Maintworld Magazine 1/2024

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1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />


IMAGE<br />

MADE BY AI<br />

The Augmented<br />

Revolution<br />

The Harmony of Humans, Robots,<br />

and AI in Maintenance anc<br />

5.0<br />

Valmet's Remote<br />

Maintenance<br />

Advancements<br />

p 20<br />

ABB's<br />

Energy Audit<br />

Solutions<br />

p 32<br />

EASA's<br />

Pump Problem<br />

Pursuit<br />

p 46


Prevenve vs. predicve<br />

The shift from reactive maintenance<br />

to preventive maintenance<br />

has been going on<br />

already for some decades.<br />

Kaizen is a Japanese word,<br />

which translates to English as “improvement”<br />

or “change for better”. At least<br />

we in Europe during the 80’s and 90’s<br />

were following, and carefully analysing<br />

and adapting concepts our colleagues in<br />

Japan were already using. There was a lot<br />

to learn from them we noticed, and today<br />

Japan is still one of the international<br />

benchmarks for product quality and<br />

robustness.<br />

In maintenance the change from<br />

an earlier reactive attitude to today’s<br />

preventive mindset has also been visible in the workload of an individual maintenance<br />

person. Of course, the figures vary between the companies and are based<br />

on the nature of the business. However, it can easily be estimated that the portion<br />

of preventive maintenance work has grown from 20-30% to 50-70% on average.<br />

There is still some gap before we reach the preventive maintenance level of 90%<br />

that Japanese colleagues were presenting in the 90’s.<br />

Methodologies like RCM (Reliability-Centred Maintenance) and TPM (Total<br />

Productive Maintenance) has been guiding maintenance organisations in their<br />

development work towards more efficient maintenance operations and especially<br />

defining the actions of preventive maintenance.<br />

The development of digitalisation, including for example increased intelligence<br />

in field devices and highly developed analysis software give us the opportunity<br />

to further develop the level of preventive maintenance. We talk about predictive<br />

maintenance – which is still preventive maintenance, but because of the better<br />

understanding of the actual machine condition, we can optimise the timing of the<br />

preventive actions.<br />

Some years ago, I saw a market study estimating that the international market<br />

of predictive maintenance will grow from 2016 to 2021 with an annual growth<br />

rate of around 30%. That did happen. Several new market estimates are again<br />

giving similar growth figures for the coming decade. Here at <strong>Maintworld</strong> we will<br />

follow the market development and hopefully be able to deliver our readers the<br />

highlights from the market with new inventions and new players. We would also<br />

be happy to get your proposals and information so that we can be up to date with<br />

the fast development.<br />

The role of artificial intelligence and robotics in the future of work has also<br />

sparked a lively discussion as a result of rapid technological development. In this<br />

issue of <strong>Maintworld</strong>, Professors Diego Galar, Ramin Karim and Uday Kumar discuss<br />

the topic from the perspective of Maintenance 5.0. Companies also present<br />

their own solutions. For example, Mika Kari, Global Technology Director at Valmet<br />

Industrial Internet, explains how digitalisation is guiding the development<br />

of Valmet's remote maintenance services, and Erich Labuda, Business Services<br />

Manager at ABB, explains how maintenance professionals can improve energy<br />

efficiency based on information from energy audits.<br />

Jaakko Tennilä<br />

Editor-in-Chief, <strong>Maintworld</strong> magazine<br />

46<br />

Pinning<br />

down possibilities<br />

for pump problems.<br />

Troubleshooting should start<br />

by looking at the pump, the<br />

fluid and the system.<br />

4 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

IN THIS ISSUE 1/<strong>2024</strong><br />

20<br />

“The<br />

VII gives us the capability to<br />

gather data from individual process<br />

areas or even from a whole plant,”<br />

says Mika Kari, Global Technology<br />

Manager, Valmet Industrial Internet,<br />

Board and Paper Solutions.<br />

40<br />


PROJECT:<br />

Measurement data and<br />

simulated virtual data were<br />

utilized to create a data-driven<br />

hybrid model.<br />

4 Editorial<br />

6 News<br />

12<br />

18<br />

The Augmented Revolution: The<br />

Harmony of Humans, Robots, and AI in<br />

Maintenance 5.0<br />

The SDT340: A complete solution for<br />

equipment reliability<br />

Digitalization is driving Valmet’s<br />

20<br />

development of remote maintenance<br />

services<br />

Ensuring a safe work policy through<br />

24<br />

proper follow-up on the job and<br />

improvement in the field<br />

26<br />

32<br />

Will <strong>2024</strong> be the year the world wakes<br />

up to methane emissions?<br />

A route to enhanced energy efficiency<br />

with energy audits<br />

36<br />

40<br />

46<br />

50<br />

Ultrasound Cameras: the quickest way<br />

to energy savings<br />

Determining the lubrication condition of<br />

a sliding bearing using acoustic emission<br />

and data-based classification<br />

Pinning down possibilities for pump<br />

problems<br />

Sustainability reporting - a necessity or<br />

a competitive advantage?<br />

Issued by Finnish Maintenance Society, Promaint, Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland, tel. +358 50 3844545, Editor-in-chief Jaakko Tennilä,<br />

jaakko.tennila@kunnossapito.fi. Publisher Avone Oy, avone.fi, Executive producer Vaula Aunola, editor@maintworld.com,<br />

vaula.aunola@avone.fi Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales Director, tel. +358 358 44 763 2573, kai@maintworld.com. Layout Avone.<br />

Printed by Savion Kirjapaino Oy Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 5

In Short<br />

The industrial machinery refurbishment<br />

market size is forecast to grow by<br />

USD 482.43 billion by 2028.<br />

Source: Technavio report: Industrial Machinery<br />

Remanufacturing Market Analysis<br />

The industrial machinery<br />

remanufacturing market<br />

size is estimated to grow<br />

at a CAGR of 18.54%<br />

between 2023 and 2028<br />

THE MARKET SIZE is forecast to increase by USD 482.43 billion. The<br />

growth of the market depends on several factors such as the rising<br />

demand for increasing asset utilization in manufacturing industries,<br />

the growing demand for customization in industrial machinery, and<br />

the rising demand for optimization of costs at the same service level<br />

from various organizations.<br />

Most end-users of industrial machinery are changing their existing<br />

machinery and equipment to enhance machinery efficiency, reduce operational<br />

costs, and integrate all operational functions. Selecting appropriate<br />

industrial machinery helps in boosting operational efficiency and lowering<br />

energy consumption. The growing demand for increasing asset utilization<br />

in manufacturing industries will fuel the growth of the market during the<br />

forecast period. Industrial machinery manufacturers are providing remanufacturing<br />

and maintenance services that use technologies such as plasma<br />

arc welding, and laser cladding in order to solve this problem.<br />

Furthermore, the cost associated with the replacement of components<br />

may be quite high and represents a huge cost burden for the machine<br />

operator/owner. Such factors are expected to propel the global industrial<br />

machinery remanufacturing market during the forecast period.<br />

The OEM segment in the global industrial machinery remanufacturing<br />

market is a crucial and evolving aspect. OEMs are enterprises that design,<br />

manufacture, and sell original machinery and equipment. This segment is<br />

unique in that it mostly involves the manufacturers themselves, who are<br />

mainly recognizing the value of remanufacturing. Many OEMs are adopting<br />

sustainable practices to decrease waste and undervalue their environmental<br />

footprint.<br />

The OEM segment was valued at USD 112.16 billion in 2018. Furthermore,<br />

remanufacturing permits OEMs to deliver cost-effective solutions<br />

to customers, raising the affordability of their products and services. This<br />

can be particularly appealing in competitive markets. Besides, as regulatory<br />

pressures and environmental consciousness continue to increase, this<br />

segment is anticipated to deliver growth opportunities for both OEMs and<br />

remanufacturers in the market during the forecast period.<br />

APAC is estimated to contribute 40% to the growth by 2027. Due to factors<br />

such as rapid industrialization and urbanization, APAC is the fastestgrowing<br />

regional market in the global industrial machinery remanufacturing<br />

market. The leading countries in this region are China, Singapore,<br />

and India. APAC's rapid economic development, particularly in countries<br />

like China and India, has led to increased industrialization, creating a substantial<br />

market for remanufactured machinery. As industries expand, the<br />

demand for cost-effective, reliable machinery solutions grows.<br />

Moreover, several industries such as food and beverages, automotive,<br />

and others in the region are increasingly focused on sustainability and<br />

cost-effectiveness. Therefore, remanufacturing is seen as a waste reduction<br />

strategy adopted by several industry sectors. Thus, the rising adoption of<br />

sustainability practices in the region will drive the growth of the regional<br />

market during the forecast period<br />

Source: Technavio report: Industrial Machinery Remanufacturing Market<br />

Analysis APAC, North America, Europe, Middle East and Africa, South<br />

America - US, China, India, Germany, UK - Size and Forecast <strong>2024</strong>-2028<br />

A new optical<br />

metamaterial<br />

makes true<br />

one-way glass<br />

possible<br />

USING A NEW APPROACH, researchers at Aalto<br />

University in Finland have been able to design<br />

a metamaterial that has so far been beyond<br />

the reach of current techniques. Unlike natural<br />

materials, metamaterials and metasurfaces can<br />

be tailored to have specific electromagnetic<br />

properties, which means scientists can create<br />

materials with features desirable for industrial<br />

applications.<br />

The new metamaterial takes advantage<br />

of the nonreciprocal magnetoelectric<br />

(NME) effect. The NME effect implies a link<br />

between specific properties of the material<br />

(its magnetization and polarization) and<br />

the different field components of light or<br />

other electromagnetic waves. The NME<br />

effect is negligible in natural materials, but<br />

scientists have been trying to enhance it using<br />

metamaterials and metasurfaces because of<br />

the technological potential this would unlock.<br />

‘So far, the NME effect has not led to<br />

realistic industrial applications. Most of the<br />

proposed approaches would only work for<br />

microwaves and not visible light, and they<br />

also couldn’t be fabricated with available<br />

technology,’ says Shadi Safaei Jazi, a doctoral<br />

researcher at Aalto. The team designed an<br />

optical NME metamaterial that can be created<br />

with existing technology, using conventional<br />

materials and nanofabrication techniques.<br />

The new material opens up applications<br />

that would otherwise need a strong external<br />

magnetic field to work – for example, creating<br />

truly one-way glass. Glass that’s currently sold<br />

as ‘one-way’ is just semi-transparent, letting<br />

light through in both directions. When the<br />

brightness is different between the two sides<br />

(for example, inside and outside a window),<br />

it acts like one-way glass. But an NME-based<br />

one-way glass wouldn’t need a difference in<br />

brightness because light could only go through<br />

it in one direction.<br />

6 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

30,9%<br />

During<br />

the forecast period<br />

2022-2030, global predictive<br />

maintenance is expected to grow at a CAGR<br />

of 30.9%. Source: Polaris<br />

Market Research<br />

The predictive maintenance<br />

market forecast<br />

The global predictive maintenance<br />

market was valued<br />

at USD 4.16 billion in 2021<br />

and is expected to grow at a<br />

CAGR of 30.9% during the<br />

forecast period, according to Polaris<br />

Market Research. Market growth is<br />

primarily driven by the need to reduce<br />

costs and downtime associated with<br />

predictive maintenance.<br />

For instance, the data from the U.S.<br />

Department of Energy indicates that<br />

predictive maintenance is very costeffective<br />

and that it helps an enterprise<br />

to gain remarkable results such<br />

as a tenfold increase in ROI, 70-75%<br />

decrease in breakdowns, 25-30% reduction<br />

in costs, and 35-45% reduction in<br />

downtime.<br />

In addition, the industry enables the<br />

technicians to plan and prepare for a<br />

repair by taking steps, including shifting<br />

the capacity to other equipment or<br />

scheduling activity for times with the<br />

minimum impact on production. This<br />

results in the elimination of unplanned<br />

downtime during the production process.<br />

The Covid-19 pandemic disrupted<br />

industrial networks and manufacturing,<br />

including demand-side shocks along<br />

with the supply disruptions that had a<br />

negative impact on the industry. The<br />

enterprises were forced to take harsh<br />

actions for their staff and employees, as<br />

SMEs were shut down, and production<br />

& manufacturing facilities were put on<br />

hold for a longer period of time.<br />

However, this situation has led to<br />

significant growth in focus on digital<br />

transformation among enterprises. For<br />

instance, the pandemic has boosted the<br />

need for enhanced manufacturing processes<br />

with the integration of technologies<br />

such as Machine Learning (ML)<br />

and Artificial Intelligence (AI) for the<br />

industry. This has made manufacturing<br />

systems more agile and helped manufacturing<br />

companies increase their production<br />

capacity.<br />

Upsurge in investment in predictive<br />

maintenance solutions to reduce cost<br />

and downtime fuels the growth of the<br />

global market. Investment in predictive<br />

maintenance initiatives generates<br />

a tangible return on investment (ROI).<br />

For instance, predictive maintenance<br />

users reported metrics such as 2-6%<br />


increased availability, 5-10% inventory<br />

cost reduction, and 10-40% reduction<br />

in reactive maintenance.<br />

In addition, as per the recent study<br />

by Deutsche Messe AG and Roland<br />

Berger, VDMA 81% of companies are<br />

currently devoting time and resources<br />

to predictive maintenance subject,<br />

while 40% already have confidence<br />

that practicing predictive maintenance<br />

PdM will be most significant for future<br />

business. This increase in awareness<br />

and trust in predictive maintenance<br />

solutions is projected to fuel the growth<br />

of the industry in upcoming years.<br />

On the other hand, the integration<br />

of artificial intelligence and machine<br />

learning has created lucrative growth<br />

opportunities for the predictive maintenance<br />

industry. An increasing number<br />

of customers are using such solutions<br />

powered by AI to help shift from a reactive<br />

to a proactive approach. In addition,<br />

the market players are actively<br />

introducing new AI-enabled solutions.<br />

For instance, in September 2020,<br />

TeamViewer, a provider of remote<br />

connectivity solutions, launched Team-<br />

Viewer IoT software, an AI-supported.<br />

Source: Polaris Market Research Analysis<br />

The integration<br />

of artificial<br />

intelligence and<br />

machine learning<br />

has created lucrative<br />

growth opportunities.<br />

.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 7

In Short<br />

The global carbon fibre market was valued at<br />

USD 5.5 billion in 2022 and is projected<br />

to reach USD 16.0 billion by 2032,<br />

Source: Valuates Reports.<br />

Carbon fiber market size to grow<br />

USD 16.0 billion by 2032 at a CAGR<br />

of 11.4%<br />


ACCEPTANCE of carbon fiber are<br />

key factors driving its market<br />

expansion, as are ongoing<br />

research and development<br />

initiatives targeted at<br />

streamlining production<br />

procedures, cutting expenses,<br />

and identifying new uses.<br />

Over the course of the forecast<br />

period, the Europe carbon fiber<br />

market is expected to develop<br />

at the highest CAGR of 11.7%,<br />

accounting for 36% of the global<br />

carbon fiber market share in 2022. This<br />

is because Germany is renowned for its<br />

cutting-edge manufacturing and technological<br />

know-how.<br />

Type-wise, the continuous carbon fiber segment led<br />

the worldwide market in 2022 and is expected to expand at a<br />

compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% over the forecast<br />

