Performance Report for FY 2009/10 - UWASNET

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10 - UWASNET

NGOs in the Ugandan

Water and Sanitation Sector

Performance Report

for FY 2009/10

Uganda Water and Sanitation NGO Network

October 2010

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

1 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 2


NGOs in the Ugandan

Water and Sanitation Sector

Performance Report

for FY 2009/10

Uganda Water and Sanitation NGO Network

October 2010

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

3 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Cover photo

School children from Kawempe Division, Kampala City Council, joining the World Longest

Queue Campaign demanding that their leaders make sanitation and hygiene priority in

planning and resource allocation.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 4

Photo by WaterAid (U)/James Kiyimba)


About UWASNET

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Established in 2000, UWASNET is the national umbrella organisation of NGOs/CBOs in the

Water and Environment Sector of Uganda. UWASNET is crucial in helping government realise

its targets of alleviating poverty and achieving the MDGs through universal access to safe water

and improved sanitation. UWASNET plays this vital role in partnership with other key sector

players such as Government, Development Partners and the Private Sector.

The overarching objective of the UWASNET strategic plan for the period 2008 to 2012 is “To

scale up the contribution by UWASNET to WATSAN sector performance and development.” In

this regard the plan redefined UWASNET roles to maximise its contribution to the operation,

management and development of the water and sanitation sector. It particularly addresses the

roles of NGOs and CBOs, and how they can best relate to and collaborate with each other and

with other stakeholders in the sector. UWASNET key areas of strategic focus include co-ordination

(including collaboration, networking, information sharing), advocacy and lobbying, capacity

building, research and development, resource mobilisation, governance and management. Ten

Regional Coordinators were appointed, initially, to coordinate and lead the implementation of

the capacity building programme, and later to coordinate the UWASNET activities at regional

level. With the proposed expansion of the roles of the regional coordinators, members at

regional level shall be able to meet frequently to deliberate on a variety of issues, and to feed

these to the national level.

One of the UWASNET strategies is channelling its efforts through Working Groups focusing on

thematic areas. These include:

• The Urban Water and Sanitation Working Group (focuses mainly on urban related issues).

• Policy and Advocacy Working Group (focuses on policy analysis, policy monitoring, lobbying

and advocacy).

• The Hygiene and Sanitation Working Group (focuses on sanitation and hygiene

promotion).

• The Women and Children Working Group (focuses on women and children issues).

• The Water and Sanitation Technologies Working Group (focuses on operation and

maintenance and on appropriate technology applications).

• Integrated Water Resources Management working group (focuses on the effective

management of the water resources).

The groups are expected to identify areas for training, meet on a quarterly basis and also

organise exchange visits. They are also expected to identify and document best practices and

share them widely with other stake holders. In the past, Working Groups were very active and

quite successful. But of late these working groups are for the most part unable to meet growing

expectations largely as a result of lack of funds to implement activities. In order to reverse

this undesirable trend, plans are underway to re-define the Working Groups terms of reference

(TOR), disseminate the updated TOR to all members, enlist members to the Working Groups,

elect committees, and develop work plans.

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Foreword

The right to Water and sanitation is a fundamental one and requires constant vigilance as well

as the concerted efforts of different stakeholders to promote and protect it.

To achieve this, consistent focus coupled with adequate investments have to be directed

towards providing safe water and ensuring access to safe sanitation to the un served and

underserved communities. This entails promoting affordable and appropriate technologies and

implementing strategic interventions as per the needs and requirements of the communities.

Therefore, due attention must be paid to involving community participation at each stage,

providing opportunities to vulnerable groups and Civil Society Organisations (CSO) for their

purposeful involvement in water and sanitation service delivery.

It is in this context, that the Uganda Water and Sanitation NGO Network (UWASNET) through the

water and environment sector continues to compliment Government efforts and mandate of

providing sustainable safe water and adequate hygiene and sanitation facilities to the people

of Uganda.

Commendable investments have been made by development partners, CSOs/NGOs and the

Private sector in the provision of water and sanitation facilities in the rural and urban communities

of Uganda, as well as ensuring proper operation and maintenance of the facilities by users.

The laudable contribution by UWASNET and WASH Cluster members to the sector for the period

2009/2010 is documented in this report which feeds into the annual water and environment

sector performance report (SPR).

This report examines the performance of NGOs in the water and sanitation sub-sector, identifies

pertinent gaps that require action, and highlights proposed CSO undertakings for the sector.

Efforts have been made to reflect the performance of NGOs in relation to the golden indicators

as well as the implementation of sector under takings for the previous year.

It is my conviction that this report presents an insight of critical sector issues that justify

our collective attention, and should be addressed together with other stakeholders at the

forthcoming Joint Water and Environment Sector Review.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Ministry of Water and Environment staff,

Development partners, UWASNET members, and all sector stakeholders for their invaluable

support and co-operation.

Looking forward to a strengthened collaboration and stronger partnerships in the sector.

Doreen Kabasindi Wandera

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

Uganda Water and Sanitation NGO Network

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 6


Table of Contents

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

About UWASNET 3

Foreword 4

List of Tables 8

List of Figures 8

List of Boxes 9

List of Case Studies 9

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms 11

Glossary and definitions 13

Executive Summary 16

1 Introduction 21

1.1 Context 21

1.2 Structure of the Report 21

1.3 Methodology 21

1.3.1 Data Collection 21

1.3.2 Responses 22

1.3.3 Challenges 23

2 Water and Sanitation Sector Overview 24

2.1 Introduction 24

2.2 Sector Overview 24

2.2.1 Sector objectives 24

2.2.2 Institutional Framework 25

2.2.3 Water and sanitation Subsector Strategies 26

2.2.4 Emerging Strategic challenges 27

2.3 Towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 29

3 NGO and CBO investment in the Water and Sanitation Sector 30

3.1 Introduction 30

3.2 Investment in Water Supply 32

3.3 Investments in Sanitation and Hygiene promotion 33

3.4 Investment in Community management 34

3.5 Unit costs 35

4 Performance of NGO and CBOs against the WASH Subsector

Golden Indicators 36

4.1 Introduction 36

4.2 CSO Contribution to Increased Access to Water Supplies 37

4.3 CSO contribution to functionality of Water Supplies 40

4.4 Per Capita Costs 41

4.4.1 Per capita cost for Water Supply technologies 41

4.4.2 Per capita cost for Sanitation technologies 42

4.5 CSO Contribution towards Improved Sanitation and Hygiene 43

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

4.5.1 Contribution towards sanitation improvement 43

4.5.2 Improving the pupil-stance ratio at schools. 45

4.5.3 Handwashing facilities 46

4.6 Contribution to ensuring water quality 47

4.7 Contribution to water quantity (Water for Production) 48

4.8 Contributing towards Equity 48

4.9 Contributing to increased access to and using handwashing facilities 49

4.10 Contribution to Management of Improved Water Supplies 50

4.11 Contribution to gender promotion 54

4.12 Contributing to improving water supply to the urban poor 54

4.13 Contributing to good Governance in the WASH subsector 56

4.14 Activities, outputs, and key result areas 61

5 NGO and CBO Contribution to implementation of the of the 2009

Joint Sector Undertakings 70

5.1 Introduction 70

5.1.1 Undertaking No. 4: Water Resource Management 70

5.1.2 Undertaking No. 7: Sanitation 72

5.1.3 Undertaking No. 8: Rural water supply 72

6 Challenges and recommendations 73

6.1 Introduction 73

6.2 Challenges 73

6.2.1 Inadequate household income and the CBMS 73

6.2.2 Supply chain for construction equipment and materials 73

6.2.3 Vulnerable household and the ‘no subsidy’ policy 74

6.2.4 Low priority for sanitation 74

6.2.5 Financing rainwater harvesting 74

6.2.6 Framework for cooperation between CSO and MoWE not operationalised 74

6.2.7 Inadequate reporting by CSO 74

6.3 Recommendations 80

Annex 1 Key sub-sector Institutions and Responsibilities 82

Annex 2 Water and Sanitation NGOs and CBOs 85

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 8


List of Tables

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Table 2.1 Water and Sanitation Subsectors and their respective Strategies 25

Table 3.1 Unit costs for water supply technologies 33

Table 4.1 Water sources developed and population served 36

Table 4.2 Assumed populations served against water supply technologies 37

Table 4.3 Per Capita Investment Costs: Water supply technologies 39

Table 4.4 Trend per capita cost; Water supply* 40

Table 4.5 Sanitation and hygiene contribution 42

Table 4.6 Activities, outputs and results: Water Supply Sub-sector 59

Table 4.7 Activities, outputs and results: Sanitation and Hygiene promotion Sub-sector 61

Table 4.8 Activities, outputs and results: Community Management 65

Table 4.9 Activities, outputs and results: IWRM and HIV/AIDS mainstreaming. 66

NGO and CBO WASH Investment and population served 2009/10 84

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Reporting NGOs areas of operation 20

Figure 1.2 Classification of reporting NGOs 20

Figure 3.1 Trends in NGO and CBO investments (UGX billion) 28

Figure 3.2 Investment by CSOs (UGX billion) 29

Figure 3.3 Difference in Investment (UGX billion) between FY 2008/9 and 2009/10 29

Figure 3.4 NGO and CBO Investments in the Water Supply (UGX billion) 30

Figure 3.5 Investments in Sanitation and Hygiene promotion (UGX million) 31

Figure 3.6 Investments made under Community Management 31

Figure 4.1 Population served against water supply technologies 36

Figure 4.2 Reported functionality of water source technologies 38

List of Boxes

Box 4.1: The Golden Indicators 34

Box 4.2 Opportunity for CSO-Public Sector synergy for instituting dialogue

and accountability. Source: National Learning Forum 2010/SAWA 53

Box 4.3 Practicing what we preach’: Plan Uganda certified as credible

and Accountable organisation 57

Box 4.4: IWRM; spring protection in Karamoja region: Source IICD 66

Box 6.1: Reflecting on sustainability of rural water services: Source Triple –S Uganda 73

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

List of Case Studies

Case Study 4.1 New borehole contributes to resettlement in Apeleun Village;

Katakwi: Source LWF 37

Case Study 4.2 Ecosan cost reduction: Source PROTOS 39

Case Study 4.3 Improving Hygiene and Sanitation in Lubaga Division; KCC.

Source Ndeba Parish Youth Association (NPYA) 41

Case Study 4.4 Piloting the Fossa alterna latrine technology in schools.

Source FORUD 42

Case Study 4.5 Handwashing in schools. Source NKKD WATSAN Programme 43

Case Study 4.6 Hygiene in Schools. Source Paidha Water and Sanitation Association 44

Case Study 4.7 Water Testing in Moroto town: Source IICD 45

Case Study 4.8 Hand Washing Practices in Western Uganda.

Source Rwenzori Youth Concern Association (RYCA) 47

Case Study 4.9 Kibaale Handpump Mechanics Association:

Source National Learning Forum 2010/SAWA Uganda 48

Case Study 4.10 Supporting CBMS: Amuria District: Source: WEDA 49

Case Study 4.11 Capacity Building of Management Committees.

Source: Fontes Foundation Uganda 50

Case Study 4.12 Pre-paid water meter system in Kisenyi III Parish. Source CIDI 52

Case Study 4.13 Wash Governance through Dialogue and Concerted Action.

Source CEFORD/NETWAS (U) (National Learning Forum 2010/SAWA 54

Case Study 4.14 Enhanced Community Governance. Source JESE 55

Case Study 4.15 Improving governance: Mukunyu Gravity Flow Scheme.

Source HEWASA 56

Case Study 4.16 Peace in the homes and in community with improved access to

safe water sources. Source JOY Drilling 59

Case Study 4.17 Sanitation as a Business. Source HEWASA. 62

Case Study 4.18 Ecosan: Farmer’s experience. Source: NETWAS ( U) 63

Case Study 4.19 Modern public latrine Construction in Jinja camp; Lira Municipality.

Source Divine Waters Uganda (DWU) 64

Case Study 4.20 HIV/AIDS mainstreaming.

Source :Kigezi Diocese Water and Sanitation Programme 67

Case Study 5.1 IWRM steps and Pilot projects River Mpanga. Source PROTOS 68

Case Study 6.1 Cost tracking of rural water projects.

Source Fontes Foundation Uganda 75

Case Study 6.2 Targeting the vulnerable. Source VAD 76

Case Study 6.3 Sanitation promotion through campaigns. Source WaterAid Uganda 77

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 10


List of Abbreviations

and Acronyms

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

ACF Action Against Hunger

ACORD Agency For cooperation and Research in Development

ASD Action for Slum Health and Development

ADB African Development Bank

ASB Arbeiter-Samariter Bund

AEE African Evangelistic Enterprise

AFARD Agency for Accelerated Regional Development

ASD Action for Slum Health and Development

ASURED Allied Support for Rural Empowerment and Development

BUCADEF Buganda Cultural and Development Organization

CBHC Community Based Health Care

CBO Community Based Organization

CDO Community Development Officer

CHC Community Health Clubs

CIDI Community Integrated Development Initiatives

CLTS Community Led Total Sanitation

CPAR Canadian Physicians for Aid and Relief

CSO Civil Society Organization

DHI District Health Inspector

Dev’t Development

DWD Directorate of Water Development

DWO District Water Office(r )

DWRM Directorate of Water Resources Management

DWSCC District Water and Sanitation Coordination Committee

DWSDCG District Water and Sanitation Development Conditional Grant

EHD Environment Health Division (of Ministry of Health)

FORUD Foundation for Rural Development

FY Financial year

GFS Gravity Flow Scheme

GoU Government of Uganda

HEWASA Health Through Water and Sanitation

HH Household

HIP Hygiene Improvement Programme

HPM Hand Pump Mechanic

HSSP Health Sector Strategic Plan

IDP Internally Displaced Persons

IICD Institute For International Cooperation and Development

JESE Joint Efforts to Save the Environment

JSR Joint Sector Review

KACODEF Kamuli Community Development Foundation

KACHEPA Kamwokya Community Health and Environmental Association

KDF Kyakulumbye Development Foundation

KICHWA Kisenyi Community Health Workers Association

LG Local Government

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

LeaPPs Learning for Practice and Policy in Hygiene and Sanitation in Primary

Schools and households

LGDP Local Government Development Programme

LLG Lower Local Government

LTP Link To Progress

LWF Lutheran World Federation Uganda Program

M&E Monitoring and evaluation

MAAIF Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries

MDG Millennium Development Goal

MIS Management Information System

MoES Ministry of Education and Sports

MoFPED Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development

MoGLSD Ministry of Gender Labour and Social Development

MoH Ministry of Health

MoLG Ministry of Local Government

MoU Memorandum of Understanding

MoWE Ministry of Water and Environment

NDP National Development Plan

NAYODEP Nagongera Youth Dev’t Programme

NPYA Ndeeba Parish Youth Association

NEMA National Environmental Management Authority

NETWAS U Network for Water And Sanitation

NGOs Non-Government Organizations

NKKD North Kigezi and Kinkizi Dioceses Watsan Programme

NPYA Ndeeba Parish Youth Association

NSWG National Sanitation Working Group

NWSC National Water and Sewerage Cooperation

O&M Operation and Maintenance

PHC Primary Health Care

PPP Public Private Partnership

PTA Parent Teachers’ Association

RGC Rural Growth Centers

QuAM Quality Assurance Mechanism

SAWA Sanitation and Water Alliance Uganda

SIP Sector Investment Plan

SNV Netherlands Development Organisation

SOCADIDO Soroti Catholic Diocese Integrated Development Organization

SPR Sector Performance Report

TA Technical Assistance

ToR Terms of Reference

TOT Training of Trainers

TSU Technical Support Unit

UGX Uganda Shillings

UMURDA Uganda Muslim Rural Development Association

UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Fund

UPE Universal Primary Education

UWASNET Uganda Water and Sanitation NGO Network

VAD Voluntary Action for Development

WAU WaterAid Uganda

WATSAN Water and Sanitation

WEDA Wera Development Association

YODEO Youth Development Organisation

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 12


Glossary and definitions

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Basket funding Aid finance flowing from a joint development partners’ account, kept

separate from other funding for the same (sub-) sectors. Transfers are

not made through the government systems and in effect the basket

funding is a collection of projects. The Joint Partnership Fund (JPF) is an

example in the water sector of basket funding using on-budget project

modalities.

Development

Partner (DP)

Bilateral, multilateral and international organizations and agencies

providing support to Government of Uganda or CSOs.

The Arborloo The Arboloo (also known as Eco-pit) is a form of ecological sanitation

technology for human excreta disposal. The technology involves a slab

mounted on a ring beam of bricks or concrete and a shallow pit is dug

down inside the beam. A simple structure for privacy, made from locally

available materials, is then built around the slab. Flies and odours are

controlled by regularly adding soil, wood ash and leaves into the shallow

pit. By adding the soil, ash and leaves, the excreta in the pit turns

into compost. Once full, the slab and superstructure are moved to a

new place. It is then possible to grow a fruit tree or banana on this

compost.

The Fossa

Alterna

Ecological

Sanitation

(EcoSan)

Fossa Alterna is another form of ecological sanitation. This is a simple

alternating twin pit system designed specifically to recycle humus for

use in agriculture. The pits are managed in such a way that excreta is

changed into humus after six to nine months of decomposition, when the

humus may be dug out and taken to gardens. This is facilitated by the

regular and generous addition of soil, wood ash and leaves during use.

The pits of a fossa alterna are shallow, about 1.2 m deep, maximum of

1.5 m deep.

Ecological sanitation often referred to as “ecosan” is a holistic approach

to sanitation and water management based on the systematic closure

of local material flow-cycles. It introduces the concept of sustainability

to sanitation by its basic principle of closing the (nutrient) loop between

sanitation and agriculture. The main objectives are (i) to reduce the

health risks related to sanitation, contaminated water and waste, (ii)

to prevent the pollution of surface and ground water, (iii) to prevent

the degradation of soil fertility and, (iv) to optimize the management

of nutrients and water resources. The concept can be implemented

through a great variety of technologies; the Arboloo, the fossa Alterna,

and Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT).

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Household

Sanitation

Public

sanitation

Sanitation

marketing

Urine Diversion

Dry Toilet

(UDDT)

Sector Wide

Approach

(SWAP)

Household sanitation refers to private/domestic facilities that are

installed and managed by the households.

Public Sanitation refers to communal toilet facilities installed in public

places like markets, health centres, taxi/bus parks or any other public

places. In Small Towns, the common facilities used are water borne

toilets (where there is a piped water supply system) and VIP latrines.

Often the public sanitation facilities are privatised for effective operation

and maintenance.

Sanitation marketing (SanMark) is a viable mechanism for increasing

sanitation coverage by supporting efforts to enhance the capacity of

the private sector to supply desirable sanitation products, encouraging

the public sector to develop a supportive enabling environment, and

increasing the capacity of NGOs and local governments to stimulate

demand. Sanitation marketing also focuses on demand creation through

media and communications campaigns.

This is the most common form of ecological toilet known in Uganda.

This toilet consists of two (faecal) vaults, built above ground and a toilet

superstructure. Urine and faeces are collected separately, the faeces are

collected in the faecal vault under the slab; and the urine is collected in

a container, e.g., a tank or jerry can, but sometimes, it can be infiltrated

into the ground.

This is a mechanism whereby Government, Civil Society and Development

Partners support a single policy, development plan and expenditure

programme, which is under Government leadership and follows a

common approach. It de-emphasizes donor-specific project approaches

but promotes funding for the sector through general, sector earmarked

budget support or through basket funding. Rural water and sanitation is

the most advanced in terms of SWAP implementation in Uganda’s Water

and Environment sector.

Software An umbrella term used to cover the activities of awareness creation,

community sensitisation mobilisation and post-construction followup

with respect to water supply and sanitation. These activities are

undertaken to change behaviour and attitudes towards hygiene and

sanitation and to ensure community management of improved water

supply facilities.

Undertaking Strategic actions agreed on in the Joint Sector Review (JSR) to be

undertaken by the sector. The status of the undertakings is reported on

in the subsequent JSR.

Urban

and Rural

population:

In Uganda, the city of Kampala, all municipalities and town councils

are classified as urban areas. All other areas are classified as rural. All

district headquarters are classified as town councils. The formation of

new districts has resulted in the creation of new town councils, where

they were not classified as such previously.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 14


Water and

Sanitation

Development

Facility

(WSDF)

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

WSDF is a mechanism for supporting water supply and sanitation

facilities for rural growth centres, small towns and large gravity flow

schemes. The WSDF is a facilitating mechanism as it will provide funding

as well as technical support to the water authorities/ town councils for

implementation management, capacity building and quality assurance.

WASH Cluster Group of mainly humanitarian NGOs working in North and North-eastern

Uganda, coordinated by UNICEF

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Executive Summary

Background

NGOs and CBOs have over the years made significant contributions to increasing people’s

access to safe water and better sanitation. This has been done through mobilizing and building

the capacity of communities to demand, use and sustain efficient water and sanitation services

and through, the provision of physical infrastructure, and supporting both relief/emergency and

long-term water and sanitation programmes. The national umbrella organisation of NGOs and

CBOs in water and sanitation sector, the Uganda Water and Sanitation NGO Network (UWASNET),

reports annually on the NGO performance and contribution to Uganda’s Water and Sanitation

Sector and feeds to the overall annual Water and Environment Sector Performance Report of

the Ministry of Water and Environment. The report is based on data submitted by NGOs and

CBOs in the Water and Sanitation Sector.

A total of 104 NGOS and CBOs constituting 57 % of UWASNET members submitted data. This

indicates progressive increase in NGO and CBO reporting from 41% and 53% in 2007/8 and

2008/9 respectively. In order to capture contributions from all NGOs and CBOs in the sector,

UWASNET is encourage reporting by all NGOs and CBOs irrespective of registration status as

a member organisation. Annex 1 presents all NGOs and CBOs who have submitted data for

this report. To encourage report, other CSOs that have not submitted data have also been

indicated.

