Maintworld Magazine 1/2023

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1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

Wind Energy:<br />

The path to<br />

generating 50% of<br />

Europe's electricity<br />

p 12<br />

Metaverse,<br />

Multiverse &<br />

Maintenance p 16<br />

Strategic<br />

view of asset<br />

management<br />

p 44


Maintenance &<br />

Responsibility<br />

At the beginning of February,<br />

we held our main maintenance<br />

congress in Finland<br />

after a four-year break. The<br />

number of participants in<br />

the congress remained the same, but a lot<br />

changed during the four years. Especially<br />

in terms of service companies. New companies<br />

have joined, and at the same time,<br />

some of the old companies have disappeared.<br />

The themes of the congress were<br />

maintenance-oriented, but over the course<br />

of four years, responsibility and sustainable<br />

development have been included with<br />

a firm emphasis.<br />

Recently, there has been much talk<br />

about the ChatGPT open chatbot (published by OpenAI, openai.com), so I thought<br />

I'd try what the AI application answers to the question "What is responsibility in<br />

maintenance."<br />

"Responsibility in maintenance is important, as it helps to reduce the risks of<br />

equipment and objects failing, improve their reliability, and ensure their continuous<br />

operation. It also helps avoid repair costs and possible environmental impacts<br />

resulting from equipment failure. Responsible maintenance is also an important<br />

part of environmentally responsible and sustainable management, and it promotes<br />

the sustainable use of the object or device."<br />

The answer follows the same lines as the answers from our congress participants<br />

to our pre-congress survey. I'm not sure what conclusion can be drawn from this,<br />

but we will probably come back to the topic often when it comes to the utilization of<br />

AI applications.<br />

Anyway, I personally think that responsibility has always been part of maintenance<br />

DNA – how to get the most out of the machinery, tools, and materials during<br />

the whole life cycle.<br />

This issue of the magazine is implemented with a partly new team. The names of<br />

the new responsible persons can be found at the bottom of this article. In the future,<br />

I will be the editor-in-chief of the magazine, so that you can send any complaints<br />

about the magazine content to me, and the thanks can then be directed to our<br />

responsible producer.<br />

<strong>Maintworld</strong> magazine is a proud media partner of the EuroMaintenance <strong>2023</strong><br />

congress in Rotterdam. The combination of EuroMaintenance and Maintenance<br />

NEXT will make Rotterdam an essential meeting place for maintenance professionals<br />

this year. The entire congress program is already published, and thousands of<br />

people are expected to attend the event. More information about the event can be<br />

found in this magazine.<br />

I also want to remind you of the EMAM Survey, launched at the end of 2022.<br />

The results of this survey will be reported during EuroMaintenance <strong>2023</strong>. Persons<br />

answering the survey will get the survey report after the EuroMaintenance event.<br />

The link to the study can be found on the EFNMS webpage: https://www.efnms.eu/<br />

Hope to meet You in Rotterdam!<br />

Jaakko Tennilä<br />

Executive Director, Finnish maintenance society, Promaint<br />

Editor-in-Chief, <strong>Maintworld</strong> magazine<br />

38<br />

ESG.<br />

These three<br />

small letters add up to<br />

significant operational<br />

changes for any<br />

business.<br />

4 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>

IN THIS ISSUE 1/<strong>2023</strong><br />

12<br />

Wind<br />

energy has become a<br />

vital and indispensable part<br />

of Europe's energy system.<br />

Today it makes up 17% of all<br />

electricity generated in Europe.<br />

33<br />

Hydrogen<br />

– one of<br />

the key players<br />

in the energy transition.<br />

4 Editorial<br />

6 News<br />

10<br />

12<br />

16<br />

22<br />

Why companies are moving to<br />

condition-based maintenance<br />

Wind Energy: The path to generating<br />

50% of Europe's electricity<br />

Metaverse, Multiverse and Maintenance<br />

Ultrasound: Achieving energy<br />

savings by detecting<br />

compressed air leaks<br />

24<br />

Multi-site Maintenance Excellence<br />

26<br />

30<br />

33<br />

36<br />

Is your lubrication program<br />

world-class?<br />

Secure supply chains are crucial to the<br />

industrial sector’s cyber defence<br />

Using pipelines to transport<br />

hydrogen instead of natural gas<br />

Microbial energy, biobased chemicals,<br />

and soil improvement are the new<br />

resources for industrial food and<br />

chemical production<br />

38<br />

41<br />

Time for Big Business<br />

to Clear the Air<br />

Improving energy efficiency - An example<br />

of university-business cooperation<br />

44<br />

Strategic view of asset management<br />

– managing emerging trends and<br />

perspectives<br />

46<br />

48<br />

EuroMaintenance comes to the<br />

Netherlands<br />

Myths vs Facts: Common<br />

misconceptions about motors<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland, tel. +358 29 007 4570. Editor-in-chief Jaakko<br />

Tennilä, Promaint. Publisher Avone Oy, avone.fi, producer Vaula Aunola, editor@maintworld.com, contributing journalist Nina Garlo-Melkas.<br />

Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales Director, tel. +358 358 44 763 2573, kai@maintworld.com. Layout Avone. Subscriptions and Change of<br />

Address: toimisto@kunnossapito.fi. Printed by Savion Kirjapaino Oy Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print),<br />

ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 5

In Short<br />

Cyber-threat detection hit a recordbreaking<br />

146 billion in 2022,<br />

representing a 55% increase from the<br />

previous year – Trend Micro Incorporated<br />

Wind turbine<br />

failures on<br />

the rise across<br />

the globe<br />

Wind power demand<br />

expected to increase<br />

by over 20%<br />

by end-2030<br />

THE WIND TURBINE bearing market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 10.82%<br />

between 2022 and 2027. The size of the market is forecast to increase by USD<br />

9,287.77 million.<br />

According to the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), wind power met 10%-<br />

15% of the global electricity demand in 2021, which is further expected to<br />

increase by more than 20% by the end of 2030. Also, various nations have been<br />

adding onshore wind turbine capacity. Thus, the increasing onshore wind power<br />

installations will drive the growth of the market in focus during the forecast<br />

period.<br />

According to the the International Energy Agency (IEA), onshore wind capacity<br />

is expected to grow by 57% to 850 GW by the end of 2024, which accounts for<br />

50%-60% of current installations.<br />

The global weighted average cost of offshore wind installations decreased by<br />

one-fifth during 2010-2018, and that of onshore wind installations decreased by<br />

more than one-third during the same period.<br />

Source: Technavio<br />

TURBINE FAILURES are on the uptick<br />

across the world, sometimes with blades<br />

falling off or even full turbine collapses.<br />

A recent Bloomberg report says<br />

production issues may be to blame for the<br />

mysterious increase in failures.<br />

According to Bloomberg, the problems<br />

have added hundreds of millions of<br />

dollars in costs for the three largest<br />

Western turbine makers, GE, Vestas Wind<br />

Systems and Siemens Energy’s Siemens<br />

Gamesa unit; and they could result in<br />

more expensive insurance policies.<br />

– It takes time to stabilize production<br />

and quality on these new products,<br />

Larry Culp, GE CEO, said last October to<br />

Bloomberg.<br />

– Rapid innovation strains manufacturing<br />

and the broader supply chain.<br />

Without industrywide data chronicling<br />

the rise—and now fall—of turbines, we’re<br />

relying on industry experts to note the<br />

flaws in the wind farming.<br />

– We’re seeing these failures happening<br />

in a shorter time frame on the new<br />

turbines, Fraser McLachlan, CEO of<br />

insurer GCube Underwriting, admitted to<br />

Bloomberg.<br />

The push to produce bigger windgrabbing<br />

turbines has sped production<br />

of the growing apparatuses. Bloomberg<br />

reports that Siemens has endured quality<br />

control issues on a new design, Vestas<br />

has seen project delays and quality<br />

challenges, and GE has seen an uptick in<br />

warranty costs and repairs. And this all<br />

comes along with uncertain supply chain<br />

issues and fluctuating material pricing.<br />

It takes time to<br />

stabilize production<br />

and quality on these<br />

new products.”<br />

6 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>

2031<br />

The global industrial maintenance services market size was<br />

valued at $49,011.0 million in 2021 and is projected to<br />

reach $85,815.5 million by 2031, registering a CAGR of<br />

5.6% from 2021 to 2031. - ResearchAndMarkets.com<br />

OSHwiki article<br />

in the spotlight:<br />

Occupational<br />

Neurotoxicology<br />

THE EUROPEAN AGENCY for Safety and Health at Work<br />

has published a new OSHwiki article – Occupational<br />

Neurotoxicology – that provides information on the risks of<br />

various chemicals on human health. Chemicals can produce<br />

neurotoxic disease in humans, but only a small fraction of<br />

chemicals has been adequately evaluated for neurotoxicity.<br />

In 2009, a conservative estimate set the number of<br />

neurotoxic chemicals in the workplace at more than 1,000.<br />

The article provides a general overview of occupational<br />

exposure to dangerous substances and the link with<br />

neurotoxicity. It provides definitions and an introduction<br />

to the most relevant neurotoxic agents and neurotoxic<br />

syndromes.<br />

The heavy metals lead, arsenic, manganese and mercury<br />

are considered as the most neurotoxic agents from the<br />

occupational point of view. Exposure to plant protection<br />

products and biocides can lead to a plethora of severe<br />

neurological diseases. Organic solvents exposure can cause<br />

acute and long-term neurological damage.<br />


SECTOR TO REACH $14.4 BILLION BY 2029 AT A 12.2% CAGR<br />

ACCORDING to a new market research<br />

report ‘Industrial Asset Management<br />

Market by Offering, Deployment Mode,<br />

Asset Type, End-use Industry, and<br />

Geography - Global Forecast to 2029,'<br />

the global industrial asset management<br />

market is projected to reach $14.4 billion<br />

by 2029, at a CAGR of 12.2% from 2022<br />

to 2029.<br />

The growth of this market is<br />

driven by the benefits of cloud-based<br />

industrial asset management solutions<br />

and the rising need for real-time<br />

monitoring of industrial assets. However,<br />

concerns regarding data security and<br />

confidentiality restrain the growth of this<br />

market.<br />

The integration of artificial intelligence,<br />

machine learning, and 5G technologies<br />

and the growing adoption of industrial<br />

asset management solutions in the<br />

pharmaceutical sector are expected<br />

to create growth opportunities for the<br />

players operating in this market.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 7

