

preemptively prognosticate what's happening<br />

in our power line,” says Hunter.<br />

“So instead of there being a catastrophic<br />

failure and then an outage and a repair,<br />

we can go in ahead of time and we can tell<br />

them, ‘hey, you're going to have a problem<br />

with this if you don't fix it’.”<br />

Unplanned outages can be prevented<br />

with regular inspection and maintenance.<br />

“If we do our jobs right, nobody<br />

ever knows we're out there. The customer<br />

doesn't know we're there; we go<br />

do our job, we make recommendations,<br />

and then through planned outages or<br />

regular maintenance they can repair<br />

something.”<br />

SPI Inspections operates in Canada<br />

and China—learn more about the services<br />

they offer here: www.spiinspections.<br />

com/, and learn more about the FLIR<br />

Si124: www.flir.com/products/si124/<br />



is a world-leading industrial technology<br />

company focused on intelligent<br />

sensing solutions for defense,<br />

industrial, and commercial applications.<br />

FLIR Systems’ vision is to be<br />

“The World’s Sixth Sense, creating<br />

technologies to help professionals<br />

make more informed decisions that<br />

save lives and livelihoods. For more<br />

information, please visit www.flir.<br />

com and follow @flir.<br />

40 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


IGS Technician Applying<br />

HVTS (High Velocity Thermal<br />

Spray) Alloy Cladding<br />

Cui Solution for Aging Plants<br />

Maintaining Production During<br />

Critical Maintenance<br />


bo.andersen@integratedglobal.com<br />

TSA (Thermal Sprayed<br />

Aluminium) provides lasting<br />

(>20 years) protection<br />

of carbon steel equipment.<br />

It acts as a barrier<br />

coating, passivating the<br />

surface and galvanically<br />

protecting it against atmospheric<br />

and immersion<br />

corrosion mechanisms,<br />

such as CUI (corrosion<br />

under insulation).<br />

IN THE PAST, TSA applications were<br />

performed during turnarounds, disrupting<br />

schedules and other activities due to<br />

noise, possible TSA fumes, and abrasive<br />

blasting. Plant operators were forced to<br />

make tradeoffs between turnaround duration<br />

and asset integrity as the amount<br />

and location of surfaces protected by<br />

TSA in turnarounds are limited.<br />

Aging Plants Require Work<br />

between Turnarounds<br />

There has been a higher demand for<br />

prolonged TSA application outside<br />

of the turnarounds in the past years.<br />

Equipment within many refineries, petrochemical<br />

plants, and other facilities<br />

is now a lot older. Pipes, vessels, and other<br />

process equipment face rapid deterioration<br />

of their original non-optimal corrosion<br />

protection.<br />

How to Increase the Speed of<br />

Maintenance and Maintain Production<br />

Capacity?<br />

Maintenance and Operations Managers<br />

are under pressure to increase the maintenance<br />

speed not to lose many production<br />

facilities or at least the production capacity.<br />

Thus, they look at doing the critical maintenance<br />

while the plant is online – in other<br />

words, without shutting it down. That way,<br />

they will be able to reach their maintenance<br />

goal and maintain uptime simultaneously.<br />

42 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


What about Safety?<br />

There are concerns about “hot-work”<br />

such as welding, abrasive blasting, and<br />

the open flame of TSA application in<br />

many locations around the world. Temperature<br />

and humidity also need to be<br />

controlled to reach the optimal environment<br />

for the TSA application. These<br />

concerns apply to both colder areas,<br />

such as Canada, Alaska, The North Sea,<br />

Northern Russia, and high temperature/<br />

humidity areas like the Middle East, Singapore,<br />

and West Africa.<br />

Hot-work that may produce sparks<br />

or open flames can be dangerous due<br />

to the risk of explosion, fire, and the<br />

release of poisonous gasses. It can be<br />

hazardous for personnel, equipment,<br />

and the entire plant.<br />

Developing IGS TUFFss<br />

Online TSA Solution<br />

Large national and international petrochemical<br />

companies have been actively<br />

looking for a safer TSA solution, which<br />

can be applied while the plant is in operation.<br />

Royal Dutch Shell, a British-Dutch<br />