As observed in the 2009 report, most NGOs who were operating under emergency humanitarian

response have now moved to mainstream CSO developmental work. Consequently, whereas in

the past UWASNET and the WASH Cluster reported separately, this year the UWASNET reports

incorporated data from 13 out of 24 (54%) WASH Cluster members operating in Northern

Uganda.

Investments

During FY 2009/10. a total of UGX 18.5 billion was in invested by UWASNET and WASH cluster

member, reflecting a decrease of UGX 0.7 billion from last years total investment of UGX 19.2

billion. The was a decrease in investment by WASH Cluster members from UGX 3.2 billion in

FY 2008/9 to UGX 3 billion. The decrease is associated with reduction of total investment in

the WASH cluster following the return of IDPs to their villages.

Despite the increase in number of NGOs reporting there is decrease in the UWASNET investment

from UGX 16 billion during the FY 2008/9 to UGX 15.5 billion during the FY 2009/10. One of

the reasons for the decrease in total investment by the UWASNET members is the global credit

crunch.The other is that many donors have since changed strategy from supporting individual

NGOs to preferring to support consortiums of organisations.

However it must also be noted that not all reporting NGOs/CBOs indicated their investments.

Gaps in reporting therefore continue to be a major bottleneck in defining NGO investment into

the subsector. Investment in water supply was UGX 13.8 billion (74%); Sanitation and hygiene

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 16


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

promotion UGX 2.7 billion (15%); Community management UGX 1.7 billion (9%); IWRM UGX 0.2

billion (1%) and Water for production UGX 0.1 billion (1%) of the total investment.

As is often the case, most of the investment went into water supply sub-sector (often as a result

of high costs associated with construction or rehabilitation of water facilities) with sanitation

and hygiene accounting for only 12% (often associated with software promotion activities).

Under the water supply subsector, high investments were made in the construction of piped

water schemes (UGX 4.479 billion) and construction of boreholes (UGX 4.05 billion). Under

Sanitation, high investments were made in the construction of school toilets (for boys, girls

and teachers; UGX 1.215 billion) and installation of hand washing facilities. There was high

investment in household toilet construction as a form of demonstration of technologies (UDDT

ecosan, sky-loos, fossa alterna, arbo loo) or outright support to disadvantaged families as in

the very poor elderly, people living with HIV/AIDS, and Child-headed households thus putting

exceptions to the government policy of no subsidy for household sanitation. Under Community

management, high investments have been made towards functionality and sustainability of

water supply facilities reflected through training of WUCs (UGX 354.67 million). UGX 271.65

million was spent on Community meetings that discuss among others issues of community

participation, ownership of facilities as well as improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour.

The strategy of improving sanitation through School health clubs and community health clubs

is increasingly being adapted constituting 18% (UGX 311.62 million) of the investment in

Community Management. Other major expenditures under community management include

follow-up support activities (UGX 118.21 million); training artisans for construction of water

supply facilities (UGX 67.86million) and artisan for construction of sanitation facilities (UGX

30.95 million) and training of Handpump mechanics (UGX 25.09 million). Based on sector

guidelines for computing populations served, 472,894 persons were served under the water

supply sub sector.

Unit costs

There has been an increase in unit cost for borehole construction by UGX 2.076 million largely

as a result of rising costs of materials for borehole construction. For other technology options,

other than the expected variations, there are no major differences in unit cost between FY

2008/9 and FY 2009/10. Comparing unit cost for borehole construction between GoU and

CSO, The GoU Unit Cost is more by UGX 1.504. This is a slight difference considering amounts

involved.

Functionality

Functionality of water sources continues to be one of the core focus areas on NGOs and

CBOs for both existing water sources and new sources being developed. In order to improve

functionality, NGOs have sensitised the communities, encouraged them to participate in the

water projects and own the new water sources. The ownership is hoped to be achieved by

having communities, contribute towards capital costs (outside IDP camps).

Other efforts by the NGOs will include; formation and training of water source management

committees, training and equipping of Hand pump mechanics, formation of Hand pump mechanics’

associations as well as holding dialogue meetings that bring together service providers and

beneficiary communities. In urban areas, the Citizens’ Report Card and the Community Score

Card process have not only improved governance, transparency and communication within the

water service system but also access and service delivery.

Contributing to improved sanitation and hygiene

In order to improve sanitation, 21,329 traditional latrines, 130 VIP latrines, 86 Ecosan toilets

17 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

(UDDT), seven skyloos, 11 arboo loos, and 20 fossa alterna toilets were constructed. Arboo

loos and fossa alterna are relatively new technologies in the country being introduced to schools

and households. The construction of toilet facilities to households has been discussed under

sub-section 3.3 (Investments in Sanitation and Hygiene promotion), explained by construction

of demonstration of technologies and meeting demands of vulnerable and disadvantaged

households. It is estimated that a population of 906,300 people were served through the

CSOs’ intervention. A number of software activities have been carried out to create demand for

sanitation. For instance, people have been encouraged to participate in hygiene and sanitation

competitions, Sanitation marketing, Community Led Total Sanitation; extending credit for

sanitation facility development, training of masons, Village Health Teams and Local Information

Facilitators are the other activities that have been undertaken, all aimed at increasing access

to improved sanitation.

In schools, 799 latrine stances were constructed. Of these, 395 stances are for boys while 352

stances are for girls. The fossa alterna latrine technology is being introduced in Schools. It is

still too early to say how successful the technology uptake has been.

Handwashing

A total of 26,752 household hand washing facilities have been installed. These are often

low cost simple technologies (tippy tap) affordable by households. At schools 506 hand

washing facilities have been installed. The installation is often coupled with sensitisation on

the importance of washing hands with soap as a way that will help the community reduce the

incidence of diarrhoea and other sanitation related illness. Several reports actually show that

communities that have improved sanitation and hygiene behaviours suffer less incidences of

diarrhea and sanitation related illnesses, but the credibility of these reports has been brought

into question for lack of documentary evidence.

Water Quality

The majority of NGOs do not own water testing kits but have continued to work with district

authorities to ensure high quality of water through water testing. A number of NGOs however

conduct water testing to ensure that they supply safe water to communities and to monitor the

safety of the water. International Life Line Fund (ILF) has invested UGX 3.9 million in water quality

monitoring, conducting bacteriological testing while sending samples to Entebbe laboratory for

chemical analysis. The installation of water bio-sand filters (Katosi Women Development Trust),

chlorination of water sources (Concern Worldwide) are some of the activities NGOs undertake

to ensure water quality.

Water quantity

Traditionally, NGOs have not been involved in the Water for Production sub-sector largely due

to the high investment cost associated with construction of Water for Production facilities such

as valley dams and valley tanks. However, Christian Engineers in Development a local NGO

operating in Kabale District has invested UGX 119.8 million in construction of a valley tank.

Contributing to achieving equity

Active participation in the planning and budgeting process is one way that NGOs contribute

to equitable distribution of the available resources. The NGOs are active members of District

Water and Sanitation Coordination Committees where decisions of resource allocation are

made presenting opportunities for lobbying and advocacy for the underserved. A number of

NGOs conduct Water source Mapping, locating all improved water points and reporting on their

status while others are involved in capacity building.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 18


Supporting Community Based Management System (CBMS)

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Maintenance of rural water sources is done through the Community Based Maintenance System

with communities taking charge of the maintenance aspects of their water sources through

participating in the water source activities like cleaning and contributing funds for acquisition of

spares. NGOs involved in development of water sources train Water and Sanitation Committees

to take on the responsibility of developing capacity among the beneficiary population to be able

to operate and maintain their water sources. Follow-up support has been provided and retraining

carried out to keep the community based water source management committees and

resource persons (like Hand Pump Mechanics, Scheme attendants) active. During FY 2009/10,

an estimated total of 2,500 committees have been trained and re-trained. Eleven Piped Water

Scheme Attendants and 119 Handpump Mechanics have been trained to take responsibility

of O&M, sanitation and hygiene. Some 76 hand pump mechanics were supplied with tools for

handpump maintenance purposes.

Gender promotion

Of the Water and Sanitation Committees formed and trained, 5,870 (49%) were male; 6,065

(51%) were female. Data received was silent on the number of women holding key position.

However NGOs recognize the important role women play in the O&M of water sources given that

it’s the women and children who are charged with the collection of water. As part of their gender

promotion, CSOs conduct a number of gender specific activities such as in training of women

groups in income generating activities, gender training and sensitization groups, and training of

both men and women as masons.

Recommendations.

Based on challenges met and issues observed, the following recommendations have been

made.

• Review the CBMS strategy in light of levels of functionality of rural water sources and the

problems associated with CBMS. Consider a conditional grant for maintenance of rural

water sources and the management of rural water supply through management contracts

with private sector organisations with communities playing a monitoring role. As a further

step towards improving functionality, there should be support for hand pump mechanics

and advocacy for formation of hand pump mechanics associations as well as case

documentation of successful O&M stories and strategies

• Consider a review of the government ‘no subsidy’ for households’ policy to cater for the

needy and vulnerable families.

• There is need to increase sector financing to ensure realisation of the MDG goal of ensuring

universal accessibility to water and improved sanitation by 2015. It is critical to expedite

the process of refining the procurement policy such that NGOs/CBOs can participate in

bidding for contracts and consultancies at the district and lower local government levels.

• Government ought to provide direct funding for NGOs and CBOs in the Water and Sanitation

Sector and utilise the CSOs’ technical knowledge and resources in areas where NGOs

have demonstrated proficiency (as in software activities). Conversely however, the CSOs

ought to complement government efforts to attain sector goals and targets. The approach

advocated for is akin to the one under Ministry of Health where Government of Uganda

makes direct funding to CSOs to provide health services through health units and outreach

service. Such resources for CSOs in Water and Sanitation Sector would be channelled

through UWASNET.

19 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

• It is critical to develop a financing system for domestic rainwater harvesting (micro finance)

to further popularise the rainwater harvesting technology and make it more affordable.

• Capacity building for CSOs in the area of documentation, reporting, transparency and

accountability as well as continuous QUAM must be ensured. UWASNET is tasked with

operationalising the accountability and transparency code of conduct.

• The Framework of Cooperation between CSOs in the Water and Sanitation subsector and

Local Governments should be disseminated and operationalised. Targets and indicators for

purposes of monitoring should be set.

• There ought to be more emphasis on equity in resources allocation and service delivery,

recognizing the most vulnerable. Conditional grants should target ensuring equity within

the districts.

• Indicators to monitor NGO and CBO participation in District Water and Sanitation Coordination

meetings (DWSCC) and other activities should be developed. CSO participation in DWSCC

should be part of the CSO reporting.

• There should be capacity building on IWRM among NGO/CBO through training and

sharing.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 20


1 Introduction

1.1 Context

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

NGOs and CBOs have over the years made significant contributions to increasing people’s

access to safe water and better sanitation. This has been done through mobilizing and building

the capacity of communities to demand, use and sustain efficient water and sanitation services

and through the provision of physical infrastructure, and supporting both relief/emergency and

long-term water and sanitation programmes. The national umbrella organisation of NGOs and

CBOs in water and sanitation sector, the Uganda Water and Sanitation NGO Network (UWASNET),

reports annually on the NGO performance and contribution to Uganda’s Water and Sanitation

Sector and feeds to the overall annual Water and Environment Sector Performance Report of

the Ministry of Water and Environment. The report is based on data submitted by NGOs and

CBOs in the Water and Sanitation Sector.

As of last year, NGO reporting has been aligned with the Government of Uganda Financial

Year. For the reporting period in question CSOs (see subsection 1.3.2) provided services in 82

districts, constituting 74% of Uganda administrative districts. In these districts the CSOs have

reached out and provided services to an estimated population of 2.7 million people 1 .

1.2 Structure of the Report

This 2010 report basically follows the structure of the 2009 report with minor variations. The

report is structured as follows: Chapter One provides the background to the report, outlines

the methodology used in the data collection and analysis, and provides information about

UWASNET. Chapter Two presents an overview of the Water and Sanitation Sector in Uganda in

terms of policy and institutional framework. Chapter Three presents the investments made by

NGOs and CBOs in the Water and sanitation sector. Chapter Four describes the way in which the

NGOs have contributed towards achieving the sector’s Golden Indicators. Chapter Five presents

the way in which the NGOs have contributed to the implementation of the 2009 Sector Review

Undertakings. Chapter Six outlines and discusses the challenges met, key lessons learnt and

recommendations.

1.3 Methodology

1.3.1 Data Collection

Building on the last year’s reporting format, a standard format for data collection was designed

and distributed to CSOs in the WASH Sector. Part one of the formats was related to quantitative

data, physical and financial reports including budgets and expenditures and unit costs. It also

covers the population served as well as the qualitative data and the major results or outcome

1 This is a conservative figure as some NGOs did not indicate population served.

21 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

of the interventions taken. Part two of the format generated qualitative data on a number

of water and sanitation variables that include gender, equity, operation and maintenance

(O&M).It also captured water quality and promotion of sanitation and hygiene practices and

technologies in households, institutions and public places. It also covered; Integrated Water

Resources Management (IWRM) and HIV/AIDS mainstreaming among others. As part of sharing

experiences and best practices, NGOs have been encouraged to contribute case studies and

other documentations of real life experiences- stories that show how lives have been changed

as a result of their interventions. Many of these have included in the report.

1.3.2 Responses

A total of 104 NGOS and CBOs constituting 57 % of UWASNET members submitted data. This

indicates a progressive increase in NGO and CBO reporting from 41% and 53% in 2007/8 and

2008/9 respectively. In order to capture contributions from all NGOs and CBOs in the sector,

UWASNET is encouraging reporting by all NGOs and CBOs irrespective of registration status

as a member organisation. Annex 1 presents all NGOs and CBOs who have submitted data for

this report. To encourage reporting, other CSOs that have not submitted data have also been

indicated.

As observed in the 2009 report, most NGOs who were operating under emergency humanitarian

response have now moved to mainstream CSO developmental work. Consequently, whereas in

the past UWASNET and the WASH Cluster reported separately, this year the UWASNET reports

incorporated data from 13 out of 24 (54%) WASH Cluster members operating in Northern

Uganda. Figure 1 reflects the distribution of NGOs reporting by area of operation

Figure 1.1: Reporting NGOs areas of operation

Rural and urban

28%

Urban

8%

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 22

Rural

64%

From Figure 1, the majority of the NGOs (64%) work in rural area reflecting a rural bias of

most NGOs and CBOs. Only 8% of the reporting NGOs work in urban area while 28% work

in both rural and urban areas. A classification of reporting NGO is as shown in Figure 2.


Figure 1.2: Classification of reporting NGOs

Local NGOs

57%

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

From Figure 2, the majority of the reporting CSOs were local NGOs (57%). International NGOs

constituted 22%; CBOs 14%, and Faith based organisations 7%.

1.3.3 Challenges

International

NGOs

22%

Faith Based

NGOs

7%

The need for a high degree of transparency and accountability on part of NGOs needs not be

overemphasised. UWASNET Secretariat has progressively sought to improve reporting. However

challenges to reporting still exist. As observed in the previous years, response rate for data

submission is still unsatisfactory. Report formats need to be received in good time and the

NGOs need to provide appropriate data where required. Incomplete reporting gives a distorted

picture at data analysis stage. Complete NGO investment and contribution to the sector will

remain unknown till all CSOs appreciate the need and are committed to complete reporting. It

has been suggested that reporting formats be received early by the NGOs who would then be

encouraged to keep a data base based on the reporting requirement.

CBOs

14%

23 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

2 Water and Sanitation

Sector Overview

2.1 Introduction

NGOs do not operate within a vacuum but are guided by Uganda Water and Sanitation subsector

policies, guidelines and regulatory framework instituted by the Government of Uganda. This

Chapter presents an overview of Uganda Water and Sanitation subsector 2

2.2 Sector Overview

The water and environment sector is divided into two main parts. One is the Water and Sanitation

subsector and the second is the Environment subsector.

2.2.1 Sector objectives

The policy objectives of the Government for water and sanitation subsector are as follows:

• The water resources sub-sector objective is “To manage and develop the water resources

of Uganda in an integrated and sustainable manner, so as to secure and provide water of

adequate quantity and quality for all social and economic needs of the present and future

generations and with the full participation of all stakeholders.”

• The rural water supply sub-sector objectives is “Sustainable safe water supply and sanitation

facilities, based on management responsibility and ownership by the users, within easy

reach of 65% of the rural population by the year 2005 with an 80%-90% effective use and

functionality of facilities - then eventually to100% of the urban population by 2010 and

100% of the rural population by the year 2015.”

• The urban sub-sector objective is derived from the overall policy objectives of the GoU for

water supply and sanitation in line with the PEAP are “To achieve sustainable provision

of safe water within easy reach and hygienic sanitation facilities, based on management

responsibility and ownership by the users, to 77% of the population in rural areas and 100%

of the urban population by the year 2015 with an 80-90% effective use and functionality of

facilities.”

• The WfP sub-sector objectives, based on the vision for development of the WfP Sub-sector

is: “Water for production services provided for increased production in order to reduce

poverty on a sustainable basis”.

• The sanitation sub-sector objective (Health Sector Strategic Plan II) is to: “contribute to

the reduction of morbidity, mortality, and disability among the people of Uganda through

improvement of housing, use of safe water, food hygiene promotion, waste management,

and control of vectors and vermin”.

2 Source of data: GoU; MoWE (2009). Consolidated Strategy for the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 24


2.2.2 Institutional Framework

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

The institutional framework for the water and sanitation sector comprises a number of

organisations and stakeholders at community, district and national levels. The Directorate of

Water Development (DWD) and the Directorate of Water Resources Management (DWRM) under

the Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment (MoWLE) are the lead Central Government agency

for rural and small towns water supply while the National Water and Sewerage Corporation

(NWSC) is responsible for water supply and sewerage in large urban centres. DWD is responsible

for providing overall technical oversight for the planning, implementation and supervision of the

delivery of rural and urban water services across the country as well as ensuring water for

production. DWD is responsible for regulation of provision of water supply and sanitation services

and the provision of capacity development and other support services to Local Governments,

Private Operators and other service providers while the DWRM is responsible for management

of the nation’s water resources.

The Sanitation Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Ministry of Water, Land

and Environment (MoWLE), Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES) and Ministry of Health

(MoH) in 2001 split up institutional responsibilities for sanitation. The MoU though it clarified

institutional responsibilities, had limitations and limited impact in prioritising sanitation. The

Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2008 recommends that the review of the

MoU should be part of the package of guidelines for the implementation of the integrated

budget line.

According to the MoU:

• The Ministry of Water, Land and Environment would be responsible for planning investment

in sewerage services and public facilities in towns and rural growth centres;

• The Ministry of Health would be responsible for household hygiene and sanitation

• The Ministry of Education and Sports take responsibility for school latrine construction and

hygiene education

Other key institutions at national level include:

• The Ministry of Local Government (MoLG) is responsible for capacity building in local

governance and policy supervision of local authorities.

• The Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development (MoGLSD) is responsible for

development of gender responsiveness policy development, and supports districts to build

staff capacity to implement sector programmes;

• The Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (MoFPED) mobilises funds,

and coordinates development partner inputs; and the Ministry of Local Government

responsible for capacity development and support to local governments.

• The National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) operates and provides water and

sewerage services for large urban centres across the country.

• The Ministry of lands, housing and urban development (MLHUD) is responsible for providing

policy direction, national standards and coordination of all matters concerning lands,

housing and urban development.

UWASNET co-ordinates the activities of NGOs at national level.

At Local Government levels, (districts, municipal councils. town councils and subcounties) are

25 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

empowered by the Local Governments Act (2000) for the provision of water and sanitation

services. They receive funding from the centre in the form of a conditional grant and can also

mobilise additional local resources for water and sanitation programmes.

Communities take responsibility for demanding, planning, and contributing to Operation

and Maintenance (O & M) of public facilities through user fees as well as construction of

household toilet facilities. NGOS and CBOs compliment government efforts to deliver Water

and Sanitation services. There are over 200 NGOs and CBOs currently undertaking water and

sanitation activities in Uganda. Most of the NGOs are represented UWASNET. Annex 1 reflects

key institutions and their responsibilities under the Water and Sanitation Subsector

2.2.3 Water and sanitation Subsector Strategies

The Water and Sanitation Sub-sector has developed strategies for delivering WASH services to

the people. Some strategies however remain unknown to service providers requiring strategic

dissemination of subsector strategies. Table 2.1 reflects the strategies against the subsector.

Table 2.1: Water and Sanitation Subsectors and their respective Strategies

Sub-Sector Strategies

Water Resources

Management

(WRM)

Rural Water

Supply (RWS)

Urban Water

Supply and

Sewerage (UWSS)

• Strengthening regulation.

• Catchment-based approaches to IWRM.

• Trans-boundary WRM cooperation.

• Monitoring of quantity and quality of water resources data.

Strengthening stakeholder participation and Public-Private

Partnerships for WRM.

• Adaptation to climate change.

• A demand responsive approach.

• A decentralized approach Targeted Programs.

• A “Package” approach financial viability.

• Community based O&M

• Capacity building of local governments.

• Pro-poor funding and expansion of supply to low income urban

dwellers.

• Private-Public Partnerships including the Output Based Aid

approach.

• Effective mechanism for supporting investments in small

towns.

• Effective mechanism for O&M back-up support.

• Transparent, affordable and viable tariffs.

• Separation of operations and assets management.

• Commercializing Services.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 26


Sub-Sector Strategies

Water for

Production (WfP)

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

• Poverty Reduction Focus

• Demand-Responsive Approaches

• Sustainability.

• Cost-efficiency.

• Decentralisation and Management at the Lowest Appropriate

Level.