period.<br />

Based on the end-use sector, the aerospace and defense<br />

category generated the highest revenue in 2022 and is expected<br />

to rise at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.6% during<br />

the projection period.<br />

Based on raw material, the PAN-based carbon fiber segment<br />

had the largest share of the worldwide market in 2022 and is<br />

expected to increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR)<br />

of 11.4% over the forecast period. Because of its high strength,<br />

low heat expansion, moisture absorption, lightweight, specific<br />

strength, ease of use, and thermal conductivity, PAN-based carbon<br />

fiber composites are favoured for usage in the aerospace sector.<br />

Form-wise, the composite carbon fiber category was the<br />

biggest source of revenue in 2022 and is expected to expand at<br />

a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% over the course<br />

of the forecast period. The use of carbon fiber reinforcement in<br />

composite materials is referred to as composite carbon fiber.<br />

The carbon fiber market is being<br />

driven ahead in large part by the<br />

aerospace sector. Because of its<br />

remarkable strength-to-weight ratio,<br />

carbon fiber is a perfect material<br />

for aviation parts. Carbon fiber<br />

composites are widely used in the<br />

construction of aircraft structures as<br />

a result of the aerospace industry's<br />

constant quest for increased fuel<br />

economy and decreased carbon<br />

emissions.<br />

The rising focus on automobile<br />

lightweighting projects is one of the<br />

main drivers of the carbon fiber market's<br />

expansion. The application of carbon fiber<br />

composites in automotive body panels and<br />

chassis not only lowers the total weight of the<br />

vehicle but also improves performance and fuel economy,<br />

which helps drive market growth.<br />

Because carbon fiber composites are strong, rigid, and resistant<br />

to corrosion, they are widely employed in the manufacturing of<br />

wind turbine blades. The usage of carbon fiber in wind energy<br />

applications is anticipated to expand, supporting the growth of<br />

the market as demand for clean and sustainable energy solutions<br />

develops.<br />

Beyond the aerospace and automotive industries, carbon fiber<br />

finds use in other industrial sectors as well, which supports the<br />

market's varied expansion. Carbon fiber-reinforced materials<br />

are used in industrial settings for components that need to be<br />

extremely durable, rigid, and strong.<br />

The expansion of the market is mostly due to technological<br />

developments in the techniques used in the manufacture of<br />

carbon fiber. The introduction of more affordable precursor<br />

materials and sophisticated weaving processes, among other<br />

ongoing advancements in production methods, have reduced<br />

production costs and improved the scalability of carbon fiber<br />

manufacturing. SOURCE: Valuates Reports<br />

EU invests €216 million to promote semiconductor<br />

research and innovation<br />

THE SEMICONDUCTOR Joint Undertaking (Chips Joint Undertaking) announced in February the launch of a €216 million call for<br />

proposals to support research and innovation initiatives in semiconductors, microelectronics and photonics. This announcement<br />

follows the first round of calls for proposals for innovative pilot lines announced in November 2023, which attracted €1.67 billion<br />

in EU funding. Consortia can submit proposals on topics related to a wide range of challenges identified in the Strategic Research<br />

and Innovation Agenda - from silicon transistors to embedded artificial intelligence, connectivity or the coordination and control of<br />

complex systems to improve performance and safety.<br />

In addition, projects funded under these new calls will contribute to the development of open source hardware for the automotive<br />

industry, support the transition to software-driven vehicles and promote environmentally friendly manufacturing processes. A<br />

specific joint call with the Republic of Korea will promote heterogeneous integration and neuromorphic (brain-like) computing.<br />

8 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

1,500 GW<br />

Annual wind energy installations are expected to double<br />

from 78 GW in 2022 to 155 GW in 2027, bringing the<br />

total wind capacity worldwide to more than 1,500 GW<br />

in just five years. Source: Global Wind Energy Council<br />

Robotic welding matches and can<br />

outperform manual construction<br />

A<br />

new study has found<br />

improved fatigue performance,<br />

through standardised<br />

high-quality welding<br />

conducted by robots, could<br />

enable offshore wind jacket foundations<br />

to last longer or potentially to use less<br />

steel, thus having the potential to reduce<br />

the weight and cost of the structures.<br />

The analysis, conducted by the Belgian<br />

Research Centre for Application of Steel<br />

(OCAS), is a joint industry project and<br />

part of the Carbon Trust’s Offshore Wind<br />

Accelerator (OWA).<br />

The project ‘Improved Fatigue Life<br />

of Welded Jacket Connections (JaCo)’,<br />

launched in 2017 and concluded at the<br />

end of 2023.<br />

In addition to showing the possible<br />

benefits of robotic welding the JaCo project<br />

also showed the efficacy of accelerated<br />

fatigue testing method developed by<br />

OCAS, which is around 20 times faster<br />

than conventional fatigue testing methods.<br />

Fatigue is a critical design factor for<br />

offshore wind foundations, which represents<br />

a large proportion of a wind farm’s<br />

CAPEX.<br />

Marc Vanderschueren Head of<br />

Business Development at OCAS said:<br />

“The importance of JaCo is twofold:<br />

the project has fatigue tested large-scale<br />

offshore foundation specimens, and the<br />

results have established new ground<br />

towards successful implementation of<br />

robot welding in jacket node fabrication.”<br />

Offshore wind jacket foundations,<br />

used for deeper water and larger turbines,<br />

are currently welded manually, however,<br />

if the jackets were robotically welded<br />

industry-wide it could potentially improve<br />

weld quality and the consistency of the<br />

welds. Ultimately, this could lead to an<br />

increase in production and standardisation,<br />

with less steel needed, resulting in<br />

lighter structures – cutting costs and carbon<br />

emissions.<br />

This is particularly important as<br />

according to the IEA, an additional<br />

70-80GW of offshore wind capacity needs<br />

to be installed globally every year from<br />

2030 to achieve Net Zero by 2050.<br />

James Sinfield, Technology Acceleration<br />

Manager at the Carbon Trust said:<br />

“The results from JaCo strongly suggest<br />

that automation can play a crucial<br />

role in the accelerated deployment of<br />

offshore wind, with automated robotic<br />

welding proving at least as good as — and<br />

often better than — manual welds.<br />

“The project has exceeded our initial<br />

expectations, and results will enable<br />

the industry to produce structures that<br />

could last longer or potentially weigh<br />

less than existing foundations. Not only<br />

that, but the method pioneered by OCAS<br />

and tested via the JaCo project speeds<br />

up the testing process producing results<br />

equivalent to traditional hydraulic fatigue<br />

testing.<br />

“This is good news for the Net Zero<br />

transition and demonstrates the power<br />

of collaboration. The combined efforts of<br />

our industry partners and trusted experts<br />

were pivotal to the success as they helped<br />

shape the project's direction and overcome<br />

challenges, along with significant<br />

input and engagement from the supply<br />

chain.”<br />

Before robotic welds could be rolled<br />

out industry-wide, their fatigue performance<br />

needs to be better understood<br />

such that guidance for fabricators can be<br />

developed and for understanding how the<br />

new welding techniques may impact the<br />

existing standards.<br />

This phase of the JaCo project represents<br />

the first stage of this process, with<br />

extensive mechanical testing carried out<br />

on 26 large-scale geometries to prove the<br />

consistency of robotic welding.<br />

The next stage will require work with<br />

the certification bodies to translate the<br />

JaCo results into industry-wide acceptable<br />

practice, including creating industry<br />

guidelines and clarifying the conditions<br />

in which robotic welding outperforms<br />

manual processes.<br />

This will help with adoption of robot<br />

welding and the new fatigue testing methodology<br />

throughout the sector.<br />

JaCo is led by the OWA and OCAS, in<br />

partnership with developers EnBW, Equinor,<br />

ScottishPower Renewables, Ørsted,<br />

Siemens Gamesa Renewables, Shell, SSE<br />

and Vattenfall.<br />

The Scottish Government, European<br />

offshore wind supply chain and three certification<br />

bodies are also involved.<br />

Source: Offshore Wind Accelerator (OWA)<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 9

In Short<br />

The top 33% digital ‘trust leaders’<br />

enjoyed higher revenue, better digital<br />

innovation and higher employee productivity.<br />

Source: DigiCert.<br />

Study reveals<br />

widening gap between<br />

organizations benefiting<br />

from digital trust and<br />

those losing out<br />

DIGICERT released its <strong>2024</strong> State of Digital Trust Survey that checks in on how<br />

enterprises around the world are managing digital trust in their organizations.<br />

While digital trust overwhelmingly remains a critical focus for all enterprises,<br />

the latest report shines a light on the growing divide between the ‘leaders’<br />

--those who are getting it right, and the ‘laggards’ -- those who are struggling.<br />

The difference between leaders and laggards revealed some clues and<br />

potential best practices when it comes to digital trust. The top 33% digital ‘trust<br />

leaders’ enjoyed higher revenue, better digital innovation and higher employee<br />

productivity. They could respond more effectively to outages and incidents,<br />

were generally better prepared for Post Quantum Cryptography and were more<br />

readily taking advantage of the benefits of the IoT. Meanwhile, the bottom 33%<br />

‘laggards’ performed comparatively poorly in all those categories and found it<br />

harder to reap the benefits of digital innovation. In addition, the leaders were<br />

more likely to centrally manage their certificates, more likely to employ email<br />

authentication and encryption (S/MIME) technology, and generally employed<br />

more mature practices in digital trust management.<br />

The <strong>2024</strong> survey included a series of questions to determine how well (or<br />

poorly) each respondent was doing across a wide range of digital trust metrics.<br />

After the scores were totaled, the respondents were split into three groups:<br />

leaders, laggards, and those in the middle. Comparing the results between leaders,<br />

laggards, and those in the middle, notable differences emerged:<br />

Leaders exhibit far fewer issues on core enterprise systems (no system outages,<br />

few data breaches, and no compliance or legal issues) and experienced no<br />

IoT compliance issues, whereas half (50%) of the laggards did so. Leaders also<br />

have significantly fewer issues due to software trust mishaps--for example,<br />

none of the leaders experienced compliance issues or software supply chain<br />

compromises, compared to 23% and 77% of the laggards, respectively.<br />

"As the threat landscape continues to expand, so does the gap between<br />

organizations who are leading the way in digital trust and those who are falling<br />

behind,” said Jason Sabin, CTO at DigiCert. "Those who fall within the ‘leaders’<br />

group and those who are a ‘laggard’ are well aware of who they are. The danger,<br />

however, is those organizations who fall in the middle and are not taking action<br />

due to a false sense of security.”<br />

Dallas-based Eleven Research administered the survey to 300 IT, Information<br />

Security and DevOps senior and C-level managers from enterprises with 1,000<br />

or more employees in North America, Europe, and APAC.<br />

Sodium-ion<br />

batteries offer<br />

promising<br />

technology<br />


is moving fast in the quest for the next generation of<br />

sustainable energy storage – which should preferably<br />

have a long lifetime, have a high energy density and<br />

be easy to produce. The research team at Chalmers<br />

chose to look at sodium-ion batteries, which contain<br />

sodium – a very common substance found in common<br />

sodium chloride – instead of lithium. In a new study,<br />

they have carried out a so-called life cycle assessment<br />

of the batteries, where they have examined their<br />

total environmental and resource impact during raw<br />

material extraction and manufacturing.<br />

"The materials we use in the batteries of the<br />

future will be important in order to be able to switch<br />

to renewable energy and a fossil-free vehicle fleet,"<br />

says Rickard Arvidsson, Associate Professor of<br />

Environmental Systems Analysis at Chalmers.<br />

"We came to the conclusion that sodium-ion<br />

batteries are much better than lithium-ion batteries<br />

in terms of impact on mineral resource scarcity, and<br />

equivalent in terms of climate impact. Depending on<br />

which scenario you look at, they end up at between<br />

60 and just over 100 kilogrammes of carbon dioxide<br />

equivalents per kilowatt hour theoretical electricity<br />

storage capacity, which is lower than previously<br />

reported for this type of sodium-ion battery. It's clearly<br />

a promising technology," says Rickard Arvidsson.<br />

The study is a prospective life cycle assessment<br />

of two different sodium-ion battery cells where the<br />

environmental and resource impact is calculated from<br />

cradle to gate, i.e. from raw material extraction to the<br />

manufacture of a battery cell. The functional unit of the<br />

study is 1 kWh theoretical electricity storage capacity<br />

at the cell level. Both types of battery cells are mainly<br />

based on abundant raw materials. The anode is made<br />

up of hard carbon from either bio-based lignin or fossil<br />

raw materials, and the cathode is made up of so-called<br />

"Prussian white" (consisting of sodium, iron, carbon and<br />

nitrogen). The electrolyte contains a sodium salt. The<br />

production is modelled to correspond to a future, largescale<br />

production. For example, the actual production<br />

of the battery cell is based on today's large-scale<br />

production of lithium-ion batteries in gigafactories.<br />

The article Prospective life cycle assessment of<br />

sodium-ion batteries made from abundant elements<br />

has been published in the Journal of Industrial Ecology.<br />

10 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

2026<br />

Pariisi.<br />

Global electricity demand is expected to rise an average of<br />

3.4% annually through 2026. Electricity consumption from<br />

data centres, artificial intelligence (AI) and the cryptocurrency<br />

sector could double. Source: IEA (<strong>2024</strong>), Electricity <strong>2024</strong> , IEA,<br />

Aiming for<br />

Emission-Free Pulping<br />

THE FOREST INDUSTRY, technology companies,<br />

research organizations, and universities<br />

have joined forces to revolutionize the<br />

traditional pulping processes under the joint<br />

leadership of VTT Technical Research Centre<br />

of Finland and RISE Research Institutes of<br />

Sweden. The Emission Free Pulping research<br />

program intends to find ways to improve<br />

energy efficiency, enhance the efficiency<br />

of wood usage and conversion to products,<br />

achieve emission-free pulping (especially<br />

carbon dioxide emissions), and significantly<br />

reduce water usage in the processes.<br />

So far, five industrial companies have<br />

committed to the program, and they will<br />

bring in their knowledge about industrial relevance<br />

and operations as well as financial<br />

contribution. ANDRITZ, Arauco, Metsä Group,<br />

Stora Enso, and Valmet have committed to<br />

a five-year collaboration with the research<br />

organizations and universities for this program.<br />

The project involves significant contributions<br />

from Aalto University, Chalmers University<br />

of Technology, KTH Royal Institute<br />

of Technology, LUT University, Mid Sweden<br />

University, University of Helsinki, University<br />

of Oulu, and Åbo Akademi University.<br />

"Technology plays one key role in the<br />

evolution of the pulp and paper industry.<br />

This transformation is not just about meeting<br />

industry standards; it's about setting new<br />

benchmarks for environmental responsibility<br />

and operational excellence. The focus needs<br />

to remain on innovation and collaboration to<br />

drive this vital change in the industry,” concludes<br />

Johan Engström, CTO, ANDRITZ.<br />

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1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 11