multinational oil and gas company, has<br />

initiated a project with TUFFss to develop<br />

a safer online TSA solution.<br />

TUFFss has since been acquired<br />

by Integrated Global Services (IGS), a<br />

global turnkey thermal spray cladding<br />

provider. IGS was chosen to join this<br />

project due to their lasting experience in<br />

the field of thermal spray. IGS is the sole<br />

provider of a proprietary HVTS (High<br />

Velocity Thermal Spray) alloy cladding<br />

technology, specifically designed<br />

for the protection of mission-critical<br />

equipment, including pressure vessels<br />

and boilers. Furthermore, IGS HVTS is<br />

applied in situ, whereas the majority of<br />

thermal spray applications take place in<br />

CUI on Piping is Common<br />

in Aging Facilities<br />

IGS TUFFss Online TSA Meets<br />

Highest Industry Standards<br />

workshops. To enable the HVTS application<br />

in the field, IGS have successfully<br />

optimized their materials, conveyancing<br />

technology, and application procedures.<br />

Could the same be done for TSA?<br />

IGS TUFFss Online TSA Meets<br />

Highest Industry Standards<br />

For TSA to be safely applied online, several<br />

issues would need to be resolved,<br />

including process-specific safety procedures,<br />

temperature, and humidity.<br />

Following two years of intensive R&D<br />

work, a safer online TSA solution was<br />

introduced. –<br />

– The solution included enhanced<br />

TSA application processes and procedures,<br />

sealed safety enclosures, humidity<br />

and temperature control, (negative) environmental<br />

pressure control, and a fully<br />

automated safety shutdown system for<br />

the TSA and abrasive blasting processes.<br />

Everything was custom-made and combined<br />

in ways unheard of, meeting the<br />

highest standards in the industry, Bo<br />

Andersen, who has been instrumental in<br />

the development of this new technology,<br />

said.<br />

Safety! Safety! Safety First!<br />


solution is a safe way to handle online<br />

maintenance with blasting, TSA, or other<br />

coatings. This is made possible with a<br />

proprietary Automatic Shutdown System.<br />

This emergency shutdown system<br />

continuously monitors the entire work<br />

area and surroundings. The system will<br />

give digital, audible, and visual warnings<br />

in case of leak of gasses, pressure loss, or<br />

any other parameter deviation.<br />

This, in turn, enables almost instantaneously<br />

automatic termination of any<br />

work and equipment inside or outside<br />

the habitat, including, but not limited to,<br />

welding, grinding, power, grit/sandblasting,<br />

TSA, HVAC, dust collection, etc. All<br />

equipment is controlled through the<br />

use of electrical connections, solenoid<br />

valves, and pneumatic connections.<br />

Pilot Project at a Liquefied<br />

Natural Gas-Producing Plant<br />

Established in 1989, NLNG, an LNG facility<br />

in Nigeria, currently has 6 Trains.<br />

The plant has a total production capacity<br />

of 22 Million Tons Per Annum (mtpa) of<br />

LNG and 5mtpa of Natural Gas Liquids<br />

(NGLs), which equals 6% of the global<br />

market.<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 43


Hot and Humid<br />

Located in a hot, humid, and very salty<br />

environment, piping at this facility is<br />

prone to corrosion. Various kinds of<br />

paint and insulation have initially been<br />

used for corrosion protection. After 20<br />

years in service, Corrosion Under Insulation<br />

(CUI) has turned into a significant<br />

problem with many pipes about to burst.<br />

Ignoring the problem or an insufficient<br />

solution could result in fire, explosion,<br />

environmental damage, loss of life, loss<br />

of profit, or production loss.<br />

CUI Problem: Evaluating<br />

Alternatives<br />

One option was to repaint the piping<br />

with the same or similar paints and coatings<br />

that have already failed once. Some<br />

new technology paints and coatings<br />

were also being considered. These paints<br />

would still need to be inspected and usually<br />

reapplied every 5-10 years. Thermal<br />

Spray Aluminium (TSA) was an optimum<br />

solution due to its long inspection<br />

cycle, >20 years, and proven reliability.<br />

IGS TUFFss Online TSA Pilot<br />

Application<br />

TSA coatings applied in traditional ways<br />

