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llGuidelines forImplementationof Integrated WaterManagement DistrictsJANUARY 2008This publication was produced for review by United States Agency forInternational Development. It was prepared by International Resources Groupin association with EPIQ II Consortium.


United States Agency forInternational DevelopmentMinistry of Water Resourcesand IrrigationLIFE Integrated Water Resources ManagementTask Order No. 802EPIQ II: Contract No. EPP-T-802-03-00013-00Guidelines for Implementation ofIntegrated Water Management DistrictsReport No. 42January 2008DISCLAIMERThe authors views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the UnitedStates Agency for International Development or the United States Government.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe “Guidelines for Implementation of Integrated Water Management Districts” were preparedunder the USAID/Egypt funded Livelihood and Income from the Environment - Integrated WaterResources Management Project (LIFE-IWRM), Contract No. EPP-I-802-03-00013-00, Task Order 802for the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation.The Guidelines were prepared under the supervision of International Resources Group (IRG) bythe LIFE-IWRM and the MWRI Integrated Water Management Unit (IWMU) technical teams. EricViala, Eng. Alaa Abbas, Dr Ragab Abdel Azim, Eng. Amira El-Diasty, Eng. Nabil Fawzy, Eng. MohamedHamed, Eng. Maher Khodary, Dr Mohamed Abdel Khalek, Dr Mohamed Rami, Dr Tarek Kotb, Eng.Moamen El Sharkawy, Eng. Hisham Shehab, and Dr Khaled Wassif contributed directly to the content.The Guidelines were compiled and edited by Eric Viala with assistance from Dr. Ibrahim Elassioutyunder the direction of Jeffrey W. Fredericks. The Guidelines are based on policies and proceduresused during the implementation of LIFE-IWRM. Eng. Gamil Mahmoud, Head of the IWMU andChairman of the USAID/MWRI Project Steering Committee reviewed and provided valuablecomments and insights that were incorporated into the final version. The Guidelines were approvedby the USAID/MWRI Project Steering Committee.The outstanding success of the LIFE–IWRM has been due in large measure to the vision, support,and assistance provided by H.E. Mahmoud Abou-Zeid, Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation. Inaddition, numerous MWRI officials, and especially Eng. Gamil Mahmoud participated directly inexecution of the program and were key contributors to its successful completion.Valuable information, opinions and advice was provided by MWRI staff from the 27 IntegratedWater Management Districts in the five target Directorates of Aswan, East and West Qena, NewZifta, and West Sharkiya.Eng. Wafaa Faltaous, USAID Cognizant Technical Officer (CTO) deserves special recognition forher guidance throughout project implementation.iii


INTRODUCTIONThis handbook of procedures provides guidelines that were developed by senior professional stafffrom the Integrated Water Management Unit and other MWRI entities. These procedures wereimplemented and ground-truthed by the field staff in 27 Integrated Water Management Districts inthe five directorates of West Sharkiya, New Zifta, Aswan, and East and West Qena. The resultingguidelines are to be taken as useful checklists that MWRI staff can rely on to carry out integratedwater management activities.GuidelinesIndividual professionals learn from experience how to avoid mistakes and delays, how to makethe right decisions and how to work more efficiently and more effectively. But as they move up in theMWRI or out of it, these individuals may or may not transfer their knowledge and expertise to otherswho replace them.Even with proper mentoring and tutoring, replacements may often have to go through the sametime-consuming lesson-learning process as their predecessors. And while individuals climb the learningcurve, the MWRI may not improve since similar mistakes and delays may occur over and over.Guidelines are a tool that enables knowledge held by MWRI experts and senior professionals tobe available to all of their colleagues for guidance. Guidelines are also a useful reminder for all, eventhe most experienced staff, on how to efficiently carry out integrated water management activities.This handbook is a work in progress:• Additional procedures may be added;• Existing ones may be amended or updated.The following guidelines are available as of this first printing:1) Regarding Integrated Water Management Districts1.1 - Process for establishment of Integrated Water Management Districts1.1a IWMD Initiation Ministerial Decree1.1b Boundary Ministerial Decree No. 146/20051.1c Engineer Assignment Decree1.1d Template for IWMD Monthly Report1.1e Template for General Director’s Monthly Report1.2 - IWMD Organization1.3 - Integrated Maintenance2) Regarding Branch Canal Water User Associations2.1 - Process for formation of BCWUAs2.2 - BCWUA Establishment by IWMDs2.2a BCWUA Initiation Ministerial Decree2.3 - BCWUA Establishment: Selection of Water Advisory Staff2.4 – BCWUA Establishment: Data Collection2.4a Data Collection Tables2.5 – BCWUA Establishment: Canal Grouping2.6 – BCWUA: Water User Awareness and Water User RepresentativeIdentification2.6a Nomination of WURs (minutes)2.7 –BCWUA Establishment: Board Elections2.7a Board Election (minutes)2.7b BCWUA Establishment Decreev


2.8 – BCWUA Activation2.8a BCWUA Activation: Template for MOU2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal Regulations2.8c BCWUA Activation: Agenda for IWMD–BCWUA Seasonal Meetings2.8d BCWUA Activation: Activation Monitoring Summary Table2.9 – BCWUA Activation: BC Priorities and BC Action Plan2.9a BCWUA Activation: Branch Canal Priorities Template2.9b BCWUA Activation: Branch Canal Action Plan Template2.10 – Participatory Water Management2.10a Participatory Water Management: Forms3) Regarding Water Management3.1 – Principles of Efficient Water Management3.2 – Flow Measurements3.3 – Calibration of Canal Flow Rating Curves3.4 – Matching Irrigation Supply and Demand3.5 – Water Resource Inventory3.6 – Water Budget/Water Balance3.7 – Computer and Networks Maintenance3.8 – Mapping Branch Canal Areas3.9 – Integrated Water Resource Management Plan3.10 – Water Quality Managementvi


TABLE OF CONTENTS1.1 Process for Formation of Integrated Water Management Districts (IWMDs).....................................11.1a IWMD Initiation Ministerial Decree (Example 541/2004)......................................................................51.1b Boundary Ministerial Decree No. 146/2005 Issued 14 March 2005 .....................................................71.1c Engineer Assignment Decree (Example 1008/2004 for Qena).............................................................131.1d Template for IWMD Monthly Report .......................................................................................................161.1e Template for General Director’s Monthly Report..................................................................................191.2 IWMD Organization ........................................................................................................................................211.3 Integrated Maintenance...................................................................................................................................272.1 Process for Formation of Branch Canal Water Users Associations (BCWUAs)...............................372.2 BCWUA Establishment by IWMDs..............................................................................................................442.2a BCWUA Initiation Ministerial Decree .......................................................................................................472.3 BCWUA Establishment Selection of WA Staff .........................................................................................492.4 BCWUA Establishment Data Collection....................................................................................................512.5 BCWUA Establishment: Canal Grouping....................................................................................................582.6 BCWUA Establishment: WU Awareness and WUR Identification .......................................................622.6a Nomination of WURs (minutes).................................................................................................................662.7 BCWUA Establishment: Board Election......................................................................................................682.7a Board Election (minutes)...............................................................................................................................722.7b BCWUA Establishment Decree..................................................................................................................742.8 BCWUA Activation .........................................................................................................................................762.8a BCWUA Activation: Template for MOU.................................................................................................782.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal Regulations ......................................................................822.8c BCWUA Activation: Agenda for IWMD–BCWUA Seasonal Meetings..............................................922.8d BCWUA Activation: Activation Monitoring Summary Table ...............................................................942.9 BCWUA Activation: BC Priorities and BC Action Plan...........................................................................962.9a BCWUA Activation: Branch Canal Priorities Template...................................................................... 1002.9b BCWUA Activation: Branch Canal Action Plan Template................................................................. 1012.10 Participatory Water Management............................................................................................................ 1022.10a Participatory Water Management: Forms............................................................................................ 1093.1 Principles of Efficient Water Management ............................................................................................... 1143.2 Flow Measurement........................................................................................................................................ 1163.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating Curves ................................................................................................. 1223.4 Matching Irrigation Supply and Demand (MISD)..................................................................................... 1443.5 Water Resource Inventory.......................................................................................................................... 1513.6 Water Budget/Water Balance..................................................................................................................... 1623.7 Computer and Networks Maintenance.................................................................................................... 1673.8 Mapping Branch Canal Areas ...................................................................................................................... 1693.9 Integrated Water Resources Management Plan...................................................................................... 1713.10 Water Quality Management...................................................................................................................... 179vii


Guidelines1.1 Process for Formation of Integrated WaterManagement Districts (IWMDs)ForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation(MWRI) staff in performing a specific task. These guidelines should be followed under mostcircumstances.IntroductionEstablishing an IWMD allows integration within one entity, at district level, all water managementfunctions and activities.The IWMD concept is defined by the MWRI as:IWMD is an entity that has sufficient manpower, material, and fiscal resources tooperate and maintain all water resources under its jurisdiction. Implementingintegrated water management at the district level requires integration of staff,facilities, stakeholders, information, users, and water resources.The IWMD represents a unique venue to coordinate all water management activities andimplement water projects, resulting in faster and improved decision making, more sustainableimplementation, and significant economies of scale.The IWMD is led by a manager, and organized in four sections as follows (see also, organigram inGuideline1.2):1. Water Management and Distribution Section2. Maintenance Section3. Planning and Project Section4. Administration Section.Significant institutional benefits from the establishment of IWMDs have been identified andacknowledged by MWRI staff:• Pooling of resources, equipment, and skills at the local level (mainly through theconsolidation of irrigation and drainage functions). Managers of IWMDs state that they areable to carry out more activities, better serve water users, and use equipment moreintensively.• Streamlined communication channels. MWRI General Directors are pleased with theempowerment and responsiveness of IWMD managers and staff.• Decentralized and simplified decision making (notably for water distribution with the removalof the inspectorate administrative layer).Establishment ProcessAn optimal process involves these steps:1. Selection of the Irrigation General Directorate where IWMDs are to beestablished. Focusing on an entire directorate simplifies the delineation of boundaries andLIFE–IWRM 1International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1 Process for Formation of Integrated Water Management Districts (IWMDs)ensures focus and support from the Irrigation General Director and from the MWRIUndersecretary.2. Official decision to establish IWMDs in the selected Directorate(s). A MinisterialDecree will confirm the decision (see example in 1.1a).3. Awareness and sensitization of MWRI managers (Undersecretary, GeneralDirectors, and district engineers). This is accomplished through training events, formalmeetings, informal discussions, and visits to existing IWMDs. The objective is to convince all ofthe benefits expected from the IWMDs and enroll them as actors in the process.4. Delineation of the boundaries of each IWMD. Existing irrigation districts have somewhatcoherent boundaries from a hydrological point of view. These districts, with minor correctionsif needed, should form the basis for the IWMDs. The boundaries will usually be in line withdesert edges and the Nile in Upper Egypt and with the main drains and canals in the Delta.Irrigation General Directors should be the key actors in this delineation process and prepareindividual draft decrees (one per General Directorate) describing the boundaries.5. Promulgation of IWMDs through Ministerial Decree. Establishment of IWMDs with thedetail of their boundaries will be confirmed through a ministerial decree (one per GeneralDirectorate, see example in 1.1b).6. Assignment of IWMD managers and permanent engineers. Irrigation GeneralDirectors will prepare decrees to assign all engineers to the IWMDs and select the IWMDmanagers. This process should be coordinated with other MWRI entities (notably the EPADPGeneral Directorates), as some engineers (notably drainage maintenance engineers) will betransferred to the IWMDs. The MWRI Undersecretary will sign the decrees (one per GeneralDirectorate, see example in 1.1c).7. Preparation of organizational charts. Each IWMD manager should select the four sectionheads (one being assigned as deputy manager) and then assign all IWMD staff into the foursections (see organigram in 1.2). The organizational chart is to be submitted to the IrrigationGeneral Director for approval.8. Transfer of facilities/equipment/vehicles from other MWRI entities (EPADP, MED,etc.). These transfers are affirmed by the previous Ministerial Decrees defining boundaries andassigning engineers to the IWMDs. The MWRI undersecretary is responsible for coordinatingand enforcing these transfers.9. Capacity-building of IWMD staff. It is essential for the MWRI to allocate additionalresources to the IWMDs and train the staff so they can tackle their responsibilities. It isrecommended that practical training events be delivered to IWMD staff on topics such asintegrated maintenance, water user participation (refer to guidelines in Chapter 2), and waterresource monitoring and allocation (refer to guidelines of Chapter 3).10. Monitoring. The performance of the IWMDs should be monitored through regular (monthly)meetings and the preparation and review of monthly activity reports (see templates for thesereports in 1.1d and 1.1e).Clarifications on the Process• The establishment of the IWMD also implies the removal of the Irrigation Inspectorate. Usuallythe former Inspector becomes the IWMD manager since he/she is an experienced engineerand can handle the additional staff and resources.• The integration of all water management responsibilities at district-level within one IWMDfaces opposition, notably from project entities such as EPADP, IIP, or IAS. These entities2 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1 Process for Formation of Integrated Water Management Districts (IWMDs)should be engaged in the process and realize that the sustainability of any project requires theinvolvement and training of existing IWMD staff.• A similar integration process may be conducted in the future at Directorate level.• A major requirement for the successful functioning of the IWMDs is the actual transfer ofthe drainage maintenance budgets from EPADP to the Irrigation Department. In the future, itis envisioned that all maintenance budgets will be allocated to the IWMDs (down from theGeneral Directorates).Coordination and MonitoringEstablishing and empowering IWMDs is an essential tool to improve water management. Othermechanisms such as holding regular meetings and preparing and reviewing monthly reports must alsobe implemented to support and monitor the performance of IWMDs.Coordination meetings are vital to empower IWMD managers and staff and to support andmonitor their activities. Different types of meetings should be held:• Directorate monthly meetings—these meetings allow the General Director to meetwith all IWMD managers within the Directorate, review the progress of IWMDestablishment and activities, discuss and solve technical and administrative issues, and shareexperiences among IWMDs. Officials from other MWRI entities such as EPADP and MEDshould occasionally be invited to such meetings to improve coordination and ensure asmooth transfer of staff, resources, and responsibilities to the IWMDs.• IWMD internal meetings—these should be held at least monthly (preferably weekly) bythe IWMD manager and involve all engineers and senior staff. The objective is to reviewachievements, ongoing activities, share information, and improve coordination among IWMDstaff. The IWMD manager should remind all of key objectives and targets, and assign tasksand resources.• Focused meetings—other specific meetings should also be organized to improvecoordination when needed. As an example, regular meetings regarding water distributionshould be held (monthly or even biweekly during the peak season) for distribution engineersat directorate and IWMD levels to coordinate and optimize water allocation and improvethe implementation of the Matching Irrigation Supply and Demand (MISD) program. TheCentral Directorate for Water Distribution should also be invited to these meetings.Monthly reports should be prepared by each IWMD manager (see template in 1.1d) regardingIWMD activities, in order to:• Reflect on past achievements, ongoing tasks, and pending issues.• Record these for future reference.• Forward essential data to Irrigation General Directors for more informed decision-making,and to alert them about needs and issues.• Allow Irrigation General Directors and MWRI managers in Cairo to monitor the progressand performance of the IWMD.Each Irrigation General Director should review these reports, discuss them with the IWMDmanagers, and act upon them as needed. It is also recommended that the Irrigation General Directorsprepare a summary monthly report (see template 1.1e) for the MWRI Undersecretary and MWRImanagers in Cairo.Related Guidelines1.1a Initiation Ministerial Decree 5411.1b Boundary Ministerial Decree 146LIFE–IWRM 3International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1 Process for Formation of Integrated Water Management Districts (IWMDs)1.1c Engineer Assignment Ministerial Decree 1008 (Qena)1.1d Template for IWMD Monthly Reports1.1e Template for General Director’s Monthly Report1.2 IWMD Organigram4 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines1.1a IWMD Initiation Ministerial Decree(Example 541/2004)MINISTER OF WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATION• After revisiting Law No. 12 for the year 1984 and its amendment by Law 213 for the year1994 regarding irrigation and drainage, and their Executive Regulations.• And Law No. 47 for the year 1978 regarding the state civil service.• And the organization of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI).• And the agreement signed on 30 September 2003 between the Egyptian Government and theUnited States Agency for International Development (USAID) with respect to the projectcalled Livelihood and Income from Environment.• And on our approval.DECIDEDArticle OneAll Irrigation Districts within the following General Directorates are to be converted toIntegrated Water Management Districts (IWMDs):• General Directorates for Water Resources and Irrigation in West Sharkiya.• General Directorates for Water Resources and Irrigation in New Zifta.• General Directorates for Water Resources and Irrigation in Qena.• General Directorates for Water Resources and Irrigation in Aswan.Article TwoThe organization structure of the Water Resources and Irrigation Districts in those GeneralDirectorates are to be modified to follow the organization chart attached to this Decree. Thedistricts are to be provided with all human resources and supplies needed to satisfy the IntegratedWater Management concept (irrigation, drainage, and groundwater, as well as any other waterresources) on district level.Article ThreeThe activities in the aforementioned districts are to be integrated, and the director of the districtis the head of all related activities in his district: irrigation, drainage, groundwater, reuse of drainagewater in irrigation, operation and maintenance of irrigation and drainage networks and pump stations,as well as the groundwater wells within the district boundaries. The director is in charge.Article FourThe performance in those districts has to be monitored and periodically evaluated to ensure thesatisfaction of the required objectives.LIFE–IWRM 5International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1a Initiation Ministerial Decree (Example 541/2004)Article FiveThis decree is to be put into action as from today and all concerned parties must implement it.Minister of Water Resources and IrrigationDr. Mahmoud Abu Zeid10 November 20046 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines1.1b Boundary Ministerial Decree No. 146/2005Issued 14 March 2005MINISTER OF WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATIONAfter reviewing:• Law No. 47 for the year 1978 regarding the state civil service.• And the Presidential Decree No. 158 for the year 1973 regarding the establishment of theEgyptian Public Authority for Drainage Projects.• And the Decree of the Minister of Administrative Reform No. 15 for the year 1977 regardingapproval of the organizational structure for the Egyptian Public Authority for DrainageProjects.• And the Presidential Decree No. 653 for the year 1980 concerning the reorganization of theMinistry of Water Resources and Irrigation.• And the Decree of the Head of the Central Authority of Organization and ManagementNo. 82 for the year 1981 concerning approval of job titles for the Irrigation Department.• And the Presidential Decree No. 449 for the year 1987 concerning the authorities of theMinistry of Water Resources and Irrigation.• And the letter of the Head of the Central Authority of Organization and Management No. 82for the year 1981 concerning the reorganization of the Egyptian Public Authority forDrainage Projects.• And the Ministerial Decree No. 25 for the year 2003 (dated 18 January 2003) including theidentification of boundaries for irrigation and drainage areas served by the GeneralDirectorate of New Zifta.• And the Ministerial Decree No. 506 for the year 2001 concerning the establishment ofIntegrated Water Management Districts.• And the Agreement signed between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the United StatesAgency for International Development (USAID) for establishing the Livelihood and Incomefrom the Environment Project.• And the Ministerial Decree No. 541 for the year 2004 (dated 11 October 2004) concerningWater Resources and Irrigation General Directorates and Districts.• And according to the information presented by both the Head of Egyptian Public Authorityfor Drainage Projects and the Head of the Irrigation Department.• And our approval.DECIDEDArticle OneWithin the framework of unifying the hydraulic boundaries of irrigation and drainage areas servedby the Water Resources and Irrigation Directorates and their Districts, the boundaries of waterresources and irrigation directorate of West Sharkiya shall be redivided as follows:LIFE/IWRM/MWRI 7International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1b Boundary Ministerial Decree No. 146/2005First: Defining the Areas Served:• An area served of 16,134 fed. To be deducted from the East Sharkiya General Directorateand added to the area served by the West Sharkiya General Directorate in order to unifythe boundaries for irrigation and drainage in this General Directorate, bringing the total areaserved by the East Sharkiya General Directorate to 214,053 feddans. The area deducted isirrigated by branches from Abul Akdar, which are the second and third ganabiyat on the leftside, the canals of Bahgat, El-Zend, East el-Gar, El-Gar Ganabiya, and El-Wadi West. Also, theareas irrigated by the Bahr Fakous branch, which is the Ahmed Borham Canal, The first ,second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth west side of Bahr Fakous, El-Manisterly Ganabiya leftH.S. of Bahr Fakous, Waslet el-Mesalamiya, and El-Nasraniya Canal and its branches.• The area served by the Hehiya Drainage District of 30,800 feddan is to be divided into twoareas. The first amounting to 27,118 feddans belonging to the Zagazig Water Resources andIrrigation District. The residual area of 3,682 feddans will belong to the Abu Kebir WaterResources and Irrigation District.• The residual are of Zagazig drainage district, which lies outside the hydraulic boundaries ofZagazig Water Resources and Irrigation District, amounting to 24,655, is to be divided intotwo parts. The first, an area of 12,650 feddans, to be added to the Belbeis Drainage District,and the rest (an area of 12,005 feddans) to be added to the Minya el-Kamh Drainage District.