In Short<br />

In 2022 the market for heavy (≥16 tonnes)<br />

electric trucks in Europe, grew by 200%<br />

to 1,041 trucks, and Volvo Trucks holds the<br />

highest share of this market.<br />

Smart monitoring enables saving<br />

energy, water, and maintenance<br />

costs at reverse osmosis plant<br />




Pumping operations at the Kymenlaakson<br />

Vesi RO plant require a continufind<br />

potential energy-efficiency improvement<br />

points and recognize the pumps'<br />

maintenance needs.<br />

The two-part solution consists of data<br />

capture devices at the pumping sites<br />

communicating directly to the cloud and<br />

data analysis in the SmartView software.<br />

Data is collected directly from process<br />

sensors and variable speed drives without<br />

interfering with the automation<br />

system or loading the field buses. The<br />

software processes the gathered data,<br />

calculating all pumps' energy usage and<br />

output volumes.<br />

Kymenlaakson Vesi uses the collected<br />

IoT information to make informed<br />

decisions on pump maintenance and<br />

optimized energy consumption. The IoT<br />

setup gives a global view of the operations,<br />

allowing for intelligent planning<br />

and preventive actions to ensure efficiency<br />

and sustainability at the RO plant.<br />

Kymen Vesi is responsible for<br />

water supply management<br />

and water treatment and<br />

disposal for over 100.000<br />

residents in the Kotka,<br />

South of Kouvola, and Pyhtää regions of<br />

Southern Finland. Kymenlaakson Vesi<br />

produces clean water for Kymen Vesi and<br />

aims for eco-efficiency.<br />

A reverse osmosis (RO) plant is an<br />

integral part of the water treatment<br />

process at Kymenlaakson Vesi. Over a<br />

third of all the water is treated for fluoride<br />

elimination. To ensure performance<br />

at the RO plant, Kymenlaakson Vesi is<br />

working with Viimatech to utilize the<br />

Internet of Things (IoT) to monitor the<br />

energy usage of pumps.<br />

ous energy supply. However, the exact<br />

energy requirements are hard to estimate<br />

with conventional methods, as every<br />

pump system has its utilization rate and<br />

daily varying output volumes.<br />

The RO plant relies on well-functioning<br />

pumps. Dysfunctional pumps and<br />

maintenance breaks interrupt the water<br />

treatment operations causing unnecessary<br />

delays and costs.<br />

Kymenlaakson Vesi aims to guarantee<br />

continuity at the plant with performance<br />

data. The IoT devices help in creating a<br />

digital model for monitoring the pumps.<br />

The information allows for optimizing<br />

energy efficiency and preventive maintenance.<br />



RO PLANT<br />

Viimatech provides Kymenlaakson Vesi<br />

with the technology to measure the<br />

energy usage of each pump. The aim is to<br />


The Viimatech monitoring solution has<br />

operated with the Kymenlaakson Vesi<br />

RO plant since 2018. The system has<br />

provided actionable data from pumping<br />

operations to improve several aspects of<br />

the water treatment process.<br />

Kymenlaakson Vesi utilizes the Viimatech<br />

solution to improve maintenance<br />

practices and optimize pumping operations.<br />

The results of the collaboration so<br />

far include the following:<br />

• An increase in energy efficiency,<br />

reducing the specific energy of pumps<br />

by 20 %.<br />

• An increased period between filter<br />

cleansing times from 24 hours to 48<br />

hours.<br />

• Decreased cleansing-related water<br />

usage by 4300 m3 per year<br />

• A good tool for monitoring energy in<br />

process changes<br />

• Optimizing the amount of rejected<br />

water to improve energy efficiency<br />

8 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>

2027<br />

The<br />

3D printing services market is expected to grow to $12.39<br />

billion by 2027 according to Printing Services Global Market<br />

Report. Asia Pacific was the largest region in the 3D printing<br />

services market in 2022, North America the second largest.<br />

Logistics in <strong>2023</strong>:<br />

7 Main Trends<br />

shaping the sector<br />

1<br />



Simulation, which uses digital<br />

twin technology, raises companies’<br />

competitiveness. It consists of creating<br />

virtual replicas of objects or processes<br />

to reproduce the behaviour of their<br />

real-world counterparts.<br />

In logistics, this virtual representation<br />

of processes lets you simulate your<br />

warehouse layout as well as operator<br />

and goods flows. Simulation also helps<br />

to detect inefficiencies and possible<br />

adverse scenarios. It’s also capable of<br />

spotting improvement opportunities to<br />

facilitate strategic decision-making. For<br />

instance, you can introduce new picking<br />

methods or predict how your facility<br />

would perform if other storage systems<br />

were installed.<br />

2<br />



Flexible logistics was key<br />

throughout 2022 and will remain so<br />

this year. Flexibility is essential in all<br />

supply chain stages. Having flexible<br />

logistics and production processes<br />

guarantees stock availability for end<br />

customers. At the same time, it limits<br />

cost overruns in manufacturing, storage,<br />

and transport. Businesses with<br />

elastic logistics can adapt their warehouses<br />

to unexpected changes without<br />

altering their throughput. Likewise,<br />

they have an easier time maintaining<br />

their competitiveness in supply chain<br />

disruption scenarios.<br />

3<br />



Robotic process automation<br />

(RPA) technology will continue<br />

to play a major role in business processes<br />

in <strong>2023</strong>. RPA is used to automate<br />

repetitive tasks. These include<br />

connecting to web apps, copying and<br />

pasting data, moving folders and creating<br />

directories and folders, among<br />

other functions.<br />

In logistics, RPA technology can<br />

improve product tracking and monitor<br />

order shipment status. RPA also<br />

facilitates the execution of purchase<br />

orders based on automated criteria<br />

such as price, quantity and frequency.<br />

4<br />


Data mining consists of<br />

analysing large quantities<br />

of information to detect and extract<br />

patterns that reveal useful knowledge<br />

for improving decision-making in<br />

organisations. In Logistics 4.0, automatically<br />

detecting patterns in operations<br />

such as goods receipt, order<br />

picking and returns could enhance<br />

stock demand forecasting and inventory<br />

control.<br />

5<br />


Cloud computing is redefining<br />

business management<br />

— more specifically, the way<br />

supply chains are organised. Software<br />

as a service (SaaS) will be another<br />

logistics trend to make a mark in<br />

<strong>2023</strong>. Digitising your logistics operations<br />

with a warehouse management<br />

system (WMS) in the SaaS model<br />

gives you access from any device<br />

with an internet connection. Plus, it<br />

saves you money on infrastructure<br />

and maintenance costs.<br />

6<br />



Drones are starting<br />

to gain ground in the logistics<br />

industry and could become a mainstay<br />

in <strong>2023</strong>. Multinational tech<br />

companies such as Google and<br />

Amazon have been working for<br />

some time on drone prototypes to<br />

deliver orders to customers by air.<br />

Although still at an experimental<br />

stage, drone delivery would bring<br />

benefits such as lower costs, faster<br />

shipments, less road transport and<br />

reduced pollution.<br />

7<br />


Also known as sustainable<br />

logistics, green logistics<br />

encompasses the set of policies<br />

and measures designed to lessen the<br />

environmental impact of business<br />

activity.<br />

Using electric vehicles, promoting<br />

pick-up points and employing<br />

biodegradable materials are some<br />

of the measures companies are<br />

implementing to limit waste and<br />

consume less energy in their business<br />

processes.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 9


Why companies are moving to<br />

condition-based maintenance<br />

Every day experienced and capable people are trying<br />

to second-guess the maintenance requirements of the<br />

machines that populate their plants. The reason is simple: an<br />

effective maintenance program increases uptime, decreases<br />

maintenance costs, reduces unplanned outages, and extends<br />

the lives of assets. In today’s highly<br />

competitive market, companies of all<br />

sizes are looking for ways to run<br />

a leaner and more efficient operation.<br />

ANKUSH MALHOTRA, President at Fluke Reliability<br />

An effective maintenance<br />

program must include a<br />

way to collect and analyse<br />

vibration data. After all,<br />

vibration matters wherever<br />

critical motors exist.<br />

Critical motors can be found in just<br />

about every manufacturing plant and<br />

facility. As an example:<br />

• Food and beverage plants often<br />

operate on tight margins. That can<br />

make reliability maintenance a challenge<br />

to implement, especially<br />

since these facilities are interested<br />

in training and the ability to scale<br />

to cover critical assets.<br />

• Automotive manufacturing operations<br />

often have larger reliability<br />

teams and stronger buy-in for<br />

downtime prevention.<br />

• Machinery manufacturing plants<br />

vary in their approach to reliability,<br />

but condition monitoring applications<br />

are getting faster.<br />

All these industries share the objective<br />

of integrating data and analytics<br />

into their maintenance programs to<br />

transform them into reliability programs.<br />

The right program increases<br />

equipment availability and performance<br />

by identifying and removing<br />

the cause of potential failures. Reliability<br />

programs can significantly<br />

reduce the possibility of failure and<br />

its impact.<br />

10 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


Some of the frustrations with current<br />

condition monitoring solutions include<br />

a lack of high-precision, in-depth intelligence,<br />

time-consuming, complex installation<br />

and setup, limited diagnostic range<br />

and service offerings which increase total<br />

cost of ownership. In addition, some condition<br />

monitoring solutions can be hard<br />

to scale to multiple assets and data sets<br />

for individual products are often siloed<br />

which leads to systems detecting only<br />

one type of fault. Wired and wirelessonly<br />

sensors are often incompatible with<br />

plant network infrastructure resulting in<br />

reams of unusable data.<br />

As maintenance is a means to operate<br />

safer and more efficiently, industrial<br />

plants across the globe are taking a more<br />

proactive approach by moving away from<br />

simply responding to the crisis of the<br />

day. Today, the immediate goal is to find<br />

and fix problems before there is a breakdown.<br />

The long-term goal is to drive<br />

business value.<br />



Monitoring and studying the trends of<br />

machine health are staples of predictive<br />

maintenance. However, conditionbased<br />

maintenance (CBM) is a better<br />

term because no one can predict when<br />

a machine will fail. CBM uses machine<br />

condition data, contextual data, trends,<br />

analytics and knowledge of specific<br />

machines to determine how machines<br />

are performing.<br />

Wireless vibration sensors for vibration<br />

screening and analysis are one<br />

of the most powerful ways to enact<br />

CBM. Monitors like the new Fluke<br />

3563 Vibration Analysis Sensor are<br />

attached to critical machines to track<br />

vibration data over time and identify<br />

faults. Using accelerometers, vibration<br />

monitors measure changes in the<br />

amplitude, frequency and intensity of<br />

vibration. When combined with the<br />

LIVE-AssetTM Portal software, teams<br />

can spot patterns, receive alerts about<br />

anomalies and compare measurements.<br />

While critical machines benefit from<br />

more powerful vibration analysis sensors<br />

that provide in-depth data to help<br />

determine the nature of a problem, the<br />

new Fluke 3562 Screening Vibration<br />

Sensor is an effective way to track semicritical<br />

machines. The Fluke 3562 is a<br />

battery-less sensor that runs on power<br />

provided by either a thermoelectric<br />

or photovoltaic energy harvester. The<br />

screening sensor collects snapshots of<br />

data, such as vibration levels, temperature<br />

and humidity, and trends the nine<br />

highest FFT peaks by magnitude. Taken<br />

together, vibration screening and analysis<br />

combined with software, create a<br />

powerful condition monitoring solution<br />

that detects if machines are functioning<br />

correctly.<br />



CBM is based on machine condition data<br />

that can be read by condition monitoring<br />

devices or transmitted by sensors connected<br />

to the machine. The advantages of<br />

this approach include:<br />

• Always-on asset monitoring: When<br />

internet-enabled devices are connected<br />

to software, measurements<br />

are automatically aggregated around<br />

the clock. Data is stored in the cloud,<br />

assigned to assets, and organised for<br />

users to review.<br />

• Faster identification of the root cause<br />

of a problem: Teams can swiftly troubleshoot<br />

assets using different condition<br />

monitoring devices and compare<br />

measurements over time to quickly<br />

pinpoint anomalies.<br />

• Monitor equipment safely from anywhere:<br />

Wireless sensor measurements<br />

are automatically sent to the cloud<br />

without human intervention, enabling<br />

teams to access data remotely on<br />

smart devices.<br />



CBM is part of a complete connected<br />

reliability program. Fluke Reliability<br />

supports companies by building data<br />

systems that provide cost-effective maintenance<br />

and reliability. The company’s<br />

products keep customers informed<br />

about their assets’ health with advanced<br />

software solutions and services driving<br />

better maintenance decisions, such<br />

as improving productivity, increasing<br />

uptime and reducing costs.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 11


Wind energy –<br />

on the path to generating<br />

50% of Europe's electricity<br />

The wind energy scene is certainly never short of excitement.<br />

The sector was only in its infancy a generation ago. The scale<br />

of growth in recent years has been astonishing: Wind energy<br />

has become a vital and indispensable part of Europe's energy<br />

system. Today it makes up 17% of all electricity generated in<br />

Europe. By 2050 the European Commission wants it to be<br />

as much as 50%. But there are many hurdles to overcome on<br />

this victory march.<br />

CHRISTOPH ZIPF, WindEurope<br />

The success of wind energy<br />

in Europe is rooted in rapid<br />

improvements to wind turbine<br />

technology. The turbines<br />

we're building today culminate<br />

in technological innovation, streamlining,<br />

and industrial<br />

scale effects over<br />

many years.<br />

Wind energy is<br />

an increasingly stable<br />

form of power<br />

supply with capacity<br />

factors between<br />

30-45% onshore<br />

and over 50% offshore<br />

– matching<br />

the capacity factors<br />

of fossil power plants. Some 20 years<br />

ago, the industry installed 1 MW turbines<br />

onshore, and offshore wind was a niche<br />

technology. Since then, yields have risen<br />

significantly – and modern turbines continue<br />

to grow in size and efficiency. The<br />

latest turbine models tested by European<br />

The European<br />

Commission wants<br />

Europe to have 440 GW<br />

of wind energy by<br />

2030, up from<br />

200 GW today.<br />

manufacturers are 15 MW offshore wind<br />

machines. Over the years, wind turbines<br />

have also become increasingly flexible –<br />

operating at lower wind speeds and aligning<br />

more smoothly with electricity demand.<br />

Digitalization has been a big help here<br />

– not just for monitoring<br />

output but<br />

also for improving<br />

the design of turbines<br />

and extending their<br />

lifetimes.<br />

Wind power is now<br />

one of the cheapest<br />

energy sources in<br />

Europe. Perhaps most<br />

importantly, wind<br />

power is now far more<br />

affordable than any fossil fuel equivalent.<br />

This fact makes wind energy a genuinely<br />

competitive and transformative technology<br />

– a driving force behind the energy transition.<br />

For example, Hornsea 2, the world's<br />

largest offshore wind farm, became fully<br />

12 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


operational in 2022. The project, located<br />

in the North Sea off the coast of England,<br />

generates electricity for around 1.3 million<br />

homes. Each turbine is 200 m tall,<br />

with the blades alone measuring 81 m.<br />

A single rotation of these turbines can<br />

generate enough electricity to power an<br />

average household for a full day. This<br />

project is very much at the cutting edge<br />

of our existing turbine technology, but it's<br />

just one example of the power that wind<br />

brings to the table – and an example of<br />

how far we have come in just a few decades.<br />

At the same time, the industry is proactively<br />

addressing the last outstanding<br />

questions concerning circularity and<br />

recyclability – making wind the sustainable<br />

energy source of choice. As it stands,<br />

85-90% of turbines are recyclable, and<br />

breakthroughs aim to push that percentage<br />

even higher. In other areas, the environmental<br />

advantages of wind energy are<br />

plain to see. Turbines emit zero carbon,<br />

SOx, NOx, or PM and consume hardly<br />

any water. The actual CO2 footprint of<br />

wind farms is negligible – each turbine<br />

pays off its lifecycle emissions within<br />

about 6-9 months of operation. Our aim<br />

is to guarantee recyclability across the<br />

whole turbine lifecycle – from the start of<br />

every project to the end-of-life stage and<br />

beyond.<br />



How big is wind in Europe today? Wind<br />

power already accounts for a sizable<br />

chunk of Europe's energy mix – meeting<br />

up to 17% of the EU's electricity demand<br />

at the end of 2022. The figure was 55%<br />

and 34% in Denmark and Ireland,<br />

respectively. For Germany, Portugal,<br />

and Spain it was 26%, 26%, and 25%<br />

respectively. As an industry, it represents<br />

300,000 jobs across Europe – adding<br />

€37bn to European GDP – and 248<br />

factories employing people in some of<br />

Europe's most economically-deprived<br />

areas. Every new turbine represents<br />

€10m of economic activity on average. All<br />

told, wind is a significant component of<br />

the European economy.<br />

Electricity from wind is produced<br />

locally – here in Europe. The war in<br />

Ukraine has been a painful reminder of<br />

Europe's overreliance on imported fos-<br />

440<br />

GW<br />

of wind energy<br />

by 2030 up from<br />

200 GW today.<br />

As it stands,<br />

85-90%<br />

of turbines are<br />

recyclable.<br />

By 2050<br />

wind energy will be<br />

as much as 1,300 GW<br />

and generate<br />

50%<br />

of all electricity in<br />

the EU.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 13


sil fuels. Russia's energy blackmailing<br />

and the surge in electricity prices across<br />

Europe highlighted the crucial role of<br />

domestic energy production for energy<br />

security and electricity affordability in<br />

Europe. Today the energy transition<br />

to renewables is not only an urgency<br />

to fight climate change but also to protect<br />

national security. Or as Germany's<br />

Finance Minister Christian Lindner put<br />

it: "renewable energies are now freedom<br />

energies."<br />

As the EU decarbonizes, wind, solar,<br />

green hydrogen, and its derivatives will<br />

become the backbone of our energy<br />

system – delivering clean, affordable,<br />

homegrown power to all Europeans. The<br />

Russian invasion of Ukraine has accelerated<br />

the need to transition away from<br />

imported fossil fuels. In REPowerEU's<br />

energy policy reaction to the invasion,<br />

the European Commission doubled<br />

down on competitive and domestic<br />

renewables to deliver energy security.<br />

REPowerEU states that the growth of<br />

wind, along with other renewables, is<br />

now a matter of "overriding public interest."<br />

The European Commission wants<br />

Europe to have 440 GW of wind energy<br />

by 2030, up from 200 GW today. By<br />

2050 wind energy will be as much as<br />

1,300 GW and generate 50% of all<br />

European electricity. The International<br />

Energy Agency (IEA) expects wind to be<br />

Europe's number one source of power by<br />

2027.<br />



But to make these expansion targets for<br />

wind energy a reality, we need to see a<br />

concerted push to accelerate the growth<br />

of wind. As it stands, there are still several<br />

factors that are holding this up.<br />

The main factor continues to be new<br />

wind farms' slow and burdensome permitting.<br />

Europe needs to issue more<br />

permits to meet its energy and climate<br />

targets. As a result, the wind industry<br />

only built 16 GW of wind in Europe last<br />

year – but we need to develop at least 31<br />

GW a year to meet the EU's 2030 climate<br />

targets.<br />

The second hurdle is the electricity<br />

market design. New and uncoordinated<br />

national emergency measures brought<br />

in over 2022 to respond to the energy<br />

crisis have led to a patchwork of different<br />

rules across the EU. This has<br />

diminished investor confidence – at<br />

the precise moment, we need to ramp<br />

Wind power is now one of the cheapest energy sources in Europe.<br />

The war in<br />

Ukraine has been<br />

a painful reminder<br />

of Europe's overreliance<br />

on imported<br />

fossil fuels.<br />

up. The European Commission is set to<br />

present a proposal for the revision of the<br />

EU electricity market design in March<br />

<strong>2023</strong> – which we hope will reverse some<br />

of these unhelpful measures.<br />

The third and final challenge is the<br />

lifeblood of the energy system itself –<br />

grid infrastructure. Transmission and<br />

distribution networks need to expand<br />

and modernize, making use of new grid<br />

and system integration technologies<br />

– interconnectors, energy islands, and<br />

other hybrid projects. Energy storage will<br />

also be vital here – storing excess supply<br />

in times of high wind but low demand<br />

and providing a backup during periods of<br />

low wind but high demand.<br />

The result of these challenges seems<br />

paradoxical: while Europe wants more<br />

and more wind, the wind energy supply<br />

chain is struggling not only because of<br />

the low market volumes caused by the<br />

permitting bottlenecks but also because<br />

of poor auction designs, inflation, and<br />

exploding prices for commodities, raw<br />

materials, and components. Thankfully<br />

European policymakers have understood<br />

the problem – and new policy measures<br />

will aim to reinforce the European supply<br />

chain and shore up Europe's clean<br />

tech manufacturing capacity.<br />

Regarding technology and cost-competitiveness,<br />

wind energy will continue<br />

to be one of the cheapest sources of<br />

energy available – much more affordable<br />

than fossil fuels. The new urgency<br />

of the energy crisis puts wind front and<br />

centre of the coming energy transition.<br />

The current hurdles are mostly related<br />

to policymaking and industrial ramp-up<br />

– and will need to be tackled soon if our<br />

climate targets are to be met. But there's<br />

no doubt that wind will take centre stage<br />

in the future European energy mix. And<br />

in an increasingly volatile world, having<br />

control over our energy security could<br />

make all the difference.<br />

14 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>

Manage, trend, and analyze<br />

ultrasound and vibration<br />

data with the integrated<br />

Bearing Toolbox.<br />

Download our<br />

Success Stories e-book


Metaverse,<br />

Multiverse &<br />

Maintenance<br />

Metaverse has become a buzzword in the tech industry. Not a single day goes by without<br />

the media mentioning it, especially in the context of investments, start-ups, new platforms,<br />

and companies entering the world of digital engagement. There is a massive momentum<br />

towards an almost real 3D virtual world. Facebook even rebranded itself as Meta, which<br />

may be remembered as a red-letter moment in the evolution of the metaverse.<br />

