December 2011 - SIMA

December 2011 - SIMA

December 2011 - SIMA


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CHAIRMAN’S MESSAGEI am happy that Mr. Deependra Kashiva has joinedSIMA as it Executive Director. He has beenassociated with the Indian sponge iron industry foralmost 30 years. With his vast experience andknowledge ,I am sure that his contribution to SIMAwill be immense. Immediately after joining ,Mr.Kashiva has taken many initiatives in the interestof sponge iron industry and particularly to ourmember units. Let us all give him due support &co-operation so that SIMA may emerge morevibrant and responsive to its members.Indian sponge iron units are presently at criticaljuncture. The entire industry is very badly affecteddue to non availability of critical raw materials andtheir ever rising price and sluggish market whichis not able to absorb the increase cost of productionresulting erosion of bottom lines of all sponge ironproducers. The confidence level is so low that thefuture investment programmes are not finalized asentire sector is struggling to continue even existingoperations. Sponge iron sector, which was earlierrecorded top priority, is now a neglected sector. Itis a very ironic situation knowing well that ambitioussteel production plan which cannot be fullyachieved without the support of sponge iron sector.Closure of iron ore mines in certain areas ofKarnataka, Goa and Odisha and substantial exportiron ore have affected the iron ore availability. Totake care of present iron ore scenario it isimperative that iron ore export should be bannedand fiscal incentive be given to the iron orepelletizing units. Government should award theiron ore mines only to those units who undertaketo set up agglomerationfacilities at the mine pit head.On the coal front CIL will not beable to meet fast emergingrequirement of coal in thecountry. Recent actions of thegovernments of Australia &Indonesia and weakening of Indian rupee haverestricted the option of using imported coal.Government of India should invite the private sectorinvestment and streamline the procedure foropening new mines at the earliest. This should beaccorded top priority by the government. Therecent decision of the government to examine go/no go area on a case to case basis is a step inright direction. However, the process should beexpedited at the earliest.Our all 3 gas based units are also very badlysuffering because non availability of natural gas.These units are unable to use imported LNGbecause its prices are 4 times higher than theprevailing domestic prices.This sector, has been contributing more than Rs.40,000 cr revenue across the value chain, providesemployment to more than 1,50,000 persons andcontributes more than Rs. 4000 cr as excise dutyand more than Rs. 1700 cr as VAT to theexchequer. I am sure government will give dueimportance to this sector which it richly deserve.B.L. AGRAWALDECEMBER-2011/1

PERFORM, ACHIEVE & TRADE (PAT) MECHANISM & COAL BASED DRISuresh Thawani, P.Chattopadhyay, B.K.AgrawalTata Sponge Iron LimitedPAT is a flagship programme of National Mission forEnhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) underNational Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).It is a market-based mechanism to enhance costeffectiveness of improvements in energy efficiencyin energy intensive large industries through tradablecertification of energy savings. The genesis of thePAT mechanism flows out of the provision of theEnergy Conservation Act, 2001.Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) under Ministry ofPower has identified 563 nos of DesignatedConsumers (DCs) in eight energy intensive sectors.The selection basis of DCs is annual energyconsumption as shown in the table below. All unitsexceeding the energy consumption are coveredunder PAT mechanism.Industry Annual Energy No. ofSector Consumption, IdentifiedMToe(metric DCstonnes of oilequivalent)Aluminium 7,500 11Cement 30000 83Chlor- alkali 12000 20Fertilizer 30000 23Pulp & Paper 30000 51Power(Thermal) 30000 146Iron & Steel 30000 101Textile 3000 128The PAT frame work has the following elements1. Setting Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) foreach DC in the baseline year.2. Setting the target to reduce the SEC by the targetyear from baseline year.3. Verification of the SEC of each DC in the baselineyear & in the target year by an accreditedverification agency.4. Issuance of energy saving certificates (ESCerts)to those DCs who achieve SEC lower than thespecified value/target.5. Trading mechanism of ESCerts.6. Compliance & reconciliation of ESCerts.7. Cross-sectoral use of ESCerts and their synergywith renewable energy certificates.Establishment of Baseline SEC :Under PAT mechanism SEC is calculated on the basisof Gate-to-Gate concept.EAll forms of EnergyPlantBoundarySEC=E/PProductTotal Energy Input to the plant boundarySEC =Total ProductionThe following factors are considered for the above1. All the forms of energy inputs are calculated tosingle unit i.e MTOE(metric tonne of oilequivalent)2. Energy used through renewable energy sourcesis not considered.3. Any energy used for major construction work,colony & outside transportation is not considered.Plant boundary means entire plant excluding colonyif any & transportation system outside the plant area.The baseline SEC is the estimated based on theaverage SEC of the year 2007-08, 2008-09 & 2009-10 and base year is defined as 2009-10.PDECEMBER-2011/2

Target Setting:The methodology for target setting will be based onSEC reduction on gate-to-gate basis and will be suchas to achieve the targeted savings in the firstcommitment period of 3 years (2011-14).Theallocation of reduction of target would correspond tothe disaggregation of sectoral reduction target to eachplant within the sector.The target SEC is required to be achieved over a 3year period commencing from 1 st April 2011. All theDCs would reduce their SEC, the less energy-efficientDCs in a sector being required to achieve a greaterreduction in their SEC than the more energy-efficientDCs in the same sector. The absolute energy savingat the end of three years would be estimated as..Energy saving=P (SEC – SEC )base year base yeartarget yearWhere P is the production quantity.Measurement & Verification(M&V) :As the baseline SEC is based on gate-to-gate basis,no measurement is involved for sub system or subprocesses of the plant. The M&V will be carried outby Designated Energy Auditors(DENA).There woundnot be any M & V during the intermediate years i.e.2011 & 2014. However each DCs would be requiredto submit the annual energy consumption throughform-1 to BEE. In addition to this DCs are required toconduct one or two energy audits by accreditedenergy auditors, which will form a basis of M&V inthe target year.Energy Saving Certificates & Trading:If in the target year a DC achieves more than thetarget, energy saving certificates (ESCerts)equivalent to the excess energy savings would beissued to the DC. On the other hand, if the DC failsto achieve the target, compliance to the target maybe met by purchasing ESCerts from other DCsthrough a trading platform. If any shortfall still remains,penalty (in financial terms) would be levied as perthe provisions of the Energy Conservation Act 2001.Penalty for non compliance of SEC is Rs 10Lakhsplus the value of non- compliance measured in termsof the market price of tonnes of oil equivalent.The Energy saving certificates can be traded in twopower exchanges (IEX & PXIL).A central onlineintegrated system (IIS) i.e. PAT-Net connecting allthe DCs, SDAs(state designated agency), DENAs(Designated Energy Auditors), Trading exchanges,central Registry & BEE will be deployed for exchangeof online accurate information, maintaining itsconfidentiality, transparency & security. The fig belowshows tentative process flow for ESCerts- tradingmechanism.(Courtesy PAT consultant document)DECEMBER-2011/3

PAT and coal based DRI:Sponge Iron industry comes under Iron & Steel sectorwith sectoral energy reduction target of 1.56mMTOE(million metric tones of oil equivalent).For a coal based DRI plant with waste heat recoveryboiler, power plant and having arrangement for sellingsurplus electricity, the gate in energy would be coal(both indigenous and imported),diesel(used for kilnstart up/ firing , DG set running for emergency poweretc), furnace oil, any other liquid fuel/solid fuel andelectricity purchased and gate out energy would becoal fines sold and electricity/power exported andcolony power consumption.Net of gate in and gateout energy, used inside the plant boundary isconsidered for calculation of SEC.1. DRI section involving kilns (Indian Coal andimported coal)2. Diesel fired during start up of the Kilns duringcampaign start up.Approximate heat balance of coal utilized in DRI isshown below.Plant BoundaryMajor Electrical Energy Consumptions are:(Gate-in-Gate out energy & Plant boundary of asponge Iron Plant)The fig shows tentative gate-in gate out energy of aSponge Iron plant.Total Energy Consumption (E )on G-t-G basis=TotalElectricity purchasedx860+Coal Qnty x GCV+Diesel x GCV+ FO x GCV-Electricityexportedx2717-Coal fines sold x GCV-ColonyConsumption x 860Gate-to-Gate SEC= E /Kg of productTotalKcal/KgCoal based Sponge Iron Industry is highly energyintensive industry. The thermal energy consumptionranges from 4.4 to 7.6 GCal and electrical energyranges from 72 to 135 kWh/Mt of Sponge Iron. Sucha wide variation in consumption range givesopportunity for enhancing energy efficiency toachieve/over achieve the target set under PATmechanism.Major Thermal Energy Consumptions are :PRODUCT1. Kiln drives & auxiliaries2. Pumps3. Compressor & Blowers.4. Conveyors5. Dedusting system6. Weigh feederFigure given below shows approximate distributionof electrical energy in coal based DRI plantDECEMBER-2011/4

Energy conservation Opportunities in SpongeIron Industry.Thermal Energy:1. Installation of waste heat recovery boilers for kilns2. Control of C/Fe ratio3. Proper monitoring of accretion formations andremedial measures by using infra red camera soas to measure the surface temperaturescontinuously.4. Maximizing the campaign days .5. Reduction of surface temperature of Rotary Kiln.6. Efficiency of thermal processes can be optimizedby operating the same uninterruptedly. So,availability of all the resources including plant andmachineries play a major role in optimization ofSEC.Electrical Energy:1. Optimization of supply voltage at motor terminalsby proper tap setting of transformers and use ofparallel cables with all major LT feeders for lineloss reduction.2. Using adequate size of pipeline in compressedair system for minimizing line pressure drop.3. Use of energy efficient Screw Air Compressors.4. Downtime reduction of equipments by followingTotal Preventive Maintenance (TPM) practices.5. Change delta to star connection for under loadedmotor(