• Privatisation and Private Sector Involvement.

• Gender Responsive Approach.

• Environment and Health concerns.

Sanitation • A demand responsive approach

• A “Package” approach:

• Adoption of appropriate Capacity building for local governments

• Enabling Environment

Sector

Coordination and

Management

• Use of Sector-wide approach (SWAp) as means of integrating

sector efforts across administrative and ministerial boundaries

• Temporary role of TSUs to build capacity

• Umbrella organisations for small scale urban systems

• The WSDF as a means of channelling investment

NGOs are expected to operate within the national strategic framework.

2.2.4 Emerging Strategic challenges

A number of strategic challenges have been identified. 3

Water Resource Management

There are a number of challenges related to Water Resource Management. These include, limited

capacity for Water Resources Management, absence of an overall water resource management

plans for the catchments in Uganda and pressures and threats on water resources due to climate

change and variability. Other challenges are poor land use practices and catchment degradation

have led to declining water levels, drying up of water sources and pollution of water resources.

Furthermore, there are unregulated activities in catchments leading to increasing pollution levels

of freshwater resources due to poor catchment management leading to rapid deterioration of

the water quality in the major water bodies in Uganda. While the struggle for economic and

social development in Uganda is increasingly related to water resources, the concept of IWRM

is not well understood at the political and technical levels outside the water sector. Efforts

have been made to improve the understanding and appreciation of the concept of IWRM but

there remains a huge challenge to raise awareness within the country and to engage national

development planning processes so that it is given due priority. Among NGOs, efforts have

been made to create awareness and educate NGOs on IWRM issues. More sensitisation and

education is necessary to get more NGOs to implement targeted IWRM activities. The policy

on disaster management, especially in relation to water resources (floods, droughts, dam

safety and accidental pollution e.g. oil spill pollution) is inadequate. Many institutions exist with

overlapping mandates, and on the whole there is, inadequate coordination at both national and

regional levels.

3 MoWE 2009: Consolidated Sector Strategies for Water supply and Sanitation

27 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Rural water supply

Provision of water services for post conflict areas presents a challenge. Also quite challenging is

provision of safe water in emergency situations, such as cholera epidemics, refugee situations

as well as times of floods and droughts. This particular sub sector suffers inadequate funding

and is therefore often unable to meet the needs of a constantly growing population and to

reach sector coverage targets. The increasing costs in areas where water is scarce do not help

matters at all.

Furthermore, there is increasing per capita investment costs due to: low economies of scale

characteristics of local government contracts, the fact that the remaining water sources are

more difficult and expensive to develop than those already implemented, high construction cost

inflation and fiduciary risks. Sustainability of rural water supply facilities also continues to be a

challenge. The low sustainability of the installed infrastructure is due to, among other; inadequate

O&M provisions put in place by the user communities, poor quality of construction supervision

and inadequate involvement of communities in the planning, financing and implementation of

the water supply projects. Critically too, the private sector does not have sufficient capacity to

cope with the increased water supply activities both for implementation and for provision of cost

effective operation and maintenance support.

Urban water supply

Need for support to replacement, renewals and major expansions:

The water tariffs in urban areas are tailored to meet O&M costs and funding is needed for

replacement of components that have outlived the design lifespan as well as expansions to

cover the growth of the towns. Owing to the inadequate capacity of Town Water Authorities to

plan and implement investments in new water and sewerage schemes, DWD still supports

investments in the towns. This is important and necessary in the short term because Unit

costs for implementation are ever increasing for various reasons and the sector needs to

continue working towards cost effective implementation. Cost recovery is hampered by arrears

and Value Added Tax (VAT) on water revenue as well as limited sewerage coverage.

Water for Production

Challenges include inadequate capacity of District Local Governments involved in the sub-sector;

inadequate funding and high unit costs, low sustainability of installed infrastructure.

Sanitation

The budget allocations and the financing mechanisms for the sanitation sector have been

inadequate. The implementation of the MoU has been limited by the unclear funding mechanism

whereby each of the ministries involved expected the others to prioritise funds for sanitation

within their own sector ceilings. Enforcement of sanitation bye-laws by local governments is still

inadequate and not widespread in all districts. Furthermore, there is a low level of awareness

of the existing laws pertaining to Sanitation and Hygiene enforcement. The capacity of the

local governments to plan and implement sanitation activities remains low due to inadequate

staffing, skills and logistical support for the Health Inspectorate; co-ordination of sanitation

stakeholders at district level is still weak resulting in ineffective planning and utilisation of the

limited resources. In schools, provision of sanitation and hygiene services remains inadequate

as a result of increased enrolment, inappropriate technology choice and unclear institutional

mandates. Systematic collection of information and reporting with respect to excreta related

sanitation and hygiene remain a big challenge. In urban areas, the mandates for solid waste

management and drainage at national level are clear, however, the capacity of the urban

authorities to implement remains inadequate.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 28


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

2.3 Towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals

(MDGs)

Progress towards achieving the MDGs has been made but progress on key development

outcomes has been woefully inadequate. Notably, on maternal, newborn and child health the

rate of progress is unacceptable especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Contributing to the slow

progress on these development outcomes is the neglect of key sectors and interventions. The

MDGs are interconnected and interdependent, and integrated development is a precondition for

accelerated and sustainable development. The sanitation MDG target highlights this deficit and

the risks that lie in prioritizing one sector or intervention over another. The target is seriously

off-track: at current rates, it will not be met globally until 2049; and in sub-Saharan Africa it will

not be met until the 23rd century (WHO Joint Monitoring Programme 2010).

Between 20 and 22 September 2010 the heads of state meeting in New York was held to

discuss progress, with ten years on and five years to go, towards meeting the MDGs. The

summit is an accountability moment on the MDGs. The summit focused on maternal mortality

and (to a lesser extent) child mortality - quite right given how off-track the maternal mortality

MDG is but the role that sanitation plays in health was not effectively discussed.

In Uganda the sanitation MDG is off-track (JMP 2009). There has been concern that discussions

leading up to MDG summit in the UN and in some of our most supportive governments barely

mentioned sanitation or even water – and the contribution that investment in these sectors

makes to the achievement of the other MDGs, particularly on education and health.

July 26, 2010, UWASNET in collaboration With WaterAid and the Ministry of Water and

Environment organized a press conference at Munyonyo the venue for the AU summit where

Mrs. Janet Museveni - the Sanitation Ambassador in Uganda, on behalf of other First Ladies

urge African leaders to take action and ensure that the integration of sanitation, hygiene and

water an integral part of national health strategies and are adequately financed. She noted that

diarrhoea the biggest killer of African children under five (5) can only be prevented by having

safe sanitation, safe water and hygiene. Access to these basic rights can also significantly

reduce other leading causes of child deaths, such as pneumonia and under-nutrition

Mrs Janet Museveni

– the Sanitation

Ambassador in Uganda

advocating for WASH

during the AU Summit

at Munyonyo, Uganda

29 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

3 NGO and CBO investment in the

Water and Sanitation Sector

3.1 Introduction

Presented in this chapter are NGO and CBO investments in delivering WASH services to

the communities. They include investments in water supply (borehole construction and

rehabilitation, shallow well construction and rehabilitation, spring protection and rehabilitation,

piped water scheme construction, rainwater harveting, valley dams construction, investments

in water purification, water quality testing, and Integrated Water Resourse Management);

Sanitation and Hygiene promotion (household latrine construction and improvement, public

latrine construction and improvement, school latrine construction, installation of handwashing

facilities, installation of waste disposal facilities, construction of drying racks, production

and distribution of sanplats and slabs, construction and rehabilitation of drainage channels,

provision of tools for latrine construction); community management activities (formation and

training of Water User Committees (WUCs)/Water and Sanitation Committees (WSC)/Water

Sanitation and Hygiene WASH Committees, training of handpump mechanics, training of school

science teacher, support to O&M activities, formation and training of School Health Clubs

and Community Health Clubs, training of masons and artisans, conducting of exposure visits/

learning journeys/learning events, community meetings, provision of follow-up support to

community structures/groups/committees/resource perso. Figure 3.1 reflects trends in NGOs

and CBOs investments in the Water and Sanitatation Sector since 2006.

Figure 3.1 Trends in NGO and CBO investments (UGX billion)

24.4

9.7

34.1

30

13.7

43.7

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 30

3.2

19.2 18.5

16

2006 2007 2008/9 2009/10

WASH Cluster

UWASNET

Total


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

During FY 2009/10. a total of UGX 18.5 billion was in invested by UWASNET and WASH cluster

member, reflecting a decrease of UGX 0.7 billion from last years total investment of UGX 19.2

billion. The was a decrease in investment by WASH Cluster members from UGX 3.2 billion in

FY 2008/9 to UGX 3 billion. The decrease is associated with reduction of total investment in

the WASH cluster following the return of IDPs to their villages. Despite the increase in number

of NGOs reporting there is decrease in the UWASNET investment from UGX 16 billion during

the FY 2008/9 to UGX 15.5 billion during the FY 2009/10. Reasons for the decrease in total

investment by the UWASNET members include the credit crunch and change of donor strategy

from supporting individual NGOs to supporting consortiums of organisations. However it must

also be noted that not all reporting NGOs/CBOs indicated their investments. Gaps in reporting

continue to be a major bottleneck in defining NGO investment into the subsector.

A breakdown of the CSOs investment is reflected in Figure 3.2

Figure 3.2 Investment by CSOs (UGX billion)

Water Supply; 13.8

Investment UGX billions

Water for production;

0.1

Sanitation and

Hygiene promotion;

2.7

IWRM; 0.2

Community

Management; 1.7

From Figure 3.2, investment in Water supply was UGX 13.8 billion (74%); Sanitation and hygiene

promotion UGX 2.7 billion (15%); Community management UGX 1.7 billion (9%); IWRM UGX

0.2 billion (1%) and Water for production UGX 0.1 billion (1%) of the total investment. As is

often the case, most of the investment went into water supply sub-sector (often as a result of

high costs associated with construction/rehabilitation of water facilities) with sanitation and

hygiene accounting for only 12% (often associated with software promotion activities). Figure

3.3 reflects difference in investments for the various sub-sectors between FY 2008/9 and

2009/10

31 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Figure 3.3 Difference in Investment (UGX billion) between FY 2008/9 and 2009/10

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

2.05

Overall there has been increased investment in all sub sectors; an increase of UGX 2.05 billion

under water supply subsector; UGX 0.1 billion under Water for Production; UGX 1.16 billion

under community management services and UGX 0.2 billion under IWRM. Sanitation however

had a reduction of UGX 0.9 billion. Most of the sanitation and hygiene promotion software

(creating demand, improving supply and crating a conducive environment for service delivery)

making it difficult to ascertain how much of the community management investment related to

sanitation as well.

3.2 Investment in Water Supply

Investment in water supply subsector is as shown in Figure 3.4

Figure 3.4 NGO and CBO Investments in the Water Supply (UGX billion)

Water testing

Spring rehabilitation

Water filters constructed/provided

Shallow well rehabilitation

Spring protection

Fan Pumps and solar pumps

Borehole rehabilitation/repair

Rainwater harvesting

Shallow well construction

Borehole Construction

Piped water schemes

0.004

0.004

0.008

0.1

0.122

0.181

0.273

0.436

-0.9

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 32

1.16

0.2

1.819

2.451

Water Supply

Water for production

Sanitation and Hygiene promotion

Community Management

IWRM

4.05

4.479


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Under the water supply subsector, high investments were registered in construction of piped

water schemes (UGX 4.479 billion) and construction of boreholes (UGX 4.05 billion). Section 4.10

looks at measures being taken to ensure functionality of the new supplies under construction.

There are low levels of investment in ensuring water quality through water testing and water

filtering as well as investment in rehabilitation of springs.

3.3 Investments in Sanitation and Hygiene promotion

The sanitation and Hygiene promotion subsector provides a wide range of areas for investment.

Figure 3.5 presents investments made under the Sanitation and Hygiene subsector

Figure 3.5 Investments in Sanitation and Hygiene promotion (UGX million)

Drainage channels (Kms)

Household Arboloo construction

Public latrine (traditional)

Household F/alterna (ecosan) latrine

Household skyloo latrine construction

Public Waterborne system

Waste disposal facilities construction

Drying racks construction

HH Ecosan (UDDT ) construction

School handwashing facilities

Sanplats production and distribution

Tools for toilet construction

School toilets for teachers

Drainage channels (Kms)

Public latrines VIP

Public Ecosan toilets

Sanitation and hygiene promotion

Household VIP latrines construction

HH traditional latrine construction

Household handwashing facilities

School toilets for girls

School toilets for boys

0.08

2.82

4.90

9.86

9.86

27.00

31.16

31.75

32.23

62.59

71.44

74.12

77.17

79.40

93.15

128.39

151.63

169.69

229.85

316.38

559.42

578.49

From Figure 3.5, high investments were made in the construction of school toilets (for boys,

girls and teachers; UGX 1.215 billion) and installation of hand washing facilities. There was high

investment in household toilet construction as a form of demonstration of technologies (UDDT

ecosan, sky-loos, fossa alterna, arbo loo) or outright support to disadvantaged families, which

includes the very poor, the elderly, people living with HIV/AIDS, and Child-headed households

thus putting exceptions to the government policy of no subsidy for household sanitation.

33 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector

UGX millions


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

3.4 Investment in Community management

Presented in Figure 3.6 are investments made under community management.

Figure 3.6 Investments made under Community Management

Facilitate spare parts acquisition 10.62

Improving service delivery

Tools for Handpump Mechanics

Best practices promotion

Drama/radio talk shows

Training of Handpump Mechanics

Training of artisans for sanitation

Training of Schience Teachers

Training of artisans for WS***

Community Mgt. (unspecified)

Follow-up support activities

Training of CHCs**

Training of SHCs*

Learning events

Community meetings

Training of WUCs

12.02

19.11

20.81

21.22

25.09

30.95

56.70

67.86

103.44

118.21

122.62

High investments have been made towards functionality and sustainability of water supply

facilities a fact reflected through training of WUCs (UGX 354.67 million). UGX 271.65 million was

spent on Community meetings that discuss among others issues of community participation,

ownership of facilities as well as improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour.

The strategy of improving sanitation through school health clubs and community health clubs

is increasingly being adapted constituting 18% (UGX 311.62 million) of the investment in

Community Management. Other major expenditures under community management include

follow-up support activities (UGX 118.21 million), training artisans for construction of water

supply facilities (UGX 67.86million) and training artisans for construction of sanitation facilities

(UGX 30.95 million). Training of Hand pump mechanics takes up(UGX 25.09 million).

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 34

189.00

241.38

271.65

UGX Millions

345.67


3.5 Unit costs

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Table 3.1 presents the units costs for various water technologies for FY 2009/10 and compares

with units cost as reported by CSO during for FY 2008/9.

Table 3.1 Unit costs for water supply technologies

CSO

Average unit costs (UGX ' 000)

GoU

Technology

FY 2008/9 FY 2009/10 FY 2008/9 FY 2009/10

Borehole Construction

12,544 14,620

15,728

16,124

Borehole rehabilitation/repair

2,530

1,009

-

-

Fan Pumps and solar pumps 12,400

-

-

Shallow well construction*

4,333

4,912

-

-

Shallow well rehabilitation 1,168

1,025

-

-

Spring protection**

2,429

1,775

-

-

Spring rehabilitation

2,421

2,294

-

-

Jars constructed

Rainwater harvesting

Tanks***

180

1,079

276

1,148

-

1,842

-

1,299

Water filters constructed/provided****

46,180 32,078

-

-

* No distinction made on methodology of construction (hand-dug, hand-augured, motorised)

** No distinction made on type of spring (small, medium, large)

*** No distinction made on size of tank

**** No distinction made on type of filter

From the table, there has been an increase of unit cost for borehole construction by UGX 2.076

million largely as a result of rising costs of materials for borehole construction. For other

technology options, other than the expected variations, there are no major differences in Unit

Cost between FY 2008/9 and FY 2009/10. Comparing Unit cost for borehole construction

between GoU and CSO, The GoU Unit cost is more by UGX 1.504. This is a slight difference

considering amounts involved. Furthermore, under the GoU, there is involvement of the private

sector who have to make profit margin as opposed to some CSO who own borehole construction

equipment thus limited involved of the private sector (Joy Drilling for example operates its own

borehole drilling rig and has own technical expertise).

It’s easier to compare unit costs for the construction of rainwater tanks and boreholes that

other technologies because of the differences in reporting between CSOs and GoU or district

local government. Under GoU, springs are further classified as small, medium, and large thus

reflecting the varied investment costs for spring protection based on the spring classification.

Further classification is made for shallow wells based on technology applied during construction,

whether hand-dug; hand-augured, or motorised. This calls for harmonised reporting between

district Local Governments and CSOs.

35 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

4 Performance of NGO and CBOs

against the WASH Subsector

Golden Indicators

4.1 Introduction

As actors in the WASH subsector, NGOs and CBOs have a responsibility to contribute to

monitoring of sector performance. This can only be effectively achieved by active contribution

to district reporting to enable government progressively capture the contribution of NGOs and

CBOs through reports from districts. The Subsector performance measurement framework

provides eleven “Golden Indicators”against which the performance of the Water and Sanitation

sub-sector is measured. As in the 2009 NGO Group Performance Report, this chapter is

structured to allow for reporting of NGOs and CBOs contribution against the Golden Indicators.

Box 4.1 presents a summary of the Golden Indicators.

Box 4.1: The Golden Indicators

SN Measurement

Theme

Golden Indicator

1. Access % of people within 1 km (rural) and 0.2 km (urban) of an

improved water source

2. Functionality % of improved water sources that are functional at time of

spot-check (rural and Water for Production). Ratio of the actual

hours of water supply to the required hours of supply (urban)

3. Per Capita

Investment Cost

Average cost per beneficiary of new water and sanitation

schemes (US$)

4.1 Sanitation % of people with access to improved sanitation

(Households).

4.2 School

Sanitation:

Pupil to latrine/toilet stance ratio in schools

5. Water Quality % of water samples taken at the point of water collection,

waste discharge point that comply with national standards

6. Quantity of

Water

Cumulative water for production storage capacity (million

m3)

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 36


SN Measurement

Theme

Golden Indicator

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

7. Equity Mean Sub-County deviation from the district average number

of persons per improved water point. (Mean Sub-County

deviation from the National average number of persons per

improved water point presented here)

8. Handwashing % of people with access to hand-washing facilities.

9. Management % of water points with actively functioning Water & Sanitation

Committees/ Water Supply and Sewerage Boards.

10. Gender % of Water User committees/Water Boards with women

holding key positions.

11. Water

Resources

Management

Compliance

% of water abstraction and discharge permits holders

complying with permit conditions

4.2 CSO Contribution to Increased Access to Water

Supplies

NGOs and CBOs have continued to develop improved water sources in both rural and urban

areas thus contributing to improving access 4 to improved water sources.

Table 4.1 presents the number of water sources constructed/rehabilitated and population

served based on the reported estimates of populations served.

Table 4.1 Water sources developed and population served

Activity

Output (No.)

Borehole Constructed

374

Borehole rehabilitated/repaired

285

Shallow well constructed

573

Shallow well rehabilitation 145

Springs protected

155

Spring rehabilitated

55

Piped water schemes constructed 130

Piped water

Tap stands/Kiosks installed 951

House Connections 479

Rainwater Jars constructed 1,216

harvesting Tanks constructed 1,437

Water filters constructed/provided

512

Rural

No of people served*

Urban IDP

174,000

695,000

160,000

26,000

17,000

11,000

156,000

17,000

4,000

17,000

43,000

3,000

1,323,000

-

4,000

2,000

5,000

-

-

18,000

106,000

500,000

2,000

19,000

-

656,000

From Table 4.1 an estimated population of 1.323 million people in rural areas, 0.656 million

from urban areas and 0.002 million from IDP camps were served through CSOs’ interventions.

Of the population served, the rural population constituted 67% while the urban population

4 Access to an improved water supply in rural areas is based on data and calculated at Subcounty level. To calculate

the access figure, the total number of people served by all the improved sources is divided by the total population

-

2,000

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2,000

* Population served estimated to the nearest 100th

37 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector

Total

174,000

701,000

162,000

31,000

17,000

11,000

174,000

123,000

504,000

19,000

62,000

3,000

1,981,000


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

constituted 33% reflecting the rural bias of most NGOs. The less than 1% intervention in IDP

camps is a reflection of the return of IDPSs to their villages. Figure 4.1 reflects population

served against the water technologies.

Figure 4.1 Population served against water supply technologies

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

-

From Figure 4.1 more people were served through borehole rehabilitation. This however does

not contribute to the overall improved access to safe water source, a figure computed from

new water sources developed. Piped water schemes (mainly gravity water schemes) borehole

construction and shallow well construction constituted the major technologies for rural water

supply. In urban areas, construction and extension of piped water systems to unserved and

underserved areas constituted the major technology option to improving access to safe water

in urban areas.

It should however be noted that based on the sector guidelines populations served against

varying water supply technologies would be as reflected in Table 4.2 .

Table 4.2 Assumed populations served against water supply technologies

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 38

Population served ('000)

Rural

Population served ('000)

Urban

No Assumed no. of Number of persons

Source

developed persons per source

served.

Borehole 374

300

112,200

Shallow well 573

300

171,900

Protected Spring 155

200

31,000

Tap stands/kiosks 951

150

142,650

Household connections 479

6

2,874

Rainwater Jars 1,216

3

3,648

Rainwater tanks 1,437

6

8,622

Total 472,894


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

There is need to re-define the concept of populations served and to harmonise reporting in this

regard.

