Industrial Revolution and the Impact on Global Climate

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Industrial Revolution and the Impact on Global Climate

ong>Industrialong> ong>Revolutionong> ong>andong> ong>theong>

ong>Impactong> on Global Climate

By Michael Dore


• 1859 Tyndall

• 1896 Arrhenius

• 1870-1910 Second ong>Industrialong>

ong>Revolutionong>.

• 1938 Callendar

• 1956 Phillips ong>andong> Plass

• 1957 Revelle

• 1960 Keeling

• 1967 Manabe ong>andong> Weong>theong>rald

• 1985 Villach conference

• 1989 Fossil-fuel ong>andong> oong>theong>r

industries form Global Climate

Coalition

• 2001 Third IPCC report

History


Industry

ong>Industrialong> ong>Revolutionong>- 18th to

ong>theong> 19th century

• The largest source of CO2

emissions globally is ong>theong>

combustion of fossil fuels such

as coal, oil ong>andong> gas in power

plants, automobiles, industrial

facilities ong>andong> oong>theong>r sources.


Overview

• The current warming trend is of particular

significant

• Greenhouse gases demonstrated in ong>theong> mid-19th

century.

• Increased levels of greenhouse gases must cause

ong>theong> Earth to warm in response.

• Ice cores drawn from Greenlong>andong>, Antarctica, ong>andong>

tropical mountain glaciers show that ong>theong> Earth’s

climate responds to changes in solar output, in

ong>theong> Earth’s orbit, ong>andong> in greenhouse gas levels.


Causes

• Most climate scientists agree ong>theong> main cause

of ong>theong> current global warming trend is human

expansion of ong>theong> greenhouse effect.

– water vapor

– carbon dioxide

– methane

– nitrous oxide

– chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)


• Burning of fossil fuels

• The clearing of long>andong>

• More than 90 percent probability that human

activities over ong>theong> past 250 years have

warmed our planet.

• Carbon dioxide levels have raised from 280

parts per million to 379 parts per million in

ong>theong> last 150 years.


CO2 production by humans

• 29 gigatons of CO2 a year

• Atmospheric CO2 is at its highest

level in 15 to 20 million years

• A natural change of 100ppm

normally takes 5,000 to 20,000

years. The recent increase of

100ppm has taken just 120 years.

• Atmospheric concentration of CO2

has increased by 35% since ong>theong>

beginning of ong>theong> age of

industrialization.


The Possible Consequences

• Hotter

• More Precipitation

• Higher Sea Level

• Shifting climate pattern


Carbon Dioxide Concentration


Sea Level


Global Surface Temperature


Arctic Sea Ice


What can we do?

• Individual responses

• Nuclear energy

• Oong>theong>r carbon free energy sources

– solar power

– wind power

– hydrokinetics

• Switching from high-carbon fuels like coal ong>andong> oil, to reducedcarbon

fuels

– natural gas

• Carbon sequestration

– Geologic sequestration

• In my opinion ong>theong> best option is for a combination of all of ong>theong>se


Recap

• Industry has made ong>theong> stong>andong>ard of living significantly higher but it

has come at a cost that we are now seeing.

• Because with ong>theong> industrial revolution brought about a significant

amount of burning fossil fuels for energy.

• The burning of a hydrocarbon (fossil fuel) produces carbon dioxide.

• This carbon dioxide production has become so significant that it has

led to increased temperatures, higher sea levels, ong>andong> decreasing ice

amounts.

• If we as a society do not start making some changes it seems as if

ong>theong> problem will only continue to persist ong>andong> worsen.

• While ong>theong>re are some options to help reduce carbon dioxide

emissions such as carbon free energy sources, using more reducedcarbon

fuels, ong>andong> carbon sequestration it seems ong>theong> best option

would to be to use a combination of ong>theong>se while more technology is

developed.


Sources

• Conway EM. Atmospheric Science at NASA: A History Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University

Press, 2008.

• Fleming JR, ed. Classic Papers on Global Warming Online (PALE). 2008. At

http://wiki.nsdl.org/index. php/PALE:ClassicArticles/GlobalWarming.

• IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Summary for Policymakers.

• Le Treut H, Somerville R, Cubasch U, Ding Y, Mauritzen C, et al. Historical overview of climate

change science. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, et al. eds. Climate Change

2007. The Physical Basis of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to ong>theong> Fourth

Assessment Report of ong>theong> IPCC. Cambridge ong>andong> New York: Cambridge University Press; 2007, 93–

127. Online at http://www.ipcc.ch/

• T.C. Peterson et.al., "State of ong>theong> Climate in 2008," Special Supplement to ong>theong> Bulletin of ong>theong>

American Meteorological Society, v. 90, no. 8, August 2009, pp. S17-S18

• V. Ramaswamy et.al., “Anthropogenic ong>andong> Natural Influences in ong>theong> Evolution of Lower

Stratospheric Cooling,” Science 311 (24 February 2006), 1138-1141

• Weart SR The Discovery of Global Warming, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 2008

• Weart SR. The Discovery of Global Warming, revised edition. 2008. At

http://www.aip.org/history/climate

• Weart SR. The Idea of Anthropogenic global climate change in ong>theong> 20 th century. WIREs Clim Change

2010 1 67–81.