INDUSTRY 5.0<br />

The Augmented<br />

Revoluon:<br />

The Harmony of Humans,<br />

Robots, and AI<br />

in Maintenance 5.0<br />

Text: Prof. DIEGO GALAR / Prof. RAMIN KARIM / Prof. UDAY KUMAR Images: ShutterStock, Freepik<br />

12 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

INDUSTRY 5.0<br />

O<br />

fficially introduced by<br />

the European Union<br />

in 2021, Industry<br />

5.0 takes a holistic<br />

approach that integrates<br />

certain core values. While<br />

Industry 4.0 predominantly focused<br />

on connectivity, automation, and<br />

data-driven intelligence, Industry<br />

5.0 introduces a paradigm<br />

where technology converges with a<br />

renewed emphasis on human-centric<br />

values. This evolution underscores<br />

the importance of collaboration,<br />

sustainability, and the integration of<br />

In essence, Industry<br />

5.0 seeks to strike a<br />

balance between<br />

technological<br />

innovation and human<br />

values.<br />

human skills. In essence, Industry<br />

5.0 seeks to strike a balance between<br />

technological innovation and human<br />

values. The collaborative interaction<br />

between humans and machines<br />

takes centre stage, fostering a work<br />

environment where technology<br />

complements and augments human<br />

capabilities. This transition reflects<br />

a broader understanding of the role<br />

of technology in enhancing overall<br />

well-being, sustainability, and the<br />

collaborative spirit within the industrial<br />

ecosystem.<br />

WALL-E AND EVE –<br />



WALL-E, a 2008 animated masterpiece<br />

produced by Pixar, explores<br />

themes that resonate with contemporary<br />

challenges and as such, offers<br />

useful advice to today’s industry. It<br />

introduces a dystopian future where,<br />

as a result of global warming, Earth<br />

is overwhelmed by waste and pollution.<br />

The film is also a powerful commentary<br />

on the relationship between<br />

humans and technology. The characters<br />

of WALL-E and EVE, two robots<br />

with distinct personalities, serve as<br />

more than animated entities; they<br />

embody deeper meanings about technology<br />

and its impact on society.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 13

INDUSTRY 5.0<br />

WALL-E, the last functioning wastecollecting<br />

robot, represents resilience<br />

and the potential for renewal. His<br />

daily routine of compacting garbage<br />

echoes the cyclical nature of environmental<br />

management, showcasing the<br />

need for sustainable practices. EVE,<br />

an advanced robot sent to Earth from<br />

the spaceship Axiom, symbolizes hope<br />

and the possibility of positive change.<br />

Her directive to find signs of life aligns<br />

with the film's underlying message of<br />

environmental stewardship. The connection<br />

between WALL-E and EVE<br />

transcends robotic programming,<br />

emphasizing the importance of genuine<br />

human connections even in a technologically<br />

dominated world.<br />

The film prompts viewers to reflect<br />

on the consequences of dehumanization<br />

caused by excessive reliance on<br />

technology. In contrast to the robots,<br />

the humans aboard Axiom become<br />

lethargic, glued to screens and disconnected<br />

from their surroundings. Thus,<br />

WALL-E warns against the potential<br />

erosion of essential human qualities<br />

in a hyper-technological society. Ultimately,<br />

the film raises crucial questions<br />

about striking a balance between<br />

technological progress and human<br />

connection. It advocates for the preservation<br />

of our environment and the<br />

nurturing of relationships that define<br />

WALL-E’s dystopia<br />

is no longer an<br />

imagined and unlikely<br />

possibility.<br />

our humanity. The film's dystopian portrayal of a<br />

future marred by technological excess is a cautionary<br />

tale, urging us to reconsider our trajectory and make<br />

informed choices for the well-being of our planet<br />

and society.<br />



WALL-E’s dystopia is no longer an imagined and<br />

unlikely possibility. Climate change is a reality,<br />

and fears about an uncertain future have been<br />

exacerbated by the global pandemic. Technology is<br />

inexorably advancing, but at the same time, a fear of<br />

Working replica robots Wall-E and Eva from the movie<br />

Wall-E at Stan Lee's Comikaze Expo in Los Angeles,<br />

California, October 2014. Photo: Lauren Elisabeth<br />

14 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

INDUSTRY 5.0<br />

In Industry 5.0, AI<br />

will coexist with<br />

humans in a humancentred<br />

manner.<br />

technology associated with the concept<br />

of the "dark factory" is emerging. In<br />

this scenario, complete automation will<br />

eliminate humans, and production and<br />

maintenance operators will disappear,<br />

causing many to fear that technology<br />

has not been managed properly. Industry<br />

finds itself at a crossroads – the<br />

previous focus was solely on performance<br />

and profit, neglecting aspects<br />

such as sustainability, humanity, and<br />

climate change, all of which are crucial<br />

today. It must find a new direction.<br />

This is where the call for Industry<br />

5.0 emerged, driven by the European<br />

Commission and embraced by most EU<br />

members. Industry 5.0 redefines the<br />

RoboCop is a 1987 American science<br />

fiction action film directed by Paul<br />

Verhoeven and written by Edward<br />

Neumeier and Michael Miner. Set in<br />

a crime-ridden Detroit in the near<br />

future, RoboCop centers on police<br />

officer Alex Murphy who is murdered<br />

by a gang of criminals and revived by<br />

the megacorporation Omni Consumer<br />

Products as the cyborg law enforcer<br />

RoboCop. The film has been praised<br />

for its depiction of a robot affected<br />

by the loss of humanity, in contrast<br />

to the stoic and emotionless robotic<br />

characters of that era.<br />

industrial perspective, imposing limits<br />

on Industry 4.0 by emphasizing three<br />

fundamental aspects. First, industry<br />

must coexist with humans, recognizing<br />

the importance of the human factor in<br />

the industrial equation. Second, industry<br />

must be sustainable, considering<br />

environmental aspects and energy<br />

conservation. Third, industry must<br />

be resilient, considering the fragility<br />

revealed by events such as the COVID-<br />

19 pandemic.<br />

The transition to Industry 5.0<br />

involves humanizing technology, reintegrating<br />

humans into the production<br />

process, and ensuring environmental<br />

sustainability. In this revised under-<br />

standing, AI will coexist with humans<br />

in a human-centred manner. This<br />

transformation implies a radical shift<br />

in the role of AI, moving from the<br />

removal of human decisions to the creation<br />

of a transparent and collaborative<br />

coexistence.<br />



Robots will play a significant role as we<br />

move from Maintenance 4.0 to Maintenance<br />

5.0. The COVID-19 pandemic<br />

revealed human fragility. We need<br />

versatile robots capable of performing<br />

maintenance tasks in tough situations.<br />

However, Industry 5.0 emphasizes<br />

technology should not overpower<br />

humans; humans must always remain<br />

at the centre of the equation.<br />

In this context, various types of<br />

robots are envisioned for maintenance<br />

tasks, including cobots (collaborative<br />

robots) that perform tasks similar to<br />

humans, working collaboratively with<br />

them. The idea is that robots should<br />

facilitate and collaborate with humans,<br />

ensuring humans are integral to the<br />

decision-making process, especially in<br />

extreme situations, but should never<br />

replace and eliminate them.<br />

This collaboration will transform<br />

the way we perform maintenance, as<br />

robots and humans together will sum<br />

up to skills never seen before. Future<br />

machines will be designed for maintenance<br />

in a different way, with mixes of<br />

humans and cobots working together<br />

seamlessly. This will include exoskeletons<br />

that enhance human capabilities<br />

physically and mentally, remote operations<br />

using virtual and augmented<br />

reality, and robots operating similarly<br />

to humans.<br />




The message is clear in the famous<br />

movie Robocop where the evolution<br />

of law enforcement technology<br />

witnesses a pivotal moment with the<br />

introduction of ED-209 (Robocop<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 15