• The area of 3,326 feddans coinciding with the Minya el-Kamh Drainage District within thehydraulic boundaries of the Zagazig Water Resources and Irrigation District is to bededucted, and accordingly the area served by the Minya el-Kamh Drainage District will be51,079 feddans.Second: Defining the Boundaries:1. The boundaries of East Sharkiya General Directorate are the same as defined byMinisterial Decree No. 31 for the year 1999, except the following:The northern boundary:Starts from D.S. regulator at kilometer 24.0 on the Bahr Mores, with a straight line tothe beginning of the Kafr Abu Shehata Drain and goes parallel to the drain’s right hand sideto its far end.In El-Gedida Drain, then parallel to the drain’s right hand side to its far end at the El-Gedida Drain, then to its far end at the Abul Akhdar Drain, then parallel to the right handside of Abul Akhdar Drain to the point where it crosses the Bahr Fakhr, and then follows theright hand side of the Bahr Fakhr to its end at the Bahr Abul Akhdar, after which it goesparallel to the right hand side of the Bahr Abul Akhdar to its far end at the starting point ofthe Bahr Kakous (at the Abu Hamad–Zagazig Road).The western boundary:Is a parallel line with the left hand side of Bahr Fakous from its northern terminus atthe end of the regulator northwards up to kilometer 20.80 of the Bahr Fakous (the northsideof the El-Akbawy Canal). The rest of the boundary is as defined by Ministerial DecreeNo. 31 for the year 1999.Second, the boundaries of the Water Resources and Irrigation General Directorate ofWest Sharkiya, as defined by Ministerial Decree No. 31 for the year 1999, except thefollowing:8 LIFE/IWRM/MWRIInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1b Boundary Ministerial Decree No. 146/2005The southern boundary:Starts from D.S. regulator at kilometer 24.0 on the Bahr Mouse and follows a line to thestarting point of the Kafr Abu Shehata Drain, then goes parallel to the right hand side of the El-GedidaDrain to its end at the Abu el-Akdar Drain, after which it runs parallel to the right hand side of theAbu el-Akdar Drain to the point where it crosses the Bahr Fakhr to its end at the Bahr Abu el-Akdar.It then goes parallel to the right hand side of the Bahr Abu el-Akdar to its ends at the starting point ofthe Bahr Fakous (at the Abu Hamad–Zagazig Road).The southern boundary:Is a line parallel to the left side of the Bahr Fakous northwards to kilometer 20.80 on theBahr Fakous, the north of the El-Akabawy Canal. The rest of the boundary is as defined in MinisterialDecree No. 31 for the year 1999.Article Two1. The drainage districts named within the hydraulic boundaries of the West Sharkiya GeneralDirectorate, namely Zagazig, Hehya, Kafr Sakr, Abu Kabir, and Awlad Sakr DrainageDistricts, are to be cancelled.2. 2. The two Irrigation Inspectorates for Zagazig and Kafr Sakr are to becancelled and replaced by the organizational structure of the Water Resources andIrrigation General Directorate with its five districts defined hereafter:• Zagazig Water Resources and Irrigation District, serving an area of 63,680 feddans, andlocated in Abu Kebir town.• El Ibrahemya Water Resources and Irrigation District with area served of 59,214 feddanlocated in El Ibrahemya town.• Abu Kebir Water Resources and Irrigation District, serving an area of 58,882 feddans,and located in Abu Kebir town.• Kafer Saker Water Resources and Irrigation District, serving an area of 54,070 feddans,and located in Kafer Saker town.• Awlad Saker Water Resources and Irrigation District, serving an area of 68,000 feddans,and located in Awlad Saker town.Article ThreeThe boundaries of the Water Resources and Irrigation Districts’ West Sharkiya GeneralDirectorate as defined hereafter:1. Zagazig Water Resources and Irrigation District:The northern boundary:Starts at the crossing of the left hand side of the Bahr Fakous with the Abu Hamad–AbuKebir Road, then goes parallel to the road towards Abu Kebir town to the crossing of the road withthe Om Shulouk Drain, then crosses the drain and goes parallel to the left side of the Om ShuloukDrain until it crosses the Abu Kebir–Zagazig Road at the mouth of the Fadel Canal, then crosses theroad and runs parallel to the left hand side of the Abu Kebir ganabiya to the Haga Amna meska, thenfollows the left hand side of this meska towards Bahr Moses to the meska mouth at kilometer 48.00on the Bahr Moses D.S. the road authority, where it takes a parallel line on the right hand side of theBahr Moses to the regulator at kilometer 39.00, where it crosses the Bahr Moses and runs parallel tothe left hand side of the Bahr Moses to the old start of the Equa Drain inside Zagazig City, then runsLIFE/IWRM/MWRI 9International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1b Boundary Ministerial Decree No. 146/2005parallel to the left hand side of the Equa Drain to the tail end of the drain in the South Bahr Saft Drainat kilometer 19.500.The western boundary:Starts from kilometer 19.500 on South Bahr Saft’s left hand side at the tail end of the EquaDrain, then runs parallel to the left hand side of the South Saft Drain to the end of the El-Okda Drain,after which it runs parallel to the left hand side of the El-Okda Drain to the point where it crosses theNour Hana Canal. It then runs parallel to the left hand side of the Nour Hana Canal to the left bankof the north ganabiya, after which it goes to the D.S. of the regulator at kilometer 34.00 on the BahrMoses.The western boundary:Starts from D.S. of the regulator at kilometer 24.00 on the Bahr MK Moses in a straight lineto the starting point of the Kafr Abu Shehta Drain, then it runs parallel to the right hand side of thedrain to its end at the El-Gedida Drain, after which it runs parallel to the right hand bank of the El-Gedida Drain to its tail end at the Abul Akdar drain. Then it runs parallel to the right hand bank ofthe Abul Akdar Drain to the point it crosses the Bahr Fakhr, then it takes runs parallel to the righthand bank of the Bahr Fakhr to its termination in the Bahr Abul Akdar. After that, it parallels the lefthand side of the Bahr Abul Akdar to its end in the Bahr Fakous, where it began at the Zagazig–AbuHamad Road.The eastern boundary:Starts from the mouth of Bahr Fakous and runs parallel to the left bank of Bahr Fakous to itscrossing with the Abu Hamad–Abu Kabir Road).2. Ibrahimya Water Resources and Irrigation District:Has the same boundaries as defined by Ministerial Decree No. 164 for the year 2003.3. Abu Kabir Water Resources and Irrigation District:The northern boundary:Starts from the intersection of Abu Kebir–Fakous road with the R.H.S. of El Arin drain andgoes northwards till the tail end in Bahari San drain.The western boundary:Starts from the tail end of San drain which is also the start point of Bahary San drain. Then itfollows the R.H.S. Kibly San drain southwards till it intersects the road of Abu Kebir–Kafr Sakr till thestart point of kibly San drain. Then it follows the left side of El wady drain till its start point at theR.H.S. of Bahr Moses D.S. Safra Barrage, and then it goes beside the R.H.S. of Bahr Moses passing theSaway canal mouth and Taymour Ganabiya, El Gamal Ganabiya and Shershima canal. Then it ends atthe path of Abu Hatab Ganabiya taking from Bahr Moses at km 48.00 on Bahr Moses inside Hehyatown.The southern boundary:Starts from the intake of Abu Hatab ganabiya and takes the eastern direction parallel to thenorthern part of Hehya town till it meets with Abu Kebir–Zagazig railway, then takes the northerndirection till the limit of Fadil canal command which is taking from the tail end of Abu Kabir Ganabeia,the same path of Om El Shelouk drain till it meets the road of Abu Kabir–Abu Hamad, then it takesthe east direction till it meets with the left side of Bahr Fakous passing by the tail end of both ElMesalmiya and El Nasraniya canal.10 LIFE/IWRM/MWRIInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1b Boundary Ministerial Decree No. 146/2005The eastern boundary:Starts from the point of intersection between Abu Kabir–Abu Hamad road with the L.H.S ofBahr Fakous, then takes the north direction passing by Al Akabawu canal and the seventh Ganabiya,then takes the west direction from the tail end of the eighth Ganabiya till the intersection with AbuKabir–Fakous road.4. Kafr Sakr Water Resources and Irrigation District:The northern boundary:A line starting from northern Saft pump station and goes beside the L.H.S. of Bahr Saft drain tillthe start point, then it goes beside the left bank of the middle south Saft drain from D.S. Dafon canaltaking the south direction up to km 13.300 on the middle south Saft drain. Then it takes the westerndirection following a straight line till it meets Hannout canal at km 14.250. Then it goes to cut DawarSalma direction at km 18.150 till it reaches Bahr Hadus at km 51.00.The western boundary:Starts at km 51.00 of Bahr Hadus drain R.H.S. then goes beside the right side of Hadus drain tillthe tail end of El Kebly Saft drain, then it goes with the western side of the drain till km 1.200 theintersection with Kafr Sakr–Simbellaween road, after which it turns westwards with the road till theintersection of El Hammary drain with the road.(The limit between this general directorate andDakahliya general directorate). After that, it takes the south direction following the L.H.S. of Hamarydrain till its tail end in Bahr Saft south at km 6.300. Then it follows the left bank of Bahr Saft southdrain till km 5.160 at Hanout aqueduct.The southern boundary:The same northern limit of Ibrahimya defined by the ministerial no. 164 for the year 2004, aline starting from Hanout aqueduct on southern Bahr Saft km 5.160 and goes with the tail end of theright bank of Bahr Mashtoul till Bousa regulator at El Hagrassa, going eastwards with the R.H. side ofHagrassa canal till Kahlig El Omda mouth, then it goes beside El Kahlig till its intersection withIbrahimiya drain at km 10.00 opposite to El Omda village, then it goes at the end of the left bank tillkm 9.500 after which it crosses El Ibrahimiya drain at the tail end of Megahed drain, then goes sidebeside with the R.H. side of Megahid drain till the end of El Robaiyeen canal at Megahid drain, then itgoes side by side with El Robaiyeen canal taking the East direction till the intersection aqueduct withKafer Negm drain, then Eastwards with the R.H.S of Kafr Negm drain till the centerline of Bahr MosesD.S the intake of El- Sady West Ganabiya.The eastern limit:A line starting from El Sady West Ganabiya on Bahr Moses right side and goes Eastwards tillthe start of San South drain, then takes its path beside the R. bank of San South drain till its end at ElArine drain, then goes beside the Right bank of San North drain till it ends in Bahr Fakus drain, afterwhich takes the west direction till North Saft pump station.5. Awled Sakr Water Resources and Irrigation District the Northern limit:The southern limit:A line starting from the mouth of El Bahry Saft drain at Km 7.00 on Bahr Hadus drain taking thewest direction and parallel to the right bank of Bahr Hadus drain passing by El-Kasaby main pumpstation and extends till it changes in direction to the west.LIFE/IWRM/MWRI 11International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1b Boundary Ministerial Decree No. 146/2005The western limit:A straight line starting from the point of changing the direction of Hadus draintowards the west, going southwards and in parallel to the R- bank of Bahr Hadus drain till itsintersection with the railway line between Awlad Saker and Mansoura at the bridge km 51.00on Hadus drain.The southern limit:A line starting from bridge at Km 51.00 in Bahr Hadus drain going Eastwards andparallel to the Railway line Awlad Sakr–Mansoura is interested Hanout canal at bridge km14.250 in Awlad Sakr City housing area meeting the left bank of Bahr Saft south middle drainat km 12.300 taking the path of this drain parallel to its left bank till the start point of northmiddle Saft drain with a straight line parallel to its left bank till km 19.00 on Bahr Saft Northdrain.The eastern limit:Starts from the regulator Km 19.00 on Bahr Saft North drain and goes with the Rightbank till its mouth in Bahr Hadus at Km 7.00 northwards.Article FourThe West Shakiya Water Resources and Irrigation General Directorate and its Districtsundertake all responsibilities of irrigation ,drainage ,groundwater, reuse of drainage water forirrigation , the operation and maintenance of the irrigation and drainage networks and pump stationsand the groundwater wells within the boundaries of this G. Directorate and all the administrative andhousing buildings and its districts and its contents , equipment and tools and vehicles become itsownership all within the area served and final boundaries of the General Directorate and its Districts.Article FiveThe public Authority of drainage projects has to prepare the Ministerial Decrees necessary tomodify the boundaries and areas served by the Drainage of North Sharkiya and its districts as well asthe general directorate of drainage of North Sharkiya within the framework of whatever modificationsintroduced by this Decree.Article SixThis decree is put into force starting from today and all parts concerned have to act accordingly.(Signed by)Minister of Water Resources and IrrigationDr. Mahmoud Abu Zeid12 LIFE/IWRM/MWRIInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines1.1c Engineer Assignment Decree(Example 1008/2004 for Qena)THE UNDERSECRETARY, HEAD OF THE IRRIGATION DEPARTMENTAfter reviewing:• Law No. 47 for the year 1978 regarding the state civil service and its amendments,• And Ministerial Decree No. 541/2004 issued 10 November 2004 comprising thetransformation of the irrigation districts in the Qena General Directorates to IntegratedWater Management Districts,• And a letter from the Head of the Central Department of Water Resources and Irrigation ofQena governorate issued on 7 November 2004 regarding the nomination of engineers towork in the integrated districts of the Qena General Directorate,• And our approval,DECIDEDArticle OneStarting from today, the following engineers are to work in the Integrated Water ResourceDistricts of Qena General Directorate as follows:Article TwoAll Concerned parties have to implement this decree.(Signed by)Dr. Mahammed Bahaa Eldin AhmedMWRI Undersecretary and ID ChairmanLIFE–IWRM 13International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1c Engineer Assignment Decree (example 1008/2004 for Qena)NameJob andDegreeIWMD AssignmentNotesEng. Ahmed Al SayedMohammed OmarIrrigigationInspector –Civil - 1stNagga Hammady DistrictEng. Ragaa Aziz Dawood Civil -1st Nagga Hammady DistrictEng. Koliet Toma Drias Civil -1st Nagga Hammady DistrictEng. Mamdouh Aiad Rofaeel Civil - 2nd Nagga Hammady DistrictEng. Sarwat Gad Al RaabMohamed AmeenEng. Elaf Ahmed saad AlDeenEng. Gihan Hassan AbdEllahEng. Mohamed MahmoudAhmed Al sawyEng. Esmaeel Abd AlHameed SolimanDistrict DirectorCivil - 2nd Nagga Hammady District Transferred fromThe DrainageAuthorityCivil -3rd Nagga Hammady DistrictCivil -3rdCivil -3rdNagga Hammady DistrictNagga Hammady DistrictCivil - 2nd Abu Tesht District District DirectorEng. Remon Lamee Yassa Civil - 2nd Abu Tesht District Transferred fromThe DrainageAuthorityEng. Atef Sabet Abd Alla Civil -3rd Abu Tesht DistrictEng. Gorgett Aziz Bishara Irrig. Inspector Deshna DistrictDistrict Director– Civil -1stEng. Abed Husein Abd Alla Civil - 2nd Deshna DistrictEng. Magdy Ayoub Botross Civil -3rd Deshna DistrictEng. Younes Abd AlRahmman EbraheemEng. Lotfy Mohammed Altaher HassanEng. Eslam EbraheemMohammedCivil -3rd Deshna District Transferred fromThe DrainageAuthorityGeneral Quena DistrictDistrict DirectorManagerCivil - 2nd Quena District Transferred fromThe DrainageAuthorityEng. Mohammed Tallat Ali Civil -3rd Quena DistrictEng. Ahmed Abd AlWahhab Ahmed AmerEng. Ashraf Al ShafeeMohammedEng. Gamal Mehany AhmedAliCivil - 2nd Koas District District Directorand terminate hiswork with suthQuena DrainageCivil - 2nd Koas District Transferred fromThe DrainageAuthorityCivil - 2nd Nakada District District DirectorEng. Fathy Ahmed Sabrra Civil - 2nd Nakada District14 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1c Engineer Assignment Decree (example 1008/2004 for Qena)NameJob andDegreeIWMD AssignmentNotesEng. Ukasha Bogdady Ali Civil -3rd Nakada District Transferred fromThe DrainageAuthorityEng. Rafaat Ramzy Zakki Irrig. Inspector Arment DistrictDistrict Director– Civil -1stEng. Abd Al Nasser Abd Al Civil - 2nd Arment DistrictRaady BaiomyEng. Saleh Ebraheem Civil -3rd Arment DistrictBogdadyEng. Al Bakry Hefny Mekky Civil -3rd Arment District Transferred fromThe DrainageAuthorityEng. Aymen Abd Al Rahman Civil -3rd Luxor District District DirectorBoraeeEng. Ahmed MahmoudMohammed HassanCivil - 2nd Luxor DistrictEng. Badawy SayedMahmoudEng. Ahmed Abd Al FattahMohammedEng. Ramadan Abd AllaHassanEng. Hatem Moktaar Abd AlSabourEng. Abd Al HameedMohammed AhmedEng. Wael HuseinMohammed Al SayehEng. Ebtehal MahmoudMohammedCivil - 2nd Luxor District Transferred fromThe DrainageAuthorityIrrig. Inspector Esna DistrictDistrict Director– Civil -1stCivil - 2nd Esna DistrictCivil - 2ndEsna DistrictCivil - 2nd Esna District Transferred fromThe DrainageAuthorityCivil -3rd Esna District Transferred fromM&E Dep.Civil -3rd Esna DistrictEng. Doaa Dahy Shaaban Civil -3rd Esna District Transferred fromM&E Dep.LIFE–IWRM 15International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines1.1d Template for IWMD Monthly ReportThis guideline presents a sample Table of Contents for the IWMD Monthly Report, whichnormally should not exceed 10 pages in length.This report should be prepared and delivered to the Irrigation General Director, with a copy tothe Project Regional Advisor, a week before each monthly meeting. It should include the followingsections:• Table of Contents.• Brief Introduction about the District (maximum 1 page text plus maps or schematics)• Chapter 1. Maintenance (maximum 1½ pages)• Status of canal maintenance requests, contracts, and budgets• Status of drainage maintenance requests, contracts, and budgets• Issues, other items• Chapter 2. Planning and Monitoring (maximum 1½ pages)• Preparation/submission of maintenance budget• Complaints and violations (numbers and resolution over time)• Training activities (where, when, and staff involved)• Other planning and monitoring activities• Chapter 3. Water Distribution (maximum 2 pages)• Water monitoring activities (flow monitoring, water quality monitoring, and inventory ofwells)• Water volume requested, promised/allocated, and actually delivered• Allocation among BCs and rotations• Coordination with MALR administration• Chapter 4. Activities with BCWUAs and Stakeholders (maximum 2 pages)• Progress in BCWUA establishment or activation• Meetings held with BCWUAs• Other meetings with local authorities and other stakeholders (date and location,purpose, participants, and results)• Chapter 5. Administration and Finances (maximum 1 page)• Administrative and financial activities and issues (personnel affairs, bookkeeping andarchives, legal and financial affairs (budgets, salaries), transportation, and logistics• Chapter 6. Others (maximum 1 page)• Other noteworthy activities or issues, visits, and accidents• Success stories.It is recommended that tables be used as much as possible. Tables 1.1d.1 to 1.1d.7 below areexamples of tables that should be part of the report. Other tables describing the process of a specificactivity/project may also be requested.16 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1d Template for IWMD Monthly ReportTable 1.1d.1 Progress of a Specific Maintenance Contract: Manual Weed RemovalContract Progress Report for (insert month/year)Contract description:Contractor name:Contract amount:StartingDatePlannedActualFinishingDatePlannedActualCumulative Monthly Progress (%)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12CommentsPlannedOrders GivenImplementedTable 1.1d.2 Progress of All Maintenance Contracts: Manual Weed Removal(one line per contract)Contract NameContractor NameContract AmountStartDateExpectedActualFinish DateExpectedActualPlanned Progress(%)Previous MonthThis MonthTotalActual Progress(%)Previous MonthThis MonthTotalExpenditurePrevious MonthCumulativeThis MonthCumulative Totalto DateTable 1.1d.3 Complaints (from Database)ArabicEnglishGeneral DirectorateDistrictArea (feddan)Numbers of ComplaintsCanal NamePreviousCumulativePendingNew thisMonthTotalPendingSolved thisMonthRemainingLIFE–IWRM 17International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1d Template for IWMD Monthly ReportTotalDrain NamePreviousCumulativePendingNew thisMonthTotalPendingSolved thisMonthRemainingTotalTable 1.1d.4 Training (from Database)Name of CourseCourse Duration(days)Number ofTraineesPercent FemalesPercentTechniciansTable 1.1d.5 Flow MeasurementsSiteNameInflow/OutflowNo. MeasurementsThisMonthCumulativeDateMeasurements this MonthDischarge(m 3 /s)DateDischarge(m 3 /s)CommentsTable 1.1d.6 Water Quality MeasurementsSiteNameInflow/OutflowDateMeasurementsDO pH EC TempCommentsTable 1.1d.7 Actual and Expected Water Requirements (million m 3 )Period of theMonthDemand Actual Supplied Comments1st to 15th16th till end18 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines1.1e Template for General Director’s Monthly ReportThis template is used by Irrigation General Directors to prepare their Monthly Reports, whichare based on monthly reports from the IWMDs.1. Maintenance ReportThis report lists and reports the status of maintenance contracts for each IWMD. Use one tablefor each IWMDName ofContractorType ofContract 1Contractfor OneIWMD orSeveral?DurationFromToAmountfor theIWMD(LE)Progress 2CommentsSome text and comments should be added under this table to address main issues, achievements,and specific actions taken or needed.2. Water Distribution Report (million m 3 )This report should not exceed one page.IWMD Name1-1516-311-1516-311-1516-311-1516-311-1516-31Requested(MISD)Allocated-TargetActual Supply(flowmeasures)Comments1 Type of contract= drainage or irrigation, manual or mechanical de-weeding, de-silting, pitching, structuralrepairs2 Progress=on schedule, behind schedule, ahead of scheduleLIFE–IWRM 19International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.1e Template for General Director’s Monthly ReportSome text and comments should be added under this table to address main issues, achievements,and specific actions taken or needed.3. Other ReportingThis report should not exceed one page. It will cover administrative/financial activities and issues,including personnel, transportation, and logistics. Other noteworthy activities or issues—visits andaccidents, for example—should be reported. Success stories can be included here.20 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines1.2 IWMD OrganizationThese guidelines are meant to assist MWRI General Directors and IWMD managers in thestaffing and organizational structuring of the newly-established Integrated Water ManagementDistricts.Organization and Responsibilities of IWMDsWithin the district boundaries, IWMD staff is responsible for the following tasks:• Maintenance of all canals, open drains, and sub-surface drains within the Districtboundary• Operation and maintenance of all pumping stations with capacity up to 1m 3 /sec.