without environmental controls would<br />

not be practical in this case. The scale of<br />

the work in total exceeded 360,000m2.<br />

Applied during turnarounds, it would<br />

have taken over 30 years to protect all corroded<br />

piping. The plant would not have<br />

lasted 30 years in its present condition!<br />

The plant needed a solution that could be<br />

applied while the plant is live. The application<br />

would need to be climate-controlled<br />

during surface preparation and TSA application,<br />

with all grit and dust contained.<br />


project was first completed on train 1.<br />

The scope included a 50-meter (160 foot)<br />

column and a two-level platform with two<br />

heat exchangers/reboilers. IGS TUFFSS<br />

ONLINE TSA was applied to a total area<br />

of 700m2 on cold and hot surfaces.<br />

This onsite project began on October 1st<br />

2016, and concluded in January 2018.<br />

The project was carried out in adverse<br />

weather conditions, including heavy<br />

rain, thunder, sandstorms, high temperature,<br />

and high humidity.<br />

One Train Done, Six to Go<br />

This project succeeded in meeting and<br />

exceeding objectives by rigidly following<br />

all safety guidelines. The project utilized<br />

specially designed Habitats to enable<br />

IGS IGS TUFFSS ONLINE TSA Project at a Liquefied Natural Gas-Producing Plant<br />

CUI Problem Area on Piping<br />

weather protection, climate, humidity, and<br />

pressure control. It was now confirmed<br />

without a doubt that it is possible to do the<br />

encapsulated TSA maintenance in a live<br />

environment, which will be of great importance<br />

to NLNG in the future as the work<br />

continues on the remaining six trains.<br />


In Summary<br />

As equipment within refineries, petrochemical<br />

plants, and other facilities<br />

continues to age, the demand for maintenance<br />

solutions that can be applied all<br />

year round is growing. Plant operators<br />

are looking to companies like IGS to<br />

utilize their global footprint and experience<br />

to deliver innovative solutions<br />

safely and efficiently. Preventing shutdowns<br />

and providing the work outside of<br />

turnarounds eases the pressure off the<br />

maintenance and operations teams, who<br />

can continue production while crucial<br />

maintenance work is being simultaneously<br />

carried out. Further IGS TUFFSS<br />

ONLINE TSA projects are now being<br />

commissioned within refineries and<br />

petrochemical sites, paving the way for<br />

more uptime in aging facilities.<br />



(IGS) is an international provider of<br />

surface protection solutions headquartered<br />

in Virginia, USA. IGS operates<br />

operational hubs, subsidiaries, and<br />

sales offices around the world to service<br />

global asset owners and operators.<br />

The company has 40 years of experience<br />

helping customers solve metal<br />

wastage and reliability problems in<br />

mission critical equipment and is an<br />

industry leader in the development<br />

and application of solutions to corrosion<br />

and erosion problems in challenging<br />

operating environments.<br />

44 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>

Registration:<br />

https://opcfoundation.org/opcday<br />

OPC DAY<br />


IT meets Automation<br />

JUN 08 – 10, <strong>2021</strong><br />

3 HOURS A DAY<br />



Join this digital event free of charge<br />

“OPC Day – International”<br />

Agenda:<br />

W Day: Keynotes Level<br />

Target Group: Management, Product Managers & Architects<br />

W Day 2: Technology Update Level<br />

Target group: Implementers, Developers, Product Managers, Program Managers<br />

W Day 3: Adaption & Solutions<br />

Target Group: End-Users<br />

Listen to infl uencers on technology, security and solutions:<br />

https://opcfoundation.org/podcast/<br />

©royyimzy – stock.adobe.com


Creativity Was<br />

– and Still Is –<br />

Needed in Teaching and R&D Projects<br />

during the Pandemic Time<br />

The Corona virus outbreak shut<br />

down all of Häme University<br />

of applied sciences (HAMK)<br />

campuses, just as it did in other<br />

Universities. Teaching was<br />

transferred to the internet. But<br />

how were research activities<br />

continued with the tight<br />

movement restriction in place?<br />

LEA MUSTONEN, Senior Lecturer (Communications), School of Technology, Häme University of Applied Sciences (HAMK),<br />