PROF. DIEGO GALAR, RAMIN KARIM, AND UDAY KUMAR from the University of Luleå, Sweden<br />

In his science-fiction novel Snow<br />

Crash, Neal Stephenson introduced<br />

the word "metaverse"<br />

in 1992. The novel describes a<br />

networked world, "Metaverse,"<br />

parallel to the real world. Meta means<br />

Metaverse<br />

has become<br />

a buzzword in the<br />

tech industry.<br />

"transcendence," and verse refers to<br />

"universe". Later, Roblox, a sandbox<br />

game platform, became the first<br />

metaverse concept game. Since then,<br />

the concept and articles about the<br />

"metaverse" have appeared in many<br />

16 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


media reports, attracting the attention<br />

of people from all walks of life, even government<br />

departments, and creating the<br />

"meta-universe" phenomenon.<br />

But the metaverse isn't just a place for<br />

gamers and kids playing Roblox. That is<br />

why we keep hearing about serious companies<br />

establishing a presence and services<br />

there, including maintenance services.<br />

To some extent, companies make<br />

the jump just because they don't want<br />

to miss out, even though the metaverse<br />

for industry and especially for maintenance<br />

is still in its infancy. Indeed, the<br />

metaverse is only emerging and is years,<br />

even decades, from maturity. Even the<br />

naming conventions for this virtual<br />

world still need to be settled. We are<br />

not sure if we will have "the" metaverse,<br />

"a" metaverse, "many metaverses", or a<br />

"multiverse" as a "pool of parallel metaverses".<br />

However, even at this early stage,<br />

the value that can be obtained from the<br />

metaverse is close at hand. The buzz<br />

and hype may be exaggerated, but that<br />

doesn't mean we can't obtain value from<br />

the components and parts that go into it.<br />

With the development of technology,<br />

the fantasies described in Snow<br />

Crash have gradually become more real,<br />

making it easier for people to cross the<br />

physical distance of the real world and<br />

connect, improving the immersive experience.<br />

In the metaverse, people perform<br />

their daily activities using avatars repre-<br />

senting their "real" or imaginary selves.<br />

Simply stated, a virtual space becomes<br />

the real world for an alternative life with<br />

avatars or digital profiles participating in<br />

events, sometimes for private and sometimes<br />

for professional purposes – with<br />

possible economic implications.<br />

Metaverse is still evolving, but its<br />

components are ready for use. These<br />

components include the technologies,<br />

tools, and systems these virtual worlds<br />

are built on and accessed through and<br />

the underlying concepts that support<br />

the new experiences. Some of these<br />

technologies have been around for some<br />

time, and the concepts are being applied<br />

in active metaverse platforms.<br />



Realizing immersive experience requires<br />

hard and soft technologies, plus a pool<br />

of services. Two dominant technologies<br />

underlie the metaverse: augmented reality<br />

and virtual reality.<br />

∫ Augmented reality adds a digital<br />

graphic element to an existing, physical,<br />

real-world through the use of<br />

technologies such as glasses, lenses,<br />

or smartphones. In effect, it superimposes<br />

information on the natural environment.<br />

This technology has been<br />

especially popular in maintenance,<br />

where superimposed information for<br />

technicians has facilitated quicker<br />

repairs and increased the maintainability<br />

of assets. Lifelogging is a subclass<br />

of augmentation of the inner<br />

world where smart devices are used<br />

to record daily lives on the Internet.<br />

Examples of lifelogging are the social<br />

networks we use daily for professional<br />

or private reasons, such as Facebook,<br />

LinkedIn, or Instagram. Lifelogging<br />

is promising for maintenance, as<br />

machines connected in a machineto-machine<br />

(M2M) environment are<br />

expected to deliver new services based<br />

on the social networking of assets in<br />

an unattended manner.<br />

∫ Virtual reality is a virtual online<br />

3D reality, with avatars and communication<br />

tools simulating the inner world.<br />

The avatar can be personalized. Even<br />

though virtual reality's cultural, physical,<br />

and social characteristics are different<br />

from reality, the avatar, like a real person,<br />

can communicate with other entities<br />

and achieve goals. Online video games<br />

are a well-known use of virtual reality.<br />

But virtual<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 17


reality also applies to industrial settings.<br />

For example, in the virtual commissioning<br />

of new plants or assets, technicians<br />

can recreate the future shop floor, and<br />

correct or adapt as required, thus avoiding<br />

costly trial and error actions. A subclass<br />

of virtuality mirrors worlds that are<br />

virtualizations or simulations of the real<br />

world. The authentic appearance, information,<br />

and structure are transferred<br />

to a virtual space to carry out activities<br />

via the Internet or mobile applications.<br />

Well-known examples are Google Maps<br />

and Google Earth.<br />

There is a lot of debate about whether<br />

AR or VR will dominate the market. The<br />

truth is that each has its unique value.<br />

Each enables users to experience and<br />

interact with the digital worlds that comprise<br />

the metaverse and the avatars that<br />

inhabit them. Each offers adaptability<br />

for different maintenance scenarios<br />

since using specific gadgets on the shop<br />

floor is impossible. Sometimes it is possible<br />

to use a PC or mobile device. Still,<br />

the immersion and physical interaction<br />

offered by a head-mounted display and<br />

hand-tracking controllers are much<br />

more natural and engaging than those<br />

of a keyboard, mouse, or games controller.<br />

Moreover, a remote maintenance<br />

action may require an immersive experience<br />

rather than a standard inspection,<br />

and augmented information provided<br />

by a device might be enough. But it is<br />

the convergence of these technologies<br />

and concepts that is truly the game<br />

Metaverse is still<br />

evolving, but its<br />

components are<br />

ready for use.<br />

changer when it comes to leveraging the<br />

metaverse.<br />

While current headsets can be hot<br />

and heavy, the technology is advancing<br />

rapidly, and a new generation of slimmer<br />

and lighter devices suggests the beginning<br />

of a more comfortable way to access<br />

the metaverse. VR and AR offer different<br />

experiences, with VR fully immersing<br />

users and AR layering digital items over<br />

the real world. Use cases that demand a<br />

fully immersive experience will benefit<br />

more from VR use, whereas others that<br />

depend on interacting with the natural<br />

world will necessitate AR. Neither is<br />

better than the other, and neither is<br />

"wrong."<br />

The metaverse is a location where the<br />

real world is augmented, connected, and<br />

replicated with virtual reality, and, as<br />

such, it can be considered another world.<br />

For the digital generation, the metaverse<br />

is and will be a space where they spend<br />

part of their daily lives. The Covid-19<br />

pandemic accelerated this trend with<br />

widespread isolation measures. The<br />

changes caused by the pandemic also<br />

had maintenance implications; Covid-<br />

19 limited maintenance inspections<br />

and interventions. Consequently, many<br />

activities moved from only being offline<br />

to also becoming virtual. In other words,<br />

the metaverse is not only a place offering<br />

escape but where people will live part of<br />

their lives. In the maintenance context,<br />

it means there is a better ability to safeguard<br />

the robustness and resilience of<br />

assets by providing virtual assistance and<br />

skipping costly actions to inspect remote<br />

and unattended equipment. The connection<br />

with the metaverse is facilitated by<br />

new technologies that allow us to be part<br />

of the online world 24 hours a day, all<br />

the time, and everywhere. The benefits<br />

for the maintenance sector are evident<br />

in terms of health monitoring, support<br />

and training of technicians, and remote<br />

troubleshooting.<br />

Consequently, maintenance as a<br />

service is attracting interest in the<br />

metaverse, with researchers examining<br />

the potential of the virtual world for<br />

detecting and predicting failures and<br />

providing maintenance support.<br />




Thanks to Industry 4.0 and the upcoming<br />

Industry 5.0, a dramatic technological<br />

transformation linking the physical<br />

world to the digital space has been<br />

accomplished. Digital twins and cyberphysical<br />

systems (CPS) define how a<br />

physical system integrates sensors, communication,<br />

computing, and control in<br />

a large-scale cyberinfrastructure. Digital<br />

twin technology is vital in boosting this<br />

convergence. This technology permits<br />

global industries to establish digital<br />

copies of their processes and assets to<br />

optimize maintenance and performance.<br />

Digital twin and CPSs technologies provide<br />

virtual representations, digital replicas,<br />

or copies of products, but also people,<br />

in the form of avatars. We could say<br />

the avatars of humans in the metaverse<br />

will interact with digital twins of the<br />

assets that are, in fact, avatars of assets.<br />

CPS are systems linking networked<br />

products and operations. Digital twins<br />

are engineering systems that drive new<br />

abilities to design, operate, maintain, and<br />

create new services to maximize value.<br />

Therefore, the digital twin of an asset is<br />

expressed as a virtual (digital) profile of<br />

a physical thing or process's current and<br />

past state, providing the elements and<br />

dynamics of how the replicated system<br />

18 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


performs and degrades using CPS as a<br />

backbone.<br />

Digital twins, as avatars of our<br />

products, add value to the industrial<br />

metaverse and beyond from the perspective<br />

of extended reality, with platforms<br />

for managing and analyzing data and<br />

experiencing the immersive interactions<br />

of avatars with digital products. Indeed,<br />

the key aspect of the maintenance<br />

metaverse is that digital twins of assets<br />

with different maturity levels will be<br />

transferred to the metaverse and become<br />

the avatars of these assets, ready to interact<br />

with the avatars of the maintenance<br />

crew.<br />

Metaverse platforms for immersive<br />

remote monitoring and control of intelligent<br />

industrial applications are challenging<br />

but achievable with appropriate gadgets.<br />

An industrial metaverse will include<br />

detailed digital twin models equivalent<br />

to full real-world assets where Industrial<br />

Internet of Things (IIoT) data and 3D<br />

digital models link digital and physical<br />

worlds. The merging of digital and physical<br />

object interactions that is already<br />

underway gives credibility to the concept<br />

of a metaverse as a viable future reality.<br />

Digital twins are a fundamental<br />

requirement for realizing the industrial<br />

metaverse, when assets are perceived<br />

from multidimensional perspectives to<br />

initiate new maintenance frameworks,<br />

such as remote monitoring, troubleshooting,<br />

and training new workers<br />

through an interactive simulation.<br />

On the one hand, for monitoring purposes,<br />

integrating digital twin technology<br />

with real-world data-related technologies<br />

will enable the creation of advanced<br />

simulation algorithms that could anticipate<br />

how processes and products will<br />

perform and degrade. Such algorithms<br />

must integrate IIoT data, Industrial AI,<br />

data analytics, and domain knowledge<br />

to improve output. Given the advancements<br />

in AI and Big Data technologies,<br />

the virtual models (digital twins) can<br />

become a staple in modern engineering,<br />

thwarting costly asset failures, eliminating<br />

the sophisticated testing of products<br />

and processes, and fostering efficient<br />

predictive and monitoring capabilities of<br />

systems.<br />

On the other hand, using metaverse<br />

and digital twin-enabled solutions as<br />

training and remote troubleshooting<br />

platform will help in testing systems and<br />

obtaining feedback. Based on the feedback,<br />

the system could be optimized, and<br />

the experimentation could be repeated.<br />

There are clear<br />

relations between the<br />

metaverse and the<br />

prevention and<br />

mitigation of failure.<br />

At the initial stage of the testing, since<br />

a digital platform or a clone of the<br />

machines is used, the wear and tear of<br />

the intelligent industrial machines and<br />

gadgets will be safeguarded. Further,<br />

based on the learning from the digital<br />

simulation platforms, testing could be<br />

done on the physical industrial machines<br />

in industrial settings, thus achieving<br />

real virtual commissioning with a high<br />

success rate. This immersive and virtual<br />

experience will allow maintainers to collaborate<br />

with experts and trainers from<br />

remote locations.<br />

In summary, considering digital twins<br />

as a tool to monitor dynamic changes<br />

in systems is crucial for maintenance<br />

applications in the industrial metaverse.<br />

Metaverse solutions are essential for<br />

remote maintenance managers and<br />

workforce groups who can use digitally<br />

cloned models for testing, monitoring,<br />

intervention, and training. In this way,<br />

the metaverse will become a powerful<br />

platform for maintainers and beyond. Its<br />

role in assisting virtual teams in gaining<br />

access to or control over digital clones is<br />

also being considered as a means of promoting<br />

new business models in the field<br />

of maintenance as a service; this includes<br />

remote troubleshooting and assistance,<br />

but it also includes innovative alterations<br />

in the digital clones based on ongoing<br />

failures, problems, and maintenance<br />

20 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


actions, thus promoting new product<br />

development and reliability growth.<br />



There are clear relations between the<br />

metaverse and the prevention and<br />

mitigation of failure. The metaverse can<br />

certainly be adopted for diagnostic and<br />

repair support with satisfying results.<br />

Maintenance 4.0 has already adopted<br />

and adapted various innovative technologies,<br />

such as IIoT, CPS, cloud, fog,<br />

Big data Analytics, machine learning,<br />

blockchain, and Industrial AI. Immersive<br />

technologies are becoming increasingly<br />

important. The disruptions they bring to<br />

performing maintenance will include the<br />

ability to monitor and interact remotely<br />

with a large population of assets and<br />

educate those involved in maintenance<br />

activities. Digital innovations can be<br />

adopted as an alternative maintenance<br />

service model; indeed, the possibility of<br />

creating avatars allows consultations and<br />

personalized actions. In the metaverse,<br />

maintainers could "consult" in a 3D<br />

virtual workshop using remote services<br />

and devices, such as wearable sensors<br />

and smartphone applications, monitor<br />

the health status of assets, and once they<br />

have a "diagnosis", perform maintenance<br />

intervention using haptic sensors and<br />

robotic actuators.<br />

The potential for incorporating monitoring<br />

devices into asset health programs<br />

is enormous. Different devices can be<br />

adapted to remotely monitor asset health<br />

conditions, connecting real life with the<br />

virtual world. The health of a distant asset<br />

can be assessed by IoT sensors, plus a<br />

number of virtual sensors, with Industrial<br />

AI models within the system adding<br />

further physical and expert knowledge.<br />

The creation of soft sensors will increase<br />

health visibility and improve maintenance<br />

criteria. With this information, both real<br />

and virtually created, maintenance crews<br />

will evaluate asset performance and damage<br />

propagation, comparing, in real-time,<br />

their data with the data of other users<br />

worldwide. Through real-time monitoring,<br />

maintainers can be part of an online<br />

community, and being guided by experts<br />

worldwide increases the likelihood that<br />

they will attend maintenance good practices<br />

programs and adopt world-class decisions.<br />

Moreover, these monitoring devices<br />

will allow assets to be fully present in the<br />

metaverse, 24/7. Importantly, monitoring<br />

health parameters around the clock<br />

will facilitate prompt prevention or<br />

intervention, helping service providers<br />

improve maintenance security. Along with<br />

monitoring, in the metaverse, a virtual<br />

and AI-based avatar or agent may provide<br />

personalized feedback and support, and, in<br />

this way, maintenance interventions could<br />

become more effective.<br />

Finally, an avatar that can act as a "virtual<br />

doctor/nurse" may be able to directly monitor<br />

and interact with the asset, providing<br />

individualized care and treatment but also<br />

supervising and monitoring, in real time, the<br />

"patient's" evolution after maintenance or<br />

repair actions. In this way, the metaverse can<br />

serve as a transitional stage before maintenance<br />

providers tackle real-world problems.<br />

In the metaverse, they can accompany assets<br />

into specific individualized environments,<br />

thus enhancing the efficacy of maintenance<br />

programs and actions. Beyond maintenance,<br />

however, virtual care models with group support<br />

programs could be a valid intervention<br />

in real-world health problems; in this context,<br />

remote virtual nursing care with robotic<br />

end-user delivery units could be helpful.<br />


Galar, D., Kumar, U., & Seneviratne, D. (2020). Robots, Drones, UAVs and UGVs for Operation and Maintenance. CRC Press.<br />