• Distribution of water along main canal(s) and to branch canals• Monitoring of water resources availability and uses• Monitoring of water management activities/projects• Coordination with water users• Enforcement of Irrigation and Drainage Laws No. 12/1984 and 48/1982 and relatedbylaws and amendments.In order to tackle these tasks, the IWMD is to be organized in four sections:• Water Management and Distribution Section (responsible for Tasks 3, 4, and 7)• Maintenance Section (responsible for Tasks 1, 2, and 7)• Planning and Project Section (responsible for Tasks 5 and 6)• Administration Section.Each section has specific responsibilities and will perform activities to fulfill these responsibilities.These activities can be seen as “offices” in the sense that most of staff would be specifically assignedto one activity. However, managers, engineers, and senior technicians should be able to conductdifferent activities within the same section. While on a regular basis they should have focusedresponsibilities, they may have to replace colleagues because of transfer, sickness, or leave.The IWMD would also have an information/computer office. All water and administrative datashould be centralized in this office, through databases (if computers are available), or through paperrecords.Water Management and Distribution SectionThe Water Management and Distribution Section is responsible for:• Assessing water needs and availability• Requesting Nile water deliveries from the Water Distribution Directorate (through theIrrigation General Directorate)• Planning and distributing water resources equitably among and along the various mainand branch canals• Monitoring the use of water resources.LIFE–IWRM 21International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.2 IWMD OrganizationCorrespondingly, the Section is divided into three activities:1. Water demand assessment2. Water distribution3. Water monitoring.The demand assessment activity is responsible for:• Assessing availability of local resources (drainage reuse, groundwater)• Coordinating with the MALR and using the MISD tools to collect data on croppingpatterns and defining crop water needs• Identifying the various uses of water resources and assessing the use efficiencies• Requesting Nile water delivery from the Water Distribution Directorate (through theIrrigation General Directorate)• Providing feedback to the Water Distribution Directorate on actual allocation andsupply–demand match.The water distribution activity is responsible for:• Controlling water distribution within the main canal by operating cross-regulators• Allocating water among and along branch canals by operating branch canal head andcross-regulators• Coordinating with water users in the operation of branch canals and addressing theirwater allocation complaints• Recording violations to Water Laws No. 12/1984 and 48/1982 and related amendmentsand bylaws.The flow monitoring activity is responsible for:• Regularly measuring inflow to the main and branch canal(s) at priority inflow/outflowlocations• Maintaining the flow monitoring (water level/discharge) records/databases• Regular calibration for water level monitoring scales and devices, both on main canalsand on branch canals.Maintenance SectionThe Maintenance Section is responsible for:• Annually assessing maintenance needs of irrigation and drainage networks (canals, drains,and pumping stations), in coordination with water users• Prioritizing these needs and identifying the responsible entity, i.e. BCWAU, MWRI oroutside contractor• Preparing requests for funding from Headquarters (transmitted through the GeneralDirectorate)• Carrying out some of the maintenance works• Contributing to tendering the works• Monitoring contractors’ performance• Recording violations of irrigation laws.The section is divided into four activities:4. Canal and open drain maintenance5. Sub-surface drainage maintenance22 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.2 IWMD Organization6. Structure maintenance (includes civil works, gates, and governmental wells)7. Pumping station maintenance.Each of the four activities is responsible for a specific type of infrastructure.Planning and Projects SectionThe Planning and Projects Section is responsible for:• Assisting MWRI project implementation entities during planning, design, andimplementation, by providing field data and feedback• Contributing to tendering the works and monitoring contractors’ performance• Ensuring water users participation in project identification, planning, implementation, andmonitoring• Regularly assessing training needs of technical staff and communicating these needs tothe General Directorate.The section is divided into four activities:8. Planning and design9. Project monitoring10. Water advisory11. Training plans.The planning and design activity is responsible for:• Coordinating with MWRI project implementation entities to assess and prioritize needs(using criteria provided by these entities)• Coordinating and assisting these entities during planning, design, and implementation(e.g. by providing data and feedback, and contributing to work supervision)• Preparing tender documents, assisting in the selection of contractor, and directlysupervising works in the case of minor rehabilitation/improvement.The project monitoring activity is responsible for:• Assisting the MWRI project implementation entities during implementation• Monitoring the progress of project activities and reporting on implementation• Supervision of contractors’ work for all types of works except project entities.The water advisory team is responsible for:• Establishing BCWUAs• Strengthening, monitoring, and assisting these BCWUAs• Maintaining constant communications with water user representatives to assess theirneeds, priorities, and concerns, and inform them of water management issues andprojects.The training plan activity is responsible for:• Assessing training needs of IWMD staff• Transmitting training requests to the General Directorate• Selecting staff to be trained• Contributing to the logistics of training events.LIFE–IWRM 23International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.2 IWMD OrganizationAdministrative SectionThe Administrative Section is responsible for administrative, legal, financial, and logistical affairs. Itis divided into eight activities:1. Personnel affairs2. Bookkeeping and archives3. Legal issues4. Financial affairs5. Warehouse and purchasing6. Internal communications (switch)7. Security8. Transportation.The personnel affairs activity is responsible for:• Work regulations and contracts• Vacations and leave• Performance evaluation• Updating job descriptions• Recording staff training.The bookkeeping and archives activity is responsible for:• Receiving and sending mails• Filing documents.The legal affairs activity is responsible for:• Licensing water withdrawals, turnouts, and wells• Receiving complaints• Prosecuting violations (in coordination with the police).The financial affairs activity is responsible for:• Preparing requests for maintenance budgets• Paying salaries• Controlling expenditures.The warehousing and purchasing activity is responsible for:• Procuring materials and spare parts• Controlling inventory.The internal communications activity is responsible for:• Receiving customers’ complaints, requests, and comments and relaying these toappropriate personnel• Responding to calls from the public• Managing office messenger staff.The security activity is responsible for:• Guarding the District buildings, equipment, and vehicles.The transportation activity is responsible for:• Managing the carpool and drivers• Managing work equipment (tractors, trucks, and excavators).24 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.2 IWMD OrganizationKey PersonnelIWMD ManagerIWMD Deputy ManagerIWMD Section Heads:MaintenanceWater management/distributionPlanning/project monitoringAdministrationAdministratively, must be Inspector or Senior Director ofWorks.Preferably a Senior Director of Works, who is also the Head ofone of the sections. He/she will act as IWMD Manager whenrequired. The IWMD Deputy Manager should be involved in alldecision-making by the IWMD Manager so that he/she caneventually become an IWMD Manager.Administratively, must be an Assistant Director of Works; atleast one experienced Engineer should be assigned to this sectionto support the Assistant Director of Works.Administratively, must be experienced Engineer.Administratively, must be Assistant Director of Works.Senior administrative person.Figure 1.2.1 shows the IWMD organization structure graphically.The following activities will be handled at the General Directorate level (for the time being):• Operation of water control structures on main canals• Water quality monitoring• Groundwater monitoring• Telemetry• Digital mapping• Contracting• Finances.The data and information collected by the General Directorate during execution of these activitiesmust be communicated to the IWMDs.Sources:Mitchell, Kenneth C., “Function and Organization of an Integrated Water Management District,”(Appendix E to Report 49 from EPIQ-Water Policy Program). Aug. 2001.IWMD: MWRI Plan for Pilot Implementation, (Report 62 from EPIQ Water Policy Program). Sept2002.Dorrah, Hassen Taher and Magdy Mostafa Mahmoud, “Water Districts and General DirectoratesInstitutional Reform,” main report and annexes. Sept 2004.Fahmy, Sarwat, Ibrahim Elassiouti, and Ragab Abdel Azim, “District Consolidation Activity in IWMDs,”Red Sea Sustainable Dev./IWRM Component. Sept 2004.LIFE–IWRM 25International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.2 IWMD OrganizationFigure 1.2.1 IWMD Organization Chart26 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.3 Integrated MaintenanceStep Date Outcome8. Prepare draft Integrated ChannelMaintenance Plan and send it tothe DG for approval9. Prepare draft Integratedmaintenance contractsAprilApril* Water User Representatives should be involved in this step.These steps are explained in sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 below.2. Rank Canals and DrainsDraft Integrated Channel Maintenance Planfor the Coming YearDraft Integrated Maintenance ContractsThis ranking is essential to identify which canals and drains are more important in terms of areaand facilities served. These are generally main canals and drains whose maintenance should be a toppriority.Tables 1.3.1–1.3.4 below should be used to rank the canals and the drains.Table 1.3.1Scoring Criteria for Canals28 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.3 Integrated MaintenanceTable 1.3.2Canals Ranking TableFeeder CanalCanal NameArea ServedArea (0.5-2)Houses (0-1.5)Villages (0-1.5)ScoresWater Supply (0-2)Factories (0-1)Complaints (0-2)Total Score (max 10)RankTable 1.3.3Drains Ranking CriteriaCRITERIONCATEGORY RANGE SCORE1- Area Served Small < 2000 feddans 0.5Medium > 2000 - 5000 feddans < 1.0Large > 5000 - 10000 feddans< 1.5V. Large > 10000 feddans 3.02- % of length passing throughhousing area(s) None 0 0.0Small < 20% 0.5Medium > 20% -50% < 1.0Large > 50% 1.53- Number of housing units None 0 0.0Few 1 0.5Medium > 2- 5 < 1.0Many > 5 1.54- No reuse pump station(s) 0.0Existence of reuse pump station(s) 2.05- Users do not complain 0.0Users Complain 2.0LIFE–IWRM 29International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.3 Integrated MaintenanceTable 1.3.4Drains Ranking TableCollector DrainDrain NameArea ServedArea (0.5-3)Houses (0-1.5)ScoresVillages (0-1.5)Water Reuse (0-2)Complaints (0-2)Total Score (max 10)Rank3. Inventory Maintenance NeedsThe inventory of maintenance needs should be carried out every year during January. The winterclosure is a good time for district staff to examine the waterways. While some of the maintenancestaff is busy supervising the contractors’ activities, the rest should be mobilized to that end.Based on staff available and on the district area to be covered, a program should be prepared forteams to investigate the canals and drains. This program can be simple: each inspection team isassigned a main canal reach with associated branch canals and drains (a 1-2 weeks assignment).Needs assessment forms (figure 1.3.1) should be completed for each canal or drain.The branch canal priorities prepared by each Branch Canal Water User Association (BCWUA)should be taken into consideration to ensure that all needs are realistically recorded; BCWUAs comeacross canals and drains problems on a day-to-day basis and their input is important.Once complete, the needs assessment forms should be collected and reviewed by the head of themaintenance section.4. Prioritize Maintenance NeedsOnce all needs have been inventoried, the IWMD Maintenance Section should sort allmaintenance works by category. The four categories are:• Weed control works (manual, mechanical and biological)• Silt and garbage removal works (by hydraulic excavator, dragline machine, and floating suctionline machine)• Embankment and bank repair (bank leveling and stability, stone pitching, removal of obstaclesand small trees)30 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.3 Integrated Maintenance• Structural repair (welding, lubrication, painting, replacement, and removal of obstacles).Figure 1.3.1 Standard Canal/Drain Maintenance Needs Assessment FormWithin each category, needs should be prioritized according to:• The importance of the canal/drain (as prioritized earlier)• The criticality of the need, based on:− When was the relevant channel or reach last maintained− What would be the consequences if this work is not carried out (rapid degradation or not,significant or minimal impact on the water supply, etc.)− If there is a strong demand from the BCWUA− The cost of maintenance work needed (Would it absorb a great part of the availablemaintenance budget? In this case it is better to include this work in a special request to theIrrigation General Director).Once prioritized within each category, the needs can then be listed in the appropriate summaryforms (figures 1.3.2 to 1.3.5).LIFE–IWRM 31International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.3 Integrated MaintenanceFigure 1.3.2 Summary of Integrated Manual Weed Control WorksFigure 1.3.3 Summary of Integrated Mechanical Silt and Garbage Removal Works32 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.3 Integrated MaintenanceFigure 1.3.4 Summary of Integrated Stone Pitching WorksFigure 1.3.5 Summary of Integrated Structural Repair Works5. Assess Volumes and CostsUsing the previous forms (figures 1.3.2 to 1.3.5), actual volumes and costs of the prioritizedmaintenance needs are to be detailed. To estimate volumes of works, proper survey investigationsand/or measurements have to be carried out.Unit costs are established based on recent similar works carried out in the district or inneighboring districts (average unit costs of ongoing contracts). Total costs can then be estimated andentered in the forms.LIFE–IWRM 33International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.3 Integrated Maintenance6. Prepare Integrated Maintenance PlanThe first step is to gather information from the General Directorate regarding the expectedbudget allocation. The budget from the previous year can also be used as a reference.Only maintenance needs for an amount equivalent or slightly higher to these references shouldbe entered in the Integrated Maintenance Plan. As a rule, all canals and important drains should beincluded in weed control contracts every year, along with silt removal contracts. Weed control andsilt/garbage removal are regarded as essential annual maintenance works that contribute tocontrolling water losses in channels and improving water conveyance efficiency to downstream areas.Subsurface drainage networks should be regularly flushed every 6 months. IWMDs are nowequipped with flushing machines. District managers have only to consider operation and maintenancecost of these machines in their annual maintenance plan.If some needs are critical and costly, they should be requested from the Irrigation generalDirector separately (as an emergency or as a special maintenance/rehabilitation need).Figure 1.3.6 shows the final Summary Form for the IWMD Channel Maintenance Plan.Figure 1.3.6 Summary Form for the IWMD Channel Maintenance Plan34 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.3 Integrated Maintenance7. Annex: Guidelines for Proper Maintenance MethodsCategory ofMaintenanceWorksWeed ControlWorksSilt and GarbageRemoval WorksEmbankment andBank RepairIdentificationofMaintenanceProblemSubmerged weeds of40 cm height ormore above channelbed level.Floating weedscover more than10 percent of watersurface in a certaincanal reach of 100 mlength.Embankment weedsor bushes of a heightmore than 40 cm.Silt and/or garbagecomprise more than10 percent ofchannel crosssection.Banks andembankment aredeteriorated.Proper Maintenance Method• Manual removal by long handled hand-tools (ReedSickle) in small channels (bed-width < 2 m).• Mechanical removal by mowing boat or harvestersin larger channels (bed-width > 2 m) operatedunder rotational or continuous flow. If channelsides are clear of trees and bushes, chains installedon tractors (a tractor per channel bank) can alsobe used to remove submerged weeds.• Biological weed control by Chinese grass carpscan be applied if the channel is large and operatedunder continuous flow, and if weed infestation isnot very intense. The best practice occurs whenthe fingerlings of Chinese grass carp are releasedafter mechanical removal to keep channel free ofweed throughout the year (to attain effectiveweed removal, fingerlings should be of 20–30 gmeach; a quantity of 100–120 kilogram of fingerlingsshould be released for every 10,000 m 2 of watersurface; and water quality should be suitable forfish survival).• Manual removal by long handled hand-tools (Hoeor Fork) in small channels (bed-width < 2 m).• Mechanical removal by mowing boat or harvesterswith a net in larger channels (bed-width > 2 m). Ifchannel sides are clear of trees and bushes, chainsinstalled on tractors (a tractor per channel bank)can also be used to remove floating weeds.• Install chains or stitched plastic drums at theupstream of the regulator’s gates to preventfloating weeds from clogging the gates. Cleanthese chains or stitched drums of floating weedsregularly (once every 2 weeks).• Manual removal by long handled hand-tools (SpitKnife for weeds and dauner sickle for bushes) insmall channels (bed-width < 2 m).• Mechanical removal by mowing bucket or inclinedmechanical harvesters in large channels (bed-width> 2 m).• Removal of silt and garbage by hydraulic excavatorfor canals of bed-width ≤ 10 m.• Removal of silt and garbage by drag line machinefor canals of bed-width >10 and up to 30 m.• Removal of silt and garbage by floating suction linemachines for canals of bed-width ≥ 30 m.• Stone pitching for deteriorated embankments(most common solution) or lining by plainconcrete (infrequently needed).LIFE–IWRM 35International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 1.3 Integrated MaintenanceCategory ofMaintenanceWorksGates, Bridges,Aqueducts, andSiphons RepairIdentificationofMaintenanceProblemEmbankmentpitching is less than40 cm.Existence of bushes,trees, andaccumulated weeds,silt and garbage.Occurrence ofholes, corrosion andor cracks in metalparts.Erosion of metalparts is more than25 percent of thepart thickness.Incidence of rustbetween gears andsliding parts.Proper Maintenance Method• Collect obstacles (trees, bushes, weeds, and silts)by crawler dozers and move them away bytractors.• Rehabilitate banks with compacted sand andcoarse grained gravels using motor grader,maintaining road slope as 1 percent as possible.• Rehabilitation by welding of holes and crackedparts.• Paint gates and metal parts of bridges, aqueductsand siphons.• Remove rust by sand blasting.• Lubricate between gears and sliding parts ofmechanically operated structures.Cleaning ofSubsurfaceDrainage SystemAqueducts andsiphons are cloggedby dead animals,garbage and aquaticplants.Collectors andmanholes areclogged by straw,mud, dead animals,garbage, and aquaticplants.• Remove clogging substances from pipes ofaqueducts and siphons manually or by drainageflushing machine if needed.• Remove silt that is underneath regulators gates.• Manual cleaning of collectors and manholes every2 months, or as needed.• Mechanical flushing by flushing machine ofcollectors and manholes every 6 months.36 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.1 Process for Formation of Branch Canal WaterUsers Associations (BCWUAs)ForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.IntroductionA Water User Association (WUA) is a non-governmental, non-commercial entity established andmanaged by farmers and residents of a given area who use water resources from the same source(generally a canal). The main purpose of the WUA is to collaboratively manage water resources andstructures to improve livelihoods, to resolve water-related internal conflicts, and to coordinate withthe governmental agencies managing water resources.A WUA carries out activities linked to the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the waternetwork, as permitted by the legal framework and as agreed with the water management agencies.The WUA contributes to the identification of priority maintenance activities and possibly to theimplementation, supervision, and/or funding of these activities. It is also involved in the allocation ofwater resources among its members.A WUA can be defined by three elements:• A well-defined, organized group whose membership is restricted• An asset to be managed (physical distribution system)• Volumes of water to be regularly allocated among WUA members.BackgroundWUAs in Egypt have been established during the past 15 years, with increasingly promisingresults. The first attempts were implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation(MWRI) in the late 1980s and early 1990s under the USAID-funded Egypt Water Use andManagement Project (EWUP) and the Irrigation Management Systems (IMS) Project. The USAID andWorld Bank-funded Irrigation Improvement Projects (IIP) continued by establishing mesqa WUAs,while the Fayoum Water Management Project (FWMP) formed branch canal level Water Boards.Recently, the Water Boards Project initiated the establishment of District Water Boards.Apart from the IIP projects, where WUA establishment mostly supports mesqa improvement,other projects have worked to ensure the sustainability of the WUAs. They focused on limitednumbers of associations and developed a qualitative and resource-intensive process. They also had tosensitize water users and MWRI staff about the benefits of water user participation. Raising awarenessis the most significant success so far, as more and more MWRI field staff acknowledges these benefits.Starting in 2003, the MWRI initiated the large-scale formation of Branch Canal WUAs(BCWUAs). They began with 94 BCWUAs in 4 pilot irrigation districts; now there are severalhundred throughout 5 irrigation directorates. The initial process used to establish a BCWUA wasboth time and resource-intensive. This guideline proposes a revised, streamlined BCWUA formationprocess.LIFE–IWRM 37International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.1 Process for Formation of BCWUAsWater User Participation through BCWUAsA WUA must be organized around a common source of water (usually a canal). The canalprovides both a focal point for the WUA’s activities and defines membership to the WUA. Wateruser participation is about involving water users at different levels, so different types of WUAs couldbe considered.In a country with recent experience of participation, new WUAs should be:• Small enough for WUA leaders to easily communicate and interact with members, for bothmembers and member-elected representatives to learn how such organizations shouldoperate• Large enough (i.e. represent a significant number of water users) to:• Be acknowledged as partners by the MWRI and other stakeholders• Be able to attract attention from the MWRI or leverage resources• Achieve concrete results and be credible and sustainable.The Branch Canal level strikes the right size balance since it involves several hundred waterusers. It is also the optimal level of interaction between users and MWRI engineers and managers.At the mesqa level, water issues can be dealt with on an informal basis, since only a few dozenwater users are involved. A BCWUA can also solve issues at the mesqa level. Supporting theestablishment of formal mesqa WUAs is not justified, and may be counter-productive by creating anadditional administrative layer. Moreover, since mesqas are privately owned by water users, someform of informal water user coordination has always existed at that level.Higher levels of water user participation (district, region, country) are essential. However,capacity has to be build first through BCWUAs before WUA representatives can be expected toeffectively handle larger WUAs.BCWUAs are formed to promote participatory approaches in all aspects of water management.They empower water users to better assess their needs and priorities, solve local water disputes andissues on their own, and partner with MWRI staff to solve larger-scale issues. BCWUAs cancontribute to better water management because of their ability to engage water users as activeparticipants, not passive beneficiaries. They also provide an effective communication channel betweenwater users and the MWRI. Finally, they are able to resolve conflicts among water users andcoordinate their individual needs, concerns, priorities and activities.BCWUAs can provide improvements in:• Water delivery services, because water users know water needs and can facilitate waterdistribution processes• System maintenance, because water users have field information on waterways issues andpriorities and have a high stake in ensuring effective maintenance works• Water quality, because BCWUAs can raise awareness and contribute to activities to reducethe pollution caused by uncontrolled waste releases.Increases in water use efficiency and in agricultural productivity and incomes derive from theseimprovements while reductions in O&M costs result from better decision making, improved projectdesigns, better identification of priorities, and better allocation of O&M funds.Key Principles for Large-scale Development of BCWUAsPilot BCWUA formation approaches implemented in Egypt to date have at times resulted insignificant deficiencies when considering large-scale replication:38 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.1 Process for Formation of BCWUAs• They select geographically and socially promising areas to establish BCWUAs; large-scalereplication, on the other hand, implies that entire IWMDs and directorates are to becovered, without restriction.• They institutionalize implementation teams that form BCWUAs but end up as a third partybetween water users and MWRI field staff, thus complicating communications and preventinga direct IWMD-BCWUA partnership.• They devote time and resources to the formation process itself, and less on the definition ofBCWUA functions and the strengthening of BCWUA activities.• They tend to guide MWRI staff and water users step by step along the process, withextensive technical assistance, training and awareness. This approach, while essential todemonstrate results at a pilot stage, cannot be replicated all over Egypt.• Heavy support from donor-funded projects makes for unsustainable and non-replicableresults, with limited capacity-building of MWRI staff at the local level, and limited increases inawareness among water users about the opportunities that BCWUAs represent.These approaches, while essential to demonstrate results at pilot stage, cannot be applied overlarge areas of Egypt. Large-scale replication requires that the BCWUA formation process be revised.The revised approach is based on forming BCWUAs within IWMDs using the followingprinciples:• Building awareness that BCWUAs are an opportunity with clear benefits for motivated anddetermined MWRI staff and water users• Strengthening the capacity of MWRI staff, chiefly at the IWMD level, to support BCWUAdevelopment, now and in the future• Providing a streamlined, transparent process for the formation of BCWUAs, with morefocus on activities and outputs, less on the organizational process• Empowering IWMDs to directly form BCWUAs, since this:• Promotes a direct partnership between BCWUAs and IWMDs. IWMDs are the directcontact with water users, providing and receiving information, and expressing needs andpriorities.• Reinforces the IWMD as the single MWRI contact entity at the district level. IWMDsrepresent a unique venue to coordinate all water management activities and implementwater projects, resulting in more appropriate and timely decision-making, moresustainable implementation, and significant economies of scale.• Ensures sustainability (even after project ends) by building the capacity of IWMD staff.• Reduces the cost of forming BCWUAs throughout Egypt by using existing local staffinstead of developing an implementing entity.The activities needed to implement this approach and support BCWUA formation by IWMDsinclude:• Development of guidelines and training modules to standardize the BCWUA formationprocess• Providing training—both formal classroom lessons and on-the-job coaching—for IWMD staff• Monitoring IWMD and BCWUA performance• Raising awareness about BCWUA benefits.Large-scale formation of BCWUAs implies that emphasis is placed on the opportunity that theseassociations represent. Some associations may initially be inactive or inefficient because of pre-existingcommunity conflicts, lack of willingness, or focus on other (not water related) issues. This is expectedLIFE–IWRM 39International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.1 Process for Formation of BCWUAsfrom large-scale implementation, and it is assumed that weaker BCWUAs will eventually catch upwhen they see how other BCWUAs achieve concrete results and generate tangible benefits.Process OverviewThe BCWUA formation process involves five main steps:• Introduction/Orientation: MWRI officers (especially IWMD managers) get acquaintedwith the BCWUA formation process, and a Water Advisory (WA) Team is selected fromwithin the IWMD staff and assigned in each IWMD.• Preparation: geographical and social data is collected to identify where BCWUAs will beformed and to identify key water users.• Establishment: Key water users are informed about BCWUAs, sensitized to the benefits,and convened to elect Boards.• Activation: BCWUA Boards collaborate with IWMD staff to identify key issues, assesssolutions, and decide on actions and activities to be implemented.