SUSAN HEIKKILÄ, Senior Lecturer, Electrical and Automation Engineering study programme, Häme University of Applied Sciences (HAMK)<br />


in a few hours. On Friday 13.3.2020<br />

regular classroom teaching was being<br />

implemented as usual, but with the<br />

recent corona outbreak on everyone’s’<br />

minds. But at the same day all the contact<br />

lessons were cancelled to the end of the<br />

semester. Classrooms became deserted.<br />

The jump to pure virtual-based teaching<br />

was not painless, but the staff had strong<br />

experience of teaching diverse students<br />

who studied and worked at that time.<br />

Some students used to traditional<br />

classroom teaching and university facilities<br />

had problems with software and<br />

internet connections. Luckily many of<br />

the software developers had a “We are all<br />

in the same boat” -mentality. At the start,<br />

teachers often had to think what software<br />

would likely work for teaching virtually,<br />

but a lot of the software used got quick updates<br />

within the first few weeks. In addition<br />

to students, the teaching staff moved<br />

to a virtual environment with no major<br />

problems. So, there were some problems<br />

with teaching, but the goal was in sight.<br />

Digital twin as a solution<br />

Staff of universities does not only include<br />

teaching staff. The radical change also<br />

meant rethinking the means of success<br />

for research activities. To further<br />

research during these restrictions, the<br />

digital twin was taken in use in our project,<br />

Low Carbon Energy Efficiency with<br />

Micro-CHP-technology (later called as<br />

VEneCT).<br />

The term “digital twin” tells it’s meaning<br />

quite well: a digital copy is made of a<br />

physical thing. The copy is made to simulate<br />

the parameters and components<br />

essential for its functionality as close as<br />

possible in the development environment.<br />

Digital twin is a simulation that<br />

makes it possible to test how a change<br />

to an existing one or a new functionality<br />

would affect the original.<br />

The goal of the VEneCT-project is low<br />

carbon usage, as it is a goal in all of the research<br />

projects conducted by HAMK that<br />

involve energy efficiency. The basis of the<br />

research is that its results benefit companies<br />

and teaching in the future.<br />

The purpose of the project is to resolve<br />

how electricity can be produced on a small<br />

scale with waste energy including the possibility<br />

of utilizing the waste energy produced<br />

by burning process. The research<br />

is conducted using a physical construct<br />

that utilizes a “hybrid module” of generating<br />

and storing energy. Different types of<br />

energy-generating possibilities are tested.<br />

The construct has been installed with a<br />

control system that determines what energy<br />

source is the most cost efficient. The<br />

possible energy sources are solar heating,<br />

solar panels and heating bio-boiler. Different<br />

storage methods of heat energy are<br />

also being explored. Testing is being done<br />

on different phase change materials in addition<br />

to water to enable larger amounts<br />

of heat energy storage. In addition to the<br />

hybrid module creating data, the construct<br />

itself could be an energy source.<br />

Corona virus sped up the<br />

development process<br />

When teaching moved to a virtual environment<br />

with a fast pace, the research<br />

46 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


Picture 1. The digital twin’s interface<br />

It is also possible to delve deeper into the data, for example, if some sudden<br />

change or outcome draws attention. Picture 2 shows an example of a report.<br />

Picture 2. Boiler water temperature<br />

The advantage is that different data can be combined and later we can<br />

return to a certain time period to inspect it. It is also beneficial to be able to<br />

monitor individual status changes in real time, allowing for a quick response<br />

to the situation. “The novelty is that the reporting view and process control<br />