Karim, R., Galar, D., & Kumar, U. (2021). AI Factory: Theories, Applications and Case Studies.<br />

Galar, D., & Kumar, U. (2017). eMaintenance: Essential electronic tools for efficiency. Academic Press.<br />

Galar, D., Daponte, P., & Kumar, U. (2019). Handbook of Industry 4.0 and SMART Systems. CRC Press.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 21


PETER BOON, Product Manager at UE Systems<br />

Ultrasound:<br />

Achieving energy savings by<br />

detecting compressed air leaks<br />

With energy prices at an all-time high, it is now more important than ever for maintenance<br />

teams to focus on detecting compressed air leaks at their industrial facilities. As electricity<br />

prices keep going up, generating compressed air becomes more and more expensive –<br />

detecting and fixing leaks becomes now a priority.<br />

It is estimated that more than 50%<br />

of all compressed air systems<br />

have energy efficiency problems,<br />

and losses from such systems can<br />

be very costly. About 30% of all<br />

industrial compressed air is lost due<br />

to leaks, generating a huge economical<br />

and energetic waste. Just think that a<br />

leak of just 3mm can cost up to 574 GBP<br />

per year if it is not detected (on a 5-bar<br />

pressure system). Thus, detecting and<br />

repairing compressed air leaks may lead<br />

to huge energy savings.<br />


There are a few methods used to detect<br />

compressed air leaks. One of the<br />

22 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


most traditional methods, still widely<br />

used, is detecting leaks with a soap and<br />

water solution. This method has a few<br />

disadvantages: it takes a very long time,<br />

creates additional work, and may also<br />

constitute a safety hazard.<br />

A much more effective, quick and<br />

safe method is using ultrasonic inspections<br />

instruments. These can be listenonly<br />

instruments or the more recent ultrasound<br />

leak detection cameras, which<br />

make the job even easier.<br />



Using the characteristics of Ultrasound,<br />

locating leaks is fast and easy to do so<br />

because of:<br />

• Directionality of sound waves makes<br />

locating the source easy<br />

• Intensity of signal: the closer you get,<br />

the more sound you detect<br />

• Fixed frequency, making it effective<br />

to locate even in a loud factory environment<br />

As any gas (air, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.)<br />

passes through a leak orifice, it generates<br />

a turbulent flow with detectable<br />

high frequency components.<br />

By scanning the test area with an<br />

ultrasound instrument, a leak can be<br />

heard through the headset as a rushing<br />

sound or noted on the display/meter.<br />

The closer the instrument is to the leak,<br />

the louder the rushing sound and the<br />

higher the reading.<br />

Should ambient noise be a problem,<br />

a rubber focusing probe may be used to<br />

narrow the instrument’s reception field<br />

and to shield it from conflicting ultrasounds.<br />

In addition, frequency tuning (available<br />

in most models) dramatically<br />

reduces background noise interference<br />

to provide ease of ultrasonic leak detection<br />

as never before experienced.<br />




One of the more popular applications<br />

for ultrasound is the creation of compressed<br />

air leak surveys.<br />

Utilizing a software for compressed<br />

air leaks, users are able to locate and<br />

report on cost estimation per leak while<br />

also demonstrating the reduction of the<br />

carbon footprint.<br />

∫ Locate the leak site fast & easy<br />

∫ Tag the leak site & record values with<br />

digital ultrasound inspection instruments<br />

∫<br />

Report potential cost avoidance &<br />

produce repair reports<br />

This can be done using software such as<br />

UE Systems DMS or even a mobile app<br />

like the Leak Survey Sidekick app.<br />

This app lets the user create a compressed<br />

air leak survey report. Once<br />

leaks are identified and information is<br />

entered, the data can be used to generate<br />

a comprehensive Excel report that<br />

includes estimated LMP (litre-perminute)<br />

loss, up-to-date cost avoidance,<br />

leak location photos (taken with your<br />

smartphone or tablet), and greenhouse<br />

gas reductions.<br />

Survey quality assurance is optimized<br />

by identifying leaks that have<br />

been repaired and leaks that have not<br />

been repaired. Also works with specialty<br />

gases like Argon, Helium etc.<br />




Traditional ultrasonic inspection instruments<br />

are effective but work only<br />

with sound. The user detects leaks<br />

by following the leak sound coming<br />

through the headphones connected to<br />

the instrument, scanning in all directions,<br />

and following the sound source<br />

until it’s possible to pinpoint the exact<br />

leak location. This is called the gross-tofine<br />

method.<br />

However, with the most recent developments<br />

in ultrasound technology for<br />

leak detection, there are ultrasonic cameras<br />

available which allow the user to see<br />

the leak on a screen, in real-time. One example<br />

of the available ultrasonic cameras<br />

is the UltraView from UE Systems.<br />

maintenance professionals can<br />

easily find compressed air leaks (or<br />

any other compressed gas) by simply<br />

switching on the camera and watch<br />

how the leak locations show up on the<br />

screen. This way, it is possible to quickly<br />

cover a large area and find a significant<br />

number of leaks, even at a safe distance.<br />

Thus, finding leaks with this ultrasound<br />

camera is much more efficient when<br />

compared to traditional leak detection<br />

methods.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 23


Multi-site<br />

Maintenance<br />

Excellence<br />

Text and images: MAINNOVATION<br />

From ‘not invented here’ to creating<br />

support and commitment<br />

The term ‘Operational Excellence’ refers to an excellent and<br />

flawless way of working to meet the highest expectations<br />

of customers. Maintenance obviously plays an important<br />

role in this. The term excellence is therefore also becoming<br />

‘common knowledge’ in this area. With ‘Maintenance<br />

Excellence’ we aim for the best performance of our assets.<br />

A nice challenge, but how do you roll out this way of<br />

working to multiple locations around the world?<br />

Large companies with multiple<br />

locations all over the world are<br />

called multi-site companies.<br />

Due to growth, relocation<br />

or acquisition, the company<br />

expands in various countries. This<br />

implies that the company is doing well,<br />

but it also creates a huge challenge. How<br />

do you make sure all these factories –<br />

with differences in processes, languages,<br />

cultures, time zones and IT systems – all<br />

perform in an excellent way? And is<br />

24 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>

there even one excellent approach to be implemented<br />

everywhere?<br />


"There is enormous potential in learning from each<br />

other's best practices, but this is not an easy task,"<br />

confirms Guy Delahay, Managing Partner at Mainnovation.<br />

Delahay regularly flies to other continents<br />

to advise multi-site companies on maintenance and<br />

asset management. “Without wanting to generalise:<br />

in America they are used to a top-down approach and<br />

if management indeed knows how to set the right<br />

course, this can work well. Germany is more hierarchical.<br />

When the boss is at the meeting table, the<br />

employee keeps a low profile. In Asian countries you<br />

see that the group feeling must be taken into account.<br />

And the Dutch have the image of being open and freespirited.<br />

Here a mechanic can tell the director that he<br />

has a better idea. If this is an American manager, this<br />

may not be appreciated.”<br />

GIS<br />

Next<br />

Generation<br />

EAM<br />

PdM<br />

Mobile<br />

APM<br />

AIP<br />

BI<br />

PPM<br />


Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to see whether the different<br />

factories can learn from each other. To achieve<br />

Maintenance Excellence, many organisations opt for<br />

methods that support this. Delahay calls this 'the battle<br />

of the ideologies'. Delahay: “Companies choose to<br />

implement Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) or<br />

Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) at all plants.<br />

This often leads to top-down imposed programmes<br />

that ignore adaptation, commitment and support.<br />

Best practices are indicated from qualitative measurements,<br />

that are not at all relevant at some factories.”<br />

A Global Maintenance Excellence Champion is<br />

also appointed to lead the project. “This can work<br />

well, but this has to be someone with – there's that<br />

word again – excellent qualities. Flair, leadership and<br />

decisiveness. But also someone with a mandate. Can<br />

they make decisions or are they only allowed to give<br />

advice? And even then, this official can run into a wall<br />

of resistance. 'Not invented here' the employees say,<br />

because they mainly believe in their own way of working.”<br />


Is it an impossible task then? “Certainly not,” says Delahay.<br />

"You just have to be aware of the pitfalls." Cultural<br />

differences, resistance to a top-down approach<br />

and differences in targets, priorities, and action plans.<br />

“And despite all these pitfalls, it is possible. With our<br />

VDM XL methodology, for example, factory-specific<br />

solutions can be taken into account. The focus is on<br />

connecting people. Ensuring healthy competition<br />

between sites is good, but you do have to compare<br />

apples with apples: so, benchmark well and compare<br />

the right KPIs with each other.” It is also important to<br />

include everyone in order to create support and commitment.<br />

“Give space to ownership and knowledge<br />

exchange and celebrate successes. And provide insight<br />

into each other's results and KPIs. In this way you<br />

step by step create a willingness to implement other –<br />

better – working methods and EAM systems. Improving<br />

multi-site.”<br />

BIM<br />

AI<br />

Many companies use their Enterprise Asset Management<br />

(EAM) system mainly as an electronic card index or a<br />

digital work order system, unaware of the possibilities it<br />

has for Asset Management. EAM Systems like Maximo,<br />

IFS Ultimo, HxGN EAM and SAP EAM have evolved<br />

tremendously. They now offer functionalities for Asset<br />

Investment Planning, Project Portfolio Management,<br />

Asset Performance Management, Business Intelligence<br />

and Predictive Maintenance. Major steps have also been<br />

taken in the field of Mobile, GIS and BIM integration.<br />

Are you ready for Next Generation EAM?<br />

Our VDM XL experts can assist you with further<br />

professionalisation and automation of your Maintenance<br />

& Asset Management organisation.<br />



Is your lubrication<br />

program world-class?<br />

Acoustic Lubrication is just one of the 8 application pillars adopted by world-class<br />

ultrasound programs. And what an important one it is. Poor lubrication practices account<br />

for as much as 40% of all premature bearing failures. When ultrasound is utilized to<br />

assess lubrication needs and schedule grease replenishment intervals, that number drops<br />

below 10%. What would 30% fewer bearing related failures mean for your organization?<br />

Keeping up with the changes in on-condition bearing lubrication techniques is challenging.<br />

Technology advancements from SDT’s LUBExpert allows us to transform complex<br />

processes into a simple procedure.<br />


Success is dependent on organization<br />

and commitment. Without<br />

these two structural elements, your<br />

ultrasound lubrication program<br />

will find difficulty getting traction.<br />

A well-organized strategy and carefully<br />

planned execution will get the<br />

project started properly. Getting the<br />

commitment from all levels becomes<br />

much easier when a program can<br />

demonstrate structure and cohesion.<br />

Results will prove the program faster<br />

which will trigger easier access to<br />

funding to grow and sustain the program.<br />

Start by asking “Why start an ultrasound<br />

lubrication program and<br />

what improvements do we expect?”<br />

There is no one easy answer to the<br />

question. Saving money is an obvious<br />

benefit that gets the attention<br />

of management, but it is not specific<br />

enough. How will an ultrasound lubrication<br />

program save money?<br />

Poor lubrication<br />

practices account<br />

for as much as 40%<br />

of all premature<br />

bearing failures.<br />

Clearly defining and communicating the objectives of your lubrication program is the<br />

best way to create a precision lubrication culture that benefits your entire organization.<br />

26 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


Keeping your<br />

bearings healthy<br />

requires a lubricant<br />

with the right quality for<br />

the application.<br />

• By reducing grease consumption;<br />

• By raising awareness of the right<br />

types of grease to use;<br />

• By making more effective use of<br />

lube tech’s time;<br />

• By reducing unwanted machine<br />

breakdowns caused by lubrication<br />

failures;<br />

• By extending bearing life expectancy.<br />

A new beginning is the best opportunity<br />

to review what you have<br />

been doing previously. Identify what<br />

worked and improve or remove what<br />

did not. We will not go deeply into all<br />

aspects related to good lubrication<br />

practices. However, there are some<br />

basic and relevant points that should<br />

be noted.<br />

Lubricant management program:<br />

Keeping your bearings healthy requires<br />

a lubricant with the right<br />

quality for the application. By quality<br />

we refer not only to the quality of<br />

the grease manufacturer, but quality<br />

in a broader sense which involves all<br />

the processes from manufacturing<br />

to application. Some general recommendations<br />

are:<br />

• Keeping high standards of housekeeping<br />

for storage, handling, and<br />

application to prevent contamination<br />

that degrades the quality of<br />

lubricants.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 27


• Keeping a detailed list of products to use for each lubrication<br />

point. Selecting the right lubricant requires technical<br />

knowledge in several aspects. Using the wrong product<br />

will jeopardize the useful life of the component. Don’t<br />

change lubricants without solid reasons. Consider contracting<br />

a lubrication consultant to direct advice on this.<br />

• Providing training in every aspect relevant to lubrication<br />

practices and product knowledge to those responsible for<br />

lubrication.<br />

• Setting objectives to reach so you have a clear path to follow.<br />


Delivering the lubricant to the right point requires some<br />

type of device; usually a grease gun. There’s lots of different<br />

types but they all have one thing in common: they<br />

deliver grease with high pressure, enough to overcome the<br />

backpressure in the grease fitting.<br />

Dirty grease and mixing grease types kills bearings.<br />

Therefore, it is necessary to extend the precautions for<br />

contamination and storage discussed above, to the application<br />

of lubricant through grease guns:<br />

• Wherever possible, insist on using a dedicated grease<br />

gun for each grease type to avoid the risk of applying<br />

the wrong product through cross contamination. Label<br />

the grease gun with the associated grease to be used.<br />

LUBExpert manages multiple grease guns to prevent<br />

mixing of grease types.<br />

• Standardize your grease guns so they all deliver the<br />

same quantity of grease per stroke.<br />

• The same principle must be applied<br />

for your ultrasound device.<br />

If using SDT’s acoustic lubrication<br />

adaptor LUBESense1, assign a different<br />

one for each grease type.<br />

Grease remaining in the adaptor<br />

can mix with new grease causing a<br />

degrading chemical reaction.<br />

• Always clean the grease fitting and<br />

grease gun before and after every<br />

application.<br />

• Some bearings have drain plugs for purging old grease.<br />

If you open the drain, remember to clean the drain<br />

hole; it may be clogged. Use a clean brush like a bottle<br />

washing brush to clear the port.<br />

• Apply grease slowly, one full stroke at a time (no more<br />

than 20% of the maximum designated quantity per<br />

injection) to avoid over greasing. This also avoids potential<br />

damage to the bearing as too much pressure can<br />

push the bearing cage into the roller elements.<br />

• Always allow for churning time – the time required for<br />

freshly injected grease to work its way into the bearing.<br />


Don’t assume that a grease fitting installed on a bearing<br />

housing means a path to grease the bearing. Sometimes,<br />

motors are fitted with both grease fittings AND sealed<br />

for life bearings. You must identify every grease point<br />

to be managed within the ultrasound program. Identify<br />

Ultrasound assisted<br />

lubrication offers<br />

significant benefits<br />

that calendar based<br />

lubrication cannot.<br />

the bearing inside to know its size<br />

for lubrication quantity, its particulars<br />

for defect diagnosis, and the<br />

type of grease typically used. Here<br />

are some helpful tips regarding the<br />

use of acoustic lubrication:<br />

• Friction produces ultrasound.<br />

Bearing friction is produced<br />

by the contact between race, rolling<br />

elements and seals or shields.<br />

• Less contacts means less friction. A ball bearing<br />

produces less friction than a same size roller bearing<br />

under the same lubrication conditions, speed and load.<br />

• Plain bearings produce the lowest friction levels.<br />

Their ultrasound baseline often trends in the single<br />

digits or low teens. Typically, they remain consistent<br />

for their lifespan and only display sudden upward<br />

trend lines when the oil film becomes contaminated or<br />

the bearing is near failure.<br />


Ultrasound performs well at sensing and measuring<br />

changing in friction levels. It’s the perfect technology to<br />

guide lube technicians during the lubrication-replenishment<br />

task. Ultrasound assisted lubrication of plant assets<br />

offers significant benefits that calendar based lubrication<br />

cannot. The days of relying on calendars and calculators<br />

are over.<br />

C<br />

M<br />

Y<br />

CM<br />

MY<br />

CY<br />

CMY<br />

K<br />

Find out more by visiting our website at https://sdtultrasound.com/industry/bearing-lubrication-monitoring/<br />

