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GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

6<br />

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sarCevi<br />

biznessiaxleebi<br />

`saerTaSoriso kerZo<br />

mewarmeobis centri~ _ CIPE<br />

biznesgaremo saqarTveloSi<br />

rogor vipovoT sasurveli kadri<br />

ararsebul bazarze?!<br />

AEG da ZANUSSI ra aqvT saerTo?<br />

kidev erTi axali publikacia<br />

sicocxlis warmoSobis unikaluri<br />

simbolo<br />

faberJe - saaRdgomo kvercxis<br />

istoria<br />

saea 19 wlisaa<br />

rogori iqneba `msoflios woniani<br />

statistikosebis~ Sefaseba?<br />

24<br />

27<br />

30<br />

32<br />

warmatebuli pozicionirebis<br />

saidumlo<br />

sareklamo kampania<br />

Jurnal-gazeTebSi<br />

`dazRvevis bumi~ saqarTveloSi<br />

cecxlovani flamingo da mziani<br />

sanapiro<br />

3


edaqtori<br />

dodo WumburiZe<br />

nomerze muSaobdnen:<br />

ana qaTamiZe<br />

oliko zedelaSvili<br />

mariam nanitaSvili<br />

qeTi facacia<br />

salome kiRuraZe<br />

mixeil adeiSvili<br />

Temur yanCaveli<br />

daviT merabiSvili<br />

irakli RuRuniSvili<br />

laSa RuRuniSvili<br />

naTia daReliSvili<br />

soso yifiani<br />

elene xaCiZe<br />

nino qitiaSvili<br />

naTia qurcikiZe<br />

eka kevliSvili<br />

ana oxanaSvili<br />

xatia WumburiZe<br />

Tengo joxaZe<br />

dizaini<br />

naTia zedelaSvili<br />

foto<br />

laSa RuRuniSvili<br />

irakli RuRuniSvili<br />

stilist-redaqtori<br />

naTia daReliSvili<br />

stamba: Sps `sezani~<br />

tiraJi: 2000 cali<br />

UDC (uak) 338.22 (47922)<br />

a-37<br />

4<br />

34<br />

36<br />

38<br />

40<br />

42<br />

44<br />

46<br />

48<br />

50<br />

54<br />

brazilia<br />

ferebis roli<br />

produqtis SefuTvisas<br />

wamyvani brendebis<br />

SemoTavazebebi<br />

Microsoft<br />

mobiluri<br />

telefonebi<br />

kaberne suvenioni<br />

germanuli ludebi<br />

axali wignebi<br />

ra abrkolebs<br />

codnis gaRrmavebis<br />

msurvelebs?<br />

52 navTobi<br />

nayinis filosofia<br />

55<br />

57<br />

58<br />

61<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

`koka - kolasa~ da<br />

`pepsis~ istoriuli<br />

omebi<br />

bizneskalendari<br />

biznes - testi<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

indikatorebi<br />

sarCevi


iznessiaxleebi<br />

fuladi gzavnilebis<br />

moculoba izrdeba<br />

saqarTvelos erovnuli<br />

bankis informaciiT<br />

ucxoeTidan Semosuli<br />

fuladi gzavnilebis<br />

moculobaSi zrdis<br />

tempi dafiqsirda. 2008<br />

wlis aprilis monacemebiT<br />

fuladi gzavnilebis<br />

moculobam<br />

80.4 milioni aSS dolari<br />

Seadgina, rac wina<br />

wlis monacemebs 14.1<br />

milioni aSS dolariT<br />

aRemateba. aRsaniSnavia<br />

isic, rom mTliani gzavnilebis<br />

62.3% ruse-<br />

Tze modis, rac wilobrivad<br />

yvelaze didi<br />

maCvenebelia.<br />

saqarTvelodan saz-<br />

RvargareT ganxorcielebuli<br />

gzavnilebis<br />

moculobam ki 8.1 milioni<br />

aSS dolari Seadgina,<br />

rac gasuli wlis<br />

maCvenebels 1.4 milioni<br />

aSS dolariT aRemateba.<br />

`milioni~ siRnaRSi<br />

`saqarTvelos bankis~<br />

anabrebze aqciis STambe-<br />

Wdavi prizi _ 1 milioni<br />

aSS dolari amJamad<br />

ukve siRnaRis muzeumSi<br />

inaxeba. manamde aRniSnuli<br />

Tanxa bankis sa-<br />

Tao ofisSi inaxeboda.<br />

mimdinare wlis 30 dekembramde<br />

nebismier<br />

msurvels eqneba SesaZlebloba<br />

muzeumSi<br />

`prizis~ naxvis. siRnaRis<br />

muzeumi mraval-<br />

saukunovan SenobaSia<br />

ganTavsebuli da erTerTi<br />

yvelaze Tanamedrove<br />

dacvis sistemebiTaa<br />

aRWurvili.<br />

`kaparol-jorjias~<br />

axali qarxana<br />

saRebavebis mwarmoebeli<br />

kompania `kaparol-jorjia~<br />

maisis bolosTvis<br />

gegmavs kidev<br />

erTi axali qarxanis<br />

eqspluataciaSi gaSvebas.<br />

Sedegad sawarmoSi<br />

dasaqmebulTa raodenobis<br />

150-dan 250-mde<br />

gazrdas varaudoben.<br />

foTis sazRvao<br />

portma aqciaTa 51%<br />

gayida<br />

foTis sazRvao portma<br />

kompania RAK Investment<br />

Authority-s aqcia-<br />

Ta paketis 51 % mihyida.<br />

gayidul iqna agreTve<br />

3 milion kvadratul<br />

metrze meti farTobis<br />

nakveTi portis mimdebare<br />

teritoriaze.<br />

sul investoris mier Cadebul<br />

iqna 90 milioni<br />

aSS dolari. axali saz-<br />

Rvao portis aSeneba 1,5-<br />

2 weliwadSi igegmeba.<br />

ozurgeTis raionSi<br />

sami qveynis investiciebi<br />

ideba<br />

ozurgeTis raionSi qarTul-Sveicarul-germanuli<br />

investiciebi<br />

Caido, rac sami milioni<br />

evros dabandebas<br />

gulisxmobs. Cadebuli<br />

i n v e s t i c i -<br />

ebiT raionSi<br />

igegmeba saer-<br />

T a S o r i s o<br />

standartebis<br />

bambukis gadamamuSavebeli<br />

sawarmos aSeneba.<br />

sawarmoSi warmoebuli<br />

ekologiurad sufTa<br />

bambuki saerTaSoriso<br />

bazarze gava da<br />

gamoiyeneba samSeneblo<br />

biznessa da safeiqro<br />

mrewvelobaSi.<br />

`honda~ axali modelis<br />

gamoSvebas<br />

apirebs<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

China’s Guangzhou<br />

`honda~ apirebs axali<br />

`honda sedani~-is warmoebas.<br />

modeli gaZlierdeba 1.8<br />

litrian Zravamde da<br />

iqneba sivikis msgavsi.<br />

xelmZRvanelobam presas<br />

ganucxada, rom axal<br />

models eqneba axali da<br />

bevrad ukeTesi garegnuli<br />

mxare.<br />

BMW gayidvebi<br />

gaizarda<br />

BMW-m ganacxada, rom<br />

am wlis pirvel meo-<br />

TxedSi gayidvebi gaizarda<br />

5.7 %-iT wina<br />

welTan SedarebiT. sul<br />

gaiyida 351787 maqana,<br />

xolo ianvridan martamde<br />

gayidvebi gaizarda<br />

2.7%-iT, rac 293550s<br />

avtomobils Seadgens.<br />

`mazdam~ gamoaqveyna<br />

gayidvebis soliduri<br />

rezultati<br />

`mazdam~ gamoaqveyna<br />

TebervalSi gayiduli<br />

manqanebis rezultati.<br />

2008 wlis TebervalSi<br />

gayiduli manqanebis<br />

6 biznessiaxleebi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

raodenoba wina welTan<br />

SedarebiT gaizarda<br />

32%-iT, ramac mTlianad<br />

6600 gayiduli<br />

manqana Seadgina.<br />

axali monetebis gamosaWreladkonkursi<br />

cxaddeba<br />

saqarTvelos erovnulma<br />

bankma gamoacxada<br />

konkursi 10 laris nominalis<br />

sami axali monetis<br />

dizainis eskizis<br />

damzadebaze. sakonkurso<br />

Temebia: sveticxoveli,<br />

qarTuli cekva da<br />

qarTuli Rvino.<br />

rogorc erovnul bankSi<br />

acxadeben, aRniSnuli<br />

konkursi xels Seuwyobs<br />

qarTuli Tematikis<br />

popularizacias numizmatikissaerTaSoriso<br />

bazarze. eskizebis<br />

wardgenis bolo vadaa<br />

15 ivnisi. gamarjvebuli<br />

eskizis avtorebi dajildovdebian<br />

3-3 aTasi<br />

lariT.<br />

biznessiaxleebi<br />

Rvinis moyvarul-<br />

Ta klubi<br />

kompania `Rvinis samyaro~<br />

aarsebs `Rvinis<br />

moyvarulTa klubs~,<br />

romelSic 14 kompania<br />

gaerTiandeba. TveSi<br />

erTxel morigeobiT<br />

yoveli kompania moawyobs<br />

Tavisi produqciis<br />

degustacias, sxva<br />

wevr kompaniebs gaacnobs<br />

kompaniis istoriasa<br />

da Tavis saqmianobas.<br />

pirveli kompania, romelic<br />

gamarTavs degustacias<br />

iqneba `Teliani<br />

veli~, Semdeg TveSi ki<br />

_ `Telavis Rvinis marani~.<br />

klubis mizans warmoadgens<br />

qarTul Rvinis<br />

popularizacia adgilobriv<br />

bazarze.<br />

sainvesticio<br />

saagentos axali<br />

proeqti mcire da<br />

saSualo biznesis<br />

mxardasaWerad<br />

saqarTvelos erovnuli<br />

sainvesticio saagentos<br />

iniciativiT `mcire<br />

da saSualo biznesis<br />

ganviTarebisaTvis<br />

grantebis mopovebis<br />

meTodebis Sesaxeb~<br />

proeqtis prezentacia<br />

gaimarTa. Catarda<br />

proeqtis mokle mimoxilva.<br />

rogorc saagentoSi<br />

acxadeben, proeqtis<br />

mizania mcire<br />

da saSualo biznesis<br />

xelSewyoba. proeqtis<br />

partniorebi arian<br />

CNFA Georgia da<br />

fondi `aTaswleulis<br />

gamowveva saqarTvelo~.<br />

rusTavSi Sps<br />

`qarTuli cementis~<br />

axali<br />

qarxana gaixsna<br />

`haidelbergcement jgufis~<br />

wevris Sps `qar-<br />

Tuli cementis~ axali<br />

qarxana mimdinare wlis<br />

maisSi amoqmedda. `haidelbergcementi~<br />

aris<br />

cementis, betonisa da<br />

sxva samSeneblo masalebis<br />

mwarmoebeli<br />

da erT-erTi lideri<br />

msoflio bazarze. axali<br />

gaxsnili qarxana<br />

Tanamedrove teqnologiebiT<br />

aris aRWurvili.<br />

qarxana moamaragebs rogorc<br />

adgilobriv, aseve<br />

azerbaijanisa da yazaxeTis<br />

bazrebs da amiT<br />

mniSvnelovan rols<br />

iTamaSebs eqsportis<br />

zrdis xelSewyobaSi.<br />

`aldagi bisiai~<br />

momxmareblebs axal<br />

produqts sTavazobs<br />

`aldagi bisiai~ ucxoel<br />

turistebs axal turistul<br />

sezonze Sida<br />

turebis dazRvevas Ses-<br />

Tavazebs. sadazRvevo<br />

paketSi Sedis ambulatoriuli<br />

da stacionalurimomsaxureba,<br />

stomatologiuri<br />

mkurnaloba da aseve<br />

saswrafo samedicino<br />

gamoZaxeba. polisis<br />

xangrZlivoba erTidan<br />

sam Tvemdea. fasi dReSi<br />

daaxloebiT 0.80 TeTria<br />

da periodis zrdas-<br />

Tan erTad mcirdeba.<br />

finansTa saministroSisakonsultacio<br />

centri gaixsna<br />

evrokavSiris finansuri<br />

mxardaWeriT finansTa<br />

saministroSi<br />

moqalaqeebisaTvis sakonsultacio<br />

centri<br />

da `cxeli xazi~ - 007<br />

gaixsna. `cxeli xazi~<br />

moqalaqeebs saSualebas<br />

miscems ufasod<br />

miiRon informacia<br />

sabaJo da sagadasaxado<br />

sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT.<br />

e l e q t r o e n e r g i i s<br />

eqsporti izrdeba<br />

e l e q r o e n e r g e t i -<br />

kuli departamentis<br />

gancxadebiT, 500 kilovatianieleqtrogadamcemi<br />

xazi `kavkasionis~<br />

meSveobiT ruseTSi<br />

dRe-RameSi 5 milioni<br />

kvt/sT eleqtroenergiis<br />

eqsporti xorcieldeba.<br />

Tumca, mosalodnelia<br />

aRniSnuli<br />

maCveneblis 7 milion<br />

kvt/sT-mde gazrda. am-<br />

Jamad eleqtroenergiis<br />

eqsporti TurqeTSic<br />

xorcieldeba.<br />

7


iafi kreditebis<br />

gacema grZeldeba<br />

iaf kreditebs mTavrobisgan<br />

kidev sami firma<br />

miiRebs: `kopala~, `aelita~<br />

da `niSa~.<br />

kompania `kopala~<br />

vardis zeTis mwarmoebelia.<br />

kompania vardis<br />

zeTis eqsports germaniaSi<br />

axorcielebs.<br />

kreditis farglebSi<br />

`kopala~ varaudobs<br />

produqciis 12 000-dan<br />

500 000-mde gazrdas,<br />

Sedegad Seiqmneba 500ze<br />

meti samuSao adgili.<br />

`aelita~, romelic sakonservo<br />

qarxanaa, xilisa<br />

da bostneulis gadamuSavebas<br />

axorcielebs.<br />

sawarmos produqcia<br />

eqsportze gadis yazaxeTSi,<br />

ukrainasa da<br />

baltiispireTis qveynebSi.<br />

aRniSnuli krediti qarxanas<br />

saSualebas miscems<br />

gaafarTovos warmoeba<br />

da ifiqros axal<br />

bazrebze Sesvlaze.<br />

kompania `niSa~ rZis gadamamuSavebel<br />

sawarmos<br />

aSenebas gegmavs Sida<br />

qarTlSi, sadac kompania<br />

aseve gaxsnis rZis<br />

mimReb aT punqts.<br />

yoveldRiurad sawarmo<br />

15-dan 20 tonamde rZes<br />

miiRebs da dRe-RameSi<br />

5-6 tona produqcias<br />

gamouSvebs.<br />

k o n s o l i d i r e b u l<br />

biujetSi<br />

Semosavlebis gegmam<br />

2008 wlis pirveli<br />

kvartlis gegmas<br />

gadaaWarba<br />

2008 wlis pirvel kvartalSi<br />

saqarTvelos<br />

konsolidirebul biujetSi<br />

Semosavlebis<br />

gegma 6,9%-iT gadaWarbebulia.<br />

gegmis Tanaxmad<br />

biujetSi mobilizebul<br />

unda yofiliyo<br />

sul 1 385,1 milioni<br />

lari, amJamad ki sul<br />

mobilizebul iqna 1<br />

480,3 milioni lari.<br />

aqcizuri markebi<br />

finansTa saministros<br />

informaciiT 2008 wlis<br />

ianvar-aprilSi 161 228<br />

076 cali aqcizuri<br />

markaa realizebuli,<br />

saidanac aqcizis gadasaxadis<br />

saxiT biujet-<br />

Si 67 125 029.59 laria<br />

mobilizebuli.<br />

adgilobrivi Tambaqos<br />

warmoebisaTvis gaica<br />

79 973 000 aqcizuri<br />

marka da gadasaxadis<br />

saxiT biujetSi Sevida<br />

27 711 200 lari. xolo<br />

importirebuli Tambaqos<br />

realizaciidan<br />

mobilizebulia 30 100<br />

040 lari. adgilobrivi<br />

warmoebis alkoholuri<br />

sasmelebis warmoebisTvis<br />

gaica 5 728<br />

169 aqcizuri marka, Semosavalma<br />

ki 3 726 620<br />

lari Seadgina.<br />

importirebuli alkoholori<br />

sasmelis warmoebaze<br />

gacemuli 1 747<br />

419 aqcizuri markidan<br />

biujetSi Sesulia 1 552<br />

951 lari, aseve biujetSi<br />

Sesulia ludze<br />

gankuTvnili aqcizuri<br />

markebis realizaciidan<br />

mobilizebuli Tanxebi,<br />

romelmac mTlianobaSi<br />

4 034 217 lari Seadgina.<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

milionobiT<br />

evropels siRaribe<br />

emuqreba<br />

dasaqmebis sakiTxebSi evrokomisrisgancxadebiT<br />

evrokavSiris wevri<br />

qveynebis 78 milioni<br />

moqalaqe siRaribis<br />

zRvarze dgas, maTgan 19<br />

milioni bavSvia. evrokomisaris<br />

gancxadebiT<br />

bolo wlebSi bevri<br />

programa ganxorcielda<br />

siRaribis dasaZlevad,<br />

Tumca am problemis<br />

mosagvareblad<br />

damatebiTi Zalisxmevaa<br />

saWiro.<br />

sagareo vaWroba<br />

saqarTvelos sagareo<br />

savaWro brunva evrokavSiris<br />

qveynebTan 484,2<br />

milioni aSS dolaria,<br />

rac wina wlis Sesabamis<br />

maCvenebels 29,3%-iT<br />

aRemateba. aqedan 95.7<br />

milioni aSS dolari<br />

eqsportze modis, xolo<br />

388.5 milioni aSS dolari<br />

importze.<br />

saqarTvelos sagareo<br />

vaWrobis yvelaze didi<br />

wili dsT-s 4 qveyanaze<br />

modis, rac mTliani<br />

brunvis 28.4 %-s Seadgens.<br />

8 biznesmignebebi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

biznesgaremos<br />

kvleva<br />

msoflio bankis jgufma<br />

rekonstruqciisa da<br />

ganviTarebis bankTan<br />

erTad saqarTveloSi<br />

biznesgaremos kvleva<br />

daiwyes. kvlevis<br />

mTavari mizani biznesgaremoSi<br />

momxdari cvlilebebismonitoringis<br />

ganxorcieleba da<br />

biznesis regulirebis<br />

Sefasebaa. kvleva iTvaliswinebs<br />

360 kompaniis<br />

gamoikiTxvas, monacemebis<br />

damuSavebis Semdgom<br />

Seiqmneba zusti<br />

informacia biznesgaremos<br />

maCveneblebis Sesaxeb.<br />

~gudauri” aqciaTa<br />

85%-s yidis<br />

samTo-saTxilamuro kurorti<br />

saaqcio sazogadoeba<br />

“`gudauri~”<br />

aqciaTa 85%-s yidis.<br />

kompleqsis sawyisi fasi<br />

5 milioni evroa. sul<br />

ss gudauris” aqtivebis<br />

Rirebuleba 35 milioni<br />

374.2 aTas lars Seadgens,<br />

xolo valdebulebebi<br />

ki 15 milioni 991,5<br />

aTasi laria.<br />

biznesmignebebi<br />

foTamde optikur<br />

– boWkovani kabeli<br />

gadaiWimeba<br />

Caucasus Onlaine-sa<br />

da aSS-Si mdebare kompania<br />

Tyco Telecommunications<br />

gegmaven<br />

1100 kilometriani optikur-boWkovanixazis<br />

gayvanas varnasa da<br />

foTs Soris. proeqtis<br />

saerTo Rirebuleba 50<br />

milion aSS dolars<br />

Seadgens. kabeli Savi<br />

zRvis fskerze iqneba<br />

gadaWimuli. aRniSnuli<br />

sistema aTasjer<br />

uswrebs saqarTveloSi<br />

internetis moxmarebis<br />

amJamindel dones.<br />

MAN-is markis sam-<br />

Seneblo teqnikis<br />

axali modelebi ukve<br />

TbiliSia<br />

MAN Group msoflio-<br />

Si erT-erTi umsxvilesi<br />

kompaniaa Zravebis, satvirTo<br />

teqnikis, manqanaTmSeneblobisdanadgarebisa<br />

da sxvadasxva<br />

teqnikis warmoeba-miwodebaSi.<br />

29 aprils TbilisSi<br />

MAN-is markis samSeneblo<br />

avtoteqnikis axali<br />

modelebis prezentacia<br />

gaimarTa, sadac<br />

warmodgenil iqna betonSemrevebi,<br />

TviTmcvelebi, tumboebi<br />

da sxva saxis mowyobilobebi.<br />

uaxloes periodSi<br />

igegmeba MAN-is<br />

avtoskolis gaxsnac,<br />

sadac teqnikis siaxleebsa<br />

da maTi specifikas<br />

Seiswavlian.<br />

T u r q e T i - s a q a r -<br />

Tvelos umsxvilesi<br />

savaWro partniori<br />

2008 wlis ianvar-martSi<br />

sagareo savaWro<br />

brunvis mixedviT<br />

TurqeTi saqarTvelos<br />

umsxvilesi savaWro<br />

partniori qveyanaa.<br />

TurqeTSi eqsporti<br />

42,8 milion dolars<br />

Sedagens, rac wina<br />

welTan SedarebiT 7,3<br />

milioniT metia.<br />

TurqeTSi eqsportirebisas<br />

ZiriTadad<br />

gaizarda Savi liTonis<br />

jarTis, azotovani<br />

sasuqebisa da msubuqi<br />

avtmobilebis raodenoba.<br />

sainformacio-turistuli<br />

centrebi<br />

aWaraSi<br />

msoflio bankis jgufma<br />

rekonstruqciisa da<br />

ganviTarebis bankTan<br />

erTad saqarTveloSi<br />

biznesgaremos kvleva<br />

daiwyes.<br />

kvlevis mTavari mizani<br />

biznesgaremoSi momxdari<br />

cvlilebebis<br />

monitoringis ganxor<br />

cieleba da biznesis<br />

regulirebis Sefasebaa.<br />

kvleva iTvaliswinebs<br />

360 kompaniis gamoikiTxvas.<br />

monacemebis<br />

damuSavebis Semdgom<br />

Seiqmneba zusti informacia<br />

biznesgaremos<br />

maCveneblebis Sesaxeb.<br />

fermerTaA<br />

momsaxurebis<br />

centri<br />

lagodexSi<br />

2008 wlis 15 maiss<br />

lagodexSi fermerTa<br />

momsaxurebis centri<br />

gaixsna. centris gaxsna<br />

dafinansda aTaswleulis<br />

fondis agrobiznesis<br />

ganviTarebis<br />

proeqtis farglebSi,<br />

saidanac 47 500 aSS<br />

dolaris Rirebulebis<br />

granti gamoiyo.<br />

aRniSnuli TanxiT dafinansda<br />

samSeneblo<br />

samuSaoebis nawili,<br />

sademonstracio nakve-<br />

Tis mowyoba, sasoflosameurneo<br />

daniSnulebis<br />

axali manqana-danadgarebisa<br />

da saofise<br />

avejis Sesyidva.<br />

centris gaxsna uzrunvelyofs<br />

raionSi<br />

mcxovrebi 2 000 fermers<br />

sasoflo-sameurneo<br />

produqciiT momaragebas<br />

da momsaxurebas.<br />

9


`saerTaSoriso kerZo mewarmeobis centri~ _ CIPE<br />

`saerTaSoriso kerZo mewarmeobis centri~<br />

_ CIPE amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis<br />

savaWro palatisa da aSS-s demokratiis<br />

erovnuli mxardaWris organizaciis arakomerciuli<br />

wevria. CIPE-i amerikis SeerTebuli<br />

Statebis savaWro palatis mier 1983<br />

wels dafuZnda. CIPE-s mxardaWerili aqvs<br />

1000-ze meti proeqti, maT Soris 100-mde<br />

iniciativa ganviTarebad qveyanaSi. CIPE-i<br />

iTvaliswinebs kerZo seqtoris CarTulobas<br />

saxelmwifo politikis xelSewyobasa<br />

da institucionalur reformeSi, aseve<br />

saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis gaumjobesebasa<br />

da sabazro sawyisebze dafuZnebuli demokratiuli<br />

sistemis mSeneblobas.<br />

CIPE-is misia _ msoflios masStabiT demokratiis<br />

gaZliereba kerZo mewarmeobisa<br />

da sabazro reformebis xelSewyobis gziT.<br />

CIPE-is amocanebi:<br />

• legaluri da institucionaluri<br />

struqturis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba,<br />

romelic aucilebelia Ria sabazro<br />

sazogadoebis formirebisa da SenarCunebisaTvis;<br />

• demokratiul procesebSi biznesis<br />

CarTulobis gazrda;<br />

• kerZo moxaliseobrivi biznesorganizaciebisa<br />

da asociaciebis damoukideblobis<br />

xelSewyoba;<br />

• iseTi programebis xelSewyoba, romlebic<br />

uzrunvelyofs biznesis Sesaxeb<br />

codnis amaRlebasa da kerZo seqtoris mewarmeobrivi<br />

kulturis gaZlierebas;<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

• mxardaWeris gazrda uflebebis, Tavisuflebisa<br />

da valdebulebis Sesaxeb, romelic<br />

ganuyofelia demokratiuli kerZo<br />

mewarmeobis sistemisaTvis;•<br />

• biznessazogadoebisaTvis informaciaze<br />

xelmisawvdomobis gazrda, rac<br />

aucilebelia gadawyvetilebebis misaRebad.<br />

•<br />

CIPE-i muSaobs oTxi principuli kuTxiT,<br />

romelic moicavs biznessazogadoebis<br />

daxmarebas, gaxdnen sabazro reformebisa<br />

da demokratiuli mmarTvelobis wamyvani<br />

xelSemwyobebi.<br />

CIPE-i TanamSromlobs biznesasociacieb-<br />

Tan da sxva kerZo seqtoris organizacieb-<br />

Tan iseT qveynebSi, sadac aris progresis<br />

saWiroeba da reformebis SesaZlebloba.<br />

2007 wlis seqtembridan saqarTvelos axal-<br />

gazrda ekonomistTa asociacia CIPE-is<br />

partnioria. TanamSromlobis farglebSi<br />

saqarTvelos axalgazrda ekonomistTa<br />

asociacia axorcielebs proeqts - `biznesgaremos<br />

gaumjobeseba saqarTveloSi~.<br />

10 CIPE


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

biznesgaremo<br />

saqarTveloSi<br />

16 aprils `Tbilisi meriotSi~<br />

saqarTvelos axalgazrda<br />

ekonomistTa asociaciam<br />

gamarTa publikaciis `biznesgaremo<br />

saqarTveloSi~” prezentacia.<br />

RonisZiebas ewrebodnen<br />

ekonomikis sferoSi momuSave<br />

samTavrobo, arasamTavrobo,<br />

partniori organizaciebisa<br />

da masmediis warmomadgenlebi.<br />

damswre sazogadoebis mxridan<br />

dadebiTi Sefaseba ganapiroba<br />

ara marto publikaciis `saWiro<br />

da aqtualurma Tematikam~, aramed<br />

Catarebuli kvlevis masStabebma<br />

da Sedegebmac.<br />

publikacia momzadda proeqtis<br />

`biznesgaremos gaumjobeseba<br />

saqarTveloSi~ farglebSi ganxorcielebuli<br />

kvlevebis Sedegebze<br />

dayrdnobiT.<br />

kerZod, ganxorcielda sxvadasxva<br />

tipis kvlevebi: fokusjgufebi<br />

mcire, saSualo da msxvili<br />

biznesis warmomadgenlebTan;<br />

kerZo seqtoris raodenobrivi<br />

kvleva; samagido kvleva biznesis<br />

sakanonmdeblo regulirebis<br />

Sesaxeb; CaRrmavebuli interviuebi<br />

eqspertebTan, sxvadasxva<br />

saxelmwifo da saerTaSoriso<br />

organizaciis warmomadgenlebTan,<br />

romlebic muSaoben biznesgaremos<br />

saWiroebebsa da gaumjobesebaze.<br />

biznesgaremo saqarTveloSi<br />

kvlevis mizans warmoadgenda<br />

saqarTvelos biznesgaremos<br />

Sefaseba, masSi arsebuli sir-<br />

Tuleebisa da problemebis<br />

gamovlena. SerCeva SemuSavda<br />

saqarTveloSi regionebis mixedviT<br />

daregistrirebul mewarme-<br />

Ta raodenobisa da maTi saqmianobis<br />

sferoebis proporciebis<br />

gaTvaliswinebiT.<br />

publikaciaSi detalurad<br />

aris ganxiluli biznesgaremos<br />

ZiriTadi problemebi da<br />

sirTuleebi, aseve aRwerilia<br />

kerZo setoris damokidebuleba<br />

sakanonmdeblo da sxva clilebebis<br />

mimarT. kvlevebis Sedegad<br />

calsaxad dafiqsirda, rom<br />

kanonmdeblobis xSiri cvalebadoba<br />

uaryofiT gavlenas axdens<br />

biznesze, gansakuTrebiT ki mcire<br />

kompaniebze; sakmaod mwvaved<br />

dgas infomirebulobis sakiTxi.<br />

kvlevis Sedegad aRmoCenili<br />

ZiriTadi mignebebi:<br />

zogadad, sxvadasxva zomis biznesis<br />

warmomadgenlebma saerTo<br />

tipis problemebi daasaxeles,<br />

Tumca iyo garkveuli gansxvavebebic.<br />

magaliTad, saSualo da<br />

msxvili biznesis warmomadgenlebisaTvis<br />

metad aqtualuria<br />

sabaJo procedurebi da damatebuli<br />

Rirebulebis gadasaxadi,<br />

mcire mewarmeebisaTvis ki problematuria<br />

arsebuli sagadasaxado<br />

sanqciebisa da jarimebis moculoba.<br />

gamokiTxul sawarmoTa<br />

68%-is gamocdileba 5 wels ar<br />

aRemateba, rac miuTiTebs, rom<br />

saqarTveloSi biznesis marTvis<br />

kultura da tradiciebi jer<br />

kidev ar aris Camoyalibebuli.<br />

amas isic emateba, rom saqar-<br />

TveloSi arsebuli biznesgaremo<br />

da Sesabamisad kanonmdebloba<br />

arastabiluria da kvlavac ganviTarebis<br />

gzaze imyofeba.<br />

gamokiTxuli kompaniebis 61%-is<br />

zogadi SefasebiT, saqarTvelo-<br />

Si arsebuli biznesgaremo met-naklebad<br />

normaluria, xolo 26%<br />

ki miiCnevs, rom arsebuli garemo<br />

aferxebs biznesis ganviTarebas.<br />

biznesis mflobelTa da menejer-<br />

Ta mxolod 77%-ma daasaxela<br />

sagadasaxado kodeqsi maTi saqmianobis<br />

maregulirebel kanonad,<br />

14%-ma ki saerTod ver gaixsena<br />

verc erTi kanoni. sagadasaxado<br />

kodeqsis Semdeg modis `kanoni<br />

mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~, romelic respodentTa<br />