are combined”, sums up the project engineer Ari Lindgren.<br />

personnel also started working from<br />

home as much as possible. The continuation<br />

of the VEneCT-research project<br />

with a great start became a challenge.<br />

The hybrid module is controlled with<br />

touch-screen control panel, which is<br />

situated inside the building. Remote<br />

access to collected data has been a goal<br />

from the very start, but remote control<br />

of the system was not part of the written<br />

down objectives of the project. The idea<br />

had been brought up at the start of the<br />

year before the pandemic, but there had<br />

not been any active development on it.<br />

Closing of the campus changed the situation<br />

totally.<br />

The size of the hybrid module building<br />

is 18 square meters. Tight pandemic<br />

security measures allow for only one<br />

person to enter the building. Because<br />

of the complicity of its interior design,<br />

even careful cleaning practices cannot<br />

guarantee the safety off the staff. Staff<br />

access was limited so that there had to<br />

be a three-day gap between access of different<br />

staff members. So, the research<br />

activities could not be continued in a<br />

realistic way.<br />

Special attention to data<br />

security<br />

When designing the remote control,<br />

special attention had to be paid to data<br />

security, emphasizes research assistant<br />

Duong Truong. Control cannot be performed<br />

from home computers or home<br />

network connections; it can only take<br />

place in a secure network of HAMK.<br />

Thus, the researchers had to physically<br />

come to campus, but since there was no<br />

contact teaching, there was plenty of<br />

room on campus to operate without any<br />

kind of close contact.<br />

A digital twin was built for the control<br />

system of the hybrid module. It is now<br />

possible to both monitor and control activities<br />

remotely. A key part of the digital<br />

twin’s operations is reporting. The digital<br />

twin’s interface (picture 1) provides realtime<br />

information on process status and,<br />

for example, temperature changes, water<br />

flows, and electricity production.<br />

Digital twin came to stay<br />

The digital twin changed the way to operate<br />

and came to stay. It will be used in the<br />

future, when physical presence requiring<br />

burn tests are not being performed. Everything<br />

else can be done virtually.<br />

At the moment, virtual learning and<br />

work will continue. Changing circumstances<br />

forced – and will force - us to<br />

search new solutions in teaching and research;<br />

the digital twin is a good example<br />

of this. Ending research and development<br />

cannot be afforded.<br />


VEneCT i.e. Low Carbon Energy Efficiency<br />

using Micro-CHP-technology.<br />

An EU project funded by the Pirkanmaa<br />

Association integrates electricity<br />

generation using waste heat from the<br />

combustion process. (CHP, combined<br />

heat and power)<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 47


Monetizing Data<br />

in Maintenance:<br />

Data-driven Spare Parts<br />

Management – Part 2<br />


Principal Consultant,<br />

Logio S.R.O.<br />

Today, digitization, Industry 4.0 and Maintenance<br />

4.0 bring about vast volumes of data. Technologies<br />

such as IoT or IIoT allow large sets of devices to<br />

connect to data networks and send complex data<br />

continuously.<br />

Organizations today maintain huge amounts of data, structured<br />

or unstructured. However, from research of renowned<br />

organizations like Gartner, we know that industrial firms today<br />

are not able to use 70—90 percent of data that are collected<br />

and stored. This paradox is described in the paper, and various<br />

generic models of big data monetization are proposed. Some of<br />

these models are shown in examples from spare parts management.<br />

Spare parts inventory can lock in significant amounts of<br />

working capital. This article summarizes recommendations<br />

for effective spare parts inventory management and spare<br />

parts optimization using various sets of data and statistical<br />

analytical methods.<br />

The management of spare parts and other materials needed<br />

for realization of maintenance processes is one of the key functions<br />

in physical asset management. Especially in power generation,<br />

oil and gas and heavy chemical industries, spare parts<br />

inventories can easily add up to tens of thousands of various<br />

items, at a value of hundreds of millions of euros.<br />

It is obvious that efficient spare parts inventory management<br />

can have significant impact on the financial performance<br />

of the company. Better spare parts management can lead to<br />

improvement of financial performance of the company.<br />

In previous research we discussed several recommendations<br />

for spare parts inventory management. Using these<br />

recommendations, companies can achieve better financial<br />

performance in different parts of the spare parts lifecycle.<br />

In some of these recommended practices, various data can<br />

be employed and analysed – especially in areas like portfolio<br />

segmentation, criticality assessment, forecasting, improving<br />

spare parts naming and identification, or cleaning and rectifying<br />

master data.<br />

Eight Rules of Good Spare Parts Management<br />

In our previous research, we refined the following eight rules –<br />

best practices – for good spare parts management:<br />

• Focus on preventative maintenance – for preventative<br />

maintenance no inventories of spare parts need to be<br />

held.<br />

• Solve problems in spare parts processes.<br />

• Segment your spare parts portfolio.<br />

• Analyse spare part’s criticality.<br />

• Use suitable forecasting methods and verify their accuracy<br />

and reliability.<br />

• Use special methods for intermittent demand items.<br />

• Consider the whole lifecycle of your assets while mak-<br />

48 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>


ing decisions related to spare parts.<br />

• Implement a good information system for spare parts<br />

management so all above stated rules are supported<br />

and/or automated.<br />

In this issue of <strong>Maintworld</strong> we will describe in more detail the<br />