• Participatory Water Management (PWM): BCWUAs get involved in several activitiesunder four general themes: water distribution, maintenance of waterways and structures,water quality, and communications and administration.Tables 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 give an overview of the process for BCWUA formation and a work planfor forming BCWUAs within a single IWMD.Training ActivitiesBCWUA formation by IWMDs is to be supported through formal (classroom) training and onthe-jobcoaching.Five formal training activities are needed:1. Introduction Workshop for IWMD managers, covering BCWUA benefits,formation process, WA staff selection, and management (2 days)2. Preparation Workshop for IWMD–WA staff, covering BCWUA benefits,formation process, field data collection, and canal grouping (2 days)3. Establishment Workshop for IWMD–WA staff, covering communications andawareness, identification of representatives, and Board elections (2 days)4. Activation Workshop for IWMD–WA staff, covering internal regulations,principles and practice of participatory needs assessments and participatory planning(3 days)5. PWM Workshop for IWMD staff, covering principles of PWM, PWM applied towater distribution, network maintenance, water quality, organization, and administration(3 days).These training courses target mostly IWMD staff and provide them with the background,procedures, and tools to establish, activate, and empower BCWUAs.Continuing on-the-job training will be essential. IWMD staff has already demonstrated they cancarry out all the steps leading to meaningful water user participation through BCWUAs. Butsignificant and consistent technical advice is needed. This should be achieved through monitoring ofprogress and performance, and through regular (at least monthly) meetings with technical advisors(from the General Directorates and from MWRI, Cairo).40 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.1 Process for Formation of BCWUAsTable 2.1.1Overview of Process for BCWUA FormationStep Objective Support Activities Duration OutputIntroductionTo raiseawareness of localMWRI staff aboutwater userparticipationIntroduction/Orientation Training1 month Mobilized IWMDstaff, formedIWMD–WA TeamPreparationTo gatherinformation onbranch canals andwater usersPreparation, training,and support to datacollection1–2 months List of BCWUAs tobe formed in eachIWMDEstablishmentTo establishBCWUAsEstablishment trainingand support toBCWUAestablishment4–5 months Elected Board oneach BCWUA,MOUs signed withMWRIActivationTo strengthenBCWUAs andbuild partnershipswith IWMD staffActivation training,support to IWMD–BCWUAcommunications,regular coordinationmeetings, and supportto joint planning(Branch Canal(BC) priorities,BC Action Plans)5–7 months Internal regulations,BC priorities, andBC action plansdeveloped byBCWUAsParticipatoryWaterManagement(PWM)To engageBCWUAs inidentifying andcarrying out PWMactivitiesPWM training andsupport to PWMactivitiesPermanentBCWUAs engage inPWM activities,produce concreteoutputs, and bringtangible benefits totheir membersMore detail on the process and on the support activities is provided in the guidelines 2.2 to 2.10.LIFE–IWRM 41International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.1 Process for Formation of BCWUAsTable 2.1.2Work Plan for Forming BCWUAs in One IWMD42 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.1 Process for Formation of BCWUAsImplementation TeamBCWUA formation is to be implemented at the district level as shown in table 2.1.3:Table 2.1.3BCWUA Formation Implementation TeamPosition No TasksIWMD manager 1 Provides overall strategy/planning and targets, supervisesimplementation, and reports progress to General Directorand IWMUIWMD–WA Engineer 1 Lead the IWMD–WA Team, plan and directly superviseBCWUA formation activities, reports to IWMD managerIWMD–WA senior staff 2–3 Lead the WA groups in their work, facilitate meetings withWater User Representatives (WURs) and BCWUA Boards,organize Board elections, facilitate establishment andactivation of BCWUAs, report to IWMD–WA EngineerIWMD–WA staff(groups of 2–3, about onegroup per 8–10,000feddans)IWMD–WA staff (women):Ideally one womantechnician per group8–12 Implement BCWUA formation: collect data from the field,raise awareness among water users, convene WURs formeeting and for Board elections, report to IWMD–WAEngineer2–3 Responsible for awareness and mobilization of female waterusers (notably from residential areas), report to IWMD–WAEngineerLIFE–IWRM 43International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.2 BCWUA Establishment by IWMDsForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Establishment StepsThe establishment of BCWUAs within an IWMD is officially initiated by Ministerial Decree (seeTemplate 2.2a). It is then carried out by IWMD staff, with technical support from the GeneralDirectorate and from MWRI, Cairo.The establishment process involves these steps:1. Assignment of Water Advisory (WA) Staff: the IWMD manager assigns about 12field-experienced and dynamic IWMD staff to implement BCWUA establishment. Thisteam is headed by an engineer or senior technician (see Guideline 2.3).2. Data Collection: IWMD–WA staff collects geographical and social data on the branchcanals and water users. This data is essential to establish lists of water users and planactual establishment of BCWUAs (see Guideline 2.4).3. Canal Grouping: based on the data collected, the BCWUAs to be established aredefined on a schematic of the district (see Guideline 2.5).4. Identification of Water User Representatives (WURs): one or several individualwater users on each mesqa/turnout along the branch canal are identified and nominatedto represent the water users on that mesqa/turnout. WURs are the general assembly ofthe BCWUA, electing the Board and approving important planning decisions (seeGuideline 2.6).5. Board Election: WURs elect the BCWUA Board, headed by a chairperson. The Boardis the executive head of the BCWUA, coordinating with MWRI staff and taking day-todaydecisions (see Guideline 2.7).6. Confirmation through BCWUA Establishment Decree: the establishment of theBCWUA and the names of the Board members and chairperson are confirmed througha decree signed by the MWRI Undersecretary. This decree (one per BCWUA) informsall MWRI staff to duly acknowledge and collaborate with the BCWUA and its Boardmembers (see Template 2.7b).Experience shows that not all water users within a district can be involved in BCWUAs. Waterusers that take water directly from a main canal may not be engaged through BCWUAs, but withproper planning, at least 80 percent of the irrigated area should be covered by BCWUAs.Discussion GuideThe mobilization of water users and the establishment of BCWUAs is also supported throughdistribution of a copy of the Discussion Guide. This Guide is available from the Central IWMU and itcovers these topics:• What is a BCWUA?44 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.2 BCWUA Establishment by IWMDs• What Do BCWUAs Do?• How is a BCWUA Structured?• How is a BCWUA Formed?• What are the Benefits?• How do BCWUAs Collaborate with the MWRI?• BCWUAs are an Opportunity.WA staff should use this Guide during all meetings with water users during the establishmentprocess.Each BCWUA should receive one copy of this Discussion Guide. Board members and WURs areencouraged to use it to sensitize other water users to the benefits of participation.Monitoring and EvaluationThe progress of BCWUA establishment is monitored by the IWMD manager through theEstablishment Monitoring/Summary, table 2.2.1. This table is also useful for compiling vital data aboutthe water users to be involved in BCWUAs.Related Guidelines2.2a BCWUA Initiation Ministerial Decree Template2.3 BCWUA Establishment: Selection of WA Staff2.4 Data Collection2.5 BCWUA Establishment: Canal Groupings2.6 BCWUA Establishment: WU Awareness, Identification of WUR2.7 BCWUA Establishment: Board Election2.7b BCWUA Establishment Decree TemplateLIFE–IWRM 45International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.2 BCWUA Establishment by IWMDsTable 2.2.1BCWUA Establishment Monitoring/Summary46 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.2a BCWUA Initiation Ministerial DecreeMINISTER OF WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATION• After reviewing Irrigation and Drainage Law Number 12 of Year 1984 and its executivebylaw,• And according to the policy of ministry to support the concept of involving water users inmanaging irrigation systems,• And our Decision Number 541 of Year 2004 about IWMDs,• And what is presented to us by the Head of the IWM unit,• And the agreement signed on 30 September 2003 between the Government of Egypt andUSAID concerning the Livelihood and Income from the Environment program,• And our approval.Clause 1The IWMD inis to establish BCWUAs on the following branch canals:•••Clause 2The IWMD is to be supported by the IWMU as it establishes the associations on the canalsspecified in Clause 1.Clause 3The Undersecretary of Water Resources and Irrigation in the governorate ofwill issue decrees of BCWUAs establishment.Clause 4BCUWA tasks and responsibilities include:• Representing all water users in the canal command area before all specified organizations• Participating in monitoring irrigation/drainage conditions in their area, discussing anyproposals and suggest convenient solutions to improve the efficiency of irrigation anddrainage operations• Participating in applying water rotation on the branch canal level and its branches• Cooperating with irrigation staff in formulating maintenance priorities within the availablegovernmental funds and water users’ contribution• Supporting the establishment of WUAs on the mesqa level• Initiating awareness campaigns for water users to prevent pollution and optimize water use• Managing the conflict resolution process in collaboration with specified organizationsLIFE–IWRM 47International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.2a BCWUA Initiation Ministerial Decree• Organizing regular meetings to review operation and maintenance programs and financialstatus of the association• Setting up the basics for financial accountability• Formulating internal regulations• Developing annual work plans.Clause 5The Chairman of the BCWUA (or one of the Board members) will present meeting minutes tothe IWMD Manager for review and suitable decisions.Clause 6The specified General Directorate review proposals offered by the BCWUA, undertake technicalstudies, and present results to the Undersecretary who will make appropriate decisions.Clause 7All organizations are to execute the Decree according to their mandate.Minister of Water Resources and IrrigationDate48 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.3 BCWUA EstablishmentSelection of WA StaffForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Role and Responsibilities of the Water Advisory TeamThe Water Advisory (WA) Team will be responsible for establishing and strengthening BCWUAsin the IWMD. This involves:• Collecting physical and social data on the water network and on water users• Planning the establishment of BCWUAs by identifying the area of each BCWUA• Raising awareness among water users about the benefits of water user participation andBCWUAs• Identifying base units within each BCWUA and key water users to act as representatives• Educating representative water users about their roles and responsibilities• Facilitating elections of BCWUA Boards and educating Board members about their roles andresponsibilities• Facilitating preparation by BCWUAs and the IWMD of participatory needs assessments andannual plans• Organizing signings of MOUs and other legal documents between the MWRI and BCWUAs• Facilitating the dialogue between IWMD staff and BCWUA Boards• Monitoring the activities of BCWUAs, evaluating their performance, and assessing additionaltraining needs• Sensitizing other IWMD staff to the benefits of water user participation and BCWUAs• Training and supporting BCWUAs to strengthen their organizational capacity to function asdemocratic, accountable, and transparent associations• Training and supporting BCWUAs to develop technical skills and carry out some operationaland maintenance activities on canals and drains• Reporting to the IWMD director.Within the IWMD organization, the IWMD–WA Team reports to the IWMD manager. The WATeam will receive technical assistance, training, and guidance from MWRI entities such as CD–IAS andIWMU, as well as from donor-funded projects such as LIFE–IWRMP.Size and Qualifications of the WA TeamExperience shows that a motivated and dynamic technician can form three to five average size(each 1,500–2,000 feddans) BCWUAs within a year. Applying as rule of thumb a ratio of one staff per5,000 feddans, the IWMD–WA Team should include the following:• One WA engineer as head of the IWMD–WA Team• Two or three other engineers (possibly agricultural engineers) or senior technicians to act asdeputies to the WA engineerLIFE–IWRM 49International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.3 BCWUA Establishment: Selection of WA Staff• A group of eight–twelve technicians.The following criteria should be used for the selection of this WA Team:• Active and willing persons• Experience working in the field and interacting with farmers and water users• Good communication skills (more important than technical skills)• Already convinced or easy to convince that water user participation in an IWRM makes forbetter and more informed decision-making, and more efficient use of resources.Women should be given equal opportunity in this recruitment process. It is absolutely essentialthat several women be included in the WA Team, as only they can mobilize female water users andpromote their participation. Since it is strongly recommended that representative water users fromresidential/urban areas be women, female WA Team members are also needed to that end. At leastone woman staff should be present in each IWMD–WA group. If this is not possible, then WA femalestaff can collaborate with several WA groups.Specific Responsibilities within the IWMD–WA TeamThe WA Engineer is specifically responsible for:• Planning BCWUA activities within the IWMD, under the guidance and supervision of theIWMD manager• Guiding, supervising, and monitoring the WA Team• Reporting progress to the head of the Planning Section and the IWMD manager• Organizing the signature of MOUs and other legal documents between the MWRI andBCWUAs• Monitoring the activities of BCWUAs and assessing additional training needs• Facilitating the dialogue between IWMD staff and BCWUA Boards• Sensitizing other IWMD staff to the benefits of Water User Participation and BCWUAs.The Senior WA Technicians are specifically responsible for:• Monitoring the activities of the various groups and assisting them when needed• Leading the meetings with Water User Representatives• Attending and facilitating Board elections• Educating Board members as to their roles and responsibilities• Facilitating other BCWUA meetings when required by BCWUAs• Facilitating the preparation and implementation by BCWUAs and the IWMD of participatoryneeds assessments and annual plans• Monitoring the activities and performance of BCWUAs• Reporting progress to the WA Engineer.The Other WA Technicians are responsible for:• Collecting data required for BCWUA formation and strengthening• Raising awareness among water users about the benefits of Water User Participation andBCWUAs• Identifying Water User Representatives (WURs) within each Base Unit (BU). See Guideline2.6 for an explanation of BCWUA structure.• Informing and mobilizing Water User Representatives regarding Board elections• Collecting data to monitor the activities and performance of BCWUAs• Reporting progress to the WA Engineer.50 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.4 BCWUA EstablishmentData CollectionForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Objectives of the Data Collection ActivityData Collection is the first step in forming BCWUAs. The objective of the activity is to gatherstructural and water user information on the branch canals within the IWMD. This data is needed to:• Characterize the hydrological network• Identify key individuals that will be used to gather additional data and to raise awarenessabout BCWUA participation• Divide the IWMD into hydrological coherent sub-units for the identification of BCWUArepresentatives• Plan the subsequent BCWUA formation activities in terms of time and resources to beallocated.The subsequent activity in the BCWUA formation process is Canal Grouping—the identificationof where BCWUAs are to be formed and their boundaries.DefinitionsIrrigation networks in Egypt are organized into different levels of canals:• Carrier or main canals: these primary canals divert water from the Nile and convey it tosmaller canals. The areas served can cover up to several hundred thousand feddans.• Branch Canals: These are secondary canals that take water from main canals and distributeit to smaller canals—mesqas and marwas. They represent the last level of public property,and the responsibility of the MWRI stops with branch canals. The areas served cover from afew hundreds to several thousands feddans.• Mesqas: These are tertiary canals and are privately owned by farmers. They take off frombranch canals, either directly (gate) or indirectly (pump). They are usually below ground levelin the Delta and serve a few dozens feddans (up to 200–300 feddans in the Delta).• Marwas: These are quaternary canals or private farm ditches. They take off from mesqas(through individual diesel pumps in the Delta) and directly supply water to farmers’ plots.They usually serve fewer than a few dozen feddans.• Offtake (on a branch canal): This is any diversion of water into a privately-owned mesqa,marwa, or plot, either directly (gate) or indirectly (pump).• Key Farmer: This is a farmer to whom other farmers turn to get advice on agricultural andirrigation issues, and often to represent them to MWRI staff. This person is not necessarily asecular or religious leader or a local councilman. He is a natural leader, respected for hisknowledge, wisdom, and initiative.LIFE–IWRM 51International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.4 BCWUA Establishment: Data CollectionData Collection: Types of Data and ProceduresThe data to be collected on each branch canal include geographical information (areas served andmain structures) as well as population data (names of water users along mesqas/offtakes andidentification of main villages).On each branch canal, IWMD staff has to:• Prepare a simple diagram of the branch canal (see example next page), indicating its network(sub-branches), its main structures (head and cross-regulators, weirs, and bridges), and all themesqas and off-takes; this inventory should be carried out through field visits and wouldbenefit greatly from the presence of the gate operator or bahari.• Identify the area served by each mesqa/offtake, collect the names of all farmers, and thecontact information for several key farmers. This information should be collected fromfarmers in the field (preferably several different farmers to improve the reliability of theinformation). The required number of names is given below:Area Served by Mesqa and Turnout(feddans)Number of Key Names to beCollected1–25 125–50 250–120 3120–180 4180+ 6• Identify (by asking farmers) what are the three main places where people who live along thebranch canal gather and where information could be provided to them (such as a mosque, anagricultural cooperative, or a health unit).• Collect information on population distribution (from the Local Councils or subdivisions ofthe administrative districts–markaz). This means identifying all villages of more than20 households that are along branch canals (houses less than 20 m from the canal). Alsocollect contact information (names of representatives) for the Local Councils.Data Collection FormsTwo data collection forms (see Guideline 2.4a) are to be used:o Branch canal data collection formo Mesqa–offtake data collection form.The name of the Branch Canal must be indicated on each form. Each form must also benumbered individually and in reference to the total number of similar forms (e.g. 2/3 means that this isthe second form out of a total of three similar forms).One Branch Canal data collection form is to be completed for the Branch Canal and for each ofits sub-branches. One Mesqa-offtake data collection form is to be filled for each mesqa or offtake. Allinformation on the form is to be completed.52 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.4 BCWUA Establishment: Data CollectionLIFE–IWRM 53International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.4a Data Collection TablesForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Mesqa–Offtake Data Collection Form (1)One form (with follow-up forms) to be filled for each mesqa–offtakeName of Branch Canal Name of Mesqa–Offtake No. Sheet/Area served by mesqa–offtake (feddans)Names and contact information for key water usersIf offtake, what lifting device? (pump?)If mesqa, is it improved?Names of Farmers54 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.4a Data Collection FormsMesqa–Offtake Data Collection Follow-up Form (2)Name of Branch Canal Name of Mesqa–Offtake No. Sheet/Names of FarmersBranch Canal (BC) Data Collection Form (1)One form (with follow-up forms) to be filled for each branch canal and sub-branchName of Branch Canal Area served (feddans) Length (km) No. sheetFeeder CanalName of Surveyor/Description of the BC command area (limits)Is BC under one rotation block or several?Names of 3 main gathering places (mosque, agricultural cooperative, or health center)Names of Local Unit(s) covering BC command areaLIFE–IWRM 55International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.4a Data Collection FormsNo.Inventory of Sub-branches, Structures, Villages, and Mesqas–Off-takesLocationkm Bank Type Name CharacteristicsLocation= km from BC intake/head regulatorBank = R right or L leftType = S structure, SB sub-branch, PO pump off-take or M mesqa, V villageCharacteristicsSub-branch canal: length (km) and area served (feddans)Structure: type (regulator, weir, bridge)Mesqa–off-take: area served (feddans)Village: number of households56 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.4a Data Collection FormsBranch Canal (BC) Data Collection Follow-up Form (2)Name of Branch Canal Area served (feddans) Length (km) No. sheet/No.Inventory of Sub-branches, Structures, Villages, and Mesqas–Off-takesLocationkm Bank Type Name CharacteristicsLocation= km from BC intake/head regulatorBank = R right or L leftType = S structure, SB sub-branch, PO pump off-take or M mesqa, V villageCharacteristicsSub-branch canal: length (km) and area served (feddans)Structure: type (regulator, weir, bridge)Mesqa–off-take: area served (feddans)Village: number of householdsLIFE–IWRM 57International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.5 BCWUA Establishment:Canal GroupingForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Objectives of the Canal Grouping ActivityThe first step in forming BCWUAs is data collection, gathering geographical and socialinformation on the main and branch canals within the IWRM.Canal Grouping is the next activity, and leads to the identification of the BCWUAs to be formed,and their boundaries.Canal Grouping CriteriaCanal grouping is mostly a planning activity that should be carried out by the IWMD–WAengineer using the schematic of the IWMD and the list of branch canals with the size of theircommand areas.Grouping criterion: the optimal size of BCWUAs should be from 1,000 to 4,000 feddans in theDelta, and from 700 to 3,000 feddans in Upper Egypt. This size strikes a balance between the need forgood internal communications (which requires small BCWUAs) and the need for good collaborationwith IWMD staff (which favors a smaller number of large BCWUAs).Comments:• The success of BCWUAs rests on the important principle of commonality: associationsfunction if people share common interests and concerns. In terms of irrigation, this translatesideally into: “one intake, one canal, one group of people.” The average size of branch canalcommand areas is 1,500–2,000 feddans in the Delta, and 1,000 feddans in Upper Egypt (inboth cases, this is old lands).• Ensuring homogeneity in the size of the BCWUAs is also critical. If some associations aremuch larger than others, IWMD and MWRI staff will tend to devote more time and attentionto larger ones. If BCWUAs are going to successfully collaborate at district level (withinfederations or other mechanisms), size homogeneity is also essential.• Bigger sized associations are not recommended as they would:− Be more difficult to manage as democratic organizations− Risk breaking up into several sub-groups, based on village, reach or branch divisions− Jeopardize the direct link between water users and their representatives.• Conversely, smaller size associations should be avoided as they would:− Have less leverage and credibility, and be less efficient− Get less attention from MWRI staff who would have to deal with too many associations.Following the above procedure should result in most water users being involved in BCWUAs,with the number of BCWUAs being 15 to 30 for an average sized IWMD (40,000–50,000 feddans).58 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.5 BCWUA Establishment: Canal GroupingCanal Grouping ProcedureThe first step is to identify and list all Branch Canals that have an obvious intake and whosecommand area fit the size criterion (1,000–4,000 feddans in Lower Egypt, 700–3,000 feddans in UpperEgypt). Each of these canals is to be the basis for one BCWUA.The rest of the IWMD command area falls under three categories:3. Smaller-size branch or sub-branch canals (less than 1,000 or 700 feddans): ifpossible, these should be grouped with one or several other neighboring smallbranch or sub-branch canals (from the same main canal or same branch canal) toform one BCWUA. It is preferable if all branch canals in the grouping are in thesame rotation turn. It is also important to ensure there are no conflicts or disputesamong the farmers that would undermine such a grouping.4. Larger size branch canals (more than 3,000–4,000 feddans): these should be dividedinto two or several areas that fit the size criterion. Using a specific structure such asa cross-regulator or the existence of sub-branches is the best approach to thisdivision. Each subdivision will be the basis to form one BCWUA. If some of the subbranchesare not in the same rotation, turn, or block, this can also be used as thebasis for division.5. Direct irrigation: some areas may be irrigated directly from the main canal, notablythrough “direct” mesqas, and not from branch canals. The corresponding waterusers should still be included in an association. Several neighboring “direct” mesqascan be grouped into a BCWUA. Minimal size criterion should be respected, as longas the mesqas involved remain close to each other (less than 5–6 km). Groupingsuch a “direct” mesqa with a neighboring BCWUA is not recommended as thewater users from the mesqa will have no interest in branch canal issues, will be aminority within the larger group, and will not be adequately represented within theBCWUA Board.There can be difficult situations such as:• Areas with complex and severe social conflicts between communities• Isolated small areas (e.g. islands) that cannot be grouped to reach significant size• Areas under direct irrigation along main canals.In such cases, the formation of BCWUAs can be postponed until users themselves request suchan organization after seeing the benefits accruing to neighboring BCWUAs.Final OutputThe last activity is to prepare a list of all BCWUAs to be formed in the IWMD, along with aschematic of the IWMD showing where these BCWUAs are located (see example at the end of thisguideline). This list should be approved by the IWMD Director and the General Director, and will bethe basis for the Ministerial Decree that will launch the actual formation in the IWMD.In parallel, the diagrams/schematics of all branch canals should also be compiled in a folder, alongwith the names of key water users and contacts. This will be the basic information needed to formBCWUAs.Special Note Regarding Merging Existing BCWUAsIn the past, small BCWUAs have been formed in some areas. Such BCWUAs should, if possible,be merged with others to satisfy the size criterion.The procedure for merging two existing BCWUAs can be as follows:LIFE–IWRM 59International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.5 BCWUA Establishment: Canal Grouping1. Bring together the two Representative Assemblies or two groups of WURs.2. Explain the need for a merger and how it will be accomplished, beginning with electing a newBoard (the two Boards could simply be merged together to be the new Board, if they aresmall, but a new chairman still has to be elected).3. Facilitate a newly elected Board through one or several meetings.60 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.5 BCWUA Establishment: Canal Grouping111111112 211LIFE–IWRM 61International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.6 BCWUA Establishment:WU Awareness and WUR IdentificationForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Water User Awareness ActivitiesThe BCWUA will generally be the first nongovernmental organization (NGO) with whichfarmers, residents, and other water users are involved. During the period leading up to the election ofthe BCWUA Board it will be critical to conduct awareness activities that provide as much informationas possible regarding:• Objectives and functions of BCWUAs• Benefits from BCWUAs• Roles and responsibilities of Water User Representatives (WUR) and Board members• Process for forming BCWUAs.Please refer to the “Discussion Guide to share with Water Users” which can be obtained fromthe Integrated Water Management Unit of the Central Office if not locally available. It is acomprehensive tool that covers all the following topics:• What is a BCWUA?