17%-ma daasaxela.<br />

yvela sxva danarCeni kanonis<br />

cnobadoba ar aRemateba 8%-s.<br />

aRniSnuli maCveneblebi naTlad<br />

warmoaCens kerZo seqtoris cnobierebis<br />

dones sakanonmdeblo<br />

bazasTan mimarTebaSi.<br />

gamokiTxulTa mxolod 8%<br />

aRniSnavs, rom sagadasaxado<br />

kodeqsi savsebiT gamarTuli da<br />

gasagebia. ramdenadac sagadasaxado<br />

kodeqsi adgens biznesgaremo-<br />

Si operirebis TamaSis ZiriTad<br />

wesebs, igi SedarebiT advilad<br />

aRsaqmeli unda iyos yvela<br />

moTamaSisaTvis da ara mxolod<br />

mewarmeTa mcire nawilisaTvis.<br />

gamokiTxul mewarmeTa mxolod<br />

13% axorcielebs eqsportis<br />

an/da importis RonisZiebebs.<br />

es maCvenebeli, albaT, imazec<br />

11


miuTiTebs, rom saerTaSoriso<br />

bazrebze gasvlas ZiriTadad<br />

msxvili kompaniebi axerxeben.<br />

mewarmeebis 9%, romlebic axorcieleben<br />

eqsports an/da imports<br />

miiCnevs, rom axali sabaJo<br />

kodeqsi savsebiT gamarTuli da<br />

gasagebia, xolo danarCeni kompaniebi<br />

ki garkveul problemebs<br />

awydebian kodeqsis aRqmasTan dakavSirebiT.<br />

kvlevaSi monawile biznesmenTa<br />

40%-ma bolo erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi<br />

damatebiTi finansuri<br />

saxsrebis mozidvisaTvis mimarTa<br />

sxva pirs an/da organizacias.<br />

maTma 92%-ma dafinansebisaTvis<br />

sabanko seqtors mimarTa, danar-<br />

Ceni 8% ki mikrosafinanso organizaciebsa<br />

da samegobro/sanaTesao<br />

wreze modis.<br />

im mewarmeTa umravlesoba,<br />

romelmac banks mimarTa, problemad<br />

miiCnevs sesxis saprocento<br />

ganakveTs. aqve damatebiT<br />

unda aRiniSnos, rom respodenTa<br />

58% gayidvebis zrdis ZiriTad<br />

SesaZleblobad damatebiTi finansuri<br />

resursebis mozidvas<br />

asaxelebs.<br />

respodentTa 62%-s uWirs<br />

konkurenciis gaweva, xolo 28%s<br />

miaCnia, rom misi biznesisTvis<br />

uaxloesi 1 wlis ganmavloba-<br />

Si konkurentebi safrTxes ar<br />

warmoadgenen. es kidev erTxel<br />

miuTiTebs dabal mewarmeobriv<br />

unarebze.<br />

yvelaze `Tavdajerebuli~ dargi<br />

mSeneblobaa, xolo yvelaze<br />

`frTxili~ _ vaWroba (64%)<br />

da soflis meurneoba (67%),<br />

romlebic miiCneven, rom uWirT<br />

konkurenciis gaweva.<br />

mewarmeebis 38%-is SefasebiT,<br />

konkurentuli upiratesobis<br />

miRwevisTvis aucilebelia<br />

produqtis/momsaxurebis<br />

fasis Semcireba. aseve mniSvnelovan<br />

RonisZiebebad dasaxelda<br />

produqciis/momsaxurebis<br />

xarisxis gazrda (28%) da bazrisa<br />

da konkurenciis Seswavla<br />

(18%).<br />

axali momxmareblis mozidvis<br />

sakiTxis Sefasebisas respodentTa<br />

51%-ma aRniSna, rom maTTvis<br />

momxmareblis mozidva rTulia,<br />

xolo 9%-s am etapze ar sWirdeba<br />

damatebiTi momxmarebeli.<br />

gamokiTxulTa 72%-ma axali<br />

myidvelis mozidvis sirTulis<br />

ZiriTad gamomwvev mizezad Semosavlebis<br />

dabali done daasaxela.<br />

Sromis bazris funqcionirebas<br />

biznesmenebi aradamakmayofileblad<br />

afaseben. respodentTa<br />

55%-s uWirs an saerTod ver<br />

axerxebs sasurveli kadris<br />

moZiebasa da daqiravebas.<br />

kvlevis Sedegad gamovlinda qarTuli<br />

biznesisTvis yvelaze aqtualuri<br />

10 problema. ZiriTadad,<br />

mewarmeTa yuradReba<br />

koncentrirebulia kanonebis<br />

irgvliv, Tumca gamovlenil<br />

problemebSi aseve aris Sromis<br />

bazris, informirebulobis, finansebis<br />

xelmisawvdomobisa da<br />

sxva problemebi.<br />

respodentTa azriT, biznesgaremos<br />

gaumjobesebisaTvis saxelmwi-<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

fom unda uzrunvelyos moqmedi<br />

kanonmdeblobis gamartiveba<br />

(67%) da daawesos SeRavaTebi<br />

garkveuli dargebisa da mcire<br />

zomis sawarmoebisaTvis (63%).<br />

respodentTa 39%-is azriT, masmediam<br />

mewarmeebs unda miawodos<br />

meti informacia biznessakanonmdeblo<br />

siaxleebis Sesaxeb; 31%<br />

fiqrobs, rom biznesisTvis aqtualuri<br />

sakiTxebis gaSuqebiT<br />

media xels Seuwyobs garemos<br />

ganviTarebas; mewarmeebis 29%<br />

ki mediis rols saxlmwifo organoebsa<br />

da kerZo seqtors Soris<br />

dialogis xelSewyobaSi xedavs.<br />

aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom<br />

saqarTvelos axalgazrda ekonomitTa<br />

asociacia sazogadoebis<br />

informirebulobis gazrdis<br />

mizniT aqtiurad TanamSromlobs<br />

masmediis warmomadgenlebTan.<br />

preskonferenciebisa da prezentaciebis<br />

garda imarTeba fokusjfebi,<br />

sadac Jurnalistebi araoficialur<br />

garemoSi ganixilaven<br />

asociaciis mier SemoTavazebul<br />

aqtualur Tematikasa da informaciis<br />

miwodebis formebs.<br />

12 biznesgaremo saqarTveloSi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

rogor vipovoT sasurveli kadri ararsebul bazarze?!<br />

adamianuri resursebi anu samuSao Zala iseve,<br />

rogorc finansuri saxsrebi an/da ZiriTadi sa-<br />

Sualebebi, im aucilebel warmoebis faqtors<br />

warmoadgnes, romelic umniSvnelovanes rols<br />

asrulebs biznesis warmatebulad marTvasa da<br />

ganviTarebaSi. saqarTveloSi maRalia umuSevrobis<br />

maCvenebeli, magarm imavdroulad Sromis bazarze<br />

aSkarad igrZnoba profesionali kadrebis<br />

simcire. amasTan, es iseTi kategoriis problemaa,<br />

romelic yvelaze didi finansuri inversticiebis<br />

ganxorcielebis pirobebSic ki ver mogvardeba<br />

moklevadian periodSi.<br />

bazarze maRali moTxovnaa rogorc saSualo<br />

da maRali donis menejerebis profesionalebze,<br />

aseve konkretuli teqnikuri profesiebis mqone<br />

kadrebsa da kvalificiur personalze momsaxurebis<br />

sferoSi.<br />

kvalificiuri kadrebis simciresTan erTad damqiraveblebisTvis<br />

problemas warmoadgens sasurveli<br />

kadris kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb sarwmuno informaciis<br />

miReba. swored amitom, damqiraveblebis<br />

umravlesobas urCevnia TviTon SearCios kadri<br />

nacnobebis wridan. Catarebuli gamokiTvxis<br />

safuZvelze, damqiraveblebis 44%-s urCevnia, Tavad<br />

SearCios kandidati nacnobebis wridan, xolo<br />

17%-mde iTvaliswinebs axloblis pirad rekomendacias/Txovnas;<br />

vakansiis Taobaze gancxadebis<br />

gamoqveynebas upiratesobas aniWebs gamokiTxulTa<br />

mxolod 16% .<br />

aqeve aRsaniSnavia, rom damqiraveblebi mzad arian<br />

Tavad moaxdinon sakuTari kadrebis gadamzadeba<br />

da kvalifikaciis amaRleba. saqarTveloSi<br />

mravlad arsebobs organizaciebi, romlebic momxmarebels<br />

sTavazoben sxvadasxva saxis treningebs,<br />

Tumca xSir SemTxvevaSi problemas warmoadgens<br />

treningis safasuris sidide da is, rom aRniSnuli<br />

organizaciebi ar iReben pasuxismgeblobas maT<br />

mier momzadebul kadrebze.<br />

aseve, aRniSnuli organizaciebi ZiriTadad specializirebul<br />

saswavleblebs warmoadgenen da<br />

dainteresebul pirebs saSualeba ar eZlevaT<br />

gaiaron biznestreningebi ramodenime mimarTulebiT.<br />

rogor vipovoT sasurveli kadri arsebul bazarze?!<br />

sawarmoebis 55%-s uWirs an saerTod ver axerxebs<br />

sasurveli kadris moZiebasa da daqiravebas 1<br />

saqarTvelos axalgazrda ekonomistTa asociaciis<br />

mier ganxorcielebuli raodenobrivi kvleva<br />

“XXX” `biznessakonsultacio qseli _ saqarTvelo~<br />

mcire da saSualo biznesis warmomadgenlebs<br />

sTavazobs konsultaciebsa da treningebs biznesis<br />

sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT. Cven erTi wlis<br />

ganmavlobaSi ukve 1200-mde mewarmes davexmareT<br />

sxvadasxva kuTxiT. kerZod: sawarmoTa registracia,<br />

kadrebis daqiraveba, kadrebis gadamzadeba,<br />

marketinguli gegmis da startegiis SemuSaveba,<br />

bizneskonsultaciebi da treningebi.<br />

`biznessakonsultacio qseli – saqarTvelo~,<br />

`Tbilisi konsaltingi~ sxvadasxva momsaxurebebTan<br />

erTad gTavazobT biznestreningebs sxvadasxva<br />

mimarTulebiT. erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi<br />

Cveni treningebiT isargebla ukve 600-ze metma<br />

adamianma, romelTa motivacia iyo rogorc kvalifikaciis<br />

amaRleba, aseve sxvadasxva biznesunarebis<br />

ganviTareba da Camoyalibeba.<br />

`Tbilisi konsaltingi~ gTavazobT treningebs<br />

Semdegi mimarTulebebiT: buRaltruli aRricxva,<br />

marketingi, menejmenti, adamianuri resursebis marTva,<br />

sazogadoebasTan urTierToba da sxv. treningkursebi<br />

moicavs rogorc Teoriul masalas, aseve<br />

praqtikul magaliTebs, rac monawileebs saSualebas<br />

miscems gamoimuSavon praqtikuli azrovnebis<br />

unari da moZebnon gamosavali sxvadasxva rTuli<br />

situaciebidan.<br />

CvenTan TanamSromlobiT Tqven SeZlebT sasurveli<br />

kvalifikaciis kadris daqiravebas an arsebuli<br />

kardebis kvalifikaciis gazrdas yovelgvari damatebiTi<br />

Zalisxmevis gareSe. Cven gavxdebiT Tqveni<br />

biznesis warmatebis sawindari...<br />

13


AEG da ZANUSSI<br />

ra aqvT saerTo?<br />

zogierTi produqti dabadebisTanve<br />

asrulebs sicocxles.<br />

ZiriTadad axali produqti<br />

gamodis bazarze, viTardeba,<br />

mwifdeba, simwifis stadiis Semdeg<br />

maleve ganicdis vardnas<br />

da kvdeba. arseboben brendebi,<br />

romlebic uZleben aTwleulebs,<br />

Taobebsac ki da ufro da ufro<br />

mimzidvelni xdebian momxmareblisTvis.<br />

AEG _ es aris brendi, romelic<br />

1887 wels daibada germaniaSi<br />

da arsebobis dRidan germanuli<br />

xarisxis simbolod iTvleba.<br />

miuxedavad imisa, rom 121<br />

wlisaa, man maradiuloba da tendenciuroba<br />

SeinarCuna. dRes<br />

msoflios wamyvan brendebs Soris<br />

aRiarebulia rogorc premium<br />

top brendi.<br />

srulyofilma dizainma da inovaciebma<br />

kompanias ara erTi<br />

jildo miaRebina. jer kidev<br />

1896 wels AEG-s katalogSi<br />

Sedioda 80 dasaxelebis sxvadasxva<br />

produqcia, romelTa<br />

Soris iyo eleqtroRumeli,<br />

yavis maduRara da kvercxis<br />

saxarSi. ukve am drois-<br />

Tvis AEG-s teqnologiebi<br />

da dizaini STambeWdavi iyo.<br />

XX saukunis dasawyisSi<br />

AEG gaxda pirveli kompania,<br />

romelsac hyavda industriuli<br />

dizaineri. es iyo pirveli nabijebi,<br />

ramac SemdgomSi slogani<br />

`srulyofili forma da funqciebi~<br />

Camoayaliba.<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

1950 wels AEG-s axalma qarxanam<br />

kaselSi daiwyo Tavisi ZiriTadi<br />

produqciis - macivrebisa da<br />

sayinuleebis warmoeba. mravali<br />

saintereso idea da warmatebuli<br />

inovacia ukavSirdeba am<br />

qarxanas.<br />

magaliTad, pirveli CasaSenebeli<br />

macivari (1953w.) da pirveli<br />

CasaSenebeli sayinule kamera<br />

(1963w.).<br />

AEG-s inovaciebi dRemde aqtualuria<br />

bazarze. 1993 wels<br />

msoflioSi pirvelad gamoCnda<br />

ekologiurad sufTa macivari,<br />

xolo 2006 wels inovaciebis<br />

sias Seemata mtversasruti ormagi<br />

Sereuli wmendis sistemiT.<br />

germaneli diasaxlisebis 90%<br />

icnobs AEG-s da 60%-s surs,<br />

rom AEG-s teqnikiT sargeblobdes.<br />

AEG - es aris saukuneze meti<br />

mudmivi moZraoba, mudmivi<br />

winsvla, gamogoneba, tradicia<br />

da revoluciuri inovaciebi.<br />

14 AEG da ZANUSSI ra aqvT saerTo?


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

1887 wlidan brendi aRiarebulia<br />

germanuli xarisxis simbolod.<br />

1994 wels AEG-s ganyofileba<br />

Sevida cnobil Svedur koncern<br />

`eleqtroluqsis~ SemadgenlobaSi.<br />

mTel msoflioSi AEG–-s<br />

sayofacxovrebo teqnika asocirdeba<br />

germanul xarisxTan,<br />

xangrZlivobasa da prestiJTan.<br />

Electrolux _ erT-erTi yvelaze<br />

cnobili mwarmoebeli sayofacxovrebo<br />

teqnikaSi. dafuZnebulia<br />

1901 wels.<br />

koncerni msoflios sameulSia<br />

eleqtroteqnikis mwarmoebel-<br />

Ta Soris. igi ramodenime cnobil<br />

brends aerTianebs, mis premium<br />

markas AEG warmoadgens,<br />

AEG da ZANUSSI ra aqvT saerTo?<br />

romelic dRes ukve AEG Electrolux-is<br />

saxelwodebiT aris<br />

cnobili. koncerni aseve moicavs<br />

iseT cnobil brends, rogoric<br />

aris ZANUSSI.<br />

ZANUSSI – erT-erTi yvelaze<br />

cnobadi saxelia sayofacxovrebo<br />

teqnikis bazarze. istoriis<br />

dasawyiss cnobili brendi 1916<br />

wlidan iRebs, rodesac italiis<br />

qalaq pordenoneSi antonio zanusis<br />

xelmZRvanelobiT pirveli<br />

SeSis Rumeli Seiqmna.<br />

es aris 100 - wliani italiuri<br />

kompania, sadac pirvelad daiwyo<br />

italiuri picebis momzadeba.<br />

antonios gaTvlebi iyo sakmaod<br />

agresiuli da martivi<br />

– `sayofacxovrebo teqnika<br />

unda iyos maRalxarisxiani da<br />

xelmisawvdomi Cveulebrivi<br />

ojaxebisTvis~, anu fasisa da<br />

xarisxis harmonia. savaWro marka<br />

ZANUSSI mTel msoflioSi<br />

aris xarisxiani teqnikis etaloni.<br />

kompaniis ganviTarebis<br />

axali koncefcia, romelic<br />

aqtualuria XXI saukuneSic,<br />

SegviZlia aRvweroT mxolod<br />

ori sityviT, erTi sloganiT –<br />

`dizaini da inovacia~. SeiZleba<br />

iTqvas, rom markam ZANUSSI -<br />

`Wkviani da sando sayofacxovrebo<br />

teqnikis~ evropaSi manamde<br />

ararsebuli bazari Seqmna. kompania<br />

momxmarebels mokled eubneba<br />

Tavis arsebobis Sesaxeb:<br />

`Cven vcdilobT gavamartivoT<br />

Tqveni yoveldRiuri cxovreba<br />

da swored amisaTvis daarsda<br />

ZANUSSI-s centri – adgili,<br />

romelic dafuZnebulia inovaciaze,<br />

dizainsa da teqnologiaze.<br />

dReisaTvis evropis bazarze gayiduli<br />

sarecxi manqanebis 40%<br />

ZANUSSI-s mier aris warmoebuli.<br />

Cven vagrZelebT muSaobas, raTa<br />

ufro gagimartivoT cxovreba.<br />

wlebis manZilze vqmnidiT da<br />

vqmniT iseT teqnologiebs, romlebic<br />

gamoirCeva xarisxisa da<br />

fasis saukeTeso kombinaciiT.<br />

Cven sistematiurad vmuSaobT<br />

am mimarTulebiT... Tqven kidev<br />

waawydebiT saintereso sagnebs<br />

cxovrebaSi~.<br />

15


# normatiuli<br />

aqtis<br />

saxe<br />

n o r m a -<br />

t i u l i<br />

aqtis<br />

nomeri<br />

normatiuli aqtis dasaxeleba mimRebi<br />

organo<br />

1 cvlileba 5984-rs saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsSi cvlilebebisa<br />

da damatebebis Setanis Sesaxeb<br />

2 cvlileba 5911-Is saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsSi damatebebisa<br />

da cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb<br />

3 cvlileba 5849-Is saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsSi damatebebis<br />

Setanis Sesaxeb<br />

4 cvlileba 5860-Is `sagadasaxado davalianebebisa da saxelmwifo<br />

sesxebis restruqturizaciis Sesaxeb~<br />

saqarTvelos kanonSi damatebis Setanis<br />

Taobaze<br />

7 cvlileba 5916-Is saqarTvelos sabaJo kodeqsSi cvlilebebisa<br />

da damatebis Setanis Sesaxeb<br />

8 cvlileba 5847-Is saqarTvelos sabaJo kodeqsSi damatebebis<br />

Setanis Sesaxeb<br />

9 cvlileba 5848-Is `sabaJo mosakreblebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos<br />

kanonSi damatebis Setanis Taobaze<br />

10 cvlileba 5976-rs `saxelmwifo baJis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos<br />

kanonSi cvlilebebisa da damatebis Setanis<br />

Taobaze<br />

11 cvlileba 5913-Is `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonSi<br />

cvlilebebisa da damatebebis Setanis Taobaze<br />

12 cvlileba 5799-rs saregistracio mosakreblebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos<br />

kanonSi cvlilebis Setanis Taobaze<br />

16 brZaneba 1-1/481 samonadireo meurneobis specialuri licenziis<br />

mowmobis formis damtkicebis Sesaxeb<br />

18 brZaneba 1-1/483 tyiT sargeblobis generaluri licenziis<br />

mowmobis formis damtkicebis Taobaze<br />

19 brZaneba 1-1/484 xe-tyis damzadebis specialuri licenziis<br />

mowmobis formis damtkicebis Sesaxeb<br />

20 brZaneba 1-1/485 sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mopovebis licenziis<br />

mowmobis formis damtkicebis Sexaxeb<br />

23 cvlileba 5900-Is `salicenzio da sanebarTvo mosakreblebis<br />

Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonSi cvlilebebis<br />

Setanis Taobaze<br />

24 cvlileba 5921-Is `licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb~ saqar-<br />

Tvelos kanonSi damatebis Setanis Taobaze<br />

25 cvlileba 5922-Is `salicenzio da sanebarTvo mosakreblebis<br />

Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonSi damatebisa da<br />

cvlilebis Setanis Taobaze<br />

27 gankarguleba 161 saxelmwifo programa ìafi kreditis~ farglebSi<br />

SerCeuli kompaniebisaTvis sesxebis<br />

gamoyofis Sesaxeb<br />

28 gankarguleba 202 `saxelmwifo programa iafi kreditis farglebSi<br />

SerCeuli kompaniebisaTvis sesxebis<br />

gamoyofis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos mTavrobis<br />

2008 wlis 26 martis N161 gankargulebaSi<br />

cvlilebebis Setanis Taobaze<br />

29 gankarguleba 203 ìafi krediti~ - saxelmwifo programis<br />

farglebSi SerCeuli sawarmoebis nusxis<br />

damtkicebis Sesaxeb<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

miRebis<br />

TariRi<br />

ZalaSi<br />

Sesvlis<br />

TariRi<br />

parlamenti 21.03.2008 04.04.2008<br />

parlamenti 14.03.2008 09.04.2008<br />

parlamenti 11.03.2008 25.03.2008<br />

parlamenti 12.03.2008 25.03.2008<br />

parlamenti 14.03.2008 26.03.2008<br />

parlamenti 11.03.2008 25.03.2008<br />

parlamenti 11.03.2008 11.03.2008<br />

parlamenti 21.03.2008 18.04.2008<br />

parlamenti 14.03.2008 26.03.2008<br />

parlamenti 07.03.2008 25.03.2008<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