INDUSTRY 5.0<br />

Scene from Star Wars the<br />

Clone Wars, clone troopers<br />

battling Separatist battle<br />

droids - Hasbro action<br />

figures. Photo: Willrow Hood<br />

predecessor), designed to be the<br />

friendly face of neighbourhood<br />

policing. During its first demonstration,<br />

a disastrous malfunction leads<br />

to chaos and gives the green light<br />

to the RoboCop programme. The<br />

incident marks a turning point, highlighting<br />

the limitations of full robotic<br />

law enforcement. In the movie, the<br />

transition from fully autonomous<br />

robots, ED-209, to a mix of humanoid<br />

robots becomes imperative.<br />

Equipped with three automatic<br />

cannons, an auto-shotgun, and a<br />

rocket launcher, ED-209 showcases<br />

the potential of robotic assistance but<br />

also highlights weaknesses in logic<br />

circuits and adaptability to complex<br />

environments. A critical vulnerability<br />

emerges, as skilled hackers,<br />

exemplified by Nikko Halloran, have<br />

the ability to override and control<br />

ED-209 through strategic port<br />

bypassing. This indicates the need for<br />

a new approach to law enforcement<br />

technology, one that embraces a mix<br />

of humanoid robots and advanced<br />

technology.<br />

The journey from ED-209's<br />

malfunction to its manual override<br />

weakness emphasizes the importance<br />

of integrating human-like<br />

adaptability with robotic precision,<br />

both in the film’s law enforcement<br />

scenario and in today’s industrial<br />

landscape. This vision for the future<br />

involves a collaborative approach,<br />

where humanoid robots coexist with<br />

humans, combining the strengths of<br />

both to create a more resilient and<br />

adaptable system. The shift represents<br />

a strategic move towards a<br />

balanced and effective future, where<br />

the capabilities of machines and the<br />

unique problem-solving abilities<br />

of humans complement each other<br />

seamlessly.<br />



The Star Wars prequels also offer<br />

useful insights into the evolution of<br />

industrial technology. George Lucas'<br />

thematic exploration of nature versus<br />

technology, symbolized in the visual<br />

contrast between clones and droids,<br />

extends beyond the cinematic narrative<br />

to a discourse on the benefits of<br />

augmented humans in the industrial<br />

landscape. For example, the dehumanizing<br />

representation of Trade<br />

Federation battle droids underscores<br />

the potential pitfalls of complete<br />

automation in industrial processes,<br />

while the subsequent integration<br />

of clones as workers introduces a<br />

nuanced interplay of technological<br />

prowess and ethical considerations.<br />

From a technical standpoint, the<br />

Republic's preference for clones over<br />

droids reveals a tension between<br />

expediency and ethical considerations.<br />

The Clone Army, equipped<br />

and logistically supported, provides<br />

a rapid and task-ready solution<br />

without the need for the establishment<br />

of fully automated systems.<br />

This reflects contemporary discussions<br />

in industrial circles on the<br />

efficiency and ethical implications<br />

of deploying advanced technologies<br />

in manufacturing and production.<br />

The unforeseen consequences of the<br />

Republic's reliance on clones, similar<br />

to the unintended ramifications of<br />

advanced technologies in industry,<br />

come to light, as the clones showcase<br />

autonomy, creativity, and adaptability<br />

in their roles. This narrative<br />

prompts a technical exploration<br />

of the delicate balance required in<br />

harnessing the power of augmented<br />

humans for industrial applications.<br />




In the cosmic allegory of Star<br />

Wars, the Republic's preference for<br />

clones becomes a technical narrative<br />

emphasizing the advantages<br />

of augmented humans over fully<br />

16 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

INDUSTRY 5.0<br />

automated systems in the industrial<br />

field. The parallels between the<br />

technical capabilities of augmented<br />

beings, showcased by the clones, and<br />

the ethical considerations inherent in<br />

their deployment, serve as a technical<br />

roadmap for our own journey<br />

through the evolving landscape of<br />

industrial technology. In augmented<br />

decision-making in the real world<br />

envisioned by Industry 5.0, human<br />

maintenance crews will be supported<br />

by AI, thus reshaping the landscape<br />

of equipment management, troubleshooting,<br />

and repair processes.<br />

This symbiotic relationship between<br />

human expertise and AI-driven<br />

insights represents a paradigm shift,<br />

offering a multitude of advantages<br />

over traditional approaches and<br />

stand-alone AI systems.<br />

In a manufacturing environment,<br />

for instance, maintenance crews<br />

equipped with augmented decision-making<br />

capabilities will integrate<br />

AI into their workflow. When<br />

faced with equipment malfunctions,<br />

the crews will utilize AI algorithms<br />

to rapidly analyse historical performance<br />

data, identify potential failure<br />

patterns, and predict impending<br />

issues. This will expedite the diagnostic<br />

phase and allow proactive maintenance<br />

interventions, minimizing<br />

downtime and optimizing overall<br />

equipment effectiveness.<br />

The adaptability inherent in<br />

augmented decision-making will be<br />

particularly beneficial in dynamic<br />

industrial settings. Human maintenance<br />

professionals, leveraging<br />

their experience and contextual<br />

understanding, will collaborate with<br />

AI to address intricate challenges.<br />

Unlike rigid AI systems that may<br />

struggle with nuanced scenarios, the<br />

combination of human intuition and<br />

AI analytics will result in nuanced<br />

and contextually aware decision-making.<br />

For instance, when determining<br />

whether to repair or replace a component,<br />

crews can factor in long-term<br />

implications, cost-effectiveness, and<br />

real-time operational demands.<br />

Furthermore, the collaboration<br />

between human maintenance crews<br />

and AI will introduce a continuous<br />

improvement loop. As technicians<br />

interact with AI-driven suggestions,<br />

providing real-time feedback based<br />

on their hands-on experiences, the AI<br />

algorithms will evolve. This iterative<br />

process will ensure that the AI becomes<br />

increasingly adept at offering<br />

tailored recommendations aligned<br />

with the specific needs and challenges<br />

encountered by the maintenance<br />

crew.<br />

In essence, augmented decision-making<br />

will transform maintenance<br />

crews into highly efficient<br />

and adaptive teams. They will be<br />

empowered by AI-driven insights<br />

that streamline processes, enhance<br />

diagnostic accuracy, and foster a<br />

proactive approach to equipment<br />

upkeep.<br />

As we usher in an era of technological<br />

synergy, maintenance stands<br />

to benefit significantly from the<br />

augmented capabilities that blend<br />

human expertise with the analytical<br />

The integration of<br />

humans, robots, and AI<br />

will transcend the<br />

limitations of traditional<br />

maintenance.<br />

prowess of AI. This collaborative evolution<br />

will pave the way for a future<br />

where maintenance operations are<br />

not only more efficient and reliable<br />

but also more attuned to the intricate<br />

demands of industrial ecosystems.<br />




In the envisioned future of cohabitation<br />

between humans, robots, and AI,<br />

the integration of digital twins, metaverse,<br />

and augmented reality will be a<br />

transformative force in remote asset<br />

maintenance. Maintainers, regardless<br />

of their geographical location, will be<br />

able to immerse themselves in assets<br />

using augmented reality, thereby<br />

revolutionizing the approach to troubleshooting<br />

by combining robotics with<br />

human advisory roles.<br />

In the movie Surrogates, starring<br />

Bruce Willis, individuals navigate<br />

the physical world through robotic<br />

avatars. The augmented reality and<br />

digital twin scenario of Industry 5.0<br />

unfolds as a real-world manifestation<br />

of this imagined synergy. In this<br />

scenario, maintainers will gain the<br />

ability to virtually step into assets,<br />

diagnose issues, and guide robotic<br />

interventions, all accomplished from<br />

a considerable distance. The collaborative<br />

synergy among humans,<br />

robots, and AI in this immersive<br />

maintenance paradigm will not only<br />

amplify operational efficiency but also<br />

introduce a dimension of interconnected<br />

collaboration. The conventional<br />

boundaries between the physical and<br />

virtual realms will dissolve, ushering<br />

in an era of unmanned, collaborative,<br />

and seamlessly integrated maintenance<br />

operations, akin to the futuristic landscapes<br />

of the science fiction narratives<br />

mentioned here. In this envisioned<br />

future, maintenance operations link<br />

human expertise, robotic precision,<br />

and artificial intelligence insights. The<br />

once-distinct realms of physical and<br />

virtual will cease to be separate entities,<br />

converging into a unified landscape<br />

where human controllers, robots,<br />

and AI collaborate to ensure optimal<br />

functionality and efficiency.<br />

The dissolution of conventional<br />

boundaries implies that maintenance<br />

professionals can transcend geographical<br />

limitations, immersing<br />

themselves in the assets they oversee<br />

through augmented reality interfaces.<br />

The interconnected collaboration<br />

will unfold as a dynamic interplay of<br />

strengths, where human intuition and<br />

adaptability will combine with the<br />

precision and automation capabilities<br />

of robots. The result will be an unmanned<br />

and collaborative maintenance<br />

approach that redefines industry<br />

standards.<br />




The integration of humans, robots, and<br />

AI will transcend the limitations of traditional<br />

maintenance. In effect, human<br />

controllers will be the orchestrators of<br />

the maintenance process, leveraging<br />

their expertise to make nuanced decisions,<br />

whilst relying on their robotic<br />

counterparts for physical interventions.<br />

Meanwhile, AI will analyse data,<br />

provide real-time insights, and continuously<br />

learn from human interactions to<br />

enhance its decision-making prowess,<br />

thus becoming the conductor of the<br />

maintenance process, harmonizing the<br />

efforts of humans and robots and ensuring<br />

efficiency and reliability in asset<br />

management. Ultimately, as Industry<br />

5.0 becomes a reality, maintenance<br />

operations will no longer be bound by<br />

physical proximity, assets across the<br />

globe will be managed with precision,<br />

and the synergy between human intelligence<br />

and technological prowess will<br />

create a new standard for collaborative<br />

efficiency.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 17


Text: GAUTHIER GHISLAIN, Marketing and Communication Assistant, SDT Ultrasound Solutions<br />


The SDT340:<br />

A complete soluon for<br />

equipment reliability<br />

In industrial operations, maintaining the health and functionality of assets is crucial to flawless<br />

productivity. That's where ultrasound technology changes the game, offering a versatile and<br />

effective way to detect and treat potential problems before they arise. In this article, we explore<br />

the importance of ultrasound inspections, focusing particularly on the advanced capabilities of<br />

the SDT340 ultrasound detection device.<br />

Ultrasound technology enables<br />

operators to play a vital role in<br />

asset reliability. Simple tasks<br />

such as finding leaks, inspecting<br />

shaft couplings and testing steam traps<br />

can be performed effortlessly by operators<br />

with minimal training. This approach not<br />

only capitalizes on operators' familiarity<br />

with the assets, but also reduces energy<br />

wastage and minimizes unplanned emergency<br />

maintenance interventions.<br />



Manufacturing environments are notoriously<br />

noisy, making it difficult to<br />

detect subtle defects with the naked<br />

ear. Ultrasound detectors, such as the<br />

SDT340, cut through the noise and<br />

identify defects that would otherwise go<br />

unnoticed. Its ability to identify faults<br />

earlier than other condition monitoring<br />

technologies makes it a valuable tool in<br />

predictive maintenance strategies.<br />

of the SDT340 is its compatibility with<br />

Ultranalysis® Suite 3 (UAS3) software.<br />

This integration facilitates the streamlining<br />

process for users, enabling them<br />

to effortlessly download and organize<br />

inspection results. UAS3 software is<br />

not only a data repository, but also<br />

gives users the ability to customize<br />

their condition monitoring strategies,<br />

tailoring the approach to the unique<br />

needs of their industrial equipment.<br />

One of the outstanding features of<br />

the SDT340 is its information screen,<br />

which gives users direct access to crucial<br />

information. This includes images<br />

of the machine to be inspected, specific<br />

examination points and required<br />

sensors, all imported seamlessly from<br />

the UAS3 software. This intuitive design<br />

improves the efficiency of field inspections,<br />

enabling operators to access<br />

vital data without unnecessary delay.<br />

The SDT340 takes user-friendliness<br />

to a new level, thanks to its<br />

well-thought-out design. The device is<br />

designed to streamline the inspection<br />

process, eliminating the risk of measurement<br />

errors due to memory gaps.<br />


The SDT340 is an ultrasound and<br />

vibration data collector designed to<br />

detect and analyze data from a variety<br />

of industrial equipment, providing an<br />

all-in-one solution for comprehensive<br />

condition monitoring.<br />

It stands out not only for its advanced<br />

capabilities, but also for its<br />

meticulously designed features that redefine<br />

asset reliability management.<br />

One of the most remarkable features<br />

SDT340 screen showing one of its outstanding features, which gives users direct access<br />

to crucial information.<br />

18 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>


The emphasis on user-friendliness<br />

ensures that operators can navigate<br />

the device with ease, improving overall<br />

inspection efficiency.<br />

Durability is the cornerstone of<br />

the SDT340's design. Designed to<br />

withstand the rigors of industrial<br />

environments, the device features an<br />

extruded aluminum housing protected<br />

by shockproof rubber. This rugged<br />

construction ensures that the SDT340<br />

can withstand the bumps and knocks<br />

of daily use, providing operators with a<br />

reliable tool that stands up to the challenges<br />

of the field. For added protection<br />

against dust and wear, users can<br />

opt for the durable nylon case, which<br />

demonstrates the unit's commitment<br />

to longevity and long-lasting performance.<br />

The SDT340's High Signal Resolution<br />

(HSR) feature sets it apart in<br />

terms of accuracy. This innovative<br />

feature increases sampling rate and<br />

sensitivity, enabling users to detect<br />

even the most difficult defects with<br />

confidence.<br />


SDT identifies eight areas, "the eight pillars<br />

of ultrasound", in which ultrasound<br />

and the SDT340 are essential for ensuring<br />

asset reliability:<br />

• Mechanical condition monitoring:<br />

Early detection of bearing faults to<br />

prevent unexpected failures.<br />

SDT340 in use in a rough environment, it is designed to withstand the rigors of the field.<br />

• Bearing lubrication monitoring:<br />

Ensure that the right amount of<br />

lubricant is applied at the right intervals.<br />

• Compressed air and gas leak<br />

detection: Locate leaks to reduce energy<br />

consumption and maximize uptime.<br />

• Electrical equipment fault detection:<br />

Safe inspection of electrical systems<br />

using ultrasound.<br />

• Steam trap testing and maintenance:<br />

Keep steam systems clean, safe and<br />

energy-efficient.<br />

• Valve condition monitoring: Check<br />

that valves are closed properly.<br />

• Hydraulic system monitoring: Detect<br />

leaks, bypasses and blockages in<br />

hydraulic systems.<br />

• Tightness testing: Ensuring the<br />

tightness of enclosed spaces to save<br />

energy and money, protect against the<br />

elements and respect the environment.<br />

In conclusion, the SDT340 ultrasound<br />

detection device is a complete and innovative<br />

solution for implementing a predictive<br />

maintenance plan and strategy<br />

characterized by reliability. Its advanced<br />

functions, user-friendly design and<br />

commitment to constant improvement<br />

make it a valuable tool in the arsenal of<br />

those seeking to maintain maximum<br />

operational efficiency in industrial environments.<br />

The Eight Pillars of Ultrasound<br />

highlight the diverse applications<br />

of ultrasound technology to ensure the<br />

health and longevity of critical assets.<br />

For more information on the SDT340,<br />

visit: https://sdtultrasound.com/<br />

products/sdt340/<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 19


Digitalizaon is<br />

driving Valmet’s<br />

development of<br />

remote maintenance<br />

services<br />

Text: PETER CURA<br />

Images: VALMET<br />

In recent years, advances in connectivity, big<br />

data and digitalization have often promised<br />

to bring significant benefits to industry.<br />

Now, with the Valmet Industrial Internet,<br />

data is being used to deliver a better kind of<br />

maintenance service, as well as performance<br />

optimization services.<br />

20 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>


Mika Kari, Global<br />

Technology Manager,<br />

Valmet Industrial<br />

Internet, Board,<br />

Paper, and Tissue<br />

Solutions, Services Business Line,<br />

tells us more. “With the Valmet<br />

Industrial Internet (VII), we can<br />

offer new types of remote monitoring<br />

and optimization services. This is<br />

something we can offer globally. We<br />

can utilize data from the customer’s<br />

site and, using our expertise and<br />

analytics, we can turn that data into<br />

value. It is a dialogue with data.”<br />



Kari emphasizes that data by itself is<br />

not enough. Expertise in the production<br />

processes and installed equipment is<br />

essential.<br />

“We have developed an advanced<br />

digitalization offering that enables us<br />

to efficiently and effectively utilize<br />

data gathered from installed equipment,<br />

which we then use to benefit our<br />

customers’ processes and businesses,”<br />

Kari says. “Key elements of the VII include<br />

Industrial Internet applications,<br />

Performance Center, Customer Portal,<br />

Intelligent machines and Automation,<br />

and a solution ecosystem with leading<br />

industry players. It is important to note<br />

that the VII is not just about the technology<br />

– it is the combination of human<br />

expertise and data analytics that provides<br />

the value. Our VII remote services<br />

always include remote support from<br />

the Performance Center, which is our<br />

network of industry and data experts.<br />

These are our own people and they have<br />

a deep understanding of machinery,<br />

processes and automation.”<br />



“Because so much data is available, the<br />

trend is now to move from big data to<br />

smart data,” says Kari. “There is always<br />

a cost for data, so you need to focus on<br />

what is relevant. Unnecessary data isn’t<br />

worth collecting. That is why Valmet<br />

has developed an extensive range of VII<br />

maintenance solutions and applications<br />

that are targeted at specific aspects of<br />

operations, including optimizing and<br />

maintaining production capacity, paper<br />

quality, energy efficiency and reliability.”<br />

Valmet has an<br />

extensive range of<br />

VII solutions and<br />

applications for<br />

maintenance and<br />

optimization.<br />

“In practice, when we provide<br />

remote maintenance services, what<br />

happens is that we securely gather and<br />

analyse real-time data with our Performance<br />

Center service. Our applications<br />

monitor the results constantly for<br />

deviations and, if they detect anything,<br />

they send an alarm to our Performance<br />

Center team. The team will then carry<br />

out a deeper analysis, diagnose the issue<br />

and identify best options for resolving<br />

it. Then they will get in touch with the<br />

customer. We have real people – real<br />

experts – to help them out.”<br />



During the pandemic, when international<br />

travel was nearly impossible,<br />

Valmet was still able to support customers<br />

around the world, resolving<br />

maintenance issues and even participating<br />

in start-ups. All through<br />

remote connections.<br />

“Remote monitoring and diagnostics<br />

enable us to prevent waste,” says<br />

Mika Kari, Global<br />

Technology Manager,<br />

Valmet Industrial Internet, Board,<br />

Paper and Tissue Solutions.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 21


Remote diagnostics always include<br />

remote support from Valmet<br />

Performance Center.<br />

Potential failure curve<br />

Continuous online monitoring enables early identification of anomalies and proactive service,<br />

which helps avoid unplanned unavailability or downtime.<br />

22 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>


"The VII gives us the capability to<br />

utilize data from individual process<br />

areas or even from a whole plant,” says<br />

Mika Kari.<br />

Remote<br />

monitoring and<br />

diagnostics enable us<br />

to prevent waste.<br />

Kari. “Whether it is wasted money,<br />

travel, time, energy, raw materials,<br />

natural resources or emissions. For<br />

example, problems in production can<br />

lead to poor performance. Now, with<br />

continuous monitoring, we can detect<br />

issues ahead of time<br />

and alert the customer.<br />

This kind of<br />

proactive, preventive<br />

maintenance<br />

helps stop the issue<br />

from developing<br />

and helps avoid<br />

waste throughout<br />

the value chain.”<br />

“Because we can provide services remotely,<br />

we can also respond faster. The<br />

relevant expertise is always available<br />

through the Performance Center, so we<br />

don’t need to send an expert to the customer’s<br />

site and the customer doesn’t<br />

need to wait.”<br />



As digitalization is increasingly being accepted<br />

across industries, it is pushing the<br />

development of maintenance forwards.<br />

“The VII gives us the capability to<br />

utilize data from individual process areas<br />

or even from a whole plant,” says Kari.<br />

“For example, our VII offering includes<br />

Valmet Machine Diagnostics, to monitor<br />

and optimize the performance<br />

of an entire<br />

paper or board line.<br />

We also have a Valmet<br />

Winder Diagnostics service,<br />

which specifically<br />

focuses on the winder<br />

section.”<br />

“Our Performance<br />

Center team can do<br />

optimization for a wide variety of process<br />

applications,” says Kari, “and we<br />

can develop VII applications to meet<br />

customer’s specific needs. When we<br />

analyse data in the right way, we can get<br />

insights that enable data-driven decisions.<br />

For example, we can determine<br />

whether a deviation is a chronic problem<br />

or a random incident. If we can identify<br />

the root cause, then you do not have to<br />

fix the same thing repeatedly. Data can<br />

also be used to support our customers’<br />

investment decisions and recommend<br />

technical improvements. We are turning<br />

data into value for our customers’ businesses.”<br />



“The work we have put into developing<br />

these remote maintenance services<br />

is part of our Beyond Circularity<br />

R&D programme and ecosystem,<br />

which is a four-year programme that<br />

is partly funded by Business Finland,”<br />

adds Kari. “So far, our customers have<br />

appreciated our ability to help them<br />

quickly and remotely, and we have<br />

been introducing remote training,<br />

which will become more important<br />

with younger generations. Valmet recently<br />

attended Technology Fair 2023<br />

in Helsinki, Finland, where we won<br />

the Finnish Maintenance Society's<br />

innovation prize for our success with<br />

Valmet Industrial Internet, Remote<br />

Monitoring and Optimization. We are<br />

delighted with this! It shows that we<br />

are really making progress.”<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 23



Ensuring a safe<br />

work policy<br />

through proper follow-up on the job and<br />

improvement in the field<br />

The focus on safe working is increasing. In addition to preventing economic, environmental<br />

and image damage, the human factor is becoming increasingly important. Awareness<br />

of working safely is high. Zero incidents is always and everywhere the goal, but actually<br />

securing this on the shop floor is unfortunately not always well organized.<br />