LLOYDS GROUPLloyds Group started with the modest beginning withfabrication unit in the year 1974 and thereafterexpanded rapidly. The group companies are ; LloydsSteel Industries Limited and Lloyds Metal and EnergyLtd. The growth has been resulted with backward andforward integration within the group companies usingmodern technology so to bring in high levels ofefficiency. The group has diversified interest in Steeland Heavy engineering fabrication.Lloyds Steel Industries Limited is situated at LloydsNagar, Bhugaon Link Road, Wardha, Maharashtraand has started its production activities in the year1994.Productsl Hot Rolled Productsl Cold Rolled Productsl Galvanised Productsl Engineering ProductsLloyds Steel – Engineering Division is establishedin the year 1974 at Andheri, Mumbai andsubsequently shifted its shop and converted intoheavy fabrication, machine building unit at Murbad,Thane Dist. Maharashtra.Productsl Process Plant Equipment & Systemsl Power Plant and Equipmentl WHR and FBC Boilersl Steel Plant Equipment & Steel Projectsl Marine / Truck / Wagon Loading/ Unloading Armsl Marine Projects For Indian Navyl Turnkey ProjectsLloyds Metals & Energy Ltd. (formerly known asLloyds Metals and Engineers Limited) is a unit ofLloyds group is operating 2,70,000 TPA capacitySponge Iron Plant. LMEL has installed their plant atGhugus near Chandrapur (M.S.).ProductlManufacturers of Direct Reduced Iron (DRI)which is well known as Sponge Iron)Corp. Office : Trade World, “C” Wing, 16 th Floor, Kamala City, Senapati Bapat Marg,Lower Parel, Mumbai-400 013. Tel. No. 3041 8111. Fax No. 3041 8260DECEMBER-2011/6

MXCOL ® : A BREAKTHROUGH IN COAL-BASEDDIRECT REDUCTION FOR INDIAMidrex Technologies, Inc., USAINTRODUCTIONAs one of the world’s mostDecember-2011 growingeconomies, India has a strong steel demand forinfrastructure, construction, and consumer goods.From 1998-2010, its steel demand grew at ninepercent per year. To feed this demand, steelproduction has grown from less than 10 million tons(Mt) in 1980 to nearly 67 Mt in 2010, as shown inFigure 1.Figure 1India Steel and DRI ProductionSources: WorldSteel and Midrex TechnologiesThere are ambitious plans to increase the country’ssteel production, with expansion plans to reach 200-250 Mt by 2020.Over 60 percent of India’s steel is currently producedin electric furnaces. Given the lack of domestic scrapand the good availability of natural resources like ironore, coal and natural gas, direct reduction hasprovided much of the iron units required for ElectricArc Furnace (EAF) steel production growth. DirectReduced Iron (DRI) production has increasedtremendously since 1980, from essentially zero to23.4 Mt in 2010, as shown in Figure 1. Of the totalDRI production in 2010, 74 percent was producedfrom coal and 26 percent from natural gas. India isnow the world’s largest producer of DRI.Currently, there are two primary means of DRIproduction in India: small-scale rotary kilns using localcoal and iron ore lump, and large-scale shaft furnaceplants using natural gas and iron oxide pellets andlump. In recent years, almost all the growth in DRIproduction has been due to the installation of rotarykiln facilities and there are now over 350 of theseplants. Many are small-scale and it is believed thatover 100 have capacities from 10,000-20,000 tpy.There are only seven natural gas-fired shaft furnaceplants (including six MIDREX ®Direct ReductionModules), but they produce 1/4 of the total DRI inIndia.Future Steelmaking GrowthFor India to grow its steel production significantly,what are the options? Direct reduction using coalfiredrotary kilns or natural gas-fired shaft furnacesare logical choices. Rotary kiln DRI capacity has beeninstalled because it makes use of domestic iron oreand coal, but there is a limit to the growth of thistechnology because rotary kilns cannot be built largerthan about 200,000 tpy. Thus, it is probably notfeasible to build a steel mill to produce one milliontons per year or more via this route. Also, there areproduct quality issues because of the use of lumpore and coal with high levels of ash and sulfur. Directreduction plants using natural gas would be an idealchoice, but there is little additional natural gasavailable for further expansion.Another possibility is the installation of conventionalblast furnace/basic oxygen furnace technology, butthis requires the importation of coking coal or coke,since only about five percent of India’s coal reservesare coking quality. Also, there may be environmentalissues and the capital cost can be high.MXCOL ® : USE OF SYNGAS FROM COAL IN AMIDREX ® PLANTAn alternative option generating significant interestin India and elsewhere is MXCOL, which is the useof synthetic gas (syngas) made from coal incombination with a MIDREX ® Direct Reduction Plant.DECEMBER-2011/7

Syngas options include a coal gasifier, coke ovengas, or BOF gas. The big advantage of coalgasification is that lower grade, inexpensive domesticcoals can be used to produce a high quality reducinggas for the MIDREX Shaft Furnace.Coal GasificationThere are three general types of coal gasifiers: fixedbed, entrained flow, and fluidized bed. All threetechnologies are based on partial oxidation(gasification) of a carbonaceous (carbon containing)feed material.The general partial oxidation reaction is:2 CH + O ———> 2 CO + n H2n 2In addition to the desired CO and H , the syngas2exiting a gasifier also contains CO , H O, CH , H S,2 2 4 2NH , and particulates. If a fixed bed gasification3technology is utilized, the syngas will also containaromatic organic compounds.While each of the gasifier types can make anacceptable reducing gas for a MIDREX DR Plant,the fixed bed and fluidized bed technologies will bethe preferred choices for many locations becausethey can accommodate the high ash domestic coals.Countries of interest include India, China, and theCIS. The leading fixed bed process is the LurgiGasification process; it is well-proven, with over 102gasifiers in commercial operation worldwide, theearliest of these built in 1955. Figure 2 shows Lurgigasifiers at the Sasol Plant in Secunda, South Africa.There are a number of fluidized bed processes,including the KBR Transport Gasifier, known asTRIG, and the U-Gas Process, which is licensedby Synthesis Energy Systems. These processes arein the early stages of commercialization, but showgood promise.The Coal Gasification ProcessFigure 3 shows a simplified MXCOL processflowsheet. In the gasification processes, coal isgasified at elevated pressures by reacting with highpressure steam and high purity oxygen to produce asyngas suitable for the production of fuels andchemicals, power generation or the reduction of ironore. The fixed bed and fluidized bed gasifiers operateFigure 2Lurgi Gasifiers in Secunda, South Africaat a temperature below the ash melting point so thecoal ash is discharged from the gasifier as a solid.Because of this low operating temperature, thesetechnologies require significantly lower quantities ofoxygen than the entrained flow gasification processeswhich melt the ash.The syngas exiting the gasifier is hot, dirty, andcontains a significant amount of non reducing gascomponents. Downstream of the gasifier, the syngasis cleaned and conditioned to remove most of theundesired components and produce saleablecommodities such as sulfur and petrochemical plantfeedstocks.Figure 3MXCOL FlowsheetDECEMBER-2011/8

MIDREX ® Direct Reduction PlantThe cleaned, high pressure syngas (reducing gas)exiting the gasification plant contains approximately85 percent H +CO, 2.5 percent CO , and 10-1222percent CH . Table I shows the syngas quality4required for MXCOL.Syngas CharacteristicTable IMXCOL Syngas QualityMIDREX RequirementCO content 2.0-3.0%2Gas Quality* > 10Gas RequirementPressure~ 2.2 net Gcal / t DRI> 3 bargH /CO ratio 1.0-2.02Sulfur content< 5 ppmvParticulates content < 10 mg / Nm 3N + Ar content < 0.5 %2* Gas Quality is defined as ( % H+ % CO2)2+ % CO ) / ( % H O2In the MIDREX Plant, the cold syngas isdepressurized to about 3 barg in a turboexpander,which generates electricity. The low pressure syngasis mixed with recycled gas to produce the requiredreducing gas. The mixed gas is then heated to over900º C and enters the MIDREX ® Shaft Furnace,where it reacts with the iron oxide to produce DRI.The reduction reactions are shown below:Fe O2 3Fe O2 3+ 3H2—> 2Fe + 3H O2+ 3CO —> 2Fe + 3CO2The spent reducing gas (top gas) exiting the shaftfurnace is scrubbed and cooled, then passed througha CO removal system. This reduces the CO content22to 2-3 percent or less, which ensures that the mixedreducing gas (syngas from the gasification plant andrecycled top gas from the MIDREX Plant) has anacceptably high reductants (H +CO) to oxidants2(H O+CO )ratio for efficient iron oxide reduction. The2 2CO removal system will also remove the sulfur gases2contained in the recycled top gas. The recycling ofthe top gas makes MXCOL a very efficient process.The CO removed from the gasification plant gas2cleaning and conditioning plant and the CO removal2system in the MIDREX Plant are high purity. Thesestreams could be sequestered or sold for enhancedoil recovery or use in a petrochemical or otheroperation.Emissions from MXCOL are shown in Table II.Table IIMXCOL EmissionsPM10 SO NOx COmg/Nm 3 mg/Nm 3 mg/Nm 3 2kg/t DRIReheater