There are a number of result areas from improving access to safe water. Women and children

from targeted homes spend less time fetching water. More time is spent on other productive

work. Accidents, abductions, rape and other associated dangers of going to fetching water

from long distances are minimised. Reports from beneficiaries indicate a reduction of

diarrheal diseases and other water and hygiene related infections. At household level, there

was an improvement in domestic relations especially between spouses. Availability of water

ensured a reduction in domestic conflicts that had their genesis in water scarcity. Development

of new water sources has facilitated resettlement in areas where households have moved from

IDP camps back to villages (see Case Study 4.1)

Case Study 4.1

New borehole contributes to resettlement in Apeleun Village; Katakwi:

Source LWF

“Most of the people

chose to stay back in

the camp instead of

returning home due

to the difficulty in

accessing water for the

construction of huts”.

Says Aciila David, a

37 year old resident

of Apeleun village,

Katakwi District. He

is married to Among

Betty 30, and has two

daughters; Amongin

Joyce 12 and Among

Betty 03.

“I lived in Olupe camp for 15 years due to the insurgency caused by armed Karimojong

warriors. When relative calm returned, I hesitated returning home due to lack of

a reliable water source. The difficulties of having no land to plough and frequent

quarrels with neighbours forced me home in 2009. Life was not easy! We had to walk

back to the camp for water, and other neighbouring villages of Anyipa and Adipala

which are about 3kms away. Garden work in most cases was interrupted when the

drinking water that we carried to the gardens got finished. We would stop digging and

go back home. Bathing and cooking depended on water from an unprotected spring.

Diarrhoea was common in the village.”

“When Lutheran World Federation (LWF) identified and drilled a bore hole in my

village, life changed for the better and within one week, I was able to put up a

latrine after making the required bricks within just a day using water from the newly

drilled borehole. Other 25 households have permanently returned to the village from

the camp making a total of 35 households now. We are no longer isolated.” David

declares.

39 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Some Other 28 households in the village have also constructed latrines contributing

to improving latrine coverage to 82%. The new water source has changed lives of

the community in David’s village. David celebrates saying, ‘This has tremendously

reduced incidences of diarrhoea. I no longer need a bicycle to collect water since

I am just 50 metres away from the borehole. My wife and children collect water

needed for other domestic uses; between six to seven jerricans daily.”

4.3 CSO contribution to functionality of Water Supplies

Functionality of water sources remains one of the core focus areas on NGOs and CBOs for both

existing water sources and new sources being developed. In order to improve functionality, NGOs

have sensitized the communities, encouraging them to participate in the water projects and

own the new water sources. The ownership is hoped to be achieved by having the communities

contribute towards capital costs (outside IDP camps).

Average figures of functionality for boreholes, shallow wells and rainwater harvesting systems

as reported by NGOs and CBOs are as in Figure 4.2 below.

Figure 4.2 Reported functionality of water source technologies

94

Rainwater

harvesting

tanks/jars

Functionality (%)

89

The data however did not indicate whether reported figures were of water sources surveyed or numbers represented. However

the average functionality figures is indicative of functionality of water supply facilities developed by CSOs.

From Figure 4.2, rainwater harvesting tanks had the highest levels of functionality. Rainwater

tanks are often non-community water supply facilities at household level or at schools and are

most likely to be cared for than communal water supply systems. The rainwater harvesting

tanks also has less need of spares and technical expertise to maintain as is the case is for

hand-pumps. This among other qualities make rainwater harvesting an attractive technology

for rural water supply.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 40

88

Boreholes Shallow

wells

Functionality (%)


4.4 Per Capita Costs

4.4.1 Per capita cost for Water Supply technologies

Table 4.3 presents per capita investment costs for water technologies.

Table 4.3: Per Capita Investment Costs: Water supply technologies

Water supply technology Investment (UGX)

Spring protection 181,059,582

Rainwater harvesting Jars 242,800,574

Piped water scheme construction 4,479,186,031

Shallow well construction 2,451,137,576

Borehole construction 4,049,690,830

Rainwater harvesting Tanks 1,575,719,021

*Beneficiaries estmated to the nearest 100th.

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Protected springs, and rainwater harvesting jars present a low per capita cost of UGX 10,588

and UGX 12,325 respectively. Rainwater harvesting tanks depict the highest per capita cost

of UGX 24,932. Possible explanation is that a large investment serves a single house hold

as opposed to communal facilities that serve a large population. Of the public water supply

facilities the borehole presents the highest per capita cost of UGX 23,352.

A comparison with the FY 2008/9 per capita figures from CSO reporting is as in Table 4.4

Table 4.4 Trend per capita cost; Water supply*

41,813

23,355

14,443

23,355

12,143

10,588

14,951

12,325

No. of

Beneficiaries*

17,100

19,700

299,600

162,100

173,400

63,200

Per capita

cost (UGX)

10,588

12,325

14,951

15,121

23,355

24,932

* Estimating the number of beneficiaries and incomplete data from NGOs and CBOs continue to be a challenge. For FY

2008/9, no reporting was made on the per capita cost for piped water schemes, and rainwater harvesting. The difference in

per capita cost for boreholes from UGX 41.813 in FY 2008/9 to UGX 23,352 for FY 2009/10 may be attributed to data gaps

rather than actual decrease in per capita cost.

24,932

Per capita cost FY 2008/9

(UGX)

Per capita cost FY 2009/10

(UGX)

41 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

4.4.2 Per capita cost for Sanitation technologies

Per capita costs for sanitation technologies has not been presented largely due to gaps in the

data received, gaps include, among others, number of stances to a toilet facility and materials

used ( permanent or temporary). Case Study 4.2 reflects how costs for construction of sanitation

facilities (in this case the Ecosan toilet) can be reduced.

Case Study 4.2:

Ecosan cost reduction: Source PROTOS

Background

The first Ecosan toilet constructed was expensive compared to the financial status

of our target beneficiaries. Using modern materials for construction, the Ecosan was

valued at UGX 800,000. People could not replicate Ecosan toilets owing to the high

costs. The field technicians had to design a low cost Ecosan out of available local

materials at the cost of UGX230, 000.

Intervention

The main aim of cost reduction on Ecosan toilets was to balance between costs and

sustainability in the construction of Ecosan facilities. PROTOS contributed 78% while

the beneficiary 22% for the demonstration Ecosan. Still the beneficiaries could not

afford that percentage. To replicate the model, beneficiaries had to construct an

Ecosan with no support from PROTOS. More efforts are being put into designing a

low cost Ecosan of below UGX100,000.

The innovations used for the low cost Ecosan are:

� Mud used instead of sand and cement (mortar) to join the bricks on the

substructure.

� Moulded squatting pans (urine and faeces holes) on site rather than already

made ones from shops using cement and sand.

� Timber panels used on the slab.

� Ventilation pipe not included in the design.

� Substituted iron sheets for Polythene and grass on the roof.

� Used one sliding timber piece on the steps instead of bricks and mortar.

Findings

� Local materials like sand and timber pieces are not readily available; they are

usually imported from neighbouring sub counties which increases the cost.

� Compared to cement and mortar mud takes long to set as a result therefore,

construction lasted a whole month because the mud had to be given at least 5

days to set and dry before the next work day.

Successes

� A low cost Ecosan toilet of UGX 230,000 was designed and constructed using

cheap local materials.

� People are taking interest in the low cost Ecosan. This has increased the

replication rate in the communities.

Lesson learnt

� In cases where mud is used instead of mortar, cow dung is to be included in the

mixture to make the substructure stronger.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 42


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

4.5 CSO Contribution towards Improved Sanitation and

Hygiene

4.5.1 Contribution towards sanitation improvement

Promotion of improved sanitation and hygiene, introduction of non-traditional sanitation facilities

and construction of new toilet facilities for vulnerable groups continue to be a major activity of

NGOS and CBO. Table 4.5 Reflects CSOs outputs towards improved sanitation and hygiene.

Table 4.5 Sanitation and hygiene contribution

Population served*

Total population

Activity Output (No.) Rural Urban IDP

served

Household traditional latrine construction

21,329 169,000 100 -

169,100

Household VIP latrines construction

130 500 4,000 -

4,500

Household Ecosan UDDT latrine construction

86 600

-

-

600

Household Ecosan Arbo loo latrine constructed

11 100

-

-

100

Household skyloo latrine construction

7 100

-

-

100

Household F/alterna (ecosan) latrine constructed

20 100

-

-

100

Public latrine traditional stances constructed

9 2,700

-

-

2,700

Public VIP latrine stances constructed

49 30,500 4,000 -

34,500

Public latrine Ecosan stances constructed

40 3,300

-

-

3,300

Public Water closet (stances) constructed

3

-

2,000 -

2,000

Household handwashing facilities installed

26,752 187,000 7,000 8,000

202,000

School handwashing facilities installed

506 59,000 6,000 -

65,000

School latrine stances for boys constructed

395 12,000 7,000 -

19,000

School latrine stances for girls constructed

352 10,000 15,000 -

25,000

School latrine stances for teachers constructed

52 100 200 -

300

Waste disposal facilities constructed

5,203 87,000 34,000 2,000

123,000

Drying racks constructed

25,297 107,000 18,000

125,000

Sanplats distributed

3,379 14,000

-

-

14,000

Drainage channels (Kms)

7 7,000 3,000 -

10,000

No. of tools provided

9,716 76,000 30,000 -

106,000

Total

766,000 130,300 10,000

906,300

* Population served estimated to the nearest 100th

In order to increase access to improved sanitation, 21,329 traditional latrines, 130 VIP latrines,

86 Ecosan toilets (UDDT), seven skyloos, 11 arboo loos, and 20 fossa alterna toilets were

constructed. Arboo loos and fossa alterna are relatively new technologies in the country being

introduced to schools and households (see Case Study 4.3). The construction of toilet facilities

to households has been discussed under sub-section 3.3 (Investments in Sanitation and

Hygiene promotion), explained by construction of demonstration of technologies and meeting

demands of vulnerable and disadvantaged households. It is estimated that a population of

906,300 people were served through the CSOs’ intervention.

A number of software activities have been carried out to create demand for sanitation. For instance,

people have been encouraged to participate in competitions in hygiene and sanitation(see

Case Study 4.3) . Sanitation marketing; Community Led Total Sanitation; extending credit

for sanitation facility development; training of masons; training of Village Health Teams and

Local Information Facilitators, are the other activities that have been undertaken, all aimed at

increasing access to improved sanitation.

43 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Case Study 4.3

Improving Hygiene and Sanitation in Lubaga Division; KCC. Source Ndeba

Parish Youth Association (NPYA)

Background

In the months of March to May 2009 Kampala City Council organized a Hygiene and

Sanitation competition among the 5 division of Kawempe, Makindye, Central, Nakawa

and Lubaga. In each of these divisions one parish was chosen as the focus parish to

base on the awarding of the cleanest division in Kampala District.

Being the best CBO in implementing Hygiene and Sanitation Activities in Lubaga

Division Ndeeba Parish Youth Association (NPYA) was chosen to spear head this

exercise of cleaning up Ndeeba in the preparations for the competition. Among the

activities implemented during the exercise included mobilization and sensitization

of communities and households; sweeping of roads and de-silting of drains; and

beautification and planting of grass, trees and flowers along the roadside and in front

of buildings which increased the beauty of Ndeeba.

Achievements

• Lubaga division emerged the winner of the Competitions and was awarded

with a bull, a trophy and a certificate. It was NPYA’s efforts that all this was

achieved.

• Many land lords adapted the method of refuse sorting which they are now using.

• There is decrease in numbers of mechanics pouring oils in drainage systems.

• Ndeeba town looks more beautiful than it was before.

Challenges

Despite the achievements registered there were some challenges encountered during

the implementation of this exercise which included among others: low participation of

local leaders due to the fact that KCC did not provide any facilitation for mobilization;

mixing of politics in development activities as many people attached the exercise to

the campaigns which were due in Lubaga; lack of enforcement of laws/ordinances;

lack of a maintenance plan from KCC.

Solutions and Recommendations

To overcome some of the challenges

concerning the community participation

NPYA continued to sensitize the local

leaders and the community about their

roles and responsibilities in cleaning their

places. There is need for government

to strengthen its law enforcement so

that the community can abide by the

laws/ordinances concerning sanitation.

Furthermore, the Division leaders should

consider funding CBOs to efficiently and

effectively implement sanitation activities

as it has been proved that they create

impact and are less costly compared to

the current KCC system of cleaning the city.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 44


4.5.2 Improving the pupil-stance ratio at schools.

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

In schools, 799 latrine stances constructed: 395 stances for boys, 352 stances for girls.

The fossa alterna latrine technology is being introduced in schools. It is too still early to say

how successful the technology uptake has been. However reports from participating schools

indicate that the students appreciate the fossa alterna toilets and use them. (see Case Study

4.4)

Case Study 4.4:

Piloting the Fossa alterna latrine technology in schools. Source FORUD

Background

Fossa alterna is one of the technologies that recycle human excreta. The technology

was piloted in Kamayenje primary school to a see if it could be a success and to also

learn if pupils can adopt using the fossa alterna with all the practices that go with

using the fossa alterna like adding ash, dust and dry leaves. After the demonstration

was constructed it was given to boys of P.5 and P.6 since it was only one stance.

Basing on the findings and lessons learnt from the demonstration. A lot of adjustments

had to be made since it was a test of technology and there were a lot of suggestions

on how to make it better. With lessons learnt from the demonstration, a four-stance

Fossa Alterna latrine was constructed.

After completion of the structure the administration and pupils had an assembly

and agreed that only boys should use the new latrine facility while the teachers use

the demonstration latrine. The pupils picked interest in the fossa alterna latrine and

named it “izu” meaning ash latrine. This constantly reminds them that they should

pour ash into the toilet after using it. The ash is got from homes and the school

kitchen. Pupils requested that latrines be locked so that the surrounding communities

don’t use the latrine since they are not trained to us it.

FORUD has continued to sensitize the SMC, SHC, and PTA on the benefits of the

fossa alterna technology. An active

School Health and Environmental

Club and Child to Child Clubs have

been formed. These do the day to

day monitoring on the use of the

fossa alterna, and sensitising the

whole school community on hygiene

and sanitation. Existing talking

compounds remind the pupils on

issues of WASH in the school, at

home and in the community. FORUD

anticipates that with lessons learnt,

fossa alterna will be scaled up in

community and other schools.

Fossa Alterna under construction: Kamayenje PS

45 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

4.5.3 Handwashing facilities

A total of 26,752 household hand washing facilities have been installed. These are often

low cost simple technologies (tippy tap) affordable by households. At schools 506 hand

washing facilities have been installed. The installation is often coupled with sensitisation on

the importance of washing hands with soap as one way that will help the community reduce the

incidence of diarrhoea and other sanitation-related illness. Several reports actually show that

communities that have improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour suffer less incidences of

diarrhoea and sanitation-related illnesses, but the credibility of these reports has been brought

into question for lack of documentary evidence.

Case Study 4.5

Handwashing in schools. Source NKKD WATSAN Programme

Background

During the hygiene and sanitation implementation in the areas served by Nyambizi

GFS, it was noted that at Winna Standard Primary School the hygiene and sanitation

situation was poor and the pupils’ health status was not good characterised by

frequent missing of classes due to sanitation related illness. The school is located

in Kambuga Sub-county Kanungu District and has a population of 370 pupils and 15

teachers.

Intervention

NKKD WATSAN software team carried out a hand washing with soap campaign on

how to wash hands with soap. This was accompanied by installation of hand washing

facilities at the school. The pupils were guided on how to hands with water and soap

at critical times that is before eating, after visiting the latrine, after a journey and after

cleaning babies or disposing of excreta.

The outcomes:

A survey of the hygiene practices at the school indicate that 90% of the pupils wash

hands with soap at critical times especially after visiting the latrine. Children reported

that handwashing facilities had been set up in the homes as well. A survey of the

homes in the school catchment area indicated that 75% hand washing facilities close

to the latrine and 50% of these facilities had soap and were being used properly.

Furthermore there was a reduction in hygiene & sanitation related diseases and a

corresponding increase in the daily class attendance of the pupils.

Lesson learnt:

Children are key carriers of sanitation and hygiene messages and should always be

involved in hygiene and sanitation activities.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 46


Case Study 4.6

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Hygiene in Schools. Source Paidha Water and Sanitation Association

Background

Hygiene improvement was done in Jupomwocho Primary School in March 2010. The

School is located in Oryeo village, Chana Parish Paidha Sub - county Zombo district.

School sanitation facilities like latrines were not properly maintained. Door shutters

had been vandalised; the existing handwashing facilities were not put to use. The

borehole within the school compound had no WSC. The community seemed to have

no ownership of the existing school facilities. Paidha Water and Sanitation Association

(PWASA) identified the school as needing assistance and facilitation on issues of

WASH.

Intervention

The following activities were carried out

• Collection of data on sanitation and hygiene in every home within the school

catchment area.

• Community education and sensitisation on WASH and the importance of

handwashing.

• Election of WSC and drawing out action plan of what needed to be done. These

included, among others, institutionalising a user fee, fencing off the borehole.

• The WSC was trained in financial management.

Challenge

It was recognised that communities had limited knowledge of the effects of poor

sanitation and hygiene practices, a challenge to WASH service providers.

Achievements

An O&M fund has been established, records of meetings are being kept, the borehole

has been fenced, and simple by-laws to manage the operations of the borehole have

been instituted. The school administration established a security system to minimise

and control vandalism. Latrines are cleaned daily. Children are making good use of

handwashing facilities. The standard of cleanliness at the school is high.

4.6 Contribution to ensuring water quality

The majority of NGOs do not own water testing kits but have continued to work with district

authorities to ensure good quality of water through water testing. A number of NGOs however

conduct water testing to ensure that they supply safe water to communities and to monitor the

safety of the water sources (see Case Study 4.7 Water Testing in Moroto Town). International

Life Line Fund (ILF) have invested UGX 3.9 million in water quality monitoring, conducting

bacteriological testing while sending samples to Entebbe laboratory for chemical analysis.

The installation of water bio-sand filters (Katosi Women Development Trust), chlorination of

water sources (Concern Worldwide) are some of the activities NGOs undertake to ensure water

quality.

47 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Case Study 4.7

Water Testing in Moroto town: Source IICD

Following the outbreak of cholera in Moroto municipality, a few months ago the

International Institute for Cooperation and Development, carried out several chemical

and biological analyses to test the protected water sources in the area. To some

extent, the inadvertent outcome was that although the majority of the boreholes were

free from biological contamination a few tested positive with a number of coliforms

per unit volume of water.

Since ground water, because of the means in which it moves, is filtrated of any

form of microbes and then, is not

prone, at least most of the time,

to contamination, it was found that

the environment of a town, in which

the sources of pollution are many

and widespread, can affect heavily

the quality of water.

To prevent contamination, the land

around the water source should be

clear for at least 50 metres radius, if

not of the human presence, at least

of the most dangerous sources of

biological contamination, like toilets

and human activities producing

polluting wastes. Care should be

taken in implementing correctly the

sanitary seal and the backfilling.

4.7 Contribution to water quantity (Water for Production)

Traditionally, NGOs have not been involved in Water for Production sub-sector largely due to

the high investment cost associated with construction of water for production facilities such

as valley dams and valley tanks. However, Christian Engineers in Development a local NGO

operating in Kabale District has invested UGX 119.8 million in construction of a valley tank.

4.8 Contributing towards Equity

Active participation in the planning and budgeting process is one way that NGO contribute

to equitable distribution of the available resources. NGOs are active members of District

Water and Sanitation Coordination Committees where decisions of resource allocation are

made. This presents opportunities for lobbying and advocacy for institutions like (International

Aid Services, JESE, International Life Fund, Kigezi Diocese Water and Sanitation Programme,

NETWAS (U), PAG, PAMO Volunteers and Good Hope Foundation for Rural Development among

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 48

Vendors draw water from a pond in Masaka district.

Many people in rural areas don’t have access to safe

water sources.


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

others). A number of NGOs conduct Water source mapping, locating all improved water points

and reporting on their status, for example, Goal supported Pader District conduct mapping of

all district water sources. ACORD has supported and participated in Water mapping exercise

in the districts of Mbarara, Kisoro and Rukungiri in collaboration with the area TSU. ACORD

has further purchased software (ARC GIS) to facilitate mapping of ACORD South Western

Programme and has trained district official in Gulu District Water Office on data management.

The organisation further supports radio talk-shows to facilitate discussion between water users

and service providers. SNV has developed capacity of 16 District Local Governments on data

analysis, reporting and dissemination.

4.9 Contributing to increased access to and using

handwashing facilities

Most of the NGOs and CBOs in the WASH subsector promote access to and washing of hands

with soap. A total of 26,752 household hand washing facilities have been installed with an

investment of UGX 316.3 million. These are often low cost simple technologies (tippy tap)

affordable by households.

At schools 506 hand washing facilities have been installed at an investment cost of UGX

62.5million. The installation is often coupled with sensitisation on the importance of washing

hands with soap as one way that will help the community reduce the incidence of diarrhoea

and other sanitation-related illness. Several reports actually show that communities that have

improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour suffer less incidence of diarrhoea and sanitationrelated

illnesses, but the credibility of these reports has been brought into question for lack of

documentary evidence.

Case Study 4.8

Hand Washing Practices in Western Uganda. Source Rwenzori Youth

Concern Association (RYCA)

Rwenzori Youth Concern Association (RYCA) a Community Based Non for profit/

partisan, Organization (CBO/NGO), operating in Western province of Uganda

(districts of Bundibugyo, Ntoroko, Kamwenge, Kasese, kyenjojo, Kyaka and Kabarole)

conducted a Knowledge Attitude and Practices (KAP) study on handwashing. Results

indicated that a small proportion of the sampled population (30%) washed hands

after visiting latrines or places of conveniences. Only 60% of the sampled population

knew well the importance of hand washing. About 55% of the population washed

hands with clean water before eating food and only 12% washed fruits and raw edible

foods before eating. There was few hand washing facilities near latrines and within

the compounds. Those who washed hands had to pour water directly from drinking

containers after using the latrines with their dirty hands hence exposing the entire

members of households to germs.