24 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>


The structured implementation<br />

of safety in the organisation<br />

starts with identifying<br />

the risks. For complex<br />

and also standard maintenance<br />

work, a Task Risk Analysis<br />

(TRA) must be carried out to ensure<br />

safe working. What are the risks and<br />

what mitigating measures can we<br />

implement to improve this?<br />


Up-to-date asset data is a prerequisite<br />

for developing effective risk<br />

mitigation measures on site. You<br />

must be able to rely on the actual<br />

information. But it is not a given.<br />

It regularly comes to light that the<br />

asset data and drawings are not up to<br />

date and not representing the actual<br />

situation in the field. The transfer of<br />

new data and its processing in the<br />

Enterprise Asset Management (EAM)<br />

system is often a complicated process<br />

and often delivered too late. Incomplete<br />

'Management of Change' is also<br />

regularly a cause of the lack of the<br />

latest updates.<br />

So who knows what the latest version<br />

is for a proper ‘lock-out, tag-out,<br />

try-out procedure’ (LOTOTO)? And<br />

has asset coding in the field been<br />

updated? Simplification of processes<br />

and complete transfer of requested<br />

information deserves attention.<br />


Ensuring safe working practices<br />

begins with work preparation. Assessing<br />

risks in advance and determining<br />

additional measures are important<br />

steps. On-site inspections and a<br />

task-risk analysis for more risky and<br />

complex work are necessary. Often<br />

shortcuts are made because of time<br />

pressure or lack of resources.<br />

Most companies have LOTOTO<br />

procedures and work permits to<br />

ensure safety in place. The crux is<br />

proper handover and follow them<br />

in practice. An excess of "paper"<br />

detracts from the essentials and<br />

misses the point in handing over to<br />

the implementers. Daily handover<br />

and supervision by an on-site supervisor<br />

or foreman are crucial to ensure<br />

that an LMRA (Last Minute Risk<br />

Analysis) is performed on the job<br />

site with production and performers.<br />

After all, are the risks and potential<br />

consequences really discussed in<br />

advance and are the right measures<br />

taken? In practice, boxes are often<br />

checked off too quickly.<br />

After completion, the works performed<br />

must be delivered, monitored<br />

and evaluated. In practice, too little<br />

capacity is usually scheduled for<br />

this, so field checks are only partially<br />

done. Nevertheless, checking that the<br />

It regularly comes to<br />

light that the asset data<br />

and drawings are not<br />

up to date and not<br />

representing the actual<br />

situation in the field..<br />

plant is effectively closed and working<br />

properly again will prevent new<br />

leaks or a failing startup. Close the<br />

Plan-Do-Check-Act circle.<br />


The final step to ensure continuous<br />

improvement on this matter: continuously<br />

look for simplification of<br />

procedures, such as the use of digital<br />

work permits. Conduct regular evaluations<br />

for improvement and involve<br />

the contractor, as an equal partner.<br />

Lately, the shortage of experienced<br />

performers is increasing, and nonnative<br />

speakers are being used more<br />

frequently. Preliminary discussions,<br />

targeted Toolbox Meetings, language<br />

proficiency checks and digital work<br />

packages with more visual information<br />

and less text have become a<br />

must. The manager should start the<br />

conversation on the shop floor. What<br />

causes someone to experience time<br />

pressure? Why did someone deviate<br />

from procedure? Was the transfer<br />

clear? Identify the real problem<br />

and stop work if performers prove<br />

insufficiently capable or do not keep<br />

appointments.<br />

In short, show that you take safety<br />

seriously, that policies are consistently<br />

implemented. That way you<br />

create a culture where you alert<br />

each other and can be open about<br />

improvements. In doing so, you may<br />

have prevented the next incident.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 25

HSE<br />

Text: MARK NAPLES, Umicore Coatings Services Images: SUHTTERSTOCK, FREEPIK<br />

Will <strong>2024</strong> be the<br />

year the world<br />

wakes up to<br />

methane emissions?<br />

As the world grapples with the looming threat of methane<br />

emissions, the fossil fuel industry is finally starting to wake up.<br />

More than 150 countries have signed the The Global Methane<br />

Pledge, committing them to cutting methane emissions from<br />

human-caused sources by 30% by the end of the decade.<br />

26 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

HSE<br />

The picture is clear:<br />

after decades of limited<br />

action, the oil and gas<br />

sector is moving in the<br />

right direction on<br />

methane.<br />

Last December, representatives<br />

from major oil and<br />

gas companies around<br />

the world committed to<br />

action that will cut methane<br />

emissions by at least 30% by<br />

2030. The Global Methane Pledge<br />

(GMP), made at the COP28 summit<br />

in Dubai, promises a huge leap<br />

forward in the fight against climate<br />

change. Partners of this agreement<br />

have announced that more than<br />

$1 billion of new grant funding<br />

will be allocated to support action<br />

against methane – more than three<br />

times the pre-existing funding levels<br />

– and individual action is ongoing<br />

to further reduce the impact of<br />

these harmful emissions.<br />

More than 150 countries have<br />

signed the GMP, committing them<br />

to cutting methane emissions from<br />

human-caused sources by 30% by<br />

the end of the decade. Alongside<br />

other newly-announced measures,<br />

as part of the pledge certain<br />

businesses could face financial<br />

penalties for failing to act. The US,<br />

for example, plans to introduce a<br />

fine of $900 per tonne of methane<br />

emitted this year, which will rise by<br />

67% to $1,500 per tonne in 2026.<br />

Perhaps the most exciting<br />

commitment made at COP28 is<br />

the launch of the Data for Methane<br />

Action campaign. The Global<br />

Methane Hub plans to increase the<br />

funding available to governments<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 27

HSE<br />

to take advantage of previously<br />

unleveraged data. Alongside the<br />

full launch of a new Methane Alert<br />

and Response System (MARS),<br />

energy suppliers could soon have<br />

access to a suite of tools and funding<br />

to reduce gaps in their understanding<br />

of where emissions are<br />

occurring, enabling them to act as<br />

never before against this invisible<br />

threat.<br />

The picture is clear: after<br />

decades of limited action, the oil<br />

and gas sector is moving in the<br />

right direction on methane. But<br />

whether these pledges will be<br />

met remains to be seen. While<br />

the world awaits the new measures<br />

to be fully implemented,<br />

there is much that the industry<br />

can do to show its commitment<br />

to reducing methane emissions<br />

and firmly positioning itself in<br />

the fight against climate change.<br />


The promises made at COP28 were<br />

desperately needed. Methane emissions<br />

represent one of the largest<br />

threats facing humankind today.<br />

Since the Industrial Revolution, this<br />

invisible gas has been responsible for<br />

approximately a third of the recorded<br />

rise in global temperatures.[1]<br />

Approximately 60% of all<br />

methane emissions are<br />

caused by human activity,<br />

and a third of this is produced<br />

by the energy sector through<br />

flaring, venting, and leaking<br />

infrastructure.<br />

Without immediate action, emissions<br />

from human sources are projected<br />

to increase by up to 13% in the next<br />

six years, causing significant and<br />

irreparable harm to the planet.<br />

In terms of trapping heat, methane<br />

is around 30 times more powerful<br />

than carbon dioxide and other<br />

greenhouse gases and persists for<br />

a much shorter time in the atmosphere.<br />

This means that reducing<br />

methane emissions is one of the most<br />

effective available strategies for making<br />

a difference to the environment.<br />

Approximately 60% of all<br />

methane emissions are caused by<br />

human activity, and a third of this<br />

is produced by the energy sector<br />

through flaring, venting, and leaking<br />

infrastructure.[2] Estimates suggest<br />

that halving these emissions over the<br />

next 30 years will be instrumental in<br />

meeting the critical goal of reaching<br />

global net zero emissions by 2050.<br />

Achieving this target is essential for<br />

limiting global warming to just 1.5°C;<br />

the threshold agreed by scientists,<br />

beyond which the environment<br />

would suffer irreparable damage.<br />

The GMP saw several new signatories<br />

at COP28, including Kenya,<br />

Angola, and Turkmenistan, the latter<br />

of which in particular has been<br />

highlighted as a methane 'superemitter'.<br />

More than 5,600 superemitter<br />

events have been recorded<br />

by UN research since 2019, with<br />

little overall reduction observed<br />

among many GMP signatories. In<br />

certain countries, emissions have<br />

even increased.[3] In 2022, two oil<br />

and gas fields alone in Turkmenistan<br />

were responsible for more<br />

global warming than all carbon<br />

emissions released by the UK that<br />

year.[4]<br />

Of the new regulations, the<br />

measures being introduced by the US<br />

Environmental Protection Agency<br />

look particularly promising. These<br />

laws have the potential to prevent<br />

58 million tons of methane pollution<br />

over the next 14 years, by mandating<br />

thorough pollution control system<br />


The graphs show globally-averaged, monthly mean atmospheric methane abundance determined from marine surface sites.<br />

The first graph shows monthly means for the last four years plus the current year, and the second graph shows the full NOAA<br />

time-series starting in 1983. Values for the last year are preliminary, pending recalibrations of standard gases and other quality<br />

control steps. Other impacts on the latest few months of data are described below. The Global Monitoring Division of NOAA’s<br />

Earth System Research Laboratory has measured methane since 1983 at a globally distributed network of air sampling sites<br />

(Dlugokencky et al., 1994). Source: Lan, X., K.W. Thoning, and E.J. Dlugokencky: Trends in globally-averaged CH4, N2O, and SF6<br />

determined from NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory measurements. Version <strong>2024</strong>-02, doi.org/10.15138/P8XG-AA10<br />

28 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

inspections alongside equipment<br />

upgrades. This represents a reduction<br />

against current levels of 80% or<br />

taking the equivalent of 1.5 billion<br />

tonnes of CO2 out of the atmosphere.<br />

The pledge to ending flaring<br />

activity by 2050 made by 50 companies<br />

will also make a significant<br />

difference. Aided by a new $250<br />

million trust fund, this pledge would<br />

effectively end the 140 billion cubic<br />

metres of methane and other greenhouse<br />

gases released by this practice<br />

every year. As every tonne of gas<br />

flared results in two to three tonnes<br />

of CO2 being released, achieving this<br />

target will be instrumental to limiting<br />

global warming.<br />

GIS<br />

Next<br />

Generation<br />

EAM<br />

PdM<br />

Mobile<br />

AIP<br />

BI<br />

PPM<br />


The commitments outlined so far<br />

mark encouraging progress in the<br />

fight against climate change, but in<br />

isolation, will not overcome the main<br />

problem facing oil and gas suppliers.<br />

Limitations in the data on methane<br />

emissions have effectively hidden the<br />

scale of the problem, preventing optimised<br />

action from being taken.<br />

Improving the accuracy of methane<br />

emissions data is widely recognised<br />

as the best solution to reducing<br />

the amount of pollution emitted. Of<br />

course, this action is easier said than<br />

done. Most oil and gas operators<br />

oversee many thousands of miles of<br />

pipelines, rendering manual checks<br />

impractical at best and expensive,<br />

ineffectual time sinks at worst. As a<br />

result, leaking pipelines have been<br />

widely accepted as a regrettable cost<br />

of doing business for decades.<br />

This is why the announcement of<br />

the MARS at COP28 is so promising<br />

for the industry. Recent years have<br />

seen rapid progress in satellite tracking<br />

and other modelling techniques<br />

that have significantly enhanced the<br />

capacity of oil and gas producers to<br />

collect data on their emissions. The<br />

MARS is one such system. In collaboration<br />

with the Copernicus space<br />

programme, it represents the first<br />

global system that connects satellitedetected<br />

methane emissions with<br />

trackable notifications.<br />

In a pilot phase that ran throughout<br />

2023, the MARS identified<br />

more than 1,000 methane plumes<br />

from energy production and linked<br />

400 of these to specific facilities.<br />

Tools such as this are changing the<br />

picture of emissions and expanding<br />

the available approaches to ensure<br />

BIM<br />

AI<br />

APM<br />

Many companies use their Enterprise Asset Management<br />

(EAM) system mainly as an electronic card index or a<br />

digital work order system, unaware of the possibilities it<br />

has for Asset Management. EAM Systems like Maximo,<br />

IFS Ultimo, HxGN EAM and SAP EAM have evolved<br />

<br />

Investment Planning, Project Portfolio Management,<br />

Asset Performance Management, Business Intelligence<br />

and Predictive Maintenance. Major steps have also been<br />

<br />

Are you ready for Next Generation EAM?<br />

Our VDM XL experts can assist you with further<br />

professionalisation and automation of your Maintenance<br />

& Asset Management organisation.<br />


HSE<br />

compliance with global commitments<br />

on methane.<br />

This new tool is being supported<br />

by a worldwide campaign to encourage<br />

more comprehensive data collection.<br />

The Data to Methane Action<br />

campaign aims to improve the<br />

funding available to governments<br />

and businesses to enable radical<br />

reductions in methane emissions by<br />

targeting leaks and policy change. The<br />

campaign encourages improvements<br />

in data collection, supported by satellite<br />

monitoring systems and scientific<br />

monitoring campaigns, providing<br />

transformational tools to help the<br />

energy sector scale up its efforts.<br />


While oil and gas businesses wait<br />

to benefit from the monitoring<br />

systems announced at COP28, they<br />

can pre-emptively improve their<br />

emissions profiles by taking action<br />

on the ground. Thanks to technological<br />

advances, businesses today<br />

have access to a suite of monitoring<br />

solutions for identifying where leaks<br />

are occurring, chief among which<br />

are high-performance infrared (IR)<br />

sensors. These small devices generate<br />

beams of IR light that pass through a<br />

filter inside a sampling chamber that<br />

blocks certain wavelengths.<br />

This means that only the desired<br />

wavelengths make it through the filter<br />

to a detector, which measures the<br />

As other sectors such<br />

as agriculture, start to act<br />

on the problem, the oil<br />

and gas industry has the<br />

potential to position itself<br />

as a leader in methane<br />

reduction strategies.<br />

attenuation of the light it receives to<br />

determine the precise concentrations<br />

of gases that may be present. Changing<br />

filters enables different wavelengths<br />

of light to reach the detector,<br />

which can, in turn, be used to check<br />

for different kinds of gases.<br />

Technologies such as this, combined<br />

with the growing international<br />

awareness around methane, have the<br />

potential to make a real difference to<br />

international action against climate<br />

change. As other sectors such as<br />

agriculture, start to act on the problem,<br />

the oil and gas industry has the<br />

potential to position itself as a leader<br />

in methane reduction strategies.<br />

Advanced emission tracking<br />

devices mean leak prevention is no<br />

longer a hypothetical concept. Supported<br />

by the growing groundswell<br />

of funding to improve monitoring<br />

solutions, today's energy suppliers<br />

have a wealth of options available<br />

to track harmful leaks and start to<br />

address them. Improving the total<br />

picture of methane emissions through<br />

more accurate information must be<br />

the New Year's Resolution for oil and<br />

gas businesses – only then can they<br />

claim to be truly awake to the problem<br />

posed by methane.<br />

[1] iea.org/reports/global-methane-tracker-2023<br />

[2] energy.ec.europa.eu/topics/oil-gas-and-coal/methane-emissions_en<br />

[3] theguardian.com/environment/2023/dec/02/us-outlines-measures-to-cut-methane-emissions-by-80-in-next-15-years<br />