28 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


Secure supply chains are crucial<br />

to the industrial sector’s<br />

cyber defence<br />

Significant advancements are being made to digitalise and<br />

automate industrial operations. Critical infrastructure<br />

is becoming more and more digitally connected to make<br />

society safer, bring down costs and increase efficiency.<br />

But digital transformation carries emerging risks. Rising<br />

geopolitical tensions, war in Europe, a cost-of-living crisis,<br />

energy supply shocks and widespread food insecurity are<br />

shining a light on just how vulnerable critical infrastructure<br />

is the more connected it becomes.<br />

JALAL BOUHDADA, Global Cyber Security Segment Director, DNV<br />

Cyber threats to industrial<br />

facilities are becoming<br />

more common, complex,<br />

and creative as opera-<br />

tional technology (OT) –<br />

the control systems that manage, tor, automate and control industrial<br />

operations – is increasingly networked<br />

and connected to IT environments. The<br />

manufacturing sector recently became<br />

the world’s most cyber-attacked industry<br />

for the first time, according to IBM’s<br />

2022 X-Force Threat Intelligence Index.<br />

moni-<br />

Other industrial sectors, including<br />

energy and transport also appear within<br />

the top ten.<br />

Production shutdowns, safety incidents,<br />

process disturbances and other<br />

service disruptions are all potential<br />

consequences of a cyber-attack on industrial<br />

operations. Life, property and<br />

the environment are at stake.<br />

It’s no surprise, then, that cyber security<br />

is rising up the boardroom agenda<br />

in industrial sectors. Cyber security<br />

risks are now business risks, and business<br />

leaders are recognising that cyber<br />

security is a pre-requisite for tion and automation<br />

digitalisaexcellence.<br />

30 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


The overriding principle<br />

to mitigate against assets<br />

and operations being<br />

compromised by a cyberattack<br />

is to protect, detect,<br />

respond and recover.<br />

single-entry point to multiple companies’<br />

environments.<br />

Supply chain security risks have not<br />

gone unnoticed by OT security professionals.<br />

The majority say their organisations<br />

are at risk because of their inability to<br />

ascertain the security practices of relevant<br />

third parties and to mitigate cyber risks<br />

across the OT external supply chain, according<br />

to research conducted by Applied<br />

Risk, a DNV company, in 2021.<br />

Many suppliers and manufacturers of<br />

equipment integrated within OT systems<br />

simply lack the people, processes, and<br />

technologies to demonstrate the cyber<br />

security of their products and services.<br />

By adopting a cyber security programme,<br />

investing in training of the workforce and<br />

following a Secure Software Development<br />

Life Cycle (SDLC) process, the risk of<br />

security vulnerabilities in products in production<br />

can be improved.<br />

Vendors’ systems used to be standalone.<br />

Now, they are increasingly connected<br />

within IT/OT systems internally<br />

and externally in much larger critical<br />

infrastructure ecosystems.<br />

Applied Risk’s study found that only<br />

a third of OT security professionals say<br />

their organisations conduct regular audits<br />

of their main suppliers, and just a quarter<br />

(27%) conduct due diligence prior to contracting<br />

with new suppliers.<br />

Companies with industrial operations<br />

need to pay greater attention to assuring<br />

that equipment vendors and suppliers<br />

demonstrate compliance with security<br />

best practice from the earliest stages of<br />

procurement and throughout the lifecycle<br />

of a project. Strengthened data management<br />

securing information and data<br />

sharing between suppliers, customers and<br />

other partners, limited access to critical<br />

assets - next to implementing monitoring<br />

and threat detection systems - improve<br />

supply chain cyber security by mitigating<br />

the risk of cyber-attacks. And if things go<br />

wrong, have an incident response plan in<br />

place to manage the threat and act fast.<br />



Industrial companies’ investment in cyber<br />

security is now increasing. More focus is<br />

being placed on identifying where companies<br />

are vulnerable to attack, and putting<br />

the people, process, and technology<br />

measures in place to defend their IT and<br />

OT environments. But all this effort will<br />

make no difference if the security posture<br />

of a company’s supply chain is not equally<br />

strengthened.<br />

Companies can have complete oversight<br />

of their own vulnerabilities and have<br />

all the right measures in place to manage<br />

the risk, but this doesn’t matter if there<br />

are undiscovered vulnerabilities in their<br />

supply chain. One issue can escalate or<br />

‘domino’ into many others. The supply<br />

chain is a very attractive target for cyber<br />

criminals because it potentially provides a<br />


It is now time for both industrial operators<br />

and their suppliers to face these challenges<br />

head-on. Increasingly, suppliers<br />

must assure themselves that they have the<br />

right measures in place to defend their<br />

products and systems from cyber threats.<br />

They must also be in a position to demonstrate<br />

their security posture to companies<br />

procuring from them.<br />

The overriding principle to mitigate<br />

against assets and operations being compromised<br />

by a cyber-attack is to protect,<br />

detect, respond and recover. This is in line<br />

with industry best practice including the<br />

National Institute of Standards and Technology’s<br />

(NIST) cyber security framework.<br />

The Centre for Internet Security (CIS)<br />

sets out benchmarks for vendor product<br />

families to help protect systems against<br />

threats more confidently while The<br />

Open Worldwide Application Security<br />

Project (OWASP) Foundation provides<br />

free online resources for web application<br />

security.<br />

For many organisations, however, the<br />

challenge in ensuring cyber resilience<br />

is understanding and identifying where<br />

their vulnerabilities are. By having a clear<br />

overview of attack surfaces and potential<br />

entry points, you can prioritise the vulnerabilities<br />

and non-conformities that must<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 31


be addressed. Robust and often straightforward<br />

mitigation measures can be put in<br />

place to address most vulnerabilities.<br />

When it comes to demonstrating security<br />

posture, it pays for suppliers to be able<br />

to prove that they conform to a growing<br />

number of industry standards and practices.<br />

These standards include IEC 62443,<br />

the international series of standards that<br />

address cyber security for operational technology<br />

in automation and control systems,<br />

and ISO 27001, the standard for information<br />

security management systems and<br />

their requirements.<br />

Recommended practices are also available<br />

to help companies on their path to<br />

compliance with industry standards. For<br />

example, DNV’s Recommended Practice<br />

DNV-RP-G108 provides best practice on<br />

how to apply the IEC 62443 standard in the<br />

oil and gas industry.<br />

Help is at hand from industrial cyber security<br />

specialists, including DNV, for those<br />

companies who don’t have the in-house expertise<br />

to undertake this work themselves.<br />

They can help to identify which standards<br />

are most relevant to comply with, uncover<br />

companies’ compliance status, what outline<br />

what needs to be done to achieve compliance<br />

before helping to put mitigating actions<br />

in place.<br />

For companies procuring products and<br />

systems from suppliers, we recommend<br />

that supply chain audits and vendor cyber<br />

security requirements are implemented<br />

during procurement, installation and operation<br />

of equipment, systems, and software.<br />

By defining requirements up front, and<br />

regularly reviewing suppliers against those<br />

requirements, understanding the supply<br />

chain’s cyber security posture becomes less<br />

of a black box. Vulnerabilities can be more<br />

easily identified. Mitigating actions can be<br />

undertaken more collaboratively. Assessments<br />

should be undertaken continually,<br />

rather than periodically, to ensure resilience<br />

against new and emerging cyber-attack<br />

vectors.<br />



Companies with industrial operations who<br />

have not yet put their own cyber security<br />

and that of their supply chain on their to-do<br />

list may be incentivised to do so by tightening<br />

regulation. For example, organisations<br />

providing essential services (including<br />

energy, drinking water supply, transport,<br />

healthcare and more) in the European Union<br />

(EU), will soon face tougher cyber security<br />

regulation than ever, with the threat of<br />

Assessments should be<br />

undertaken continually,<br />

rather than periodically, to<br />

ensure resilience against<br />

new and emerging cyberattack<br />

vectors.<br />

Organisations in<br />

industrial sectors should<br />

now think about NIS2's<br />

scope and if their operations<br />

fit within it.<br />

more and greater fines and/or withdrawal<br />

of license to operate if they do not comply.<br />

The revised NIS2 Directive strengthens<br />

cyber security requirements on companies,<br />

introducing top management accountability<br />

for non-compliance and streamlining reporting<br />

obligations. Crucially, the Directive<br />

also puts more focus on cyber security of<br />

supply chains.<br />

The NIS2 Directive suggests forcing<br />

individual businesses to address cyber security<br />

risks in supply chains and supplier<br />

partnerships to address the security of these<br />

ties. The idea is that it will improve supplychain<br />

cyber security for important information<br />

and communication technology at the<br />

European level. Building on the successful<br />

strategy used in the framework of the European<br />

Commission’s Recommendation on<br />

Cybersecurity, Member States may conduct<br />

coordinated risk assessments of vital supply<br />

chains in collaboration with the Commission<br />

and the European Union Agency for<br />

Cybersecurity (ENISA).<br />

The revised Directive on Security of Network<br />

and Information Systems (NIS2) to<br />

come into force in January <strong>2023</strong>. Member<br />

States have until October 2024 to homologate<br />

NIS2 into national legislation and while it<br />

is estimated that organisations within NIS2<br />

scope will have to start complying by mid-<br />

2024 with relevant national laws.<br />

Organisations in industrial sectors should<br />

now think about NIS2's scope and if their operations<br />

fit within it. An organisation should<br />

consider the organisational, financial, and<br />

technical actions that will be necessary to get<br />

ready for NIS2 compliance if it looks likely<br />

that they will fall under the new legislation's<br />

purview. For instance, the European Commission<br />

anticipates that organisations' ICT<br />

security spending will increase by up to 22%<br />

in the first few years following the introduction<br />

of NIS2. In-scope organisations should<br />

also monitor how NIS2 is implemented in the<br />

important EU jurisdictions where they conduct<br />

business.<br />

If you think your organisation might fall<br />

under the scope of the NIS2 Directive, my<br />

advice is to get advice. DNV’s white paper on<br />

the Directive is a great starting point for identifying<br />

what new cyber security laws mean<br />

for industrial companies in Europe, and what<br />

you need to do to get ready to comply.<br />

32 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


Using pipelines<br />

to transport hydrogen<br />

instead of natural gas<br />

DR. JOHANNA STEINBOCK, Expert Fracture Mechanics Analysis, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service<br />

JAN SACHSE, Head of Department Plant Safety, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service<br />

DR. ALBERT GROSSMANN, Expert High-Pressure Pipelines, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service<br />

Source: TÜV SÜD.<br />

Hydrogen is one of the key players in the energy transition.<br />

Plans envisage using existing natural gas infrastructure for<br />

its transport and storage. Relying on fracture-mechanics<br />

analysis, TÜV SÜD assesses the integrity and remaining<br />

service life of pipelines intended for hydrogen transport<br />

and storage, considering hydrogen embrittlement of steel<br />

and aspects such as crack initiation and propagation in a<br />

hydrogen atmosphere.<br />

CONTACT:<br />

TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH,<br />

Westendstrasse 199, 80686<br />

Munich, Germany<br />

+49 89 5791-2176<br />

jan.sachse@tuvsud.com<br />

tuvsud.com/en/themes/<br />



Green hydrogen produced<br />

with electricity from<br />

renewable sources could<br />

slash carbon emissions by<br />

several million tonnes per<br />

year in Germany alone. Beyond its application<br />

in the steel and chemical industries,<br />

the energy carrier can also be used<br />

for energy storage and in fuel-cell drive<br />

systems in the transport sector. Given<br />

this, the German Federal Ministries for<br />

Economic Affairs and for Digital and<br />

Transport have invested a total of over<br />

8 billion euros since mid-2021, funding<br />

around 60 large-scale hydrogen projects<br />

from hydrogen production to transport<br />

and industrial use.¹<br />



With a service life of up to 100 years,<br />

pipelines and storage caverns are particularly<br />

ecological and economical<br />

solutions for gas transport and storage.<br />

In addition to roughly 500 000 km of<br />

pipelines transporting gas throughout<br />

Germany, there are 40 000 km of pipelines<br />

for cross-regional and cross-border<br />

transport. With diameters of up to<br />

1.4 m and service pressures of up to 100<br />

bar, the pipes are generally also suitable<br />

for transporting hydrogen. This is supported<br />

by historical fact; up to the mid-<br />

20th century, “city gas” contained up<br />

to 50 % of hydrogen. Using the existing<br />

infrastructure would further increase<br />

Hydrogen is one of<br />

the key players in the<br />

energy transition.<br />

the sustainability of the transition to<br />

hydrogen as an energy carrier.<br />

However, for this approach to be successful,<br />

various types of steel must be<br />

tested for their resistance to hydrogen,<br />

taking into account the current state of<br />

the art in this field and appropriately<br />

adjusted safety and maintenance strategies.<br />


High-strength steels involve the risk of<br />

hydrogen-induced cracking. Minimal<br />

flaws in the structure of the material,<br />

inclusions, impurities, or cyclic mechanical<br />

stresses may cause the protective oxide<br />

layers of the metal to corrode, enabling<br />

hydrogen atoms to diffuse into the material<br />

and accumulate at flaws in the steel’s<br />

crystalline lattice structure. Because pipelines<br />

in particular, are exposed to pressure<br />

fluctuations, permanent avoidance<br />

or exclusion of damage in the passive<br />

oxide layers is impossible. Fluctuations in<br />

the internal operating pressure of a pipeline<br />

are due to various factors including<br />

injection and withdrawal processes.<br />

Hydrogen deposition reduces the<br />

material’s plastic deformation capability<br />

and thereby its ductility, resulting in<br />

embrittlement and causing microscopic<br />

cracks. Continued accumulation of<br />

hydrogen atoms at the crack tips and<br />

cyclic loading cause these cracks to propagate.<br />

The extent of hydrogen embrittlement<br />

depends on the grade and structure<br />

of the steel and its type of production.<br />

Higher strength values and rougher<br />

surfaces increase the risk of hydrogen<br />

deposition.<br />

In principle, hydrogen reduces fracture<br />

(crack) resistance by up to 50 per<br />

cent and accelerates crack propagation<br />

even at relatively low partial pressures.<br />

It also lowers contraction at break, but<br />

not tensile strength. These influences<br />

of hydrogen on steel must be taken into<br />

account in pipeline assessment.<br />



Fracture-mechanics analysis is applied<br />

in examining pipelines and their materials<br />

for their suitability for transporting<br />

hydrogen, and in calculating the<br />

expected service life. In the case of<br />

known flaws, the experts will assess<br />

the integrity of the component. Fracture<br />

mechanics are also applied to new<br />

pipelines, e.g. to identify the detection<br />

limits in non-destructive testing of the<br />

material and weld seams and to calculate<br />

the inspection intervals for future<br />

operations.<br />

The propagation behaviour of existing<br />

cracks in particular can be mathematically<br />

quantified. Fracture-mechanics<br />

analysis looks not only at the materialspecific<br />

parameters, but also at stresses<br />

and distortions in the presence of the<br />

respective fluid. Generally, it can be said<br />

that stresses at the crack tip are theoretically<br />

unlimited and interactions between<br />

crack geometry and loading are highly<br />

complex. Fracture mechanics use the factors<br />

of stress intensity and rate of energy<br />

release to describe local stress conditions<br />

at the tip of the crack and crack-propagation<br />

behaviour.<br />

Since diffusion of hydrogen atoms<br />

into the lattice structure of the metal<br />

is a function of time, the frequency<br />

at which the workpiece is loaded also<br />

plays a critical role. This applies all<br />

the more given that cyclic loading<br />

causes varying operating pressures<br />

and may therefore further accelerate<br />

crack growth, which is slower when<br />

1 www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/DE/Pressemitteilungen/2021/05/20210528-bmwi-und-bmvi-bringen-wasserstoff-grossprojekte-auf-den-weg.html<br />