ganviTarebis<br />

saministro<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

ganviTarebis<br />

saministro<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

ganviTarebis<br />

saministro<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

ganviTarebis<br />

saministro<br />

04.04.2008 08.04.2008<br />

04.04.2008 08.04.2008<br />

04.04.2008 08.04.2008<br />

04.04.2008 08.04.2008<br />

parlamenti 14.03.2008 08.04.2008<br />

parlamenti 14.03.2008 01.01.2009<br />

parlamenti 14.03.2008 01.01.2009<br />

saqarTvelos<br />

mTavroba<br />

saqarTvelos<br />

mTavroba<br />

saqarTvelos<br />

mTavroba<br />

26.03.2008 26.03.2008<br />

08.04.2008 08.04.2008<br />

08.04.2008 08.04.2008<br />

16 axali normatiuli aqtebi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

kidev erTi axali<br />

publikacia<br />

1 maiss `Tbilisi meriotSi~ saqarTvelos<br />

axalgazrda ekonomistTa<br />

asociaciam publikaciis<br />

`dasaqmebis programebi saqarTveloSi~<br />

prezentacia gamarTa.<br />

angariSi momzadda proeqtis<br />

`momavali siRaribis gareSe~<br />

farglebSi ganxorcielebuli<br />

kvlevebis Sedegebze dayrdnobiT.<br />

samoqalaqo aliansi `momavali<br />

siRaribis gareSe~ 2005 wels<br />

Seiqmna. igi ormocdaaTamde<br />

arasamTavrobo organizaciisa<br />

da asobiT mxardamWeris gaer-<br />

Tianebaa, romelic moiTxovs<br />

siRaribis aRmofxvras da aTaswleulis<br />

ganviTarebis miznebis<br />

Sesrulebas saqarTveloSi. Cveni<br />

mizania saqarTvelos mosaxleobis<br />

gaaqtiureba, rom erToblivi<br />

ZalebiT movTxovoT saqar-<br />

Tvelos xelisuflebas siRaribis<br />

daZleva.<br />

koalicia `momavali siRaribis<br />

gareSe~ aris saerTaSoriso<br />

aliansi GCAP-is wevri (Global<br />

Call to Action Against Poverty).<br />

publikacia `dasaqmebis programebi<br />

saqarTveloSi~ warmoadgens<br />

oficialuri monacemebisa<br />

da proeqtis farglebSi Catarebuli<br />

sxvadasxva tipis kvlevebis<br />

Sedegebis gaerTianebul<br />

analizs, romelic asaxavs saqarTveloSi<br />

ganxorcielebuli<br />

dasaqmebis programebis Sedegebs,<br />

Sromis bazarze arsebul umuSevrobis<br />

problemebsa da momavlis<br />

gamowvevebs.<br />

kidev erTi axali publikacia<br />

proeqtis farglebSi 2007-2008<br />

wlis saxelmwifo dasaqmebis<br />

programis Sefasebis mizniT<br />

Catarda raodenobrivi kvleva<br />

saqarTvelos masStabiT (SerCevis<br />

zoma: 1000 organizacia), ganxorcielda<br />

fukus-jgufebi da<br />

damsaqmeblebis raodenobrivi<br />

kvleva imereTis regionSi (Ser-<br />

Cevis zoma: 600 organizacia).<br />

publikaciaSi detalurad aris<br />

ganxiluli ganxorcielebuli da<br />

mimdinare saxelmwifo dasaqmebis<br />

programebi.<br />

saqarTvelos axalgazrda ekonomista<br />

asociaciis mier Catarebulma<br />

kvlevebma aCvena, rom<br />

saqarTveloSi kerZo biznesi vi-<br />

Tardeba da Sesabamisad izrdeba<br />

Sromis bazris moTxovnebi profesiul<br />

kadrebze. Tumca, imavdroulad<br />

mwvave problemad<br />

rCeba umuSevroba. ZiriTadi<br />

barieri, romlis winaSec damqiraveblebi<br />

dganan, aris potenciuri<br />

kadrebis kvalifikaciis<br />

Sefaseba. profesionalizmi<br />

problemaa rogorc teqnikur,<br />

aseve menejerul doneze.<br />

dRes TiTqmis SeuZlebelia<br />

saWiro kvalifikaciisa da unarebis<br />

kadris moZieba an/da<br />

daqiraveba. amasTn, ver xerxdeba<br />

damsaqmeblisa da samuSaos maZieblis<br />

erTmaneTTan dakavSireba.<br />

17


sicocxlis warmoSobis unikaluri simbolo<br />

esaa sicocxlis dabadebis xiluli<br />

misteria, vizualuri<br />

fenomeni Seqmnisa Tu warmoSobisa.<br />

amitomac, uZveles civilizaciaTa<br />

warmodgeniT, swored<br />

`winarekvercxidan” iSva Tavad<br />

samyaro: egvipturi tradiciis<br />

mixedviT, qaosidan (araarsidan)<br />

warmoiqmna kosmiuri kvercxi,<br />

romlidanac, Tavis mxriv, iSva<br />

yovlisSemqmneli RmerTi (demiurgi).<br />

kvercxi Zvel egvipteSi<br />

qalRmerT isidas eZRvneboda<br />

da amitomac qurumebs ekrZalebodaT<br />

misi Wama; egvipteSive<br />

gvxvdeba mumiis Tavze haerSi<br />

gamokiduli kvercxis gamosaxuleba<br />

_ es xelmeored dabadebis<br />

simbolo gaxldaT. varaudoben,<br />

rom swored am simbolosagan aris<br />

warmomdgari marJuJisdagvari<br />

egvipturi jvari _ `anxi~. egvipturi<br />

cnobiswadili da sicocxlis<br />

fenomenis wvdomis survili<br />

mkafiod aisaxa kvercxis<br />

bunebis am patara saocrebis<br />

gafetiSebaSi: egviptelTa gancvifrebam<br />

sifrifana naWuWis<br />

qveS damaluli sicocxliT,<br />

warmoSva analogia, rom Tval-<br />

Tagan dafarul, uCinar sagnebs<br />

(Cven `okulturs~” rom vuwodebT)<br />

Tavisi, damoukidebeli<br />

cxovrebis ritmi aqvT. amitomac,<br />

sicocxlis kosmiur models maT-<br />

Tvis yvelaze srulyofiladswored<br />

kvercxi ganasaxierebda.<br />

babilonuri miTologiis Tanaxmad,<br />

`pirvelkvercxi~ mdinare<br />

evfratSi cidan Cavarda da<br />

swored ase iSva qalRmerTi<br />

iSTari; induizmSi kosmiuri<br />

kvercxi `pirvelwyalze~” dado<br />

RvTaebrivma frinvelma, xolo<br />

gadapobili kvercxis orma naxevarsferom<br />

warmoSva ca da<br />

dedamiwa; iranuli warmodgeniT,<br />

kvercxi samyaros Seqmnisa<br />

da sasicocxlo sawyisis simboloa,<br />

xolo ca _ giganturi kvercxis<br />

moelvare naWuWs warmoadgens;<br />

imave iranSi Cv. w-mde VIII<br />

s. aRmocenebuli zoroastrizmis<br />

mixedviT, samyaros ori, ur-<br />

TierTsawinaaRmdego absoluturi<br />

sawyisis gansaxierebani _<br />

ormuzdi da arimani erTmaneTs<br />

piridan staceben `msoflio<br />

kvercxs~; Cinelebs swamdaT, rom<br />

pirveli adamiani im kvercxidan<br />

gamoiCeka, romelic cidan Camovardnili,<br />

`pirvelwyalze~<br />

tivtivebda; antikuri versiiT,<br />

kvercxidan iSvnen polidevkesi<br />

da mSvenieri elene (spartis<br />

erT-erT taZarSi am istoriuli”<br />

kvercxis naWuWs anaxvebdnen);<br />

kvercs sakraruli mniSvneloba<br />

aqvs iudaizmSic: moTuSuli<br />

kvercxi - imedisa da maradiuli<br />

sicocxlis es<br />

simbolo, aucilebelia<br />

sederis<br />

(ebrauli pasekis)<br />

Tu sulis mosaxseniuebelsaritualo<br />

sufraze.<br />

kvercxi, viTarca<br />

ukvdavebisa da<br />

n a y o f i e r e b i s<br />

TvalnaTeli gansa-<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

xiereba, gazafxulisa da Semodgomis<br />

buniobis dResaswaulebis<br />

aucilebeli atributi gaxldaT<br />

im qveynebSi, sadac gavrcelebuli<br />

iyo miTraizmi: buniobisas<br />

qurumebi samsxverplo xaris<br />

sisxls apkurebdnen yovelives,<br />

rasac ki am sisxlis siwiTliT<br />

(`mzisferobiT~) _ swored mzis<br />

cxovelmyofeloba unda SesZenoda.<br />

am analogiiT, aRdgomis<br />

dResaswaulze wiTlad SeRebili<br />

kvercxi ukve ormag simbolikas<br />

iZens _ gazafxulisa da<br />

macxovris aRdgomis, xelaxali<br />

dabadebis...<br />

`kosmiuri kvercxi~ Sualedur<br />

mdgomareobasac ganasaxierebs<br />

_ qaossa da samyaros wesrigs<br />

Soris, rogorc sicocxlis simboluri<br />

pirvelwyaro. ar aris<br />

gasakviri, rom Zveli keltebis<br />

mistikuri qurumebi _ druidebi<br />

amuletebad kiserze Sebmul<br />

brolis kvercxebs atarebdnen.<br />

aseTive sakraruli mniSvneloba<br />

hqonda mraval kulturasa<br />

da miTologiaSi vercxlisa Tu<br />

oqros kvercxs.<br />

rusuli folkloris jadosnuri<br />

personaJis _ `ukvdavi kaSCeis~<br />

suli kvercxSia momwyvdeuli;<br />

ruseTSivea aRmoCenili preistoriuli<br />

samarxebi, micvalebulTaTvis<br />

Catanebuli Tixis<br />

kvercxebiT. etyoba, swored<br />

slavur samyaroSi Caisaxa saa-<br />

Rdgomo kvercxis moxatvis natifi<br />

tradicia da SemTxveviTi ar<br />

aris, rom swored ruseTSi Seiqmna<br />

saiuveliro xelovnebis iseTi<br />

unikaluri fenomeni, rogoric<br />

iyo `faberJes kvercxi~.<br />

aseTi gaxlavT samyaros Seqmnis<br />

saidumlosa da pirvandel sicarieleSi<br />

sicocxlis warmoSobis<br />

es unikaluri simbolo.<br />

18 sicocxlis warmoSobis unikaluri simbolo


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

faberJe - saaRdgomo kvercxis istoria<br />

sad aris 8 saimperatoro<br />

faberJes kvercxi?<br />

faberJes saaRdgomo kvercxis<br />

istoria ruseTis xelmwifis<br />

aleqsandre III-isa da dedofal<br />

maria fiodorovnas siyvaruls<br />

ukavSirdeba. xelmwifem meuRles<br />

pirveli faberJe miarTva qorwinebis<br />

20 wlis Tavze (1885wels)<br />

ganaxlebuli sicocxlisa da<br />

imedis simbolod. gansakuTrebuli<br />

da originaluri saCuqari<br />

mefem axalgazrda iuvelirs<br />

piter karl faberJes (Peter<br />

Carl Faberge) SeukveTa. saCuqarma<br />

dedoflis aRfrTovaneba<br />

gamoiwvia. ase daibada pirveli<br />

faberJe AHen Egg...<br />

faberJe 1885-1917 wlebSi 69<br />

unikaluri da Zvirfasi kvercxis<br />

avtori gaxda, saidanac 54<br />

ruseTis saimperatoro karis<br />

saCuqari iyo.<br />

The Hen egg (1885)<br />

erTi SexedviT, es iyo martivi<br />

kvercxis formis sagani, magram<br />

dedoflis gasaocrad, mis SigniT<br />

aRmoCnda oqros kvercxis<br />

guli, romelSic ido oqros qaTami,<br />

xolo qaTmis SigniT _ samefo<br />

gvirgvinis margalitis miniatura<br />

da patara lalis kvercxi. dedoflis<br />

aRfrTovaneba imdenad<br />

didi iyo, rom xelmwifem gadawyvita<br />

msgavsi saCuqari yovel<br />

aRdgomas gaekeTebina misTvis.<br />

faberJe - saaRdgomo kvercxis istoria<br />

mas iuvelirTan hqonda gansaz-<br />

Rvruli moTxovna – TiToeuli<br />

kvercxi imdenad originaluri<br />

unda yofiliyo, rom dedoflis<br />

gaoceba gamoewvia.<br />

Coronation egg (1897)<br />

genialuri qmnilebis avtori<br />

faberJe daibada 1846 wels. man<br />

mcire zomis vercxlisa da samkaulebis<br />

maRazia sant-peterburgSi<br />

memkvidreobiT miiRo<br />

mamisagan, Tumca Tavisi kreatiulobiTa<br />

da mondomebiT gansakuTrebuloba<br />

SesZina Tavis<br />

namuSevrebs. 1882 wels is miwveuli<br />

iyo moskovSi saiuveliro<br />

gamofenaSi monawileobis<br />

misaRebad, sadac moipova oqros<br />

medali da didi mowoneba daimsaxura<br />

inovaciuri ideebisaTvis.<br />

swored aq gaicnes xelmwifem da<br />

dedofalma faberJes saxli da<br />

dauaxlovdnen mas.<br />

faberJes mier saimperatoro kvercxebis<br />

damzadebam Zalian cnobili<br />

gaxada is mTel msoflioSi.<br />

aman ganapiroba ubralo saiuveliro<br />

maRaziis gadaqceva cnobil<br />

`faberJes saxlad~, romelic<br />

gaixsna moskovSi. iq saCuqrebs<br />

iZendnen aristokratebi, baronebi<br />

da sxva im drois maRali wris<br />

sazogadoeba. Tumca, faberJe upirvelesad<br />

yovelTvis xelmwifis<br />

winaSe iyo valdebuli.<br />

1918 wels `faberJes saxli~ daikaves<br />

bolSevikebma. faberJem da<br />

misma ojaxma datoves ruseTi<br />

da Sveicarias Seafares Tavi.<br />

swored iq gardaicvala SesaniSnavi<br />

xelovani 1920 wels.<br />

aleqsandre III-is gardacvalebis<br />

Semdgom taxtis memkvidrem,<br />

nikoloz II-m faberJes saaRdgomo<br />

kvercxebis istoria gaagrZela.<br />

mxolod mamisagan gansxvavebiT,<br />

nikoloz II yovelwluirad<br />

or kvercxs ukveTavda – dedisaTvis<br />

da Tavisi axladSerTuli<br />

meuRlis, dedofal aleqsandra<br />

fiodorovnasaTvis. pirveli<br />

kvercxi, romelic nikoloz II-m<br />

dedofal aleqsandras aCuqa, iyo<br />

Rosebud egg 1894 wels, amitom<br />

es kvercxi iTvleba maTi siyvarulis<br />

simbolod.<br />

faberJes produqciis ZiriTadi<br />

Semadgenlobaa mina, romelic<br />

morTulia iseTi Zvirfasi qvebiT,<br />

rogricaaa oqro, vercxli, platina,<br />

lali, brilianti, margaliti<br />

da a.S. kvercxebis detalebi<br />

ZiriTadad gamomdinareobs rusuli<br />

kulturis simboloebidan<br />

an dedofal mariasa da aleqsandras<br />

xasiaTebidan.<br />

romanovebis mmarTvelobis<br />

dasasruls, 1917 wels Seiqmna<br />

bolo ori faberJes saaRdgomo<br />

kvercxi Constellation da Karelian<br />

Birch. amiT dasrulda saimperatoro<br />

faberJes kvercxis<br />

warmoebis 32 wliani istoria.<br />

Semdgom romanovebis sasaxleebi<br />

bolSevikebma daikaves. am<br />

Twelve Monograms egg (1895)<br />

19


Caucasus egg (1893)<br />

periodSi feberJes kvercxebis<br />

umetesoba, saimperio oqrosa da<br />

vercxlis didi raodenoba gadatanil<br />

iqna kremlis sawyobebSi,<br />

rasac ramdenime faberJes kvercxis<br />

dakargva mohyva. leninis<br />

mier daculi rusuli kulturis<br />

nimuSebi stalinma Tavisi axali<br />

reJimis dasafinanseblad gamoiyena<br />

da maTi gayidva daiwyo. im<br />

droisaTvis faberJes kvercxebis<br />

fasi Zalian dabali iyo. isini<br />

swrafad iyideboda da tovebda<br />

ruseTis farglebs...<br />

1930-1933 wlebSi sazRvargareT<br />

gaiyida 14 saimperatoro aRdgomis<br />

kvercxi. kaci, romelmac<br />

im droisaTvis moaxerxa yvelaze<br />

meti faberJes kvercxis Segroveba,<br />

iyos koleqcioneri amerikis<br />

SeerTebuli Statebidan armand<br />

hameri (Armand Hammer). am periodSi<br />

aSS-Si faberJes mimarT<br />

aqtiuri interesiT xuTi koleqcioneri<br />

gamoirCeoda: matilda<br />

gedings grai, lilian tomas<br />

prati, marjore merivezer posti,<br />

Trans-Siberian Railway egg<br />

(1900)<br />

india erli minSeli da malkolm<br />

s. forbesi. zogierTi saimperatoro<br />

kvercxi auqcionze sul<br />

raRac 4 an 5 aTas dolarad iyideboda.<br />

aTwleulebi dasWirda<br />

`faberJes~, rom is miCneuliyo<br />

xelovnebis nimuSad. dReisaTvis<br />

TiToeuli antikvaruli suveniris<br />

Rirebuleba milionebs iTvlis.<br />

saimperatoro kvercxebis<br />

umetesoba 3-dan 6-mde diumis<br />

simaRlisaa. mxolod Trans-Siberian<br />

Railway-isa da the Bay<br />

Tree eggs-is simaRle Seadgens<br />

10-11 diums.<br />

Alexander Palace egg (1908)<br />

faberJes mimarT interess imperatorebis<br />

garda kerZo pirebic<br />

iCendnen. faberJem 15 kvercxi<br />

kerZo klientebisaTvis daamzada.<br />

maT Soris iyo 7 industrialisti<br />

aleqsandre kelCisTvis.<br />

Rosebud egg (1895)<br />

faberJes 69 kvercxidan dReisaTvis<br />

aRmoCenilia mxolod 61. maTi<br />

umetesoba moTavsebulia sazogadoebriv<br />

muzeumebSi. 30 maTgani<br />

aris ruseTSi. dakargulia 8 saimperatoro<br />

saaRdgomo faberJe.<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

Lilies of the Valley egg (1898)<br />

yvelaze ZviradRirebuli<br />

faberJes `zamTris kvercxis~<br />

Rirebuleba 1913 wels daaxloebiT<br />

25 000 rubls (12500<br />

dolars) Seadgenda.<br />

faberJes kvercxi dRes gacilebiT<br />

Zviri Rirs. magaliTad, 1994<br />

wels auqcionze amerikelma biznesmenma<br />

am faberJeSi 5.5 milion<br />

dolari gadaixada, xolo 2002<br />

wels is 9.8 milion dolarad<br />

gaiyida. 2007 wlis noemberSi,<br />

ruseTis erovnulma muzeumma<br />

erT-erT auqcionze rostCildis<br />

kvercxi (Rothschild Egg)<br />

8.9 milion evrod SeiZina. es<br />

dRemde yvelaze Zvirad gayiduli<br />

rusuli xelovnebis nimuSia.<br />

Winter egg (1913)<br />

21 faberJe - saaRdgomo kvercxis istoria


saea 19 wlisaa<br />

daarsebis dRidan saqarTvelos axalgazrda ekonomistTa<br />

asociaciis (saea), rogorc arasamTavrobo organizaciis<br />

mTavar mizans samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTareba, demokratiis<br />

xelSewyoba, partniori organizaciebisa da<br />

kerZo seqtorTan TanamSromlobiT qveynis ekonomikur<br />

ganviTarebaSi wvlilis Setana warmoadgens.<br />

1989 wlis 25 aprilidan moyolebuli asociacia mkacrad<br />

icavs deklarirebul principebs, kerZod: igi TanamSromlobs<br />

nebismier dainteresebul saxelmwifo, sazogadoebriv<br />

da saerTaSoriso organizaciasTan, samecniero da<br />

saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebTan, kerZo seqtorTan da<br />

masobrivi informaciis gavrcelebis saSualebebTan.Mmasmediis<br />

meSveobiT farTo sazogadoebas saea mudmivad awvdis<br />

informacias mimdinare ekonomikuri procesebisa da<br />

siaxleebis Sesaxeb. asociaciis eqspertebis SefasebebTan<br />

erTad Jurnalistebs maTTvis aqtualuri Temebis ir-<br />

gvliv konsultaciebsac uweven da realuri problemebis<br />

warmoCinebaSic exmarebian.<br />

dReisaTvis quTaissa da baTumSi funqcionirebs<br />

`saqarTvelos axalgazrda<br />

ekonomistTa asociaciaciis~<br />

imereTis, da aWaris fi-<br />

lialebi, amas garda<br />

warmomadgenlobebi:<br />

gorsa da saCxereSi.<br />

asociacia aqtiurad<br />

TanamSromlobs arasamTavrobo<br />

da saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan,<br />

sxvadasxva donorebTan<br />

da partniorebTan.<br />

maT Soris: euTos misia saqarTveloSi;<br />

GTZ; TACIS; fridrix<br />

ebertis fondi; USIS; kanadis<br />

saelCo; evraziis fondi; AMEX International<br />

Inc.(USAID); `oqsfam-novibi~,<br />

`oqsfamis saqarTvelos warmomadgenloba~;<br />

fondi `Ria sazogadoeba<br />

– saqarTvelo~; IRIS-Center; CRS;<br />

saerTaSoriso iuridiuli TanamSromlobis<br />

centri; CRRC, da a.S.<br />

asociaciam daarsdebis dRidan 50-ze meti proeqti<br />

ganaxorciela. saea-s saqmianobis sferoebidan<br />

prioritetulia: biznesgaremos ganviTarebis mxardaWera,<br />

ekonomikis sferoSi saxelmwifo seqtoris mxardaWera, samoqalaqo<br />

sazogadoebis ganviTareba da ekonomikuri ganaTleba.<br />

22


ogori iqneba `msoflios woniani<br />

statistikosebis~ Sefaseba?<br />

rubrikis stumari: statistikis<br />

departamentis Tavmjdomare<br />

griSa fanculaia<br />

- batono griSa, ra etapzea<br />

statistikis departamentis<br />

ganviTarebis gegma?<br />

statistiskis departamentis<br />

ganviTarebis gegmis SemuSavebis<br />

kuTxiT garkveuli samuSaoebi<br />

ukve ganxorcielda, kerZod<br />

UNDP-is proeqti daiwyo martis<br />

Sua ricvebSi, romelic 3<br />

Tvis ganmavlobaSi msoflioSi<br />

`woniani statistikosebis~ saqarTveloSi<br />

Camoyvanas da maTi<br />

Sefasebebis momzadebas iTvaliswinebs.<br />

swored am rekomendaciebze<br />

dayrdnobiT igegmeba<br />

samomavlod statistikis departamentis<br />

organizaciuli mowyoba<br />

da menejmentis gamarTva.<br />

- msoflioSi `woniani<br />

statistikosebidan~ romelime<br />

Tu iyo Camosuli?<br />

jer-jerobiT Camosuli iyo mxolod<br />

herman hebermani gaeros<br />

statistikis yofili Tavmjdomare,<br />

romlis Sefasebac, savaraudod,<br />

2 kviraSi gaxdeba cnobili.<br />

rac Seexeba pirad saubrebs,<br />

misi TqmiT hebermani aRniSnavda,<br />

rom gansakuTrebiT unda gamaxvildes<br />

yuradReba statistikis<br />

departamenis mier momzadebuli<br />

monacemebis sandoobaze da imijis<br />

amaRlebaze.<br />

- rodis unda warednios<br />

mTavrobas gansaxilvelad<br />

statistikis departamentis<br />

ganviTarebis gegma?<br />

UNDP-is proeqtis proetis<br />

dasruleba ivnisis Sua ricxveb-<br />

Si igegmeba da mas Semdgom, rac<br />

eqspertebis mosazrebebis Tavmoyra<br />

dasruldeba, ukve Sesa-<br />

Zlebeli iqneba mTavrobis sxdomaze<br />

gansaxilvelad aRniSnuli<br />

dokuments wardgena.<br />

- statistikis departamentis<br />

ganviTarebis dokumetis<br />

damtkicebamde ra saxis<br />

kvlevebze gaakeTebT<br />

orientirs?<br />

Cven ZiriTad aqctens gavakeTebT<br />

patara kvlevebze 4 ZiriTadi<br />

mimarTulebiT, kerZod: mTliani<br />

Sida produqtze, siRaribesa da<br />

umuSevrobaze, fasebis inflaciaze,<br />

sagareo vaWrobasa da<br />

sagareo urTierTobebze.<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

- batono griSa dagegmilia<br />

Tu ara uaxloes momavalSi<br />

kadrebis optimizacia?<br />

erTi welia, rac statistikis depatramentis<br />

Tavmjdomare var da<br />

kadrebTan mimarTebaSi araferi<br />

ar Secvlila, anu ramdenad<br />

saWiroa Zveli kadrebis gadamzadeba<br />

an maTi axliT Canacvleba, es<br />

yovelive statistikis departamentis<br />

ganviTarebis gegmis damtkicebis<br />

mere gairkveva.<br />

amJamad statistikis departaments<br />

gankargulebaSi 7<br />

regionaluri ofisi da 169<br />

TanamSromelia. gamsxvilebamde<br />

TanamSromelTa ricxovnoba<br />

600-s Seadgenda.<br />

TanamSromlebis Canacvlebaze<br />

cota mogvianebiT, axla mTeli<br />

yuradReba ganviTarebis strategiis<br />

droulad momzadebazea<br />

gamaxvilebuli.<br />

23 `msoflios woniani statistikosebis~ Sefaseba


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

biznessakonsultacio qseli - saqarTvelo<br />

`biznessakonsultacio qseli - saqarTvelo~ BCNG - Tqveni biznesis warmatebisaTvis.<br />

ras fiqrobT, rogor iqmneba warmatebis formula da raSi mdgomareobs qarTul bazarze<br />

damkvidrebis saidumlo? rogor movaxdinoT biznesgaremoSi swori orientiri? am<br />

da sxva aqtualur sakiTxebis gadaWraSi Tqven BCNG-is kvalificiur eqspertTa jgufi<br />

dagexmarebaT.<br />

BCNG-i momsaxureobebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebia: bizneskonsaltingi, treningebi da<br />

marketinguli kvlevebi.<br />

biznesmenebs da nebismier dainteresebul msurvelebs SesaZlebloba eZlevaT miiRon<br />

konsultaciebi Semdegi mimarTulebiT _ sagadasaxado da sabaJo sakiTxebi, marketinguli<br />

dagegmva, buRaltruli aRricxva, biznesis dagegmva da marTva, sawarmoTa registracia,<br />

biznespartniorebis moZieba da sxv.<br />

BCNG - axorcielebs rogorc individualur, aseve korporatiul momsaxureobas. iTanam-<br />

SromleT CvenTan da Cven viqnebiT Tqveni biznesis warmatebis sawindari.<br />

20 konkursi


warmatebuli pozicionirebis saidumlo<br />

marketingi _ es aris yvelaferi<br />

Tqvens garSemo. marketingia is<br />

reklamebi, romlebsac uyurebT<br />

televiziiT, naxulobT JurnalgazeTebSi,<br />

romlebiTac gadatenilia<br />

Tqveni safosto yuTebi da<br />

veb-gverdebi. saxlSi, skolaSi,<br />

samsaxurSi, yvelgan sadac xarT,<br />

rasac akeTebT – xedavT marketings.<br />

da mainc, marketingi imaze<br />

metia, vidre amas myidvelis Tvali<br />

aRiqvams...<br />

marketologebi Zalian bevrs<br />

Sromoben imisaTvis, rom maTi<br />

produqti momxmareblisTvis<br />

pozicionirebuli iyos; rom<br />

Tqven, ^Tundac erTi wuTi mainc<br />

dauTmoT maT produqtze fiqrs;<br />

wamiT SeCerdeT bilbordTan da<br />

ara mxolod produqtis saxeli<br />

daimaxsovroT, aramed konkurentebisgan<br />

gamijnoT da gansxvavebuli<br />

pozicia mianiWoT Tqvens<br />

cnobierebaSi.<br />

Tumca, Tqven xom Zalian gadatvirTuli<br />

xarT produqtisa da<br />

momsaxurebis Sesaxeb informaciiT...<br />

rTulia TiToeuli yidvis<br />

gadawyvetilebis miRebisas<br />

produqtis Sefaseba. yidvis<br />

procesis gasamartiveblad momxmareblebi<br />

produqtebs, momsaxurebasa<br />

da kompaniebs garkveul<br />

kategoriebad yofen da maT<br />

gonebaSi `poziciebs aniWeben~.<br />

produqtis pozicia es aris myidvelis<br />

aRqmis, STabeWdilebisa<br />

da grZnobis erToblioba,<br />

romelic mas sxva konkurent<br />

produqtebTan SedarebiT am<br />

produqtze Camouyalibda.<br />

Tqven produqtis pozicionirebas<br />

axdenT rogorc marketologebis<br />

daxmarebiT, aseve maT gareSe,<br />

magram marketologebs ar<br />

surT TavianTi produqtebis<br />

bedi ubralo SemTxvevas miandon.<br />

isini Zalisxmevas ar iSureben,<br />

rom sworad da zustad moaxdinon<br />

sakuTari brendis pozicionireba.<br />

Mercedesbenz-ma warmatebuli<br />

pozicionireba moaxdina, rodesac<br />

ganacxada, rom maRali fasis<br />

sanacvlod uzrunvelyofs<br />

saukeTeso xarisxs, gamZleobas,<br />

funqcionirebasa da stils.<br />

aseTi produqtebi myidvels<br />

garkveul prestiJs aniWebs da<br />

statusisa da mdidruli stilis<br />

simbolos warmoadgens. Toyota<br />

Echo da Ford focus-i pozicionirebulia<br />

rogorc ekonomiuri<br />

manqanebi, Mercedes-i da<br />

Cadillac-i _ rogorc mdidruli<br />

manqanebi, BMW da Porche ki _<br />

rogorc sportuli. Volvo amtki-<br />

cebs, rom misi manqana yvelaze<br />

usafrTxoa. sloganma, romelic<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

kompaniam momxmarebels SesTavaza<br />

_ `yvelaze usafrTxo manqana<br />

Tqveni ojaxisTvis!~ erTi-orad<br />

gazarda rogorc momxmareblebis<br />

raodenoba, aseve maTi<br />

loialuroba. Toyota - am sawvavis<br />

damzogav Tavis hibridul<br />

model Prius-is pozicionirebas<br />

axdens rogorc energiis<br />

ekonomiis maRalteqnologiur<br />

gadawyvetas. `ramdenad Sors<br />

waxvalT planetis gadasar-<br />

Cenad?~ _ kiTxulobs igi.<br />

produqtis SemoqmedebiTi gziT<br />

pozicionireba erTaderTi gzaa<br />

Zlier konkurentebis dasamarcxeblad.<br />

magaliTisTvis Segvi-<br />

Zlia ganvixiloT Wal-Mart-isa<br />

da Whole Foods-is bazari.<br />

Wal Mart-i TiTqmis yvelafers<br />

yidis, rac niSnavs imas, rom igi<br />

ulmobel konkurencias uwevs<br />

TiTqmis yvela sacalo movaWres,<br />

msxvilsa Tu wvrils. is Zlieria<br />

da misi damarcxeba yvela sxva<br />

mewarmisTvis urTules amocanas<br />

warmoadgens. saukeTeso qmedeba<br />

am SemTxvevaSi Wal Mart-isTvis<br />

arapirdapiri konkurenciis<br />

gaweva iqneboda. swored ase<br />

iqceva Wdole Foods-i, patara<br />

maRalxarisxiani sasursaTo qseli.<br />

igi Wal-Mart-is 2700 maRaziis<br />

sapirispirod mxolod 143<br />

maRazias flobs da misi wliuri<br />

Semosavali 3 miliard dolarze<br />

naklebs Seadgens maSin, roca<br />

Wal Mart-is Semosavali 300<br />

miliard dolars aRwevs. miuxedavad<br />

imisa, rom es samarTlian<br />

brZolas sulac ar gavs, Whole<br />

Foods-i ayvavebis gzas adgas.<br />

igi warmatebas frTxili da Wal<br />

Mart-isgan moSorebuli pozicionirebis<br />

xarjze aRwevs.<br />

Whole Foods-is Zlier pozi-<br />

24 warmatebuli pozicionirebis saidumlo


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

cionireba mis devizSia Sejamebuli:<br />

`janmrTeli sakvebi, janmrTeli<br />

xalxi, janmrTeli planeta~.<br />

SeiareT Whole Foods-is maRaziaSi<br />

da naxavT, rom es sulac<br />

ar aris tipuri maRazia. masobrivi<br />

tkbili kolas nacvlad,<br />

romliTac savsea sxva tradiciuli<br />

sasursaTo maRaziebi, Whole<br />

Foods-i ekologiurad sufTa<br />

gazian wyalsa da naturalur<br />

wvens SemogTavazeben.<br />

maRaziis saqonlis umetesobas<br />

Semdegi Sinaarsis iarliyebi<br />

akravs: `ekologiurad sufTa~,<br />

`100%-iT naturaluri~, `ar<br />

Seicavs damatebebs~ da a.S.<br />

Whole Foods-i patara maRalxarisxiani<br />

sasursaTo qselia,<br />

romlsac hyavs saguldagulod<br />

SerCeuli momxmarebeli,<br />

romelTa gamocdileba da gemovneba<br />

gansxvavdeba Wal Martis<br />

momxmareblebisgan. amitom,<br />

Whole Foods-i maT sTavazobs<br />

`originalur, naturalur da<br />

gurmanebisTvis gankuTvnil<br />

sakvebs~.<br />

Whole Foods-i yvelasaTvis<br />

gankuTvnili ar aris, is mxolod<br />

frTxilad gamiznul segments<br />

emsaxureba. am maRaziis<br />

momxmareblebi arian mdidari,<br />

progresuli da ganaTlebuli<br />

adamianebi. Whole Foods-is<br />

momxmareblebi jansaRi cxovrebis<br />

wesiT cxovroben. maT ainteresebT,<br />

ras miirTmeven da garemoze<br />

zrunaven. am momxmareblisTvis<br />

Whole Foods-i marTlac ar<br />

aris iseTi masobrivi movaWris<br />

konkurenti, rogoric Wal Martia.<br />

faqtobrivad, Whole Foodsis<br />

momxmarebeli boikots ufro<br />

gamoucxadebs Wal Mart-s, vidre<br />

iq Seva da raimes SeiZens.<br />

warmatebuli pozicionirebis saidumlo<br />

amgavrad, Whole Foods-i<br />

msoflioSi Wal Mart-s pirdapir<br />

konkurencias ver gauwevs, igi<br />

ar moergeba Wal Mart-is masStabur<br />

ekonomias, Sesyidvebis Sesa-<br />

Zleblobebis daujerebel moculobas,<br />

gansakuTrebiT mimzidvel<br />

lojistikas, farTo arCevansa da<br />

Znelad dasamarcxebel fasebs.<br />

ufro metic, is ar Seecdeba amis<br />

gakeTebas. piriqiT, myidvelis-<br />

Tvis im faseulobebis SesTavazebs,<br />

romelic Wal Mart-s ar SeuZlia.<br />

mas mizanSi yavs is klientebi,<br />

romelTa momsaxureba Wal Mart-s<br />

ar ZaluZs. Wal Mart-isgan da<br />

sxva msgavsi profilis sasursaTo<br />

maRaziebisgan distanciuri<br />

pozicionirebiT, Whole Foodsma<br />

msoflioSi sakuTari, Zalian<br />

momgebiani adgili daimkvidra.<br />

saukeTeso arCevani konkurentul<br />

bazarze, albaT, susti adgilis<br />

moZebnaa konkurentebisTvis<br />

da Semdeg momxmareblis im daukmayofilebeli<br />

moTxovnebis Sesruleba,<br />

romelic, faqtobrivad,<br />

konkurentebma ver SesZles.<br />

im SemTxvevaSi, Tu Tqveni<br />

konkurenti ukve didi xania<br />

erTi da igive momxmarebelze<br />

wiTel vaSls yidis, albaT, Tqven<br />

gagiWirdebaT igive vaSlis gayidva,<br />

Tumca SeiZleba momxmarebels<br />

wiTeli ukve mobezrda da<br />

axla mwvanes eZebs?!<br />

25


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

26 cnobili brandis mTavari sazrunavi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