MIDREX Plant OptionsA major advantage of MXCOL is that it uses the wellproven MIDREX Shaft Furnace and ancillarysystems. Since 1969, there have been 74 MIDREXModules built or under construction, with a total ratedcapacity of 56 Mt. The largest of these plants has acapacity of 1.8 Mtpy.There are many options available for MXCOL Plants,including DRI capacity, product form and hot transportmethod. Plants can be designed for capacities of 2Mtpy and higher. Product forms include cold DRI, hotbriquetted iron (HBI) and hot DRI (HDRI).Combinations of product forms can supplied,providing the plant operator great flexibility in usingand selling the product. There are three options fortransporting the DRI to the meltshop and charging itto the EAF: hot transport containers, a hot transportconveyor and HOTLINK ® . Since 2003, over 22 Mt ofMIDREX HDRI has been charged to EAFs worldwide.Predicted Operating ConsumptionsThe predicted operating consumptions for a typicalMXCOL Plant are given in Table III.Table IIILurgi Gasification Plant + MIDREX Plant CombinationPredicted Major Operating Consumptions for Indian ConditionsBasis: MIDREX MEGAMOD ® with capacity of 1,800,000 tpy of hot DRI 1Lurgi Gasifier using typical high ash Indian coalInput Units Quantity per t hot DRI 2 , 3Iron Ore t 1.42Coal (as mined) 4 t 0.75Coal (ash free) 4 t 0.41Oxygen Nm 3 150Electricity kW-h 150Operation and maintenance costs USD 271. The hot DRI product characteristics are: 93% metallization, 1.8% carbon, and 700º C discharge temperature2. Quantities are for the combined Lurgi Gasification Plant and MIDREX DR Plant3 The consumption values will vary depending on the actual coal quality and the project requirements4. Value assumes typical high ash Indian coalMXCOL PLANT ECONOMICSThe factors that make MXCOL economically viableare specifically applicable in India. The currentmarket volatility of coking coal and the need to importsignificant quantities of metallurgical coal or cokemake the Blast Furnace/BOF steel making routeextremely susceptible to market conditions. The useof high ash Indian coal provides stable input costs tothe MXCOL plant. Given a syngas cost of under $9/million BTU the economics of a MXCOL plant cancompete with all steel making routes in India. Withthis cost stability and operating flexibility thegasification/MIDREX/EAF steel making route givesa steel maker in a time of increased volatility asignificant advantage. Additionally, the MXCOL plantwill provide years of future production with goodenvironmental performance. As rotary kiln DRIproduction becomes ever more environmentallyunacceptable, steel makers and the Indiangovernment can have peace of mind knowing thatMXCOL is a viable substitute for current productionlevels.DECEMBER-2011/10

IRON ORE PELLETS AS THE FUTURE METALLIC SOURCE FORSTEEL MAKING THROUGH INDUCTION FURNACE ROUTEINRODUCTION:-Rathindra N. Das, Sr. G.M. (Marketing) & D.S. Thakur, G.M. (QA)Monnet Ispat & Energy Ltd., RaipurWithin Steel Industry in India most of the growth in the last decade happened in Induction Furnace (I.F.) segmentdue to certain advantages like:uuuuuHigher electric efficiencyLower refractory costLess pollution troubleLess capital investmentLow technical complexityAll the above factors went technically in favor of IF. But the basic disadvantage in IF production process remainedas the limitation of refining scope within IF but, still achieved great success in serving the better part of thevibrant construction segment. But only paining aspect that continually pinched the IF industry is the dependencyon Raw material supply, wild fluctuation thereof and lacking other infrastructural supports and overall stability.CONTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS PROCESS IN STEEL MAKING IN INDIA (FY-10)Sl. No. Process % Overall Contribution World average1 Blast furnace/Basic oxygen route 47% 67%(BF/BOF)2 Induction melting furnace (IF) 27% (21.5 million MT)} 3 Electric Arc furnace (EAF) 26% (20.0 million MT) 31% (2% OHF)In the growth of steel industry in the last decade, themajor contributor was the induction furnace industry,which is presently having share of 27% (Fig.–1) ofthe total steel production. In fact, it would not be overstatement, if said that in the last five years, steelindustry might not have grown to the present capacityof 78 million MT without the exponential growth inDRI-IF steel making segment.Source : Ernst & Young Research ReportSource: E & Y Research DataFig.-1DECEMBER-2011/12

2.0 STEEL MAKING PROCESS AT MONNET, RAIPUR PLANT:RAW MATERIALSDRI/ PELLETS = 95%SCRAP = 5%Electric Power(Captive)➞➞ ➞ ➞INDUCTION FURNACES2 Furnaces = 8 MT Capacity2 Furnaces = 12 MT Capacity1 Furnaces = 18 MT CapacityLiquid Steel(Temp. – 1620-1650°C)(M.S. Grade)Rolling MillBeamsAnglesChannels➞➞Ferro Alloys +CPCContinuous CastingM/C 6M/11M diaConcast India make➞Billets / Blooms160x160 mm160x200 mm200x250 mmChallenges of Raw material in Future forsustained Growth of IF/EAF Industry:SPONGE IRON AS RAW MATERIAL FOR STEELMAKING:-Fig.-2Actually DRI emerged over time as the most usefulmetallic charge for IF/ EAF by pushing the scrapusage to secondary level and consequentially, DRIproduction increased considerably over the years inparallel with fast growth in IF/EAF industry particularlyin India and giving impetus to the world wide DRIindustry.DECEMBER-2011/13

Raw material availability:Basic raw material for EAF/IF steel making is providedby the sponge iron industry, which includes coalbased and gas based DRI manufacturers. However,basic raw material insecurity will remain and as thedirect out come of that Sponge iron industry willcontinue to face the uncertainty of raw material likeiron ore, coal etc. until some sustained governmentpolicy is drawn in favor of this particular industry orindustry players form a strong consortium to handleraw material issue jointly.The expected growth in steel making from DRI isshown in Break up of the Projected Crude SteelCapacity shown in the following Table:Break up of the Projected Crude Steel Capacity (in ‘000 MT)Production origin Year : 2011-12 Year : 2016-17 Year : 2019-20Crude Steel from Hot Metal 54000 96000 120000Crude Steel from DRI 29700 52800 66000Crude Steel from Scrap 6300 11200 14000Total 90000 160000 200000Source : MECON published DataConsidering the projected capacity of steel makingusing DRI it could be worked out that, Sponge ironIndustry alone, to feed IF/EAF, will require to producerequired DRI (Assuming coal based DRI productionat approximately 40 mil. MT per annum by year 2016-17), almost 70 mil. MT of Iron ore or substitute andmore than 60 mil. MT of coal as reducing agent inDRI Kilns by the end of next five year plan i.e. in theyear 2016-17. The basic raw material scenario asexpected to emerge in future is elaborated as follows:Iron Ore: Presently annual domestic demand of ironore stand at almost 95 mil. MT (Lumps consumptionis almost 85 mil. MT and rest are fines), growing atCAGR of 12%. India is the fourth largest producer ofiron ore, producing around 220 mil MT iron ore in Fy10. The country takes the sixth position in terms ofworld-wide reserve but due to insufficient exploration,has a very lower Reserve : Production (R/P) ratio of111 compared to other producing countries like Brazil(184), Australia (134). Selective exploitation of highgrade reserve (64% and above) in the past globaldemand buoyancy led to the present deterioration inquality – low grade generating almost 55% fineswhich is not used by Indian steel manufacturer andultimately, land on ships for exports in large scale.Sponge iron producers thus are dependent on themercy of private miners for supply as most of themare not allotted captive mines and compelled to payhigh prices for inferior quality (Fe content of 60% oreven lower mixed with fines and dust in excess ratio).Linkage of domestic price to international priceescalates the hardship further. However, recent spurtin investment in setting up pelletization plants to usefines is expected to give some hope of relief fromthis uncertainty.Coal: Presently sponge iron industry requires almost30 mil. MT of non-coking coal of “B” or “C” grade, asin Fy-10, against supply of about 20 mil. MT (including5-6 mil. MT of captive mines allotted to a few largeroperators) leaving a big short fall. In the process ofcoal based sponge iron production, for each MT ofsteel, coal requirement is almost 1.6 MT, if quality isgood. Due to scarcity, operators often forced to useinferior coal incurring higher non-sustainable cost ofproduction, leaving scanty margin or negative.Gas: Non-availability in sufficiency and irrationalpricing led to uncertainty and prevented any furthercapacity addition in gas based DRI production in thelast several years. Things are improving now withmore discovery, enhancement in pipe distributionnetwork and could encourage further capacityDECEMBER-2011/14

addition or transformation from coal based in futureas the process is comparatively greener.Steel scrap : Uncertainty in availability and the pricefluctuation is always a concern. Indigenouslyavailable volume is not sufficient and thus dependson imported scrap, the prices of which are linked withinternational trade price and longer supply cycle andthus often not viable compared with substitute likesponge iron which is available aplenty. However,near-to-the port areas like Punjab, Large portion ofMaharashtra consume scrap in higher proportion dueto freight advantage.Another important input for this industry is of coursethe electricity, cost and seasonal scarcity is equallyan important concern of this industry. However, largeplayers who are backward-integrated formanufacturing sponge iron for self use are equippingthemselves to coproduce excess power by wasteheat recovery from sponge iron kilns in case of coalbased process. Another common problem is lack ofavailability of quality infrastructure and logistics,including railway rakes, often off setting cost structureand that will definitely concern all stakeholders in thesteel industry and might affect the growth prospectof the industry by creating a stumbling block.Other factors, those could be related to technologyparity, as it would become demanding for complyingwith increasingly stricter environmental regulationsand compulsion for improvement in product qualityto some standard level to ensure production of qualitysteel through these popular electrical process andalso the threat of substitute raw material, like scrapwhich often destabilize the commercial viability, willalso remain as major challenging points for thesponge iron industry and so will be the InductionFurnace industry.STEEL MAKING WITH COAL BASED DRIPELLETS THROUGH IF ROUTE:-PELLET AS SUBSTITUTE OF IRON ORE LUMPSFOR DRI MAKING :-Iron Ore availability would invariably become tighterin future with the growing demand from fastexpanding steel industry. With that in view, businesspromoters finding great value in freely available ironore fines for effective utilization in steel making infuture. Considerable investment already committedand plan for putting up new furnaces with newtechnology like COREX, FINEX, HiSMELT etc. toutilize poor quality fines directly and large portion ofit going into setting up pelletization, beneficiation andsinter plants. For example, SAIL is putting up acapacity of 4.0 mil. MT pellet plant in Gua, Essar issetting up capacity of almost 10.0 mil. MT of pellet inOrissa and Hyderabad, JSW proposed to set up abeneficiation plant of 8.0 mil. MT capacity and pelletcapacity of 6.0 mil. MT at Salboni, Paschimbanga,Bhushan Power & Steel entered into technicalpartnership with a plan to set up pellet capacity of3.85 mil. MT, Monnet Ispat setting up capacity of 1.5mil. MT of pellet, Brhamani River Pellets will set upcapacity of 4.0 mil. MT and similar large volumecapacities are being planned by other players likeJSPL, NMDC and other medium Mine operators aswell. Thus, after beneficiation, palletized iron ore finesby providing quality raw material in big volume at anaffordable costing will definitely tide over theintermediate shortage situation. Hence, prospect ofpellet is emerging as a very important metallicsubstitute which needs lot more understanding,identifying further improvement aspects and usageprocedures.Economic viability of Pellet for sponge ironmaking – New trend in substitution:In the process of iron ore mining almost 60% finesare generated, out of which almost 20% is dust (-1mm), which generally goes waste or exported atsubstantially low prices. With a view to utilize thislow cost item cost-effectively pelletization units arecoming up in large scale ( more than 30 milliom MTcapacity expected in the next 3-4 years with a plannedoutlay of Rs. 80 billion) to agglomerate the dust intosized lumps having almost similar physical andchemical characteristics. Steep rise in the prices ofraw materials for DRI and pig iron production has ledto large scale switch over to pelletization process.Raw material for pelletization are of generally lowergrade iron ore dust with excessive tramp elements,which either exported or could pose adverse impacton the environment. Government policy of chargingadditional duty or banning exports of low grade ironDECEMBER-2011/15