[4] theguardian.com/world/2023/may/09/mind-boggling-methane-emissions-from-turkmenistan-revealed<br />

30 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>



ENERGY<br />

There are more<br />

than 300 million<br />

industrial electric<br />

motors in operation<br />

currently around the<br />

world and they<br />

consume nearly half of<br />

all globally produced<br />

electricity.<br />

Erich Labuda,<br />

President of Motion Services at ABB.<br />

32 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

ENERGY<br />

Text: ERICH LABUDA Images: ABB<br />

A route to enhanced<br />

energy efficiency<br />

with energy audits<br />

Erich Labuda, President of<br />

Motion Services at ABB,<br />

explains how maintenance<br />

professionals can improve<br />

energy efficiency based on<br />

data collected from<br />

energy audits.<br />

If there is one thing that<br />

truly powers industry, it is<br />

motors. They are everywhere,<br />

for example, helping pump<br />

clean water and power heating,<br />

running ventilation, and air<br />

conditioning (HVAC) systems etc.<br />

There are more than 300 million<br />

industrial electric motors in operation<br />

currently around the world<br />

and, according to the International<br />

Energy Agency (IEA), they consume<br />

nearly half of all globally produced<br />

electricity.<br />

Increasingly, as we move away<br />

from fossil fuels, green energy will<br />

be used to power these motors.<br />

However, it will take a lot of time<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 33

ENERGY<br />

and money to fully develop the<br />

infrastructure required for this<br />

transition to renewables.<br />

With the 1.5°C global warming<br />

target approaching, a more immediate<br />

solution is to reduce energy<br />

consumption by making motors<br />

more efficient – which also cuts<br />

energy costs. This falls in line with<br />

the IEA’s prediction that if we are to<br />

meet Net Zero by 2050, a third of all<br />

emissions reductions need to come<br />

from energy efficiency. The IEA has<br />

also said that replacing all motors<br />

and drives with high-efficiency<br />

upgrades would reduce global<br />

electricity consumption by at least<br />

10 percent.<br />



Businesses are keen to improve their<br />

energy efficiency, but they often<br />

don’t know where to start. An ABB<br />

survey found that, while 97 percent<br />

of industry leaders actively want<br />

to invest in making their operations<br />

more energy efficient, only 41<br />

percent know how to go about it.<br />

That is why energy audits are so<br />

useful. They tell precisely where the<br />

biggest efficiencies can be found<br />

across hundreds of motor systems in<br />

a plant or facility. This helps maintenance<br />

teams make better decisions<br />

on how to save energy and cut costs,<br />

Businesses are<br />

keen to improve their<br />

energy efficiency, but<br />

they often don’t know<br />

where to start.<br />

by targeting motors with the greatest<br />

energy-saving potential.<br />

Data can be gathered in various<br />

ways: manually, with an expert<br />

visiting a site, or digitally with data<br />

gathered remotely for regular energy-use<br />

updates. With this operational<br />

data, an expert can analyse the<br />

motor system’s current performance<br />

against its potential performance<br />

if it were upgraded or resized, for<br />

example. The energy savings and<br />

emissions avoidance that might be<br />

achieved can then be calculated,<br />

as well as the projected return on<br />

investment (ROI).<br />

The audit itself can be carried out<br />

without any impact on a facility’s<br />

operations. A plan can be developed<br />

to roll-out efficiency improvements<br />

in the least disruptive way while<br />

maximizing ROI. For example,<br />

upgrades can be done in line with<br />

34 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

ENERGY<br />

routine maintenance schedules to<br />

minimize downtime.<br />


A typical way to improve the energy<br />

efficiency of the system might<br />

include adding a variable speed<br />

drive (VSD) to a motor. VSDs enable<br />

operators to adjust the speed or<br />

torque of a motor in line with the<br />

demands of the task. By doing so,<br />

they cut energy consumption and<br />

bills – reducing a motor’s speed by<br />

just 20 percent reduces energy use<br />

by 50 percent. Surprisingly, at least<br />

half of all industrial electric motors<br />

would benefit from VSDs, but only a<br />

quarter use them.<br />

Another way to boost energy<br />

efficiency is by upgrading to more<br />

efficient motors. Many motors in<br />

action today rely on outdated IE1 or<br />

IE2 technology (where an increa-<br />

sing IE rating indicates greater<br />

efficiency). However, modern<br />

motors can reach IE5 levels of<br />

efficiency, which offer 40% lower<br />

energy losses compared to IE3<br />

motors, leading to lower energy consumption<br />

and less CO₂ emissions.<br />

Another common finding of<br />

energy audits is that many motors<br />

are oversized and that resizing<br />

them will optimize energy efficiency<br />

without impacting reliability. Take<br />

an HVAC motor as an example.<br />

They are often specified to operate<br />

at a maximum load way above the<br />

average. For example, they might<br />

be engineered to deal with 40°C<br />

external temperatures, but that<br />

might only occur a few days a year.<br />

In addition, system specifiers tend<br />

to add a “safety margin” at each<br />

stage, which isn’t always necessary<br />

and decreases energy efficiency.<br />

That is why it is important to<br />

not just evaluate motor efficiency,<br />

but the system as a whole. Using<br />

the HVAC example, this would<br />

also include the fans, condensers<br />

and cooling towers. This holistic<br />

approach improves overall energy<br />

efficiency.<br />

For an example of what an energy<br />

audit can do, take the Swedish flooring<br />

manufacturer, Tarkett. When<br />

the company had an energy audit<br />

in 2022, it found that upgrading<br />

10 of its motors to more efficient<br />

synchronous reluctance technology<br />

(SynRM) with VSDs would boost<br />

efficiency from 80 to 95 percent.<br />

With these changes in place, it was<br />

forecast that Tarkett could save<br />

around 800 megawatt-hours (MWh)<br />

per year, or the equivalent of charging<br />

every German’s smartphone –<br />

all 68 million of them. The expected<br />

payback period for making these<br />

upgrades was just 18 months or less,<br />

according to the energy prices at the<br />

time.<br />

Surprisingly, at<br />

least half of all<br />

industrial electric<br />

motors would benefit<br />

from VSDs, but only a<br />

quarter use them.<br />



To show the true power of energy<br />

audits in identifying energy savings,<br />

we recently audited more than<br />

2,000 industrial motors across a<br />

wide range of sectors and applications.<br />

We found potential energy<br />

savings of 31 percent per motor if<br />

they were upgraded to more efficient<br />

technology. The highest savings<br />

typically came from motors operating<br />

without a VSD. If the suggested<br />

upgrades from each audit were implemented,<br />

a return on investment<br />

(ROI) in as little as three months<br />

could be achieved, depending on the<br />

local cost of energy.<br />

The audits identified a total of<br />

2.1 terawatt-hours (TWh) of savings<br />

over the 20-year lifespan of the<br />

2,000 motors. In other words,<br />

enough energy to power 1.25 million<br />

houses – the size of a large city – for<br />

a full year.<br />

The audits were conducted across<br />

a variety of countries. However, if<br />

we imagine that all motors were<br />

operating in the UAE, based on<br />

November 2023 data, a 2.1 TWh<br />

energy saving would avoid 1.5<br />

million tonnes of CO2 emissions<br />

and have an ROI of six months.<br />

Equally, if they were in Germany,<br />

savings would amount to 940,000<br />

tonnes of CO2 and an ROI of just<br />

three months. These savings would<br />

be enough to offset the emissions of<br />

a coal plant for three months in the<br />

UAE and two months in Germany.<br />

By scaling up these results to<br />

cover the 300 million industrial<br />

motors operating worldwide, you<br />

can start to imagine the potential<br />

impact of upgrading inefficient<br />

motors all over the planet.<br />

The solution is clear, then. It is<br />

time we increase energy efficiency<br />

to cut costs and emissions. Energy<br />

audits streamline the process by<br />

highlighting the best places to make<br />

those efficiency improvements,<br />

representing a straightforward way<br />

to meet Net Zero targets.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 35


Ultrasound Cameras:<br />

the quickest way to energy savings<br />

PETER BOON, Product Specialist, UE Systems<br />

When companies wish to<br />

reduce the energy cost of<br />

their industrial facilities,<br />

finding and repairing existing<br />

compressed air leaks is an<br />

excellent starting point.<br />

But such a task requires<br />

time, personnel, and the<br />

right tools. Thus, efficiency<br />

is key when it comes to<br />

carrying out a leak detection<br />

programme. And, right now,<br />

nothing is more efficient<br />

than using an ultrasound<br />

camera.<br />

Ultrasound camera being used for leak detection.<br />

A single nitrogen leak might<br />

cost 6000€ per year.<br />

36 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>


Leak detected at a pet food factory.<br />

At this point, we all know how<br />

important it is to stop compressed<br />

air leaks from being<br />

a huge source of money<br />

waste. Industry is nowadays<br />

more conscious about this issue, but<br />

still, we have an industry average of 30%<br />

of all produced compressed air being lost<br />

to leaks. And of course, the higher the<br />

energy cost, the higher the waste. Leaks<br />

are bound to happen in all compressed<br />

air systems, in all industries, without<br />

exception.<br />

However, some companies still hesitate<br />

to carry out leak surveys, or design<br />

a leak management programme, even<br />

though the advantages of doing so are<br />

obvious. When leaks are found they can<br />

be repaired – an easy way to save money,<br />

right? In many cases, this is not so<br />

straightforward.<br />

Even though compressed air leaks<br />

are almost unanimously recognized as a<br />

source of waste, companies do not always<br />

have these 2 essential things which are<br />

needed to carry out leak surveys: time<br />

and available personnel.<br />

1. Soap & Water Solution<br />

Really not a much-used method anymore.<br />

It consists of applying a solution of soap<br />

and water along the compressed air system<br />

and watching for bubbles. If it bubbles,<br />

then there is a leak. Easy to execute<br />

in theory, but cumbersome and extremely<br />

time-consuming. Thus, far from being effective.<br />

2. Ultrasound inspection<br />

instruments<br />

This is probably the most popular and<br />

most used method to identify compressed<br />

air leaks. Traditionally, ultrasound inspection<br />

instruments were designed<br />

having leak detection practices in mind,<br />

so they are perfect for the task. The instruments<br />

are normally fixed at a certain<br />

frequency which will isolate the sound of<br />

leaks from other sound sources.<br />

Note that these are listen-only instruments.<br />

The inspector can simply scan<br />

An ultrasound camera will display<br />

the leak on the screen in real-time.<br />

around in all directions until he hears a<br />

leak. The inspector then proceeds to follow<br />

the leak sound until being able to pinpoint<br />

the exact location. The instruments<br />

can record the dB level at the leak point,<br />

allowing for the creation of leak survey<br />

reports where the cost of the leak and carbon<br />

footprint can be estimated. Another<br />

great advantage of such devices is that<br />

they can be used for multiple applications<br />

like bearing condition monitoring, lubrication<br />

or steam trap & valve inspection.<br />

Simple and effective, but since the instruments<br />

are listen-only, a leak survey<br />

might require some time investment, especially<br />

in large facilities or plants with a<br />

high number of leaks.<br />

3. Ultrasound Cameras<br />

Recently, a new type of tool for leak detection<br />

purposes has been offered in the<br />

market: ultrasound cameras. And they<br />

are exactly what the name suggests: a<br />

camera that will show the inspector the<br />

It will display<br />

leaks on the screen in<br />

real time, even the<br />

smallest ones, also<br />

providing an immediate<br />

estimate of the leak cost<br />

on a yearly basis.<br />


So, making sure that leak surveys are<br />

conducted as quickly and effectively as<br />

possible becomes key. Let us then evaluate<br />

the different ways of finding compressed<br />

air leaks:<br />

A survey conducted at a mining facility found 9 leaks amounting<br />

to more than 7000€ per year in loses.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 37