Failures of routine hand washing in the region was associated with high level of

illiteracy and lack of knowledge and poor attitude that hand washing is waste of

time and it is seen as western culture and lack of adequate hand washing facilities

and clean water. As a way forward, RYCA has continued to educate communities

on handwashing using simple handwashing equipment made from local recycled

materials.

49 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

4.10 Contribution to Management of Improved Water

Supplies

Maintenance of rural water sources is through the Community Based Maintenance system

with communities taking charge for maintenance aspects of their water sources through

participating in the water source activities and contributing funds for acquisition of spares.

NGOs involved in development of water sources train Water and Sanitation Committee 5 to take

on the responsibility of developing capacity among the beneficiary population to be able to

operate and maintain their water sources. Provision of follow-up support and re-training has

been demonstrated to keep the community based water source management committees and

resource persons (HPM, Scheme attendants) active. During FY 2009/10, an estimated total of

2,500 committees 6 have been trained and re-trained. Eleven piped water Scheme Attendants,

and 119 Handpump Mechanics have been trained to take responsibility of O&M, sanitation

and hygiene. Seventy Six handpumps were supplied with tools for handpump maintenance

purposes.

Many NGOs and district Local Governments (Moyo, Amuria, and Kabale among others) are

encouraging use of O&M funds as resolving funds (small loans) among user communities. The

practice has been demonstrated to yield positive results in terms of raising funds (through

interest paid) and further promoting community participation in the O&M of the water source.

SNV is promoting the formation of Handpump mechanics association in the districts of

Adjuman, Kabarole, Kasese and Yumbe. In Kibaale district, the Kibaale District Hand pump

Mechanics Association is being supported by the District Local Government as it plays a key

role in maintaining the handpumps in the district.

A number of case studies are here presented to reflect some of the contributions in management

of water sources. Case Study 4.9 presents the case of Kibaale Handpump Mechanics

Association and their contribution to the maintenance of water sources in Kibaale district;

Case Study 4.10: Supporting CBMS: Amuria District: reflects how the WEDA has supported

CBMS and the experience of the community in maintaining their handpump. Case Study 4.11

presents capacity building of management committees and reflects on problems association

with management of water supply facilities.

Case Study 4.9

Kibaale Handpump Mechanics Association: Source National Learning Forum

2010/SAWA Uganda

The Associations

Kibaale Hand Pump Mechanics Association was formed in 1996 and has a membership

of 42 mechanics drawn from the subcounties. It is a registered Association at the

district with a democratically elected committee. The Association has a stock of

spares that they sell. Income is made from selling spare parts to communities as

from payments from community for repair services provided.

5 WEDA (operating in Amuria District) is adopting the concept of a water source WASH committee to reflect the sanitation and

hygiene responsibilities of the Committee.

6 This is an estimate figure based on new water sources developed and rehabilitated and indications of follow-up training

activities for water source committees. There is a likelihood that some NGOs interpreted No. of Committees trained to mean

number of individuals on the committees who undertook training.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 50


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Collaboration with the district administration

The association members receive refresher training in new skills organized by the

District Water Office. The further support is received from the district in terms of a

motorcycle and a monthly ration of 30 litres of petrol to ease transport. The motorcycle

is used by the mobile team that provides backup support to other HPMs. The toolkits

used by the members are provided by the district government since they are expensive

to procure. Periodic restocking is done to ensure they are equipped with the right set

of tools to rehabilitate the boreholes. The Association has fabricated fishing tools for

fishing out dropped-in pipes rather than rely on drilling rigs. The Association is now

planning to raise UGX 18m to purchase cleaning equipment for de-silting boreholes.

As a civil society organization, the Kibaale HPMs participates in the District Water

and Sanitation Coordination Meetings where reports of the association activities

are presented; for example, they provide information on how many boreholes are

working, how many are not working and which ones are beyond repair. This enables

the DWO prepare plans for rehabilitation and write off based on field information.

In order to be able to win contracts from the district administration, the association

registered a company the Kibaale District Pump Mechanics and Water Supply Limited.

The company has been able to secure contracts from the District at least once a year.

The DWO has continued to award the Association contracts to rehabilitate boreholes,

something which strengthens their financial base. For example in 2001 – 2003, they

were awarded contracts to enable the Association to acquire start up funds, which

included repairs of tanks and gutters; repairs of springs and hand pumps.

Lessons learnt

• It is good to transform from a mere association to a registered company.

• It is important to provide a mobile plant and fuel to monitor the work of mechanics

in the different sub-counties.

• It is wiser to start with analysing functionality in the context of those hand-pumps

worth repairing than spend large sums of money on frequent repair works.

• Committed leadership is essential for community service

Success factors

• Support from the district in securing contracts.

• Regular meetings

• Refresher training – updated in new skills.

• World Vision continued training of new Pump Mechanics. This means creating

lower structures and bringing in new members.

Future plans for the association

• Mobilising pump mechanics in other districts like Kyenjonjo, Kasese, Kamwenge,

Arua, Adjumani, Yumbe to establish similar associations and companies with

support from SNV

• Establishing a regional organization.

• Acquiring a de-silting machine.

51 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Case Study 4.10

Supporting CBMS: Amuria District: Source: WEDA

Background

Obur East village is located in the Eastern part of Acowa Sub County in Amuria District

having 90 households with a population of 550 people. It’s one of the villages which

have suffered insecurity caused by the Karimojong raids and the wrath of the Lord’s

Resistance Army (LRA) insurgency in 2003. Following the return of people from IDP

camps to their villages in 2005, the community in Obur East village faced a lot of

challenges accessing safe water as the nearest safe water source was over 5km

walking distance. The only alternative was open wells within their village that were

shared with animals. The hygiene and sanitation situation was also very bad as

baseline figures indicated 0% sanitation coverage with hygiene promotion almost

impossible with no safe water available in the village. According to the LC1 chairperson

Obur East village, children below 5 years were dying almost weekly of WASH related

diseases with two children dying in a month.Furthermore skin diseases were common

among both the young and old. In 2005, Wera Development Agency (WEDA) an NGO

which promotes improvement of rural community livelihoods through provision of safe

water and promotion of hygiene and sanitation funded by WaterAid Uganda started

working together with the community of this village to promote WASH

What was done?

WEDA was able to engage the community in sharing solutions. During the community

dialogue, the community requested for WEDAs intervention especially in the provision

of water and promotion of hygiene and sanitation improvements. The community

leadership committed to working together with WEDA staff to improve their WASH

situation. Sensitisation meetings were then conducted by WEDA on good hygiene and

Sanitation practices. This led to community developed action plans with designated

roles on how to improve their sanitation status. Water and Sanitation Committees

(WSCs) and Hygiene Educators were selected in the community to provide leadership

and guidance on WASH issues to the community members. WEDA with funding from

WaterAid Uganda provided the community with a borehole to address the need for

safe water that the community had been lacking many years.

Community members formulated bye-laws to ensure that the borehole drilled would

be kept well and maintained to avoid breaking down. The community then started

collecting UGX 1000 per household as O&M fees. The idea of revolving the money

collected by the community as a loan scheme was suggested as a means to raise

funds for O&M among many ideas. With the leadership of the Hygiene Educator,

the committee started loaning out money with as little as UGX 45,000 to whoever

needed it to be paid back with interest. Failure of payment would attract penalties

indicated by the bye-laws endorsed at the Sub County and personally specified by the

borrower.

The situation now

The community of Obur East since 2006 when the borehole was drilled to date has been

able to maintain their water source using their own funds for the fourth year running without

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 52


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

breaking down. They are very happy and besides minor repairs and preventive maintenance

they use the O&M fees to start up income generating activities. The women brew ‘ajon’ in

Teso while the men use the money to start up small businesses like buying and reselling of

goats, fish and produce. To date the village is proud to have UGX 1million on their account,

one cow, four goats and two cassava gardens in the names of O&M fund.

One of the two cassava gardens, goats and cow are: property of the Water and Sanitation Committee.

Case Study 4.11

Capacity Building of Management Committees. Source: Fontes

Foundation Uganda

Since 2007, Fontes Foundation (www.fontes.no) organises yearly water seminars

to build capacity of water committees. The last seminar was carried out in August

2009, with more than 50 participants. Water committees including technicians and

caretakers or tap-attendants, local leaders and stakeholders from four water projects

in Bushenyi (now Rubirizi) and Kanungu District attended the seminar which was

organised in Kazinga, a fishing village in Queen Elizabeth National Park.

Fontes Foundation implemented the first small piped water system in Queen Elizabeth

National Park in 2004, and now has four operational systems. Since the ground water

is salty, surface water is treated using simple pressurised filter technology, and water

is distributed at public taps in the villages. The systems are managed by elected

water committees and the technical operation is done by local technicians trained by

Fontes Foundation, who receive remuneration at the end of the month.

The water systems have encountered many problems and challenges over the years, and

only a small part of them have been technical. The most frequent causes of problems

are lack of capacity in the water committees, lack of transparency in the financial

management, lack of awareness in the community and government institutions about

the benefits of safe water and lack of community engagement. These challenges

are best overcome through continuous follow up, mobilisation and capacity building,

which is done by Fontes Foundation and its counterpart Fontes Foundation Uganda

on a regular basis. One of the most popular events is the water seminar. During the

seminar, participants study subjects such as basic accounting methods, roles and

53 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

responsibilities of committee members and good hygiene and sanitation practices. In

addition to the capacity building element, the committees also benefit from sharing

experiences between the sites, which makes them realise that they can seek advice

from neighbouring committees in case they have a problem. Bringing stakeholders

such as the Police, the Sub

county, District and Uganda

Wildlife Authority together with

the committees also solves

problems that may arise due

to lack of communication. The

participants also appreciate

the opportunity to visit a

different community, get to

know their water system, their

qualities and experiences.

Fontes Foundation has found

that the seminars build

capacity of committees in an

efficient way, as well as being

important for their motivation

and engagement.

4.11 Contribution to gender promotion

Of the Water and Sanitation Committees formed and trained, 5,870 (49%) were male; 6,065

(51%) were female. The data received was silent on the number of women holding key positions.

However NGOs recognize the important role women play in the O&M of water source given that

it’s the women and children who are charged with the collection of water. As part of their gender

promotion, CSOs conduct a number of gender specific activities. These include;training of

women groups in income generating activities (VAD, MEMEDU), gender training and sensitization

groups (Kyetume CBHC) and training of both men and women as masons (Multi Community

Based Initiative, Agency for Community Welfare, FORUD). Targeting gender balance at meetings

(Multi Community Based Initiative, VAD, TONGOF, URMUDA, and Katosi Women Development

Trust among others).

4.12 Contributing to improving water supply to the urban poor

CIDI and its partner organisation KICHWA have facilitated the introduction of the pre-paid

water meters in Kisenyi III Parish of Kampala City Council. The pre-paid meter facilitated poor

households obtain water at a cheaper rate, buying water at UGX 20 where they used to pay UGX

100 for the same volume of water. The pre-paid meters have proved to be effective for mobile

populations since they can move with their tokens and use them to pay for water services in

other locations. The pre-paid meter system has eliminated middlemen (water vendors) who sell

water above the recommended price and whose source of water is often unknown and further

addressed the non payment for water services (see Case Study 4.12)

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 54

Participants inspect the water intake in Kazinga, Rubirizi District during a

water seminar ( August 2009)


Case Study 4.12

Pre-paid water meter system in Kisenyi III Parish. Source CIDI

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Over the years, shanties have sprung up in Kampala providing accommodation to more

than 60% of the city’s population. However, Government planning and funding has

denied them public utilities like water since they are regarded as illegal settlements.

As a result, the poor people have ended up being exploited by the middlemen who

sell water at 100/= per 20 jerry can compared to the recommended NWSC price of

20/= per which is five times more than what the rich people pay for the same amount

of water.

Tumulamye peace, aged 25 is a tailor renting a one roomed house on the community

hall of Kisenyi III parish, Kampala central division. Kisenyi III parish is just a stone’s

throw from the city centre and because of this proximity to the city centre, the parish

is a popular destination for the urban communities many of whom are in the informal

sector. Before the prepaid meter systems were introduced in Kisenyi III, Peace used to

buy water for her household from a nearby standpipe at a price of UGX 100 per jerrican.

With the introduction of the pre-paid meter, Peace get five jerrican with the same

amount of UGX 100 “I used to bath half a basin but ever since the prepaid water meter

was brought here, I have enough water for bathing. The UGX 300 that my husband

leaves me with for water is more than enough for the whole family.” says Peace.

The prepaid meter system was installed to Kisenyi III as a result of KICHWA intervention,

one of CIDI’s partners in the Governance and Transparency Project. KICHWA had

invited the Mr. John Bosco Otema, to one of the dialogue meeting that discussed the

issue of the high cost of water and were trying to find solutions to the problem. Mr.

Otema who is the manager of the Integrated Project of Water Supply and Sanitation

Services for the Urban Poor (a project supported by a grant to the Government of

Uganda from the World Bank Global

Partnership) was concerned by the

Kisenyi III community need for cheap

and affordable water. He decided

to give the community five prepaid

meters which were originally planned

for Kisenyi II. The communities of

Kisenyi III were so happy about

this cheap cost technology and

in one of their dialogue meetings,

they decided to have a peaceful

match demonstration to show

their appreciating for the five

prepaid meters that they had got

and requesting for more. As a

result of their efforts, they got six

more prepaid meter systems. The

community is eagerly waiting for the

time the project would reach their

area.

Drawing water from a pre-paid metered standpipe

55 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Fatuma Kagolo, 36 years a member of the advocacy committee and a resident of

Kisenyi III parish says that bringing prepaid water system in Kisenyi III has enabled

her community members have easy access to safe and affordable water for their

hygiene and sanitation needs. “The most community members in Kisenyi III are

Muslims, consequently they need more water to cleanse themselves each time they

visit a toilet or before going for their prayers which is a mandatory requirement by

the Muslim faith. She says, ‘buying a jerry can of water at UGX 20 is like getting free

water, we always have enough to fulfil our religious obligations.”

The communities of Kisenyi III are requesting NWSC to scale up the project of pre

paid water meters to cover all urban poor settlements of the city. It should also open

up a number of community based point centres where community members can

easily buy water tokens for the pre-paid meter

4.13 Contributing to good Governance in the WASH

subsector

CSO have undertaken a number of initiatives to promote good governance in the Water and

Sanitation subsector. Good governance approaches have include, WASH Dialogue in the Districts

of Moyo, Adjumani, Nebbi under a NETWAS, CEFORD and IRC partnership); Community Score

Cards (under a NETWAS project in Town Councils of Wobulenzi, Busia and Rukungiri); Learning

for Practice and Policy in Hygiene and Sanitation in Primary Schools and households (LeaPPS)

in the districts of Kyenjojo, Kamwenge, Arua and Koboko under NETWAS in partnership with

HEWASA, FORUD, and Karitas Arua); Community empowerment (JESE, CIDI). The approaches

facilitate discussions between service providers, local policy makers and the beneficiary

communities to bring mutual understanding among them in search for lasting solutions to WASH

related problems and issues improving service delivery, (see Box 4.2 on Opportunity for CSO-

Public Sector synergy for instituting dialogue and accountability and Case studies 4.13

on WASH Governance; 4.14 on enhancing community governance and Case Study 4.15 on

improving governance of a gravity flow scheme.

Box 4.2 Opportunity for CSO-Public Sector synergy for instituting dialogue

and accountability. Source: National Learning Forum 2010/SAWA

The Uganda Water Integrity Network was founded in September 2009 with support

from WIN-Germany after the integrity workshop held in Uganda in 2009. NETWAS was

selected as the host organisation for the network after a selection process. UWIN is

a coalition of Ugandan based organisations that strive to contribute to WASH good

governance through different activities centred on learning, sharing and capacity

development. National and local government officials, politicians, agencies such as

NWSC, CSOs (incl. NGOs in water, transparency, anti-corruption), NGO associations,

private sector associations, academia, and Development Partners use UWIN as a

platform to share and scale up pockets of success in the country; advocate for good

governance and bridge gaps between the different organizations.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 56


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

At every level, there are opportunities for CSO-public sector synergy in instituting

dialogue and accountability. At national level is the National NGO Board, UWASNET

(Policy and Advocacy Working Group), MoWE-Policy/ TSU (Good Governance Working

Group), and the Uganda Water Integrity Network (UWIN). At district level are the

Technical Support Units, WASH Clusters, and UWASNET Regional Coordinating NGOs.

Also at the district level is the District Water Department, District NGO Forum, District

Water and Sanitation Coordination Committees, District Based learning/dialogue

initiatives (LeaPPS, “Kimezas”) and the District Technical Planning Committees. At

the Subcounty level are the Subcounty Water and Sanitation Committee, Subcounty

Technical Planning Committee, and the Local Council III. At parish levels are the

Parish Development Committees, Local Council II, Water User Committees, Local

Council I, Village Health Teams and community Based organizations.

Case Study 4.13

Wash Governance through Dialogue and Concerted Action. Source

CEFORD/NETWAS (U) (National Learning Forum 2010/SAWA

Introduction

The overall objective of the WASH Governance through Dialogue and Concerted Action

project is improved health and productivity in communities, and improved school

attendance and educational results arising from more accountability and responsive

WASH service provision. The project is being implemented in the West Nile Region

in the districts of Adjumani, Moyo, and Nebbi with two subcounties participating

in each district. Target groups include at district level; councillors, district heads,

technocrats, local CSOs and NGOs, private sector, and the media; at Subcounty level,

councillors, subcounty chiefs, technocrats, CSOs, CBOs, associations, groups, and

private sector.

Methodology

The methodology include mapping situation and visioning at districts and subcounties;

assessment planning, service delivery, performance monitoring, present

accountability; creation of dialogue (coupled with capacity building); identification of

best practices; action research for innovation; documenting and sharing (reports/

newsletters, publications on learning and process; publications on good practices,

action research guideline; baseline-monitoring).

There are four focus areas of accountability (Action tool research kit);

i. Water at district ( using the District Planning & Monitoring Map District Gantt Chart);

ii. Sanitation at district ( using the District Planning & Monitoring Map District Gantt

Chart); Water at sub-county and system level (using the Consumers Score Card,

WSSC Self Assessment Card. Joint Score Card and Action Plan); Sanitation at subcounty

level / WASH in primary schools (using the School Children Perception Card,

School Debate).

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Some Project Achievements (at district, subcounty, system level)

• Open discussions/dialogues on accountability between WASH users, providers

and local leaders.

• In Nebbi, revival of DWSCC and of all subcounty WSCCs, and establishment of

two Parish WSCCs.

• Some people started holding leaders and/or district accountable (e.g. in

Mayo).

• Stimulation of local government staff to report/follow up on specific

responsibilities within their mandates.

• WASH has gone onto the local political agenda.

• In Nebbi, subcounties identified and supported a private service provider for

stocking water system spare parts.

Case Study 4.14

Enhanced Community Governance. Source JESE

Introduction

In a bid to enhance community governance and transparency Joint Effort to Save the

Environment (JESE) has registered a best practice in promoting sustainable access

to water and Ecosan for livelihood improvement. Beneficiaries are given Bills of

quantities and oriented on mixture ratios before beginning construction. Water user

committees and school management committees have been formed and empowered

to govern and control the utilization of construction materials. Construction materials

are delivered, stored and signed for by the community in order to monitor their

utilization during water source construction.

JESE has worked through the existing structures like the Village Health Teams and

LC1 committees and community based groups to formulate and enforce by-laws to

ensure proper management of water facilities. JESE engaged district & Sub county

local government officials and beneficiaries in midterm participatory monitoring and

evaluation of the project.

Experience/testimonies

Vigilant members of Mugega, Kabagara and Nyabuliko villages informed JESE that

some of the materials for construction of six shallow wells had been stolen. At

consultative meetings which were promptly organised at village level, it was alleged

by community members that, the Watsan committee vice chair person who was in

charge of storing construction materials had been involved in the misappropriation

of 15 bags of cement. During the meetings members testified how the unused 15

bags of cement and 128 blocks had been misappropriated. They documented all the

processes that led to the recovery of the misappropriated materials. Their minutes

endorsed by village chairpersons and copies were given to the sub county and JESE

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 58


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Lessons learnt

During the process beneficiaries exhibited high level of empowerment by holding

their leaders and service providers (masons) accountable. Community involvement

in all levels of implementation increases beneficiary transparency, control and

accountability during implementation.

Case Study 4.15

Improving governance: Mukunyu Gravity Flow Scheme. Source HEWASA

Mukunyu GFS

Mukunyu GFS was constructed in 2004 and has an 8Km pipeline and a total of 40

gravity flow scheme taps. The scheme serves the two Parishes of Mukunyu and

Butiiti located in Butiiti Sub County, Kyenjojo District. Estimated population of served

is 2,600 people, in 714 households and an additional population of 1,774 people

from six institutions that include a secondary school, a primary school, a teacher’s

college, a health unit, a Parish Church and a prison.

Shortly after it was constructed, the scheme broke down due to technical reasons

and did not work well for the subsequent two years. In 2007, the scheme was

rehabilitated by the District Local Government and started operating normally.

Intervention

HEWASA Programme, in partnership with SNV, WaterAid, the Mid Western Umbrella

Organization, Kyenjojo District Local Government and Butiiti Subcounty local

government undertook the task of strengthening the local management of the scheme.

This involved developing criteria for selection of the water board; the selection of the

tap-stand committees, and a scheme attendant; Training of the Water Boards and

representatives of tap stand Committees, Issuance of ‘seed’ record books and books

of accounts that included household registers, receipt books, payment vouchers and

cash books

Outcome

• Three signatories were identified and a bank account for the scheme was

opened.