sareklamo kampania<br />

Jurnal-gazeTebSi<br />

rCevebi efeqturi beWdviTi reklamis<br />

msurvelTaTvis<br />

rCeva # 1 – esaubreT momxmareblebs<br />

maT enaze.<br />

`kargi ramaa. saSviliSvilo<br />

saqmea~ ¬_ rigiTi pensioneri.<br />

`cvetSi magari veSia~ _ Tqveni<br />

saxlis kedelze atuzuli axalgazrda<br />

biWi.<br />

`ar asrebooobs! usayvarlesia~<br />

_ me-10 klasis moswavle gogo.<br />

mixvdiT? erTi da igive azri<br />

sxvadasxva formiTaa naTqvami<br />

sxvadasxva auditoriisTvis.<br />

vis esaubrebiT? rogor esaubrebiT?<br />

beWdviT mediaSi reklama _<br />

es aris naTqvami sityva. Cven yvelas<br />

gviyvars viyoT im adamianeb-<br />

Tan da viyidoT imaTTgan, vinc<br />

Cvennairia. es adamianis bunebaa.<br />

ase rom, gayidvis dros Zalian<br />

mniSvnelovania icodeT, vis esaubrebiT<br />

da gaigoT, Tu ratom<br />

saubrobT ama Tu im formiT.<br />

dafiqrdiT im adamianebze, romlebTanac<br />

mogwonT an ar mogwonT<br />

saubari. gaixseneT xalxi,<br />

romlebsac paemanze xvdebodiT.<br />

Tqven fiqrobT, rom ar geqnebaT<br />

sareklamo kampania Jurnal-gazeTebSi<br />

seriozuli urTierToba im adamianTan,<br />

romlis saubris manera<br />

ar mogwonT? _ marTali xarT.<br />

saukeTeso reklama eZebs urTierTobas.<br />

es daaxloebiT igivea,<br />

rodesac erTi adamiani meores<br />

mxarze xels gadaxvevs da etyvis:<br />

`mismine, me vici Seni problema<br />

da saWiroeba. me SemiZlia mogce<br />

zustad is, rac Sen gWirdeba~.<br />

universitetis profesorebs undaT<br />

gaigon sxva profesorebisagan;<br />

bankis TanamSromlebs surT<br />

moisminon imaTgan, vinc maTi sabanko<br />

JargoniT laparakobs. rac<br />

ar unda aRSfoTdnen qarTveli<br />

filologebi da enaTmecnierebi,<br />

Cven erTmaneTs mainc `Cvens enaze~<br />

vesaubrebiT. Tqveni naweris<br />

riTmebi, frazebi, sintaqsi unda<br />

Seesabamebodes im auditorias,<br />

romelsac esaubrebiT. SesaZlebelia<br />

es gakeTdes? Znelia?!<br />

Tu Tqven werT konkretuli auditoriisTvis,<br />

yoveli samuSao<br />

dRe daiwyeT imiT, rom daweroT<br />

raime maT enaze. Tqven SegeqmnebaT<br />

Sinagani SegrZneba imisa, Tu<br />

rogor saubrobs Tqveni miznobrivi<br />

auditoria da Zalian male<br />

Tqven dawerT sareklamo teqsts<br />

im formiT, rogorc Tqveni auditoria<br />

saubrobs.<br />

gaiTvaliswineT, rom adamianebs,<br />

romelTa yuradRebasa da ndobas<br />

iTxovT, undaT imis codna,<br />

rom Tqven maTi gesmiT. dRes is,<br />

Tu rogor saubrobT da ras saubrobT<br />

erTnairad mniSvnelovania.<br />

msoflioSi bevri sareklamo saagento<br />

qiraobs adamianebs, romlebsac<br />

maRali socialuri inteleqti<br />

aqvs. maT ician xalxis<br />

ena da icnoben sxvadasxva auditoriebs.<br />

miuxedavad imisa,<br />

rom milionobiT sareklamo<br />

gancxadeba ibeWdeba beWdviT mediaSi,<br />

Zalian cota maTagani Seesabameba<br />

miznobriv auditorias.<br />

Tqven unda icodeT rogor moaxdinoT<br />

komunikacia. waikiTxeT<br />

is, rasac Tqveni momxmarebeli<br />

kiTxulobs; uyureT imas, rasac<br />

isini uyureben.<br />

Tu Tqven axalgazrdebs unda<br />

elaparakoT, waikiTxeT maTi Jurnalebi;<br />

SexedeT im satelevizio<br />

gadacemebs, romlebsac isini uyureben;<br />

wadiT maT filmze kinoSi;<br />

SediT Cat-oTaxebSi (internet-<br />

Si), sadac isini uamrav dros atareben.<br />

gaakeTeT igive bavSvebisTvis,<br />

qalebisTvis, kacebisTvis<br />

da xanSi SesulebisTvis...<br />

SeicaniT maTi cxovreba da isini<br />

aTasobiT lariT gadagixdian<br />

madlobas.<br />

rCeva #2 – sargebeli unda<br />

iyos ZiriTadi mesiji.<br />

Tqven, albaT, fiqrobT, rom es<br />

isedac iciT, magram gadaxedeT<br />

gazeTebs. ramden sareklamo<br />

gancxadebaSi gamoikveTeba<br />

mTavari sargebeli? miipyariT<br />

yuradReba imiT, risi gagebac<br />

momxmarebels swrafad surs.<br />

sareklamo gancxadebis gakeTebisas<br />

unda gaiTvaliswinoT, rom<br />

mkiTxvels ar mouwios gamocnoba<br />

Tqveni da Tqveni produqtis<br />

sargeblis.<br />

27


pasuxi SekiTxvaze: `ra aris<br />

Cveni dapireba da rogor vamtkicebT<br />

mas?~ _ aris Zalian kargi<br />

gza, rom zustad gansazRvroT<br />

Tqveni produqtis sargebeli da<br />

daiwyoT sareklamo teqstis SemuSaveba.<br />

ras pirdebiT Tqvens momxmareblebs?<br />

gauadvilebT maT cxovrebas?<br />

gaxdiT maT metad Wkvians?<br />

gaaZlerebT maT bizness? ar<br />

daafiqroT amaze momxmareblebi.<br />

uTxariT rac SeiZleba male,<br />

mokled da lakonurad.<br />

zogierTma Tqvenganma SeiZleba<br />

Tqvas: `me ar vfiqrob, rom reklamebs,<br />

romlebsac vnaxulob,<br />

aris cudi~. Tu asea, maSin Tqven<br />

ar kiTxulobT sakmarisi raodenobiT<br />

Jurnalebs. drodadro<br />

Cven vaTvalierebT sxvadasxva<br />

Jurnalebs, rom vipovoT efeqtiani<br />

sareklamo gancxadeba.<br />

erTi ucxouri gamoSvebis JurnalSi<br />

wavawydiT warmatebuli<br />

sabrokero kompaniis sareklamo<br />

gancxadebas. am kompaniis menejments<br />

imedi unda hqondes, rom<br />

maTi warmateba maT mier gan-<br />

Tavsebul reklamaze ar iqneba<br />

damokidebuli Semdegi mizezebidan<br />

gamomdinare:<br />

1. ar aris gamokveTili ZiriTadi<br />

mesiji;<br />

2. ar Cans sargebeli, romelsac<br />

momxmarebeli miiRebs kompaniis<br />

servisiT sargeblobis Sem-<br />

TxvevaSi;<br />

3. vizualuri mxare aris sakmaod<br />

mosawyeni: saSualo asakis<br />

mamakacis profili;<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

4. gancxadeba Sedgeba ormocdaerTi<br />

sityvisagan da ocdaSvidi<br />

maTgani vizualurad<br />

waukiTxavia;<br />

5. gamoyenebuli aqvs Zalian dabali<br />

xarisxis ferebi.<br />

es sareklamo gancxadeba<br />

(ubralod waukiTxavi) vaCveneT<br />

erT-erTi msxvili bankis marketingis<br />

menejers, romelmac aR-<br />

SfoTeba ver damala.<br />

ratom akeTebs Zalian bevri<br />

adamiani cud reklamas, rodesac<br />

ar aris Zneli Seqmna kargi?<br />

ubralod uTxariT Tqvens<br />

momxmareblebs Tqveni kompaniis<br />

sargeblianobis Sesaxeb. mimarTva<br />

gaxadeT saintereso da kiTxvadi.<br />

es xom Zalian martivia, Tumca<br />

bevrs mainc uWirs. amasTan, ar<br />

dagaviwydeT, iyoT kreatiulebi.<br />

reklama xom mizanmimarTuli<br />

Semoqmedebaa.<br />

dabolos, rogorc erTi media<br />

`guru~ ityoda: `yvelas Seu-<br />

Zlia miipyros yuradReba 20<br />

milionis daxarjviT. mxolod<br />

saukeTesoebs SeuZliaT gaakeTon<br />

es 1 milioniT~.<br />

28 sareklamo kampania Jurnal-gazeTebSi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

29


`dazRvevis bumi~<br />

saqarTveloSi<br />

_ dazRveuli xarT?<br />

_ ukacravad, dazRveva ra aris<br />

...?<br />

am SekiTxvaze 90-ian wlebSi<br />

aucileblad SekiTxviTve gipasuxebdnen.<br />

dazRvevam saqar-<br />

TveloSi sakmaod gvian moikida<br />

fexi. Tumca manamde... manamde xom<br />

diadi sabWoTa kavSiri iyo, romelic<br />

dazRvevas, ra Tqma unda,<br />

ar saWiroebda. iq xom yvela<br />

dazRveuli iyo, riski _ gaSualedebuli<br />

da marTuli, xoda<br />

dazRvevac yovlad Seusabamo<br />

aRmoCnda masTan.<br />

sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlis<br />

Semdeg, iseve rogorc sxva yvelaferma,<br />

dazRvevamac Tavisi funqcia<br />

SeiZina.<br />

pirveli sadazRvevo kompania<br />

saqarTvelos sadazRvevo bazarze<br />

`aldagi~ iyo, romelic 1990<br />

wels daarsda. Tavdapirvelad<br />

igi sadazRvevo-samedicino firmis<br />

saxiT iyo warmodgenili bazarze.<br />

ase iyo Tu ise, saqarTveloSi<br />

sadazRvevo bazris ganviTareba<br />

daiwyo...<br />

sadazRvevo bazari swrafad<br />

viTardeba, dRiTidRe izrdeba<br />

interesi dazRvevisadmi, Sesabamisad<br />

izrdeba kompaniebis mier<br />

SeTavazebuli produqtebis<br />

ricxvic.<br />

_ dazRveuli xarT?<br />

_ ukacravad, me mekiTxebiT? me...<br />

jer ara...<br />

XI saukunis dasawyisis saqar-<br />

TveloSi aRniSnul SekiTxvaze<br />

ukve aseT pasuxs miviRebdiT.<br />

sazogadoebam kargad gaicno da<br />

gaiazra dazRvevis arsi da mniSvneloba,<br />

magram gadawyvetilebis<br />

miRebas imis Sesaxeb, dazRveuliyo<br />

Tu ara, mainc ar Cqarobda.<br />

Tumca iyo gamonaklisebic<br />

savaldebulo dazRvevis saxiT.<br />

yvela aRiarebda, rom garSemo<br />

uamravi riski arsebobda, romelic<br />

namdvilad saWiroebda<br />

marTvas, Tumca amis ganxorcielebas<br />

ZiriTadad sakuTari<br />

ZalebiT lamobdnen. sadazRvevo<br />

bazari ki ar icdida, igi dRiTidRe<br />

ufro viTardeboda da mravalmxrivi<br />

xdeboda.<br />

dRes? dRes ukve...<br />

_ dazRveuli xarT?<br />

_ .... me, mxolod manqanaRa damrCa<br />

dasazRvevi...<br />

dRes umetes SemTxvevaSi ukve<br />

aseTi pasuxi gvesmis. qarTulma<br />

sazogadoebam warmatebiT auwyo<br />

fexi Tanamedrove msoflios<br />

da riskebis samarTavad yvelaze<br />

efeqtur saSualebas _ dazRvevas<br />

mimarTa. bazris ganviTarebasTan<br />

erTad sadazRvevo kompaniebs<br />

Soris mZafri konkurencia<br />

gaCnda. aRniSnuli ki momxmareblis<br />

moTxovnilebebis maqsimalur<br />

dakmayofilebas uzrunvelyofs.<br />

sadazRvevo kompaniebis mier<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

SeTavazebuli produqtebi<br />

marTlac mravalferovania.<br />

isini momxmarebels ZiriTadad<br />

Semdeg produqtebs sTavazoben:<br />

sicocxlis dazRveva, janmrTelobis<br />

dazRveva, qonebis daz-<br />

Rveva, avtomanqanebis dazRveva,<br />

pasuximgeblobis dazRveva,<br />

tvirTebis dazRveva, finansuri<br />

riskebis dazRveva da sapensio<br />

dazRveva.<br />

kompaniebis mier gayiduli<br />

produqtebis raodenobis mxriv<br />

yvelaze didi moTxovna janmrTelobis<br />

dazRvevaze modis.<br />

aseve popularobiT sargeblobs<br />

avtomanqanebisa da pasuxismgeblobis<br />

dazRveva<br />

sadazRvevo produqtze arsebuli<br />

moTxovna<br />

mzardi bazris pirobebSi kompaniebi<br />

gaCerebas ar apireben,<br />

maTi absoluturi umravlesoba<br />

saqarTvelos bazrisTvis axali<br />

poduqtebis SeTavazebas gegmavs.<br />

sul male qarTveli momxmareblebi<br />

sadazRvevo bazarze iseT<br />

produqtebs unda elodon, rogoricaa:<br />

krizisebis marTva, sam-<br />

Seneblo da samontaJo riskebis<br />

dazRveva da sxv.<br />

sadazRvevo kompaniebis mier<br />

SeTavazebuli axali da ufro<br />

moqnili pirobebi sul ufro<br />

xSirad ubiZgebs momxmarebels<br />

sadazRvevo momsaxurebiT sargeblobisaken.<br />

30 `dazRvevis bumi~ saqarTveloSi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

ojaxebis mixedviT dazRveul<br />

wevrTa raodenobis saSualo<br />

maCvenebels rom SevxedoT, umravles<br />

SemTxvevaSi ojaxSi jer<br />

kidev mxolod erT dazRveul<br />

pirs vxvdebiT.<br />

ojaxebSi dazRveulTa raodenoba<br />

amasTan, kvlavac mravlad arian<br />

potenciuri klientebi, romlebisTvisac<br />

sadazRvevo kompaniebs<br />

jer xma ar miuwvdeniaT.<br />

Tumca, gardamavali ekonomikis<br />

pirobebSi dauzRvevlobis sxva<br />

mizezebi dominireben.<br />

`dazRvevis bumi~ saqarTveloSi<br />

dazRvevis arqonis mizezebi<br />

dazRvevis armqone pirebs daz-<br />

Rvevis arqonis miuxedavad<br />

dazRvevis moTxovnileba da<br />

survili gaaCniaT, Sesabamisad<br />

isini potenciur momxmarebelTa<br />

ricxvs miekuTvnebian, romelTa<br />

azri da Sexeduleba yuradRebis<br />

miRma ar SeiZleba darCes.<br />

dazRvevis ar mqone pirebis moTxovna<br />

sadazRvevo produqtebze<br />

amrigad, saqarTvelos sadazRvevo<br />

bazari swrafi tempebiT vi-<br />

Tardeba.<br />

dRiTidRe izrdeba kompaniebis<br />

mier SeTavazebuli produqtebisa<br />

da, meore mxriv, dazRveulTa<br />

raodenoba.<br />

Tumca, quCaSi jer kidev mravlad<br />

SexvdebiT dauzRvevel adamianebs.<br />

SeiZleba iTqvas, saqar-<br />

TveloSi kvlavac dabalia<br />

sadazRvevo kultura, momxmareblebi<br />

sxvadasxvanairad aRiqvamen<br />

dazRvevas.<br />

amdenad, aRniSnuli sadazRvevo<br />

kompaniebs kidev ufro gaaqtiurebisken<br />

ubiZgebs. saqar-<br />

Tvelos bazari savsea axal-axali<br />

gamowvevebiT, romlebic Sesabamis<br />

gamoxmaurebas saWiroebs.<br />

ase rom, gisurvebT warmatebebs!<br />

31


cecxlovani flamingo<br />

da mziani sanapiro<br />

ra aris is raRac gansxvavebuli<br />

is, rac aRmafrTovanebs da gadamisvris<br />

sxva ganzomilebaSi? zafxuli<br />

axlovdeba da Cumi fiqrebi<br />

gansakuTrebuli da gamorCeuli<br />

adgilebis Sesaxeb ufro da ufro<br />

xmamaRali xdeba.<br />

minda raRac emociuri, egzotikuri<br />

da imavdiulad evropuli, komfortuli<br />

da Tanamedrove _ Tu Tvqeni<br />

fiqrebi amgvaria, Tqven gWirdebaT<br />

turi espaneTSi, qveyanaSi, romelic<br />

aris evropis samxreT sazRvari da<br />

aseve CrdiloeT afrikasTan damakavSirebeli<br />

xidi.<br />

cecxlovani flamingo; xareb-<br />

Tan orTabrZolebi e.w. koridebi;<br />

ganTqmuli Rvinis brendebi; pikasos,<br />

dalis, servantensis samSoblo; saxaleganTqmuli<br />

sazRvao kurortebi;<br />

saocnebo kunZulebi _ es espaneTia!<br />

am saucxoo evropul da imavdorulad<br />

egzotikiT gajerebul qveyanaSi<br />

samogzaurod aucileblad<br />

dagWirdebaT viza. saqarTevloSi<br />

espaneTis saelCo araa, amitom an<br />

sxva Sengenis zonis qveynis sael-<br />

Cos unda mimarToT, an/da sabuTebi<br />

moskovSi gaatanoT. albaT, upiratesobas<br />

pirvel varinats miani-<br />

WebT.<br />

mokle cnobebi, romlic yvela turistma<br />

unda icodes:<br />

qveynis saxelwodeba: espaneTis<br />

samefo (saparlamento monarqia);<br />

dedaqalaqi: madridi;<br />

klimati: zomieri, cxeli zafxuli<br />

qveynis Sua nawilSi; SedarebiT<br />

zomieri da notio sanapiroebis mimdebare<br />

teritoriaze; civi zamTari,<br />

Tumca zamTarSi temperatura iSviaTad<br />

Camodis nul graduss qveviT;<br />

mosaxleoba: 40 491 051 (maTi 75%<br />

eTnikuri espanelebia);<br />

religia: 96% romanuli kaTolikea,<br />

sxva _ 6%;<br />

geografia: mTaliani teritoria<br />

moicavs 507.6 aTas kvadratul kilometrs<br />

da ukavia pireneis naxevarkunZulis<br />

udidesi nawili.<br />

qveynis Sua farTobebi sakmaod<br />

maTagoriania. espaneTis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT<br />

biskais yurea, samxreTdasavleTiT<br />

ki – xmelTaSua zRva.<br />

amasTan, espaneTis saxlemwifos<br />

SemadgenlobaSi Sedis belearis<br />

kunZulebi xmelTaSua zRvaSi da<br />

kanaris kunZulebi atlantikis<br />

okeaneSi;<br />

valuta: evro;<br />

gansakuTrebuli tradiciebi: raime<br />

gansakuTrebuli tradicia, romelic<br />

turistma aucileblad unda<br />

icodes qveyanaSi Casvlis win, ar<br />

aris. piriqiT, Tveni mogzaurobis<br />

mizanic es unda iyos _ aRmoaCinoT<br />

qveynis Taviseburebebi da datkbeT<br />

gansaxvavbuli garemoTi.<br />

turizmi: turistebis uamravi raodenoba<br />

stumrobs rogorc did<br />

qalaqebs (madridi, barselona da<br />

a.S.), aseve sazRvao turizmis mraval<br />

gamoCenil kunZulebs, rogorebicaa<br />

maliorka, ibica da sxva mravali.<br />

zogadad ki, espaneTis sanapiroebi<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