• What do BCWUAs do?• How is a BCWUA structured?• How is a BCWUA formed?• What are the BCWUA Benefits?• How do BCWUAs collaborate with MWRI?• BCWUAs are an Opportunity!The Discussion Guide can be used by MWRI staff to educate oneself and also as a support tointroduce BCWUA to water users and answer their questions.Structure of a BCWUAEach BCWUA organization includes:• All farmers and residents within the designated area of the BCWUA (usually the commandarea of a BC) as rightful members of the BCWUA• WURs each representing a Base Unit (turnout or mesqa) i.e. 10–50 farmers, see their rolenext page; collectively these WURs form a Representative Assembly, (RA) which can be aformal organization or an informal assemblage of farmer representatives. The final decisionfor this to be made by the branch canal water users.62 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.6 BCWUA Establishment: WU Awareness and WUR Identification• A Board: five to nine members elected by the WURs, led by a chairperson, and acting asexecutive head of the BCWUA (see guideline 2.7).Role and Responsibilities of Water User RepresentativesWater User Representatives (WURs) are individuals from sub-areas (Base Units) along a BranchCanal. The number of WURs within one BCWUA will range from 10 to 40, depending on the size ofthe area served b the BCWUA. The rationale for the number of WURs is given later in this Guideline,as are guidelines for ensuring women are included among the representatives.The first duty of the WURs within a new BCWUA is to elect the BCWUA Board. Once theBCWUA is undertaking water-related activities, the WURs become the interface between theBCWUA Board and the water users at large and the Board is accountable to the members of theBCWUA through the WURs.The WURs:• Elect and dismiss Board members• Assist the Board in data collection and communications with BCWUA members• Collect needs, concerns, and priorities from water users and integrate these in decisionmakingthat guides BCWUA activities• Approve annual reports, action plans, and budgets• Check and audit Board activities• Assist the Board with specific activities through committees established by the Board.The WURs act as support and counter-power to the BCWUA Board.Comment: In previously established BCWUAs, these WURs are sometimes members of whatis called a Representative Assembly (RA). Formalizing an RA requires significant resources for theelection and capacity building of RA members. The process described herein focuses on the simpleidentification of WURs to act in an informal manner to represent BCWUA membership to the Boardand the MWRI IWMD. Guideline 2.8b presents a discussion of the formation of a formalRepresentative Assembly should the water users choose to form an RA.Identification of Base UnitsIn order to identify WURs, the BCWUA area is divided into base units (BUs) to ensureevenhanded representation for all areas. Each BU is to nominate one or more WURs, depending onthe size of its area. The dividing of the BCWUA into base units is carried out by considering bothagricultural and residential base units (ABUs and RBUs).The BCWUA area is first partitioned into ABUs. Each ABU should cover the area served by oneor several mesqa/turnout(s) along the Branch Canal, with an optimal size of between 50 and 250feddans. If the area served by a mesqa or offtake is too small, then it should be grouped with a similarneighboring area. Conversely, an area that is too large should be divided into two (or more) ABUs.The number of representatives to be designated in each ABU is based on size (see table below), withan average representation ratio of one WUR per 75-100 feddans (i.e. per 10 to 50 farm households).The number of WURs needed from an ABU is defined as follows:LIFE–IWRM 63International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.6 BCWUA Establishment: WU Awareness and WUR IdentificationArea served by mesqa/turnout(feddans)Small BCWUA(< 2,000 fed)Large BCWUAs(> 2,000 fed)Number ofWURsComments1–50 1–75 —To be grouped with anotherturnout to cover at least 50 or75 feddans50–120 75–150 1 —120–180 150–250 2 —180+ 250+Mesqa command area shouldbe divided into two ABUsThis means that for a small BCWUA (700 to 2,000 feddans), there will be from 10 to 25 WURswhile BCWUAs covering more than 2,000 feddans will have 20 to 40 WURs.In order to have BCWUAs deal with water management and not solely focus on irrigation anddrainage matters, the BCWUA also includes representatives from residential areas. The number ofrepresentatives from RBUs should be one-third of the number of representatives from ABUs, bringingthe total number of WURs for one BCWUA from 12 to 50 members, depending on the areacovered. This is large enough for the WURs to be representative and small enough to allow effectivemeetings.RBUs will be from all villages and settlements within the BCWUA area that include at least50 households (see identification process for the representatives below).Comment: in the future, a higher proportion of residential representatives should beconsidered, especially in urban areas. Likewise, consideration can be given to representatives fromindustrial areas in future.Identification of WURsIdentifying ABU representatives:• During the preparation phase for forming BCWUAs, WA staff have to identify several keywater users along each turnout (Refer to Guideline 2.4, Data Collection and 2.4a, DataCollection Tables)• Canal grouping at the end of the preparation phase will define where to form BCWUAs(Refer to Guideline 2.5, Canal Grouping)• At the beginning of the establishment phase, WA staff will:− Delineate Agricultural Base Units− Convene the key water users in small groups (20–30 people) within each ABU− Present the BCWUA concept and benefits− Ask for names of potential WURs (key water users can volunteer or provide names ofappropriate people; nominees may be asked to gather approvals—in the form ofsignatures—from farmers within the ABU).It may take two or three meetings to raise awareness and identify WURs within each ABU.Identifying RBU representatives:• During the preparation phase for forming BCWUAs, WA staff have to identify the mainvillages and urbanized areas along the Branch Canal, and collect contact information of64 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.6 BCWUA Establishment: WU Awareness and WUR Identificationcorresponding Local Popular Councils (Refer to Guideline 2.4, Data Collection and 2.4a,Data Collection Tables)• At the beginning of the establishment phase, WA staff should meet with representatives ofLocal Popular Councils, present the BCWUA concept and benefits and ask them to give ashort-list of resident families who could represent water users• Based on that short-list, women technicians from the IWMD–WA Team interview womenfrom these resident families, present the BCWUA purpose and benefits, and assess theirinterest, as well as their status and standing among their neighbors• The end goal is to identify a number of WURs (including women) from RBUs that is onethirdof the number of WURs from ABUs; initially villages/settlements close to the canalshould be given the priority.Once all WURs are identified, they meet for further awareness training and, eventually, to electthe Board.Meetings of WURsThe WURs convene at least once a year for the BCWUA Board to present past and ongoingactivities, and request approval of proposed activities. Every 3 years, the WURs will also be convenedto re-elect the Board members. During all meetings, a quorum of at least 50 percent is required forvoted decisions to be valid.If a WUR cannot attend such a meeting, he/she can be replaced, as long as the substituterepresentative belongs to the same ABU or RBU. If a WUR wishes to not to be a representativeanymore, he/she should also be replaced by someone who belongs to the same ABU or RBU. Thename of the new WUR should be duly registered by the BCWUA BoardRelated Guidelines2.4 Data Collection2.4a Data Collection TablesLIFE–IWRM 65International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.6a Nomination of WURs(minutes)ForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.General directorate of water resources inIWMD inIAS departmentABU/RBU ElectionDate:Venue:Name of BCWUA:ABU/RBU Number:Name Signature Name SignatureNumber of attendee isapproved the nomination of:out of total number of ABU/RBU members. The attendee1. Name:2. Name:66 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.6a Nomination of WURs (minutes)As Water User Representative for this unit:Name:Signature:WA Engineer:Name:Signature:LIFE–IWRM 67International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.7 BCWUA Establishment:Board ElectionForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Building the Capacity of Water User Representatives (WURs)Once WURs have been identified, several meetings (possibly more) should be held with them toraise their awareness regarding:• Objectives and functions of BCWUAs• Benefits from BCWUAs• Roles and responsibilities of Board members.These meetings will also help them to get better acquainted with each other. Depending on thenumber of WURs, these meetings can be held with the entire group or by sub-groups (for examplewithin each reach—upstream, middle, and downstream—of the branch canal).One such preparatory meeting is needed shortly before the actual BCWUA Board electionmeeting, in order to:• Review the election procedures in detail, and address questions and misunderstandings thatcould be disruptive and time-consuming during the election meeting.• Provide time for WURs to select and sort candidates among themselves.• Allow nominees to lobby and campaign for Board membership.Role and Responsibilities of BCWUA BoardsThe Board is the executive head of the BCWUA. As such, the Board manages the day-to-dayrunning of BCWUA activities and handles external relations. The Board is mandated to:• Mediate and resolve irrigation, drainage, and water management conflicts among BCWUAmembers.• Collect and integrate BCWUA members’ needs, complaints, and requests and communicatethese to IWMD staff.• Lead the preparation of BCWUA strategic plans such as needs assessments and action plans(possibly budgets in the future), and monitor their implementation.• Regularly meet with IWMD staff to discuss water management issues, evaluate solutions,decide and plan activities, and monitor their implementation.• Negotiate and conclude agreements with MWRI for the supply of irrigation, drainage, andwater services and the implementation of specific related activities.• Formally or informally report to WURs and to BCWUA members at large on Boardactivities and on their meetings with IWMD staff.• Hold regular (preferably monthly) Board meetings.• Hold at least two annual meetings with all WURs.68 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.7 BCWUA Establishment: Board Election• Manage external relations, in particular with MWRI, MALR, other ministries, and localgovernment entities.Composition of the BCWUA BoardThe size of the BCWUA Board can vary from five to nine members. There is sometimes atendency to enlarge the Board size to include more persons and interests. This is not recommendedfor the effectiveness of the Board as an executive, decision-making entity. Larger Boards will spendmore time meeting and may not operate effectively.Small-size BCWUAs (up to 2,000 feddans) should limit the size of their Board to five members asfollows:• The Chairperson• One representative elected among the WURs representing residents (RBUs)• Three representatives elected among the WURs representing farmers (ABUs), one from theupstream reach of the BC, one from the middle reach, and one from the downstream reach.Larger BCWUAs (more than 2,000 feddans) can either limit the size of their Board to fivemembers as well, or enlarge it to nine members as follows:• The Chairperson• Two representatives elected among the WURs representing RBUs• Six representatives elected among the WURs representing ABUs, two from each of thethree reaches—upstream, middle and downstream.Membership on the BCWUA Board is voluntary and non-salaried. Board eligibility criteria include:• Being a member of the BCWUA• Not being MWRI staff• Enjoying full civil voting rights• Living, farming, or owning property in the BCWUA command area.Ideally, every BCWUA Board should present a combination of skills and capacities to deal withsuch diverse topics as:• Irrigation and drainage• Water management• Environmental issues• Planning and monitoring• Communication with MWRI• Communication with BCWUA members• Organization and facilitation of meetings• Bookkeeping and budgeting.Positions within the BCWUA BoardThe positions are the following: Chairperson, Treasurer, and Secretary.The responsibilities of the Chairperson are to:• Call and chair all meetings pertaining to the BCWUA• Call, participate, and represent the BCWUA in meetings with external parties• Coordinate and supervise the activities of the BCWUA Board.LIFE–IWRM 69International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.7 BCWUA Establishment: Board ElectionThe responsibilities of the Secretary are to:• Prepare and distribute agendas for and minutes of all BCWUA meetings• Maintain all BCWUA records, correspondence, files, and databases• Make these records and files available to all WURs• Report to the BCWUA Chairperson.At present (2007), the BCWUAs do not have the legal right to collect funds from their membership.There is an ongoing effort to modify pertinent laws to allow for the collection of funds and since thetiming of implementation of such new laws is unknown, it is recommended that a Treasurer beinstalled in order to be prepared for the time that collection of funds will become legal. Also, it isanticipated that some BCWAUs may obtain donations from NGOs or others and therefore aTreasurer will be needed to keep financial records when and if funds become available for BCWAUactivities.While the Chairperson is elected directly by the WURs, the assignment of the other positionswill be carried out internally by the Board members once elected.Elections of Chairperson and BoardThe Board Election is essentially a meeting of the WURs with the election as a major item on theagenda. Representatives from the IWMD (such as the IWMD director and/or IWMD–WA engineer)and other local officials are requested to attend to verify results and oversee the election process.Comment: For a new BCWUA, this event is also the opportunity to increase the awareness ofWURs and to capture as much interest as possible (possibly by inviting other officials from MWRI,MALR, and the local council). Re-elections may be simpler events, limited to WURs, and with alimited number of outside guests and spectators.The success of the meeting depends on proper preparation of election materials, and onfollowing a strict agenda. The preparations for a Board election meeting require the following:• Establishing a list of WURs, identified as representing ABU or RBU, and if from an ABU,sorted per location (up, middle, or downstream reach)• Identifying and inviting IWMD staff and other local officials• Preparing a map/schematic of the BC• Inviting participants and providing each with an election handout (includes agenda, remindersof election process, BCWUA concept and role of Board)• Securing a location/venue and preparing the election material (ballots, flipchart, andpens/pencils/markers).The agenda of a Board election meeting follows the following steps:• Introduction of participants• Presentation of the objective and agenda for the meeting• Verification of attendance to check eligibility to vote and to satisfy the quorum requirement• Reminder about BCWUA concept, benefits, and structure• Reminder about role and responsibilities of the Board• Explanation of the election process• Nomination of candidates for Chairperson• Secret ballot (if several candidates)• Counting and presentation of results• Official announcement of name of Chairperson70 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.7 BCWUA Establishment: Board Election• Nomination of candidates for Board (first RBU, then the three ABU reaches)• Secret ballots (if several candidates)• Counting and presentation of results• Official announcement of names of elected Board members• Recording and signing minutes of meeting.This election meeting cannot allow much time for WURs to ask questions and to clarifymisunderstandings. Because the functioning of the Board will directly impact the success andcredibility of the BCWUA, enough attention should be given to ensuring that the WURs have a goodunderstanding of the objectives and process of the elections. This is why the preparatory meetingsmentioned earlier are essential before the Board election meeting.Women should be given equal opportunity in this election process. It is absolutely essential thatfemale water users participate in the election as voters and candidates.LIFE–IWRM 71International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.7a Board Election(minutes)ForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.General directorate of water resources inIWMD inIAS departmentDate:Venue:Name of BCWUA:Election of BCWUA Board MembersThe purpose of the meeting was for Water User Representatives (WURs) to elect the BCWUAChairman and Board members.Total number of attendees was: of , which is the total number of WURmembers.The election was held under the supervision of the senior IWMD attendees with assistance of thetwo WUR members named below. The results of the election were:NamePost1. Chairman2. Member3. Member4. Member5. Member6. Member7. MemberWUR Members who assisted IWMD staff to supervise the elections1.2.72 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.7a Board Election (minutes)IWMD Staff1.2.3.4.IAS Engineer:Name:Signature:IWMD Manager:Name:Signature:LIFE–IWRM 73International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.7b BCWUA Establishment DecreeForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Ministry of Water Resources and IrrigationIrrigation DepartmentCentral Directorate of Water Resources and Irrigation inAdministrative Decree No.Date: / /UNDERSECRETARY OF WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATION INGOVERNORATE OFAfter reviewing:• Irrigation and Drainage Law No. 12 from year 1984 and its executive regulations,• And Procurement Law 89/1998• And Ministerial Decree / issued by H.E. Minister of Water Resourcesand Irrigation to establish a BCWUA on Branch Canal• And the results of elections held and registered in the minutes prepared by the IWMD in.Clause (1)The BCWUA board members forbranch canal(s). are:NamePost1. Chairman2. Member3. Member4. Member5. Member6. Member7. Member74 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.7b BCWUA Establishment DecreeClause (2)BCWUA tasks and responsibilities include:• Representing all water users in the canal command area before all specified organizations.• Participating in monitoring irrigation/drainage conditions in their area, discussing anyproposals, and suggesting convenient solutions to improve the efficiency of irrigation anddrainage operations.• Participating in applying water rotation on the branch canal level and its branches.• Cooperating with irrigation staff in formulating maintenance priorities within the availablegovernmental funds and water users contribution.• Supporting the establishment of WUAs on the mesqa level.• Initiating awareness campaigns for water users to prevent pollution and optimize water use.• Managing the conflict resolution process in collaboration with specified organizations.• Organizing regular meetings to review operation and maintenance programs and the financialstatus of the association.• Establishing the basics of financial accountability.• Formulating the BCWUA’s internal regulations.• Developing annual work plans.Clause (3)The Chairman of the BCWUA (or one member of the Board) will present meeting minutes toIWMD manager for review and to take suitable decisions.Clause (4)The specified general directorate will review proposals offered by the BCWUA, make technicalstudies, and present the results to the Undersecretary to take appropriate decisions.(Signed by)Undersecretary of Water Resources and Irrigation(Governorate)LIFE–IWRM 75International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.8 BCWUA ActivationForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Activation ProcessOnce established through the election of the Board and the promulgation of the establishmentdecree, each BCWUA should be promptly activated. Activation involves the following steps:1. Signing a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the MWRI (see template 2.8a). ThisMOU launches the partnership between the BCWUA and all MWRI staff. It specifically liststhe roles and responsibilities of the BCWUA and of the MWRI staff.2. Introduction and adoption by the BCWUA of the Internal Regulations (see template 2.8b).These Internal Regulations have (for the time being) limited validity. They are mostlyguidelines for the internal functioning of the BCWUA and must be finalized upon uponactivation of the BCWUA.3. Holding regular internal and external meetings. These meetings are meant to ensure propercommunications within the BCWUA and a fruitful partnership with MWRI staff.4. Carrying out of a Participatory Needs Assessment, and preparation of Branch Canal (BC)Priorities and BC Action Plan (see Guideline 2.9).Internal RegulationsA set of internal rules is needed to regulate the life of any formal organization. Various templateshave been developed through previous activities. The proposed template (see2.8b) covers thefollowing topics:• General provisions (name of BCWUA, legal references, communication rules, andmembership)• Structure and procedures for establishment and operating rules (identification and roles ofbase units and WURs, constitution and responsibilities of the Board).BCWUAs are encouraged to adopt such regulations, in order to assist them in their internalfunctioning, to provide written rules to operate, solve conflicts, and make and record decisions. Theseinternal regulations are to be seen more as guidelines for BCWUAs than as legally binding regulations.Comment: It is foreseen that an official legal template of BCWUA Internal Regulations will bedeveloped in the future.Types of MeetingsA BCWUA will be involved in two main types of formal meetings, either internal or external.Internal meetings can be:• Board Meetings: the Board members should meet regularly (at least on a monthly basis) todiscuss BC issues and prepare upcoming external meetings with MWRI staff or otherentities, related to the management of the BCWUA76 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8 BCWUA Activation• Plenary Meetings with all WURs: at least twice annually, the Board should convene allWURs and present a summary of its activities (meetings with MWRI and other entities,issues handled, decisions taken, and achievements).External meetings can be:• Meetings with MWRI staff (notably the IWMD manager and engineers)• Meetings with other entities (staff from other ministries such as MALR, or other localorganizations such as agricultural cooperatives, local NGOs, and Community DevelopmentAssociations).It is critical for both BCWUA representatives and IWMD staff to understand that meetingsshould be held on a regular basis, even if there are no pending/crucial issues to be discussed. Regularmeetings provide a forum for more relaxed dialogue among participants. They also allow participantsto proactively discuss recurrent or predictable issues much more efficiently than ad-hoc meetingsconvened when issues arise and require immediate attention and resolution (prevention is better thancorrection in terms of conflict resolution).Internal MeetingsIt is essential for the sustainability of BCWUAs to promote transparent and accountablemanagement practices. This translates into Board members having regular meetings among themselvesand plenary meetings with all WURs. It also means that all such meetings should have written andsigned minutes to record issues discussed and decisions taken.It is recommended that Board meetings occur monthly on an average; these meetings areexpected to be more frequent during summer (peak water demand) and less frequent during winter.Meetings with the WURs are recommended twice a year, preferably in March and October, atthe transitions between the summer and winter seasons. This would be an ideal time to reflect on thepast season, the issues and conflicts that occurred, how they were solved, and to plan the oncomingseason.External MeetingsMeetings with IWMD staff should be held on a regular basis, for the same reasons mentionedearlier in terms of conflict resolution. It is recommended that each IWMD manager (or hisrepresentative) meets:• Board members of each BCWUA at least twice a year, preferably once every 3 months.These meetings can be with one individual BCWUA or with two to five neighboringBCWUAs. Individual meetings are useful to discuss branch canal issues, while collectivemeetings allow the sharing of information with several BCWUAs at once and/or discussionof larger issues.