ore also could be intended to generate positivesentiment about availability of raw material forpelletization of ore dust. Due to non-availability oftechnology in India in the past, on the other handeasy availability of alternative better grade ore,requirement of large capital expenditure and overallcommercial viability was pushing the investment sofar but now all steel giants are finding opportunity inthat venture.Proper selection of iron ore and prior beneficiation ofthe dust ore to remove impurities including ganguecontent would result in producing very good pelletproduct to compete with good quality lumps forproduction of sponge iron at a comparatively lowercost.Other Benefits of pellets in comparison withnormal ore lumps could be listed as under:uuuHigh iron content and high degree of metallizationUniform size makes it easy to operate with, lessaccretion deposit in kilnsComparable purity : 63 – 68% iron, mainly Fe2O3u High tumbler Index : +95uuHigh porosity of 25-30% facilitate fast reductionand high metallization rateEnough bond strength – prevents generation offines/dust in rotary kilnsu Cost-effective – Coal consumption less by 15%,campaign life increases by 100%, longerrefractory life, low fines generation.ueasy availabilityProcess Development for use of Ore Pellets inInduction Furnace at Monnet Ispat :MIEL is presently the second biggest coal basedsponge iron producer in the country, have been usingaverage to good quality iron ores from Essel mining,Rungta mines and NMDC by proper blending alongwith good quality coal from captive Millupara minesin the rotary kilns to produce premium grade spongeiron and this DRI product is being used as metalliccharge along with some small quantity scrap in steelmaking in induction furnaces.Monnet Ispat & Energy Ltd., Raipur plant started steelproduction initially through captive coal based DRI–IF-CCM route in 1994 with a capacity of 2 Lac MTper annum. Due to intermediate crisis with respectto availability of quality iron ore MIEL, Raipur for thefirst time within industry put to trial to use A gradeDRI Pellets for steel making from Nov. 2008 ininduction furnaces. It was observed that the processphenomena was quite different and, posing a numberof operational difficulties as well as performanceproblems. These constraints were mainly due tochange in the quality characteristics of DRI Pelletsover iron ore DRI. Investigations were done andcorrective measures were taken to resolve theseproblems successfully. So it can be said that MIEL,Raipur became pioneer in the field of using coalbased DRI Pellets extensively through inductionfurnace route for steel making.Economic opportunity for Pellet as substitution:Steep rise in the prices of iron ore and Pig iron overthe past four five years, steel production processthrough electric furnaces was not left with much ofchoice to alternatively selecting commercially viableraw material but found alternative prospect in the formof iron ore pellet and gradually switched over toPellets for DRI making in the recent past. In generalraw material for Pelletization so far the manufacturershave been using are of lower grade iron ore, whichgenerally goes as a waste. Now with a view to utilizethis low cost item, Pelletization units are coming upin large scale and Pellet is expected to be the futurefeed material for DRI making. But Pellets beingmanufactured without beneficiation of fine ore arenot of good quality due to high content of gangueand lower Fe content generally pose seriousproblems in steel making through IF and strongobjection from prospective users.Under such situation MIEL, Raipur also purchasediron ore Pellets from various sources for making DRIon trial basis and started using it gradually inenhanced proportion for steel making. Typicalcomparative characteristics of these Pellets and ironore used are as follows:-DECEMBER-2011/16

Parameters Pellets Iron oreArya Ardent Ispat Godawari JSPL Essel mining(Barbil) (Keonjhar) (Raipur) (Raigarh) (Orissa)% Fe(T) 64.46 64.09 63.39 63.40 65.35% LOI 0.36 0.51 0.22 0.20 1.55% SiO3.87 4.03 4.72 4.64 1.962% Al2O2.08 2.13 2.68 2.58 1.833% CaO 0.71 0.68 0.86 0.72 -% MgO 0.22 0.21 0.39 0.32 -% Phos 0.049 0.047 0.046 0.041 -Tumbler index 93.25 94.12 92.11 92.00 88.00% RDI (-3mm)(After reduction) 6.68 N.A. N.A. N.A. 22.24% Reducibility 73.81 N.A. N.A. N.A. 66.34% Porosity 19.00 18.00 20.00 – 24.00 20.00 – 24.00 -CCS (Kg/Pellet) 250 210 220 250 -Size (mm) 5-18 8-18 5-18 8-16 5-18It is obvious from above data that quality of Pellets ingeneral is inferior to Iron ore used earlier. Moreoverit requires higher temperature and comparativelymore coal even at lower feed rate for making DRI inKilns.THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS:-Principally, induction furnaces are melting units ofcharge mix with electrical power as source of heat.As it is having SiO lining, no flux addition is done in2the furnace. Only DRI Pellets and C.P.C. are chargedintermittently during the process.Main chemical reaction taking place is :FeO + C = Fe + CO ↑(gas) Δ H° = 36.16 K.Cal.CO gas evolves and passes through slag, causesboiling of the bath. As a result, the slag becomesfoamy, its density goes down. It floats at the top andis removed continuously. It is very important thatboiling phenomenon should be optimum - it shouldneither be less nor high for smooth operation offurnace. ‘C’ content is to be optimized by intermittentaddition of CPC but, optimum FeO is to be madeavailable through sponge iron as source of oxygenin this process. In case of DRI Pellets (A grade) whilecharged in the furnace, it was observed that slagbecame very thick and hence, it formed an umbrellaover the metal.Under such situation, slag removal became verydifficult leading to adverse furnace performance.DECEMBER-2011/17

AVERAGE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS:Sl. No. Parameters Trial Heats with Pellets Base Heat with Iron ore DRI1 % Yield of liquid metal 84.45 86.042 Heat duration (Hrs.) 3.20 2.953 Specific Power Consumption(KWH/MT) 863.23 846.944 Heat Wt. (MT) 11.31 11.525 Slag Charactics Very thick Foamy6 % Plant availability 92.09 97.46PROBLEMS FACED:-It is obvious from above data that A grade Pelletcharging resulted in following constraints:(i)Slag was very thick and it was not foamy.(ii) % Yield came down due to metal loss in slag andless Fe content.(iii) Heat duration increased due to problem in slagremoval.(iv) Specific power consumption increased due toprolonged heat duration and less yield.(V) Slag volume was more.INVESTIGATIONS TO ASSESS THE ASSIGNABLE CAUSES:In order to find out the reasons for above constraints, detailed analysis of iron ore based and Pellet based DRIwas done and found to be as follow:S.No Iron ore based DRI Pellets based DRI% % % % % % % %Fe(M) Fe(T) Metallization FeO Grade Fe(M) Fe(T) Metallization FeO Grade1 84.18 92.11 91.39 10.23 A 84.38 88.34 95.51 5.11 A2 83.09 91.88 90.43 11.34 A 83.33 88.13 94.55 6.19 A3 82.49 91.75 89.91 11.94 A 82.08 87.88 93.40 7.48 A4 81.50 91.54 89.03 12.95 A 80.21 87.51 91.66 9.42 A5 80.89 91.42 88.48 13.58 A 79.82 87.43 91.29 9.81 B6 80.46 91.33 88.10 14.02 A 77.95 87.05 89.54 11.73 B7 77.31 90.66 85.27 17.22 B 77.52 86.96 89.14 12.18 B8 76.03 90.40 84.10 18.54 B 76.82 86.82 88.48 12.90 B9 75.50 90.28 83.62 19.06 C 76.11 86.68 87.80 13.63 B10 64.34 87.94 73.16 30.44 C 75.23 86.50 86.97 14.54 CDECEMBER-2011/18

Above data are shown graphically also in figure - 3:It is clearly evident from above data and the graphthat % metallization is comparatively higher by about4-5% in case of DRI Pellets for the same Fe(M)contents. This higher metallization resulted in lowerFeO content of Pellet based DRI compared to ironore based DRI as shown below:(i)Iron ore based DRI = 10.23 – 14.02 % FeO in Agrade.(ii) Pellet based DRIgrade.Fig.-3= 5.19 – 9.42 % FeO in ANormally A grade DRI having metallization of 88-92%is used in steel making for smooth furnace operation.But with A grade DRI Pellets lower FeO contentresulted in inadequate boiling and hence, dense slag,causing difficulty in its removal and other relatedproblems as mentioned above.CORRECTIVE MEASURES:As there is no Oxygen injection in induction furnaces,some measures were taken to feed extra FeOthrough some additives in the furnaces as indicatedbelow:a) MILL SCALE ADDITION:As mill scale contains high FeO, the same was addedin the furnaces when slag was getting jammed, but itwas not found to be very effective. It is felt that millscale gets lost in the slag, as it is a very fine material.b) IRON ORE ADDITION:Attempts were also made to charge sized Iron ore inthe furnaces in place of mill scale but its effect wasfound to be very slow in the furnaces. Hence it wasdiscarded.c) ADDITION OF ABOUT 10 - 15% B GRADESPONGE IRON IN CHARGE – MIX:With B grade S.I. [76%> Fe(M) < 80% ] charge mixcomposition was changed as follows:A grade DRI Pellets = 80 - 85%B grade sponge iron = 10 - 15% (approx.)Scrap = 5%It was observed that furnace operation was smoothwith the above charge mix composition. Problems ofslag jamming, high heat duration & excessive powerconsumption were resolved by this measure. Thereafter it has been put to regular practice in our plant.QUALITY OF STEEL OUTCOME:Output steel quality of induction furnaces is a matterof concern as silica lined induction furnaces areunable to carry out any refining operation. They arepresently treated as merely melting furnaces. So bothde-phosphorization and desulphurization cannot becarried out in induction furnaces. Though Sulphur canbe reduced by installation of LRF but, the processfor Phos removal is always difficult although undercontinuous development through IRF (InductionRefining Furnace) as claimed by M/s. Electrotherm.In EAF Phos and Sulphur can be controlled by makingoxidizing and reducing slag practice as well as byoxygen blowing.However Monnet manages to produce quality mildsteel billets and finished structural steel sections bycontrolling raw material quality strictly to maintain anaverage quality range as achieved with DRI Pelletsis as follows:%C %Mn %S %P %Si0.12-0.25 0.50-0.80 0.040-0.045 0.050-0.060 0.15-0.35DECEMBER-2011/19