sazRvao damsveneblebis samoTxed<br />

miiCneva. espaneTSi mogzaurobisaTvis<br />

idealur periodebad iTvleba<br />

maisi, ivnisi an/da seqtemberi;<br />

ena: qveynis oficialuri enaa espanuri,<br />

aseve gamoiyeneba germanuli,<br />

italiuri an/da franguli, provinciebSi<br />

ki SesaZloa mxolod adgilobriv<br />

enebze saubrobdnen _ kastiliuri,<br />

galisiuri da baskuri;<br />

saqarTvelos saelCo espaneTis samefoSi<br />

ganTavsebulia qalaq madrid-<br />

Si (misamarTi: s; telefoni +(34<br />

91)429-33-29, 429-01-55).<br />

gasaocari xedebi, mTebi da sanapiroebi,<br />

istoriuli Zeglebi, gansxvavebuli<br />

samzareulo, xelovnebis<br />

gamoCenili geniosebis samSoblo _<br />

am saocrebaTa nazavs erTi aromatic<br />

aerTianebs da gansakuTrebulad<br />

momajadovebls xdis. es aromati<br />

cecxlovani da vnebebiani cekva<br />

flamingoa. amitom, espaneTSi mogzaurobisas<br />

cekvis kursebis gavlas<br />

Tu ver moaswrebT, erT warmodgenas<br />

mainc unda daeswroTY da datkbeT<br />

am gasaocari perfomansiT.<br />

flamingo aris espanuri musikaluri<br />

Janri Zlieri, ritmuli melodiiT.<br />

cekvac Sesabamisad xasiaTdeba<br />

Sesrulebis Zalismieri da<br />

imavdroulad graciozuri maneriT.<br />

flamingo aerTianebs musikalur da<br />

kulturul tradiciebs. miuxeda-<br />

32 cecxlovani flamingo da mziani sanapiro


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

vad imisa, rom flamingo espanur<br />

tradiciebTan asocirdeba, misi<br />

warmomavloba erT regions ukav-<br />

Sir-deba, kerZod ki andaluzias.<br />

flamingos fesvebi cnobili araa,<br />

Tumca iTvleba, rom igi warmoadgens<br />

andaluziuri, islamuri, sefardiuli<br />

kulturebis nazavs. aseve<br />

calsaxaa kuburi zegavlenac.<br />

dRes msoflios sxvadasxva qveynebSi<br />

moqmedebs flamingos profesiuli<br />

skolebi da uamravi adaminia<br />

gatacebuli am mimarTulebiT. Tumca,<br />

flamingos WeSmariti SegrZnebisaTvis<br />

is aucileblad espaneTSi<br />

unda moisminoT da naxoT.<br />

imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra SeiZleba da ra<br />

unda moinaxuloT espaneTis did<br />

qalaqebSi, Zalian bevri ram Sei-<br />

Zleba iTqvas. TiToeuli qalaqi<br />

gansakuTrebuli TaviseburebebiTa<br />

da mimzdvelobiT gamoirCeva _ madridi,<br />

barselona, sevilia, valensia,<br />

santanderi da a.S. maTgan yvelaze<br />

popularuli turistebs Soris<br />

barselonaa, romelmac olimpiur<br />

TamaSebsac ki umaspinZla gasul<br />

saukuneSi.<br />

barselonaSi sastumroebis sakmaod<br />

didi arCevania. erTi standartuli<br />

nomris fasebi 150 evrodan iwyeba.<br />

Tu komfortul da imavdroulad<br />

centralur adgilze ganTavsebul<br />

sastumroSi gsurT cxovreba, maSin<br />

cecxlovani flamingo da mziani sanapiro<br />

saSualod 400 evros gadaxda mogiwevT<br />

erT RameSi.<br />

Tu am qalaqSi pirvelad xarT, maSin<br />

rekomedirebulia aiRoT `barselonas<br />

klasikuri turi~. es eqskursi<br />

daaxloebiT 4 saaTs grZeldeba<br />

da erTi piris Rirebuleba 65 evros<br />

Seadgens. am turis dros Tqven<br />

Tvals SeavlebT ZiriTad RirSesaniSnaobebs,<br />

uZveles koSkebs, ports,<br />

vila olimpias (romelic specialurad<br />

olimpiadisaTvis aigo),<br />

aseve saSualeba geqnebaT monjuiCis<br />

mTidan gadaxedoT qalqs da datkbeT<br />

panoramuli xedebiT. turSi<br />

Sedis lanCi adgilobrivi samzareulos<br />

dagemovnebiT.<br />

aseve SegiZliaT aiRoT erTdRiani<br />

kruiz turi, romlis drosac<br />

saSualeba geqnebaT zRvidan daaTvalieroT<br />

qalaqis gamoCenili arqiteqtoruli<br />

nagebobi. albaT, sakmaod<br />

kargi alternativaa.<br />

am mimoxilviTi eqskursiis Semdeg<br />

TviTonac SeZlebT moinaxuloT<br />

swored is adgilebi, romlebic<br />

TqvenSi gansakuTrebul emociebs<br />

gamoiwvevs.<br />

espaneTs mravali sazRvao kurorti<br />

aqvs, Tumca am samefos mflobeloba-<br />

Si arsebuli kanaris kunZulebi maT<br />

Soris namdvilad gamorCeulia.<br />

kanaris kunZulebi Sedgeba 7 ZiriTadi<br />

da ramodenime mcire zomis kun-<br />

Zulisagan. kunZulebi atlantikis<br />

okeaneSia ganTavsebuli da vulkanuri<br />

warmoSobisaa. kunZulebis<br />

arqipelagi axlosaa ganTavsebuli<br />

marokosa da dasavleT saharasTan.<br />

kunZulebi mTeli wlis ganmavloba-<br />

Si simwvaneSia Cafluli, sanapiroze<br />

oqrosferi qviSebia. landSapti<br />

gansakuTrebiT mdidaria sxvadsxva<br />

saxis mcenareebiT.<br />

me-15 saukunemde kunZulebi<br />

dasaxlebuli iyo izolirebuli<br />

`qvis xanis~ mosaxleobiT, romlebsac<br />

guanCebs eZaxdnen. pirvelad es<br />

kunZulebi qristefore kolumbma<br />

aRmoaCina. kanaris kunZulebze Tu<br />

moxvdebiT, girCevT vila daiqiraoT.<br />

imitom ara, rom am gamor-<br />

Ceul adgilze feSenebeluri sastumroebi<br />

ar aris. ara, aq namdvilad<br />

umaRles donezea ganviTarebuli<br />

turistuli infrastuqtura.<br />

Tumca, kunZulis mTeli silamazisa<br />

da momxibvlelobis srulyofilad<br />

SegrZnebisaTvis vilaSi cxovreba<br />

namvilad udidesi gancxromaa.<br />

turistuli biznesis es mimarTuleba<br />

_ vilebis gaqiraveba sakmaod<br />

ganviTarebulia yvela kunZulze.<br />

vilebis fasebi gansxvavbulia da<br />

igi damokidebulia saZinebli<br />

oTaxebis raodenobaze, teqnikur<br />

aRWurvilobaze, vilis adgilmdebareobaze,<br />

baseinisa da sxva msgavs<br />

faqtorebze.<br />

saSualod, vila 3 saZinebliT, normaluri<br />

mdebareobiT, tropikiul<br />

tyesTan da plaJTan axlos, sakuTari<br />

baseiniT kviraSi 3000 evro dagijdebaT.<br />

Tumca, Tu Tqveni jgufi 6<br />

adaminisagan Sedgeba, maSin fasi arc<br />

Tu ise maRali gamova. erT adamians<br />

dReSi 71 evro eqneba gadasaxdeli,<br />

rac namdvilad sakmaod dabali fasia.<br />

70 evrod kanaris kunZulebze<br />

sastumros namdvilad ver iSoviT.<br />

Tu amgavr jgufur turistul turs<br />

dagegmavT, ar dagaviwydeT, rom ase-<br />

Ti vilebi zafxulis sezonis dawyebamde<br />

ramodenime TviT adre ukve<br />

dabronilia – amitom, Tadarigi<br />

adre unda daiWiroT.<br />

warmoidgineT xedi okeanze, tropikuli<br />

tye da aRWurvili vila sakuTari<br />

baseiniT... Tqven amas verasodes<br />

daiviwyebT!<br />

33


azilia<br />

karnavalis, fexburTisa da yavis<br />

samSobloSi arasdros Tovs...<br />

mosaxleoba<br />

braziliis mosaxleoba Seadgens<br />

daaxloebiT 146 milion adamians.<br />

mosaxleobis 90% cxovrobs<br />

braziliis teritoriis 10%-ze.<br />

15 milionamde adamiani cxovrobs<br />

san-paulosa da rio-de-<br />

JaneiroSi. braziliis eTnikuri<br />

Semadgenloba: 55%-s Seadgenen<br />

evropuli warmoSobis (ZiriTadad<br />

portugalielebi) adamianebi,<br />

38%-s _ narevi kulturis (afrikelebi,<br />

germanelebi, iaponlebi,<br />

amerikelebi da a.S) adamianebi,<br />

6%-s _ afrikelebi, mxolod 1%s<br />

_ amerikeli indielebi.<br />

droSis simbolika<br />

braziliis droSaze mwvane feri<br />

tyis siuxvis maCvenebelia. dro-<br />

Saze datanili yviTeli rombi sasargeblo<br />

wiaRiseulis simdidris,<br />

xolo misi forma almasebis mopovebis<br />

niSania. rombis centrSi<br />

moTavsebulia sfero, romelsac<br />

Suaze TeTri xazi yofs. es ekvatoria.<br />

masze aseTi warweraa:<br />

`wesrigi da progresi~. sferoze<br />

27 varkvlavi qveynis administraciul<br />

dayofas asaxavs.<br />

saxelmwifo mowyoba<br />

brazilia warmoadgens mravalpartiul<br />

federaciul respublikas.<br />

igi Sedgeba 26 Statisa<br />

da erTi federaciuli regionisgan.<br />

prezidenti aris rogorc<br />

qveynis, aseve mTavrobis meTauri.<br />

braziliaSi sakanonmdeblo organo<br />

warmodgenilia kongresis<br />

saxiT, romelic moicavs senatis<br />

81 wevrsa da deputatTa palatis<br />

503 wevrs. saxelmwifos<br />

oficialuri enaa portugaliuri,<br />

xolo mosaxleobis nawili<br />

saubrobs espanurad, italiurad,<br />

an sxvadasxva amerindour enebze.<br />

braziliaSi ar aqvT oficialuri<br />

religia, magram dominireben<br />

kaTolikebi.<br />

ekonomika<br />

braziliaSi kargad aris ganvi-<br />

Tarebuli soflis meurneoba,<br />

manufaqtura, samTo mrewveloba<br />

da momsaxurebis seqtori. qveyanaSi<br />

2001-2003 wlebSi aRiniSna<br />

ekonomikuri Cavardna, xolo amis<br />

Semdgom braziliis ekonomikam<br />

zrda daiwyo. 2003-2007 wlamde<br />

ekonomikam zrdis rekordul<br />

maCvenebels miaRwia.<br />

braziliis mTliani Sida<br />

produqti 1,838 trilions<br />

Seadgens. dasaqmebulTa 5,2%<br />

dasaqmebuli soflis meurneoba-<br />

Si, 30,8% _ mrewvelobaSi, xolo<br />

umetesi nawili 64% _ momsaxurebis<br />

seqtorSi. umuSevrobis<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

done Seadgens 9.8%-s. mosaxleobis<br />

31% imyofeba siRaribis<br />

zRvars qvemoT. inflaciis done<br />

gamoxatulia 4,1%-iT. soflis<br />

meurneobidan kargad aris ganviTarebuli<br />

iseTi produqtebi,<br />

rogoricaa: yava, soios marcv-<br />

leuli, xorbali, brinji, kakao,<br />

citrusi da Zroxis xorci.<br />

geografia<br />

klimati umetesad aris tropikuli,<br />

magram samxreTSi zomieri<br />

havaa damaxasiaTebeli.<br />

34 brazilia


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

braziliaSi arasodes ar Tovs,<br />

aq yovelTvis gaqvT garujvis<br />

SesaZlebloba.<br />

brazilias esazRvreva Semdegi<br />

qveynebi: argentina, bolivia, kolumbia,<br />

gvinea, paragvai, peru, surinami,<br />

urugvai da venesuela.<br />

aqedan yvelaze grZeli sazRvari<br />

aqvs boliviasTan (3400 km), xolo<br />

yvelaze mokle _ surinamTan (597<br />

km).<br />

tradicia da kultura<br />

braziliaSi miuRebelia mwvane<br />

da yviTeli ferebis kombinaciis<br />

samosis tareba, radganac es ferebi<br />

braziliuri droSis ferebia.<br />

braziliaSi miuRebelia nikapze<br />

TiTebis TamaSi. aRniSnuli Jesti<br />

Tanamosaubris ucodinrobis<br />

an arakompeteneturobis maCvenebelia.<br />

brazilielebisTvis cudi<br />

tonia O.K-is saCvenebeli da<br />

cera TiTiT miniSneba.<br />

braziliaSi ZiriTadad erTobian<br />

restornebSi, Tumca aseve xSiria<br />

saxlSi gamarTuli wveulebebi.<br />

aseT wveulebaze misvlis SemTxvevaSi<br />

stumrebi madlobis niSnad<br />

maspinZels meore dRes ugzavnian<br />

yvavilebsa da samadlobel<br />

baraTs.<br />

brazilia<br />

brazilia turustebis did<br />

nawils izidavs karnavaliT,<br />

romelic imarTeba sxvadasxva<br />

qalaqebSi. yvelaze cnobilia<br />

`rios~ karnavali. igi tardeba<br />

1845 wlidan. mas aqvs moZravi<br />

TariRi da meryeobs 4 Tebervlidan<br />

10 martamde. karnavalisTvis<br />

gansakuTrebulad emzadebian<br />

sambas cekvis skolebi. aseTi<br />

skolebi mravladaa braziliaSi<br />

da isini karnavalisTvis mxolod<br />

gamorCeul mocekvaveebs<br />

arCeven.<br />

braziliaSi mewamuri feris<br />

yvavilebs xSirad iyeneben dakrZalvebze,<br />

ase rom, cudi tonia<br />

maTi vinmesTvis Cuqeba. yvelaze<br />

xSirad saCuqrad gamoiyeneben<br />

iebs.<br />

brazilielebis sayvareli saqmianobaa<br />

musikis mosmena da xangrZlivi<br />

cocxali saubrebi.<br />

miRebuli sasaubro Temebia fexburTi,<br />

ojaxi da bavSvebi. braziliaSi<br />

eridebian iseT Temebze<br />

saubarsa da diskusias, rogoricaa<br />

politika, siRaribe, religia<br />

da wvimis Sesaxeb prognozi.<br />

qcevis formebi<br />

brazilielebs yovelTvis mkacrad<br />

aqvT gawerili dRis<br />

ganrigi, amitom azri ar aqvs<br />

eqspromtad scadoT biznesis an<br />

mTavrobis warmomadgenlebTan<br />

Sexvedra. Sexvedris daniSvna<br />

unda moxdes minumim ori<br />

kviriT adre. biznesSexvedris<br />

dros braziliaSi arasodes<br />

iwyeben pirdapir saqmeze saubars.<br />

Tavdapirvelad miRebulia<br />

saubari zogad Temebze. axal<br />

partniors pirvelive Sexvedrisas<br />

brazilielebi arasdros<br />

Cuqnian suvenirs an sxva saCuqars,<br />

umjobesia sadilze an lanCze<br />

dapatiJeba.<br />

saqmiani Sexvedris dros miRebulia<br />

xelis CamorTmeva (xSirad<br />

xangrZlivi CamorTmeva). CamoarTviT<br />

xeli misalmebisas da<br />

damSvidobebisas; gamoiyeneT<br />

Tvalis kontaqti; rodesac<br />

tovebT patara jgufs, darwmundiT,<br />

rom yvelas CamoarTviT<br />

xeli. rodesac qalebi xvdebian<br />

erTmaneTs, isini loyebs adeben<br />

erTmaneTs da haerSi kocnian.<br />

35


aziliuri yava<br />

braziliis mTavari savizito<br />

baraTi aris msoflioSi cnobili<br />

braziliuri yava, romelic Crdilavs<br />

sxva qveynebis yavis jiSebs,<br />

maT Soris amerikuls. braziliaSi<br />

yava pirvelad Semoitanes<br />

1727 wels. dRes brazilia aris<br />

msoflioSi yavis yvelaze didi<br />

mwarmoebeli qveyana.<br />

yavis saxeobebi: Typica, Bourbon,<br />

Caturra, Catuai, Pache<br />

comum, Pache colis, Catimor,<br />

Mundo Novo, Maragogype, Amarello,<br />

Blue mountain da sxv.<br />

braziliuri fexburTi<br />

Tanamedrove msoflioSi mimdinare<br />

tendeciebis mixedviT<br />

sporti da gansakuTrebiT fexburTi<br />

erT-erT yvelaze sarfian<br />

biznesad iqca.<br />

brazilielebi did yuradRebas<br />

aqceven fexburTs. miuxedavad<br />

imisa, rom aRniSnuli sportis<br />

saxeobis TamaSis pirobebi<br />

arcTu ise xelsayrelia, brazilielTa<br />

umetesobas es sporti<br />

gadaeqca cxovrebis stilad,<br />

rac gamoixateba brazilielTa<br />

safexburTo nakrebis warmatebebiT<br />

(erovnulma nakrebma 5jer<br />

moipova msoflio Cempionis<br />

tituli).<br />

fexburTis mefed aRiarebulia<br />

edson arantes do nasimento pele<br />

(Edson Arantes do Nascimento<br />

Pele). cnobil braziliel fexburTelTa<br />

umetesoba TamaSobs<br />

evropis sxvadasxva wamyvan klubebSi.<br />

braziliaSi aris msoflioSi<br />

yvelaze didi stadioni marakana,<br />

romelic 95 000 adamians itevs.<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

ferebis roli produqtis SefuTvisas<br />

adamianebis umravlesoba Tavisi<br />

aRqmiT vizualebi arian,<br />

rac imas niSnavs, rom maTTvis<br />

mniSvnelovania ferTa sistema.<br />

pirvel rigSi produqtis an momsaxurebis<br />

Semqmnelebi yuradRebas<br />

amaxvileben imaze, Tu visTvis<br />

aris es kompania Seqmnili, anu vin<br />

aris an iqneba maTi momxmarebeli.<br />

amis gaTvaliswinebiT irCeva ferebi<br />

da SefuTva. Tu produqti<br />

an momsaxureba axalgazrdebisTvis<br />

aris gankuTvnili, irCeven<br />

mwvane da narinjisfers, xolo Tu<br />

inteleqtualuri sazogadoebaa<br />

Cveni auditoria, maSin gamoviyenebT<br />

lurjsa da cisfers. saqarTveloSi<br />

xSiria wiTlis, Savisa<br />

da TeTris kombinacia, romlebic<br />

arqetipul ferebad iTvleba da<br />

zemoqmedebis TvalsazrisiT Zalian<br />

efeqturia.<br />

rac Seexeba kulturasa da<br />

adaT-wesebs, biznesis dawyebidanve<br />

unda iyos Seswavlili.<br />

ar SeiZleba awarmoo skamebi<br />

im qveyanaSi, sadac miRebulia<br />

rbil baliSebze jdoma. erTerTi<br />

TvalsaCino magaliTi kulturuli<br />

momentebis argaTvaliswinebisa<br />

aris arabul qveynebSi<br />

momxdari faqti, sadac gamokruli<br />

iyo wamlis sareklamo baneri.<br />

masze gamosaxuli iyo samkadriani<br />

moqmedeba mimarTulebiT<br />

marcxnidan marjvniv: cudad iyo<br />

adamiani, dalia wamali da gaxda<br />

kargad. am reklamis Semqmnelebma<br />

ver gaiTvaliswines, rom arabul<br />

qveynebSi admianebi kiTxuloben<br />

da weren piriqiT anu marjvnidan<br />

marcxniv. am uyuradRebobam<br />

kuriozul situaciaSi<br />

Caayena wamlis mwarmoeblebi.<br />

adamianebis fsiqologiasa da<br />

qvecnobier samyaroze mravali<br />

niuansi axdens gavlenas. Sesa-<br />

Zloa, verc ki vxvdebodeT rogor<br />

gamogvikeTa an gagvifuWa<br />

ganwyoba ama Tu im detalma.<br />

fsiqologebis azriT, ferebi<br />

did gavlenas axdenen adamianebze.<br />

swored amitomaa oficialur<br />

dawesebulebebSi<br />

yovelTvis daculi ferTa<br />

standartebi, raTa iq Sesvlisas<br />

adamianebs adekvaturi ganwyoba<br />

CamouyalibdeT. magaliTad,<br />

SeiZleba moviyvanoT saavadmyofoebSi<br />

TeTri, gasarTob obieqtebSi<br />

mkveTri ferebis, xolo<br />

organizaciebSi Ria tonebSi<br />

gadawyvetili kedlebi. Sveicarielma<br />

fsiqologma luSerma<br />

daadgina adamianze sxvadasxva<br />

ferSi warmodgenili garemos<br />

fsiqologiuri da fiziologiuri<br />

zemoqmedeba. xangrZlivma<br />

gamokvlevebma daadastura, rom<br />

ferebi mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli<br />

adamianis kulturasTan, fizikur<br />

mdgomareobasTan, cnobierebasa<br />

da qvecnobier samyarosTan,<br />

emociur sferosTan da a.S.<br />

wiTeli: ganapirobebs nervuli<br />

centrebis stimulacias, energiiT<br />

amaragebs kunTebsa da Rvi-<br />

Zls, amaRlebs sisxlis wnevas,<br />

aZlierebs majiscemasa da sunTqvis<br />

sixSires da ufro aqtiurebs<br />

xdis aseT garemoSi moxvedril<br />

adamianebs.<br />

36 ferebis roli produqtis SefuTvisas


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

yviTeli: wiTlis msgavsad igi<br />

aZlierebs sisxlis wnevas, adamianis<br />

tvinis aqtivobas, aZlierebs<br />

guliscemas da sunTqvis six-<br />

Sires. yviTeli asocirdeba mzis<br />

siTbosTan, simxiarulesTan, bednierebasTan.<br />

am ferisadmi upiratesobis<br />

miniWeba metyvelebs<br />

pirovnebis iseT maxasiaTeblebze,<br />

rogoricaa konfliqtisagan<br />

gaTavisuflebis survili,<br />

damoukideblobisaken ltolva,<br />

bednierebis imedi da molodini,<br />

pativiscemis mopoveba da a.S.<br />

mwvane: gamoxatavs adamianis<br />

mizanswrafvasa da Seupovrobas,<br />

simyares, mudmivobas. adamiani,<br />

romelic upiratesobas aniWebs<br />

mwvane fers, Tavisi Sexedulebebisa<br />

da mrwamsis gamarjvebisaken,<br />

sakuTar RirebulebebSi<br />

darwmunebis gaZlierebisaken,<br />

sazogadoebrivi aRiarebisa da<br />

Tavisi poziciebis SenarCunebisaken<br />

iswrafvis.<br />

mwvane feri dabadebasTan, siymawvilesa<br />

da imedTan asocirdeba.<br />

mwvane feri xels<br />

uwyobs sisxlisa da Tvalis<br />

wnevis regulirebas, majiscemisa<br />

ferebis roli produqtis SefuTvisas<br />

da sunTqvis stabilizebas,<br />

mxedvelobis gaZlierebas, yuradRebis<br />

koncentracias,<br />

adamianis damSvidebas, dadebiTi<br />

emociebis gamovlenas.<br />

nacrisferi: neitraluri feria<br />

da adamianis fsiqologiaze<br />

aranair zemoqmedebas ar axdens.<br />

am ferisadmi upiratesobis mini-<br />

Weba metyvelebs adamianis survilze,<br />

Caiketos da gaemijnos<br />

yvelasa da yvelafers. am fers<br />

upiratesobas aniWeben isinic,<br />

romelTac sakuTari Rirsebis<br />

gamovlena ar surT. nacrisferi<br />

aRmosavluri tradiciebis<br />

mixedviT samgloviaro tansacmelis<br />

feria, xolo muslimanebisaTvis<br />

_ ubedurebisa da zianis<br />

momtani. Tumca, Sua saukuneebis<br />

evropaSi igi maRali sazogadoebis<br />

ferad iTvleboda.<br />

cisferi: naTel casa da wyal-<br />

Tan asocirdeba. is adamians<br />

amSvidebs, adunebs, sisxlis wnevas<br />

da sunTqvis sixSires amcirebs.<br />

ufro muq cisferze upiratesobis<br />

miniWeba sijiuteze, qedmaRlobasa<br />

da pirovnebis sisastikeze<br />

metyvelebs. am fers<br />

gaaCnia tkivilgamayuCebeli<br />

Tviseba, Tumca misi xangrZlivi<br />

zemoqmedeba daRlasac iwvevs...<br />

TeTri: asocirdeba sisufTavesa<br />

da simsubuqesTan. es feri yovelTvis<br />

amSvidebs adamianebs,<br />

aZlevs sakuTar TavSi met rwmenasa<br />

da SemarTebas.<br />

Savi: ferTa sruli uaryofis<br />

rolSi gamodis da gauCinarebis<br />

ideas, gandgomis survils gamoxatavs.<br />

Savi feris tansacmels ZiriTadad<br />

protestis niSnad an<br />

agresiulad ganwyobili mamakacebi<br />

atareben. isini jiutad<br />

iswrafvian TavianTi miznebis<br />

misaRwevad. aseve es feri Zalian<br />

popularulia qalebSi.<br />

Savi feri xSirad ubedurebas-<br />

Tan, stiqiasa da sicarielesan<br />

asocirdeba.<br />

37


2008 Bentley Brooklands<br />

konkurenti modelebi: Ferrari 612 Scaglietti;<br />

avtomobilis monacemebi: 530 cxenis Zala, twinturbo<br />

6.8-liter V-8, 6 siCqariani avtomaturi<br />

gadamcemTa kolofi;<br />

fasi: 200,000$;<br />

sawvavis wva: 10/15 litri.<br />

2008 wlis pirveli naxevrisTvis `bentli~<br />

mxolod 550 `bruklendis~ awyobas gegmavs.<br />

2008 Mercedes-Benz CL65 AMG<br />

konkurenti modelebi: Bentley Continental GT;<br />

fasi: 197,500 $;<br />

sawvavis wva: 11/17 litri.<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

garegnuli mxare;<br />

`bentlis~ warmomadgenlebis gancxadebiT,<br />

`bruklendi~ aris mZlavri, Zlieri da swrafi<br />

didebuli turistuli kupe. am markis fanebi<br />

dauyovnebliv amoicnoben `bruklendisTvis~<br />

damaxasiaTebel grZel kapots. vertikaluri<br />

gisosi da oTxi fari gamoiyureba Arnage-is<br />

identurad. am models aqvs standartuli 20<br />

- diumiani saburavebi.<br />

interieri:<br />

rogorc mosalodneli iyo, `bruklendis~<br />

interieri aris mdidruli da gankuTvnilia<br />

mdidari da cnobili adamianebisTvis. avtomobils<br />

aqvs 4 - adgiliani tyavSi gawyobili<br />

interieri.<br />

`kapotis qveS~:<br />

`bentlis~ aqvs 6.8 - litriani V8-is tipis<br />

standartuli Zravi da 6 - siCqariani avtomaturi<br />

gadacemaTa kolofi. Zravi gamoimuSavebs<br />

530 cxenis Zalas.<br />

usafrTxoeba:<br />

`bentli bruklends~ aqvs ori wina usafrTxoebis<br />

baliSi da aseve baliSebi gverdebze wina<br />

da ukana mgzavrebisTvis. mas aqvs aseve mZlavri<br />

moWidebis sistema.<br />

avtomobilis monacemebi: 612 cxenis Zala, 6.0<br />

litri twin-turbo V12, 5 - siCqaraiani avtomaturi<br />

gadacemaTa kolofi.<br />

avtomobili 1-100 kilometramde aviTarebs 4<br />

wamSi.CL 65 - s aqvs 2007 wlis CL - is ori<br />

kari. aseve aqvs twin-turbo V-12 tipis Zravi,<br />

rogoric hqonda Zvel CL65-s. pirveli Taobis<br />

412 cxenis Zalis nacvlad axal avtomobils<br />

aqvs 612 cxenis Zala. AMG-s warmoebis dawyebidan<br />

40 wlis Tavze `mersedesi~ gamouSvebs<br />

40 CL65 AMG-s, rogorc saiubileo avtomobilebs.<br />

garegnuli mxare:<br />

standartul models aqvs 20 - diumiani<br />

saburavebi. 40 wlis saubileo CL 65-i<br />

38 avtomobilebi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

iqneba asvaltis feri. `mersedesis~ warmomadgenelTa<br />

TqmiT, saRebavi iqneba ufro brwyinvale<br />

da wina modelTan SedarebiT nakawrebisgan<br />

ufro daculi.<br />

interieri:<br />

4 - adgilian interierSi aris AMG-s niSnebi<br />

spidometrze, savarZlebsa da karis rafebze.<br />

models aqvs wriuli rbolisTvis taimeri,<br />

tyavis savarZlebi masaJorebiT da 360 - siCqariani<br />

spidometri. saWe aRWurvilia siCqareebis<br />

gadamrTveli RilakebiT.<br />

2008 Nissan Altima Coupe<br />

konkurenti modelebi: Honda Accord coupe,<br />

Toyota Camry Solara;<br />

avtomobilis monacemebi: 175 cxenis Zala, 2.5<br />

litri, 4 cilindri; an 270 cxenis Zala, 3.5<br />

litri, V6 eqvssiCqariani meqanikuri gadacema-<br />

Ta kolofi an avtomaturi gadacemaTa kolofi,<br />

aseve wina wamyvani Tvlebi.<br />

fasi: 20 000$ - 25 000$;<br />

sawvavis wva: 2.5 litriani Zravi - 23/32 litri;<br />

3.5 litriani Zravi - 19/27 litri;<br />

es aris `nisanis~ pirveli wina mavali kupe<br />

1998 wlidan. es karg konkurencias gauwevs<br />

Honda Accord-s da Toyota Camry-s, romel-<br />

Tac aqvT 2-kariani modelebi. arsebobs Altima<br />

coupe -s ori varianti: 2.5 S _ oTxcilindriani<br />

ZraviT da 3.5 SE _ V6 ZraviT. orives aqvs<br />

meqanikuri da avtomaturi gadacemis kolofi.<br />

avtomobilebi<br />

`kapotis qveS~:<br />

ori turbo kompresoris daxmarebiT CL65-s<br />

6.0-litriani V-12 tipis Zravi gamoimuSavebs<br />

612 cxenis Zalas wamyvani ukana saburavebiT.<br />

avtomobili aseve aRWurvilia 5 - siCqariani<br />

avtomaturi gadacemaTa kolofiT.<br />

usafrTxoeba:<br />

CL65 aRWurvilia usafrTxoebis baliSebis<br />

sruli paketiT, eleqtronuli stabilizaciis<br />

sistemiT, moWidebis kontrolis sistemiTa da<br />

muxruWebis blokirebis sistemiT.<br />

garegnuli mxare:<br />

`nisanis~ warmomadgenelTa gancxadebiT, `altimas~<br />

kupesa da `sedans~ ar aqvT arc erTi<br />

saerTo gare nawili. misi yvelaze SesamCnevi<br />

nawili aris ukana wiTeli farebi, romelic<br />

Zalian hgavs Pontiac G6-s.<br />

interieri:<br />

interieri aris TiTqmis igive, rac aqvs Altima<br />

sedans. salonSi SesaZlebelia 5 adamianis mo-<br />

Tavseba.<br />

es modeli aRWurvilia tyavis savarZlebis<br />

gaTbobiT, klimat-kontroliT, stereo da navigaciis<br />

sistemebiT.<br />

savarZlebi moTavsebulia iatakTan axlos, rac<br />

iZleva moxerxebulad dajdomis saSualebas.<br />

models aqvs aseve navigaciis sistema.<br />

`kapotis qveS~:<br />

Altima coupe 2.5S, 2.5 - litriani, oTxcilindriani<br />

Zravi gamoimuSavebs 175 cxenis Zalas.<br />

Altima coupe 3.5SE, 3.5 - litriani V6 Zravi<br />

gamoimuSavebs 270 cxenis Zalas. orive variantisTvis<br />

SesaZlebelia rogorc 6 siCqariani<br />

meqanikuri gadacemis kolofi, aseve avtomaturi<br />

gadacemis kolofi.<br />

usafrTxoeba:<br />

avtomobili aRWurvilia usafrTxoebis<br />

baliSebiT, samuxruWe mowyobilebebiTa da<br />

moWidebis kontroliT.<br />

39


Microsoft<br />

drois da finansebis efeqtianad<br />

marTvis meqanizmi<br />

`maikrosoftis~ xelmZRvaneloba<br />

mzad iyo Yahoo-s Sesyidvaze<br />

44.6 miliardi aSS dolari gadaexada<br />

(2008 weli, Tebervali).<br />

Microsoft Corporation-is survili<br />

ver ganxorcielda, Tuca<br />

zedapiruli mizezebis argumentirebas<br />

moveridebi da Tavs nebas<br />

mivcem kidev erTxel warmogidginoT<br />

warmatebuli brendis<br />

istoria.<br />

`maikrosofti~ amerikuli multinacionaluri<br />

kompiuteruli<br />

teqnologiebis korporaciaa, sadac<br />

dasaqmebulia daaxloebiT<br />

79 000 adamiani (msoflios 102<br />

qveyanaSi). korporaciis Semosavali<br />

2007 wlis monacemebiT<br />

51.12 miliard amerikul dolars<br />

Seadgens. kompania amuSavebs,<br />

amzadebs, apatentebs da mxarda-<br />

Weras uwevs kompiuteruli mowyobilobebisaTvis<br />

gankuTvnili<br />

programuli uzrunvelyofis<br />

farTo speqtrs. korporaciis<br />

yvelaze popularuli produqcia<br />

aris Microsoft Windows-is<br />

operaciuli sistema da Microsoft<br />

Office-is programuli paketi.<br />

`maikrosoftis~ mTavari<br />

mesijia - `Tqveni potenciali,<br />

Cveni miswrafeba~.<br />

`maikrosoftis~ mTavari ofisi<br />

mdebarebs redmondSi, aSS.<br />

korporaciis yvelaze kargad<br />

gayid-vadi produqcia aris<br />

Microsoft Windows da Microsoft<br />

Office. msoflio bazarze am<br />

produqcias uWiravs lideris<br />

pozicia, 90%-iani bazris<br />

wiliT.<br />

`maikrosoftis~ 79 000 Tanam-<br />

Sromlidan 12 000 milioneria.<br />

`maikrosofti~ Tavisi arsebobis<br />

ganmavlobaSi xSirad gamxdara<br />

kritikis obieqti. kritikis erTerTi<br />

argumenti iyo bazarze misi<br />

monopolistoba.<br />

kompania awarmoebs rogorc kompiuteris<br />

xelsawyoebs, aseve saxlis<br />

gasarTob produqcias, rogoricaa<br />

Xbox, Xbox 360, Zune<br />

da MSN televizia (MSNTV).<br />

`maikrosoftis~ oficialuri<br />

saiti internet samyaroSi erTerTi<br />

yvelaze popularuli<br />

saitia, romelsac yoveldRiurad<br />

daaxloebiT 2.4 milioni<br />

adamiani stumrobs. Alexsa.com<br />

– is mixedviT msoflios saitebis<br />

reitingSi `maikrosofti~ me-18<br />

adgilzea.<br />

`maikrosoftis~ pirveli internacionaluri<br />

ofisi dafuZnda<br />

1978 wlis 1 noembers iaponiaSi.<br />

misi pirvandeli saxelwodeba<br />

iyo ASCII Microsoft, dReisaTvis<br />

igi cnobilia Microsoft Japanis<br />

saxeliT.<br />

pirveli didi warmateba `maikrosofts~<br />

moutana operatiulma<br />

sistemam - DOS (Disk Operating<br />

System).<br />

1985 wlis noemberSi `maikros-<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