importance of analysing spare parts critically and the need to<br />

use suitable forecasting methods and verify their accuracy and<br />

reliability.<br />

Analyse Spare Part’s Criticality<br />

In large organizations operating large production systems, the<br />

size of spares portfolio amounts to tens or hundreds of thousands<br />

of items. It is therefore essential to be able to distinguish<br />

the important ones from the others. Criticality of spare parts is<br />

after all the ultimate measure of spare parts’ importance.<br />

The level of a spare part’s criticality is inevitably related to<br />

the criticality of the production equipment it is used for (so<br />

having an RCM analysis done will certainly help in assessing<br />

the criticality of spares). However, we need to keep in mind<br />

that criticality of spare parts is not equal to criticality of the<br />

device the spares are used for.<br />

When analysing criticality, we need to collect and look at<br />

various areas of data linked with the item: cost of inventory<br />

holding, failure probability, impacts of spare part unavailability,<br />

lead-time and other parameters – as shown in Fig. 4.<br />

Based on the level of item’s criticality, appropriate service level<br />

targets should be set.<br />

In practice, costs of inventory holding, and costs of spare<br />

parts unavailability should be carefully balanced. Costs can be<br />

compared using the following equation:<br />

Cinv=Cun*LT*f (1)<br />

Figure 4: Spare parts criticality analysis areas<br />

Where Cinv are costs of inventory holding per one year and<br />

Cun are costs of unavailability of spare part in case of need<br />

calculated per one day. LT is lead time calculated in days and<br />

f is frequency or probability of failure (need for spare part) as<br />

occurrences per year.<br />

If all data for the equation is available, criticality can be<br />

calculated directly – and easily. But in practice typically some<br />

the variables in the equation are not known at all or are uncertain,<br />

blurred and inaccurate. This is where advanced analysis<br />

Figure 5: Equation of criticality calculation – example<br />

1/<strong>2021</strong> maintworld 49


of available data comes to question. From our experience, in<br />

industrial organizations a number of interesting sets of data can<br />

be utilized to evaluate (or support evaluation) of spare parts’<br />

importance (criticalness or criticality).<br />

In the following diagram (Figure 6), a 2-level evaluation of<br />

criticality (or identification of critical items – materials or spare<br />

parts) is described. This 2-level approach allows for the “clever”,<br />

efficient process of evaluation of large numbers of items. Using<br />

various data sources like spare parts master data, history of<br />

spare parts transactions, RCM data, data from previous assessments<br />

of critical items, bills of materials etc., a preliminary separation<br />

of clearly non-critical items vs. suspicious (potentially<br />

critical) items can be done by means of data analysis without<br />

human interaction. After this preliminary evaluation, we can<br />

spot the relatively small group of potentially critical items and<br />

focus further evaluation on them. In this way the preliminary<br />

evaluation can save a lot of work and time otherwise required<br />

from maintenance technicians to assess each item individually.<br />

In the second step, potentially critical items are scrutinized<br />

thoroughly to find out their level (score) of criticalness. This can<br />

be done either in a quantitative way (if required data is available)<br />

or qualitative way (data must be collected by means of questionnaires<br />

filled-in by maintenance technicians or engineers).<br />

If it is less than 0 we should not – this spare part is not critical.<br />

Weights should be tested on selected parts with known (or<br />

agreed) criticality. A pilot mix of spare parts should include<br />

some parts which are critical for sure, some which are not, and<br />

some which are in between.<br />

It is essential to include maintenance engineers in both<br />

selecting questions for the questionnaire and in selecting<br />

weights for answers. This helps to create a better understanding<br />

of the questions and the whole purpose of the criticality<br />