CONCLUSION:The salient features of above study are as follows:1. Usage of A grade DRI Pellets for steel making ininduction furnaces pose problem of thick slagformation, higher heat duration, higher specificpower consumption and lower yield of liquidmaterial due to less availability of FeO contentas compared to iron ore based DRI.2. Blending of 10-15% B grade sponge iron incharge mix with A grade DRI Pellets helped inresolving the above operational and technicalconstraints.3. Beneficiation of iron ore fines for making steelgrade DRI Pellets is a must for improving thequality of Pellets and smooth operation ofinduction furnaces. Further good quality Pelletswill have other benefits like:uuuuuProduction cost of sponge iron atcomparatively attractive level.Higher Fe and less gangue content.Higher tumbler index: +95% and thus lowfines generation in Kilns.High porosity of 25-30% facilitates fastreduction.Longer campaign life of Kilns.Use of pellet will be popularized fast if themanufacturers take care of their product by usingbeneficiated ore fines/dust for pellet making to ensurebetter quality output having low gangue contents andother impurities but rich in desired characteristics.To ensure the quality it could be suggested to redraftthe relevant BIS standard and should be subjectedto mass following by the user industry. But,unfortunately present manufacturers mostly areinclined to take short term view taking short cut togenerate inferior quality to the detriment of therealizable prospect.Further, it could be underlined that Steel makingthrough Electric Furnace route (EAF/IF) will continueto hold an Important position as a vital contributor tothe over all growth of the steel industry and so will bethe sponge iron industry. Conversely, it could bestated that EAF/IF process of steel making will pushup the growth further subjected to the challenges, asstated above briefly, are addressed properly in abefitting and timely manner by the businesspromoters with the support of Government authoritiesand taking active interest in experimentations andevolving process development by introducing newerraw materials like pellet to stay high.REFERENCES:(1) Sponge Iron Manufacturers Association (SIMA)reports and publications.(2) Ernst & Young research on sustainability ofsponge iron industry reports.(3) All India Induction Furnace Association (AIIFA)reports and publications.(4) Mineral and Metal Review Publication dated 18-07-2011 on “Indian Pelletization Plan”.(5) Published paper “Perspective on Raw Materialsfor steel Making in India” by MECON Ltd. in steelworld vol. 17 No. 4-April 2011.Estimation of Demand for Iron Ore during 12th FY Plan Period(Figures in Million Tonnes)2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17Crude SteelProduction 73.7 85.9 94.5 104.0 114.5 125.9Pig Iron Production 6.1 6.9 7.7 8.5 9.4 10.0Total Iron OreRequirement 115.0 135.7 149.4 166.7 185.2 206.2(Source: Report of the Working Group on Steel Industry for the Twelth Five Year Plan, Ministry of Steel)DECEMBER-2011/20


HARI MACHINES JOINS HANDS WITH RAFAKO SA,POLAND FOR CFBC TECHNOLOGY IN INDIAHarimachines Ltd.In 2011, RAFAKO SA celebrates its 62 years ofcontinuous success as the design, manufacturingdevelopment and manufacture of industrial andpower-generation boilers and environment protectionplant. RAFAKO was started in 1949 and hassubstantially grown each year to become the largestand most successful manufacturers and leader of arange of boilers fired with coal, oil, gas or acombination of these fuels, as well as other boilers,including CFBC Boilers, HRSG and stoker firedboilers, PC Boilers for sub and supercritical steamparameters. RAFAKO also offers waste thermaltreatment plants and biomass combustion boilers.Hari Machines Ltd. is now facilitated to offer CFBCBoiler technology from 60 tph to 450 tph with 164bar pressure and 560 Deg C under Designengineering & Technology from RAFAKO S.A.,Poland (largest boiler manufacturing company inEurope) suitable for combustion of washery rejects,dolochar, F-grade coal with high ash contents andbiomass.The company is located in Raciborz, whereheadquarters and main production facilities were builtincluding five production workshops and design office.Also recently new production workshop in Radomskoand Wyry were established as well as design officesin Rybnik, Czestochowa and Belgrade- Serbia. In2008 a new division was created in Pszczyna offeringdesign and delivery of dust removal equipments.RAFAKO SA is also a well - known European marketsupplier of boiler elements. Company’s traditionalcustomers included the partners from Germany,Finland, Serbia and Czech Republic. Since 1993RAFAKO is Joint Stock Company which shares arequoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.RAFAKO is certified with ISO-9001, ISO 14001,ISO- 18001, EMAS and PED. The company isDECEMBER-2011/22

Rafako SA reference list - Circulating Fluidized Bed BoilersYear Plant name Country No. of Boiler Live/reheated Live/reheated Fuelboilers capacity t/h steam pressure steamMPatemperatureo C1985 Wachtberg Power Plant Germany 1 175 17.8/3.8 530/425 Lignite1985 Kohler CHP Plant Germany 1 100 10.5 535 Hard coal,paper pulp1986 Gaisburg CHP Plant Germany 1 150 7.3 500 Hard coal1986 Pforzheim CHP Plant Germany 1 90 14.3/2.9 540/535 Hard coal1987 Emile Huchet Power Plant France 1 367 13.4/3.0 545/540 Hard coal sludge1988 Berrenrath Power Plant Germany 2 250 9.0 510 Lignite1989 Goldenberg Power Plant Germany 21 400 11.5 505 Lignite1991 Wahlitz Power Plant Germany 1 150 11.5 535 Lignite1991 Lublin-Wrotkow CHP Plant Poland 1 230 13.5 540 Bituminous coal1992 Gardanne Power Plant France 1 700 19.3 567/565 Lignite1992 Bielsko-Biata II CHP Plant Poland 1 230 13.8 540 Hard coal1993/98 Zeran CHP Plant Poland 2 450 10.0 540 Hard coal1993 Tisova CHP Plant Czech 1 350 9.4 540 LigniteRepublic1993 Polpharma Plant Poland 2 75 4.5 455 Hard coal1994 Mironowska Power Plant Ukraine 1 260 13.8 540 Anthracite1996 Mlada Boleslav CHP Plant Czech 2 140 12.5 535 Hard coalRepublic1998 Red Hills Power Plant USA 2 753 20.3/4.0 568/540 Lignite1998 CAN Power Plant Turkey 2 462 17.5/3.8 543/542 Lignite1998 Siersza Power Plant Poland 2 425 16.1/4.0 560/560 Hard coalDECEMBER-2011/23

Indian Reference of RafakoSA - PolandSr. No. Plant Name Boiler Outlet Steam Flow Fuel DeliveryQuantity Temperature Year& Pressure1. BARAUNI Power Plant 2 220 tph, 540 0 C, 11.2 Mpa Liquid Coal 19642. PARAS Power Plant 2 140 tph, 515 0 C, 11.2 Mpa Bituminous Coal 19643. BHUSAVAL Power Plant 2 140 tph, 515 0 C, 11.2 Mpa Bituminous Coal 19644. DURGAPUR Power Plant 2 260 tph, 530 0 C, 12.0 Mpa Bituminous Coal 1982-19835. BOKARO Steel Plant 3 260 tph, 540 0 C, 12.5 Mpa Bituminous Coal Gas 1982-19856. ROUKELLA Power Plant 2 280 tph, 540 0 C, 16.5 Mpa Bituminous Coal 19847. KUTCH Power Plant 1 330 tph, 530 0 C, 10.0 Mpa Brown Coal 1997approved according to UDT, ASME, TRD and otherforeign regulations. In 2001 RAFAKO SA wasawarded with Polish Quality Award for its successfulimplementation and constant improvement of TotalQuality Management rules.The company has generated revenue from currentannual sales of products, goods and materialsreached the record level of 300 million Euroapproximately in the year 2010.This deal will deliver HML to address the marketpotential with the ongoing clean coal technologythrough CFBC Boiler aiming to capture the market ofcore Industries segment of Iron & steel, cement, largepower plant project & process oriented Industry by100% utilization of high ash contents coal, washeryrejects from Coal Washery, dolochar from SpongeDRI & biomass fuel. Boiler manufacturers, the worldover, are focusing on energy efficiency and multiplefuel usage to ensure energy security. Commentingon the technological partnership endeavor, Mr.Sabyasachi Mishra, MD, HML, said“With RAFAKOSA in its fold, HML is taking a ground-breaking strideto underpin its product portfolio & enhance clean coaltechnology business in Indian market”.DECEMBER-2011/24