oftma~ SeimuSava Microsoft<br />

Windows-is pirveli versia.<br />

1990 wlis 22 maiss `maikrosoftma~<br />

warmoebaSi CauSva Windows<br />

3.0. gamoSvebidan pirveli<br />

ori kviris ganmavlobaSi misi<br />

100 000 egzempliari gaiyida.<br />

1995 wels `maikrosoftma~ warmoebaSi<br />

CauSva Windows 95.<br />

gamoSvebidan 4 dReSi erT milionze<br />

meti asli iqna gayiduli.<br />

amave wels kompaniam Seqmna<br />

Internet Explorer-i, romelic Sedioda<br />

Windows 95-is paketSi.<br />

1995 wlis 24 agvistos `maikrosoftma~<br />

gamouSva internet<br />

serveri MSN (Microsoft Network),<br />

romelic gaxda `maikrosoftis~<br />

savizito baraTi internet<br />

momsaxurebaSi.<br />

kompania intensiurad agrZelebda<br />

brZolas bazris axali segmentebis<br />

asaTviseblad. 1996<br />

wels NBC-sTan erTad Seqmna 24/7<br />

sakabelo televizia MSNBC.<br />

1997 wels kompaniam momxmarebels<br />

SesTavaza Internet Explorer<br />

4.0.<br />

1997 wlis bolos `maikrosoftma~<br />

Seqma Hotmail-i, yvelaze<br />

popularuli internet meilis<br />

servisi. 1999 wels `maikrosoftma~<br />

warmoadgina MSN-mesenjeri,<br />

romelic Zalian didi<br />

popularobiT sargeblobs mTel<br />

40 Microsoft


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

`maikrosoftis~ `blibbet~ logo<br />

(gamoiyeneboda 1987 wlamde )<br />

msoflioSi. 1998 wels kompaniam<br />

gamouSva Windows 98 _<br />

Windows 95-is ganaxlebuli<br />

varianti.<br />

2001 wels `maikrosoftma~ gamouSva<br />

windows XP-is pirveli<br />

versia, romelic akmayofilebda<br />

ara marto saxlis, aramed biznesseqtoris<br />

moTxovnebsac.<br />

2007 wlis ianvarSi `maikrosoftma~<br />

warmoebaSi CauSva Windows<br />

Vista da Microsoft Office<br />

2007.<br />

kompaniis marTvaSi monawileobas<br />

iRebs direqtorTa sabWo,<br />

romelic Sedgeba aTi wevrisagan.<br />

axlandeli direqtorTa sab-<br />

Wos wevrebi arian: stiv balmeri,<br />

jeims qeSi, jr. dina dubloni,<br />

bil geiTsi, raimond gilmartini,<br />

rid hasTingsi, devid marquardti,<br />

Carls noski, helmut panke da<br />

jon Sirli.<br />

direqtorTa sabWos arCeva xdeba<br />

weliwadSi erTxel aqcionerTa<br />

krebaze.<br />

1987 wels `maikrosoftma~ SeimuSava<br />

axlandeli logo, cnobili<br />

rogorc Pacman Logo.<br />

ganaxlebuli logos avtoria<br />

skot beikeri.<br />

Microsoft<br />

`maikrosoftis~ `Pacman~<br />

logo, romelic Seqmnilia skot<br />

beikeris mier. logo gamoiyeneboda<br />

1987 wlamde. 1997-2002 ww.<br />

arsebobda slogani _ `sad ginda<br />

rom waxvide dRes~.<br />

viliam henri geiTsis<br />

biografiuli Strixebi<br />

korporaciis damfuZnebeli<br />

da aRmasrulebeli direqtori<br />

viliam henri geiTsi _ bil geiTsi<br />

(dabadebuli 1955 wlis 28 oqtomber,<br />

aSS) 2008 wlis monacemebiT<br />

msoflios mdidari admianebis<br />

reitingSi mesame pozicias<br />

ikavebs. `maikrosofti~ man daarsa<br />

paul alenTan erTad.bili<br />

dainteresebuli iyo programirebiT,<br />

man dawera Tavisi pirveli<br />

kompiuteruli programa: An<br />

implementation of tic-tactoe,<br />

romelic saSualebasa-<br />

Zlevda momxmarebels eTama-<br />

Sa kompiuteris winaaRmdeg.<br />

1994 wels geiTsi daqorwinda<br />

melinda frenCize.<br />

2008 wlis `maikrosoftis~<br />

logo axlandeli sloganiT _<br />

`Tqveni potenciali, Cveni miswrafeba~.<br />

maT hyavT sami Svili: jenifer katarina<br />

geiTsi, rori kon geiTsi<br />

da fobi adele geiTsi.<br />

bil geiTsis saxli mdebareobs<br />

medinaSi, vaSingtonSi tbis sanapiroze,<br />

romelic Sefasebulia<br />

125 milion amerikul dolarad.<br />

2006 wlis 16 ivniss bil geiTsma<br />

gaamxila, rom apirebs korporaciis<br />

datovebas mimdinare ori<br />

wlis ganmavlobaSi da amisaTvis<br />

iwyebs valdebulebis gadanawilebas.<br />

geiTsi `maikrosoftis~ daarsebis<br />

dRidan (1975 weli) da 31<br />

wlis gamnmavlobaSi pasuxismgebeli<br />

iyo kompaniis produqciis<br />

strategiaze.<br />

41


mobiluri telefonebi<br />

mobiluri telefoni gamoiyeneba<br />

mobiluri komunikaciisTvis.<br />

standartuli xmovani funqciebis<br />

garda Tanamedrove mobilur<br />

telefons aqvs mravali iseTi<br />

damatebiTi servisi, rogoricaa:<br />

SMS - teqsturi SetyobinebebisaTvis,<br />

eleqtronuli fosta, interneti,<br />

MMS-suraTebis gasagzavnad<br />

da misaRebad, fotoaparati,<br />

videokamera da sxva mravali.<br />

pirveli mobiluri telefoni<br />

dapatentebulia 1908 wels na-<br />

Tan stabalfidis mier kentukis<br />

StatSi (aSS). 1947 wels AT&T-s<br />

laboratoriaSi ganaviTares da<br />

gamouSves mobiluri telefoni,<br />

romelic muSaobda radio sadgurebis<br />

signaliT da viTardeboda<br />

sxva laboratoriebis<br />

mier 1960 wlamde. am mobilur<br />

telefonebs iyenebdnen meore<br />

msoflio omSi. dabali danaxarjebisa<br />

da informaciis mokle<br />

droSi gavrcelebis gamo aRniSnuli<br />

telefoni swrafad gavrcelda<br />

mTel msoflioSi.<br />

`motorolas~ mkvlevarma da<br />

direqtorma martin kuperma<br />

gamoigona pirveli praqtikuli<br />

mobiluri telefoni 1973 wlis<br />

3 aprils.<br />

42<br />

dResdReobiT video da mobiluri<br />

televiziis servisebi<br />

SesaZlebelia mesame Taobis (3G)<br />

farglebSi. momavalSi dabali<br />

fasebi, maRali siswrafe da sxva<br />

mravali garemoeba SesaZlebeli<br />

iqneba mobiluri telefonebis<br />

meoTxe TaobisaTvis (4G).<br />

msoflioSi swrafad izrdeba<br />

iseTi qveynebis raodenoba<br />

(umeteswilad evropaSi), sadac<br />

mobiluri telefonebis<br />

ricxovnoba aWarbebs mosaxleobis<br />

raodenobas. Eurostat-is<br />

(evrokavSiris statistikuri<br />

ofisi) mixedviT, luqsemburgs<br />

aqvs yvelaze didi procentuli<br />

maCvenebeli mobiluri telefonebis<br />

wilobriv SefardebaSi.<br />

qeyanaSi 100 adamianze modis<br />

158 mobiluri telefoni, rac<br />

Seadgens 158%-s. mas fexdafex<br />

mihyvebian litva da italia. hongkongSi<br />

aRniSnulma monacemebma<br />

Seadgina 139.8%, xolo amerikis<br />

SeerTebul StatebSi _ 81%.<br />

msoflios mosaxleobis 2.14 miliardi<br />

adamiani sargeblobs mobiluri<br />

telefoniT (2005 wlis<br />

monacemebiT). am monacemebma 2.7<br />

miliards miaRwia 2006 wlis<br />

dasasruls da 3.3 miliards _<br />

2007 wlis noembrisTvis.<br />

afrikas aqvs zrdis yvelaze<br />

didi procenti mobiluri telefonebis<br />

momxmareblebSi. misi<br />

bazari izrdeba orjer ufro<br />

swrafad aziasTan SedarebiT.<br />

mobiluri telefonis gamoyeneba<br />

akrZalulia sxvadasxva<br />

adgilebSi: frenis dros, avtomobilis<br />

marTvisas da sxva rig<br />

SemTxvevebSi. uzrdelobad da<br />

usiamovnod iTvleba mobiluris<br />

gamoyeneba dakrZalvis an qorwilis<br />

dros, sapirfareSoebSi,<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

kinoebsa da TeatrebSi.<br />

jer-jerobiT daudgenelia<br />

pirveli mobiluris fotokameris<br />

gamomgoneblis vinaoba.<br />

arsebobs sxvadasxva adamianebis<br />

mier dapatentebuli modelebi<br />

1990-i wlidan. maT Soris arian<br />

devid brici, romelmac Seqmna<br />

1994 wlis martSi da filip kani,<br />

romelmac gamoigona igi 1997<br />

wels. fotokamerian mobilur<br />

telefonebs dResdReobiT uWiravs<br />

bazris 85%.<br />

mobiluri telefonebis erTerTi<br />

yvelaze gavrcelebuli da<br />

popularuli servisia SMS, anu<br />

mokle teqsturi Setyobinebebis<br />

servisi. dReisaTvis am servisiT<br />

sargebloba personaluri kompiuteriTacaa<br />

SesaZlebeli. igi<br />

gansakuTrebiT popularulia<br />

axalgazrdebs Soris.<br />

`nokia~ aris msoflios yvelaze<br />

didi mobiluri telefonebis<br />

mobiluri telefonebi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

mwarmoebeli, romelsac msoflio<br />

bazris 40% uWiravs (2007 wlis<br />

monacemebiT). bazris wilis mixedviT<br />

danarCeni mobiluri telefonebis<br />

mwarmoebeli firmebia:<br />

`samsungi~ - (14%), `motorola~<br />

- (12%), `soni eriqsoni~ - (9%)<br />

da `elji~ - (7%). aRniSnuli kompaniebis<br />

warmoebuli produqcia<br />

aris mTel msoflioSi gayiduli<br />

telefonebis 80%.<br />

msoflios bazarze arsebobs<br />

aseve sxva mravali mobiluri<br />

telefonebis mwarmoebeli kompaniebi,<br />

maT Soris aRsaniSnavia:<br />

`efli~, `panasoniki~, `filifsi~,<br />

`sagemi~, `simensi~ da a.S., romlebic<br />

Zalian saintereso modelebs<br />

sTavazoben TavianT momxmareblebs.<br />

`nokia~ - aris finuri multinacionaluri<br />

komunikaciebis<br />

korporacia, romelsac hyavs<br />

daaxloebiT 112.262 TanamSromeli<br />

msoflios 120 qveyanaSi<br />

da produqcias yidis msoflios<br />

150-ze met qveyanaSi. `nokia~<br />

awarmoebs mobilur telefonebs<br />

TiTqmis yvela segmentisaTvis.<br />

`nokia~ asrulebs Zalian did<br />

rols fineTis ekonomikaSi, is<br />

aris fineTis yvelaze didi kompania,<br />

romelmac gazarda fineTis<br />

mTliani Sida produqti (mSp)<br />

1.5%-iT 1999 wels, xolo 2004<br />

wels misma wilma Seadgina 3.5%.<br />

`soni eriqsoni~ - iaponuri<br />

samomxmareblo eleqtronikis<br />

mwarmoebeli kompaniis `sonis~<br />

da Sveduri satelekomunikacio<br />

kompania `eriqsonis~ gaer-<br />

Tianebuli ZalebiT daarsebuli<br />

mobiluri telefonebis mwarmoebeli<br />

kompaniaa. am gaerTianebis<br />

mamoZravebeli mizezi `sonis~ _<br />

samomxmareblo eleqtronikaSi<br />

mobiluri telefonebi<br />

arsebuli gamocdilebisa da<br />

`eriqsonis~ _ komunikaciebis teqnologiebSi<br />

liderobis Sezaveba<br />

iyo. orive kompaniam sakuTari<br />

mobiluri telefonebis warmoeba<br />

SeaCera gaerTianebis Semdeg.<br />

`soni eriqsons~ hyavs 8000<br />

TanamSromeli mTel msoflioSi.<br />

`motorola~ - amerikis multinacionaluri<br />

komunikaciis korporacia,<br />

romelic dafuZnebulia<br />

SaumburgSi (ilinoisi, Cikago,<br />

aSS). `motorolam~ moRvaweoba<br />

daiwyo Galvin Manufacturing<br />

Corporation-is saxelwodebiT<br />

1928 wels, xolo saxelis gadakeTeba<br />

`motorolad~ moxda<br />

1947 wels.<br />

`motorola~ qmnis uamrav<br />

produqts samTavrobo, sajaro<br />

da biznessazogadoebis warmomadgenelTaTvis.<br />

aRniSnuli<br />

produqcia aris rogorc mobiluri<br />

telefonebi, aseve nouTbuqebi,<br />

personaluri kompiuterebi<br />

da radio-komunikaciis<br />

sistemebi.<br />

`simensi~ - aris germanuli<br />

firma, romelic daarsda 1847<br />

wels verner simensis mier berlinSi.<br />

dRevandeli korpora-<br />

ciis saTao ofisi mdebareobs miunxenSi.<br />

`simensis~ regionaluri<br />

ofisebis saerTo raodenoba mxolod<br />

germaniaSi Seadgens 125-s,<br />

xolo misi filialebi msoflios<br />

190 qveyanaSia ganlagebuli.<br />

`simenss~ dasaqmebuli hyavs<br />

daaxloebiT 400 000 TanamSromeli<br />

msoflios masStabiT (2008<br />

wlis monacemebiT), aqedan 161 000<br />

(34%) - germaniaSi. 2005 wlis 1<br />

oqtombers `simensi~ gaerTianda<br />

taivanur firma BenQ-Tan, ris<br />

gamoc mouxda aTasobiT Tanam-<br />

Sromlis gaTavisufleba miunxensa<br />

da nordhain-vestfalenSi.<br />

2006 wlis 19 ivniss `simensma~<br />

Tavis konkurent finur kompania<br />

`nokiasTan~ erTad Seqmna axali<br />

sawarmo saxelwodebiT Nokia<br />

Siemens NeTworks-si, sadac<br />

dasaqmebulia daaxloebiT 60<br />

000 adamiani.<br />

43


kaberne suvenioni aris msoflioSi yvelaze cnobili wiTeli Rvinis yurZnis GEORGIAN saxe- BUSINESS TODAY<br />

oba. is izrdeba Rvinis mwarmoebel TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi sxvadasxva klimatis miuxedavad.<br />

kaberne pirvelad msofliosaTvis cnobadi gaxda bordes RvinoebSi (Bordeaux<br />

wines).<br />

kaberne safrangeTidan gavrcelda - evropidan axal msofliomde. man ipova axali<br />

saxlebi iseT adgilebSi, rogoricaa kalifornia, avstralia da Cile. XX saukuneSi<br />

is iyo msoflioSi yvelaze metad gavrcelebuli wiTeli Rvinis yurZeni<br />

mis popularobas xSirad miaweren moSenebis simartives. yurZnis sqeli kanisa da Zlieri<br />

vazis gamo is advilad uZlebs sicxesa da yinvas.


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

kaberne suvenioni<br />

1) yvelaze popularuli<br />

standartuli zomis boTli:<br />

Château Lafite 1787<br />

fasi: $156,450;<br />

standartul 750 ml-iani boTlis<br />

eqvivalentis fasi: $156,450;<br />

erTi Wiqis fasi: $26,075;<br />

auqcionis saxli: Christie’s London;<br />

gayidvis TariRi: 1 dekemberi,<br />

1985 weli.<br />

2) yvelaze Zvirad gayiduli<br />

Rvino saqvelmoqmedo auqcionze:<br />

Imperial of Screaming Eagle<br />

Cabernet 1992<br />

fasi:$500,000;<br />

standartul 750 ml-iani boTlis<br />

eqvivalentis fasi: $62,500;<br />

erTi Wiqis fasi: $10,417;<br />

auqcionis saxli: Napa Valley<br />

Wine Auction;<br />

gayidvis TariRi: 2000 weli.<br />

kaberne suvenioni<br />

3) yvelaze Zvirad Rirebuli<br />

viski<br />

Bowmore whisky, 1850 wlis<br />

Camosxma<br />

fasi: $60,000;<br />

standartul 750 ml-iani boTlis<br />

eqvivalentis fasi: $60,000;<br />

auqcionis saxli: McTear’s,<br />

Glasgow;<br />

gayidvis TariRi: 2007 weli.<br />

4) yvelaze Zvirad Rirebuli<br />

wiTeli Rvino (did boTlebSi):<br />

Jeroboam of Château Mouton-<br />

Rothschild 1945<br />

fasi: $310,700;<br />

standartul 750 ml-iani boTlis<br />

eqvivalentis fasi: $51,783;<br />

erTi Wiqis fasi: $8,631;<br />

auqcionis saxli: Sotheby’s/Aulden<br />

Cellars New York;<br />

gayidvis TariRi: 28 Tebervali,<br />

1985 weli.<br />

5) yvelaze Zvirad Rirebuli<br />

daZvelebuli Rvino:<br />

1775 Sherry from the Massandra<br />

collection<br />

fasi: $43,500;<br />

standartul 750 ml-iani boTlis<br />

eqvivalentis fasi: $43,500;<br />

erTi Wiqis fasi: $7,250;<br />

auqcionis saxli: Sotheby’s<br />

London;<br />

gayidvis TariRi: 2001 weli.<br />

45


germanuli ludebi<br />

axlovdeba zafxuli da TandaTanobiT<br />

ufro da ufro<br />

popularuli xdeba gamagrilebeli<br />

sasmelebi, romelTagan gansakuTrebuli<br />

adgili ukavia<br />

luds.<br />

da mainc, ra aris ludi?<br />

ludi mcirealkoholiani aromatuli<br />

sasmelia, romelsac sviis<br />

momwaro gemo dahkravs. mas<br />

amzadeben qeris, alaos, sviisa<br />

da wylisagan miRebuli tkbilis<br />

alkoholuri duRiliT. arsebobs<br />

zogierTi tradiciuli,<br />

kulturuli da resursuli gansxvaveba,<br />

rac luds sxvadasxva<br />

xarisxsa da gemos aniWebs.<br />

sainteresoa, Tu rodis warmoiSva<br />

ludi _ zafxulis ganuyofeli<br />

atributi?<br />

msoflioSi pirveli informacia<br />

ludis Sesaxeb dafiqsirda<br />

766 wels dunaisTan axlomdebare<br />

monastris dokumentebSi.<br />

Sua saukuneebSi monastrebi TamaSobdnen<br />

sakmaod did rols<br />

ludis mrewvelobis ganviTarebaSi.<br />

dRes sakmaod cnobili<br />

ludis brendebi atareben Zvel<br />

saxelwodebebs. magaliTad, Paulaner<br />

da Franziskaner. ludi<br />

aseve gavrcelda samxreT germaniaSi,<br />

xolo mogvianebiT mTel<br />

germaniaSi sakmaod popularuli<br />

sasmeli gaxda.<br />

giyvarT ludi? _ maSin, albaT,<br />

dagainteresebT misi klasifikacia.<br />

saintereso iqneba is faqti, rom<br />

saerTaSoriso klasifikaciaSi<br />

miRebulia ludis 23 tipi. miuxedavad<br />

ludis mravalferovnebisa,<br />

masi dayofa sami ZiriTadi<br />

profilis mixedviT xdeba. esenia:<br />

lagerebi, eli da pilsneri.<br />

dReisaTvis yvelaze gavrcelebulia<br />

Ria feris lageris tipis<br />

ludi. misi ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelia<br />

is, rom igi msubuqi dasalevia.<br />

principuli gansxvaveba<br />

mxolod Zveli da axali tipis<br />

lagerebs Sorisaa. axali tipis<br />

lagers (aSS, samxreT amerikis<br />

qveynebi, avstralia) TiTqmis ar<br />

aqvs simware. Zveli tipis (germania,<br />

avstria, niderlandebi) lagers<br />

xSirad alaos aromati aqvs,<br />

xolo evropuli ludis tipebs<br />

dahkravs odnav tkbili gemo.<br />

muqi feris luds ZiriTadad<br />

awarmoeben centralur evropa-<br />

Si (germania, belgia, avstria).<br />

ara nakleb popularulia elis<br />

tipis ludi (inglisi, irlandia,<br />

aSS). tradiciuli yavisferi<br />

eli gansxvavebuli teqnologiiT<br />

mzaddeba, rac garkveul temper-<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