• All taps on the scheme have been metered by the Mid Western Umbrella

organization User fees are regularly collected from the users and deposited on

the account. Each household is charged depending on the monthly consumption.

One cubic meter is charged UGX 1,250 i.e. UGX 25 per 20 litre Jerry can for

public and private taps. Institutions are charged UGX 500 per cubic meter of

water consumed

• Regular and timely repairs are carried out by the scheme attendant who is paid

by the board.

59 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

• The board holds regular quarterly meetings and conducts annual general

meetings with the users.

• The board registered with the Mid Western Umbrella Organization and

regularly pays its annual subscription fees.

Improved governance

• Users are issued with receipts upon payment of the user fees.

• The funds collected are banked on the Gfs account.

• Use is made of payment vouchers for all cash expenditures.

• Use is made of the cash book to track income and expenditure of the scheme.

• There is an operational bank account with three signatories.

• Regular quarterly meetings of the board are held to review performance.

• Annual general meetings are held with all the community members to review the

performance of the scheme.

• Public tap stands have been tendered out to private operators to improve on

their management.

Box 4.3 ‘Practicing what we preach’: Plan Uganda certified as credible and

Accountable organisation

On Tuesday 13 th July, 2010 at a function organised by the NGO Forum, Plan Uganda

was honored to be the first and only INGO to receive an ADVANCED Quality Assurance

Mechanism (QuAM) Certificate. Having gone through a self assessment exercise,

Plan Uganda was found to be one of the International NGOs in the country with good

policies thus making it one of the credible and accountable international organisations

in the country.

While handing over the Certificate to Subhadra Belbase, the Country Director Plan

Uganda, the Chairperson of the QuAM Council, Professor Grace K. Bantebya noted

that the recognition signified the maturity and good governance characterised by the

high quality standards exhibited in Plan Uganda’s work.

Plan Uganda went through a rigorous one year exercise that involved examining our

policies, procedures and systems

and more to that interviewing

the communities and partners in

the areas where we work. “While

examining plan procedures, systems

and policies, and having gotten

the feedback that we got from your

partners, it clearly demonstrated that

plan is a transparent, accountable and

professional organization. No wonder

today they are the only organisation

receiving the Advanced Certificate”

Professor Bantebya further noted.

Plan Uganda is a child centred organisation and has been operating in Uganda since

1992. Currently we have progammes in the districts

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 60

Country Director Plan (on the right) receives Advanced

QuaM Certificate


4.14 Activities, outputs, and key result areas

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

This subsection presents a summary of key activities, outputs and result areas arising from

the CSO intervention.

Table 4.6 Activities, outputs and results: Water Supply Sub-sector

Activity Output Results

Borehole construction 374 • Improved access to safe water by

Borehole rehabilitation

and repair

Shallow well

construction

Shallow well

rehabilitation

Spring protection

Spring rehabilitation

Piped water scheme

kiosks/standpipes

Piped water scheme

House connections

RWH Water jars

RWH Water tanks

Installation of water

filters

285

573

145

155

55

951

479

1216

1437

512

a population of 1.98 million; 1.32

million from the rural areas, 0.66

from the urban areas and 0.002

million IDPs.

• Women and children from targeted

homes spend less time fetching

water. More time is spent on

other productive work. Accidents,

abductions, rape and other

associated dangers of going to

fetching water from long distances

are minimized.

• Reduction of diarrheal diseases

and other water and hygiene

related infections as reported by

beneficiary communities.

• At household level, there was an

improvement in domestic relations

especially between spouses.

Availability of water ensured a

reduction in domestic conflicts that

had their genesis in water scarcity

(see Case Study 4.16)

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Case Study 4.16:

Peace in the homes and in community with improved access to safe water

sources. Source JOY Drilling

Brief background;

WASH project has been implemented in Ayer sub county by J.O.Y Drilling in partnership

with Lifewater International funded by Charity Water. One of the villages where the

intervention took place was Abolonyero in Telela parish that had 171 households with

856 people (241 men, 297 women & 318 children). Before intervention, the village

had one functional water point, two

broken wells and an open dry well.

Women and children used to take

six to eight hours queuing for water.

Quarrels and fights often broke out

at the water source. Within homes,

long hours to collect water resulted

into domestic violence and break

ups of families. Furthermore, there

was limited water for domestic

usage, high rates of skin infections

and absenteeism of children from

school. To make matters worse

women had little or no time for

women to engage in other economic

Stella and her friend at the borehole

activities.

Intervention

WASH intervention in 2009 transformed the community through rehabilitation of

two boreholes in the village. JOY Drilling undertook mobilisation and sensitisation

of water users on best hygiene and sanitation practices and trained them on how

to effectively operate and maintain their water and sanitation facilities. Water and

sanitation committees were also elected and trained to operate and maintain the

water sources.

Outcome

Appreciating the outcome of the rehabilitation of the boreholes, Mrs. Stella Oming, a

member of water users in the village observed, “There were three boreholes in the

whole parish but two had broken down. People would wait for a very long time; if you

went at around 8:30 am, you could return late by may be about 4:00pm. Stella and

her friend added that, “at least there is peace in the homes, no struggling for water,

we have enough water now”. The two ladies happily talk about the joy they have in the

village, now that the times when they were dirty and shabby without clean, adequate

and safe water supply in the village are firmly behind them.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 62


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Table 4.7 Activities, outputs and results: Sanitation and Hygiene promotion Sub-sector

Activities Outputs Results

Household

sanitation

and hygiene

promoted

Construction

of public

toilets

Improving

sanitation and

hygiene in

schools

• Household toilet facilities

constructed (21329 traditional

latrines, 130 (No) VIPs,)

• Communities plan for Freedefecation

areas

• New sanitation technologies

11(No.) arbo loos; 20 (No,)

Fossa alternas adopted

• 26,752 (No.) Handwashing

facilities installed

101 (No.) toilet facilities (9

traditional, 49 VIPs, 40 Ecosan,

3 water closets) constructed.

• 506 (No.) handwashing

facilities installed

• IEC kit produced

• Increased demand for

safe sanitation and

hygiene behaviour.

• Access to sanitation

facilities improved

in participating

communities.

• Increased sanitation and

hygiene facilities in target

communities have led to

the reduction of morbidity

and mortality rates

from sanitation related

illnesses.

• Sanitation is being uptaken

as a business.

Farmers are being taught

how to use ecosan

products to improve

agriculture inputs for the

market (see Case Study

4.17: Sanitation as a

Business).

• Ecosan products are

being applied to gardens

and appreciated as

fertilisers (see Case

Study 4.18 Ecosan:

farmers experience)

• Access to public toilet

facilities improved (see

Case Study 4.19 Public

latrine construction)

• Improved sanitation and

hygiene practices in

schools

• School children have

managed to pass the

science subjects much

more than other subjects

due to their practical

participation in the

sanitation clubs

63 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Improving

solid waste

management

Improving

drainage

Case Study 4.17:

• 5,203 (No.) waste disposal

facilities constructed

• 34 Km of drainage channels

constructed/repaired

Sanitation as a Business. Source HEWASA.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 64

• Clean and sanitary

environment for target

communities

Water for People has worked with HEWASA in collaboration with Kyarusozi Sub-county

in Kyenjojo District to introduce the experimental ecosan latrines leading to “Sanitation

as a Business” concept. A similar initiative is being implemented in Nama Subcounty

Mukono district.

“Sanitation as a Business” was a strategy to encourage sustainable household

sanitation interventions by creating lasting relationships between households and

sanitation businesses. An association was formed to bring together stakeholders

in the field of sanitation to promote and develop a programme to advance the use

of “Sanitation as a Business.” The beginning of the ‘’Sanitation as a Business

programme was to encourage ecosan latrines, as they provide households with an

income-creating opportunity through the sale of their manure back to the sanitation

business.

Households that agreed to take on the conditions of the experiment are being taught

how to effectively use their ecosan latrines. Households were given the choice of

several ecosan options and their latrine choice will provide answers to some of the

‘Sanitation Business Development Association’ (SaBDA) questions. The choices they

make will encourage and inspire learning, adoption, and replication, and will help

sanitation businesses understand the market for their products so they can create

effective business plans.

Twelve ecosan latrine demos have been constructed while sensitisation of communities

on the new latrine technologies is on-going. The cultural stigma of associating with

human excreta will be outcompeted but gradually. The existing financial institutions and

leadership structures lay a good foundation for the business to kick off effectively. The

challenge is the supply of construction materials, limited skills in latrine construction

and the initial investment cost that seems unaffordable to some communities.

As a way forward, the communities must be sensitized and market research and

analysis must be carried out. Small entrepreneurial groups must be identified and

trained and good business plans developed.


Case Study 4.18

Ecosan: Farmer’s experience. Source: NETWAS ( U)

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Background

Kasayi village is found in kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono district about 10km from

Mukono town. Coming from a family of nine children, Miss Kairu Agnes was introduced

to farming by her parents at an early age. Her parents had a farm from which they

upheld the family. They used to grow beans, cassava and coffee which they consumed

at home as well as distributed to the local schools for an income.

As a child, Agnes recalls that food was not bought but supplied from the family garden.

By then her parents initially used expensive fertilizers that were sprayed on the crops

and the ground. She however recalls that they later started using animal waste as

fertilizer in their cassava and maize plantations. Now as a grownup, inspired by her

parents, she has her own garden from which she gets an independent income to

provide for her own family. She has been farming for two years now since September

2007.

EcoSan experience, The introduction of EcoSan to Agnes’ Family

The farmer first encountered EcoSan toilets in her childhood. Her auntie who is

married in Ibanda district broke the news of an EcoSan Toilet to Agnes’ mother,

having come accross a banana plantation that was doing well because of using

urine from an Ecosan latrine. An EcoSan mason was introduced to the family and he

constructed the first EcoSan in the home. After seeing this EcoSan at home with her

parent, Agnes thought it was a good idea and she had one constructed for herself.

She learnt from her mum how to collect and mix the urine with water at a ratio of

either 1:4 or 1:3, and how to spray the urine on the crops. In addition she also

learnt how to make compost manure by decomposing faeces and green matter. She

is currently practicing small scale farming but with great hope of going commercial

with a pineapple project.

Access and Application of urine

Urine is got from Biina Primary School in Luzira and from the faculty of technology,

Makerere University, where she purchases a 20litre jerrican of urine at UGX 500

each. For now, she is using urine only but has plans of using the human faecal matter

in the future after her Ecosan Latrine opens for business. The urine is applied three

times before planting as a way of sanitising the ground.

The urine is applied using a knap sack pump to spray it on the garden. Before

application the urine is stored in containers for about a week. The farmer also uses

the animal feacal matter as a supplement to the urine. The urine has been sprayed

on pineapple, cassava, Matooke, and fruits including avocadoes and oranges, which

have all had good yields.

65 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Case Study 4.19

Modern public latrine Construction in Jinja camp; Lira Municipality. Source

Divine Waters Uganda (DWU)

Background

Jinja Camp market in Lira Municipality had no pit latrine. For good measure, there

was no land for continuous pit latrine construction. When DWU asked the market

people where they relieve themselves when nature calls, they replied that they usually

depend on the benevolence of the neighbors -usually at a fee or make sure they relieve

themselves at home before they come to the market. According to data collected,

most market vendors simply relieved themselves in a ‘kavera’ (plastic bags) each

which they would simply toss onto the huge garbage dump just nearby.

Divine Waters intervention

DWU through Ojwina Division leaders mobilised people who are served by the Jinja

camp market. Community sensitization was carried within the community working

with local leaders. A project management committee was selected and with funding

support from WaterAid, DWU was able to construct a modern waterborne public

toilet facility. The Division leaders selected vulnerable persons that included disabled

persons, widows and orphans and the very poor in four villages to further benefit from

construction of 2500litre water jars to ease the burden of accessing safe water. It is

anticipated that the project will improve the livelihood of the beneficiaries.

Table 4.8 Activities, outputs and results: Community Management

Activities Outputs (No.) Results

Training of

community

resource persons/

committees

• 2,500 (No.) WUCs; 11

(No.) Piped Water Scheme

Attendants; 119 (No.)

Hand-pump mechanics;

809 (No.) School teachers

trained

• 1,344 (No.) School

health clubs; 2002 (No.)

Community health clubs

formed and trained

• 382 (No.) artisans for

water facility construction

and 365 (No.) artisan

for sanitation facilities

construction trained

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 66

• Improved performance

of the groups leading to

improved O&M

• Improved hygiene and

pupil-stance ratio in

schools. Old practice of

hygiene parades revived.

• Science teachers

equipped with skills to

enable them follow up

hygiene and sanitation

issues in the school.

• Technology and skills

transfer to communities.


Community

mobilisation/

Sensitisation/

learning

• 3,257 (No.) community

meetings conducted

• 224 (No.) learning events

organised

• Radio talk shows

• Dialogue meetings

Table 4.9 Activities, outputs and results: IWRM and HIV/AIDS mainstreaming.

Activities Outputs Results

IWRM • Supported District

Water and Sanitation

Coordination

Committees (DWSCC)

meetings to include

IWRM awareness as an

agenda item

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

• Stakeholders agreed on

the different roles to be

played during the project

implementation.

• Increased community

participation and

involvement.

• Progress review meetings;

to review the project and

address the identified

gaps.

• Development of

community score cards

• Improved governance and

service delivery in the

WASH sector (see Case

Study 4.15).

• Talk shows as an effective

and interactive platform of

communication.

• Information sharing

leads to efficiency and

effectiveness in service

delivery.

• Improved application of the

IWRM principles to protect

water sources for both schools

and communities (see Box 4.4

Spring protection in Karamoja

region)

• District local governments and

NGOs appreciating the IWRM

principles and integrating them

into their projects.

• Activities identified and

executed in line with the

resources conservation

resulting in catchment

protection

67 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

HIV/AIDS

mainstreaming

• HIV/AIDS sensitization

workshops

• Facilitate voluntary

HIV/AIDS counselling

and testing

• Conduct training

on HIV/AIDS

mainstreaming.

• Trained community

volunteers to

spearhead the

campaign on the

usefulness of staying

in a clean environment

as one way

supplementing on the

effectiveness of ARVs

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 68

• Reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS

(see Case Study 4.20).

• Developed group guideline

on taking affirmative action

for the affected and infected,

and sensitising members on

prevention and stigmatization.

• Improved competency in HIV/

AIDS mainstreaming.

• A comprehensive set of

guidelines, toolkit and training

resources for trainers, homebased

care providers and

programmers were developed

to support WASH integration

in HIV/AIDS home-based care

programming.

Box 4.4: IWRM; spring protection in Karamoja region: Source IICD

Protecting a spring is a very delicate work. For ages springs have watered wild life,

domestic animals, and human beings. Free access to springs makes the difference

between life and death, especially in arid environments and in extremely dry seasons.

Complete diversion of spring water to taps and far from the original place (like is the

case in gravity flow schemes) may create sufferance to animals and human beings

who depend on that spring.

During spring construction, the following must be taken into consideration.

• Since time immemorial, herdsmen, water their animals freely to the spring.

Diverting its water to taps in a far village could cause immediate damage to

everybody concerned and in extreme case may even create conflict.

• Seasonally herdsmen meet near springs not only to water their animals but even

for social and cultural reasons. They cannot do it around the taps in a strange

village: this can create conflict between cultivators and herdsmen.

• In case of unscrupulous assessment of existing social dynamics,, planners can

create conflict among villages, diverting water to one and neglecting the others.

• Denial of access to water can create stress and death to wildlife that for ages,

have relied on that source of water.

Action points

If possible shift to a protected hand dug well, tapping from the same aquifer and

do not touch the spring. If not, plan suitable cattle troughs and human distribution

outlets near the spring if you cannot shift to solutions other than capping and diverting

the spring. Protect the environment upstream of springs and wells to increase their

permanence and yield.

Plan well for wildlife, herdsmen and humans bearing in mind the needs and interests

of each category.


Case Study 4.20

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

HIV/AIDS mainstreaming. Source :Kigezi Diocese Water and Sanitation

Programme

This is a story on how the programme has improved the livelihood of Bakembera John

who is living with HIV.

Bakambera John (30 years) served in the Uganda Armed forces but had to retire

rather early when, in 2009,he tested positive for HIV. John is one of the HIV infected

persons who has benefited from the Programme by having a ferro-cement tank of

4000 litre capacity constructed at his house. John, who is not yet married, lives

with his parents who have unique problems of their own. His father at 74 suffers

from elephantiasis. His mother 65 years is lame in the left arm. John has one sister,

Beatrice who also stays with the family.

The nearest water source was down a steep hill, 3km away, round trip. That in itself

presented a crisis whenever John and Beatrice were away for the simple reason that

while John’s father who could not walk without great difficulty, his mother who could

walk had unfortunate limitation of not being able to ferry water, being lame in one

hand. Johns’ father recalls that, there were times when they completely lacked water

to use at home when John and Beatrice are away. But because of his condition, John

was not much useful both whenever he returned, and he himself admits that he used

to find it difficult to fetch water.

John has been supported by the Programme by getting a referral to Joint Clinical

Research Centre, Kabale, for further counselling and medication. He is now on ARVs

and his health has greatly improved. He is no longer stigmatized. He is able to talk

about his HIV status before his family members.

In his words, John says,

“God loves us, he has given

us water. My parents can

now have enough water. I

am no longer bothered by

the task of water hauling

it up the hill as before!’ He

confesses that he is now

a regular Church attendant

which was not the case

before.

John (with parents) drawing water from tank

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

5 NGO and CBO Contribution to

implementation of the of the 2009

Joint Sector Undertakings

5.1 Introduction

The Joint Sector Review is an annual event that brings together actors in the Water and

Environment Sector. CSOs are active participants on this forum. One of outputs of the JSR are

the Undertakings; recommendation or actions to be implemented in the following financial year.

Where appropriate, civil society organisations in the Water and Sanitation Sector contribute to

the implementation of the Undertakings. This chapter therefore presents the contribution of

CSOs in the implementation of the Undertakings by outlining activities undertaken and providing

case studies that reflect NGO contribution.

5.1.1 Undertaking No. 4: Water Resource Management

Catchment based IWRM is operationalised (2009/10) and funds mobilised for the

establishment of all Water Management Zones by 2010/11 while building synergies

with other regionally based or decentralised sector support structures.

IWRM is often not a focus of most NGOs. Deliberate interventions are required to build the

capacity of NGOs and CBOs to perform WRM functions. However, there has been a pocket of

IWRM related activities by CSOs. These include, community sensitisation on IWRM, translation

of IWRM policy briefs to local language, and radio programmes on IWRM policy (Joy Drilling).

Also included is; IWRM decentralisation at basin level (PROTOS; see Case Study 5.1); Mpanga

River catchment management plan endorsed by the catchment management organisation, as

well as improved application of the IWRM principles to protect water sources for both schools

and communities (SNV).It also features; protection of water supplies maintaining grass cover

around the catchment, advising on farming activities around or near water sources, advising on

upstream pollution of protected springs, construction of cattle troughs to reduce human and

animal conflict to access water (JESE, FORUD) as well as soil conservation education and tree

planting (SOCADIDO).

Case Study 5.1

IWRM steps and Pilot projects River Mpanga. Source PROTOS

Background

In the year 2006 PROTOS, an international NGO with headquarters in Belgium

started the roll out of an IWRM program in the Lake George basin. This program

was initiated by the gathering of data in and around this basin that was useful to

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 70


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

inform the situation of the catchment. At that time the DWRM was in the process of

rolling out pilots on the IWRM in the country; PROTOS then came into partnership

with them for coordination and steering the IWRM process. PROTOS further made

partnerships with SNV and LAGBIMO as organisations that were already active in

the region. From these partnerships key stake holders were brought on board to

form a steering committee that sat to choose rivers within the whole catchment that

needed intervention. At that point River Mpanga was selected and a water situation

analysis for the whole river basin carried out. A stakeholder forum that included most

of the sectors of the districts of Kamwenge, Kabarole and Kyenjojo and civil society

were then invited. The stakeholders came up with four critical problems that needed

intervention, these are: soil erosion, wetland degradation, hydrological monitoring,

and pollution. In this meeting a Catchment Management Committee (CMC) and a

Technical Team (TT) were formed to take up these issues. The TT has been involved

in the drafting of a River Management Plan (RMP) where consultations of different

sectors pertaining activities related to River Mpanga were done. The final RMP will be

endorsed by the CMC for intervention and reviewed annually.

Pilot projects on IWRM

Besides playing the technical and capacity building role, PROTOS started to roll out

pilots projects of the gaps that remained at the basin level and planning for up

scaling. For a year now, PROTOS has carried out school sensitisation with drawing

competitions and a river Mpanga protection launch with the aim of awareness

creation among children in schools neighbouring Mpanga. These efforts were then

consolidated in Kahunga Bunyonyi primary school where Primary six(P.6) pupils were

asked to write short essays, poems and dialogues about the situation of River Mpaga

on the same selected issues. From these compilations a school IWRM hand book

is being worked on to be disseminated in the schools of Kyenjojo, Kamwenge and

Kabarole districts as an English training tool. This activity is being up scaled in the

Subcounty of Bukuuku Kabarole District where a lot of erosion has been identified

and little is being done to mitigate it. Sensitization in schools in Kazingo has been

combined with tree growing in the 20 metres from the river banks of willing landlords

as an intervention to address the severe river bank erosion.

Lessons learnt

• Coordination and partnerships bring many stakeholders together in the

accomplishment of a common task and leads to a first step in setting a common

focus and integrating interventions.

71 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

• The communities know the situations of their environment and the relevance of

protecting the river.

• Law enforcement in the water and environment sector is leading to degradation

of natural resources. It is only through sustainable management of the water

resource that sustainable WASH services can be provided.

