Essar Steel

Essar Steel

Essar Steel


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History of HBI making at Essar

“A Brief Review of technological



ESSAR Group- A diversified multinational conglomerate


ESSAR Group- A diversified multinational conglomerate


ESSAR Group- A diversified multinational conglomerate


ESSAR Group- A diversified multinational conglomerate


Various iron making Routes at EStIL- Hazira


6 Modules

6.7 MTPA


2 Module

1.74 MTPA

BF-1.75 MTPA


History of HBI making at EStIL- Hazira

1988 Inception

1989-1990 Erection and commissioning

1991-1992 Expansion-I

1992-1999 Innovations and improvements

1999-2000 Breakthrough Concept of energy Saving

2005-2011 Expansion-II



• 1980-81- KORF Engineering of Germany led a consortium to construct a Direct

Reduced Iron (DRI) production facility, Nord Ferro Stahlwerke (NFW), at Emden,


• 1981- NFW began early operations with two Midrex 400 series plants producing

DRI but due to bad market scenario Module 1 operated for approximately nine

months and Module 2 for approximately six months before the entire operation

was closed.

• 1982 to 1988- The plants were “mothballed”.

• 1988- In late 1988 Essar contracted with the court receivers in Emden Germany

for the purchase of the failed NFW direct reduction plants. Site preparation and

civil work was taken up in earnest at Hazira with the first column for the Module 1

furnace being erected in November 1988.


Erection and commissioning

• 1989- Hazira and Bombay became the

focus of the project with civil works

continuing and erection of structures at

Hazira. Hazira was the focus of construction

activities while procurement of new

equipment was headquartered in the

Bombay office. By the end of 1989 Module 1

was complete mechanically and being

commissioned in preparation for starting the



Erection and commissioning

• 1990- The first months of 1990 saw a

flurry of activity as Module 1 was

prepared for “start-up”. After months of

around the clock activity Module 1

achieved production status on March 28


• Module 2 was brought online in

August 1990 completing the major part

of the project.



• 1991- A process license was signed with the technology supplier, Midrex, for the Module 3 project.

Work began with the first furnace column being erected in January 1991.

• 1992- Mod 3 was commissioned with production beginning in August of 1992 – only 19 months after

erection of the first column.

Module 1 2 3

Capacity(MTPA) 0.44 0.44 0.44

Innovations and improvements

•1992- New hydrocarbon injection scheme installed in the furnaces to allow maximum Fe3C production

(In-house design)- Mod- 1,2,3.

•1992- Reformer design modified during construction to 336 tubes for a 16% increase in reformer

capacity (In-house design) - Mod- 3.

•1992- Liquid ring seal gas compressors replaced the screw type compressors – (In-house design)

Features both energy savings and lower maintenance. - Mod- 3.

•1992- Top gas duct redesigned to minimize oxide fines losses- (In-house design) - Mod- 3.


Innovations and improvements

• 1996- Turbo expander, a second hand plant was commissioned to take care of rich gas supply.

• 1997- For process monitoring, process software package ,called FIXDMACS started for better

Process evaluation with the help of historical data.

• 1997- Thin wall refractory liner installed in the furnace increasing the furnace ID from 5.0 meters to

5.15 meters – Midrex design.- Mod-1

• 1999- Reformer expanded from 288 tubes to 336 tubes providing 16% additional reforming capacity

(In-house design)- Mod-1

• 1999- Oval Top Gas duct replaced standard off-take providing an additional 0.3 meters of reduction

zone height – Midrex design- Mod-1,2.

• 1999- Reformed Gas cooler was replaced by modified temperature control system – Midrex concept

and (In-house design)- Mod-1,2,3.

• 1999- Oxygen injection equipment installed to allow operation at elevated reduction temperatures to

maximize production – Midrex concept and (In-house design). Mod-1,2,3.

• 1999- Naphtha injection to the furnace cone trails were carried out. The concept was a success and

the other modules have been similarly equipped. At this time naphtha can be utilized as a natural gas

substitute in all three modules.

• 1999- An additional set of heat recovery bundles were designed in house and placed in service to .

improve energy efficiency (In-house design). Mod-2


Breakthrough Concept of energy Saving

• 1999-2000- Module 3 – Hot DRI was taken from the furnace discharge upstream of the briquetters

for “hot charging” to an EAF. The trials were very successful and the facility was built into the other two


• Hot DRI (HDRI) development continues to be the top priority project at Essar

•Energy saving at EAF (@ 100 to 120 KWH/ton of liquid steel).

•Zero %age moisture as against 1.5 to 2 % in HBI.

•Reduction in briquetting system maintenance expenses.

45 T Container



• 2003 - Mod-4 erection started

• 2004- Mod-4 commissioned in July

• Capacity- 1MTPA

• Modified design of heat recovery system owing to

better heat utilization.

• 2005 - Mod-5 erection started

• 2006- Mod-5 commissioned in October.

• Capacity- 1.6 MTPA

• Equipped with VPSA system to help in

consuming COREX gas





• 2008 - Mod-6 erection started

• 2010- Mod-6 commissioned in November.

• Capacity- 1.7 MTPA (CDRI)

• Equipped with VPSA system to help in

consuming COREX gas

• 2009 - VPSA erection started

• 2011- VPSA commissioned in November.

• Purpose -- Designed for removal of CO2 and

H2O from Top Gas Fuel.

• Capacity --- 1,35,000 Nm3/Hr

• Power Consumption – 55 Kwh/t




Production across the Years


Major cost drivers across the years


Product quality across the years- Metallization


Product quality across the years- Carbon


Highlights and way forward

• Crossed 50Mmt of production in FY 12-13.

• Startup of 19MW power generation facility by utilizing flue gas waste

heat of MIDREX plant.

• Process tuned for safe use of BF grade pellets in our furnace.

• Fine tuning the operation of VPSA to optimize it’s usage with the

help of in-house talents and developed concepts.

• Reduction in natural gas consumption per ton after usage of COREX

gas In reformer.

• Effective contribution towards ZERO waste policy of EStIL




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