raturaze daduRebiT xasiaTdeba.<br />

Tanamedrove eli<br />

gamWvirvale da yovelTvis<br />

naklebgaziania. sxvadasxva<br />

danamatebis meSveobiT maT<br />

dahkravT karamelis, Rvinis,<br />

xilis gemo. maTi irlandiuri<br />

analogebi _ slautebi<br />

ki yavis magar surnels Seicaven<br />

da feric, Sesabamisad,<br />

muqi aqvT. am tipis ludi<br />

msubuqi dasalevia.<br />

Zveli tipis ludebisagan<br />

gansxvavebiT, calke SeiZleba<br />

aRiniSnos tradiciuli<br />

tipis ludi, romelic ar<br />

ifiltreba. maTi damzadebis<br />

teqnologia efuZneba specialuri<br />

jiSis xorblis an<br />

Savi qeris damuSavebas filtraciis<br />

gareSe. maT aqvT<br />

xorblis motkbo gemo, romelic<br />

bolos tovebs simwares.<br />

romeli qveyana gaxsendebaT<br />

ludis xsenebaze? _ albaT,<br />

germania, asea ara?<br />

modiT, gavecnoT germaniaSi<br />

gavrcelebul am sakmaod<br />

popularuli sasmelis saxeobebs:<br />

pilsneri _ es saxeli daerqva<br />

germaniis qalaq pilzenidan<br />

gamomdinare. igi yvelaze<br />

didi popularobiT sargeblobs<br />

CrdiloeT germaniaSi.<br />

ludi Seicavs alkohols 4dan<br />

4.9%-mde da Ddasalevad<br />

msubuqia, Tumca dahkravs<br />

sviis simware.<br />

germaniaSi gayiduli<br />

ludebis 68.6% modis ludis<br />

swored am saxeobaze _<br />

pilsnerze. igi statisti-<br />

48 germanuli ludebi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

kurad yvelaze popularuli<br />

ludis saxeobaa.<br />

TeTri ludi Seicavs yvelaze<br />

met alkohols _ 5-dan 5.6%-mde.<br />

mas aqvs cxare gemo da ZiriTadad<br />

gavrcelebulia samxreT<br />

germaniaSi.<br />

Zvel luds ar aqvs gamorCeuli<br />

saxeli, mas aduReben maRal<br />

temperaturaze da xasiaTdeba<br />

gamokveTili sviis gemoTi. igi<br />

Seicavs 4.8% alkohols. misi<br />

samSobloa duseldorfi.<br />

ludis saxelwodeba _ kolSi<br />

warmodgeba qalaq kiolnidan, sadac<br />

farTodaa gavrcelebuli.<br />

ludis es saxeoba msubuqi dasalevia<br />

da aqvs sviis gemo. is Seicavs<br />

4.8% alkohols.<br />

Savi ludi saxelwodebas atarebs<br />

feris gamo, Tumca dRes<br />

aseve iwarmoeba am ludis TeTri<br />

varianti. igi gavrcelebulia aRmosavleT<br />

germaniaSi da Seicavs<br />

alkohols 4.8%-dan 5%-mde.<br />

berlinuri TeTri aris msubuqi<br />

dasalevi, alkoholis Semcveloba<br />

_ 2.8%. misi saxelwodeba<br />

warmodgeba qalaq berlinidan.<br />

Zlieri da specialuri<br />

ludebi ZiriTadad regionebSia<br />

gavrcelebuli da ufro didi<br />

masStabiT ar aris cnobadi. ase-<br />

Ti tipis ludebs miekuTvneba<br />

germanuli ludebi<br />

Bock, Doppelbock, Weizenbock,<br />

Eisbock, Rauchbier da<br />

Roggenbier.<br />

helesi aris yviTeli ludi. mas<br />

ZiriTadad moixmaren bavariaSi.<br />

es ludi gamoirCeva alkoholis<br />

yvelaze maRali SemcvelobiT<br />

da aris oqtombris dResaswaulis<br />

(Oktoberfest _ imarTeba 20<br />

seqtembridan 5 oqtombris CaTvliT)<br />

gamorCeuli maspinZeli.<br />

aseve arsebobs ludis Semdegi<br />

saxeobebi: coigli da hausbrau,<br />

romlebic gavrcelebulia<br />

CrdiloeT bavariaSi.<br />

germanuli veb-gverdis Bier.de-s<br />

monacemebiT, germanuli ludebis<br />

aTeuli ase gamoiyureba:<br />

1. Holsten Edel;<br />

2. Duckstein;<br />

3. Störtebeker Schwarzbier;<br />

4. Jever Pilsener;<br />

5. Holsten Pilsener;<br />

6. Berliner Pilsener;<br />

7. Landskron Premium<br />

Pilsener;<br />

8. Störtebeker Pilsener;<br />

9. Störtebeker Hanse-Porter;<br />

10. Störtebeker Bernstein-<br />

Weizen.<br />

ra aris warmatebis gasaRebi?<br />

Jever-is sawarmo pirvelad<br />

aSenda 1848 wels mefe ditrixis<br />

mier, Tumca igi iyo erT-erTi sxva<br />

sawarmoebs Soris.<br />

mefis sikvdilis Semdeg 1867<br />

wels misma vaJma gayida ludis<br />

qarxana. axal mflobels erqva<br />

Theodor Fetköter-i. man saojaxo<br />

sawarmo aqcia did qarxanad da<br />

ukve 1894 wels qalaqSi udides<br />

warmatebas miaRwia.<br />

dRes am sawarmos hyavs 270<br />

TanamSromeli da saaTSi uSvebs<br />

daaxloebiT 60 000 boTls. Jever-is<br />

sawarmo gvTavazobs Semdeg<br />

produqtebs:<br />

1. Jever Pilsener _ alkoholis<br />

Semcveloba 4.9%;<br />

2. Jever Fun _ ualkoholo sasmeli;<br />

3. Jever Light _ msubuqi ludi,<br />

alkoholis Semcveloba 2.7%.<br />

igi aris aseve sakmaod dabalkaloriuli<br />

sasmeli;<br />

4. Jever dark _ Jever-is sawarmos<br />

Savi varianti, alkoholis<br />

ASemcveloba 4.9%;<br />

5. Jever Lime _ alkoholis Semcveloba<br />

2.5%;<br />

6. Jever Maibock _ Bockbier-i<br />

alkoholis SemcvelobiT 7.4%.<br />

igi ZiriTadad iyideba sezonurad<br />

_ Tebervlidan ivnisamde;<br />

7. Jever Digestif (magari sasmeli)<br />

_ alkoholis Semcveloba 40%.<br />

49


Authenticity: What Consumers Really<br />

Want<br />

avtorebi: James H. Gilmore,<br />

B. Joseph, II Pine.<br />

informacia produqtze:<br />

gverdebis raodenoba: 288<br />

gverdi.<br />

gamomcemeli: Harvard Business<br />

School Press (24 seqtemberi<br />

2008 weli).<br />

ena: inglisuri.<br />

zomebi: 9.2 x 6.4 x 1.3 diumi.<br />

wignis anotacia:<br />

unamuso, TaRliTi, gaiZvera... iyeneben Tqveni klientebi<br />

aseT sityvebs, raTa aRweron is, Tu ras an rogor yidiT?<br />

Tu asea, maSin es wigni swored TqvenTvisaa gankuTvnili.<br />

Women & Money: Owning the Power<br />

to Control Your Destiny<br />

avtori: Suze Orman.<br />

i n f o r m a c i a<br />

produqtze:<br />

gverdebis raodenoba:<br />

272 gverdi.<br />

gamomcemeli: Spiegel<br />

& Grau (27<br />

Tebervali, 2007<br />

weli)<br />

ena: inglisuri.<br />

zomebi: 9.3 x 6.1 x 1.2 diumi.<br />

wignis anotacia:<br />

`qalebi da fuli~ aris Suze Orman-is ukanaskneli<br />

wigni, gankuTvnili mxolod qalebisTvis.<br />

qalbatonebisTvis gamiznuli wignis wakiTxviT Tqven<br />

gaigebT sabaziso informacias finansebze.<br />

wignis anotacia:<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

The New Rules of Marketing and PR:<br />

How to Use News Releases, Blogs,<br />

Podcasting, Viral Marketing and Online<br />

Media to Reach Buyers Directly<br />

avtorebi: David Meerman<br />

Scott.<br />

informacia produqtze:<br />

gverdebis raodenoba: 304<br />

gverdi.<br />

gamomcemeli: Wiley (4 ivnisi,<br />

2007 weli).<br />

ena: inglisuri.<br />

zomebi: 8.7 x 5.7 x 1.2 diumi.<br />

axali wesebi marketingsa da PR-Si aswavlis mkiTxvels,<br />

rogor daiwyos kompaniis lideroba Sorsmavali,<br />

grZelvadiani sazogadoebrivi mediis iaraRis<br />

gamoyenebiT. es aris fasdaudebeli gzamkvlevi yvelas-<br />

Tvis, visac surs saxeli gauTqvas sakuTar Tavs, ideebsa<br />

da organizacias.<br />

The Strategic Planning Workbook<br />

avtori: Neville<br />

Lake<br />

i n f o r m a c i a<br />

produqtze:<br />

gverdebis raodenoba:<br />

242 gverdi.<br />

gamomcemeli: Kogan<br />

Page (1 aprili,<br />

2006 weli)<br />

ena: inglisuri.<br />

zomebi: 9.1 x 6 x 0.9<br />

diumi.<br />

wignis anotacia:<br />

am wignSi nabij-nabij aris aRwerili strategiuli<br />

dagegmvis procesi. Tu Sen xar didi organizaciis menejeri<br />

an patara biznesis mflobeli da gsurs aiyvano<br />

Seni biznesi axal doneze, es wigni gaxdeba saWiro gzamkvlevi<br />

da sarekomendacio iaraRi.<br />

46 wignebi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

10 Steps to Success: A Commonsense<br />

Guide to Building a Successful Insurance<br />

Business<br />

avtori: Daniel S Fowler.<br />

informacia produqtze:<br />

gverdebis raodenoba:<br />

54 gverdi.<br />

gamomcemeli: Universe, Inc.<br />

(18 ianvari, 2006 weli).<br />

ena: inglisuri.<br />

zomebi: 8.8 x 5.8 x 0.3 diumi.<br />

wignis anotacia:<br />

am wignis meSveobiT Tqven gaigebT, Tu rogor SeiZleba martivi<br />

xerxebiT gaxdeT warmatebuli sadazRvevo agenti.<br />

wignis meSveobiT Tqven iswavliT:<br />

• urTierTobebis Camoyalibebas;<br />

• marketingul da biznesgegmebs;<br />

• sakuTari Tavisa da klientebis mosmenas;<br />

• kargi TanamSromlebis mniSvnelobas.<br />

`10 nabiji warmatebisken~ gaCvenebs, rogor SesTavazoT<br />

ara mxolod is servisi, romelsac xalxi moelis, aramed<br />

iseTebic, romelsac xalxi jer ar moelis.<br />

PR Idea Book: 50 Proven Tools That<br />

Really Work<br />

avtori: Jeff Winke.<br />

i n f o r m a c i a<br />

produqtze:<br />

gverdebis raodenoba:<br />

196 gverdi.<br />

gamomcemeli: Outskirts<br />

Press (14 aprili, 2006<br />

weli).<br />

ena: inglisuri.<br />

zomebi: 8.4 x 5.5 x 0.6<br />

diumi.<br />

wignis anotacia:<br />

SegawuxaT ideebis simcirem?<br />

gamoiyeneT 50 aprobirebuli taqtika, romlebic<br />

am wignSia aRwerili da Tqveni gayidvebi warmoudgenlad<br />

gaizrdeba. aseve gaZlierdeba da gamyardeba<br />

Tqveni imiji.<br />

wignebi<br />

Media Planning Workbook<br />

zomebi: 10.9 x 8.4 x 0.5 .<br />

avtorebi: William B.<br />

Goodrich, Jack Z. Sissors.<br />

i n f o r m a c i a<br />

produqtze:<br />

gverdebis raodenoba:<br />

224 gverdi.<br />

gamomcemeli: McGraw-<br />

Hill Humanities (9<br />

Tebervali, 2001 weli).<br />

ena: inglisuri.<br />

wignis anotacia:<br />

es wigni dagexmarebaT daeufloT iseT xerxebsa da teqnikas,<br />

romelic saWiroa sareklamo mediis gamokvlevis,<br />

dagegmvisa da yidvis procesis ganxorcielebisaTvis.<br />

The New PR Toolkit: Strategies for<br />

Successful Media Relations<br />

avtorebi: Deirdre Breakenridge;<br />

Thomas J. De-<br />

Loughry.<br />

informacia produqtze:<br />

gverdebis raodenoba:<br />

272 gverdi.<br />

gamomcemeli: FT Press (9<br />

Tebervali, 2003 weli).<br />

ena: inglisuri.<br />

zomebi: 9.1 x 6 x 0.7 diumi.<br />

wignis anotacia:<br />

axali PR-is iaraRebis krebuli gTavazobT damtkicebul<br />

strategiebsa da taqtikebs, raTa gamoiyenoT dReisaTvis<br />

yvelaze Zlieri, axali internet komunikaciis<br />

iaraRi. amiT Tqven saSualeba mogecemaT gaaZlieroT<br />

brendi da yvela aqcioneris urTierToba.<br />

47


a abrkolebs codnis gaRrmavebis<br />

msurvelebs?<br />

gadawyvetilebis miReba arc ise<br />

rTulia, Tu swavla ar gezareba<br />

da mondomebulic xar, Tumca<br />

gadawyvetilebis miRebis Semdeg<br />

isev mkacr realobas ubrundebi<br />

da miznis miRwevis saSualebas,<br />

finansuri saxsrebis moZiebis<br />

sakiTxze iwyeb zrunvas.<br />

qarTveli bakalavrebisa da magistrebis<br />

erTi nawili miiCnevs,<br />

rom miRebuli codna sakmarisia<br />

da mis praqtikaSi gamoyenebaze<br />

iwyeneb fiqrs. isini orientirebulni<br />

arian samuSaos moZebnaze,<br />

raTa hqondeT sakuTari Semosavali.<br />

am motiviT studentebi<br />

xSirad araprofesiul samuSaosac<br />

ki sTanxmdebian.<br />

yofili studentebis meore<br />

nawili miiCnevs, rom sazRvargareT<br />

swavlis gagrZeleba maT<br />

daexmarebaT `mwvervalebis dapyrobaSi~.<br />

karieris momzadebas<br />

survilTan erTad `fulic~<br />

sWirdeba. es gardauvali aucilebloba,<br />

samwuxarod, bev-risTvis<br />

gadaulaxavi dabrkolebaa.<br />

Tu `bednier varskvlavze~<br />

dabadebulTa ricxvSi xarT da<br />

Tqvens ojaxs sazRvargareT swavlis<br />

dafinansebis saSualeba aqvs,<br />

xom kargi, Tu ara da bankebisa<br />

da sxvadasxva organizaciis<br />

Semovla mogiwevT. xom gagigoniaT,<br />

cda bedis monaxevreao.<br />

iseTi organizaciebi, romlebic<br />

afinanseben niWieri studentebis<br />

swavlebas sazRvargareT arc ise<br />

bevria. rogorc wesi, aseTi saxis<br />

organizaciebi aplikantebs<br />

erTi wliT adre arCeven da Tu<br />

universitetis damTavrebamde<br />

ar daiWireT Tadarigi, erTi<br />

weli ukve dakargulia.<br />

samagierod, bankebis kari mudam<br />

Riaa, sadac yovel momxmarebels<br />

RimiliT xvdeba morigi kreditoficeri.<br />

dafinanseba aseve SeigiZliaT<br />

moipovoT saxelmwifos mier gamocxadebul<br />

konkursebSi.<br />

bankebis pozicia ucxoeTSi<br />

swavlebis dafinasebisas, SeiZleba<br />

iTqvas, erTsulovania universitetis<br />

SerCevisas. SerCeuli<br />

universiteti unda Sediodes<br />

Finansial Times-is mier gamoqveynebul<br />

msoflioSi saukeTeso<br />

universitetebis aseulSi (bolo<br />

wlis monacemebiT).<br />

bankebis mier gamoqveynebuli<br />

ZiriTadi pirobebi sazRvargareT<br />

swavlebisTvis:<br />

sesxis<br />

m a q s i m a l u r i<br />

vada<br />

saSeRavaTo<br />

periodi<br />

sesxis uzrunvelyofa<br />

sesxis<br />

procenti<br />

kreditis<br />

dafarva<br />

swavlis periods<br />

+ 60-66<br />

Tve<br />

swavlis periods<br />

+ 3-6 Tve<br />

“ T a n a m -<br />

s e s x e b e l i ;<br />

uZravi qoneba;<br />

ar saWiroebs.”<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

50 ra abrkolebs codnis gaRrmavebis msurvelebs?<br />

16%<br />

“Zirisa da<br />

p r o c e n t i s<br />

Tanabari wili;<br />

msesxeblis ar-<br />

CevniT. “<br />

bankSi miRebuli informacia, Finansial<br />

Times-is saukeTeso aseuli,<br />

erTi mxriv, SeiZleba siamayis<br />

grZnobac dageuflos _ unda<br />

viswavlo msoflios saukeTeso<br />

100 universitetidan erT-erT-<br />

Si. kargia, magram romeli universitetebi<br />

Sedis am aseulSi?<br />

jdebi kompiuterTan da iwyeb sasurveli<br />

informaciis Ziebas.<br />

universitetebis Sefaseba da<br />

maTi reitingis Sedgena xdeba<br />

sxvadasxva kriteriumis mixedviT.<br />

biznesmimarTulebaSi yve-laze<br />

prestiJulia magistris xarisxi<br />

biznesis administrirebaSi.<br />

aRniSnuli mimarTulebis aqtualobidan<br />

gamomdinare Finansial<br />

Times-i yovelwliurad aqveynebs<br />

msoflioSi arsebuli biznesis<br />

administrirebis samagistro<br />

brogramis (MBA) mqone umaRlesi<br />

saswavleblebis reitings.<br />

aRniSnul kvlevaSi monawileoben<br />

universitetis yofili studentebi<br />

da Tavad universiteti.<br />

gamokiTxuli saswavleblebSi<br />

MBA kursi funqcionirebs minimum<br />

5 wlis ganmavlobaSi da<br />

yovelwliurad kursdamTavrebulTa<br />

raodenoba 30-ze metia.


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

kursdamTavrebulebis kvlevisas<br />

ZiriTadad yuradReba maxvildeba<br />

maTi mimdinare miRwevebsa<br />

da Semosavlis zrdaze. 2008<br />

wlis monacemebiT pirvel adgilze<br />

aris University of Pennsylvania:<br />

Wharton.<br />

msoflioSi saukeTeso MBA kursis<br />

reitingi universitetebis<br />

mixedviT:<br />

1 University of<br />

Pennsylvania: Wharton<br />

US<br />

2 London Business School U.K.<br />

3 Columbia Business<br />

School<br />

US<br />

4 Stanford University GSB US<br />

5 Harvard Business School US<br />

6 Insead France/<br />

Singapure<br />

7 MIT: Sloan US<br />

8 IE Business School Spain<br />

9 University of Chicago GSB US<br />

10 University of Cambridge:<br />

Judge<br />

U.K.<br />

ra abrkolebs codnis gaRrmavebis msurvelebs?<br />

msoflioSi saukeTeso MBA-is<br />

aTeulSi 6 universitetia warmodgelili<br />

amerikidan, 2 _ didi<br />

britaneTidan, aseve erT-erTi<br />

wamomadgeneliT aTeulSi Sevida<br />

safrangeTi da espaneTi.<br />

mocemuli reitingis Sedegebi<br />

gviCvenebs aRniSnul qveynebSi<br />

biznesis swavlebis kulturis<br />

ganviTarebis dones.<br />

evropis saukeTeso MBA kursis<br />

reitingi universitetebis mixedviT:<br />

1 London Business School U.K.<br />

2 Insead<br />

France/<br />

Singapore<br />

3 IE Business School Spain<br />

4 University of Cambridge: Judge U.K.<br />

5 Iese Business School Spain<br />

6 IMD<br />

Switzerland<br />

7 HEC Paris France<br />

8 University of Oxford: Saïd U.K.<br />

9 Esade Business School Spain<br />

10<br />

Lancaster University Management<br />

School<br />

U.K.<br />

evropis saukeTeso aTeulSi<br />

warmodgenili universitetebis<br />

raodenobis mixedviT pirvel<br />

adgilze gavida didi britaneTi<br />

(4), meoreze _ espaneTi (3), mesameze<br />

_ safrangeTi (2) meoTxeze<br />

_ Sveicaria (1). sasurvel universitetSi<br />

Cabarebis survilTan<br />

erTad giCndeba kiTxva, Tu ramden<br />

xanSi SeZleb sesxis dafarvas.<br />

axla aqamde naswavli meTodebiTa<br />

da gamocdilebiT afaseb<br />

ramdenad karg produqts Seqmni<br />

momavalSi. kiTxva romelic ar<br />

gasvenebs: `neta ramdenad Sefasedeba<br />

dagrovili codna da<br />

ucxouri gamocdileba~?<br />

51


navTobi<br />

ra aris TqvenTvis navTobi?<br />

SesaZloa, amaze arc arasodes<br />

gifiqriaT da, albaT, arc aravis<br />

dausvams es kiTxva Tqven-<br />

Tvis. eTanxmebiT mosazrebas, rom<br />

navTobi _ es aris yvelaferi?<br />

vimedovneb, arc mTlad asea<br />

saqme, magram Tu Tqven iyenebT<br />

xelovnuri tyavis tansacmels,<br />

fexsacmels, plastmasis nivTebs,<br />

gWirdebaT sakvebi, medikamentebi,<br />

aseve Tqveni manqanisTvis sawvavi,<br />

sapoxi zeTebi, rezinis saburavebi,<br />

sadenebis izolacia da a.S.,<br />

es imaze mianiSnebs, rom Tqven mis<br />

`fasdaudeblobas~ aRiarebT.<br />

zogadad navTobis sakiTxs umniSvnelo<br />

yuradRebas vuTmobT,<br />

Tumca mtivneulad am sakiTxs<br />

maSin aRviqvamT, roca msoflio<br />

bazarze navTobis rekorduli<br />

fasebi Cvens yoveldRiurobaSi<br />

SemoaRwevs.<br />

`navTobis piki~, anu Sev-<br />

ZlebT cxovrebas navTobis<br />

gareSe?<br />

navTobi, mogexsenebaT, dedamiwis<br />

Semadgeneli qania, romlis<br />

Camoyalibeba-formireba aTeul<br />

milionobiT weliwads moicavs.<br />

kacobrioba uZvelesi droidan<br />

iyenebda navTobs _ Tavdapirvelad<br />

kupris saxiT, Tumca misi<br />

gamoyenebis intensivoba bolo<br />

150 welze modis.<br />

ukanasknel periodSi bevri<br />

daiwera navTobis momavali<br />

krizisis Sesaxeb. navTobma<br />

gadalaxa 100 dolariani zRvari<br />

da ramdenjerme rekordul<br />

fassac miaRwia. paralelurad<br />

arsebobs winaaRmdegobrivi<br />

angariSebi darCenili navTobrezervebis<br />

Sesaxeb axlo aRmosavleTis<br />

did navTobeqsportior<br />

qveynebSi.<br />

winaswari gaTvlebiT navTobis<br />

arsebuli maragebi maqsimum 2050<br />

wlamde SeiZleba iyos sakmarisi.<br />

ra moxdeba Semdgom? momaval-<br />

Si mosalodnelia seriozuli<br />

krizisi, romelic ukve monaTles<br />

rogorc `navTobis piki~. misi<br />

masStabebis Sesaxeb naTeli warmodgenis<br />

Seqmna mimdinare Tveebis<br />

manZilze navTobis fasebis<br />

garSemo arsebuli situacii-<br />

Tac SeiZleba. krizisi gvitevs?<br />

amis niSnebi sakmaod arsebobs,<br />

mwvervals ki TiToeuli dRis<br />

gasvlasTan erTad ufro da<br />

ufro vuaxlovdebiT. eqspertebi<br />

gardauvalobis dadgomas<br />

swored 21-e saukuneSi winaswarmetyveleben...<br />

yovelive zemoaRniSnulis<br />

fonze SeimCneva navTobis mopovebis<br />

teqnologiebisa da nav-<br />

Tobis Semcvlelebis intensiuri<br />

Zieba. vimedovnebT, rom adamianebi<br />

iswavlian navTobqimiis<br />

im produqtebis xelovnurad<br />

damzadebas, romlis gareSec<br />

cxovreba warmoudgenelia. uaxloes<br />

momavalSi navTobisa da<br />

gazis Zieba dedamiwis ufro<br />

Rrma fenebSi gadainacvlebs (intensiurad<br />

mimdinareobs okeanis<br />

fskeridan navTobis mopovebis<br />

procesi, rac, Tavis mxriv, gruntis<br />

dawevasa da miwisZvrebs,<br />

xolo milsadenTa katastrofebi<br />

garemos mniSvnelovan<br />

dabinZurebasa da disbalanss<br />

iwvevs. amis dasturia klimatis<br />

mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi).<br />

miiCneva, rom mopovebuli nav-<br />

Tobis 5% ikargeba misi Senaxvisa<br />

da gadazidvisas, rac<br />

niSnavs, rom yovelwliurad<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

150 milion tonaze meti nav-<br />

Tobi xvdeba garemoSi am gziT.<br />

Tanam-gzavrebidan gadaRebul<br />

aerofotosuraTebze dafiqsirebulia,<br />

rom okeanis zedapiris<br />

TiTqmis 30% navTobis apkiT<br />

aris dafaruli (katastrofebis<br />

Sedegad zRvaSi xvdeba 10 milioni<br />

tona navTobi).<br />

dRis wesrigSi dgas kidev erTi,<br />

teqnikuri problema: mniSvnelovani<br />

danakargebi navTobis<br />

mopovebis procesSi, rac xSirad<br />

30-40%-mdec aRwevs.<br />

krizisis SemaCereblad SeiZleba<br />

mogvevlinos bunebrivi bitumebi<br />

(myari navTobi), romelic<br />

ar xasiaTdeba maRali siblantiT<br />

da misi mopoveba niSnavs<br />

met danaxarjebsa da garemos<br />

metad dabinZurebas (saubaria<br />

misi wvis Sedagad atmosferoSi<br />

moxvedril nivTierebebze, rogoricaa<br />

gogirdi, nikeli, Tavisufali<br />

karbonatis dioqsidi).<br />

ganixileba misi rentabelobis<br />

sakiTxi. arsebobs ramdenime<br />

gansxvavebuli teqnologia<br />

mZime navTobis mosapoveblad,<br />

romlebic damokidebulia mis<br />

Semadgenlobasa da misawvdomobis<br />

faqtorze. ToToeuli<br />

meTodi jer kidev umjobesdeba<br />

da navTobkompaniebi cdiloben<br />

winaswar ganWvriton maTi<br />

52 navTobi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

efeqturoba da danaxarjebi bazris<br />

gafarToebasTan erTad.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom yuradReba<br />

fokusirebulia albertas mZime<br />

navTobis velebze kanadaSi da<br />

mZime navTobis orinokos velebze<br />

venesuelaSi. 90% mZime<br />

navTobisa aRmoCenilia meqsikaSi,<br />

kaliforniaSi, braziliaSi,<br />

aliaskaze da a.S. mZime navTobi<br />

venesuelaSi naklebad sqelia vidre<br />

kanadaSi, amrigad ufro advilad<br />

SeiZleba maTi amotumbva<br />

sabadodan, Tumca saerTaSoriso<br />

navTob kompaniebi dainteresebulni<br />

arian biznesis keTebiT<br />

politikurad stabilur<br />

qveqnebSi, sadac kerZo kompaniebi<br />

ar iqnebian damokidebulni mTavrobebis<br />

mier gatarebul nacionalizaciis<br />

politikaze. amas<br />

adasturebs aSS-kanadis mini<br />

navTob-samiti, sadac SeTanxmdnen,<br />

rom kanada male gazrdis Tavisi<br />

mZime navTobis warmoebas xuTjer,<br />

rac miSnavs, rom kanada moaxdens<br />

dReSi 5 milioni bareli<br />

navTobis eqsports amerikaSi. es<br />

moicavs amerikaSi importirebuli<br />

navTobis TiTqmis naxevars.<br />

2010 wlisTvis varaudoben<br />

dedamiwis mosaxleobis 8 miliardamde<br />

gazrdas. Jurnal<br />

`saiensis~ monacemebiT msoflioSi<br />

daaxloebiT 500 milioni<br />

adamiani ganicdis sakvebi<br />

produqtebis naklebobas.<br />

cxoveluri cilebis deficiti<br />

weliwadSi 40 milion tonaze<br />

mets Seadgens, purproduqtebisa<br />

_ 25 milion tonas da kidev erTi<br />

aqtualuri sakiTxi: navTobiani<br />

naxSirwyalbadebis bioqimiuri<br />

damuSaveba cilovani nivTierebebis<br />

misaRebad. navTobis mniSvnelobaSi<br />

amiT kidev erTxel<br />

vrwmundebiT.<br />

navTobi<br />

faqtorebi, romlebmac 2008 wels gavlena moaxdina<br />

`Savi oqros~ fasze<br />

1) dolaris kursis vardna ara marto evrosTan, aramed iaponur<br />

ienTan da Sveicariul frankTan mimarTebaSic. es TavisTavad iwvevs<br />

spekulaciuri kapitalis Sedinebas sanavTobo bazarze da dolaris<br />

dabandebas navTobSi. opeki maRali fasebis mizezad swored savaWro<br />

garigebebs asaxelebs, Tumca saerTaSoriso energetikuli saagento Tavis<br />

ukanasknel yovelTviur angariSSi aRniSnavs, rom savaWro garigebebi<br />

ar aris erTaderTi mizezi maRali fasebisa da rom momavalSi<br />

mosalodnelia maTi SenarCuneba;<br />

2) geopolitikuri faqtorebi: mudmivad arastabiluri situacia<br />

axlo aRmosavleTSi, keniaSi, alJirsa da nigeriaSi, amerikis muqara iranis<br />

misamarTiT da a.S.;<br />

3) venesuelas saxelmwifosa da msoflios erT-erT umsxviles navTobkompania<br />

Exxonmobile-s Soris konfliqti;<br />

4) miuxedavad imisa, rom saerTaSoriso energetikulma saagentom (IEA)<br />

oficialurad gamoaqveyna informacia momdevno wels msoflioSi nav-<br />

Tobis moxmarebis SemcirebasTan dakavSirebiT, sapirispiro xdeba CineTSi,<br />

sadac navTobis importi bolo 12 TveSi gaizarda 12.3%-iT<br />

da Sesabamisad, dinamiurad izrdeba navTobis moxmarebac. navTobis<br />

miwodeba gaizarda 185 aTasi bareliT/dReSi. IEA-s cnobiT, msoflioSi<br />

navTobis mopovebam Seadgina 87.5 milioni bareli/dReSi. navTobis<br />

msoflio mopovebis zrda gamoiwvia kanadaSi, meqsikasa da kaspiis<br />

zRvis regionSi mopovebis zrdam, ramac moaxdina norvegiasa da opekis<br />

qveynebSi Tebervlis TveSi mopovebis dacemis kompensireba. 2008<br />

wlis TebervalSi navTobis mopoveba opekis qveynebSi Semcirda 120<br />

aTasi bareliT/dReSi, Seadgina 32.1 milioni bareli/dReSi. navTobis<br />

miwodeba sparseTis yuresa da dasavleT afrikis qveynebidan Semcirda<br />

300 aTasi bareliT/dReSi, iranidan ki gaizarda 150 aTasi bareliT/dReSi;<br />

5) opekis gadawyvetileba navTobis mopovebis ucvlelad datovebis<br />

Sesaxeb. kerZod, 2008 wlis 5 marts opekma miiRo gadawyvetileba momavali<br />

wlis meore kvartlamde navTobis mopovebis odenobis ucvlelad<br />

datovebis Sesaxeb; 2007 wlis 1 dekembridan navTobis mopovebis<br />

kvota kartelis 10 wevrisaTvis (indonezia, irani, kuveiti, libia, ekvadori,<br />

katari, saudis arabeTi, arabTa gaerTianebuli saemiroebi, venesuela,<br />

angola) dReSi 27.253 milion barels Seadgens. opekis mier<br />

warmoebis ucvlelad SenarCunebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba ganpirobebulia<br />