34 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


the operating pressure is high and the<br />

pressure amplitude low than vice versa.<br />


A failure assessment diagram (FAD)<br />

is used to examine and evaluate flaws<br />

that may result in component failure<br />

from an integrated perspective with the<br />

help of fracture mechanics. The factors<br />

of loading intensity (L) and stress<br />

intensity (K) describe component stress<br />

with regard to the plastic collapse of<br />

the residual cross-section, and material<br />

strain at the tip of the crack with regard<br />

to brittle fracture. LR stands for the<br />

ratio of existing stress in the residual<br />

cross-section to load at plastic collapse,<br />

whereas KR stands for the ratio<br />

of existing load at the tip of the crack<br />

(stress intensity) to the material’s fracture<br />

toughness.<br />

Together, LR and KR define the<br />

position of an evaluation point in the<br />

FAD (Figure 1). The green FAD curve<br />

indicates the limit values. Parameters<br />

below this curve are still acceptable,<br />

while parameters above the curve are<br />

unacceptable. The blue point indicates<br />

a specific case of evaluation. The analysis<br />

of past loading cycles can be used to<br />

make predictions about future loading<br />

cycles. The expected growth of an initial<br />

crack and the length of time until the<br />

crack turns into an unacceptable flaw<br />

can be mathematically calculated, so<br />

that experts can calculate the service life<br />

of a pipeline.<br />



In the USA, most steel types listed in<br />

accordance with the ASME Code have<br />

been analysed; in other words, their<br />

parameters (material characteristics<br />

in a hydrogen atmosphere) are known.<br />

However, where some steel types are<br />

concerned, fracture (crack) resistance<br />

and fatigue crack growth in a hydrogen<br />

atmosphere have yet to be determined<br />

or may be subject to changes caused<br />

by certain alloy elements or heat treatment<br />

processes.<br />

For European materials in particular,<br />

experts must first determine how hydrogen<br />

will impact the relevant parameters<br />

before they can complete fracturemechanics<br />

analysis. DVGW, a German<br />

Pipelines and<br />

storage caverns are<br />

ecological and<br />

economical solutions<br />

for gas transport<br />

and storage.<br />

recognised standardisation body for the<br />

gas and water industry, has launched a<br />

research project on this topic. TÜV SÜD<br />

is represented on the relevant committees<br />

and engages proactively in discussion<br />

and development of the pertinent<br />

safety concepts, which will be published<br />

shortly: DVGW Technical Rule – Code<br />

of Practice G4643 (M) “Fracture-<br />

Mechanical Assessment Concept for<br />

Steel Pipelines with a Design Pressure<br />

of more than 16 bar for the Transport of<br />

Hydrogen” is scheduled for publication<br />

in March <strong>2023</strong>.<br />


All gas pipelines – irrespective of whether<br />

they transport natural gas, pure hydrogen<br />

or a mixture of the two – fall under<br />

the German Energy Management Act<br />

(EnGW). Under the German Regulation<br />

on High-Pressure Gas Lines (GasH-<br />

DrLtgV), conversion of existing natural<br />

gas lines to hydrogen transport represents<br />

a major change and must be reported. The<br />

pipeline operator must prove that the conversion<br />

was completed expertly, professionally<br />

and in accordance with the state<br />

of the art. The technical requirements<br />

are described in DVGW Technical Rule –<br />

Standard G463 and/or DVGW Technical<br />

Rule – Code of Practice G409.<br />

Benefiting from third-party expertise<br />

Acting on behalf of pipeline operators,<br />

TÜV SÜD is currently reviewing the conversion<br />

of existing natural gas pipelines<br />

to hydrogen. In their review, the experts<br />

consider all factors influencing service<br />

life as well as all documents on planning,<br />

construction and operation. The experts<br />

also point out measures that are suitable<br />

for determining, evaluating or upgrading<br />

the condition of pipeline infrastructure.<br />

By providing support in the form of<br />

safety strategies and fracture-mechanics<br />

analyses, TÜV SÜD is helping to achieve<br />

safe, secure and carbon-neutral energy<br />

management.<br />

Figure 1: Example of analysis of static load, FAD curve<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 35


Microbial energy, biobased<br />

chemicals, and soil improvement<br />

are the new resources for industrial<br />

food and chemical production<br />

ELIAS HAKALEHTO, Adj.Prof., PhD universities of Helsinki, and Eastern Finland; CEO, Finnoflag Oy<br />

Our modern world is in a phase of industrial metamorphosis. Novel solutions have<br />

been developed for circular economics and are urgently needed to help clean up the<br />

consequences of past negligence. Microbes are present everywhere, so why not make use<br />

of them as workhorses in biobased production? For more effective but softer solutions.<br />

Microscopic interactions<br />

between<br />

various invisible<br />

microbes are incessantly<br />

making<br />

wheels turn in our surrounding world.<br />

One example is the carbon dioxide<br />

emission of individual cells being necessary<br />

for the activation of adjacent<br />

other cells (Hakalehto and Hänninen,<br />

2012). In this example, the onset of<br />

population growth was speeded up by<br />

about 50 % by leading the liberated<br />

carbon dioxide from one PMEU (Portable<br />

Microbe Enrichment Unit) cultivation<br />

syringe to the next stationery<br />

syringe. This demonstrates the effects<br />

between individual cells in the succession<br />

of the bioprocess, as well as in<br />

the natural carbon sequestration. The<br />

technologies behind the Finnoflag bioprocesses<br />

were demonstrated already<br />

in the 21st International Society of<br />

Environmental Indicators global conference<br />

in 2015 in Windsor, Canada<br />

(Hakalehto, 2015a). Climate-friendly<br />

Hydrogen emission from biomass is<br />

facilitating the fixing of Nitrogen from<br />

the atmosphere into soil by microorganisms.<br />



The rapid distribution of microbial<br />

strains reflects the succession of diverse<br />

microbial ecosystems. These<br />

Our modern world<br />

is in a phase<br />

of industrial<br />

metamorphosis.<br />

processes were previously often aseptic<br />

reactions with one or two biocatalytic microbial<br />

strains only. Nowadays, we have<br />

learnt to employ the entire population<br />

to work for the engineering goals using<br />

a more holistic approach (Hakalehto,<br />

36 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


2022). This approach makes biotechnology<br />

somewhat distinctive from the pure<br />

chemical processes.<br />

Still, if learned to be used accurately,<br />

it provides flexibility, energy efficiency,<br />

and novel products such as precious<br />

chemicals or polymers. Productivities<br />

that are 2-3 times more effective have<br />

been demonstrated. At the same time,<br />

it is possible to clean up mixed wastes<br />

or waters eloquently (Hakalehto and<br />

Jääskeläinen, 2017).<br />



The use of microbiomes in bioprocess<br />

engineering is opening new avenues for<br />

biorefineries. Besides the human body<br />

system, communities of various microbes<br />

occur everywhere and cooperative<br />

microbiomes are also formed in the<br />

industrial processes. For example, some<br />

microbial presence in the circulating water<br />

in the paper industries is beneficial<br />

for papermaking. In bioprocess engineering,<br />

the exploitation of the mixed<br />

microbial cultures brings about new and<br />

interesting products and production<br />

methods.<br />

On microbial cell surfaces, the effective<br />

surface area is exceptionally high,<br />

even in small volumes of bioprocess<br />

fluids. This factor, as well as the rapid<br />

throughput of the process, increases<br />

productivity and makes it possible to<br />

save in space and costs. In modern<br />

agriculture and maintenance security,<br />

microbial strains could consolidate new<br />

means for soil improvement.<br />




As indicated above, it has been demonstrated<br />

that both the intraspecies and<br />

interspecies gas emissions can cause a<br />

boosting effect of the growth of butyric<br />

acid clostridia, which are in a vital position<br />

in the human colon microflora.<br />

Correspondingly, the impact of surrounding<br />

carbon dioxide on the growth<br />

of Clostridium acetobutylicum was<br />

proven in the case of industrial processes<br />

as demonstrated in a series of<br />

experiments (Hakalehto, 2015b) in<br />

Handbook of Clean Energy Systems,<br />

by R. Wiley & Sons. As he described<br />

in his lecture in Helsinki in 1939, the<br />

dramatic effect of microbial carbon assimilation<br />

was anticipated by Dutch microbiologist<br />

A.J.Kluyver. Nowadays, we<br />

have achieved remarkable Carbon binding<br />

into bacterial bioprocesses. These<br />

processes could be combined with the<br />

high production of bioenergy, such as<br />

biohydrogen.<br />



A cellulosic industrial side stream accumulated<br />

for a century into Lake Näsijärvi<br />

in Tampere, West Finland, from a<br />

forest industry complex that was active<br />

between 1913-2008. Finnoflag team<br />

under the supervision of the author has<br />

demonstrated that lactic acid (lactate)<br />

could be produced from the sedimented<br />

Hiedanranta reservoir with productivity<br />

of 14,7% using sustainable biotechnology.<br />

The results were newly published in<br />

the European Geosciences Union (EGU<br />

22) General Assembly (Hakalehto et al.<br />

2022).<br />

The joint production of valuable<br />

chemicals, energy gases, and organic soil<br />

improvement, is lucrative. According to<br />

our calculations, it could already be seen<br />

in 2020 that profits from the industrialization<br />

of the process varied between<br />

30 and 110 M€ in five years according to<br />

different scenarios. Since that time the<br />

prices of steel and energy have increased,<br />

but the technical productivity has also<br />

reached new levels. This extensive project<br />

in Tampere or elsewhere could be<br />

forwarded in cooperation with several<br />

Finnish and foreign universities and<br />

companies. For example, downstream<br />

processing was experimented with by<br />

a Swedish group (Beckinhausen et al.,<br />

2019). Numerous accompanying technologies<br />

are under development, such as<br />

AI (artificial intelligence) for controlling<br />

bioprocesses and product recoveries.<br />

Food production could also be boosted<br />

through bioengineering (Hakalehto<br />

2020, 2021).<br />

Lactic acid and mannitol are both nontoxic<br />

and widely used chemicals for food<br />

supplements and ingredients, pharmaceutical<br />

excipients, and in cosmetics and<br />

sweet-manufacturing too. Tomorrow´s<br />

pills and tablets will contain increasingly<br />

more often, readily dissolving mannitol<br />

as the carrier substance. Finnoflag Oy has<br />

been able to raise its production levels<br />

by 10-12% starting from the initial trials<br />

of food industries nearly 10 years ago<br />

(Hakalehto et al. 2016).<br />

Finally, the pilot studies in Tampere<br />

2017-22 could serve as a model for a<br />

feasible biorefinery plant. Such environmental<br />

deposits of cellulosic and other<br />

sediments could be found in thousands<br />

of locations worldwide.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 37

HSE<br />

TIME<br />

for Big<br />

Business<br />

to Clear<br />

the Air<br />

Take a deep breath. You assume the air is<br />

clean; it's the very breath of life and you<br />

will do it 20,000 times a day.<br />

MARK NAPLES, General Manager for Umicore Coating Services<br />

In a lifetime, about 300m litres of air pass through the<br />

average person's lungs. Furthermore, if that person walks<br />

along a busy city street today, they will inhale around 20<br />

million toxic 'nanodust' particles with each lungful. 99%<br />

of the world's population breathes air that is harmful to<br />

their health.<br />

Air quality has become a legislative concern, bringing the issue<br />

into sharp focus for various industries. Tackling air pollution<br />

means taking leadership seriously. If we cannot lead the way in<br />

measuring air pollution, set ambitious goals to reduce it, and actively<br />

support innovation in new technology, who will?<br />

Air pollution is connected to the six top-ten causes of death<br />

worldwide, including lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, and<br />

dementia. Businesses have a moral imperative to monitor the air<br />

quality on their sites and protect the people who work there.<br />

While our cities are not the deadly smog traps they once<br />

were, air pollution still remains a serious problem – but it is<br />

however one that we all have the power to solve. Laser absorption<br />

spectroscopy is one simple and logical solution that should<br />

be embraced worldwide. It represents an accessible and accurate<br />

means of detecting and tracking levels of pollutants in the air.<br />

38 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>

HSE<br />


ESG. These three small letters add up to significant operational<br />

changes for any business. They represent a framework around<br />

which an entirely new operational structure must be built,<br />

changing every level of a company from the top down.<br />

A growing urgency drives the rise in ESG focus for individuals<br />

and corporations alike to tackle one of the world's most<br />

pressing problems – climate change. Individually and corporately,<br />

we are all stewards of the natural environment, but we<br />

have not protected, nurtured, or renewed it as well as we should<br />

have.<br />

There is an almost uniquely strong consensus around sustainability.<br />

Broadly, consumers, businesses, and lawmakers<br />

agree that more must be done on the issue. And as every company<br />

is responsible for at least some emissions throughout their<br />

supply chains, everybody has at least some part to play.<br />

As events like the annual COP conferences continue to focus<br />

minds on climate change policy on a global scale, the direction<br />

of travel is only moving one way – however slow it might be. If<br />

corporate image protection and consumer pressure were not<br />

enough to deliver that focus, then stricter environmental regulations<br />

such as mandatory government climate risk disclosures<br />

certainly should be.<br />

By adopting measures based on data provided by intelligent<br />

sensors, organizations can improve their ESG compliance and<br />

enhance their contributions to people, the planet, and profit.<br />

By embracing data, businesses<br />

can be empowered to make more<br />

informed decisions to improve<br />

processes and drive efficiencies.<br />

A foundation of this structure relies on mitigating the hazards<br />

posed both in the workplace and the broader environment.<br />

Data is one currency that can chart our route across this uncertain<br />

terrain and into a more sustainable future. It is impossible<br />

to acquire this data without the intelligent sensors required to<br />

collect it. Using sensors to inform hazard mitigation and other<br />

ESG policies, businesses can maximize safety, minimize disruption<br />

and downtime, and protect people and business assets.<br />

Between the increased risk to workers, machinery, and<br />

other assets, and the rapidly shifting legislative landscape, the<br />

business case for improving air quality is now open-and-shut.<br />

Before this can happen, the air's state must be more closely<br />

monitored.<br />


We cannot always see the consequences of air pollution around<br />

us. And there are communication issues around trying to get<br />

people to see the invisible costs of pollution.<br />

Air pollution is an entry point to planetary health. To catalyse<br />

action for clean air, we must reform how we think about<br />

accountability for air pollution and health. And to do that,<br />

tracking the most damaging but best-understood pollutants,<br />

tiny particles of black carbon, nitrates, sulphates, ammonia, or<br />

mineral dust, is non-negotiable.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 39