Hari Machines reference listSl. Projects/Clients Type of TPH Pressure Temp Status FuelNo. Boiler Kg/cm2 or Deg C FiredATA1. M/s OCL India Ltd. WHRB 10 TPH x 4 nos 67 495 Commissioned Kiln Flue Gas(Sponge Iron Works)Rajgangpur, Orissa2. M/s Scan Steels Ltd., Orissa WHRB 10 TPH x 2 nos 44 440 Commissioned Kiln Flue Gas3. M/s Nav Durga Fuel P Ltd. C.G. WHRB 10 TPH x 1 nos 68 485 Commissioned Kiln Flue Gas4. M/s Ennore Coke Ltd., Haldia WHRB 19.5 TPH x 2 nos 68 ata 495 Commissioned Coke Oven Gas5. M/s MSP Metallics Ltd., Orissa WHRB 12 TPH x 4 nos 66 485 Commissioned Kiln Flue Gas6. M/s Vision Sponge Iron Pvt. Ltd. WHRB 12 TPH x 4 nos 90 ata 525 Commissioned Kiln Flue GasWest Bengal7. M/s Shyam DRI Power Ltd., Orissa WHRB 9.5 TPH x 2 nos 69 495 Under Erection Kiln Flue Gas8. M/s Shyam SEL & Power Ltd., W.B. WHRB 9.5 TPH x 4 nos 68 ata 495 Under Erection Kiln Flue Gas9. M/s Shri Shyam Warehousing WHRB 1x50 TPH 68 ata 490 Under Erection Coal & Rice Husk& Power (P) Ltd., C.G.10. M/s Nav Durga Fuel P. Ltd., C.G. WHRB 1x34 TPH 68 ata 485 Commissioned Coal & Char11. M/s OCL Iron & Steel Ltd. WHRB 1x40 TPH 67 485 Commissioned Coal & CharRajgangpur, Orissa12. M/s Ispat Damodar Ltd. WHRB 2x10 TPH 68 ata 490 Under Erection Kiln Flue Gas13. M/s Ispat Damodar Ltd. WHRB 1x60 TPH 68 ata 490 Under Erection Coal & CharThe agreement offers a strategic budge for HML’sFluidized bed boiler business with a full proof design& manufacturing set up and facility in Eastern region.Providing State-of-the - art technology & processexpertise in diversified verticals of business willenable to hold CFBC products portfolio and extend itto new untapped market in EPC business of powerin future.Looking into entrapping the CFBC market in India,HML has been extending his manufacturing set upfollowing 1,80,000 Sq. ft, ergonomic with a fullyautomated machines, skilled manpower, goodengineering practices and well organized andestablished supply chain management system allover India. RAFAKO SA is already a recognizedEuropean Boiler Manufacturers and suppliers in Indiawith 14 nos. of installation of PC Fired & Oil/Gas firedhigh capacity sub critical boilers which would alsoserve the benefit from the strong business relationswith big customers, consultant and vendors in India.Capitalizing on HML’s engineering and projectmanagement facilities & capabilities, RAFAKO SA canenhance its market share in the growing clean coaland waste energy utilization market in India.Hari Machines Ltd. the heavy machine manufacturingset-up, belonging to the renowned Dalmia Group, hasdiverse product portfolio. It started operations in 1971and grew into an ISO-9000 heavy engineering andmanufacturing company serving industries like steel,sponge iron, refractory, cement, power, etc. HariMachines has been associated with world leaderslike SMS Siemag, Salzgitter International, Loesche,Mecon, Siemens VAI, Paul Wurth for their tailor madeintricate heavy engineering equipments.After making a mark in manufacturing, the group isexpanding by diversifying into engineering servicesand processing plants through international jointventures. In the mineral processing sector it hasexclusive manufacturing agreements with AllmineralGmbH, Germany, HAZEMAG & EPR GmbH,Germany and CEMTEC GmbH, Austria. In the energysector it manufactures waste heat recovery boilersas well as AFBC Boilers for power and process plants.DECEMBER-2011/25


DRI PRODUCTION IN INDIA: PROSPECTSFOR GAS-BASED TECHNOLOGIESThe natural gas situation in India is indeed acontinuing problem. While gas was for a long timeonly scarcely available, now the problem seems tobe regarding pricing in those areas where gas isavailable, and is causing difficulties for the naturalgas-based DRI producers in India.There is a strong two-way relationship betweeneconomic development and energy consumption. Onone hand, growth of an economy, with its globalcompetitiveness, hinges on the availability of costeffectiveand environmentally benign energy sources,and on the other hand, the level of economicdevelopment has been observed to be reliant on theenergy demand. 1India is rich in coal and in fact is the third largest coalproducing nation in the world. Not so however withnatural gas. India’s consumption of natural gas hasrisen faster than any other fuel in the recent years(see chart 2 ).Natural gas demand has been growing at the rate ofabout 6.5% during the last 10 years. Industries suchas power generation, fertilizer, and petrochemicalproduction are shifting towards natural gas. India’snatural gas consumption has been met entirelythrough domestic production in the past. However,in the last 4/5 years, there has been a huge unmetdemand of natural gas in the country, mainly requiredfor the core sectors of the economy. To bridge thisTenova HYL, Mexicogap, apart from encouraging domestic production,the import of LNG (liquefied natural gas) is beingconsidered as one of the possible solutions for India’sexpected gas shortages. Several LNG terminals havebeen planned in the country. Two LNG terminals havealready been commissioned: (1) Petronet LNGTerminal of 5 MTPA (million tonnes per annum) atDahej, and (2) LNG import terminal at Hazira. Inaddition, an in-principle agreement has been reachedwith Iran for import of 5 MTPA of LNG.Still, both availability and pricing have made the useof natural gas for direct reduced iron production alimited possibility as yet. A significant share of India’sannual production of DRI is from coal-basedproduction facilities. These tend to be smallinstallations, and can be characterized by theircomparatively low capital cost vs. the more efficientgas-based plants. Additionally, by the nature of usingcoal directly as a reductant, the DRI produced tendsto be low quality (usually below 90% metallization),and the plants themselves contribute significantly toenvironmental deterioration.There is no doubt that given India’s projectedeconomic growth, continued demand for DRI forsteelmaking will need to be met and the continuationof the present system of coal-based plants isunattractive from both a quality standpoint and alsofor its negative environmental effects.The question then is: how can India’s DRI industrycontinue to grow in the long term? Will there be anyfuture for gas-based technologies, or will coalcontinue to be, of necessity, the only feasible reducingagent?The answer is actually a combination of the two.Natural gas-based DRI production will grow in India,based essentially on the growing demand for higherquality iron metallics for steelmaking. But coal willcontinue to be “king”, as regards DRI production. Theimportant note is that there will be a shift in the waythat coal is used, necessitated by both quality andenvironmental concerns. By transforming coal to gas,the benefits of this abundant reductant source canDECEMBER-2011/27

e maintained while taking advantage of the moreefficient, higher quality gas-based DRI producingtechnologies.DR Plant configurations for IndiaLooking at the Indian DRI industry some years back,Tenova HYL determined that a solution wouldeventually be needed to replace the existing coalbasedDRI production that faces ever increasingcontrols and regulations because of its environmentalhazards. While the major steel producers are capableof making the large capital investments necessaryfor large scale DRI plants to feed their own steel mills,the smaller coal-based DRI producers don’t have thatluxury. So Tenova HYL decided to engineer a small,efficient, cost-effective gas based DR plant that couldpossibly compete on the smallest production scale.HYL Micro-ModuleThe HYL Micro-Module was developed to produce200,000 tpa of high quality, high carbon DRI usingour Energiron ZR reformerless plant technology. Thefirst of these plants has been installed and put intooperation in Abu Dhabi, UAE and more are underconsideration by various companies in India.The Micro-Module becomes the smallest gas basedDR facility capable of producing high quality productwith a capital cost in the range of $250-300 per tonof product. This of course is higher than the cost of acoal-based plant, but the quality of the DRI producedfar exceeds that of a coal-based unit, while being themost environmentally friendly processes on themarket.Still, in areas where natural gas is either unavailableor the cost is prohibitive, other options must be madeavailable. That is precisely where the flexibility ofthe Energiron ZR process scheme becomes evenmore relevant for India.Energiron ZR using SyngasBecause the Energiron ZR process does not includean integrated gas reformer, it can use any source ofreducing gases to produce high quality DRI. A coalgasification plant can use low grade coals to producethe necessary reducing agents (H2 and CO) for directreduction, and it can do so in a manner that is cleaner200,000 tpa HYL Micro-Module Plant,GSPI, Abu Dhabiand more efficient than the direct use of coal as areductant. Essentially, it allows the use of gas-basedtechnology in areas where natural gas is not anoption, permitting the production of highly metalized,high carbon DRI from gas made from coal.Energiron ZR Process SchemeUsing Syngas as ReductantDECEMBER-2011/28

The first of these plants in India has already beencontracted by JSPL – a 2.5 million tpy Energiron ZRfacility that will use coal gasification as the reducinggas source. Actually, it is the first of four plants agreedon with JSPL for a total of 10 million tons per year ofhigh quality DRI and should be operational by 2014.In large facilities such as the ones being developedby JSPL and others, the coal gasification plants canhave a dual purpose by producing both syngas forthe DR plant as well as power for related facilities.Syngas Micro-Module?The characteristics of the ZR process make the Micro-Module and the large 2.5 million tpy Energiron plantssimilar in every respect except size. Therefore, theMicro-Module could conceivably also use syngasinstead of natural gas – technically there is no difficultyin doing so. However, the capital cost of installing acoal gasification plant is quite high and, in the caseof a Micro-Module plant, would be more expensivethan the DR plant itself. The current state of affairsmakes this an unlikely combination and in fact forDR plants under 1 million tons of annual capacity,the use of a coal gasification plant cannot be easilyjustified. Future developments could change thissituation, but for the present, syngas is an option onlyfor larger scale production units.Recent ProjectsSince 2005, Tenova HYL has started up or is buildingand/or upgrading a significant number of new DRIplants worldwide. The following tables show the latestplants and upgrades.New Projects since end of 2005Plant Country Modules Technology Product Capacity Product Quality(Million ton/yr) Metallization Start UpDesign (Carbon)(a) WelspunMaxsteel Ltd. India 1 ENERGIRON ZR DRI 0.60 94.0 (3.0) 2006 / 2009Emirates Steel 1(GHC) Abu Dhabi 1 ENERGIRON III HYTEMP/DRI 1.60 94.0 (2.0) 2009Gulf Sponge Iron(Al Nasser) UAE 1 HYL-ZR DRI 0.20 93.0 (3.5) 2010Sidor Venezuela 1 HYL III DRI 0.80 94.0 (2.5) 2011Ezz Rolling Mills Egypt 1 ENERGIRON III DRI 1.90 94.0 (2.0) 2011Emirates Steel 2(GHC) Abu Dhabi 1 ENERGIRON III HYTEMP/DRI 1.60 94.0 (2.0) 2011Suez Steel Egypt 1 ENERGIRON ZR HYTEMP/DRI 1.95 94.0 (3.5) 2012Nucor Louisiana USA 1 ENERGIRON ZR DRI 2.50 96.0 (3.5) 2013(b) Jindal Steel& Power India 4 ENERGIRON ZR HYTEMP/DRI 2.50 94.0 (2.5) ContractedNotes:a) 100% lump ore feedb) Syngas based plantsDECEMBER-2011/29