• Chairpersons of all BCWUAs meet together at least twice a year, preferably in March andOctober, at the transitions between the summer and winter seasons, so as to discuss thepast season, and to plan the oncoming one. These meetings would be useful for discussion ofdistrict-level or main canal-level issues.Related Guidelines2.8a Template for MOU2.8b Template for Internal Regulations2.8c Agenda for IWMD-BCWUA Seasonal Meetings2.9 BCWUA Activation: Branch Canal Priorities and Branch Canal Action PlanLIFE–IWRM 77International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.8a BCWUA Activation:Template for MOUForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Standard Sample MOUAgreement and Memorandum of UnderstandingBetweenThe Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI)AndThe Branch Canal Water Users Association (BCWUA) on ___________________________Canal,____________________________District, ___________________________Governorate1. First – IntroductionIn the context of fulfilling the objectives of improving water management systems in agriculturalland, optimizing uses and returns of both land and water, promoting capacities and activities ofregional and local organizations, boosting decentralized systems, and promoting the participatory roleof stakeholders and farmers in achieving social and economic development, it was agreed by bothParties to this Agreement, in the light of irrigation, drainage, and water protection laws and statutes,to set up the necessary agreement to satisfy these objectives on the grounds of both Parties’willingness and understanding to enhance the above mentioned courses of action.2. Second – Parties to the Agreement1. Pertinent organizations of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI),represented in this Agreement by Eng. ________________________________,Head of the Central Directorate for Water Resources and Irrigation in_______________________ Governorate (First Party).2. The Branch Canal Water Users Association (BCWUA) in ______________________Region, on _____________________________Canal, serving an approximate area of_____ feddans, represented in this Agreement by ___________________________,Chairman of the BCWUA established according to the Decree of the Head of theCentral Directorate for Water Resources and Irrigation No. ( _______ ), dated ___ /___ /__ (Second Party).78 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8a BCWUA Activation: Template for MOU3. Third – Responsibilities of the MWRI OrganizationsStudy, discuss, and evaluate the negotiated prioritized work plan presented by the BCWUA,and include this plan in the IWMD annual work plan under available financial resources.Any changes seen by the MWRI should be negotiated and approved by both parties.Secure adequate water discharges and levels downstream of the intake of the branch canalthat feeds field systems according to discharge programs and schedules except inemergencies and unlikely events.Assist and support the BCWUA by releasing information of:• Discharge programs and schedules• Irrigation and drainage network, and structures maintenance and promotion programs inthe branch canal command area• Laws and regulations that should be followed in water resources management.Monitor the fulfillment of tasks assigned to the BCWUA, and assist the BCWUA with theformulation of the association’s bylaws and basic structure and in applying these bylawsand regulations.Support the BCWUA with adequate training and technical assistance to activate and ensuresustainability of the BCWUA structure.4. Fourth – Responsibilities of the BCWUA1. Participate in monitoring the status of irrigation and drainage networks in the canalcommand area, and present and negotiate any recommendations to increase the systemefficiency with responsible MWRI departments.2. Participate in water scheduling and distribution on the branch canal level.3. Participate and share the responsibility with the IWMD in surveying and prioritizingneeded system maintenance and promotion works based on available financial resources.4. Support water users in establishing Water Users Associations at the mesqa level.5. Manage and resolve conflicts and disputes in coordination with relevant stakeholders.6. Represent all water users in the canal command area before different agencies.7. Raise awareness among water users on issues related to water quantity and quality,conservation, and other relevant issues.8. Establish a framework and principals for active participation and responsibility sharing inmanagement, and operation and maintenance activities on the branch canal and at theon-farm levels.9. Establish a framework and principals for financial management and accounting for theBCWUA.10. Organize the BCWUA Board’s regular monthly meeting in order to review and monitorthe branch canal activities.11. Develop the BCWUA’s annual plan in coordination with the IWMD, including problems,recommended solutions, and prioritized actions, and present this plan to theGovernorate regional committee for approval.5. Fifth – Miscellaneous and Final Declarations1. All basic and national public infrastructures will remain the property of the MWRI.LIFE–IWRM 79International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8a BCWUA Activation: Template for MOU2. The BCWUA will abide by the rules of the laws and statutes of irrigation, drainage, andwater protection as well as those implying the application of administrative, technical,and financial systems.3. If the BCWUA fails in carrying out its duties and responsibilities, it is up to the MWRI towithdraw the BCWUA’s license, abolish all authority delegated to the BCWUA, andundertake necessary actions, under the MWRI administration or through a third party,to protect the irrigation and drainage infrastructure and farmers’ rights and to establishanother organization, as conceived by the MWRI. In all cases, the BCWUA will be liablefor any illegality, responsibility, or commitment towards others according to the lawsand statutes that control its work.4. The MWRI will incur the maintenance and improvement costs of the branch waterchannel.5. The BCWUA will incur the maintenance, improvement, and replacement costs of any ofthe private irrigation and drainage networks and structures under its responsibility.Payment will be made in one or more installments according to Laws No. 12/1984 andNo. 213/1994 and their executive statutes and according to what is agreed uponbetween the Parties in this regard based on the BCWUA’s request.6. The BCWUA will prepare the necessary records and reports according to systems andstatutes. The BCWUA will provide the MWRI with periodic reports regarding theirrigation and drainage system conditions under its management.7. The MWRI commitment will be to provide the BCWUA with technical and institutionalsupport and consultation through close cooperation to ensure efficient taskaccomplishment.8. The introduction in FIRST clause and the items in SECOND through FIFTH clauses arebasic and integral parts of this Agreement. The Agreement will be in force unless it isterminated by the MWRI for any of the above mentioned reasons. The Agreement maybe improved or modified on the grounds of the understanding and approval of bothParties or in the case of legal or administrative necessities.9. This agreement is valid for 2 years, starting from the date of signing this Memorandum ofUnderstanding.Three originals of this Agreement were signed by both Parties on the _____ day of______________, 20_____.80 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8a BCWUA Activation: Template for MOUFIRST PARTYHead of the Central Directorate for WaterResources and Irrigation in ____________GovernorateName: ___________________________Signature: _________________________SECOND PARTYChairman of BCWUA of _______________ CanalName: _________________________________Signature: _______________________________WITNESS SIGNATURE:Undersecretary of Irrigation Advisory ServiceName: ____________________________________Signature: __________________________________LIFE–IWRM 81International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.8b BCWUA Activation:Template for Internal RegulationsForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.General ProvisionsArticle (1) The Branch Canal Water Users’ Association (BCWUA) is to be established as a nonprofitorganization.Article (2) The legal framework governing the internal regulations consists of Irrigation andDrainage Law 12/1984, Law 213/1994 and their executive regulations, in addition to theNile and Water Resources Protection Law 48/1982 and its executive regulation and itsministerial decree concerning the establishment of the BCWUA.Article (3) The BCWUA, along with its internal regulations, will be registered in the technical officeof the Undersecretary of State of the MWRI in the governorate.Article (4) BCWUAs are mandated to:a. Function in accordance with the internal regulations and working plan for theorganizationb. Follow the financial management plan of the organizationc. Develop and implement a communications plan and enhance good relationsbetween the organization and the various governmental and non-governmentalauthoritiesd. Organize periodic meetings for the BCWUA Board and Water UserRepresentatives (WURs)e. Conduct the daily management of BCWUA activities and present all plans andsuggestions that will improve the irrigation system and/or enhance the association’sfinancial resourcesf. Solve all problems among BCWUA members.Article (5) The Undersecretary of State of MWRI is the only authority that defines and changes thearea and limits of BCWUA boundaries and sub-boundaries.Article (6) The location of the BCWUA office and the daily working hours shall be established bythe BCWUA Board.Article (7) The decisions of the BCWUA Board are obligatory for all water users.Communication between BCWUA and MWRIArticle (8) A Memorandum of Understanding is to be signed between the BCWUA, represented bythe Board Chairperson of the organization, and the MWRI, represented by theUndersecretary of State of Water Resources and Irrigation. The memorandum is toaddress the following:82 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal Regulationsa. Aims of the organizationb. Parties to the agreementc. Legal basis for the organizationd. Appropriate methods for solving problems that might occur between the partiese. The period covered by the agreementf. Signatures from both parties.Internal Communication in the BCWUAArticle (9) Communication between the BCWUA Board, Representative Assembly (RA), and waterusers must occur as follows:a. RA and Board decisions shall be announced in writing and shall be available at theBoard’s locationb. Copies of the minutes of meetings shall be available at the Board’s officec. A Committee shall be assigned to receive recommendations and complaintsd. The Board shall publish a summary of the annual plan and budget before the annualmeetinge. Copies of internal regulations shall be available at the Board’s officef. The Board shall notify water users of the dates of their periodic meetingsg. Copies of the annual budget shall be available for the RA and the Board membersh. Irrigation and drainage engineers shall inform the Board of any changes in theirrigation plani. The Board shall discuss the agriculture plan with the heads of the agriculture unitsj. The Board shall play a role in the execution of canal works in coordination withMWRI.MembershipArticle (10) BCWUA membership is compulsory for all water users.BCWUA StructureArticle (11) BCWUA structure consists of:a. Base unitsb. Representative assemblyc. BCWUA BoardBase UnitsArticle (12) Base Units are the first level in the organization and its membership consists of allBCWUA members.a. Base Units are divided into agriculture base units, housing base units, and otherwater base unitsb. A list of the base units and their representatives should be kept in theorganization’s records and should be annually revised.Article (13) Base units meet with their representative on an as-needed basis when there areimportant Board decisions or internal problems to be discussed. The base unitrepresentative will lead such meetings.Article (14) All the base unit members are BCWUA members, and all of them have the right tovote in order to choose their representative in the RA.LIFE–IWRM 83International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal RegulationsArticle (15) Base unit membership should be given to each agriculture land or house owner, andcan devolve to tenants, but only when the owner gives the tenant temporary votingrights through a contract, taking into consideration that the owner will be responsiblefor all fees and financial agreements.Agricultural Base Units (ABUs)Article (16) The ABUs are delineated on hydraulic and social bases on one condition, that therepresentation should be in proportion to the area of the unit (one representative forevery specific area—if the area of the unit increases, then the representation can beincreased as well).Residential Base Units (RBUs)Article (17) The number of representatives allocated for an RBU is determined according to thedensity and degree of urbanization of the residential areas according to the BCWUABoard agreement with the MWRI Undersecretary of State.Duties of the Base UnitsArticle (18) The duties of the Base Units are summarized as follows:a. Electing representatives to the Representative Assemblyb. Holding meetings as, and when needed to discuss the Boards work and issuesconcerning the base unitsc. Be committed to the policies and work plan of the Board, to the internalregulations of the Board, and to the laws and regulations concerning waterresourcesd. Exchanging data and opinions with the Representative Assembly, attending to thedecisions and the minutes of the Board and Representative Assembly meetings,and creating good channels for communication with both the Board and the RAe. Following-up on the performance of the Representative Assembly members intheir rules and responsibilities and ending the membership of the non-committedmembers.Representative AssemblyArticle (19) The Representative Assembly is the Supreme Authority of the Association. Membersof the Representative Assembly are elected from among the base units. The MWRIUndersecretary of State decides the total number of members and has the authorityto change this number.Representative Assembly MeetingsArticle (20) The BCWUA Board invites the Representative Assembly to a meeting by writteninvitation. The invitation should be sent by (….) mail at least (…..) days before themeeting date.a. Unanticipated meetings are held on the request of……. percent of the assemblymembers or at the request of the BCWUA Board.b. In case the Board did not arrange for the meeting, the Representative Assemblymanages the meeting and submits the decisions directly to the Chairperson of theBCWUA Board.Article (21) The RA meeting agenda should generally be as follows:a. Opening and registration84 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal Regulationsb. Reading—and amending, if necessary—the agendac. Reading and approving the minutes of last meetingd. Discussion of agenda issues/decisionse. Closing the meeting.For joint RA meetings convened by the BCWUA Board, the Board Secretary recordsthe minutes, which are signed by both the Secretary and the Chairperson of theBoard. These minutes are to be discussed in the following Board meeting andapproved at the next representative assembly meeting. A copy of the minutes is sentto the drainage and irrigation engineers as a preparation step before sending them tothe MWRI Undersecretary of State for approval. For RA meetings where the Board isnot present, the assembly will arrange for one member in attendance to record theminutes and send a copy to the Board.Article (22) The Representative Assembly meets at least twice a year in addition to unanticipatedmeetings. The annual meeting is concerned with reviewing and approving the BCWUABoard’s annual report, annual plan, annual budget, and financial reports, as well asdiscussing penalties and reviewing activities proposed to be undertaken by the baseunits.Article (23) For the legal standing of the decisions taken in the annual meeting, the attendanceshould be at least ………percent of the total members of the representative assemblyand if that quorum is not achieved, the meeting should be delayed 1 hour to allow forlate arrivals. If a quorum is not achieved after the 1-hour delay, the meeting should berescheduled.Duties of the Representative AssemblyArticle (24) The duties of the Representative Assembly are as follows:a. Electing the Chairperson and the BCWUA Board Membersb. Collecting the problems concerning the irrigation and drainage network withintheir base unit and helping in developing and agreeing on the associations plan tosolve and/or mitigate such problems.c. Agreeing on the internal regulations of the association and amendments to thoseregulationsd. Overseeing the financial matters of the association, including collecting fees,revising financial reports, and agreeing on the final account statemente. Following up the activities of the Board and asking for the withdrawal of memberswho do not fulfill their dutiesf. Creating good channels of communication between the Board and the membersof the BUCWA to ensure information about problems and decisions aredisseminated, ensuring the satisfactory execution of decisions made by the Board,supporting commitment to the legislation governing irrigation and drainage, andprotecting the canals from pollutiong. Resolving disputes and problems among water usersh. Submitting suggestions that would enhance the administration of the irrigation anddrainage system and develop the association's financial resources.LIFE–IWRM 85International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal RegulationsRepresentative Assembly ElectionsArticle (25) The base units' elections to choose their representatives in the representativeassembly consists of the following steps and activities:a. Forming a committee to supervise the election under the supervision of theIWMD Managerb. Specifying the date and place of elections, to inform all the water users of the datec. The required quorum for the elections to be legal are the attendance of atleast…….percent of the unit's membersd. In case a quorum is not present, another meeting shall be held a week followingthe first meeting and requires……..percent attendancee. If the percentage required is not available at the second meeting date, the meetingshall be delayed for an hour, after which it can be held legally with the availablenumber of attendeesf. A representative will be elected from each base unit (agricultural, residential, andother uses). All the members of the base units have the right to be nominated formembership in the RA, but without breaking any legal standards that apply tomembership in the RA.The Establishing Meeting of the Representative AssemblyArticle (26) Establishing the Representative Assembly of the BCWUA consists of the followingsteps/activities:a. Following approval of the election of the base units' representatives, theestablishing meeting of the Representative Assembly is to be heldb. The IWMD Manager, or his authorized representative, chairs the establishmentmeeting of the RAc. In the meeting, the objectives, duties, and rules of the association, the RA, and theBCWUA shall be explained and definedd. The establishment meeting of the RA prepares for the BCWUA Board electionswhere the Board Chairperson and Board members election should be explainedand the date and place of the elections is settled.Branch Canal Water Users Association BoardArticle (27) The Branch Canal Water Users’ Association (BCWUA) Board is the executive bodyof the association and is responsible for managing the daily activities of the associationand its external communications.Board MeetingsArticle (28) The BCWUA Board Meetings are held as follows:a. The Chairperson leads the meetings of both the BCWUA Board and the RA, andin his/her absence ……………. leads the meetings.b. The BCWUA Board sets the agenda for the meeting and is responsible to recordand distribute the minutes of the meeting. The BCWUA Board sets the quorumfor holding a meeting as well as the time of the second meeting, in case a quorumwas not achieved at the time of the first meeting, and decides the quorum for thesecond meetingc. The minutes of the meetings shall be signed by the Chairperson and theSecretary, and shall be kept safely86 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal Regulationsd. In case there is a vote on a decision or suggestion, if votes are equally split for andagainst, the Chairperson shall cast the deciding vote.Structure of the BCWUA BoardArticle (29) The Structure of the BCWUA Board is as follows:a. As long as there is a Representative Assembly, there shall be a BCWUA Boardb. BCWUA Board positions are voluntary, without salaries, unless theRepresentative Assembly decides otherwisec. The MWRI Undersecretary of State decides on the number of board membersd. The BCWUA Board consists of a Chairperson, a Deputy Chairperson (if theRepresentative Assembly decides to include that position), a Secretary, aTreasurer, and other members, depending on the total number of members.Legal Standards for BCWUA Board MembershipArticle (30) The legal standards for BCWUA Board membership are the same as forRepresentative Assembly membership, as follows:a. Not to be working for the Drainage and Irrigation Engineering Department thathas responsibility for the Associationb. Farming or residing in the area served by the association, or using water for anypurpose as long as it is licensed by the specialized irrigation administration.BCWUA Board ElectionsArticle (31) The Representative Assembly elects:a. The Chairperson of the BCWUA Boardb. The Board members representing the ABUsc. The Board members representing the RBUsArticle (32) Elections for the BCWUA Board:a. The IWMD Manager and his nominated staff make up the election committee,which organizes and supervises the elections of the WUA Board Chairperson andBoard membersb. The Representative Assembly shall choose the place where elections will be held;the place shall not have any connection with any of the nominees, and thelocation shall be announced at least ................ days before the election is heldc. All the members of the RA have the right to vote based on one vote per persond. The voting shall begin when .......... percent of the RA are in attendancee. If the percentages mentioned in d, above (.............. percent) is not achieved, then asecond meeting shall be held at within a week, requiring the attendance of ..........percent of the RAf. If, at the second meeting, the quorum is not complete, the meeting and theelections should be held after one hour of the announced time, and shall be legalwith whatever the number in attendance.Article (33) The election procedures are as follows:Open nominations for the Chairperson and Board members are called forAnyone may be nominatedA list of the nominees for Chairperson shall be madeLIFE–IWRM 87International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal RegulationsThe winner shall be announced if the position is uncontested (only one nominee). Ifmore than one nominee is put forth, all the RA members shall vote to elect theChairperson of the Board.A separate list of nominees for the Board members shall be made and all RA membersshall vote to elect the remaining Board members.All elections shall be held by secret ballotWinners for Board membership are declared based on the nominees who get thehighest number of votesThe elected Board members announce the date of its first meeting, where:• The members elect the Secretary of the Board• The members elect the Treasurer of the BoardArticle (34) The removal and replacement of RA members takes place in the following cases:a. Any member loses his membership in the RA if he/she is elected to the BCWUABoard. The base unit that this member represents then elects a newrepresentativeb. In case:• One of the Board Members dies• One of the Board Members resigns• One of the Board Members sells his/her land or place of residence.Then, the RA elects someone to replace him/her according to the electionregulations.c. The RA can consider removing one of the BCWUA board members beforehe/she completes the assignment period if any one of the following is applicable:• He/she is absent three successive times from meetings• He/she is moving from the BCWUA area• He/she incurs financial penalties• He/she has accusations of immoral behavior lodged against him/her• He/she is not cooperative with other members of the BCWUA Board• He/she is not fulfilling his/her duties and responsibilities.d. A motion to remove a Board member shall be approved by ........... percent of theRA members; however, a final decision to remove the person before he/shefinishes his/her assignment must be approved by ............ percent of RA membersattending the meeting where action is taken on the motione. In case a Board member is removed, the RA shall elect a new Board memberaccording to the election regulations.Disbanding the BCWUA BoardArticle (35) If the Board is not fulfilling its duties and responsibilities, the RA has the right to askfor it to be disbanded, using the following regulations:a. The RA submits a claim to the IWMD Manager signed by a majority of ………ofthe RA members asking to disband the Boardb. The RA asks for an extraordinary meeting for …………….. to vote to disbandthe Board and end the membership of the Board membersc. On completion of a vote to disband, the BCWUA Board and the RA resigns88 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal Regulationsd. A temporary committee consisting of three former members of the RA and theBCWUA Board handles the managerial tasks of the association and organizespreparations for new elections (this committee shall be selected by the IWMDManager); the temporary committee shall be in force only during the periodbetween disbanding the old Board and the election of the new Boarde. After setting the Board aside, the elections committee shall prepare for newelections for the RA and the Boardf. The election of the new Board follows the elections regulations mentioned inArticles 31–33.Duties of the BCWUA BoardArticle (36) The Board’s duties are:First: Duties of the Board Chairperson:a. Holding and leading meetings of both the RA and the BCWUA Boardb. Participating in developing plans, internal regulations, and annual budget andensuring they are executedc. Supervising work of the sub-committees that may be established by the Boardd. Supervising the administrative, financial, and technical work of the associatione. Representing the association before external authorities and creating goodchannels of communication with authorities that have relations with theassociation’s workf. Validating contracts, deals, and agreements within the specialties of theassociation.Second: Duties of the Board Secretary:a. Participating in Board activitiesb. Preparing a jobs schedule for the Board and the RA meetings and keeping minutesof the meetingsc. Recording association data and board achievementsd. Doing all the administrative tasks of the Board and the RA, particularly keepinggood records.Third: Duties of the Board Treasurer (upon revision of Law 12):a. Developing an appropriate system to keep the board accountsb. Keeping all financial documents, account books, and archives, ensuring theirreview, and recording accurately all datac. Collecting dues and paying charges and taxesd. Signing checks, along with the Chairman, and ensuring correct disbursement offundse. Making periodic financial reports and a final annual reportf. Participating in Board activities.Financial Affairs and Financial Management of the AssociationArticle (37) Upon revision of Law 12, the Board shall organize the financial management of theassociation and its accounting system as follows:a. The Board keeps records of the statements, accounts, income, and disbursementsb. The Board computes the assetsLIFE–IWRM 89International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal Regulationsc. The Board keeps the archives of records of the money, banks, income, anddisbursementsd. The Board opens an account with the association name in bank ……........................e. The RA and the IWMD Manager or his authorized representative has the right toaudit the accounts of the association at any time.Article (38) The Board has the right to accept donations from the members or any governmental,international, or non-governmental organization after receiving the approval of theresponsible governmental authorities.Article (39) The Board draws up the annual balance sheet and submits it at the annual meeting ofthe RA before the end of the financial year. The balance sheet shall be ready by ……weeks before the meeting at least.Article (40) The assets of the association are managed as follows:a. The assets are collected according to the annual balance sheet and are not redistributedexcept after the approval of the RAb. Income is recorded immediately in the account books and archives of theassociationc. Spending from the temporary and permanent loans and the responsibility for suchspending is regulated by the internal regulations.Article (41) The membership fees are specified according to the welfare of the different wateruses (agricultural, residential, and other uses) and collection takes place from all thosewho benefit from the water. Representatives of the RA, the treasurer, and one of themembers of the financial systems committee are responsible for the collection of feesaccording to the financial regulations.Resolving Problems and PenaltiesArticle (42) To impose a penalty on association members who committed a breach, the followingprocedures are followed:a. Sending to the offender a written warning from the Board secretary by registeredmail within a certain period from committing the breach; the warning contains theviolation and an order to fix it at his/her own expenseb. In case the member does not fix the breach, he/she is fined according to Provision12 of the Drainage and Irrigations Laws for year 1984, and the responsibleauthorities are informed to apply the provisions of the law to the offender.Article (43) Inside the association, problems are resolved as follows:a. The RA member resolves problems that arise within his/her base unit; if the RAmember cannot solve the problem, he/she refers it to the Boardb. If the Board cannot solve the problem, it refers it to the drainage and irrigationengineer; if he/she cannot solve it, the problem is referred to the IWMD Manager,whose decision is final.Opposition to RA and Board DecisionsArticle (44) Decisions made by the RA and the Board shall be obligatory, but members can raisean objection to the Drainage and Irrigation Engineer, whose decision is also obligatory.However, the member can raise his opposition to the IWMD Manager, whosedecision is final and obligatory to all.90 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8b BCWUA Activation: Template for Internal RegulationsArchives and NotebooksArticle (45) The association shall keep the following archives and notebooks:a. A map showing the association areab. A record of all the members of the Base Units, the RA, and the Board and theiraddresses and their assignment periodsc. Minutes from all the meetings of the RA, the Board, and meetings with externalauthorities and sub-committeesd. A record of breaches and violationse. A record of the deals, agreements, contracts, and donationsf. A record of visitsg. A record of imports and exportsh. A record of furniture and trusteeshipsi. A record of finances: money, bank statements, income, and payments.Board ChairmanIWMD ManagerUndersecretary ofWater Resourcesand Irrigation atGovernorateRevised by:Approved by:LIFE–IWRM 91International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.8c BCWUA Activation:Agenda for IWMD–BCWUA Seasonal MeetingsForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.IntroductionIt is essential that the BCWUA Board and the IWMD staff meet formally or informally on aregular basis, even when there are no pending or crucial issues to be discussed. Regular meetingsprovide a forum for relaxed dialogue between participants. They also allow participants to proactivelydiscuss recurrent or predictable issues and possible solutions instead of having specialmeetings when faced with full-blown issues that require immediate attention and resolution(prevention is better than correction in terms of conflict resolution).It is recommended that each IWMD manager (or representative):• Meets formally with Board members of each BCWUA at least twice a year, preferably onceevery 3 months (these meetings can be with one individual BCWUA or with two to fiveneighboring BCWUAs); individual meetings are useful to discuss branch canal issues, whilecollective meetings allow sharing information with several BCWUAs at once and/ordiscussion of larger scale issues; minutes of these meetings should be prepared and approvedby both sides.• Meets with Chairpersons of all BCWUAs together at least twice a year (preferably in Marchand October, at the transitions between the Summer and Winter seasons, to discuss thepast season, and to plan the oncoming one); these meetings would be useful to discussdistrict-level or main canal-level issues.The IWMD manger should prepare these seasonal meetings carefully, to know what informationto provide and which issues to raise.Suggested Meeting Agenda5. Introduction by IWMD manager (or representative) – maximum 15 minutesWelcome and introduce participants. Present agenda and rules of the meeting (district-levelissues only, one speaker at a time).6. Presentation by IWMD manager (or representative) – maximum 30 minutes• Water distribution• Rotation schedule of past season, issues and solutions• Expected rotation schedule for next season, potential issues and possible solutions (andhow BCWUAs can help)• Questions from BCWUA chairpersons and answers.• Maintenance• Maintenance activities during past season, issues and solutions92 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8c BCWUA Activation: Agenda for IWMD–BCWUA Seasonal Meetings• Expected maintenance activities for next season, potential issues and possible solutions(and how BCWUAs can help)• Questions from BCWUA chairpersons and answers.• Water Management• Other noteworthy activities/events/achievements/issues of past season regarding waterresources in the district• Other expected activities/issues for next season regarding water resources in thedistrict (and how BCWUAs can help)• Questions from BCWUA chairpersons and answers.7. General issues – maximum 30 minutesOpen forum with generic questions and/or identification of serious Directorate-levelproblems requiring action. This should allow free discussions.8. Success stories– maximum 30 minutesAsk two or three chairpersons to present verbally some achievements/success stories fromtheir BCWUA. Let other chairpersons ask questions.It is good to contact the presenters before the meeting to make sure they prepare theirstories by having all facts9. Wrap up/conclusion – maximum 15 minutesThanks all participants, and remind them that a similar meeting will be held in 6 months.Invite them to visit individually to discuss specific issues. Tell them that minutes will beprepared.Comment: a few suggestions to the IWMD manager (or representative) regarding conduct ofmeetings:• Attend the meeting with at least one other IWMD engineer (section head or WAengineer) to help you mange the meeting and answer questions.• Possibly delegate some of the presentations to your section heads.• Keep the meeting under control: one speaker at a time, everyone will have theopportunity to speak, no shouting.• Be honest . if you do not know the answer, say, “I will think about it. Give me a day ortwo and I shall answer you.” DO NOT forget to answer within a day or two!• Keep the meeting focused and refuse, nicely but firmly, comments or questions that areoff-topic. Examples:• “What about garbage?” during a presentation on distribution; postpone the question bysaying, “We can discuss this in a few minutes.”• “My BC has this and that problem.” If this is a problem shared by other BCs, it can bediscussed; otherwise postpone discussion to an individual meeting to take place withinthe next few days.LIFE–IWRM 93International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.8d BCWUA Activation:Activation Monitoring Summary TableForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.The table presented on the following page should be utilized to monitor and track the BCWUAactivation steps.94 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.8d BCWUA Activation: Activation Monitoring Summary TableLIFE–IWRM 95International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.9 BCWUA Activation:BC Priorities and BC Action PlanForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Definition and Objectives of Branch Canal Priorities andBranch Canal Action PlansThe Branch Canal Priorities (BCPs) are identified as operation and maintenance (O&M) needs onthe branch canal and its related infrastructure. These needs are acknowledged and selected byBCWUA members as being the most relevant at branch canal level. They are to be transmitted to,and discussed with IWMD staff to be taken into consideration in the annual O&M activities of theIWMD. BCPs should prove useful to the IWMD manager since they would assist in allocating IWMD’sO&M resources to where they matter most.The Branch Canal Action Plan (BCAP) is a selection of a few activities that have been identifiedfor implementation by the BCWUA itself (with or without support from the IWMD). These activitieswill aim to solve some of the key water-related issues along the branch canal. Various BCAPs can bedeveloped (or replace each other) over the years as different activities are undertaken.BCPs and BCAPs are thus multi-purpose activities with clear benefits for both MWRI–IWMD andwater users. The overall objectives of their preparation include:• Developing within the BCWUA the practice of internal discussions, debate, and responsibledecision-making• Establishing and nurturing a collaborative partnership/dialogue between the BCWUA andMWRI–IWMD• Supplying the IWMD with a list of focused, agreed-upon needs and priorities in the BranchCanal area under discussion• Providing credibility to the BCWUA concept and to the BCWUA’s elected representatives(Water User Representatives and Board) by identifying and implementing benefit-generatingactivities.Both BCPs and BCAPs are the result of a preliminary needs assessment that will allow theBCWUA to identify and prioritize water-related issues.Branch Canal Needs AssessmentThe Branch Canal Needs Assessment is a diagnostic that identifies, lists, and prioritizes the mainwater-related issues on the Branch Canal. Such a diagnostic should be updated when needed, butcould generally remain valid for 2-3 years.The preparation of this diagnostic follows the well-known principles of a Participatory NeedsAssessment (PNA). The process involves the following steps:10. Mobilization of the BCWUA Board—Several meetings may be necessary to explain theobjectives of the PNA to the Board members.96 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.9 BCWUA Activation: BC Priorities and BC Action Plan11. First inventory and screening—At this meeting, the BCWUA Board would inventorywater related issues and screen them based on relevance. The objectives are to educateBoard members to:• define problems (i.e. focus on causes, not on impacts, formulate problems based on factsnot value judgments, and split problems into sub-problems if possible)• screen problems and eliminate those that:• are not related to irrigation, drainage or water• are outside of the BCWUA area or do not involve a significant part of this area (e.g.mesqa-level issues)• are too generic (regional or national problems).12. Physical walk through—Once a first list of issues has been prepared, Board membersshould accompany IWMD staff on a field visit along the Branch Canal, in order to confirmthe reality, location, and magnitude of the issues. This also provides opportunities to discussissues with riparian water users.13. Consult with Water User Representatives (WURs) and water users at large—This is an essential step to ensure that the listed issues really matter to water users.Consultation will drastically increase the likelihood that all subsequent decisions areunderstood, accepted, and implemented. The consultation process should involve informalmeetings by Board members and WURs with their neighbors and fellow BCWUA members,so as to inform them and get their feedback. The inventory of issues should be updated as aresult of these consultations.14. Prioritization of issues—Once the Board feels there is consensus as to what theinventory should include, listed issues should be prioritized. A meeting should be held to thatend, and if there is no consensus on priorities, a voting process can be used to finalizepriorities.15. Classification and finalization of list of issues—Once the prioritized inventory has beenprepared, issues and needs have to be sorted or classified according to their type (irrigation,drainage, water quality, environment, organizational, and other) and to their magnitude (seetable 2.9.1, below).Comments:• IWMD–WA staff are to facilitate meetings and discussions as needed and clarifymisunderstandings, but they should act as facilitators, and remain neutral. The entire processshould be led by the BCWUA Board members and the outcome should reflect the views ofthe BCWUA members.• The preparation of the first branch canal (BC) Needs Assessment is an opportunity to testthe dynamism and willingness of a newly created BCWUA.Table 2.9.1Defining the Magnitude of an Issue or NeedClass Definition of the Issue HandlingIIIIIISmall-scale or non-structural: requireslimited resources and technical expertise,and no or limited fundsMedium-scale or structural: Requires someresources, technical expertise, and/or fundsLarger scale: Requires significant resources,technical expertise, and/or fundsBy the BCWUA with limited or no IWMDassistanceBy the IWMD with assistance from the BCWUATo be transmitted by IWMD to higher levels ofMWRI for consideration and actionLIFE–IWRM 97International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.9 BCWUA Activation: BC Priorities and BC Action PlanClass Definition of the Issue HandlingXUnclear or complex: Requires a technicalstudy to better define issue, characterizecauses and impacts and/or identify andevaluate solutionsTo be transmitted by IWMD to higher levels ofMWRI for consideration and actionExamples of issues include:• Class I Residents along the upper reach throw their garbage in the BC instead ofcollecting it and taking it to selected dump areas• Class II A section of the BC needs pitching because the banks are unstable• Class III Need for upgrading/rehabilitating the sub-surface drainage• Class X Water quality in the canal is becoming bad and reducing crop yields, but cause isunclear (possibilities include leakage from nearby drain, discharges from housesand small plants, and increasing use of fertilizers). Solutions are also unclear.Branch Canal Priorities (BCPs, see template 2.9a)The specific objective of the BCPs is to help the IWMD consider and address O&M needs thatmatter most to water users in the BCWUA area.The BCPs, or list of prioritized O&M needs, is a direct output of the needs assessment. Theresulting list should be written, signed by the Board members, and transmitted to the IWMD managerfor discussion. Field visits by IWMD staff and BCWUA representatives should be organized toconfirm the reality, location, and magnitude of the issues, and to discuss these with riparian waterusers.This list reflects the views of the BCWUA members. The IWMD staff and IWMD manager maydisagree with the list or the priorities. The allocation of O&M funds is the responsibility of the IWMD,and may differ from that requested by water users. This should be accepted by water users, as long asthe decisions are technically justified and explained to them.Branch Canal Action Plan (BCAP, see template 2.9b)The specific objective of the BCAP is to have the BCWUA design and implement (with orwithout MWRI support) activities that will solve some of the priority issues in the BCWUA area. Byfocusing BCWUA and MWRI resources on addressing critical issues for water users, the BCAP willachieve maximum impact and benefits.The process of the preparation of the BCAP involves, over one or several meetings, the followingsteps:1. Selection of priority Class I and II issues, and identification of the activities needed to solvethese2. Assessment of the resources needed, and final selection of one or several (maximum two orthree) priority activities, based on available resources and expected benefits3. Definition of the roles and responsibilities within the BCWUA (and possibly of the supportfrom the IWMD) in the implementation, supervision, monitoring, and follow-up of each ofthese activities4. Preparation of a planning/timetable (what actions to be performed, and when)5. Implementation, supervision and follow-up.98 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.9 BCWUA Activation: BC Priorities and BC Action PlanComment: BCAP activities may involve other parties (initially only within the MWRI such as MEDand EPADP; later on possibly outside of the MWRI, such as NGOs, CDAs, or LocalCouncils).LIFE–IWRM 99International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.9a BCWUA Activation:Branch Canal Priorities TemplateForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.District Name:BCWUA Name:Branch Canal(s) Name:Date:Maintenance Priorities at Branch Canal level (Form #9)Priority Rank Activities Location on BCBoard Members Names/Signatures:Chairperson Name:Secretary Name:Member Name:Member Name:Member Name:Chairperson Signature:Secretary Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Maintenance Section Head Signature:District Manager Signature:100 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.9b BCWUA Activation:Branch Canal Action Plan TemplateForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.District Name:BCWUA Name:Branch Canal(s) Name:Date:Maintenance Priorities at Branch Canal level (Form #9)Activity Time Frame Responsibility ResourcesJ A S O N D J F M A M JBoard Members Names/Signatures:Chairperson Name:Secretary Name:Member Name:Member Name:Member Name:Chairperson Signature:Secretary Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Maintenance Section Head Signature:District Manager Signature:LIFE–IWRM 101International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.10 Participatory Water ManagementForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Participatory Water Management BackgroundParticipatory Water Management (PWM) is about involving water users (farmers and residents)in water management activities. The usual mechanism is to mobilize water users through nongovernmentalassociations managed by their representatives and aimed at achieving tangible benefitsfor their members. In Egypt, the best approach is to form such water user organizations at branchcanal level, i.e. to form Branch Canal Water User Associations (BCWUAs).BCWUAs empower water users to better assess their needs and priorities, solve local waterdisputes and issues on their own, and partner with MWRI staff to solve larger-scale issues. BCWUAscontribute to better water management because of their ability to engage water users as activeparticipants, not passive beneficiaries. They also provide an effective communication channel betweenwater users and governmental agencies (MWRI and possibly others). Finally, they are able to resolveconflicts among water users and coordinate their individual needs, concerns, priorities, and activities.BCWUAs provide improvements in:• Water delivery services, because water users have better information on water needsand can facilitate water distribution processes• System maintenance, because water users have better information on waterways issuesand priorities, and as members of the BCWUA, have a greater stake in managing the systems• Water quality, because BCWUAs can raise awareness about water use issues andcontribute to activities that reduce pollution caused by uncontrolled waste releases.Increases in water use efficiency and in agricultural productivity and incomes derive from theseimprovements while reductions in O&M costs result from better decision making, improved projectdesigns, better identification of priorities, and better allocation of funds.PWM FrameworkThe PWM framework covers four main topics. These four topics allow water user participationin most of the basic water management activities at the district level. Each topic encompasses specificactivities:Topic Activities OutputsA-MaintenanceA1Needs assessment, BC prioritizationand action planningBC Priorities and BC Action PlanA2Direct work activities (weed removaland manual bank repair)BC improvements102 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10 Participatory Water ManagementTopic Activities OutputsA3B1Monitoring of contractor activitiesMonitoring of water levels/gateoperations on branch canalField visit reports, tripartite meetings(contractor, WUs, IWMD)RecordsB-OperationsC-Organization/Communications/AwarenessD-Water QualityB2 Water allocation among mesqas Operational Plan - Schedule/CalendarB3C1Data collection/verification aboutcropping patterns and water needs(MISD)Internal communications/conflictresolutionCrop data (direct), water needs(indirect)Internal Regulations (internalmeetings)C2 Formal BC dialogue with IWMD Formal BCWUA meetingsC3 Formal dialogue at district level Formal seasonal meetingsC4 Administrative/Organizational RecordsD1D2D3Activities to manage liquid wastedisposalActivities to manage solid wastedisposalAwareness activities regardingpollutionWaste management activitiesimplemented (through Action Plan)Awareness meetings/actionsThese 13 activities are presented below. Each activity addresses a specific water managementissue and should produce a specific output with tangible benefits for the water users and for theMWRI. The potential benefits are:TopicActivitiesBenefits toIWMD/MWRIBenefits to WUsA-MaintenanceNeeds assessment, BCprioritization and actionplanningB-OperationsDirect work activities (weedremoval and manual bankmaintenance)Monitoring of contractoractivitiesMonitoring of waterlevels/gate operations onbranch canalAssists identification of watermanagement needs (distributionmaintenance, rehabilitation, andimprovement), improvesefficiency of budget allocationReduces maintenance costs,improves water deliveryTransfers part of burden ofensuring work qualityImproves water delivery,provides performance feedbackAchieves concrete results,better addresses WUneeds, helps establishcredibility of BCWUAImproves water delivery,complements maintenanceby MWRIImproves work quality onbranch canalProvides betterinformation/understandingof water availabilityWater allocation amongmesqasData collection/verificationregarding cropping patternsand water needs (MISD)Assists with implementation ofrotation. Reduces complaints atmesqa level. Increases water useefficiency.Provides critical data to improvewater delivery and water useefficiencyIncreases equity (increasedtail-end availability);decreases conflictsImproves water delivery(timing/quantities)LIFE–IWRM 103International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10 Participatory Water ManagementTopicActivitiesBenefits toIWMD/MWRIBenefits to WUsC-Organization/Communications/AwarenessD-Water QualityInternal communications/conflict resolutionFormal BC dialogue withIWMDFormal dialogue at districtlevelAdministrative/OrganizationalActivities to manage liquidwaste disposalActivities to manage solidwaste disposalAwareness activitiesregarding pollutionStrengthens BCWUAs, solveswater disputes, reduces numberof violations/complaintsStreamlines communicationswith WUs; reduces number offarmers coming to IWMD;integrates requests/complaints;provides conduit for awarenessraisingStrengthens BCWUAs assustainable partnersComplements MWRI awarenessactivities, improves water qualityProvides framework forfunctioning of association;solves internal conflictsClear access to MWRI-IWMDOpportunity to discussdistrict-level issues withMWRI–IWMDProvides transparency andaccountabilityImproves water quality,environment, healthWhile each BCWUA is encouraged to carry out all the activities, it is up to water users and theirrepresentatives to decide which activities are needed, which ones are priorities, and which ones, ifany, are not needed (at least for now).On the other hand, other activities not envisioned here can be carried out by BCWUAs as longas these activities are legal and focus on improving water management.Water Allocation/Distribution Participatory ActivitiesEquitable Water Allocation among Off-takes (Mesqas)Each BCWUA should develop its own internal rotation and schedule the water distributionbetween off-takes (mesqas) downstream from their branch canal intake. Each BCWUA should alsodevelop a layout for their branch canal(s), including all off-takes, mesqas, and structures. Theseoutputs should help both the IWMD and BCWUA achieve better management of the availableresources and hence equity of water distribution, resulting in benefits for all users.A simple form is provided for the BCWUA to decide when to open or close the mesqa intakesduring a rotation turn (Form #1 in Guideline 2.10a).Data Collection/Verification for Cropping Patterns and Water Needs (MISD)MISD is a critical water management program that strives to match irrigation needs with actualwater supplies, increasing water use efficiency. Each BCWUA should assist with the collection ofaccurate data regarding irrigated areas and cropping patterns for their branch canal(s).A first step is for the BCWUA to review and cross-check the crop information provided to theIWMD by the Agricultural Cooperatives and District. The second step is for the BCWUA to collectthat information directly from its members and enter it on Form #2 (see Guideline 2.10a).The key here is that water users should understand that proper and accurate croppinginformation will enhance the adequacy (in terms of quantity and timing) of water delivery. To that104 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10 Participatory Water Managementend, it is important that BCWUAs get feedback from IWMD staff on the assessed water needs and onthe expected/actual water allocations.Monitoring Water Levels/Gate Operations on Main CanalEach BCWUA should help to monitor their branch canal(s) water delivery system by participatingin planning the district level rotation schedule and monitoring branch canal water levels and gateoperations. Both IWMD and BCWUA chairpersons participate in developing and adjusting the districtrotation schedule on a seasonal basis.Each BCWUA should monitor its canal(s) water supply, water levels, and discharges. Thismonitoring should initially be performed using simple tools. Form #3 (see Guideline 2.10a) can beused to register the monitored data on a monthly basis, and will be exchanged between theassociation and the district to adjust the water delivery system.Water Quality Participatory ActivitiesAwareness ActivitiesWater users, through their BCWUA representatives, should be informed about water qualityissues and be involved in their resolution. Three levels of awareness activities should be considered:16. Through the seasonal meetings, IWMD staff should sensitize chairpersons about waterquality sources and impacts and provide information regarding water quality in the canals,drains, and groundwater.17. Through individual meetings with BCWUA Boards, IWMD staff should discuss local waterquality and pollution issues and encourage water users’ involvement and responsiblebehavior.18. Within each BCWUA, Board members and WU representatives should convey to all waterusers information regarding pollution causes and consequences. This can be done throughlarge gatherings, meetings, fact sheets, and media.The overall objective is not only to raise awareness of water users but also to involve them asresponsible actors. While infrastructure may be needed to solve some problems, water quality canalso be improved through changes in every day practices, notably regarding the disposal of liquid andsolid waste.Water Quality Improvement Activities (Management of Liquid/Solid Wastes)A wide variety of activities can be planned and implemented by BCWUAs to improve waterquality. Such activities can focus on improving waste disposal practices, developing waste collectionschemes, or building waste treatment networks and facilities.A wide variety of treatment technologies and methods have been developed in the last decade tomeet various treatment requirements and constraints. These range in complexity from the simplefield system for small domestic applications to the technically more sophisticated packaged systems.Whatever the activity, it is essential that the BCWUA be acknowledged as a key partner to beinvolved in all stages, from problem identification to operation and monitoring. Relevant stakeholdersoutside of the MWRI can be involved as well (local councils, Agricultural Cooperatives, Ministry ofHousing, NGOs, Governors, and donors).Water Network Maintenance Participatory ActivitiesNetwork Maintenance PrioritiesThe Branch Canal Needs Assessment and BC Priorities identify, list, and prioritize water-relatedmaintenance issues for a Branch Canal. Such a diagnostic should be updated when needed, but couldremain valid for 2–3 years.LIFE–IWRM 105International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10 Participatory Water ManagementThe overall objective is for the BCWUA to agree internally on chief concerns and priorities, sothat:• IWMD staff can focus on these priorities, through their regular O&M activities or throughtheir annual maintenance plan.