assessment. A maintenance engineer should be able to fill the<br />

questionnaire in an average time of 2-10 minutes, so that the<br />

criticality assessment will not consume much of working time.<br />

Although assessment can be done on paper or in Excel, today<br />

it makes more sense to use available services like Google<br />

Forms or SurveyMonkey or others, that can be used to collect<br />

needed data and minimize the work with collecting, processing<br />

and analysing the data.<br />

Spare Parts Management Starts with Good<br />

Forecasting<br />

The next step in the specification of optimum spare parts<br />

inventory management regime is the prediction of future<br />

demand (consumption) for the items in stock. The forecast is<br />

always based on transactional data from information systems<br />







Figure 6: 2-level evaluation of spare parts criticality.<br />

If data for quantitative calculation is not available, we need to<br />

rely on information from maintenance engineers or technicians. To<br />

objectivize their subjective view on spare parts (maintenance engineers<br />

are often strongly biased towards keeping excessive inventory,<br />

“just to be safe”), we have proposed a structured questionnaire.<br />

Questions about spare parts realisability, probability of failure,<br />

and impact of unavailability, lead time, etc. should be designed<br />

to fit specific conditions of the organization (industry, technology/production<br />

equipment used etc.). The equation (1) should<br />

be taken into logarithm, so we can change variables for indices<br />

which can be added and subtracted instead of multiplicated. Answers<br />

should be given weights, and the questionnaire should be<br />

balanced so that we can have sums for each area (index) as shown<br />

in the following equation:<br />

IP-Iun-ILT-If=0 (2)<br />

This allows for summing weights for answers in each area<br />

into a single index. If the left side of the equation is greater<br />

than 0, we should keep at least one item of spare part in stock.<br />

– history of spare parts consumptions, which must be representative<br />

(meaning sufficiently long). In the case of spare parts,<br />

we usually work with a history of three to ten years (depending<br />

on industry). Three years of recorded history seems to be the<br />

minimum for intermittent items. A general rule here applies:<br />

the longer the history, the better and more reliable the forecast.<br />

When analysing historical consumption, we need to carefully<br />

distinguish between material consumed for planned<br />

maintenance (planned shutdowns, turnarounds, preventive<br />

maintenance) and spare parts issued for unplanned (corrective)<br />

maintenance – repairs. In forecasting, we must adjust the<br />

history for planned maintenance.<br />

In the forecasting process, items should be treated individually,<br />

according to the character of their consumption. Items<br />

with common demand patterns (high runners – fast moving<br />

items like fasteners, etc.) can be forecast using a number of<br />

standard statistical methods normally used in inventory management<br />

(moving average, exponential smoothing, Holt’s exponential<br />

smoothing, trends, seasonal indexes, Winter’s method,<br />

etc.). Items with intermittent demand require a special<br />

suitable method to be applied. The use of standard methods of<br />

prediction and inventory management in case of intermittent<br />

items results often in a substantial overestimate of future consumption<br />

and therefore excessive inventory level.<br />

50 maintworld 1/<strong>2021</strong>









Turn Your Remote Workers<br />

Into Remote Experts<br />

Automatically Detect Faults<br />

ROI Typically Within 12 to 18 Months<br />

Rich Visualization and Reporting<br />

Predict, Reduce and Eliminate Downtime<br />

productive, and safe to<br />

stay ahead inthis current climate. With CFSWorX and its Remote Expert technology, companies<br />

with a highly mobile workforce are able to do just that. Learn<br />

solutions enable organizations to keep more accurate records of where their workforce are,<br />

and at what times, and allow them to more intelligently schedule worker tasks. Learn more<br />

about this and other groundbreaking solutions by checking out ICONICS 10.97 webcast series.<br />


Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!