HSE<br />

Thankfully tremendous advances in<br />

sensor technology have activated a range<br />

of reliable options available for gas detection.<br />

Technology is now more affordable<br />

and accessible than ever. Connected gas<br />

detection is not the technology of the future<br />

anymore, it is available today.<br />

Air pollution measurement instruments<br />

serve multiple purposes: publishing<br />

dust information online to update the<br />

public and issuing cautionary statements<br />

if required. Having this data in real-time<br />

can ensure that the right people act when<br />

increased levels are reported, and control<br />

measures can be put in place and continuously<br />

evaluated.<br />

Environmental monitoring and protecting<br />

against potentially dangerous<br />

conditions can be challenging to manage<br />

without reliable data streams and monitoring<br />

of a site perimeter that gathers<br />

environmental data. For this reason,<br />

more and more companies are turning<br />

to boundary monitoring technology to<br />

measure the level of risk and ensure<br />

they adhere to environmental limits<br />

and guidelines while protecting against<br />

health hazards.<br />

Companies operating in fast-changing<br />

environments can also use a hand-held<br />

particulate monitor to instantly detect<br />

dangerous concentrations of airborne<br />

particles during spot checks and walkthrough<br />

surveys.<br />



Industrial gas detection is a mature market<br />

that continues to expand as devices<br />

become cheaper at the compliance end<br />

of the market and smarter at the top end.<br />

At Umicore Coatings Services, we work<br />

with OEMs stripping their devices back<br />

to basics, focusing on functionality and<br />

cost for low-cost markets. We also assist<br />

in driving advances to open new opportunities<br />

and allow end users to use their<br />

devices in ways they have not considered<br />

before.<br />

Optical laser technologies are at the<br />

heart of many modern gas monitors.<br />

In such devices, a laser beam is passed<br />

through the gas sample of interest onto<br />

a detector or sensor that converts the incoming<br />

laser light into electrical signals.<br />

Laser-based sensing technologies have<br />

become widely adopted for gas detection<br />

and analysis due to their quick response<br />

times, high sensitivity, and reliability.<br />

Laser sensors work by monitoring the<br />

changes between the incident laser beam<br />

and the light ultimately detected by the<br />

sensor. One approach to doing this is<br />

to compare the laser beam that passes<br />

through the sample to a reference beam<br />

that is not passed through any gas. These<br />

changes are caused by the absorption of<br />

light by the gas sample. Each gas has a<br />

unique absorption profile, which means<br />

it will absorb different wavelengths<br />

of light in different amounts, which<br />

provides the chemical fingerprint that<br />

means that laser sensors can be used for<br />

chemical identification.<br />

While laser sensors can be designed<br />

for any region of the electromagnetic<br />

spectrum, many gas analysis devices<br />

operate in the infrared. This is because<br />

many small gaseous species, like methane,<br />

carbon dioxide, and other hydrocarbons,<br />

absorb infrared light very strongly,<br />

so it is easy to design devices with a<br />

sensitivity that extends to parts per billion.<br />

The additional advantage is that<br />

many different spectral lines characterize<br />

the absorption profile of these gases in<br />

the infrared. This means many features<br />

in the spectra can be used to identify<br />

chemical species with greater accuracy,<br />

and the wealth of information that can<br />

be provided with laser sensors makes<br />

gas analysis a powerful tool in industrial<br />

processing.<br />

We work closely with our customers<br />

through a consultative approach to<br />

develop custom IR designs that balance<br />

performance reliability with production<br />

efficiency. In doing so, we can offer a<br />

range of bandpass optical filters ideally<br />

suited to environmental/gas detection<br />

and analysis applications, with a centre<br />

wavelength anywhere on the NIR to<br />

FIR spectrum with steep-edge and deep<br />

blocking capability.<br />

It is impossible to deal with a problem<br />

we cannot see clearly. By making the invisible<br />

threat of air pollution visible through<br />

accurate data, we can begin to mitigate<br />

and even eliminate harmful emissions<br />

from many industries. It is only possible<br />

to navigate these turbulent waters with the<br />

data acting as our map and compass.<br />

By embracing data, businesses can<br />

be empowered to make more informed<br />

decisions to improve processes and drive<br />

efficiencies. The net result: more sustainable<br />

performance, heightened productivity,<br />

better quality products, reduced<br />

energy usage, lower emissions, and less<br />

landfill. That is the sort of future we all<br />

need to invest in.<br />

40 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


Improving energy efficiency<br />

at Hotel Waltikka –<br />

An example of universitybusiness<br />

cooperation<br />

LEA MUSTONEN, Senior lecturer, Communications, Häme University of Applied Sciences<br />

TIMO VIITALA, Senior lecturer, Electrical and Automation Engineering, Häme University of Applied Sciences<br />

TIMO VÄISÄNEN, Senior lecturer, Electrical and Automation Engineering, Häme University of Applied Sciences<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 41


Heating and energy solutions are the<br />

hot topic of the day. We are living in a<br />

time of transition and every player in<br />

society is concerned about some aspect<br />

of energy - price, availability, low carbon.<br />

Our university's Hybrid Systems and<br />

Energy Efficiency study module has<br />

never been more topical. This article<br />

presents an implementation approach<br />

that combines the learning needs of<br />

students, the university's objectives<br />

for business cooperation and regional<br />

effectiveness, and the individual<br />

company's objectives for cost-effective<br />

development of its own activities.<br />

The case is Hotel Waltikka, a private family business<br />

built in 1988 in Valkeakoski, Finland. The<br />

hotel has 83 rooms. The volume is 5600 square<br />

metres, or 22 000 cubic metres. The meeting<br />

rooms and restaurant are both about 800 square<br />

metres. And being Finland, the number of saunas is important:<br />

there are 4 of them.<br />

The current owners of the hotel, Piia and Tomi Kuparinen,<br />

bought the hotel in 2019. At this point, any reader familiar<br />

with the tourism industry will sigh in their minds, knowing<br />

what happened the year after they bought the hotel. No one<br />

however, had a crystal ball to predict the coming Covid-19<br />

pandemic or the energy crisis that would soon erupt – crises<br />

that decisively changed the calculations made on the hotel's<br />

profitability.<br />

CEO of the hotel, Tomi Kuparinen, set out to revamp<br />

the hotel by developing both the operational concept and<br />

the physical building. Several energy-saving upgrades were<br />

made: motion sensors, LED lighting, ventilation upgrades,<br />

an automation control system for heating pressure, watersaving<br />

showers, tendering for electricity contracts, etc. The<br />

solar panels alone have already generated 100 MWh per year.<br />

This year's upgrades include an air-to-water heat pump, supplemented<br />

by district heating.<br />


Crises have followed one another, and entrepreneurs in<br />

Finland and elsewhere have sought new solutions to survive.<br />

The CEO Kuparinen started working with our university.<br />

HAMK is a multidisciplinary higher education institution<br />

offering bachelor's and master's degrees in engineering. Research<br />

in this field is carried out in the HAMK Tech research<br />

unit, where one of the research areas is energy efficiency<br />

research. The link between education and working life is<br />

ensured through projects, internships and theses in cooperation<br />

with companies. Teaching is delivered in eight-week<br />

(15 cr) modules.<br />

42 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


The case of the Hotel Waltikka was implemented as part of<br />

the module "Hybrid solutions and energy efficiency", which<br />

introduces the realisation of heat and electricity solutions for<br />

the building. In addition to the theoretical studies, the students<br />

worked in small groups to carry out a study and design<br />

on an aspect of energy efficiency in the building. The aim was<br />

to find new innovative and smart energy-saving solutions with<br />

a short payback period.<br />


For all aspects, a thorough current state analysis<br />

was first carried out by familiarising the building,<br />

its systems and documents. The sub-areas:<br />

1. Ventilation and heating of the restaurant<br />

lobby and lower lobby; aim to achieve the<br />

demand-based heating and ventilation<br />

2. Lighting of the restaurant lobby; aiming at<br />

intelligent lighting with LEDs<br />

3. Total heat recovery; with the aim of improving<br />

energy efficiency<br />

4. Ventilation and heating of the meeting rooms;<br />

with the aim of achieving energy efficiency in<br />

heating and ventilation<br />

5. Lighting and AV controls in the meeting<br />

rooms; with the aim of intelligent lighting in<br />

LEDs<br />

6. Ventilation and heating of sauna rooms; with<br />

the aim of achieving efficiency in heating and<br />

ventilation<br />

7. Sauna room lighting and heating controls;<br />

aiming at intelligent lighting with LEDs and<br />

scene controls for different uses<br />

8. Kitchen ventilation and lighting; aiming at<br />

achieving compliance with both lighting and<br />

ventilation needs<br />

9. Optimisation of electricity consumption and<br />

use of domestic appliances in the kitchen;<br />

with the aim of finding the optimal and<br />

appropriate Lean "drive" for all appliances<br />

10 Ventilation and heating in hotel rooms; aiming<br />

at achieving the necessary efficiency in<br />

heating and ventilation<br />

11. Lighting of the hotel rooms and long corridors<br />

and consumption of hot water in rooms;<br />

aiming at intelligent, demand-based lighting<br />

with LEDs<br />

12. Design of the architecture of the distributed<br />

automation system; aiming at a new<br />

distributed hardware architecture<br />

13. Mapping of the existing electrical system; aim<br />

to modernise the sub distribution boards<br />


At the time of writing, the project was about halfway through<br />

and the results were not yet ready, but it looked promising.<br />

Sensors and meters had been brought into the building, which<br />

had allowed us to make very precise measurements. The results<br />

of the measurements were already being put to good use.<br />

From the university's point of view, this kind of cooperation<br />

is very useful. The students become familiar with the theoretical<br />

knowledge of energy efficiency. Alongside this, they<br />

get to work on a real and concrete application in groups. The<br />

presentation of the results will give them an overall picture of<br />

the energy mapping and energy efficiency improvement of a<br />

large building.<br />

In addition to technical skills, students will also learn other<br />

skills such as project management and teamwork. Their communication<br />

skills will be developed, as students will prepare<br />

a written report on the subject under the guidance of a communication<br />

teacher, following the requirements of the thesis.<br />

The development of business thinking, business case analysing,<br />

is also important. "Developing technical skills alone is not<br />

enough for today's engineers. Solution options must always<br />

include an explanation of the payback period," sums up the<br />

CEO Tomi Kuparinen.<br />

A student's path to becoming an<br />

energy professional is a<br />

combination of theory-based<br />

learning and practical training.<br />


The group of students consisted of people studying for an<br />

engineering degree while working. This allowed the students<br />

to benefit from their previous experience and, by studying in<br />

small groups, they can also learn from each other.<br />

Ari Kolehmainen works at Nokeval and studies while working.<br />

He describes the project as interesting: “It took us from a<br />

school environment to a real customer environment.” His team<br />

studied exhaust air heat recovery. According to the student, the<br />

group had a business-critical mindset, with a two-step approach<br />

to the solution: first, you could choose a cheaper solution with a<br />

lower initial investment cost but with a lower heat recovery capacity.<br />

This could be followed by a more expensive solution with<br />

a higher purchase price, which could even double the efficiency.<br />

The group started with saving electricity, but ended up considering<br />

saving district heating. He said this was a challenge, but it was<br />

also because his group wanted a challenging task.<br />

From the teachers' point of view, this is a positive development<br />

as it shows a strong motivation to learn. Cooperation<br />

with the company has increased the understanding of how<br />

to implement this type of energy efficiency project with students.<br />

In addition, important information has been obtained<br />

during the project about which things to pay attention to from<br />

the point of view of energy consumption.<br />

The student's path to becoming an energy professional is a<br />

combination of theory-based learning and practical training.<br />

The importance of business cooperation cannot be over-emphasised:<br />

it benefits all parties involved.<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 43



of asset management –<br />

managing emerging trends<br />

and perspectives<br />

JYRI HANSKI, Senior Scientist, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.<br />

Many trends and perspectives impact how asset management strategies are formulated<br />

and implemented. My thesis, "Supporting strategic asset management in complex<br />

and uncertain decision contexts," explored this topic and won the EFNMS 2021 Ph.D.<br />

Award competition. Due to covid, the official award ceremony was postponed to the<br />

Euromaintenance conference that will be arranged in April <strong>2023</strong>. Currently, the key topics<br />

of the thesis are increasingly crucial for organizations.<br />

ISO 55000-2 (2014) defines AM<br />

as the "coordinated activity of an<br />

organization to realize value from<br />

assets." At a strategic level, asset<br />

management decisions are often<br />

uncertain and complex. Uncertainty<br />

is the deficiency of information<br />

about an event, its consequences, or<br />

its likelihood. In contrast, complex<br />

systems have a history, are evolving,<br />

and involve many interacting elements,<br />

where minor changes may have significant<br />

consequences. This complexity and uncertainty<br />

stem from factors such as long and varying lifetimes<br />

of assets, imperfect information on which the decisions<br />

are based, complex technologies, information systems and<br />

organizational structures, and multiple stakeholders with<br />

possibly conflicting needs and requirements.<br />

The dissertation (completed in 2019) identified key trends<br />

and perspectives affecting strategic asset management:<br />

regulation and legislation, sustainability, circular economy,<br />

climate change, enabling technologies, ecosystem, business<br />

models, risk management, robustness and flexibility, and life<br />

cycle information management. There is a need for methods<br />

supporting strategic asset management that consider these<br />

aspects of managing the uncertainty and complexity related to<br />

strategic asset management.<br />


More concrete requirements and demand<br />

for a sustainable society have<br />

sparked several new legislations,<br />

regulations, standards, and guidelines<br />

that affect asset-intensive industries.<br />

These include EU Green Deal, Fit<br />

for 55, EU Taxonomy for sustainable<br />

economic activities, and Corporate<br />

Sustainability Reporting Directive. Role<br />

of stakeholders and the impact of (lack<br />

of) social responsibility has become more<br />

visible. Since 2019, there has been a need to reevaluate<br />

the list.<br />

Investments in the low-carbon industry and energy efficiency<br />

have been abundant. Minimizing greenhouse gas emissions<br />

is on everyone's agenda, and biodiversity is the focus of<br />

manufacturing industries. New regulations are expected to<br />

force organizations to verify and quantify the green claims.<br />

The global pandemic and war in Ukraine have emphasized<br />

the risks of dependency on extra-EU raw materials, components,<br />

and competencies. Supply security and military aspects<br />

are among the key decision criteria in strategic asset management.<br />

Current and future energy prices are increasingly crucial<br />

in asset management decisions. Furthermore, which role<br />

can AI take in automating and assisting asset management<br />

decisions?<br />

44 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


There is a call (figure 1.) to build<br />

resilience against the impacts of these<br />

disruptive phenomena and to identify<br />

opportunities within them. These<br />

phenomena have far-reaching impacts<br />

on many parts of production systems<br />

and infrastructure. They are interconnected<br />

with megatrends such as<br />

circular economy, sustainability, and<br />

digitalization, which are already transforming<br />

businesses.<br />

The focus is establishing an asset<br />

management system and strategic<br />

plans that inform investment, maintenance, operation, and<br />

sustainable end-of-life decisions. From a strategic asset<br />

management perspective, these disruptive phenomena disrupt<br />

the use of assets, alter investment volumes in the asset<br />

base, alter the timing and nature of production disruptions,<br />

and may even result in the shutdown of production units.<br />

The global pandemic<br />

and war in Ukraine have<br />

emphasized the risks of<br />

dependency on extra-<br />

EU raw materials,<br />

components, and<br />

competencies.<br />



Circular economy emerges as one of the main topics for<br />

strategic asset management. Strategic asset management<br />

already incorporates many aspects of the circular economy,<br />

such as reducing waste and keeping assets in use through<br />

effective maintenance. Adopting life cycle thinking in strategic<br />

asset management aligns with the goals of the circular<br />

economy by maximizing the value of assets. Assets are<br />

stockpiles of valuable resources, including critical raw materials<br />

(CRMs), and any degradation<br />

results in value loss.<br />

However, incorporating circular<br />

principles more deeply into strategic<br />

objectives would increase the sustainability<br />

of the asset management<br />

system and the organization. This<br />

requires a more comprehensive understanding<br />

of strategic decisions'<br />

economic, environmental, and social<br />

impacts and incorporating circular<br />

design strategies into decisionmaking.<br />

Examples of such decisions include investing in greener<br />

production systems, investments, and practices to increase<br />

energy and material efficiency, prioritizing non-critical,<br />

biobased, or secondary raw materials, maintaining and<br />

remanufacturing production systems, and reusing or recycling<br />

them at the end of their first life cycle and essentially<br />

all actions towards preventing waste and downcycling.<br />


This article outlined some of the main topics of my dissertation.<br />

The main contributions of the dissertation were: 1)<br />

emerging trends and perspectives in strategic asset management,<br />

2) advancing the classification of methods supporting<br />

strategic asset management, and 3) developing and testing<br />

novel methods for supporting asset management decisions.<br />

The dissertation is available to read at: https://urn.fi/<br />

URN:ISBN:978-952-335-397-8.<br />






Figure 1. Important trends and perspectives affecting strategic asset management (Applied from Hanski, 2019)<br />