precise location of the leaks. It is that<br />

simple – switch it on and see the leaks<br />

displayed on the screen. Even the small<br />

ones! Minimal training required, highly<br />

accurate and effective, these cameras are,<br />

by far, the best way to find leaks. Such a<br />

tool makes leak surveys so quick, there<br />

are no excuses left to not carry them out.<br />

A good example of how effective these instruments<br />

can be is the UltraView camera<br />

from UE Systems. It will display leaks on<br />

the screen in real time, even the smallest<br />

ones, also providing an immediate estimate<br />

of the leak cost on a yearly basis. All<br />

leaks can be saved directly to the Cloud.<br />

From the Cloud, leak survey reports can<br />

easily be created.<br />




1. While surveying a zinc and lead mine,<br />

the UltraView camera could pinpoint 8<br />

leaks in just around 20 minutes of work!<br />

Doesn’t look like much, but these 8 leaks<br />

amount to a waste of 7118€ per year.<br />

Just one single leak had an estimated<br />

annual cost of 903€. It was found in a<br />

compressed air pipe next to one of the<br />

main workshops in the facility.<br />

•Industry: Mining<br />

•Leaks found: 8<br />

•Time: 20 minutes<br />

•Estimated savings: 7118€ per year<br />

2. Food factories will typically have<br />

huge compressed air systems, which will<br />

naturally also have a large number of<br />

leaks. Besides the obvious energy waste,<br />

compressed air leaks at food & beverage<br />

plants also bring losses in efficiency, unplanned<br />

downtime and they compromise<br />

product safety and quality.<br />

We could attest to how much money<br />

a typical food factory can be wasting on<br />

leaks, during a demonstration using the<br />

UltraView camera, on a pet food plant.<br />

In just 1 hour, 29 leaks were found across<br />

different locations along the compressed<br />

air system. Some of these leaks are quite<br />

expensive – amounting to an estimated<br />

total loss of 29800€ a year! And all that<br />

Results from a leak survey at a pet food factory.<br />

Ultrasound cameras can quickly pinpoint leaks with precisison.<br />

within 1 hour of the survey. Just one single<br />

leak (the biggest one detected) represented<br />

a waste of 2316€ per year.<br />

•Industry: Pet food manufacturing<br />

•Leaks found: 29<br />

•Time: 1 hour<br />

•Estimated savings: 29800€ per year<br />

3. Are you aware that a single leak can<br />

cost almost 6000€ a year? This is very<br />

possible (and more common than you<br />

think) when we talk about special gases.<br />

Ultrasound cameras can detect special<br />

gas leaks, in the same way it works with<br />

compressed air. In this case, while surveying<br />

a car manufacturing plant, a very<br />

expensive nitrogen leak was detected,<br />

costing 5912€ a year. Unfortunately, this<br />

is a common sight across the industry<br />

– special gases are quite expensive, and<br />

leaks will cost much more than compressed<br />

air leaks. At this plant, for example,<br />

the price of nitrogen is around $0.3<br />

per 1000 litres.<br />

Besides the very expensive nitrogen<br />

leak, 29 compressed air leaks were also<br />

found, some of them costing well over<br />

1000€ per year. In total, when we put<br />

together all the compressed air leaks and<br />

the nitrogen leak, we concluded they are<br />

costing this site almost 24000€ per year.<br />

All leaks were detected in about 1h30m.<br />

•Industry: Auto industry<br />

•Leaks found: 30 (including an expensive<br />

nitrogen leak)<br />

•Time: 1h30 hours<br />

•Estimated savings: 24000€ per year<br />

4. This is a plant manufacturing parts for<br />

the aviation industry. The maintenance<br />

team suspected the facility suffered from<br />

a significant amount of air leaks, but never<br />

really got the time to perform a leak survey.<br />

Here, the UltraView managed to find 26<br />

leaks in only 1 hour. These leaks are costing<br />

the plant an estimated 29800€ per year.<br />

Thus, the ROI for the UltraView in this case<br />

is around 8 months. One good example of<br />

expensive leaks is the one below, detected<br />

at a pressure regulator, costing 4570€ per<br />

year!<br />

• Industry: Aviation<br />

• Leaks found: 26<br />

• Time: 1h<br />

• Estimated savings: 29800€<br />

per year<br />

38 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

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Determining the<br />

lubricaon condion<br />

of a sliding bearing using acoustic<br />

emission and data-based<br />

classification<br />

VTT has participated in the EU-funded and Spanish IKERLAN-coordinated<br />

INNTERESTING research project.<br />

40 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>


Sliding bearings are the oldest<br />

known bearing solutions. As<br />

the power density of machines<br />

and components increases,<br />

efforts are being made to<br />

reduce the space occupied by rolling<br />

bearings, making sliding bearings an<br />

interesting alternative. For the useful life<br />

of sliding bearings, it is important that<br />

the bearing lubrication mode is hydrodynamic<br />

(HD) or elastohydrodynamic<br />

(EHD), and there are no mechanical<br />

contacts between the shaft and bearing<br />

surfaces. Mechanical contacts between<br />

the surfaces leads to mixed lubrication<br />

(ML) and potentially to boundary lubrication<br />

(BL), which can lead to wear and<br />

destruction of the surfaces. The loadcarrying<br />

capacity of the lubricating film<br />

is affected not only by the dimensions,<br />

surface quality, rotational speed, and<br />

load but also by the pressure, viscosity,<br />

and the temperature of the lubricant.<br />



VTT has participated in the EU-funded<br />

and Spanish IKERLAN-coordinated<br />

INNTERESTING research project<br />

(https://doi.org/10.3030/851245). In<br />

this project VTT has developed, among<br />

other things, the data-based classification<br />

method (Figure 1) for observing the<br />

operation of a hydrodynamic bearing,<br />

the prevailing lubrication situation, as<br />

well as the disturbances and abnormal<br />

operational conditions. In the experimental<br />

study, a hydrodynamic bearing<br />

test device designed and built by VTT<br />

(Figure 2) was utilized, where the bearing<br />

and shaft are interchangeable, and<br />

the materials can be selected according<br />

to each specific investigation. In the experiments,<br />

the torque caused by sliding<br />

friction on the bearing was measured in<br />

relation to the load and sliding speed.<br />

Measurement of friction in a journal<br />

bearing is a relatively unsensitive method<br />

for detecting changes in lubrication<br />

conditions. Therefore, the hydrodynamic<br />

bearing test device was equipped<br />

with a sensitive<br />

acoustic<br />

emission (AE)<br />

sensor to<br />

measure the<br />

intensity and<br />

quantity of<br />

elastic waves<br />

caused by<br />

mechanical<br />

interactions.<br />

By utilizing<br />

a broadband<br />

AE sensor, information about variations<br />

in the frequency content of the<br />

elastic waves was also obtained. AE<br />

measurements have previously been<br />

used, for example, in the detection of<br />

Measurement data<br />

and simulated<br />

virtual data were<br />

utilized to create a<br />

data-driven hybrid<br />

model.<br />

fatigue damage, but recent research results<br />

have shown that even the contact<br />

and elastic yielding of microscopic surface<br />

roughness aperities on the bearing<br />

surfaces can cause measurable acoustic<br />

emission. By exploiting this phenomenon,<br />

changes occurring in the lubrication<br />

conditions of the hydrodynamic<br />

bearing can be observed.<br />

In the study, the digital twin of a<br />

journal bearing test rig was utilized<br />

by creating a multi-body simulation<br />

model (MBS) using Dassault Systemes/<br />

Simpack software. The model included<br />

elastic element models (FEM-based<br />

models) of key components (Figure<br />

4), as well as the lubrication situation<br />

of the journal bearing modeled using<br />

HD and EHD models.<br />

The validation and sensitivity<br />

analysis of the<br />

simulation model was<br />

performed by comparing<br />

the simulation results<br />

with experimental<br />

results. By utilizing both<br />

experimental data and<br />

virtual representation,<br />

information about the<br />

pressure and thickness<br />

of the lubricant<br />

film, as well as indications of contacting<br />

between bearing surfaces, can be<br />

obtained. By combining simulated and<br />

experimental data, a comprehensive<br />

understanding of the friction behaviour<br />

of the lubricated journal bearing is obtained<br />

up to the boundary lubrication<br />

situation.<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Figure 1. VTT concept for<br />

lubrication regime detection<br />

in journal bearing.<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 41



Measurement data and simulated<br />

virtual data were utilized to create a<br />

data-driven hybrid model (Figure 1)<br />

that can determine the lubrication situation<br />

of the journal bearing as the operating<br />

conditions change. Mean shift<br />

clustering algorithm was employed in<br />

the modeling to divide the measured<br />

data into different clusters or groups.<br />

The goal was to find calculated features<br />

from the experimental data that could<br />

serve as a basis for forming the clusters<br />

based on the lubrication situation.<br />

The selected features were calculated<br />

from the acoustic emission (AE)<br />

data, based on previous studies and<br />

available experimental data. The selected<br />

features were as follows:<br />

• Kurtosis is a measure of distribution<br />

tailedness. The high kurtosis<br />

indicates a high number of outliers.<br />

Kurtosis is a well-known parameter in<br />

vibration signal analysis in the field of<br />

condition monitoring.<br />

• The coefficient of variation is a<br />

statistical measure used to assess the<br />

relative variability of a data set. It is<br />

calculated as the ratio of the standard<br />

deviation to the mean.<br />

• The root mean square (RMS) of<br />

AE signal is applied to measure the<br />

magnitude of a fluctuating quantity, e.g.,<br />

vibration levels in mechanical systems.<br />

It is calculated by taking the square root<br />

of the mean of the squared values of a<br />

set of data.<br />

• The dimensionless Hersey number<br />

is a function of viscosity, rotational<br />

speed, load, and the dimensions of the<br />

bearing. This term is used in the study<br />

and analysis of lubrication and lubricants,<br />

particularly in relation to the<br />

performance and efficiency of bearings.<br />

It can be used for determining the lubrication<br />

requirements and characteristics<br />


In a plain bearing, the load is carried by a lubricant film that forms<br />

between the rotating shaft and the bearing (Figure 3). The pressure<br />

within the lubricant film, which differs from the supply pressure<br />

of the lubricant, and the thickness of the lubricant film (h) are the<br />

most important parameters describing the operating conditions of<br />

hydrodynamic sliding bearings. The hydrodynamic lubrication (HD)<br />

situation prevails when the lubricant film completely separates the<br />

bearing surfaces. In elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication, the lubricant<br />

film also separates the bearing surfaces, but as the contact pressure<br />

increases, the bearing surfaces undergo elastic deformations. When<br />

the lubricant film thickness decreases, there are contacts between<br />

the bearing surfaces in addition to fluid lubrication, leading to a mixed<br />

lubrication (ML) situation. When the contacts between the bearing<br />

surfaces dominate, a boundary lubrication (BL) situation occurs. The<br />

ideal operating range for a sliding bearing is within the hydrodynamic<br />

lubrication zone, where friction is low. As the operating conditions<br />

change to mixed lubrication and further to boundary lubrication, friction<br />

increases and the wear and damage of the bearing surfaces become<br />

possible. Typically, boundary and mixed lubrication situations occur<br />

during the startup and shutdown of equipment, but for many devices,<br />

these conditions can also occur during actual operation at low speeds.<br />

Figure 2. VTT journal bearing test device.<br />

The goal was to<br />

find calculated features<br />

from the experimental<br />

data that could<br />

serve as a basis for<br />

forming the clusters<br />

based on the lubrication<br />

situation.<br />

42 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>


Load<br />

<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

Figure 3. Components of a journal bearing are 1) lubricant, 2) shaft and 3)<br />

bearing cylinder. The load is carried by the lubricating film, which has a pressure<br />

distribution and minimum thickness. Bearing friction affects opposite to the<br />

direction of rotation. The Stribeck curve shows the friction as lubrication mode<br />

changes. The figure has been modified from https://www.tribonet.org/wiki/<br />

hydrodynamic-lubrication-regime/ (i.e., Mahadeshwara, M.R., Hydrodynamic<br />

Lubrication Regime, cited January <strong>2024</strong>).<br />


Acoustic emission refers to the<br />

propagation of transient elastic<br />

waves in a material, caused by rapid<br />

energy release in localized point<br />

or points. Since acoustic emission<br />

is the motion of sound waves, the<br />

propagation of acoustic emission in<br />

a material can be described using<br />

the equations of normal elasticity<br />

theory. Acoustic emission can be<br />

caused by various phenomena<br />

occurring in the material or external<br />

impact-like excitations on the<br />

material. These phenomena may<br />

include phase transformations in<br />

certain metals causing mechanical<br />

stresses, crack growth or plastic<br />

deformation, and contacts between<br />

surfaces in lubricated systems, for<br />

example. The detection of acoustic<br />

emission, i.e., the intensity of the<br />

signal, depends on the type of wave,<br />

the medium being measured, and<br />

the reflection caused by interfaces.<br />

Knowledge of special mounting<br />

solutions for installing sensors<br />

that measure acoustic emission is<br />

required, as well as understanding<br />

the effect of the sensor and the<br />

measurement method used on<br />

the measured signal. Acoustic<br />

emission is normally measured in<br />

the frequency range of 50 kHz to<br />

1 MHz, depending on the type of<br />

sensor. Various quantities can be<br />

calculated from the signals, which<br />

can be used to characterize the<br />

phenomena. With a wideband sensor<br />

and an efficient measurement card,<br />

it is possible to detect deviations<br />

and phenomena also in terms of<br />

frequency. It is also possible to<br />

measure at lower frequencies, but<br />

in this case, the increasing impurity<br />

of the signals naturally leads to a<br />

stronger need for filtering.<br />

Figure 4. Elastic MBS-model (Simpack) for lubricated journal bearing. The model takes<br />

account, e.g., surface roughness and temperature effects on lubrication properties.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 43


Friction<br />

Cluster 1<br />

Cluster 2<br />

Cluster 3<br />

Acoustic<br />

Acoustic<br />

emission<br />

emission<br />

rms<br />

rms<br />

Cluster 1<br />

Cluster 2<br />

Cluster 3<br />

Friction coefficient<br />

Root mean square<br />

Acoustic emission cv<br />

Acoustic emission kurtosis<br />

Coefficient of variation<br />

Cluster 1<br />

Cluster 2<br />

Cluster 3<br />

Kurtosis<br />

Cluster 1<br />

Cluster 2<br />

Cluster 3<br />

Hersey number<br />

Hersey number<br />

Figure 5. The result of databased clustering (friction curve) and the feature vectors from AE-signal. The green color denotes hydrodynamic<br />

lubrication, orange denotes transform towards mixed lubrication, and blue represents danger to boundary lubrication. The classification<br />

was based on parameters calculated from AE-signal and Hersey number. The friction was not applied as a parameter for data clustering.<br />

needed for optimal bearing operation.<br />

When referring to friction, the root<br />

mean square of friction provides a<br />

measure of the average frictional force<br />

acting on an object. It considers both<br />

the magnitude and direction of the<br />

frictional forces experienced by the<br />

object.<br />

The developed hybrid method<br />

enables in situ monitoring of the lubrication<br />

mode of the hydrodynamic<br />

bearing (Figure 5). Similar type of development<br />

work has been carried out<br />

in multiple locations in recent years,<br />

for example, Mokhtari et al. (2020), as<br />

well as König et al. (2021).<br />

Improving the<br />

discriminability with<br />

respect to alternative<br />

anomalies requires<br />

stronger utilization of<br />

simulation and<br />

determination of<br />

additional<br />

features.<br />


VTT's approach also utilizes virtual<br />

data, i.e., model-based simulation. The<br />

aim of future research is to further<br />

develop the concept so that the determination<br />

of the lubrication situation<br />

can be implemented in larger scale<br />

devices. Improving the discriminability<br />

between alternative anomalies requires<br />

stronger utilization of simulation and<br />

determination of additional features.<br />

The goal is to create a concept that can<br />

be used in real-time pilot-scale as well<br />

as in final products for monitoring and<br />

control of the lubrication situation of<br />

hydrodynamic bearings.<br />

44 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>



Artificial intelligence has been applied for the diagnosis of machine<br />

condition for decades, and the number of applications has been<br />

growing rapidly recently. The goal of classifying or clustering data<br />

into classes or clusters is to maximize the similarity of data points<br />

within the same class or cluster, and, on the other hand, minimize the<br />

similarity between different classes or clusters. The key difference<br />

between classification and clustering methods is the supervision of<br />

learning (supervised or unsupervised learning). If the location of data<br />

samples within a specific lubrication interval on the Stribeck curve is<br />

known, supervised learning methods could be utilized. In the present<br />

study there are no clear boundaries between lubrication regimes<br />

and, thus, unsupervised machine learning, has been employed to<br />

distinguish data clusters. The most common clustering methods<br />

can be categorized into centroid-based, density-based, distributionbased,<br />

and hierarchical methods. The commonly mentioned clustering<br />

method in learning materials, K-means, belongs to the centroid-based<br />

methods. It aims to partition the data into a predetermined number of<br />

clusters (k). The method chosen for this work is Mean Shift Clustering<br />

(MSC) since the Stribeck curve forms a continuum of lubrication<br />

intervals that are difficult to separate. MSC was able to achieve data<br />

segmentation with the least amount of information in this case.<br />

MSC also belongs to the centroid-based methods, where each data<br />

point converges towards the centroid of its cluster by iterating the<br />

mean-shift function. The selection of the kernel size/bandwidth of the<br />

mean-shift function affects the number of clusters (centroids) and<br />

must be done with care. Therefore, a good result cannot be completely<br />

achieved purely through machine computation.<br />

SOURCES:<br />

• Eitzen, D., Wadley, H., Acoustic Emission:<br />

Establishing the Fundamentals. Journal of<br />

Research of the National Bureau of Standards,<br />

Vol. 89, No.1, January-February 1984, pp. 75 –<br />

100.<br />

• Fukunaga, K., Hostetler, L., The estimation<br />

of the gradient of a density function, with<br />

applications in pattern recognition. IEEE<br />

Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 21<br />

(1975), no. 1, ss. 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1109/<br />