5.1.2 Undertaking No. 7: Sanitation

Finalise the guidelines for the conditional grant on sanitation and continue with

enforcement of sanitation ordinances and bye-laws (2009/10), and allocate and

disburse funds for the sanitation grant to the Local Governments (2010/11).

NGOs are not mandated to enforce ordinances and bye-laws. However they have continued to

link with community management structures (such as Water and Sanitation Committees, and

Village Health Committees), Sanitation and Hygiene promotion structures (such as Community

Health Workers), and the local authorities usually at village (LC 1) and Subcounty (LC III) levels

to generate and enforce ordinances and by-laws. A number of campaigns have been conducted

to get political leaders to support sanitation.

5.1.3 Undertaking No. 8: Rural water supply

A revitalized Community Based Maintenance System (CBMS) leading to an improved

functionality rate of water points in 50% of the districts by at least 3 percentage

points by improving the management at community level and at the district level

through;

• Review and update the O&M Framework, & finalize the up-date of the MIS with

respect to functionality ( 2009/10)

• Implementation of the revised O&M framework ( 2010/11)

CSOs have continued to undertake various activities towards increased functionality of rural

water sources. The activities include; community mobilisation meetings; formation, training and

re-training of Water Source Committees, facilitating development and endorsement by higher

authorities of water source bye-laws. The CSOs have also carried out; training and equipping

Hand pump Mechanics and; facilitated the formation of Handpump Mechanics’ Associations.

However lack of government support, poverty among communities, and access to spare parts,

remain huge challenges to functionality of rural water sources.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 72


6 Challenges and

recommendations

6.1 Introduction

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

In the course of implementing their programmes and projects, NGOs and CBOs meet a number

of challenges. Some are unique to particular organisations (like high staff turn-over forexample)

while others cut across the board within the sub-sector or within a particular region. This chapter

presents major challenges that, in some cases, need a review of the existing related policy

provision. Also presented in the chapter are some key lessons learnt and recommendations.

6.2 Challenges

A number of challenges have either been met or observed during the FY 2009/10.

6.2.1 Inadequate household income and the CBMS

In Northern Uganda in particular and other areas of country in general, the family income is

still very low for the majority of Ugandan families. This raises the challenges for CBMS for

rural water sources that demands that communities make contribution to buy spares parts,

to replace broken or worn-off parts as well as pay the HPM who conducts repairs. Although

there is no empirical data to back up the argument, field reports indicate that lack of ability to

pay compromises the effectiveness of the CBMS with the result that functionality of developed

water supply sources is still below acceptable levels. The challenge of lack of ability to pay is

compounded by the reduction in the drive to offer voluntary work (See Box 6.1 on sustainability

issues). For rural piped water systems, a cost tracking study indicated that although the

communities may meet the cost of operating the systems, additional cost are necessary to

covers replacements and renovation that are necessary after a few years of operation, and

that are often beyond the capacity of the community and to cover the costs related to direct

support as in follow up visits, community mobilisation, capacity building of committees and

water seminars/training of management committees (see Case Study 6.1 Costs tracking of

rural water projects)

6.2.2 Supply chain for construction equipment and materials

Accessing construction equipment and materials poses a challenge while delivering WASH

services especially under the self-supply initiative. In Bugiri for example, communities would

wish to construct rainwater tanks but they are hampered by lack of basic construction materials

like gutters that can only be accessed from relatively large towns. As is the case in stocking

of the spare parts for handpumps, business entrepreneurs are hesitant to stock materials

that are likely to stay in stock for a long time. The challenge is creating enough demand

for such materials and to interest businesses to stock the relevant materials. An associated

challenge is accessing materials to set up demonstrations as a way of generating demand for

the technology uptake.

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

6.2.3 Vulnerable household and the ‘no subsidy’ policy

In many communities across the country, there exist vulnerable households characterised by

the very low or no household income, the elderly, single parent families and families where

children are heads of households as a result of the AIDS scourge or as a result of having lost

their parents during the insurgency or any other tragedies. Often these households have no

capacity to construct sanitation facilities as in a traditional pit latrine, the lowest acceptable

level of human excreta disposal facility. This presents a major problem given the GoU policy of

zero subsidy for household sanitation. This is an area which needs to be examined critically

by MWE, MoH, District Local Governments and NGOS. It should be tabled as an issue for the

National Sanitation Working Group (see Case Study 6.2; Targeting the vulnerable)

6.2.4 Low priority for sanitation

Sanitation continues to receive low priority at all levels with inadequate budget allocations

and financing mechanisms. Development of sanitation related ordinances and by-laws and

enforcement of existing laws and regulations is still inadequate at all levels. Existing laws and

regulation remain largely unknown. Campaigns have been conducted urging political leaders to

place sanitation and hygiene improvement on the priority list (see Case Study 6.3).

6.2.5 Financing rainwater harvesting

Domestic rainwater harvesting requires a hard roof, and finance. This has been a major

challenge in the roll out of these technologies, specially reaching the poor. There are no micro

finance options available to households to purchase a RWH tank (other than Crestank- Finca).

As in agriculture where farmers receive soft loans to conduct farming activities, households

should be able to access soft loans to improve their access safe water and sanitation facilities

given the economic benefits that accrue there from.

6.2.6 Framework for cooperation between CSO and MoWE not

operationalised

A framework for cooperation between CSO and MoWE was developed by the MoWE in consultation

with CSOs. The framework set out modalities of cooperation between CSO and the MoWE and

clarifies on how CSO may work with local governments to deliver Water and sanitation services.

This framework however has not been operationalised as much as it has not been widely

disseminated among stakeholders (district local governments and CSOs) leaving ambiguities

in CSOs and LG relationships.

6.2.7 Inadequate reporting by CSO

Inadequate reporting and the associated lack of transparency and accountability remain a

challenge. Research-based reporting by most CSOs remains a challenge. This calls for capacity

building of CSOs and to interest CSOs to invest in research work. CSOs should strive for Quality

Assurance Mechanism (QuAM) to be credible and accountable (see Box 6.2). NGOs and CBOs

play the role of watchdog, monitoring the services of government and calling for transparency

and accountability. To effectively play this role CSOs need to be accountable and transparent.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 74


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Box 6.1: Reflecting on sustainability of rural water services: Source Triple

–S Uganda

On 4 th August 2010, it was reported in The New Vision that over 140 boreholes

worth over UGX2.8 billion had been abandoned in Arua District after they broke

down. Quoting the district Chief Administrative Officer, the report said that out of

the 706 boreholes in the district, 146 were non-functional, while about 562 were

operational but on their last legs. It’s inconceivable the number of people affected by

the breakdown of 146 boreholes.

Cases of non-functional rural water facilities abound. Statistics of Water and

Environment Sector Performance Report 2008/2009 indicate that functionality of

rural water sources has stagnated at 80%-83% for the last five years. Meanwhile

investment in new water sources continues. The Water and Environment sector

performance report indicates that in 2008/2009 alone, a total of 2,604 water points

were constructed under the District Water and Sanitation Development Conditional

Grant. In the same year, NGOs and CBOs collectively constructed 2238 rural water

sources. This ensured access to safe water for an additional 900,000 people in

rural areas. By 2009, the rate of access to safe water in rural areas was at 65%, an

increase from 63% in 2008.

But with the non-functionality rate nearly 15%, there is a number of people who

continuously lose access to safe water. Unfortunately, these are mostly in the rural

areas. If not reversed, this trend is likely to result into the reversal of the gains

that have been made in terms of access to safe water in rural areas. In its golden

indicator No.2, the Ministry of Water and Environment commits to reach a target of

90% functionality rate by financial year 2014/15. What strategies are in place to

achieve, even over shoot that target?

The challenge is not so much about raising the functionality rate to 100% as it is

about addressing the impediments to sustainable functionality of water services.

What are the impediments to sustainable rural water services?

Sustainability is largely about community ownership of the water service. Communities

have become disengaged from the process and ownership of the systems may be very

low; politicians and local elites interfere, promising free water for all and undermining

community efforts. In addition, there is the issue of user fees, which are hard to

collect and are often abused by the collectors. Moreover the water user committees

are voluntary which often demoralizes the members.

Sustainability is also about technology choice. Technologies keep changing.

Some may be modified to suit prevailing times while others may be overtaken by

development and rendered obsolete. There is a whole host of problems associated

with functionality of technologies including systems on their last legs; inappropriate

technologies used; laxity in construction supervision; failing spare part chains; low

quality of construction; inadequate operations and maintenance provisions; and

vandalism. These all have a bearing on sustainability of water supply.

Sometimes sustainability may be affected by the cost of production. For example,

some areas have poor quality water and therefore, for every source developed

treatment will be required. This makes the investment too high and simple technology

is thus made complicated, which creates a sustainability problem.

75 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Exogenous factors including seasonal and long-term changes in local water availability

may also create a sustainability problem. A scoping study for the inception of the

Triple-S Initiative conducted by NETWAS indicated that in many rural areas functionality

of systems is contingent upon the season. Many water sources are functional during

the rainy season but not in the dry season. The breakdown of water sources is more

frequent during the dry season because of overuse.

Limited institutional capacity is manifested by the staffing gaps at district level,

and this is made worse by the limited capacity of the private sector to cope with

increased water supply activities. The ever soaring number of districts increases the

capacity challenge. Coupled with inadequate funding for the rural water sub-sector,

these challenges have incapacitated rural water efforts and made sustainability of

water services ever more elusive. The 2009 sector Performance Report shows that

the national budgetary allocation for funding for the Water and Sanitation sub-sector

has declined over the last five years from 4.9% in 2004/05 to 2.4% in 2008/09.

Another challenge arises from the inadequate harmonisation and coordination. There

are many players in the sector, both government and non government. Once these

are not properly coordinated, sustainability will be affected. Thankfully, Uganda

has developed a relatively strong service delivery framework for the provision of

new services and strong coordination and synchronisation structures. The process

of decentralisation and transfer of responsibility for service provision to district

authorities is well structured and relatively advanced, despite suffering from a number

of challenges.

It is worth noting that what lies at the heart of these challenges are attitudes and

behaviours. Reliable and functional rural water supply services can be provided at

scale in Uganda, if a change in capacities and attitudes, at different levels in the

sector can be engineered. This calls for new thinking on where and how to invest

resources. This can be done through a process of learning and research. Learning

is about sharing information and knowledge and is a fundamental pre-requisite of

performance improvement. Learning also contributes to better use of resources and

this is vital in the current context of static or shrinking sector investments.

It is this rigorous learning process that the Triple-S Initiative sets out to pursue.

Triple-S is a research and learning initiative of the International Water and Sanitation

Centre (IRC). It aims to pilot and test new ways of working for the delivery of rural

water services in Uganda. The initiative is structured around a consortium comprising

DWD/Rural Water Department, NETWAS Uganda, UWASNET and SNV.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 76


Case Study 6.1

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Cost tracking of rural water projects. Source Fontes Foundation Uganda

Background

Fontes Foundation (www.fontes.no) is a small, Norwegian NGO that together with

its counterpart in Uganda, Fontes Foundation Uganda, has been supporting water,

sanitation, education and environment projects in Western Uganda since 2004.

Working with the districts and local communities, Fontes Foundation has installed

piped water supply systems in Katunguru, Kazinga and Kisenyi fishing villages Rubirizi

District. The water systems are small piped water systems that extract surface water

which is treated using simple treatment plants. The systems are operated through

a modality of the community management approach, where water committees are

paid sitting allowance. The local technicians and caretakers/tap-attendants are given

a small remuneration at the end of the month. A jerrycan costs between UGX50

and UGX100. Fontes Foundation has a local employee that gives technical support,

and follows up the projects regularly with capacity building of water committees.

Based on the categories set out by WASHCost (see www.washcost.info, Fonseca

et al 2010 7 ), the organisation recently carried out a cost-tracking exercise to gain

a better understanding of the Life-Cycle Costs (LCC) of rural water projects. The

data was collected from the organisation’s accountability, budgets, local transfer

documents, monthly reports filled out by the water committees, travel reports and

some estimates. Four basic expenditures were monitored

i. Operational Expenditure (OpEx).

ii. Capital expenses (CapEx) covers expenditures on new investments such as new

taps, expansions.

iii. Capital Maintenance Expenditure (CapManEx) covers costs such as replacements

and renovation that are necessary after a few years of operation, and that are

often beyond the capacity of the community.

iv. Expenditure on Direct Support (ExpDS) covers administration and salaries in

Norway and Uganda, as well as follow up visits, community mobilisation, capacity

building of committees and water seminars.

Findings

The graph shows the costs broken down in the categories set out by WASHCost.

Only operational expenditures

(OpEx) are entirely covered by the

community; the other categories

are mostly paid by the NGO, local

government and other partners

such as Uganda Wildlife Authority.

The Expenditure on Direct Support

(ExpDS) is relatively high; however

the organisation has found this

to be crucial for functionality.

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

Expenditure in UGX

(Million)

0

7 Fonseca, C., Franceys, R., Batchelor, C., McIntyre, P., Klutse, A., Komives, K., Moriarty, P., Naafs, A., Nyaro, K., Pezon, C., Potter,

A., Reddy, R. And Snehalatha, M. (2010) Life-cycle costs approach Katunguru – glossary and components, Kazinga WASHCost KisenyiBriefing

note 1, IRC

International Water and Sanitation Centre

CapEx

CapManEx

OpEx

ExpDS

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Even if communities are able to cover operation and maintenance costs, they still

need continuous training, follow up and motivation in order to keep the financial

management sound and transparent. In addition, they need financial support to cover

Capital Maintenance Expenditure (CapManEx).

The cost-tracking exercise shows that even though the communities are able to cover

operation and maintenance costs, they still need continuous support in form of

capacity building (ExpDS) and financial means (CapManEx) in order for the systems

to keep running. On average, each of the three projects needed 32 million UGX

in the financial year 2009-10 for Capital Maintenance Expenditure (CapManEx) and

Expenditure on Direct Support (ExpDS). In the case of Fontes Foundation, the NGO

is taking over most of these costs, with small contributions from the community,

local government and other partners. However, in most rural water systems there

are no support mechanisms to cover these costs. This should be taken into account

when considering if the community management model is the most efficient way of

managing rural water supplies, or if there are more cost-effective alternatives through

government or the private sector. At the same time, the resources spent on mobilising

and training community members also have a number of positive side-effects on

development, health and community organisation. Only when these externalities

are fully considered and included in the cost-benefit analysis, the real effectiveness

of community management can be understood. The complete results of the costtracking

study will be presented at a Symposium in the Hague, the Netherlands, in

November 2010.

Case Study 6.2

Targeting the vulnerable. Source VAD

Background

‘Your Donation brings good life to my family’. Ms Nantulo Deborah of Mulume village,

Kanzize parish in Masuliita Sub county is certainly in good moods as she narrates the

story to one of the VAD project staff. Ms Nantulo aged 87 is one of the elderly women

in Mulume village of Masuliita Subcounty who were supported by VAD with funds from

Aidlink Ireland to acquire a water jar and an improved pit latrine in her home.

Deborah tells her story

“I am such an elderly person who had lost hope of living in a good health environment

and have access to clean safe water at my door step”. She begins, “I stay with nine

grand children; five girls and four boys.

“Out of the nine grand children, five are orphans whose parents died of HIV/AIDS

many years back. I am such a helpless person with a poor un-safe latrine. It is not

my pride at all to have such a poor latrine and to be in a poor sanitation situation but

I have nothing to do because my children died long ago and left me with no help at

all”.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 78


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

‘In such a worrying situation, there came good Samaritan people Voluntary Action for

Development (VAD) and supported me with two stance VIP latrine with a wash room

and a rain harvesting water jar of 2,500 liters. It was indeed a miracle to me. Iam

very happy to say that there is no more shame in my family”.

“ I have an excellent VIP latrine where you can even go and have no worry. I get

visitors and I no longer have shame for my latrine if at all they want to use it. I access

clean water as well. We drink boiled water and my grand children no longer trek long

distances for clean water for domestic use. We live happily, we enjoy every bit of life

and though 87 years I still have hope of living longer. Water is Life”.

“I want to take this very opportunity to appreciate everyone who has ensured this

happen to bring about hope in my home; LC 1 Chair person-Mr. Ssempijja Vincent of

Mulume village and the Mulume community who elected me to be a beneficiary. For

VAD am just speechless because they have done a lot to me which I can never forget,

lastly but not least to thank; Aidlink who gave me this donation.

Long live all my Good Samaritan. May God reward you abundantly.

Case Study 6.3

Sanitation promotion through campaigns. Source WaterAid Uganda

Introduction

WaterAid in Uganda is using campaigns to put water, sanitation and hygiene on the

political and public agenda. On March 22, 2010 – a day commemorated world wide

as the World Water Day and climax of the National Sanitation Week here in Uganda,

Water Aid working together with the Kawempe Division local government and partner

NGOs in the area mobilised close to 3000 pupils from the informal settlements of

the Division to queue up in solidarity with the 2.6 billion people across the world that

still lack access to a safe and dignified toilet.

This was part of the World’s Longest Toilet Queue – a global campaign bringing

together thousands of people from across the world to raise attention to the sanitation

and water crisis.

Campaign activities

For the whole month, WaterAid in Uganda partners carried out house to house

community sensitisation, conducted clean ups and also mobilised school to join in

the world record-breaking symbolic toilet queue to urge the Uganda government to

tackle the national hygiene and sanitation crisis.

In Kawempe and Wakiso district, campaigners queued with placards before marching

through the city suburbs and market areas urging their local leaders and government

to make sanitation and hygiene a priority in planning and resource allocation at all

levels.

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Lessons learnt

Public campaigns are very helpful in attracting the media. The event was covered by a

number of media houses ,which helps in putting WASH issues high on public agenda

and at the same time making the sanitation message resonate deep into the hearts

of the general public.

Involving children in sanitation promotion campaigns make them appreciate the need

for good hygiene and sanitation in their lives. They become good sanitation and

hygiene ambassadors with lifelong skills to bring about behavioural change in their

communities.

6.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations are based on the challenges and issues highlighted in this

report.

SN Issue Recommendation

1. CBMS • Review the CBMS strategy in light of levels of

functionality of rural water sources and the

problems associated with CBMS. Consider a

conditional grant for maintenance of rural water

sources and the management of rural water supply

through management contracts with private sector

organisations with communities playing a monitoring

role. As a further step towards improving functionality,

there should be support of handpump mechanics

and advocacy for formation of Handpump mechanics

associations as well as case documentation of

successful O&M stories/strategies

2. No subsidy policy

for sanitation

• Consider a review of the government ‘no subsidy’ for

household policy to cater for the needy and vulnerable

families/households.

3. Financing • There is need to increase sector financing to

ensure realisation of the MDG goal of ensuring the

achievement of MDG target on access to water and

improved sanitation by 2015. Expedite the process

of refining the procurement policy such that NGOs/

CBOs can participate in bidding for contracts

and consultancies at the district and lower local

government levels.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 80


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

• Need for the government to have direct funding for

NGOs and CBOs in the Water and Sanitation Sector for,

utilising the CSOs technical knowledge and resources

in areas where NGOs have demonstrated proficiency

(as in software activities) while complementing

government effort to attain sector goals and targets.

The approach advocated for is as under Ministry of

Health where Government of Uganda makes direct

funding to CSOs to provide health services through

health units and outreach service. Such resources

for CSOs in Water and Sanitation Sector would be

channelled through UWASNET.

• Develop financing system for domestic rainwater

harvesting (micro finance) to further popularise the

rainwater harvesting technology and make it more

affordable.

4. Quality Assurance • Capacity building for CSOs in the area of

documentation, reporting, transparency and

accountability as well as continuous QuAM. UWASNET

to operationalise the accountability and transparency

code of conduct.

5. Operationalising

the framework for

cooperation

• Disseminate the Framework of Cooperation between

CSO in the Water and Sanitation subsector and Local

Governments and operationalise the framework,

setting targets and indicators for its monitoring.

6. Equity • More emphasis on equity in resources allocation

and service delivery recognizing the most vulnerable.

Conditional grants should target ensuring equity within

the districts.

7. NGO/CBO

participation in

district planning

meetings.

• Develop indicators to monitor NGO and CBO

participation in District Water and Sanitation

Coordination meetings/activities. CSO participation in

DWSCC to be part of the CSO reporting.

8. IWRM • Capacity building on IWRM among NGO/CBO through

training and sharing

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Annex 1 Key sub-sector Institutions

and Responsibilities

Institution Key responsibility

Community

based

structures.

NGOs, CBOs.

Local

Government.

Private

operators.

Directorate

of Water

Resources

Management.

DWRM

Responsible for demanding, planning, contributing a cash contribution

to capital cost, and O&M of rural water supply and water for production

facilities. A community management committee is established at each

water point. A similar committee is established for each Water for

Production facility.

and the private sector are active in the provision of water and sanitation

services (construction of facilities, community mobilisation, providing

operational and maintenance services, training of communities and local

Governments, hygiene promotion as well as advocacy and lobbying)

Districts and Sub-Counties are empowered by the Local Governments

Act (2000) for the provision of water and sanitation services. They

receive funding from the centre in the form of a conditional grant and

can also mobilise additional local resources for water and sanitation

programmes. Rural water supply and small scale water for production

planning, implementation management and monitoring is delegated to

the district water offices and the DWSCC.

The private sector, e.g. consultants, contractors, water operators,

suppliers, etc. contribute to the development and performance of the

sector by providing services on demand. Water operators have formed

an Association for Private Water Operators. Consultants and contractors

are registered with professional bodies that regulate industry and

commerce. At the informal level artisans provide essential building

and maintenance services.