1/<strong>2023</strong> maintworld 45


EuroMaintenance<br />

comes to the Netherlands<br />

The maintenance workforce has grown again this year.<br />

However, there are challenges facing the sector. For<br />

example, the increasing ageing of the population is causing<br />

a high average age (46 years), an increase in the number of<br />

vacancies (15 vacancies per maintenance organisation) and<br />

an increase in the outflow (8.9%). Of the outflow, a large<br />

group (43.5%) leaves the organisation because of retirement.<br />

In the coming years, efforts should<br />

be made to increase the inflow<br />

of new personnel. One way to<br />

achieve this is by attracting more<br />

women (current share 8,4%) and<br />

more people with a migrant background<br />

into Maintenance. Furthermore, efforts<br />

should be made to retain these groups<br />

within the maintenance organisation.<br />


– These and many more questions cry out<br />

for an answer, says Ellen den Broeder,<br />

General Manager NVDO and leader of the<br />

EuroMaintenance project team.<br />

– With many hundreds of professionals<br />

attending EuroMaintenance in Rotterdam,<br />

the Netherlands, we may be able<br />

to find a solution. And besides, we also like<br />

to share the rosy picture: within the sector<br />

EuroMaintenance,<br />

the<br />

largest European<br />

conference on<br />

maintenance<br />

has existed since<br />

1972 and is an<br />

initiative of the EFNMS (European<br />

Federation of National Maintenance<br />

Societies) and organized by the Dutch<br />

Maintenance Society NVDO in April<br />

<strong>2023</strong>. Maintenance NEXT is the most<br />

important platform for industrial<br />

maintenance in the Benelux and will be<br />

held next-door. The largest European<br />

maintenance conference will be held in<br />

Rotterdam from 17 to 19 April.<br />

there is increasing confidence in recruiting<br />

enough staff. 60% of companies<br />

say they are confident about attracting<br />

enough technical staff and 71% say they<br />

are confident about attracting enough<br />

technological staff.<br />

The outflow due to dissatisfaction<br />

has decreased (35.5%), which means<br />

that Management and Maintenance is<br />

an attractive sector to work in. These<br />

and many more figures are the outcome<br />

of the yearly Maintenance Benchmark<br />

in the Netherlands.<br />


BEST<br />

The NVDO Maintenance Compass is an<br />

annual publication and provides insight<br />

in the status of, and trend in the Asset<br />

Management industry. Based on key figures,<br />

trends and vision documents, the<br />

NVDO aims to help the Asset Management<br />

industry deal with developments,<br />

challenges and opportunities in the Asset<br />

Management field.<br />

– Our maintenance market amounts<br />

to roughly 36 billion Euros, equivalent<br />

to roughly 4.5% of the gross domestic<br />

product (GDP). The maintenance market<br />

as a whole employs approximately<br />

300,000 professionals, this means that<br />

46 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


3.0 to 3.5% of the Dutch working population<br />

is employed in the maintenance<br />

sector, Den Broeder says.<br />



Keynotes, Workshops and Inspiring<br />

Tables<br />

– Since there are a couple of changes<br />

in the total employee base that catch<br />

the eye, we decided to give the Huma<br />

Factor prominent place at EuroMaintenance.<br />

Not only will the keynotes cover<br />

the theme, but some of the workshops<br />

will also give an answer to the problems<br />

we all deal with, Den Broeder says. Besides<br />

the workshops and the keynotes,<br />

there is an Inspiring Table at the end of<br />

the second conference day to inspire the<br />

audience. EuroMaintenance welcomes<br />

36 workshops, 11 keynotes and 3 Inspiring<br />

Tables. All of them are of the highest<br />

quality and of international stature.<br />



Besides the Human Factor, there are<br />

four more themes to learn from at EuroMaintenance:<br />

Asset Performance,<br />

Safety, Smart Industry, Sustainability.<br />

– The opportunities offered by innovations<br />

and big data are being embraced<br />

more and more. A solid 70%<br />

of the organisations holds the opinion<br />

that their own industry is either ahead<br />

of, or on-par with other industries. A<br />

vast majority is convinced that they<br />

adopt a sufficient amount of innovations<br />

and technology in order to at least<br />

keep up. However, the most important<br />

barriers to the adoption of innovations<br />

are a lack of capital and a lack of<br />

knowledge.<br />

Den Broeder refers to the Maintenance<br />

Compass again. Data driven<br />

working is becoming ever more common<br />

according to her. It is evident that<br />

all these issues are of the attention of<br />

EuroMaintenance.<br />

– We all look forward to welcoming<br />

hundreds of professionals from all<br />

over Europe. NVDO, EFNMS and Ahoy<br />

Rotterdam ensure that Rotterdam, the<br />

Netherlands, will be the Maintenance<br />

Capital of Europe during 17,18,19 April.<br />

See, Hear, Learn!<br />



Some one-and-a-half years ago I<br />

joined the NVDO-team and Euro-<br />

Maintenance has been one of our<br />

focusses from when I first started.<br />

It feels as if we have been working<br />

together for many more years than<br />

we actually have, and I am incredibly<br />

proud that we are accomplishing<br />

such a strong, high calibre and international<br />

event with our small team! In<br />

the past months we have been hard<br />

at work, and it has all paid off with the<br />

incredible enthusiastic responses we<br />

are receiving from everyone involved.<br />

The Global Maintenance Professionals<br />

are waiting eagerly to once again<br />

meet each other at EuroMaintenance<br />

and I am very excited to speak to all<br />

of them in the European Maintenance<br />

Capital, Rotterdam!


Common misconceptions<br />

about motors<br />

The tongue-in-cheek saying “If it’s in black and white, it must be right” is a helpful reminder<br />

that not everything we read (or hear) is accurate or complete. It’s always best to check<br />

sources and verify facts before accepting consequential statements as true. A similar adage<br />

underscores the importance of this advice in the digital age: “If it’s on the Internet, it must<br />

be true.” With these things in mind, here’s a random collection of common misconceptions<br />

about three-phase squirrel cage motors and the facts that deny them.<br />


P.E., senior technical support specialist at EASA<br />

Soft-starting motors reduce utility-demand charges<br />

Soft starters typically ramp up the voltage applied to a<br />

motor over a few seconds at start-up, reducing winding<br />

heating and starting current. This may extend the life of<br />

the winding for motors that start frequently, but it doesn’t<br />

affect utility demand charges. That’s because the electric<br />

meter averages the kilowatts consumed over each 15 -<br />

30-minute period, not just for the few seconds that the soft<br />

starter reduces input power to the motor.<br />

Higher current means a motor is less efficient<br />

Input power is not a function of current alone. Other factors<br />

are voltage, power factor and efficiency. As an example, Table<br />

1 shows the key data for two 460-volt motors of the same 75 hp<br />

(55 kW) rating.<br />

Table 1. Example of motor current versus efficiency.<br />

Motor Amps Power factor Efficiency<br />

A 85.0 0.866 0.954<br />

B 88.2 0.835 0.954<br />

48 maintworld 1/<strong>2023</strong>


Note that Motors A and B have the same full-load efficiency<br />

despite a difference of more than 3 amps in their ratings. If you<br />

want to fact-check this, use the formula in Figure 1.<br />

746 × hp<br />

1.732 × E × PF<br />

Where:<br />

hp = horsepower<br />

E = voltage<br />

I = current<br />

PF = power factor<br />

Figure 1. Formula for 3-phase motor efficiency.<br />

Power factor correction capacitors can reduce<br />

the energy consumption of a motor<br />

Applying power factor capacitors at the motor terminals increases<br />

the power factor on the supply cables but does not<br />

change the motor’s power factor. Increasing the power factor<br />

on the supply lines reduces current in them, causing a corresponding<br />

but typically insignificant reduction in I²R losses<br />

(energy) in the supply wiring. The primary reason for reducing<br />

supply circuit current is to add electrical loads without rewiring<br />

a facility.<br />

A motor can be loaded up to its service factor current<br />

An example of this would be loading a 1.15 service factor motor<br />

up to its service factor current (typically ~1.15 × rated current).<br />

That would be a problem, according to clause 14.37.1 of NEMA<br />

Stds. MG 1-2016: Motors and Generators (MG 1): “A motor<br />

operating continuously at any service factor greater than 1 will<br />

have a reduced life expectancy compared to operating at its<br />

rated nameplate horsepower. Insulation life and bearing life<br />

are reduced by the service factor load.”<br />

Further, the service factor only applies to Usual Service<br />

Conditions (MG 1, 14.2). These include operation at an ambient<br />

temperature of 5°F to 104°F (-15°C to 40°C) and at an altitude<br />

of less than 3300 feet (1000 meters) when rigidly mounted in<br />

areas or supplementary enclosures that do not seriously interfere<br />

with the machine’s ventilation.<br />

A 230-volt motor can be used on a 208-volt electrical<br />

system<br />

Per MG 1, 12.45, motors can operate successfully at ±10 percent<br />

of their rated voltage. Since 10 percent below 230 volts is<br />

207 volts, a 230-volt motor would appear to be acceptable for<br />

use on a 208-volt system. But ANSI Std. C84.1 permits service<br />

entrance voltage for 208-volt power systems to be as low<br />

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as 191 volts. Since there will be additional voltage drop in the<br />

building wiring, the voltage supplied to the motor could be less<br />

than 191 volts–well below the 207-volt minimum required for<br />

the 230-volt motor.<br />

If the motor has a nameplate rating of 208-230 volts, ask<br />

the manufacturer for a suitable voltage range. Said another<br />

way, ask if the manufacturer’s warranty will apply if the motor<br />

is used anywhere between 187 volts (208 volts minus 10 percent)<br />

and 253 volts (230 volts plus 10 percent).<br />

Oversized motors, especially motors operating below<br />

60% of rated load, are not efficient and should be<br />

replaced with appropriately sized premium efficiency<br />

(IE3) motors<br />

On the contrary, matching motor horsepower (kW) rating to<br />

the load will usually mean a slightly lower efficiency at that load<br />

than using the next larger size motor. The reason is that motors<br />

tend to peak in efficiency between 75-80 percent load. Motors<br />

that drive, supply or return air fans in heating, ventilation and<br />

air-conditioning (HVAC) systems generally operate at 70 to 75<br />

percent of rated load, making them candidates for use with oversized<br />

motors. Further, even at 60 percent of rated load (which<br />

more than one industrial motor study found to be the average<br />

load level), the next higher power rating motor could be more<br />

efficient at that load than the appropriately sized power rating.<br />

Some high-inertia loads also require more HP/kW to start than<br />

to run the load. Reducing the HP/kW to match the running load<br />

could result in the motor being unable to start the load.<br />

It doesn’t matter which of the three line-to-line<br />

voltages in a three-phase system you measure to see if<br />

a motor is supplied with the proper voltage<br />

It does matter. Voltage unbalance negatively affects threephase<br />

motors. Even modest differences among the three lineto-line<br />

voltage levels can increase motor heating considerably.<br />

Voltage unbalance is expressed as a percent and determined by<br />

the formula in Figure 2.<br />

Percent voltage unbalance = 100 ×<br />

Example: With voltages of 460, 467, and 450, the average is 459,<br />

and the maximum deviation from the average is 9.<br />

Therefore:<br />

Percent unbalance = 100 ×<br />

Reference: ANSI/NEMA Std. MG 1-2016, 14.36.<br />

Figure 2. Formula for voltage unbalance.<br />

Max. volt. deviation from avg. volt.<br />

9<br />

459 = 1.96%<br />

Average volt.<br />

It’s always best to check<br />

sources and verify facts before<br />

accepting consequential<br />

statements as true.<br />

The formula for percent additional temperature rise in<br />

a motor winding due to unbalanced supply voltages is<br />

2 × (% voltage unbalance)2, so a mere 3.5 percent unbalance<br />

would cause a substantial increase: 2 × 3.52 = 24.5%. For many<br />

motors, that would be an additional temperature rise of about<br />

36°F (20°C).<br />

According to a well-accepted guideline, motor winding life<br />

decreases by half for each 18°F (10°C) increase in temperature.<br />

Thus the 36°F (20°C) additional temperature rise due to a<br />

3.5 percent voltage unbalance can cut a motor’s insulation life<br />

to about a quarter of what it should be.<br />

Hand contact on a motor surface is a reliable way to<br />

judge operating temperature<br />

Never check a motor’s surface temperature by hand! Modern<br />

motors can have surface temperatures near or above the<br />

boiling point of water during normal operation. Appropriate<br />

devices for measuring these temperatures include thermometers<br />

or pyrometers, thermocouples and thermal imagers.<br />

Note that MG 1 sets specific limits for internal winding<br />

temperatures but not for motor surfaces. Where it does address<br />

parts other than windings (e.g., clause 12.43), it says<br />

the temperature of such parts “shall not injure the insulation<br />

or the machine in any respect.” So, unless the motor surface<br />

temperature exceeds the winding's rating or something on<br />

the surface is damaged or otherwise degraded, MG 1 would<br />

not consider it too hot.<br />

Winding burnout is the most common cause<br />

of motor failure<br />

Although a winding failure usually results in a more costly<br />

repair and longer downtime, bearing failure is the most common<br />

cause of motor failure (see Table 2).<br />

Table 2. Summary of motor failure surveys for motors rated up to 4 kV.<br />

Component<br />

Survey 1 Survey 2 Survey 3 Survey 4<br />

Stator 36.5% 24.8% 25.0% 15.8%<br />

Rotor 9.5% 6.0% 6.0% 4.7%<br />

Bearing 41.0% 51.6% 51.0% 51.1%<br />

Other 13.0% 17.6% 18.0% 28.4%<br />


1. P.F. Albrecht, J.C. Appiarius, and D.K. Sharma, “Assessment of reliability<br />

of motors in utility applications – Updated.” IEEE Transactions on Energy<br />

Conversion, vol. EC-1, no. 1, pp. 39-46, March 1986.<br />

2. O.V. Thorsen and M. Dalva, “Failure Identification and Analysis for<br />

High-Voltage Induction Motors in the Petrochemical Industry,” IEEE<br />

Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 810-818, July/<br />

Aug. 1999.<br />

3. Monitoring und Diagnose elektrischer Maschinen und Antriebe, Allianz<br />

Schadensstatistik an HS Motoren 1996-1999 in VDE Workshop, 2001.<br />

44. O.V. Thorsen and M. Dalva, “A survey of faults on induction motors in<br />

offshore oil industry, petrochemical industry, gas terminals and oil<br />

refineries,” PCIC, 1994. Record of Conference Papers, IEEE IAS 41st<br />

Annual, Vancouver, BC, 1994, pp. 1-9.<br />

Adapted from EASA’s Root Cause Failure Analysis, 2 nd ed., pp. 1-5.<br />

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