TIT.1975.1055330<br />

• Halme, J., Parikka, R., Tervo, J., Akustinen<br />

emissio ja sen kaytto koneiden ja laitteiden<br />

monitoroinnissa ja diagnostiikassa. Julkinen<br />

tutkimusraportti BVAL73-001063, VTT, 2001.<br />

28 s.<br />

• Konig, F., Marnheineke, J., Jacobs. G., Sous,<br />

C., Zuo, Ming, J., Tian, Z., Data-driven wear<br />

monitoring for sliding bearings using acoustic<br />

emission signals and long short-term memory<br />

neural networks. Wear, Vol 476 (2021),<br />

pp. 203616 – 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.<br />

wear.2021.203616<br />

• Mokhtari, N., Pelham, J., Nowoisky, S., Bote-<br />

Garcia, J-L, Guhmann, C., Friction and Wear<br />

Monitoring Methods for Journal Bearings<br />

of Geared Turbofans Based on Acoustic<br />

Emission Signals and Machine Learning.<br />

Lubricants 2020, 8, 29; https://doi:10.3390/<br />

lubricants8030029<br />

• Sato, I., Rotating Machinery Diagnosis with<br />

AcousticEmission Techniques. Electrical<br />

Engineering in Japan, Vol 110(1990), No. 2, ss.<br />

115 – 127.<br />

• Tribonet, https://www.tribonet.org/wiki/<br />

journal-bearing/.<br />

Acknowledgements<br />

The work was carried out in the INNTERESTING<br />

(Innovative Future-Proof Testing Methods for<br />

Reliable Critical Components in Wind Turbines)<br />

project that received funding from the European<br />

Union’s Horizon 2020 –Research and Innovation<br />

Framework Programme (2014-2020) in the<br />

call H2020-LC-SC3-2019-RES under grant<br />

agreement No. 851245.<br />

www.innterestingproject.eu<br />

VTT Headquarters in Espoo, Finland.<br />

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd is a Finnish, fully state-owned limited<br />

liability company. The special duty of VTT as an independent and impartial research<br />

centre is to promote the wide-ranging utilisation and commercialisation of research<br />

and technology in commerce and society.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 45




Pinning down<br />

possibilies for<br />

pump problems<br />

Troubleshooting should start<br />

by looking at the pump, the fluid<br />

and the system<br />

Problems in pumping systems can, seemingly logically, be<br />

blamed on the pump. There could however be other hidden<br />

issues; ambient conditions can affect pumpage, or perhaps<br />

there are problems in the system itself. In this article we<br />

discuss a systematic approach to help determine where the<br />

problem really lies.<br />

46 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>


When a newly<br />

repaired pump<br />

performs poorly, it<br />

seems logical that<br />

something is wrong<br />

with it. While that might be true,<br />

good troubleshooting procedures<br />

should also eliminate several other<br />

possibilities, including problems<br />

with the fluid being pumped (the<br />

pumpage), or with the pipes, fittings<br />

and vessels that are connected to<br />

the pump (the system). Fortunately,<br />

a savvy technician with just a basic<br />

understanding of pump curves and<br />

performance parameters can quickly<br />

narrow down the possibilities–<br />

especially those<br />

associated with the<br />

pump.<br />


This discussion<br />

is limited to the<br />

most common<br />

pumps in industrial<br />

and commercial<br />

applications– centrifugal<br />

pumps. The<br />

performance curves<br />

in Figure 1 illustrate<br />

how the parameters of head,<br />

flow rate, efficiency and power<br />

relate to one another for a typical<br />

centrifugal pump. Note that as head<br />

increases, flow decreases, and vice<br />

versa (Head-Flow Pump Curve,<br />

Figure 1).<br />

For any certain flow rate, there is<br />

a corresponding amount of head. The<br />

impeller design dictates a specific<br />

flow rate at which the pump will<br />

perform most efficiently–i.e., its Best<br />

Efficiency Point<br />

(BEP). Many pump problems, and<br />

some system problems, will cause the<br />

pump to operate at a point below its<br />

normal pump curve line. A technician<br />

who understands this relationship<br />

can measure the pump parameters<br />

and isolate the problem to the pump,<br />

the pumpage, or the system.<br />


To determine if the problem is the<br />

pump, the Total Dynamic Head<br />

(TDH) and flow should be measured<br />

at the pump and compared to the<br />

pump curve for<br />

that pump (see<br />

Many pump<br />

problems, and some<br />

system problems, will<br />

cause the pump to<br />

operate at a point below<br />

its normal pump<br />

curve line.<br />

sidebar on page<br />

49). The TDH<br />

is the difference<br />

between<br />

discharge and<br />

suction pressure,<br />

converted to<br />

feet or meters of<br />

head. (Caution:<br />

If there is little<br />

or no head or<br />

flow on start-up,<br />

the pump should immediately be<br />

shut off to verify that there is sufficient<br />

fluid in it–i.e., that the pump<br />

is primed. Running a pump dry may<br />

damage the seal.)<br />

• If the operating point is on the<br />

pump curve, the pump is operating<br />

properly. Therefore, the problem<br />

is with the system or possibly the<br />

pumpage.<br />

Figure 1. The pump curve plots normal head and flow performance and includes<br />

efficiency and power data.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 47


• If the operating point is below<br />

the pump curve, the problem could<br />

be the pump, the system, or possibly<br />

the pumpage.<br />

When the pumpage<br />

is a strong acid or base,<br />

dilution can change its<br />

specific gravity, which<br />

may affect the power<br />

curve.<br />


Ambient conditions like temperature<br />

can change the viscosity of the<br />

pumpage, which in turn may change<br />

the head, flow and efficiency of the<br />

pump. Mineral-based oil is a good<br />

example of a liquid that changes<br />

viscosity with temperature. When<br />

the pumpage is a strong acid or<br />

base, dilution can change its specific<br />

gravity, which may affect the power<br />

curve.<br />

To find out if the pumpage is the<br />

problem, its properties need to be<br />

verified. Tests for viscosity, specific<br />

gravity and temperature of the fluid<br />

are readily available and inexpensive.<br />

Standard conversion charts<br />

and formulas from the Hydraulics<br />

Institute and elsewhere can then be<br />

used to determine if the pumpage<br />

is adversely affecting the pump’s<br />

performance.<br />


Assuming the fluid properties have<br />

been ruled out, the problem must be<br />

with the pump or the system. Again,<br />

if the pump is operating on the<br />

pump curve, it is working properly.<br />

In that case, the problem must be<br />

the system to which the pump is<br />

connected.<br />

There are two possibilities<br />

here. Either the flow is too low (and<br />

therefore the head is too high), or<br />

the head is too low (indicating the<br />

flow is too high). When considering<br />

head and flow, remember that<br />

the pump is operating on its curve.<br />

Therefore, if one is too low, the<br />

other must be too high.<br />

Low flow (head too high). A<br />

low flow condition usually indicates<br />

a restricted line. If the restriction is<br />

in the suction line, there will likely<br />

be cavitation; otherwise, it is probably<br />

in the discharge line.<br />

Other possibilities are that the<br />

suction static head is too low, or that<br />

the discharge static head is too high.<br />

For example, a suction tank may<br />

have a float switch that fails to shut<br />

off the pump when the fluid level<br />

drops below the set point. Similarly,<br />

a discharge tank may have a “high<br />

level” switch that has malfunctioned.<br />

Low head (flow too high).<br />

A low head condition indicates too<br />

much flow. And it is likely that the<br />

flow is not going where it should.<br />

System leaks can be internal or<br />

external. A diverter valve that allows<br />

too much flow to bypass, or a failed<br />

check valve that lets flow circulate<br />

backwards through a parallel pump,<br />

would result in too much flow and<br />

low head. On a municipal water<br />

system with buried water mains, a<br />

major leak or line break will allow<br />

too much flow and result in low<br />

head (low line pressure).<br />

Blockages and leaks. Looking<br />

for blockage or leaks in a hydraulic<br />

system is like looking for opens and<br />

shorts in an electrical system, except<br />

that the parameters to measure<br />

are pressure and flow rather than<br />

voltage and current. Where there<br />

is a blockage or a leak, there will<br />

be an abnormal pressure differential<br />

across the area or component<br />

involved. It is easier to locate a<br />

problem by checking pressure<br />

(THD) than by measuring flow (see<br />

sidebar).<br />

Other system problems.<br />

Even if the pump is not operating<br />

on its curve, there are some system<br />

problems that must be ruled out<br />

before the pump can be identified<br />

as the culprit. For example, if vapor<br />

is getting into the pump by air<br />

entrainment or cavitation, the pump<br />

will not operate on its curve, even<br />

if there is nothing wrong with it.<br />

Performing vibration analysis in real<br />

time while varying the pump suction<br />

will help identify cavitation and<br />

air entrainment. If the pump does<br />

not operate on its curve after these<br />

While drive speed<br />

can be verified<br />

externally, investigating<br />

the other causes will<br />

involve opening the<br />

pump.<br />

Figure 2. An ultrasonic flow meter<br />

measures flow by transmitting a signal<br />

through the pipe and into the pumpage.<br />

48 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>


Figure 3. A clogged impeller causes pump performance that falls below the pump curve.<br />

conditions have been eliminated, there is very<br />

likely a problem with the pump.<br />


PUMP?<br />

When a pump does not operate on its curve and<br />

cavitation and air entrainment have been eliminated,<br />

the most likely causes are a damaged<br />

impeller, blockage in the impeller (see Figure<br />

3), blockage in the volute, or excessive wear<br />

ring or impeller clearance. Other causes would<br />

be related to the speed of the pump, such as the<br />

shaft spinning in the impeller, or an incorrect<br />

drive speed. While drive speed can be verified<br />

externally, investigating the other causes will<br />

involve opening the pump.<br />


Troubleshooting pump performance is straightforward.<br />

By measuring the pump’s head and<br />

flow and comparing the results to the manufacturer’s<br />

pump curve, and checking for air<br />

entrainment and cavitation, the technician<br />

can readily determine if the problem is with<br />

the pump or the system. The properties of the<br />

pumpage can also be tested to rule them out as<br />

the cause of the problem.<br />

EASA is an international trade association of more than<br />

1,700 firms in nearly 70 countries that sell and service<br />

electromechanical apparatus. For more information, visit<br />

www.easa.com.<br />


Often the most difficult parts of troubleshooting pump<br />

performance is measuring the pressure and flow. To<br />

determine pump TDH (i.e., the difference between the<br />

suction and discharge pressures), a suction gauge and a<br />

discharge gauge are required at both the pump suction<br />

and discharge. Pump suction pressure can be below<br />

atmosphere (a vacuum), so the suction gauges should<br />

read vacuum or pressure.<br />

Although flow can be harder to measure than pressure,<br />

ultrasonic flow meters can accomplish the task from the<br />

outside of the pipe (Figure 2). There are several kinds<br />

that may work, depending on the type of pumpage, so it is<br />

important that the correct type is selected, and that it is<br />

installed and calibrated properly.<br />

Another way to determine flow is a method which works<br />

well on pumps that draw from an open sump. Simply<br />

measure the change in depth of the liquid during a short<br />

interval (15–60 seconds) with all other flows into and out<br />

of the sump closed. Compute the flow as the volume of the<br />

change in sump level, converted to gallons (m 3 ) per unit<br />

time.<br />

1/<strong>2024</strong> maintworld 49

CSRD<br />

Text: Nina Broström Images: Shutterstock<br />

Sustainability reporng<br />

- a necessity or a competitive<br />

advantage?<br />

New standards under the EU's CSRD Directive, which came into force at the beginning of this<br />

year, aim to increase transparency and provide comparable information on how companies impact<br />

people, the environment, and the climate.<br />

The new EU Corporate<br />

Sustainability Reporting<br />

Directive (CSRD) came into<br />

force at the beginning of<br />

this year. It will gradually<br />

extend sustainability reporting to<br />

almost all European listed companies<br />

by the end of the decade. It will also<br />

cover foreign companies with significant<br />

operations in the EU.<br />

In the first phase, the reporting<br />

obligation will apply to the largest<br />

companies, i.e. listed companies with<br />

more than 500 employees, and large<br />

national public utility companies. They<br />

will be required to report sustainability<br />

issues in their 2025 financial statements<br />

based on data collected for that<br />

year according to CSRD standards.<br />

From the start of next year, sustainability<br />

reporting will be extended to larger<br />

mid-sized companies, and from 2026<br />

the obligation will also cover listed<br />

SMEs. In the future, sustainability<br />

reporting will therefore be mandatory<br />

for all listed companies except for the<br />

smallest micro companies.<br />



In practice, the reform corrects the<br />

previously criticized patchy and<br />

inconsistent sustainability reporting.<br />

The aim is to harmonize the content,<br />

reliability, and comparability of corporate<br />

sustainability reporting. This will<br />

make it easier for partners, investors,<br />

and financiers for example, to access<br />

information and assess how responsible<br />

a company is in practice and<br />

whether it is meeting the EU's green<br />

sustainability goals.<br />

The aim is to increase transparency<br />

and highlight how non-financial information<br />

affects business performance.<br />

The focus of the reporting is on the<br />

'double bottom line': on the one hand,<br />

to look at the impact the company's<br />

business has on people and the<br />

environment, and on the other hand,<br />

to measure how different sustainability<br />

factors in turn impact the business.<br />



The CSRD will create additional work<br />

for companies, as they will also have<br />

to report on all indirect emissions<br />

from their value chain (scope 3). In<br />

addition, reporting processes and data<br />

will need to be of high quality and<br />

independently validated.<br />

Each sustainability issue is assessed<br />

not only in terms of its impacts but<br />

also in terms of the risks and opportunities<br />

it presents. Looking beyond<br />

the company's operations, for example<br />

to the supply chain, will improve the<br />

company's understanding of its operating<br />

environment and the associated<br />

threats and opportunities. The EU<br />

hopes this will encourage companies<br />

to make more conscious investments<br />

in green and sustainable development<br />

and, among other things, to invest in<br />

building a more socially just working<br />

life.<br />

At the same time, reporting can<br />

bring significant benefits and advantages<br />

for companies: for example, it<br />

will be easier to convince investors or<br />

financiers of the genuine green and<br />

responsible nature of a company's<br />

activities if there is verified evidence<br />

of these. And, especially in the early<br />

stages of the directive's implementation,<br />

fast adopters can use the information<br />

as a competitive advantage to<br />

differentiate themselves from other<br />

producers and to attract the best<br />

employees and partners into their<br />

chain.<br />


<strong>2024</strong><br />

1st reporting phase (large<br />

companies, i.e. those already<br />

covered by the Non-Financial<br />

Reporting Directive (NFRD)) financial<br />

statements 2025.<br />

2025<br />

Reporting obligation for listed<br />

companies with at least 250<br />

employees/net turnover of €40<br />

million/balance sheet total of €20<br />

million (2 criteria to be met).<br />

2026<br />

Reporting obligation for listed SMEs.<br />

The first reports are to be published<br />

in 2027 (2026 data). If data is not<br />

collected immediately, the company<br />

has a 3-year transition period to<br />

implement sustainability reporting.<br />

2027<br />

The three-year transition period for<br />

SMEs to start sustainability reporting<br />

starts.<br />

2028<br />

Non-European companies with a net<br />

turnover in the EU of more than €150<br />

million and at least one subsidiary<br />

above the thresholds to be covered<br />

by sustainability reporting (reporting<br />

in 2029).<br />

50 maintworld 1/<strong>2024</strong>

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