imiTac, rom qveynebi eZeben sakuTari maragebis optimalurad<br />

gamoyenebis gzebs, raTa minimumamde daiyvanon moTxovna;<br />

6) navTobgadamamuSavebeli simZlavreebis nakleboba msoflioSi.<br />

erTi sityviT, arsebobs urTierTdakavSirebul mizezTa grZeli jaWvi,<br />

magram realurad ra aris yvelaze didi da mniSvnelovani problema?<br />

amJamad arsebuli problemebis mogavrebis Semdgom, albaT, mTeli yuradReba<br />

navTobis amowurvis safrTxeze gamaxvildeba. navTobis alternatiuli<br />

resursebiT Canacvleba kacobriobis erT-erT aqtualur<br />

sakiTxTa ricxvs miekuTvneba.<br />

53


nayinis filosofia<br />

uamravi legenda arsebobs nayinis<br />

Seqmnis Sesaxeb, Tumca dazustebiT<br />

aravin icis pirvelad<br />

sad da rodis daamzades es<br />

ugemrielesi deserti. neta vin<br />

iyo misi avtori?<br />

Tanamedrove macivrebis gamogonebamde<br />

`nayinis~ damzadeba<br />

da Senaxva sakmaod Sromatevadi<br />

iyo - zamTris ganmavlobaSi<br />

tbebidan da guburebidan Wridnen<br />

yinuls, romelsac miwis siRrmeSi<br />

ganTavsebul specialur<br />

sacavebSi inaxavdnen.<br />

zafxulSi swored yinulis am<br />

ingredientiT aciebdnen xils.<br />

gadmocemis Tanaxmad, jer kidev<br />

4 000 wlis winaT SuamdinareTSi<br />

mdinare evfratis napirebze arsebobda<br />

e.w. yinulis sacavebi.<br />

aseulobiT wlis win yinulovani<br />

xilis desertis mirTmeva<br />

fufunebad iTvleboda. egviptis<br />

faraonebi civi desertiT<br />

sapatio stumrebs umaspinZldebodnen.<br />

Cvens welTaRricxvamde me-5 saukuneSi<br />

saberZneTSi yiddnen konusis<br />

formis Tovls, romelSic<br />

areuli iyo Tafli da xilis<br />

naWrebi. sparselebs yinulis<br />

sacavebi hqondaT da zafxulSic<br />

SeeZloT grili desertis mir-<br />

Tmeva. romis imperator nerons<br />

(37-68) Zalzed uyvarda civi xilis<br />

naWrebi da amisaTvis mTebidan<br />

CamohqondaT misTvis yinuli.<br />

es aris adreuli istoriebi grili<br />

desertis Sesaxeb.<br />

aseve cnobilia, rom jer kidev<br />

Cvens welTaRricxvamde CineTSi<br />

miirTmevdnen TovlSi areul xilis<br />

naWrebs. aseTi deserti Zalian<br />

uyvarda aleqsandre makedonelsac,<br />

romlisTvisac Tovli<br />

weliwadis nebismier dros CamohqondaT<br />

specialurad monebs<br />

mTebidan.<br />

nayini evropaSi cnobilma mogzaurma<br />

_ marko polom Camoitana<br />

CineTidan 1295 wels. mas Semdeg<br />

igi fufunebis sagani gaxda da<br />

aucilebel atributad iqca<br />

samefo karis wveulebebsa Tu<br />

saRamoebze.<br />

aseulobiT wlis win Carlz I-ma<br />

gamarTa Cinebuli samefo banketi,<br />

sadac stumrebs SesTavazes<br />

uamravi dasaxelebis delikatesi.<br />

saRamom kulminacias miaRwia ma-<br />

Sin, rodesac mefis ufrosma mzareulma<br />

warmoadgina axali deserti<br />

_ is iyo civi da waagavda<br />

axal Tovls, iyo aseve haerovani<br />

da tkbili.<br />

stumrebi iseve aRtacebaSi moiyvana<br />

misma dagemovnebam, rogorc<br />

Tavad Carlz I gancvifrda<br />

siaxlis gemoTi. mefem<br />

dauZaxa mzareuls da ubrZana<br />

aravisTvis gaendo yinulis<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

kremis receptis saidumlo.<br />

Carlz I-s surda gemrieli deserti<br />

warmodgenili yofiliyo<br />

mxolod samefo wveulebebze<br />

da amisaTvis daTanxmda, rom<br />

mzareulisTvis gadaexada 500<br />

funti weliwadSi (im droisaTvis<br />

Zalzed did Tanxa). rodesac<br />

1649 wels Carlz I-s Tavi<br />

mokveTes, mzareulma de mirkom<br />

aRar Seasrula piroba da nayinis<br />

recepti sayovelTao gaxda.<br />

ufro mogvianebiT daiwyes ara<br />

Tovlis, aramed rZis gayinva. mas-<br />

Si uamrav deserts umatebdnen<br />

da ara mxolod samefo wveulebebisTvis<br />

amzadebdnen, aramed<br />

maRaziebSic daiwyo nayinis gayidva.<br />

ATandaTan deserti ufro<br />

da ufro meti pupularobiT<br />

sargeblobda xalxSi.<br />

1649 wels frangma kulinarma<br />

Jerar tirsenma Seqmna vanilis<br />

nayini. parizi gaxda msoflio-<br />

Si pirveli qalaqi, sadac mTeli<br />

wlis ganmavlobaSi iyo SesaZlebeli<br />

nayinis SeZena. dReisaTvis<br />

yvelaze didi popularobiT<br />

swored vanilis nayini sargeblobs.<br />

pirveli nayinis receptebi gamoCnda<br />

inglissa da amerikaSi me-<br />

18 saukuneSi. nayinis momzadebis<br />

wesi gamoqveynda misis meri elisi<br />

receptebis krebulSi, romelic<br />

gamoica 1718 wels londonSi.<br />

me-19 saukuneSi Zalian popularuli<br />

iyo nayini xiliT da<br />

nigvziT, xolo me-20 saukunidan<br />

Semovida konusis formis<br />

nayini. am periodidan iwyeba<br />

nayinis, rogorc erT-erTi<br />

yvelaze swrafad mzardi da<br />

moTxovnadi produqtis istoria.<br />

aseve me-20 saukunes<br />

ukavSirdeba Camosasxmeli<br />

54 nayinis filosofia


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

nayinis Seqmna, romelic Zalian<br />

popularulia dReisaTvisac.<br />

nayinis brendebis umravlesoba<br />

momxmarebels Camosasxmel nayinsac<br />

sTavazobs.<br />

Catarebuli kvlevebis mixedviT<br />

dgindeba, rom nayinis gayidvebi<br />

piks ivlissa da agvistoSi aRwevs.<br />

ivliss `nayinis Tvesac~ ki<br />

uwodeben. aseve gamoirkva, rom<br />

yvelaze meti nayini msoflioSi<br />

kvira dRes iyideba.<br />

evropaSi me-19 saukunis bolos<br />

Semovida muyaosa da qaRaldis<br />

WiqebSi Camosxmuli nayini. rac<br />

Seexeba saqarTvelos, ruseTma<br />

miiRo patenti mis damzadebaSi<br />

da swored am qveynidan Semovida<br />

CvenTan ugemrielesi deserti.<br />

saintereso statistika:<br />

• yvelaze didi nayini daamzades<br />

kaliforniaSi 1985 wels. xilis<br />

nayini iyo 12 futi simaRlis da<br />

mis momzadebaze daixarja 4 667<br />

galoni nayini.<br />

• daniisa da SvedeTis Semdeg<br />

didi britaneTi aris nayinis<br />

yvelaze didi momxmarebeli evropaSi.<br />

• farengeitie Termometris skalis<br />

mixedviT 8 gradusi aris<br />

yvelaze optimaluri temperatura<br />

nayinis Sesanaxad.<br />

• im mcenareebis 80%, romlisganac<br />

vanilis nayins amzadeben<br />

kunZul madagaskarze xarobs.<br />

• amerikaSi miRebuli rZis daaxloebiT<br />

9% ixarjeba nayinis<br />

warmoebaze.<br />

• zogierTi saxeobis nayini imdenia,<br />

rom haeris 75%-aRemateba.<br />

• CrdiloeT amerikaSi nayini<br />

aris meore usayvarlesi deserti<br />

ojaxebSi gamomcxvari namcxvrebis<br />

Semdeg.<br />

nayinis filosofia<br />

geniosebis azriT:<br />

hivud brauni (1888-1939): `mee-<br />

Wveba msofliom kidev SeZlos<br />

da ufro amaRelvebeli siurprizi<br />

mogvimzados, vidre es nayinis<br />

gamogoneba iyo~.<br />

ralf valdo emersoni (1803-<br />

1882): `Cven gavbedavT da ar mivendobiT<br />

gonebas, movamzadebT<br />

saxls samxiarulod megobrebisTvis.<br />

ase rom, nayins vyidulobT~.<br />

torntor vilderi (1897-1975):<br />

`Cemi rCeva iqneba ar gamoiZio<br />

ratom an rogor, ubralod datkbi<br />

im siamovnebiT, romelsac Sens<br />

win moTavsebuli nayini giqadis _<br />

es aris Cemi filosofia~.<br />

me-19 saukunis qalTa popularul<br />

JurnalSi vxvdebiT nayinis<br />

recepts da Semdeg Canawers:<br />

`nayini gaxda cxovrebis ganuyofeli<br />

nawili. wveuleba nayinis<br />

gareSe gavs upuro sauzmes da<br />

sadils Semwvari xorcis gareSe~.<br />

msoflioSi nayinis momxmarebel-<br />

Ta xuTeuli ase gamoiyureba:<br />

1. aSS;<br />

2. axali zelandia;<br />

3. dania;<br />

4. avstralia;<br />

5. belgia/luqsemburgi.<br />

`koka - kolasa~ da<br />

`pepsis~ istoriuli<br />

omebi<br />

brZola rom viswavloT, ajobebs<br />

istorias gadavxedoT. es<br />

oqros wesi iSviaTad warmoadgens<br />

dRevandeli marketologebis<br />

yuradRebis sagans. Zalian<br />

cota vinme Tu daxarjavs dros<br />

kompaniisa da konkurentebis<br />

warsul svlebze, datvirTulni<br />

arian ra dRevandeli saqmeebiT.<br />

istoriis Seswavlas, marTlac<br />

rom, SeuZlia gavlena moaxdinos<br />

Cvens samomavlo gadawyvetilebebsa<br />

da swor strategiul<br />

svlebze.<br />

Cven ar gTxovT gadaxedoT saqarTvelos<br />

me-11 an me-12 saukunis<br />

istorias, an Tqven pirad warsuls.<br />

ubralod gaixseneT, moikiTxeT,<br />

SeiswavleT Tqveni kompaniis<br />

istoria.<br />

rogor mixvediT iq , sadac amJamad<br />

imyofebiT? rogor ibrZodiT<br />

bazris msxvili nawilis mosapoveblad?<br />

ra meTodebiT giwevdnen<br />

konkurencias sxva kompaniebi?<br />

msxvili korporaciebis<br />

istoriebi sakmaod sainteresoa<br />

da gadavwviteT, TqvenTvis<br />

mokled mogveTxro kargad nacnob<br />

`koka-kolasa~ da `pepsis~<br />

istoriul omze.<br />

daaxloebiT 100 wlis win farmacevtma<br />

jon pembertonma kokainis<br />

Semcveli kokas foTlebisgan da<br />

kofeinis Semadgenlobis mqone<br />

kolas kaklisgan gamoigona kokakola.<br />

pirvel wels `koka-kolas~<br />

Semosavali iyo 50 aSS. dolari,<br />

xolo danaxarji _ 70 aSS. dolari.<br />

1902 wels `koka-kolas~ biujeti<br />

ukve 120 000 aSS. dolars<br />

55


Seadegnda da misi cnobadoba<br />

sakmaod maRali iyo. 1915 wels<br />

`koka-kolas~ klasikuri boTlis<br />

pirveli dizaini Seiqmna. 20-ian<br />

wlebSi `koka-kolas~ konkurentebi<br />

ar hyavda bazarze. Tuki<br />

1929 wels kompania erT sul mosaxleze<br />

3.3 galons (rac daaxloebiT<br />

12,5 litria) awarmoebda,<br />

dReisaTvis es maCvenebeli 151<br />

litrs Seadgens.<br />

yvelaferi kargad iyo `koka-kolasTvis~<br />

manam, sanam aSS-Si didi<br />

depresia (maRali inflaciuri<br />

procesebi) ar daiwyo 1929 wels.<br />

am periodma gza gauxsna `kokakolas~<br />

istoriul metoqes: `pepsi-kolas~<br />

da aseve CvenTvis naklebad<br />

nacnob `roial qrauns~.<br />

`pepsi~ 1939-Si inovaciuri nikelis<br />

boTliT Semovida bazarze.<br />

cota xanSi `koka-kolamac~<br />

igive gaimeora. imave wels `kokakolam~<br />

15 milioni aSS dolari<br />

daxarja reklamaze, rodesac<br />

`pepsi~ 600 000 aTass xarjavda.<br />

`pepsis~ axali boTlis warmoebaSi<br />

gaSveba sakmaod didi dartyma<br />

aRmoCnda `koka-kolisTvis~.<br />

meore msofio omis ganmavlobaSi<br />

`pepsim~ sakmaod momZlavrda<br />

sxva konkurentebTan mimarTeba-<br />

Si da `koka-kolas~ Semdeg kolas<br />

warmoebaSi meore adgili<br />

daikava.<br />

omis damTavrebis Semdeg `kokakolas~<br />

Zalian gaumarTla, rodesac<br />

`pepsis~ sakmaod mZime dro<br />

daudga _ gauZvirda muSaxeli<br />

da Saqari. Tumca, `pepsim~ aqac<br />

naxa gamosavali da axali, didi<br />

SefuTva gamouSva sloganiT:<br />

`iyavi socialuri~, rac kvlav<br />

didi datyma aRmoCnda `kokakolasTvis~.<br />

aman 1954 wels<br />

gamoiwvia `koka-kolas~ gayidvebis<br />

3%-iT Semcireba da `pepsis~<br />

12%-iani zrda. `pepsis~<br />

didi xani ar mouwia damtkbariyo<br />

gamarjvebiT da `koka-kolam~<br />

daiwyo sxvadasxva zomis SefuTvaSi<br />

produqciis Camosxma. aseve<br />

50-iani wlebis meore naxevari<br />

mimdinarebobda `koka-kolas~<br />

sakmaod efeqturi sareklamo<br />

kampania.<br />

daiwyo 60-iani wlebi da `pepsis~<br />

morigi warmatebis xana. `kokakola~,<br />

romlis mTavari Zala misi<br />

pirveloba iyo, sakmaod kargad<br />

gamoiyena metoqem. misi pirvelobidan<br />

gamomdinare, `koka-kolas~<br />

ufro metad saSualo asakis<br />

adamianebi svamdnen. amitomac<br />

`pepsim~ mTeli 60-iani wlebi<br />

aqtiuri fokusireba moaxdina<br />

axalgazrdul segmentze. 60-ian<br />

wlebi `pepsis Taobis~ periodad<br />

SeiZleba CaiTvalos.<br />

70-wlebSi `koka-kolam~ mounaxa<br />

`pepsis~ susti wertili da bazar-<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

ze Semdegi sloganiT pozicionirebda:<br />

`es namdvilia~, `saqmeebi<br />

kargad midis kokasTan erTad~,<br />

`Seisvene da ganitvirTe~ da<br />

sxv. yvelaze mniSvnelovani, rom<br />

`koka-kola pirvelia~, kargad<br />

iTqva: `es namdvilia!~ da `pepsisac~<br />

mouwia poziciebis daTmoba.<br />

daiwyo 80-iani wlebi da 90-ian<br />

wlebSic mimdinariebda `antikola~<br />

kampaniebi orive<br />

msxvil metoqes Soris. `pepsimac~<br />

da `koka-kolamac~ gamouSva<br />

`laiTi~ saxis produqcia.<br />

da rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania,<br />

bazarze isini Semovidnen axali<br />

brendebiT: `koka-kola~ _ `fanta~,<br />

`spraiti~, `doqtor peper~;<br />

`pepsi~ _ `akvafina~, `mirinda~,<br />

`sobe~, `tropikana~ da sxv. ra<br />

xdeba dRes? orive metoqe mxardamxar<br />

midian, Tu `koka-kola~<br />

sjobs `pepsis~, an piriqiT?<br />

faqtebi `koka-kolasa~ da `pepsis~<br />

Sesaxeb:<br />

info `koka-kola~ `pepsi~<br />

bazris<br />

wili<br />

kompaniis<br />

Rirebuleba<br />

mogebis<br />

marJa<br />

Semosavali<br />

2007<br />

sxva<br />

139,82 miliardi dolari<br />

144,20 miliardi dolari<br />

20,64% 3,91%<br />

30,13 miliardi dolari<br />

`koka-kolas~ brends dedamiwis mosaxleobis<br />

94% cnobs;<br />

reklamireba 200-ze met qveyanaSi<br />

xorcieldeba;<br />

sareklamo simRerebi poularuli<br />

xdeba;<br />

yovel wams msoflioSi `koka-kolas~<br />

brendis 10,450 produqti<br />

moixmareba.<br />

msxvili partniori – ` makdonaldsi~;<br />

7,56 miliardi<br />

dolari<br />

12,03 miliradi<br />

dolari<br />

13,59 miliardi<br />

dolari<br />

misi sareklamo<br />

saxeebs cnobili<br />

adamianebi warmoadgenen;<br />

200-ze met qveyanaSi<br />

iyideba;<br />

msxvili partniori<br />

– ` pica hat~;<br />

56 `koka - kolasa~ da `pepsis~ istoriuli omebi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

bizneskalendari<br />

14 maisi:<br />

• bunebrivi resursebiT (garda<br />

naxSirorJangis (gazi CO2) mineraluri<br />

wylebis, soflis meurneobaSi<br />

gamoyenebuli wylis<br />

resursebisa) sargeblobisTvis<br />

mosakreblebis gadamxdelebi<br />

sagadasaxado organoSi waradgenen<br />

yovelTviur gaangariSebas<br />

da gadaixdian kuTvnil mosakrebels.<br />

15 maisi:<br />

• dRg-is gadamxdelad registrirebuli<br />

pirebi waradgenen<br />

dRg-is wina Tvis (aprilis)<br />

deklaracias da ixdian kuTvnil<br />

gadasaxads;<br />

• aqcizis gadamxdelebi waradgenen<br />

aqcizis Sesaxeb wina<br />

Tvis(aprilis) deklaracias da<br />

bizneskalendari<br />

ixdian kuTvnil gadasaxads. amas<br />

Tan, aqcizuri markebiT niSandebas<br />

daqvemdebarebul aqcizur<br />

saqonelze aqcizi gadaxdas<br />

eqvemdebareba aqcizuri markebis<br />

SeZenisas;<br />

• pirebi, romlebic daqiravebul<br />

fizikur pirebs uxdian xelfass,<br />

gaweul momsaxurebas unazRaureben<br />

gadasaxadis gadamxdelis<br />

mowmobis armqone fizikuri<br />

pirebs, agreTve gascemen mogebebs<br />

(maT Soris nivTmogebebs), waradgenen<br />

saSemosavlo gadasaxadis<br />

yovelTviur gaangariSebebs. dakavebuli<br />

saSemosavlo gadasaxadi<br />

gadaxdas eqvemdebareba<br />

Tanxis (mogebis) gadaxdisTanave<br />

(gacemisTanave);<br />

• sawarmo, organizacia gadaixdis<br />

mogebis gadasaxadis<br />

mimdinare gadasaxdelebs;<br />

• mewarme fizikuri piri gadaix-<br />

dis saSemosavlo gadasaxadebis<br />

mimdinare gadasaxdelebs;<br />

• pirebi, romlebmac saqarTvelos<br />

sabaJo teritoriaze<br />

droebiT Semoitanes saqoneli,<br />

ixdian yo-velTviur gadasaxads;<br />

gadasaxadi gadaixdevineba<br />

saqonlis saqarTvelos teritoriaze<br />

yofnis yovel srul<br />

da arasrul kalendarul Tveze<br />

dasabegri sabaJo gadasaxadis im<br />

Tanxis 3%-iT, romelic gadaixdevineboda<br />

saqonlis droebiT<br />

Semotanis sabaJo deklaraciis<br />

registraciis dRes am saqonlis<br />

Tavisu-fal mimoqcevaSi gaSvebisas.<br />

bolo gadaxda xorcieldeba<br />

saqonlis droebiTi Semotanis<br />

sabaJo reJimis dasrulebis dRes;<br />

• naxSirorJangze (gazi CO2)<br />

bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobisTvis<br />

mosakreblis gadamxdelebi<br />

yovelTviurad gadaixdian<br />

kuTvnil mosakrebels.<br />

57


ogoria Tqveni xasiaTi?<br />

1. xSirad fiqrdebiT Tu ara<br />

imaze, Tu rogor gavlenas axdens<br />

Tqveni qcevebi garSemo myofebze?<br />

a) Zalian iSviaTad;<br />

b) iSviaTad;<br />

g) sakmaod xSirad;<br />

d) Zalian xSiarad.<br />

2. gixdebaT Tu ara iseTi ramis<br />

Tqma, risic ATavadve ar gjeraT<br />

(mxolod sijiutis, sxvis jibrze,<br />

an Tundac `prestiJuli mosazrebebis~<br />

gamo)?<br />

a) diax;<br />

b) ara.<br />

3. qvemoT CamoTvlil romel<br />

Tvisebas afasebT yvelaze metad<br />

adamianSi?<br />

a) mtkice xasiTi;<br />

b) azrovnebis sifarTove;<br />

g) sakuTari Tavis ukeT warmoGenis<br />

unari.<br />

4. gaaqvT midrekileba pedanturobisadmi?<br />

a) diax;<br />

b) ara.<br />

5. swrafad iviwyebT usiamovnebas,<br />

romelic Tqven gxvdebaT?<br />

a) diax;<br />

b) ara.<br />

6. giyvarT Tqveni qcevebis gaanalizeba?<br />

a) diax;<br />

b) ara.<br />

7. imyofebiT ra TqvenTvis kargad<br />

cnobili adamianebis wreSi:<br />

a) cdilobT SeinarCunoT am<br />

wreSi misaRebi toni;<br />

b) rCebiT is, rac xarT.<br />

8. SeudgebiT ra rTuli davalebis<br />

gakeTebas, cdilobT ifiqroT<br />

mosalodnel sirTuleebze?<br />

a) diax;<br />

b) ara.<br />

9. qvemoT CamoTvlili gansaz-<br />

Rvrebebidan, Tqveni azriT, romeli<br />

migesadagebaT yvelaze metad?<br />

a) meocnebe;<br />

b) gulRia adamiani;<br />

g) gulmodgine SromaSi;<br />

d) punqtualuri, akuratuli;<br />

e) amao adamiani.<br />

10. ama Tu im sakiTxis ganxilvis<br />

dros<br />

a) gamoxatavT Tqvens azrs, Tumca<br />

SeiZleba igi gansxvavdebodes<br />

umravlesobis azrisagan;<br />

b) fiqrobT, rom mocemul situaciaSi<br />

umjobesia gaGumeba, Tumca<br />

gagaGniaT Tqveni Tvalsazrisi;<br />

g) mxars uWerT umravlesobas, ise,<br />

rom ar fiqrobT Tqvens Sexedulebaze;<br />

d) ar itvirTavT Tavs fiqrebiT<br />

da iRebT im Tvalsazris, romelic<br />

gavrcelebulia umravlesobaSi.<br />

11. GamoTvlilTagan, ra grZnobam<br />

SeiZleba gamoiwvios TqvenSi<br />

xelmZRvanelisadmi moulodneli<br />

gamowveva?<br />

a) gabrazeba;<br />

b) aRelveba;<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

g) zrunva;<br />

d) gulgriloba.<br />

12. Tu polemikis dros Tqveni<br />

oponenti `afeTqda~ da dauSva<br />

zedmeti gamoxtomebi Tqvens winaaRmdeg,<br />

rogor moiqceviT?<br />

a) upasuxebT imave toniT;<br />

b) ignorirebas gaukeTebT am<br />

faqts;<br />

g) demonstraciulad igrZnobT<br />

Tavs Seuracxyofilad;<br />

d) SesTavazebT gadaitanoT<br />

saubari sxva dros.<br />

13. Tu Tqveni samuSao `daibraka~,<br />

es gamoiwvevs TqvenSi:<br />

a) wyenas;<br />

b) sircxvils;<br />

g) gabrazebas.<br />

14. Tu Tqven gaexvieT xaTabala-<br />

Si, vis daadanaSaulebT pirvel<br />

rigSi<br />

a) sakuTar Tavs;<br />

b) `fataluri gaumarTlebloba~;<br />

g) sxva `obieqturi mdgomareoba~.<br />

15. xom ar geCvenebaT, rom Tqvens<br />

garSemo myofi adamianebi _ arian<br />

es xelmZRvanelebi, kolegebi<br />

an daqvemdebarebulebi _ ar<br />

afaseben Tqvens codnasa da unars?<br />

a) diax;<br />

b) ara.<br />

16. Tu Tqveni megobrebi an kolegebi<br />

iwyeben Tqvenze xumrobas,<br />

maSin<br />

56 testi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

a) brazdebiT maTze;<br />

b) cdilobT ukan daixioT;<br />

g) ar brazdebiT, iwyebT maT<br />

gaTamaSebas;<br />

d) pasuxobT siciliTYda rogorc<br />

amboben `ноль внимания~;<br />

e) iRebT gulgril saxes da<br />

iRimebiT kidec, magram gulSi<br />

brazdebiT.<br />

17. Tu Tqven CqarobT da SemTxveviT<br />

Cveulebriv adgilas ver<br />

aRmoaCenT Tqvens CanTas (qolgas...),<br />

maSin Tqven<br />

a) Cumad gaagrZelebT Zebnas;<br />

b) moZebniT, Tanac daadana-<br />

SaulebT Tqvens Sinaurebs uwesrigobaSi;<br />

g) waxvalT TqvenTvis saWiro<br />

nivTis gareSe.<br />

18. ras gamoyavxarT yvelaze metad<br />

wonasworobidan?<br />

a) didi rigi misaRebSi;<br />

b) Wedva transportSi;<br />

g) aucilebloba mixvideT gansazRvrul<br />

adgilas ramdenjerme,<br />

erTi da igive; sakiTxTan dakav-<br />

SirebiT.<br />

19. daamTavrebT ra kamaTs,<br />

agrZelebT Tu ara mis warmarTvas<br />

azrobrivad, Tqveni Tvalsazrisis<br />

dasacavad axal-axali<br />

argumentebis moyvaniT?<br />

a) diax;<br />

b) ara.<br />

20. Tu saswrafo samuSaoebis<br />

Sesasruleblad Tqven geZlevaT<br />

SesaZlebloba, amoirCioT<br />

TqvenTvis damxmare, SesaZlebeli<br />

variantebidan romels airCevT?<br />

testi<br />

a) gulmodgine adamiani, magram<br />

uiniciativo;<br />

b) mcodne adamiani, magram jiuti<br />

da mokamaTe;<br />

g) niWieri adamiani, magram zarmaci.<br />

Sedegebi:<br />

1. a - 0, b - 1, g - 2, d - 3;<br />

2. diax - 0, ara - 1;<br />

3. a - 1, b - 1, g - 0;<br />

4. diax - 2, ara - 0;<br />

5. diax _ 0, ara - 2;<br />

6. diax - 2, ara - 0;<br />

7. a - 2, b - 0;<br />

8. diax - 0, ara - 2;<br />

9. a - 0, b - 1, g - 3, d - 2, e - 2, v - 0;<br />

10. a - 2, b - 0, g - 0, d - 0;<br />

11. a - 0, b - 1, g - 2, d - 0;<br />

12. a - 0, b - 2, g - 1, d - 3;<br />

13. a - 2, b - 1, g - 0;<br />

14. a - 2, b - 0, g - 0;<br />

15. diax - 0, ara - 2;<br />

16. a - 0, b - 1, g - 2, d - 0, e - 0;<br />

17. a - 2, b - 0, g - 1;<br />

18. a - 1, b - 0, g - 2;<br />

19. diax - 0, ara - 2;<br />

20. a - 0, b - 1, g - 2.<br />

Tu Tqven daagroveT:<br />

15 qulaze naklebi – Tqven<br />

susti xasiaTis, gauwonasworebeli<br />

da uzrunveli adamiani<br />

xarT. gadagxdebaT ra usiamovno<br />

SemTxveva, mzad xarT daadana-<br />

SauloT nebismieri, sakuTari Tavis<br />

garda. rogorc megobrobaSi,<br />

aseve samuSaoze Tqvenze dayrdnoba<br />

Znelia.<br />

15 _ 25 qula _ Tqven sakmaod<br />

mtkice xasiaTi gaqvT. cxovrebas<br />

realurad uyurebT, magram Tqveni<br />

yvela qceva ara aris tolfasi.<br />

Tqvens cxovrebaSic aris<br />

Cavardnebi da Secdomebi. xarT<br />

keTilsindisieri da sruliad<br />

momTmeni koleqtivSi da mainc<br />

Tqven unda dafiqrdeT imaze, rom<br />

Tavidan moiSoroT zogierTi naklovaneba<br />

(eWvi ar SegeparoT ima-<br />

Si, rom es namdvilad gamogivaT).<br />

26 _ 38 qula _ Tqven miekuTvnebiT<br />

im adamianTa ricxvs, romlebsac<br />

mtkice xasiaTi aqvT da<br />

floben pasuxismgeblobis sakmao<br />

grZnobas. afasebT Tqvens Sexedulebebs,<br />

magram sxvebis azrsac<br />

iTvaliswinebT. akeTebT swor<br />

orientacias warmoqmnil situaciebSi<br />

da umravles SemTxvevaSi<br />

iRebT swor gadawyvetilebas. es<br />

metyvelebs Tqveni Zlieri xasiaTis<br />

arsebobaze. Tavi aarideT<br />

mxolod Tavis Tavis Seyvarebas<br />

da yovelTvis gaxsovdes: Zlieri<br />

_ es ar niSnavs iyo sastiki.<br />

38 – zeviT qula _ bodiSi, magram<br />

Cven araferi SegviZlia giTxraT.<br />

ratom? imitom, rom ubralod<br />

daujerebelia, rom arseboben<br />

adamianebi aseTi idealuri xasiaTiT.<br />

an qulebis aseTi raodenoba<br />

aris _ Sedegi Tqveni qcevebis<br />

araobieqturi Sefasebisa.<br />

59


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

ekonomikuri indikatorebi<br />

samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsebi ianvari<br />

2008 w.<br />

Tebervali<br />

2008 w.<br />

marti<br />

2008 w.<br />

aprili<br />

2008 w.<br />

sul 102,5 100,9 100,1 100,3<br />

sursaTi da ualkoholo sasmelebi 104,9 101,3 98,9 100,0<br />

alkoholuri sasmelebi, Tambaqo 99,8 100,1 99,1 100,0<br />

tansacmeli da fexsacmeli 100,5 99,4 97,5 99,9<br />

sacxovrebeli saxli, wyali, eleqtroenergia, airi da<br />

saTbobis sxv.<br />

100,1 100,1 102,2 101,2<br />

aveji, saojaxo nivTebi da morTuloba, saxlis movla-SekeTeba 101,2 100,5 99,3 100,2<br />

janmrTelobis dacva 102,7 102,9 102,3 101,3<br />

transporti 100,3 100,5 103,4 99,9<br />

kavSirgabmuloba 100,0 100,0 100,2 102,8<br />

dasveneba, garToba da kultura 100,5 100,6 100,5 99,2<br />

ganaTleba 99,8 99,6 98,9 99,0<br />

sastumroebi, kafeebi da restornebi 100,2 101,0 99,7 99,7<br />

sxvadasxva saqoneli da momsaxureba 100,6 100,6 100,5 100,3<br />

samrewvelo produqciis mwarmoebelTa fasebis indeqsebi ianvari<br />

2008 w.<br />

ekonomikuri indikatorebi<br />

Tebervali<br />

2008 w.<br />

marti<br />

2008 w.<br />

sul 99,9 102,5 100,8<br />

samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba 97,3 110,3 109,1<br />

saTbob-energetikuli sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mopoveba 100,1 100,0 127,6<br />

samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba 95,9 115,9 100,2<br />

damamuSavebeli mrewveloba 100,1 102,6 100,1<br />

sakvebi produqtebisa (sasmelebis CaTvliT) da Tambaqos warmoeba 98,1 102,7 100,3<br />

teqstilisa da teqstilis nawarmis warmoeba 100,3 99,4 98,6<br />

tyavis, tyavis nawarmisa da fexsacmlis warmoeba 100,0 100,0 100,0<br />

xe-tyis damuSaveba da xis nawarmis warmoeba 100,4 99,8 101,6<br />

celuloza-qaRaldis mrewveloba; sagamomcemlo saqmianoba 100,4 100,6 99,4<br />

koqsis, navTobproduqtebisa da birTvuli masalebis warmoeba 100,0 100,0 100,0<br />

qimiuri warmoeba 110,4 100,3 99,4<br />

rezinisa da plastmasis nawarmis warmoeba 101,8 99,9 99,9<br />

danarCeni araliTonuri mineraluri nakeTobebis warmoeba 105,7 99,4 100,7<br />

metalurgiuli mrewveloba da liTonis mza nawarmis warmoeba 101,4 104,8 99,7<br />

manqanebisa da mowyobilobebis warmoeba 100,0 100,0 100,0<br />

eleqtromowyobilobebis warmoeba 100,0 100,3 100,0<br />

satransporto saSualebebisa da mowyobilobebis warmoeba 100,0 100,0 100,8<br />

mrewvelobis sxva dargebi 100,2 100,4 99,1<br />

eleqtroenergiis, airisa da wylis warmoeba da ganawileba 100,0 100,0 100,0<br />

61


laris kursis dinamika martis mixedviT<br />

08.05.2008 1 EUR = 2.2569 GEL<br />

07.05.2008 1 EUR = 2.2604 GEL<br />

06.05.2008 1 EUR = 2.2663 GEL<br />

05.05.2008 1 EUR = 2.2706 GEL<br />

03.05.2008 1 EUR = 2.2706 GEL<br />

02.05.2008 1 EUR = 2.2792 GEL<br />

01.05.2008 1 EUR = 2.2812 GEL<br />

30.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.2755 GEL<br />

29.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.3033 GEL<br />

24.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.3272 GEL<br />

23.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.3119 GEL<br />

22.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.3053 GEL<br />

21.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.3151 GEL<br />

18.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.3147 GEL<br />

17.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.2973 GEL<br />

16.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.2985 GEL<br />

15.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.2903 GEL<br />

14.04.2008 1 EUR = 2.2948 GEL<br />

aSS dolaris kursis dinamika larTan mimarTebaSi<br />

(saSualod kursi1.457)<br />

08.05.2008 1 USD = 1.4570 GEL<br />

07.05.2008 1 USD = 1.4600 GEL<br />

06.05.2008 1 USD = 1.4630 GEL<br />

05.05.2008 1 USD = 1.4680 GEL<br />

03.05.2008 1 USD = 1.4680 GEL<br />

02.05.2008 1 USD = 1.4680 GEL<br />

01.05.2008 1 USD = 1.4660 GEL<br />

30.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4620 GEL<br />

29.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4600 GEL<br />

24.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4675 GEL<br />

23.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4545 GEL<br />

22.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4535 GEL<br />

21.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4515 GEL<br />

18.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4505 GEL<br />

17.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4505 GEL<br />

16.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4505 GEL<br />

15.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4505 GEL<br />

14.04.2008 1 USD = 1.4505 GEL<br />

GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY<br />

evros kursis dinamika larTan mimarTebaSi<br />

(saSualod kursi 2.2891)<br />

funti sterlingis kursis dinamika larTan<br />

mimarTebaSi (saSualod kursi 2.8785)<br />

08.05.2008 1 GBP = 2.8516 GEL<br />

07.05.2008 1 GBP = 2.8704 GEL<br />

06.05.2008 1 GBP = 2.8910 GEL<br />

05.05.2008 1 GBP = 2.9119 GEL<br />

03.05.2008 1 GBP = 2.9119 GEL<br />

02.05.2008 1 GBP = 2.9165 GEL<br />

01.05.2008 1 GBP = 2.8829 GEL<br />

30.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8968 GEL<br />

29.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8842 GEL<br />

24.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.9054 GEL<br />

23.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8760 GEL<br />

22.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8901 GEL<br />

21.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8976 GEL<br />

18.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8618 GEL<br />

17.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8588 GEL<br />

16.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8591 GEL<br />

15.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8608 GEL<br />

14.04.2008 1 GBP = 2.8644 GEL<br />

62 ekonomikuri indikatorebi


GEORGIAN BUSINESS TODAY

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