Plant Upgrades Reference ListPlant Country Modules Project Objective Start UpArcelorMittal LC 1 Mexico 1 Install CO removalReduce natural gas consumption by2system to module 1 20%; reduce plant emissions; 2007increase production capacityArcelorMittal LC 2 Mexico 1 Install CO removalReduce natural gas consumption by2system to module 2 20%; reduce plant emissions; 2009increase production capacityEssar Steel, Hazira India 1 Install HYTEMP Improve hot charging to EAFs from 2010System client’s existing Midrex DR plantsPT Krakatau Steel Indonesia Conversion to ZR Process Reduce gas consumption & increase 2012production from 1.35 to 1.90 MtpaWelspun Maxsteel India Complete plant equipment Permit simultaneous operation of both plants;for new ZR module capacity to reach 1.5 Mtpa 2012ConclusionsThe expected and significant growth of India’s steel sectorwill require increased amounts of high quality metalliccharge for steelmaking. Direct reduced iron willconsequently become even more important in the nation’sindustry development, and India will likely maintain itsplace as the world’s largest producer of DRI.Government support will be needed to enable a morewidespread and economical use of natural gas forindustrial applications such as DRI production, wherethe gas is used for its reducing properties for valueaddedproduction, instead of simply for combustion.Environmental repercussions arising from existingcoal-based DRI production will eventually see theseplants fall into disuse, and alternatives will need tobe developed that can provide quality DRI in a clean,economical manner.The options presented by Tenova HYL can be ideallysuited to the India steel situation. For small scaleDRI production using natural gas, the HYL Micro-Module is the smallest, cleanest and most economicalway to produce quality, high carbon DRI. For largerplants, not only is natural gas an option but ourEnergiron plants are also capable of using syngasfrom coal gasification plants to produce the samequality product. So whether coal or gas is theconsideration, Tenova HYL offers viable options forthe continued development of the Indian DRI industry.1http://www.indiaenergyportal.org/overview_detail.php2CIA World Factbook.Total Steel Demand and Required Level of Finished Steel Production(Alloy & Non-Alloy) For the 12th FY Plan Period(Figures in million tonnes)2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17Domestic Demand for Carbon Steel 66.5 73.3 80.8 89.1 98.3 108.3Domestic Demand for Alloy Steel 3.50 4.00 4.25 4.5 4.75 5.00Scenario 1: Total Domestic Demand for Steel 70.0 77.3 85.05 93.6 103.05 113.3Scenario 2: Total Demand for Steel includingExport Demand 66.3 75.3 84.6 94.1 105.1 115.3Imports (estimated) 7.0 6.0 5.5 5.5. 5.0 5.0Exports (estimated) 3.3 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 7.0Net Exports (-) 3.7 (-) 2.0 (-) 0.5 0.5 2.0 2.0(Source: Report of the Working Group on Steel Industry for the Twelth Five Year Plan, Ministry of Steel)DECEMBER-2011/30


TRI-FLO ® :-THE NEW GENERATION MULTISTAGE HEAVY MEDIASEPARATION TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ASH INDIAN COALSP. Bozzato, Ecomin S.R.L., ItalyDr.-Ing. Heribert Breuer, Allmineral Gmbh & Co. K.G. GermanySabyasachi Mishra, Allmineral Asia Pvt. Ltd. India.Dinesh Biswal, Allmineral Asia Pvt. Limited. IndiaIntroduction:-Coal remains a vital source of energy worldwide andis essential for the power &steel industry. High qualitycoal reserves are becoming scarce worldwide.Modern highly mechanized coal mining technologiesand their economical optimization reduce the cleancoal yield and make it more difficult to control theproduct quality. When it becomes necessary toimprove the quality of run-of-mine coal with a washingprocess, the selection of the suitable technology isoften paramount in achieving operational profitability.For that many mining projects activity have beenstarted in India to compensate the energy andmanufacturing industries. The run of mine ashpercentage is typically in the range of 45-55%. Thiscoal is necessary due to the Ministry of EnvironmentFig - A : Tri-Flo ® - Schematic ViewDECEMBER-2011/32

A new feeding system has been recently developedto further improve the separation sharpness and thethroughput capacity of cylindrical cyclones.Graspan Tri-Flo ® Plant / 1 MTPA /South Africa& Forests (MoEF) issuing to reduce the ash up to a35% level. The possible solutions available are heavymedia, jigging, dry washing, forth flotation etc. TheCoal processing plant includes the latest technologyin coal processing to increase the yield at thespecified quality. This paper will present the basis fordesign for coal washing with: (a) two-density heavymedium separation (Tri-Flo ® ).Tri-Flo ® Heavy Media separation:-The Tri-Flo ®is a compact multistage cylindricalseparator applied in difficult heavy mediumseparations or where a 3-product separation isrequired. Figure A reports a schematic view.The material is fed at atmospheric pressureseparately from the medium. The first stage floatmaterial directly enters the second stage for a secondseparation. In a difficult 2-product separation, onlyone Correct Medium (CM) is used and the secondstage further washes the float material for improvedseparation sharpness. Two CMs are used in a 3-product separation and the second stage operatesthe low gravity cut. Partition curves in Figure(illustrative only) show that the overall separation ofa rougher-cleaner circuit is improved if compared witha single stage separation and that an abnormal loadin the first stage causes some heavies to bemisplaced in the first stage float product but thesecond stage, which is workIng in more stableconditions since the first stage smoothes outvariations, can correct the situation.The Tri-Flo ® is aproven technology as indicated by many Tri-Flo ® pilotplants and more than 30 Tri-Flo ®industrial plantsexisting worldwide, mainly in mineral processing.Good Performance of Tri-Flo ®with High nearGravity MaterialThe Tri-Flo ® has been also tested with tracers duringthe Australian trials. Similarly, also the DSM cyclonewas tested with tracers in parallel with the Tri-Flo ®(note: the cyclone was gravity fed hence there wasno pump involved in feeding the cyclone with tracers).The result of the trial was that the tracers could beeasily collected from the Tri-Flo ® in a reasonable timewhile the test for the DSM cyclone was abandonedbecause many tracers (near gravity) had a very highretention time and could not be recovered in areasonable time. It was the Australian authorconclusion that the Tri-Flo ®can be more effectivewhen processing high near gravity material becausethis material does not accumulate and re-circulateinside the vessel. Against common belief that Ep isindependent from the amount of near gravity material.These materials have an effect on the sharpness ofseparation because the medium to coal ratiodecreases if material is retained inside the vessel.The simulations reported above where performedusing Ep obtained washing material with much lowernear gravity material if compared with the indian coaland, the results will become even more in favor ofthe Tri-Flo ® if a safety parameter is introduced to takeinto account the amount of near gravity material.DECEMBER-2011/33

The ability of the Tri-Flo ® to better perform with neargravity material can be explained considering thehydrodynamics inside the vessel, which are differentfrom the behavior of heavy medium cyclones. Higherdiffentials (density of the medium through theunderflow minus density of the medium exiting theoverflow) also cause lower efficiency of cyclones withnear gravity material.Inside the Tri-Flo ® there are three regions for the axialvelocity: the region near the air core has a velocitythat reports the material to the float outlet; the regionnear the wall has an opposite velocity that reportsthe material to the underflow outlet; in between thesetwo regions, there is the third wide region of zeroaxial velocity (the material does not report to the sinkor the float outlet) and particles are only subject totangential and radial velocity. It is a known fact thatin cyclones there is only a locus where the axialvelocity is zero. Chances for a misplaced particle toreport to the correct outlet are reduced in the DSMcyclone for this reason.Carbosulcis Coal Washing Plant / 4 nos. Tri-Flo ® inSeries - 1000 TPH / ItalyThe second reason for reduced ability of DSMcyclones to cope with near gravity material is thedifferential in density between underflow and overflow,which is significantly higher if compared with the Tri-Flo ® . Also this fact is due to the geometry (highernumber of ‘g’s in the cyclone due to its conical shapeand all the medium is discharged along the axe). Asa result of the higher differential, near gravity materialenters the cyclone and proceeds toward the spigotbut is too light to penetrate.Advantage of Heavy Media Tri-Flo ® Technologyl The heavy medium Tri-flo ® is a multistageseparator in one unit and the float stream isrewashed.lllMultiple separations can be performed at thesame density or at different densities to producedfinal product, Middling & Reject.The separation sharpness of finer material ishighly improved in the tri-Flo ®vessel due tomultiple processing.The system allows to operate a sharp separationin the first stage in all condition and can alsoapplied to single stage separation.Highlights of Tri-Flo ® technology:-llllllllllDouble washing in one vessel with- Higher separation sharpness if washingdiscards 2 product modes.- Production of clean, middling and rejectif washing 3 product modes.Compact layoutLow head pointSimilar amount of CM pumped to equivalentcapacity single stage DSM system.High throughput capacityCoarser top size accepted, sharp separation withvariable speed.High sink capacity up to 100m3/hrNo pumping of highly abrasive discardVery forgiving of feed change, operator friendly.Minimal vessel wear with on line cut pointadjustment for minimal maintenance-longer lifeAdvantages of Tri-Flo ®Technology overConventional Heavy Media Cyclone.Multiple products from one vesselIt has a very high sink capacity and produced threeproduct in one vessel, the results it reduced capitalDECEMBER-2011/34