Responsible for management of the nation’s water resources and

undertakes the following key functions: i)monitoring and assessing

the quality and quantity of water resources; ii) storing, processing

and disseminating water resources data and information to users; iii)

providing advice and guidance to water development programmes; iv)

providing advice on management of trans-boundary water resources

relating to Lake Victoria and the River Nile under the auspices of the

East African Community, Nile Basin Initiatives and the African Ministers’

Council on Water ; and, v) regulating water use through issuing of water

permits and providing water quality analytical services.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 82


Institution Key responsibility

Directorate

of Water

Development.

National Water

and Sewerage

Cooperation.

Ministry of

Finance,

Planning and

Economic

Development

Ministry of

Health.

Ministry of

Water and

Environment.

Ministry

of Local

Government.

Ministry of

Education and

Sport.

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

DWD is responsible for providing overall technical oversight for the

planning, implementation and supervision of the delivery of rural and

urban water services across the country as well as ensuring water for

production. DWD is responsible for regulation of provision of water supply

and sanitation services and the provision of capacity development and

other support services to Local Governments, Private Operators and

other service providers.

NWSC is an autonomous para-state entity established in 1972,

responsible for the delivery of water supply and sewerage services in 19

large urban centres with a total population of over 2.1 million. NWSC’s

activities are aimed at expanding service coverage, improving efficiency

in service delivery and increasing labour productivity

MFPED mobilises funds, allocates them to sectors and coordinates

donor inputs. MFPED reviews sector plans as a basis for releasing

allocated funds, and reports on compliance with sector objectives.

MFPED provides a rolling Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF)

to allow systematic and consistent multiyear planning at sector level.

MoH is responsible for hygiene promotion and household sanitation.

The Environmental Health Division (EHD) is the main part of the MoH

responsible for the development / initiation of sanitation and hygiene

promotion strategies and approaches and for the provision of support

to the decentralised structures.

MWE has overall responsibility for initiating national policies and for

setting national standards and priorities for W&S development and

management. The MWE is responsible for integrated planning with

other relevant line ministries in the water sector (e.g. via the MoU on

Sanitation and the MoU on WfP).

MoLG is responsible for regulating and ensuring a transparent and

effective governance environment for local government. It is also

responsible for supporting the districts and sub-district units to build up

their capacity and it offers support in the form of training courses and

on-site coaching. MoLG regularly monitors local government as part of

its decentralisation strategy.

MoES is responsible for hygiene promotion and sanitation in primary

schools, to ensure that schools have the required sanitation facilities

and provide hygiene education to the pupils. It also promotes harvesting

of rainwater for hand washing after latrine use.

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Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Institution Key responsibility

Ministry of

Agriculture,

Animal Industry

and Fisheries.

Ministry of

Gender, Labour

and Social

Development.

Water,

Sanitation and

Environment

Sector Working

Group.

Water Policy

Committee.

Annual

GOU/Donor

Joint Sector

Reviews.

MAAIF spearheads agricultural development through its Plan for

Modernisation of Agriculture and holds the responsibility for water

use management in relation to Water for Production including the onfarm

use and management of water for production (irrigation, animal

production and aquaculture). The MoU between the MWE and MAAIF

defines the shared and separated responsibilities in the field of Water

for Production (WfP).

MoGLSD is responsible for gender responsiveness and community

development/mobilisation. It assists the sector in gender responsive

policy development, and supports Districts to build staff capacity to

implement sector programmes.

The overall coordination of the sector is undertaken by the Water and

Sanitation Sector Working Group. The group is chaired by the Permanent

Secretary of MWE meets at least every quarter and provides policy and

technical guidance for sector development in the country. It comprises

representatives from MWE, NWSC, MoH, MoES, MoFPED, DPs and

NGOs (represented by UWASNET). Two sub-sector working groups have

been established for Water for Production (WfP) and Sanitation . These

sub-sector working groups report to the WSSWG

The WPC is stipulated in the Water Statute (1995). The membership

includes government ministries, and representatives from district local

governments, private sector and NGOs. The WPC advises on water

policy, standards for service delivery, and priorities for water resources

management. The WPC also advises on revisions to legislation and

regulations for water resources and also coordinates formulation of

international water resources policy.

The JSRs are held and have the following objectives: i) Progress and

performance of the sector is assessed in relation to 10 key sector

performance golden indicators, ii) Agreement is reached on key strategic

policy issues, and iii) Guidance is provided for resource allocation and

use with particular emphasis on accountability and transparency. JSRs

will continue to been held annually with annual Joint Technical Reviews

(JTRs) held midway.

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 84


Annex 2 Water and Sanitation

NGOs and CBOs

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

The table below presents Water and Sanitation NGOs that submitted data, specifying

their investment in water and sanitation services and the populations served as well as

organisations from which no data was received. This format was introduced in the 2009 Water

and Environmental Sector Performance Report to acknowledge the need for NGOs to be more

transparent and accountable, and encourage organisations to submit data.

85 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


NGO and CBO WASH Investment and population served 2009/10

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

Abarilela community Dev’t Organisation Amuria 21,600,000 13,080,000 6,000

Action Against Hunger (ACF) Lira 12,550,000 24,259,000 24,700

No data reported

Action for Slum Health and Development

(ASD)

African Evangelistic Enterprise (AEE) Kampala 58,100,000 84,240,000 2,900

66,000,000 494,400,000 Not indicated

Africare Uganda Ntungamo, Isingiro, Kabarole, Buliisa,

Bundibugyo, Hoima, Kamwenge, Kasese,

Kibaale, Kyenjojo, Masindi, Soroti,

Amuria, Kaberamaido, Budaka, Wakiso,

Kawempe, Kabale, Isingiro, Mbarara,

Masaka, Mpigi, Kiboga, Mubende,

Bushenyi, Mukono, Kamuli, Iganga,

Tororo, Mbale, Kumi, Pallisa, Arua,

Nebbi, Lira, Dokolo, Katakwi, Abim

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 86

No data reported

Agency for Accelerated Regional

Development (AFARD)

Agency For Capacity Building Kampala 33,833,900 31,629,084 63,300

Kabarole 28,200,000 15,700,000 1,900

Agency For Community Development and

welfare

439,230,661 419,523,006 36,700

Mbarara, Isingiro, Kiruhura, Rakai,

Rukungiri, Kisoro, Kanungu, Gulu

Agency For cooperation and Research in

Development (ACORD)


Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

Aktion Afrika Hilfe e.v. No data reported

All Nations Christian Care Lira 227,840,000 187,142,000 4,900

No data reported

Allied Support for Rural Empowerment

and Development (ASURED)

Ankole Diocese Mbarara 909,000,000 909,000,000 15,600

Apac Town Community Association No data reported

Aquafund International (U)LTD Gulu, Amuru 103,500,000 97,100,000 Not indicated

Arbeiter-Samariter Bund (ASB) No data reported

ARISE Ntugamo 38,800,000 27,200,000 100

No data reported

Arua Rural Community Development

(ARCOD)

No data reported

Association for Social Economic

Development

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

No data reported

Association of Ugandan Professional

Women in Agriculture and Environment

(AUPWAE)

AVSI Foundation Kitgum, Pader 508,000,000 575,250,000 87,900

Ayiv Youth Effort for Development Arua 5,000,000 5,000,000 Not indicated

Arua 4,200,000 9,175,000 3,600

Bileafe Rural Development Association

(BLRU.DE.AS)

Bororiet Tap Kaa Riwo No data reported

87 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

No data reported

Buganda Cultural and Development

Organisation (BUCADEF)

Build Africa Uganda No data reported

Bukedea Development Foundation No data reported

Buso Foundation No data reported

487,853,000 483,308,950 32,800

Busoga Trust Jinja , Kamuli, Buyende, Kaliro, Mpigi,

Luwero, Masindi, Buliisa, Mayuge

No data reported

Buvuma Islands L V & Community

Protection Association (BULVECPA)

No data reported

Canadian Physicians for Aid and Relief

(CPAR)

CARE International - Lira Lira 175,500,000 164,520,000 14,200

CARITAS Arua Arua Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 88

CARITAS Gulu No data reported

CARITAS Lira No data reported

CARITAS MADDO Masaka, Rakai, Ssembabule 174,682,000 143,600,720 20,200

27,300,000 24,300,000 22,700

CARITAS Mbarara Mbarara, Bushenyi, Isingiro, Ibanda,

Ntungamo, Kiruhura

CARITAS Mityana SDD No data reported

Otuke 175,293,478 179,805,978 1,600

Catholic Relief Services/Uganda

Program


Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

CESVI International Pader 596,908,000 596,908,000 126,100

CESVI UGANDA (Kaabong Field Office) Kaabong 33,600,000 5,000,000 Not indicated

CHILDREN VISION UGANDA (CVU) Rakai. Kampala Not indicated 34,000,000 Not indicated

No data reported

Christ the King Health and Support Care

Centre for the Needy

Christian Children Fund No data reported

Christian Engineers in Development Kabale 281,824,546 288,009,500 Not indicated

No data reported

Christian Women and Youth (CWAY)

Development Alliance

Sironko, Mbale, Pallisa, Manafa 82,600,000 10,000,000 15,100

Christian Women And Youth Development

Alliance

Ciforo Womens Association Adjumani 4,725,000 3,734,000 700

Community Development Action (CDA) No data reported

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Community Health Concern Kampala 150,000 150,000 -

No data reported

Community Initiative for the

Empowerment of Vulnerable People

(CIVOFVP)

Kampala 343,200,000 239,920,000 89,400

Community Intergrated Development

Initiatives (CIDI)

Compassion International (CI) No data reported

CONCERN Worldwide No data 827,756,960 Not indicated 280,300

89 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

No data reported

Conservation and Development of

Peoples Initiative (CODEPI)

Cooperazione Internationale (COOPI) No data reported

No data reported

Conservation Effort for Community

Development (CECOD)

Lira, Otuke, Apach, Kapchorwa 207,872,000 165,429,340 18,600

Deliverance Church Uganda - J.O.Y

Drilling Program

No data reported

Development Foundation for Rural Areas

(DEFORA)

Divine waters Uganda Lira 382,895,000 457,689,650 125,200

Ecological Christian Organisation (ECO) No data reported

No data reported

Efforts Integrated Development

Foundation (EINTEDEF)

Emesco Development Foundation No data reported

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 90

No data reported

Environmental Teachers Association

(ENVITA)

Fairland Foundation No data reported

FIRD Kotido No data reported

Kabarole, Kamwenge 173,876,109 171,683,209 4,300

Foundation For Rural Development (

FORUD )

Gabula Attude Women’s Group No data reported

No data reported

Gisorora Twubake Association (GTA)


Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

GOAL UGANDA Abim, Pader 709,746,000 1,071,616,000 59,000

Kasese 10,400,000 6,569,000 Not indicated

Good Hope Foundation For Rural

Development

Kisoro Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated

Good Samaritan Community

Development Programme (GOSAP)

Grassland Foundation Wakiso 105,700,000 79,000,000 Not indicated

Healthy Environment For All (HEFA) No data reported

624,995,887 622,285,087 14,700

Kamwenge, Kyenjojo, Kyegegwa.

Kabarole, Bundibugyo, Ntoroko

Health Through Water and Sanitation

(HEWASA)

Hope for Orphans (HOFO) [Kanungu] No data reported

Hope for Youth – Uganda No data reported

Karamoja Region 2,540,362,500 2,524,362,500 444,100

Institute For International Cooperation

And Dev’t

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

No data reported

Integrated Family Development Initiatives

(IFDI)

No data reported

Integrated Health and Development

Organisation

Integrated Rural Development Initiative No data reported

International Aid Services Pader 390,500,000 388,000,000 10,000

International Life Line Fund Lira, Oyam, Otuke - 289,497,100 -

International Rescue Committee No data reported

91 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

No data reported

International Water and Sanitation

Centre

No data reported

Jinja Diocese Development Organisation

(JIDDECO)

Kamwenge, Kyenjojo, Kyegegwa 230,787,000 173,102,000 11,700

Joint Effort To Save The Environment

(JESE)

No data reported

Kagadi Women and Development

Association (KWDA)

No data reported

Kagando Rural Development

Organisation

No data reported

Kamuli Community Development

Foundation (KACODEF)

No data reported

Kamwokya Community Health and

Environmental Association (KACHEPA)

Kaproron PHC Programme Kween 3,106,000 23,950,000 4,500

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 92

Kasese Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated

Karambi Action For Life improvement(

KALI)

Karamoja, Nakapiripirit, 62,400,000 45,200,000 132,700

Karamoja Agro-pastoral development

Programme (KADP)

45,500,000 9,200,000 508,300

Karamoja Diocess Dev’t Services Kotido, Abim, Kaabong, Moroto, Napak,

Nakapiripiriti, Amudat

Kasanga PHC/CBHC No data reported

Katosi Women Development Trust Mukono 74,172,000 151,320,000 2,100


Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

No data reported

Kibaale Youth and Women Development

Agency

Kibuku Rural Development Initiative Kibuku 12,750,000 2,175,000 Not indicated

Kabale 808,345,243 768,537,735 15,900

Kigezi Diocese Water and Sanitation

Programme

Kanungu 495,880,000 511,094,000 Not indicated

Kinkizi Intergrated Rural Dev’t

Programme

Kampala 1,600,000 1,600,000 Not indicated

Kisenyi Community Health Workers

Association (KICHWA)

No data reported

Kisomoro Tweyombeke Farmers

Association

Kitovu Mobile AIDS Organisation Masaka, Rakai, Ssembabule, Lyantonde 6,720,000 6,720,000 6,800

Kumi Human Rights Initiative (KHRI) Kumi, Bukedea, Ngora 7,250,000 5,300,000 Not indicated

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Kumi, Bukedea, Ngora 39,840,000 17,490,000 700

Kumi Pentecostal Assemblies Of God

Planning And Dev’t Secretariat

Mpigi 54,540,000 59,441,260 Not indicated

Kyakulumbye Development (Foundation

KDF)

Kyera Farm Training Centre Isingiro, Mbarara Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated

Mukono 350,250,000 135,806,000 4,000

Kyetume Community Based Health Care

Programme

No data reported

Kyosiga Community Christian Association

for Development

93 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector

Link To Progress (LTP) Lira 1,519,188,000 1,339,000,000 35,600


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

125,500,000 353,500,000 189,600

LIPRO Uganda Bushenyo, Mbarara, Ishingiro, Ibanda,

Kiruhuura, Kasese, Ntugamo, Rukungiri,

Kyenjojo, Masindi, Arua, Yumbe,

Masaka, Terego, Moroto, Bududa

No data reported

Literacy Action and Development Agency

(LADA)

Rukungiri 141,405,000 77,552,000 1,100

Literacy Action And Development Agency

(LADA)

Rukungiri 141,405,000 78,540,000 1,100

Literacy Action And Development Agency

(LADA)

Living Water International Uganda (LWI) No data reported

Lodoi Development Fund Mbale Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated

Katakwi 75,125,680 75,125,680 6,300

Lutheran World Federation(LWF) Uganda

Program, Katakwi/Amuria sub program

Makondo Health Centre Lwenge, Rakai Not indicated 22,568,800 2,400

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 94

Mariam Foundation Centre Kampala, Mpigi, Mubende, Kisoro 35,600,000 15,400,000 2,000

91,120,000 40,460,000 24,900

Sironko, Bundibugyo, Bududa, Mt.Elgon

Region

Masiyompo Elgon Movement For Integral

Dev’t Uganda (MEMEDU)

Mbarara 10,270,000 10,325,000 5,200

Mbarara District Farmers Association

(MBADIFA)

Medair No data reported

No data reported

Medecins Sans Frontieres Holland

(MSF-H)


Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

Sironko 100,000 90,000 Not indicated

Mount Elgon Christian Dev’t

foundation[MECDEF]

Mpolyabigere RC – Riced Center No data reported

Mubende Rural Development Association No data reported

Mukono 2,000,000 1,500,000 Not indicated

Mukono Multi-purpose Youth

Organisation (mumyo)

Bugiri, Butaleja, Budaka, Pallisa, Mayuge 27,450,000 18,275,000 500

Multi-Community Based Development

Innitiative

Tororo 34,825,000 12,075,000 1,200

Nagongera Youth Dev’t

Programme(NAYODEP)

Ndeeba Parish Youth Association (NPYA) Kabale 5,353,200 3,790,000 Not indicated

Needy Kids Uganda Yumbe 150,000,000 5,237,000 1,200

Rakai 199,000,000 180,000,000

15,900

Network for holistic Community

Development (NEFHCOD)

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Kampala 338,607,360 337,967,360 5,000

Network for Water And Sanitation(

NETWAS-UGANDA)

Ngonge Devt Foundation NDF Kapchorwa 87,500,000 34,560,000 1,100

No data reported

Noah’s Ark Children’s Ministry Uganda

(NACMU)

No data reported

North Ankole Diocese Rainwater Harvest

(NADS)

95 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector

Rukungiri 185,695,500 162,590,041 9,100

North Kigezi & Kinkizi Diocess Watsan

Programme


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

Off Tu Mission No data reported

No data reported

Orungo Youth Integrated Development

Organisation

Oxfam GB – Uganda No data reported

Packwach Development Forum Nebbbi 240,485,000 7,207,500 39,400

Soroti 72,799,000 45,982,000 Not indicated

Pentecostal Assemblies of God-Soroti

Mission Development Department

Paidha Water and Sanitation Association Nebbi, Zombo 14,500,000 8,000,000 Not indicated

Pakele Women’s Association Adjumani 2,800,000 41,670,000 Not indicated

PAMO Volunteers Kumi 66,360,000 50,320,000 Not indicated

No data reported

Participatory Rural Development

Organization (PRDO)

No data reported

Pentecostal Assemblies of God – Kumi

(PAG-Kumi)

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 96

Not indicated Not indicated 50,400

Plan Uganda Kampala, Lira, Luwero, Kamuli and

Tororo

No data reported

Programme for Accessible health,

Communication and Education (PACE -

Formerly PSI Uganda)

PROTOS Kamwenge, Kabarole, Kyenjojo Not indicated 32,910,769 Not indicated

Rakai CBHP No data reported

Rakai Counsellors’ Association (RACA) No data reported


Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

No data reported

Rukungiri Gender and Development

Association

No data reported

Rural Community Strategy for

Development (RUCOSDE)

No data reported

Rural Country Development Organisation

(RUCODE)

No data reported

Rural Country Integrated Development

Association (RUCIDA)

Rural Health Care Foundation No data reported

Arua, Maracha, Terego Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated

Rural Initiative For Community

Empowerment WEST NILE

No data reported

Rural Welfare Improvement for

Development (RWIDE)

Rwenzori African Dev’t Foundation( RADF) Kasese 10,370,000 10,080,000 Not indicated

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Kabarole 1,201,125,000 19,415,000 100

Rwenzori Youth Concern association

(RYCA)

Safer World International No data reported

Bugiri 7,400,000 2,540,000 Not indicated

Save the vulnerable and orphaned

children initiative

85,000,000 99,000,000 Not indicated

Mbale, Kapchorwa, Soroti, Kumi, Rakai,

Mpigi, Kiboga, Yumbe, Adjuman, Koboko,

Arua, Bundibugyo, Kasese, Kabarole,

Kamwenge, Kyenjojo, Bugembe Town

Council, Nyendo Senyange Division,

Mutukula Town Council, Kyotera Town

council

SNV Netherlands Development

Organisation

97 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

Amuria, Katakwi 13,831,200 61,658,500 Not indicated

Soroti Catholic Diocese Intergrated Dev’t

Organisation (SOCADIDO)

St. James Kibbuse Foundation No data reported

No data reported

Sustainable Sanitation and Water

Renewal Systems (SSWARS)

No data reported

Temele Development Organisation

(TEMEDO)

No data reported

The Environment and Community

Development Organisation

Tooro Development Agency [Kabarole] No data reported

Tororo District NGO Forum (TONGOF) Tororo 77,000,000 26,100,000 9,800

Two Wings Agroforestry Network (TWAN) No data reported

No data reported

Uganda Association for Social Economic

Progress (USEP)

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 98

Uganda Cooperative Consultancy Firm No data reported

No data reported

Uganda Domestic Sanitation Services

(UGADOSS)

Mukono 10,550,000 6,581,250 Not indicated

Uganda Environmental Education

Foundation

Uganda Japan Association (UJA) No data reported

Bugiri 526,200,000 438,440,000 11,000

Uganda Muslim Rural Development

Association (UMURDA )

Uganda Rain Water Association Kampala 58,500,000 11,408,900 100


Population

served

Expenditure

(UGX)

NGO/CBO District Budget

(UGX)

Uganda Red Cross Society No data reported

Uganda Society of Hidden Talents No data reported

UWESO Masaka/Rakai Masaka, Rakai 63,000,000 44,000,000 200

Voluntary Action for Development Wakiso 627,778,000 627,778,000 26,300

478,000,000 461,208,333 3,800

Water Aid Wakiso, Mpigi, Masindi, Amuria, Katakwi,

Kampala (Kawempe Division)

Water For People Uganda Kyenjojo and Mukono 25,625,200 22,031,950 100

Water for Production Relief No data reported

Welthungerhilfe Lira, Katakwi, Moroto. Nakapiripirit. Not indicated 315,705,650 Not indicated

Wera Development Association (WEDA) Amuria, Katakwi 141,581,787 22,384,713 24,600

World Vision No data reported

Youth Alive No data reported

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

Arua Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated

Youth Development Organisation

(YODEO)

Youth Environment Services (YES) Busia 3,100,000 3,800,000 Not indicated

No data reported

Youth Initiative for Development

Association (YIFODA)

ZOA Uganda Pader 100,000 572,861,558 15,900

Total 19,902,985,211 18,452,663,123 2,697,200

99 | NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector


Key

Performance Report for FY 2009/10

UWASNET members

WASH Cluster members

Members of UWASNET and WASH Cluster

NGOs in the Ugandan Water and Sanitation Sector | 100

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