cost (building, piping etc) and operating cost ifcompared with same traditional circuit.The second or following stage can be:lllA final by product clean, middling (Power coal) &reject.Comminuted to improve the liberation and reprocessedfor increase recoveryRe-circulated to head feed for sharper separationin difficult application.Energy cost of pumping is reduced by up to 50% ifcompared with traditional double stage installation.Larger feed top sizellThe Tri-flo ® technology can accept larger particlethan conical cyclone if comparing the samevessel diameter.A single circuit (Tri-flo ® ) can operate theseparation saving on the coarse coal circuit.As an Example:-Assuming a 200t/h application withgood liberation at top size of 75mm,a single Tri-flo ®can be installed, if a cyclone is installed for thecapacity a 750mm should be chosen but the feedmaterial must be crushed at top size of 50mm.As analternative, to accommodate a top size of 75mm a1000mm should be installed. in both case, theeconomical saving offered by the Tri-Flo ®aresignificant.Reprocessing the float material gives betterresults than reprocessing the heavy material.llIn some case the second stage(middling) is fedwith the first stage light material and the majorityof the heavy material has been already rejected,making the condition in the second stage morestable and allowing to reject the misplacedmaterial.Reprocessing the light material gives betteroverall performance because each size fractionis separated at more or less the same density.Improved hydrodynamic inside the vessel.The flow pattern inside cylindrical vessel is improvedin comparison with more uniform centrifugalacceleration and wider region of zero axial velocityparticularly useful for difficult high near gravityseparation (which is very common in Indian coal)Minimal contact of the material with the separatorwall.Tri-Flo ® the feed enters the separator at atmosphericPressure along the center of the separator, lightmaterial floats along with the central axe, highlyabrasive heavy material quickly reports to the walland is discharged through the sink head positionednear the feed inlet.Only the medium is pump.Reduced wear of the heavy medium feed pump andfollowing piping-typical life time is doubled if feed isnot pumped. Higher plant availability due to reducedblockage of piping and pump. The feed materialremains into the slurry for a very short time asopposed tom conical cyclone.Tri-Flo Operating DataTypes Ash Cv Ep Organicof coal (MJ/KG) EfficiencyFeed 30-55 16-10Clean 20-30 20-24 0.012 98.9 %Reject 55-70 3-10DECEMBER-2011/35

Rejects re-cleaning with a 700 mm ID Tri-FloCutMedium Size mm - 50+ 25 - 25 + 6 - 6 + 0.5 - 50 + 0.51.85 Feed Ash% 54.6 46.2 37.3 46.4Product Ash% 31.8 29.0 25.6 28.4Ep 0.010 0.015 0.019 0.0171.90 Feed Ash% 61.1 49.6 42.2 51.0Product Ash% 32.5 30.8 27.1 29.9Ep 0.015 0.018 0.014 0.016Conclusion:-l The Tri-Flo ® allows multistage separation in oneunit, hence compact layout and ultimately capitalsavings.l The modular and fully transportable plant.l Best designed for the operators, maintenance iseasy and operation settings are highly simplified.l The Dynafeed ® system is the extra advantagesof Tri-Flo ® which improving hydrodynamics insidethe vessel.l Very forgiving to feed change, operator friendlyl Elongated pieces up to 200 mm long (8-in) didnot block the feed chute nor the separatorl The new feeding system allows to operate at highthroughput capacity without blockages and withinproduct specs.l Excellent performance with high near gravitymaterial coal characteristics due to cylindricalshape and comparatively more retention time.l Minimal media losses i.e. 150-250gms per tonof clean coal.l Utilization of total resources clean, middling’s andrejects.Allmineral Asia is a joint venture with AllmineralGmbH, Germany, is a Kolkata based subsidiary setup in June 2009. It provides complete beneficiationsolutions for coal and iron ore industries and hasmade inroads in the mineral beneficiation sectoracross India.In coal application, Allmineral has unique dry jiggingthat requires no water to process. Additionally withwet jigging and multi stage heavy media separationsystem, it is the only company to provide a variety oftechnology for Indian industries.Reference List of Tri-Flo® Coal Preparation PlantWorld-Wide.Sl. Customer Location Material CapacityNo. Treated In TPH01 Ammi sarda Masua Mines, tally Pb, Zn Ore 4502 Carbosulecis Nuraxi figus, Italy Coal 100003 Salazach,Kohelenbergban Salzburg,Austria Coal 10004 CRA Newdell,Australia Coal 50(Test Unit)05 K&J Westover,USA Coal 6506 Irasco s.r.l. Tabas,Iran Coal 35007 Anglo Coal South Africa Coal 20008 Coal Toll South Africa Coal 20009 CSIR South Africa Coal 2510 IPIM Italy fluorspar 1511 Zeljezafa,SKOPJE Yogoslavia Iron Ore 4512 Geevor PLC England Cassiterite 4513 Gold Fields Rosiberg Cassiterite 4514 Preussag AG Germany Lead & Zinc 2515 Tatalum Mining Co. Canada Spodumene 1216 Nonfemet China Lead & Zinc 1517 Mineralcao Floral Brazil Flourspar 1518 CooprazineInternational Bolivia Wolframite 1519 Hellenic FerroAlloys Greece Chromites Ore 2820 BergslagensSuomioy Finland Ferrochrome 28In iron ore too, Allminerals has solutions for very lowgrade ores as also for lumps and ultra fines. It builtthe largest integrated iron ore processing plant forJindal Steel & Power. The 11 mtpa plant will processlow grade feed of lump to ultra fines transforming tohigh iron content products.Its German partner Allmineral GmbH, is one of theworld leaders in mineral beneficiation. It isheadquartered at Duisburg, Germany withsubsidiaries in USA, South Africa, Poland and in Indiaand presence in more than 20 countries throughlicensees and agents. Over the years, Allmineral hassold more than 400 nos. alljigs, 100 nos. Allflux, 50nos. Allair and 50 nos. WHIMS, worldwide.DECEMBER-2011/36


GREEN FIELD STEEL PROJECT OF JSPLJSPL is setting up 12.5 MTPA Steel Plant & 2600MW Power Plant in Angul, Odisha. This plant will beimplemented in 2 phases. In the first phase, thecompany is in the process of setting up a 6.0 MTPASteel Plant 900 MW Captive power plant. In thesecond phase another 6.5 MTPA steel capacity and1600 MW Power Plant would be set up. The DRI –BF-EAF Route would be adopted for steel production.The DRI plant has a unique feature of using Syn Gasfrom the Coal Gasification plant first time in the world.DRI plant capacity would be 2.0 MTPA.(Source: Business Line – 31 st October, 2011)SHRI BAJRANG POWER AND ISPAT LIMITEDShri Bajrang Power and Ispat Limited is coming upan Integrated Steel Plant at Tilda, Raipur with 2.0 MTIron Ore Beneficiation, 1.4 MT Pellet, 0.6 MT SpongeIron, 125 MW Power, 1.0 MT Steel Melting Shop andFerro Alloys in 2 Phases. Major production activitiesof 1 st phase are scheduled to be commissioned inFinancial Year 2012-13.(Source : Shri Bajrang Power and Steel Ltd.)GROWING SHORTFALL OF COALYear Demand* Domestic Gap*Production*2005-06 445.65 407.04 38.612006-07 474.18 430.83 43.352007-08 492.5 457.08 35.422008-09 550 492.76 57.242009-10 604.33 532.06 72.272010-11 656.31 533.08 123.232011-12 (est) 696.03 559 137.03* Figs in million tones(Source : Parliament questions, PIB)Coal imports have shoot through the roof amid asevere supply crunch in the domestic market.According to Government data, in the last 7 monthsNEWS(April – October), the country imported around 21Million Tonne coal worth $ 10 Billion, which is 51%more compared to the corresponding period of lastyear. In October, the imports surge was particularlyevident. Coal imports grew 105 % compared to samemonth a year ago.NEW COAL PRICING MECHANISMCoal India Limited (CIL) is contemplating tobenchmark its produce to Grows Calorific Value(GCV) of coal, beginning January 1. This move isexpected to expand both the product as well as pricerange of offerings substantially. CIL is currently sales7 variety of coal, benchmarked against Useful HeatValue (UHV). The move of CIL has been opposed bythe Power Sector.(Source: Business Line – 8 th November, 2011)VALUE CREATORUS based Boston Consultancy firm has rated JindalSteel & Power Ltd as the second largest valuecreator in the world. And the only company from Indiato be included in the Top 10 Value Creator’s GlobalRankings.Congratulations to Mr. Naveen Jindal & Team.(Source : Chairman’s Speech)WIND FALL OF AWARDS TO TATA SPONGE IRONLTD.IIM National Quality AwardTata Sponge Iron Limited has once again won theNational Quality Award instituted by the IndianInstitute of Metals for the year 2010-11. Tata Spongewas shortlisted for the first prize under the pig iron/rolling mill/DRI category. Tata Sponge is the proudwinner of this award for the sixth time, the last timebeing during the year 2003. This award affirmscompany’s unwavering commitment towards qualityin all its spheres of activities, as has been articulatedthrough its vision, mission & various other policies.The award was received by Mr. Suresh Thawani,Managing Director during the National MetallurgistsDay Celebration organized by the Indian Institute ofMetals on 14 th November at Hyderabad.DECEMBER-2011/38

CII Quality AwardThe exemplary business excellence model practicedat Tata Sponge came up for recognition yet again bythe Confederation of Indian Industry (ER), in the formof their Quality Award for the year 2010. Tata Spongewas certified a Model TQM Company for 2010, in anindustry wide contest.The Award recognizes industry leaders with a knowntrack record of success in turning strategy into actionand continuously improving their organisation’sperformance. In a formal ceremony organized by CIIon 18th March, ‘11 at the ITC Sonar Bangla, Kolkata,our Managing Director, Mr. Suresh Thawani, receivedthe prestigious award on behalf of Tata Sponge.Congratulations to Mr. Suresh Thawani & Team.The award being presented to Mr. Suresh Thawani, Managing DirectorTata Sponge Iron Ltd.Essar Steel Commissions second unit of furnaceEssar Steel announced the commissioning of the second unit of its Conarc Furnace with a capacity of 2.5million tonnes a year. This takes the total capacity of its steel melt shop to 5 million tonnes a year. As part ofEssar Steel’s expansion plan to take its capacity to 10 million tonnes a year, only a Corex unit’s commissioningremains. The unit is expected to be commissioned later this year. The second unit is scheduled to commissionin December this year.(Source: Financial Express dated 2 nd December, 2011)DECEMBER-2011/39


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