• The BCWUA can focus on one of the water-related priority issues, and implement a BCAction Plan to solve or mitigate that issue.Specific guidelines exist for the preparation by BCWUAs of BC Priorities and Action Plans (seeGuidelines 2.9, 2.9a, and 2.9b).Network Maintenance Monitoring and EvaluationThe BCWUA should participate with the IWMD in monitoring and evaluation of implementednetwork maintenance activities. This will allow water users to understand the maintenance process,and improve the quality of maintenance activities.The BCWUA’s participation in monitoring maintenance activities is also essential since theBCWUA can:• Collaborate with the contractor and IWMD staff and facilitate the implementation ofmaintenance activities on their branch canal.• Inform IWMD staff about the progress of implementation and needed adjustments on a dayto-daybasis.To ensure efficient water user involvement, IWMD staff should inform all BCWUArepresentatives about maintenance processes and schedules (start and end dates and types ofactivities) on the branch canals. Each BCWUA should report to the IWMD about the progress ofwork and their evaluation of the completed maintenance activity. Use Form #4 provided inGuideline 2.10a.Small-scale Network Maintenance by Water UsersAll BCWUAs should be encouraged to develop and implement their own small-scale maintenanceactivities. These activities would address issues identified as priorities and complement activitiescarried out by IWMD staff or contractors. Activities such as manual weeding, garbage removal, andsmall structural maintenance work could be considered.The participation of BCWUAs in network maintenance implementation should be documentedby both the BCWUAs and IWMDs. All activities should be planned and implemented through anAction Plan (see Guideline 2.9).Communications ActivitiesCommunicationsThe key role of the BCWUA is to serve as a way to communicate between its members and theMWRI (and possibly other stakeholders). Three levels of communication are to be considered:1. Internal communications/conflict resolution2. Dialogue with the IWMD at BC level (BCWUA–IWMD meetings, see Guideline 2.8), andhandling of complaints and violations3. District-level dialogue (through seasonal meetings).Internal Communications and Conflict ResolutionWater users should understand that small-scale water disputes are to be solved by theirrepresentatives and Board members. These usually have sufficient wisdom and command enoughrespect to be able to listen to all parties, take decisions, and see that they are implemented. IWMD106 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10 Participatory Water Managementstaff should assist with technical advice when required, but should refrain from getting involved exceptas facilitators.BCWUA representatives and Board members should also be encouraged to regularly informtheir constituents about BCWUA activities and the results of meetings with IWMD staff and otherstakeholders. They should also convey information received from IWMD staff to the water users.Dialogue at BC-level, Handling of Complaints and ViolationsConflicts with the IWMD should be channeled by water users through their representatives andBoard members. IWMD staff should encourage water users to go to their representatives andprovide easy access to these—notably to Board members. Conflicts between IWMD staff and waterusers should be discussed during specific BCWUA–IWMD meetings.In a similar fashion, complaints and violations should be first discussed through such contacts andmeetings. If unsolved, they could be officially filed.Dialogue at the District LevelSeasonal meetings provide a forum for BCWUA chairpersons to talk with IWMD staff and forIWMD staff to provide general information/feedback to the BCWUA (see Guideline 2.8c).Administrative/Organizational ActivitiesThe BCWUA should have a strong organizational framework to allow for all PWM activities tobe implemented effectively and efficiently. This is important to ensure the credibility and sustainabilityof the BCWUA. To this end, the BCWUA should:• Prepare and approve Internal Regulations (these are to be used as guidelines for managingthe BCWUA).• Assign specific responsibilities to Board members and/or WURs to implement and follow-updecisions and activities.• Hold regular (preferably monthly) Board meetings, and (preferably seasonal) meetings withall WURs. WURs should, in turn, have informal meetings with the water users theyrepresent on their turnout or mesqa; formal meetings should be documented and minutesprepared and distributed.• Hold a registry with all relevant documentation, such as:• BCWUA establishment data (list of members, names of WURs, Board members) andBCWUA command area map• BCWUA establishment decree and MOU• BCWUA internal regulations• BCWUA board meetings minutes, (internal Board meetings, meetings with WURs,external meetings with IWMD staff, and other stakeholders)• BC needs inventory and BC priorities• BC action plan• Records for BCWUA implemented activities• Correspondence and other relevant documentation.LIFE–IWRM 107International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10 Participatory Water ManagementRelated Guidelines2.8 BCWUA Activation2.8c BCWUA Activation: Agenda for Seasonal Meetings2.9 BCWUA Activation: Branch Canal Priorities and Branch Canal Action Plan2.9a BCWUA Activation: Branch Canal Priorities Template2.9b BCWUA Activation: Branch Canal Action Plan Template2.10a Participatory Water Management: Forms108 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines2.10a Participatory Water Management:FormsForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Form #1–Water Allocation among BC Off-Takes (Mesqas)District Name:BCWUA Name:Branch Canal(s) Name:Rotation (5/10, 7/7): days on: days off:Planned water supply during a water turn (4, 5, or 7 days)Mesqas Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7List the mesqas in left-end column, check (X) the days when mesqas are allowed to take water.Chairperson Name:Secretary Name:Member Name:Member Name:Member Name:Member Name:Board Members Names/SignaturesChairperson Signature:Secretary Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:LIFE–IWRM 109International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10a Participatory Water Management: FormsForm #2–Crop Information from BCWUA for MISDDistrict Name:BCWUA Name:Branch Canal(s) Name:Season (winter/summer):MesqasTotal AreasExpected Crop AreasOtherMain Crop 1 Main Crop 2CropsNon-IrrigatedTotalsList the mesqas in the left column, enter areas in feddans.Chairperson Name:Secretary Name:Member Name:Member Name:Member Name:Member Name:Board Members Names/SignaturesChairperson Signature:Secretary Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:110 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10a Participatory Water Management: FormsLIFE–IWRM 111International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10a Participatory Water Management: FormsForm #4–BCWUA Assessment of Specific Implemented MaintenanceActivity SupplyDistrict Name:BCWUA Name:Branch Canal(s) Name:Date:Type/Description of Maintenance Activity (manual weeding, dredging, pitching):Location and Duration of Maintenance Activity:Assessment of Maintenance Activity: (quality, timeliness). Provide comments.Chairperson Name:Secretary Name:Member Name:Member Name:Member Name:Member Name:Board Members Names/SignaturesChairperson Signature:Secretary Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:Member Signature:112 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 2.10a Participatory Water Management: FormsForm #5–BCWUA PWM Monitoring FormActivity: Formation of BCWUATitle: Progress MonitoringPhase: PWMDirectorate:IWMD:Date: Year 2007Implementation Activities ProgressBasic Data Participatory Water Management ActivitiesS.N. BCWUAMainFeederBCWUA NameAreaServed(Fed.)NO. Of WaterUsersMaleFemale MaleNo. ofBCWUABoardFemaleBC Internal RotationSubmittedWater Distribution ActivitiesCrop PatternInformationSubmittedBC Water Supply MonitoringSubmittedWinter Summer Winter Summer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Date Date Date Type Date Date Type Date Date check1 El-Sahel El-Sawy 2150 245 50 1 6 10/11/2006 4/15/2007 10/11/2006 4/15/2007 x x x x x x 2/14/2007 4/15/2007 5/22/2007 Weed Control 6/5/2007 2/28/2007 10/8/2007 4/22/2008 10/8/2007 xPrioritiesIdentified(signed)Action PlanPrepared(signed)Maintenance Activities Water Quality ActivitiesBCWUAInstitutional/OrganizationalActivitiesMaintenanceMonitoringReportsSubmittedMaintenanceActivities PerformedAwarenessActivitiesImprovementActivitiesBoard/WURsMeetings(Winter/Summer)RegistersAvailableLIFE–IWRM 113International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.1 Principles of Efficient Water ManagementForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.IntroductionWater management is defined as the planned development, distribution, and efficient use ofwater resourcesThe first step towards competent water management is the assessment of the current (andfuture) status of water resources, in terms of:• Location, availability, quantity, and quality of water resources• Location, type, and needs of water users.The routine collection of information regarding water resources is essential for water managersto be able to take timely, appropriate decisions. The proper use (i.e. analysis) of water data allowsmanagement decisions to be based more on facts than on perceptions or beliefs. Decisions are thentechnically justified and less socially or politically motivated.Efficient Water ManagementIn order to support efficient water management, the following activities are essential:• Flow monitoring—In Egypt, more than 95 percent of water resources come from the Nileriver, making it essential to measure the volumes transiting through and allocated to maincanals and branch canals. The regular measurement of flows in canal (and drains) should bethe foremost activity of IWMD staff. (see Guideline 3.2)• Structure calibration—Calibrating structures simplifies flow monitoring through theroutine translation of water levels into discharges, decreasing the need for frequent flowmeasurements. (see Guideline 3.3)• Matching Irrigation Supply and Demand (MISD)—The MISD program is an essentialtool to improve water use efficiency through the assessment of water needs and the deliveryof matching supplies. The MISD program also relies on flow monitoring to ensure that actualsupplies are as targeted. (see Guideline 3.4)• Inventory of water resources—The basis for efficient water management is goodinformation about water needs, water resources, and water structures. (see Guideline 3.5)• Water budget/Water balance—Comparing water needs and available water resources isa planning task that allows proactive identification of surpluses and shortages and planningallocations accordingly. (see Guideline 3.6)• Mapping of irrigable areas served by branch canals—This is an essential step inassessing water needs by identifying areas that actually require water (as opposed to nonagriculturalareas such as urban areas or unsuitable areas). (see Guideline 3.8)114 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.1 Principles of Efficient Water ManagementData Management for Water ManagementAs mentioned earlier, efficient water management is based on the use of accurate waterinformation. This can only be achieved through the routine collection and storage of data. Equipmentcan greatly facilitate these tasks:• GPS devices These are essential to collect geographical information in the field and reportit on maps. (see Guideline 3.8)• Computers Computers can store and organize data and then produce it in many differentforms such as reports, tables, and maps. (see Guideline 3.7)• Digital mapping software (AutoCAD-Map)—Maps are the best support for decisionmakingin water management, as they visually and geographically display information. (seeGuideline 3.8)Related Guidelines3.2 Flow Measurement3.3 Calibration3.4 Matching Irrigation Supply and Demand3.5 Water Resource Inventory3.6 Water Budget / Water Balance3.7 Computer and Network Maintenance3.8 Mapping Branch Canal AreasLIFE–IWRM 115International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.2 Flow MeasurementForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.IntroductionThis technique is commonly used to measure the flow in open channels, particularly the irregularcross section of canals and rivers.Selection and Preparation of Measurement SitesThe current meter method involves selecting the site that satisfies these criteria:• The site should be located far enough downstream from a water regulating structure (gateor weir) to assure that measurement of the flow is done where steady state conditions exist,in accordance with Egyptian experience.• Avoid canal curves when selecting sites. The site should be in a straight canal reach.• The site should be accessible to the measurement team and for needed equipment.• The site should be regularly maintained, cleaned, and free of weeds.• Pitching/lining the site is preferable and could be required, if canal bank failure is recorded.This creates a control section and improves flow measurement conditions.• Two pegs (stakes) need to be installed, one on each bank, so that the line connecting them isperpendicular to the flow direction. These pegs are used for fixing the cableway across thecanal and for marking width intervals.Measurement EquipmentMeasurement equipment should be assessed from time totime to make sure that it is suitable for measurements.Calibration of current meter devices needs to be done every100 working hours or once per year. Usually, the HydraulicResearch Institute/NWRC is responsible for calibration.Measurement equipment includes Current Meter, Depth Meter,Cableway, Speakers, and Stopwatch.Measuring TeamPrice Type AA MeterThe Measurement team usually consists of one Engineerand two Technicians. Training may be needed for the team.Selection of team members depends on their enthusiasm to measure the flow in the most accurateway. The team members should be aware that they are working to achieve equity in waterdistribution among different regions or canals. Technicians can measure the flow and the Engineer willbe responsible for quality assurance.116 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.2 Flow MeasurementMeasurement Precautions• Water measurement should be made at least 2 hours after gate settings are adjusted.• Gate settings should not be changed during measurement by the Current Meter.• Observe the change in revolutions of the Current Meter. If a significant difference inrevolutions per minute is recorded at one point on the vertical, then the Current Metershould be removed, checked, and cleaned of weeds or other garbage.• Take two readings of the Current Meter revolutions at each position to arrive at n 3 . Theaverage revolution is then calculated as follows:n1 + n2n =2• If a significant difference is noticed between n1 and n2, another reading—n3—should bemade. Then, n will be the average of the two closer readings.• Calculate flow while in the boat for each segment; do not wait to make calculations in theoffice. In this way, the measurement team would discover any errors or measurementproblems and can solve them immediately. This also ensures getting more accurate results.When the total flow of the cross-section is made at the end segment, it can be checkedaccording to experience. If the flow was suspected to be inaccurate, the team can remeasurethe flow using simple techniques such as measuring the flow at one point (e.g. at 0.6of the depth) and selecting fewer segments. If the flow still seems to be far from the real(experienced) one, then the Current Meter needs to be checked, amended, and/orcalibrated.• Equal spacing of the increments is not recommended unless the discharge is well-distributedacross the canal section. Smaller widths of the increment are recommended in areas ofgreatest discharges (i.e. high velocity areas). Ideally, each increment should not have morethan 5 percent of the total canal flow. However, 10 percent can be used (MWRI, 2000).• All data on the calculation form should be filled in, as shown hereafter.• Read and record parameters (water levels and gate openings) before and after themeasurement of the flow.Measurement across the Canal• Prepare the site of the measurement so that it is accessible for handling equipment and easyfor staff to get into the boat. The site should be selected in a straight reach of the canal andhave a steady flow, with no turbulence. It should be cleaned and maintained on a regularbasis to remove aquatic weeds and other obstacles.• String a tag line across the canal so that it is perpendicular to the canal flow. The tag lineshould be tight (the tag line sag should be minimal) and fixed on stakes at both ends on thecanal banks.• The cross-section of the canal at the measuring site is divided into a number of segments(increments) depending on the irregularity of the section and the velocity of the water. Toget a normal distribution of errors, 20–30 segments are recommended for large channels(Rantz, 1983).• Water depth (d) is measured at the middle of the increment using a Meter-depth winch.• The Current Meter is usually positioned at 0.2 and 0.8 of the water depth in the middle ofeach segment to get the average velocity of flow (V m ), as follows:3Number of revolutions (n) is the number of Current Meter revolutions (number of sound signals heard by speakers that areconnected to the Current Meter) in a single minute.LIFE–IWRM 117International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.2 Flow MeasurementV m = (V 0.2d + V 0.8d ) ÷ 2• The velocity of the flow (V0.2d or V0.8d) is calculated from rating tables of the CurrentMeter according to the measured revolutions at each position. Normally, the relationshipbetween velocity and revolutions (n) is linear and can be written as follows:V = a + b nwhere a and b are Current Meter rating constants and differ from one Current Meter toanother. These constants need to be updated every 100 working hours or each year.• In some cases, where water depth is shallow (less than one meter) or the bed is heavilyinfested with weeds, the Current Meter is positioned at one point; at 0.6 of the depth ofwater. ThenV m = V 0.6dCanal Cross-section with Edges of Water at BanksstakeLeft edge ofwaterMarkedtag lineRight edgeof waterstakedbIncrement ofwidth b anddepth d• Assemble all discharge measurement at each increment to get the total canal flow.• Complete the calculation form and then type these data into the database (or excel tables)prepared for this purpose.• Keep all field forms in a special file.• Measurement (field forms) should be revised by the Water Distribution Engineer or whoeveris responsible for measurements.Calculation Form (Sheet)This form presented immediately below is used to tabulate the measurements of the currentmeter from the boat. The two pages following the form show examples of measurement withdifferent approaches.118 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.2 Flow MeasurementLeft edgeof waterX1X21 2 3 4bd10.2 d0.8 dGeneral Directorate:……………………….IWMD: …………….…………………………Canal name:…………….……………..Location of measuremen:………………... water level before measAfter meas. Water flowType of currentmeter: ……………….. L1 under the lower gateMeasured by: …………………… L2 Between upper and lower gatesChecked by:L3Date:……………………………Time from ….. To ….. Gate gate 1 gate 2 gate 3 gate 4 gate 5Weather conditions:…………………..other information:…………………………openning(m)Total Discharg:…………. m3/s Cross section Area m2Top Width:………………. m Average Velocity m/sAverage Water depth…… m Max. Water Depth…. m/s(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)No. dist Width Average Depth Area Rotations at 0.2 d V0.2 Rotations at 0.8 d V0.8 Vm Q(m)Width (m) di(m)(m2)bi ×dim/sm/s m/s1 0 0 d1 n1 n2 n3 avg n1 n2 n3 avgb1 = X1-02 X1 (b1+b2)/2 d2b2=X2-X13 X2 (b2+b3)/2 d34 X3 b3= (X3-X2)(5) = (3) × (4) (10) = 0.5 × [(7) + (9)] (11) = (10) × (5)Total canal flow = ∑ (11)Note:Type of flow: underflow or flow between the gates.Gate settings include level of each rim (upper and lower gates).If a weir exists, water level downstream of the weir should be recorded.∑LIFE–IWRM 119International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.2 Flow MeasurementExample Calculation No. 1(Measurement at 0.2 and 0.8 Water Depth)General Directorate:……………………….IWMD: …………….…………………………Canal name:…………….……………..Location of measuremen:………………... water level before measAfter meas. Water flowType of currentmeter: ……………….. L1 12.65 12.67 under the lower gate ?Measured by: …………………… L2 11.10 11.10 Between upper and lower gatesChecked by: L3 10.85 10.88Date:……………………………Time from ….. To …..Gateopenninggate 1 gate 2 gate 3 gate 4 gate 5Weather conditions:………………….. (m) 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.1 -----other information:…………………………Total Discharg:………… 21.521 m3/s Cross section Area 88.7 m2Top Width:…………… 43 m Average Velocity 0.24 m/sAverage Water depth… 2.1 m Max. Water Depth…. 2.6 m/sNo. distance distance average water segment 0.2 of water depth 0.8 of water depth average water Dischargefrom between width of depth area no. of revolutions no. of revolutions revolutions velocity m3/sbank verticals segment m m2 1 2 1 2 m/s1 0 032 3 3 1.2 3.6 15 16 10 11 13 0.151 0.54233 6 3 2.2 6.6 12 14 11 11 12 0.140 0.92134 9 3 2.5 7.5 19 21 12 12 16 0.184 1.37935 12 3 2.6 7.8 25 24 15 16 20 0.228 1.78036 15 3 2.6 7.8 24 24 16 14 19.5 0.223 1.73737 18 3 2.4 7.2 28 30 18 20 24 0.272 1.96238 21 3 2.4 7.2 27 31 23 24 26.25 0.297 2.14139 24 3 2.4 7.2 26 28 23 23 25 0.284 2.042310 27 3 2.4 7.2 31 30 21 23 26.25 0.297 2.141311 30 3 2.4 7.2 31 31 24 23 27.25 0.308 2.221312 33 3 2.4 7.2 32 33 13 10 22 0.250 1.802313 36 3 2.2 6.6 30 29 12 11 20.5 0.234 1.543314 39 3.5 1.6 5.6 30 28 13 11 20.5 0.234 1.309415 432.092857 88.7 Q= 21.521120 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.2 Flow MeasurementExample Calculation No. 2(Measurement at 0.6 Water Depth)General Directorate:……………………….IWMD: …………….…………………………Canal name:…………….……………..Location of measuremen:………………... water level before measAfter meas. Water flowType of currentmeter: ……………….. L1 12.65 12.67 under the lower gate ?Measured by: …………………… L2 11.10 11.10 Between upper and lower gatesChecked by: L3 10.85 10.88Date:……………………………Time from ….. To ….. Gateopenninggate 1 gate 2 gate 3 gate 4 gate 5Weather conditions:………………….. (m) 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.1 -----other information:…………………………Total Discharg:………… 21.616 m3/s Cross section Area 88.7 m2Top Width:…………… 43 m Average Velocity 0.24 m/sAverage Water depth… 2.1 m Max. Water Depth…. 2.6 m/sNo. distance distance average water segment 0.6 of water depth average water Dischargefrom between width of depth area no. of revolutions revolutions velocity m3/sbank verticals segment m m2 1 2 m/s1 0 032 3 3 1.2 3.6 12 14 13 0.151 0.54233 6 3 2.2 6.6 12 12 12 0.140 0.92134 9 3 2.5 7.5 17 16 16.5 0.189 1.42135 12 3 2.6 7.8 19 21 20 0.228 1.78036 15 3 2.6 7.8 18 20 19 0.217 1.69437 18 3 2.4 7.2 26 23 24.5 0.278 2.00238 21 3 2.4 7.2 27 27 27 0.306 2.20139 24 3 2.4 7.2 26 25 25.5 0.289 2.082310 27 3 2.4 7.2 25 27 26 0.295 2.121311 30 3 2.4 7.2 28 26 27 0.306 2.201312 33 3 2.4 7.2 22 21 21.5 0.245 1.763313 36 3 2.2 6.6 20 22 21 0.239 1.579314 39 3.5 1.6 5.6 19 22 20.5 0.234 1.309415 432.092857 88.7 Q= 21.616LIFE–IWRM 121International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Importance of CalibrationThe management of water resources depends, to a considerable degree, on the availability ofhydrological and hydraulic data. The operation and maintenance of irrigation systems requirescollecting regular data on water levels and discharges. But while water levels are easy to monitor,discharges require specific measurements with Current Meters. The calibration of canal sections orstructures allows an easy translation of water levels into discharges, supporting:• Efficient day-to-day water management and regulation of irrigation/drainage systems• Monitoring and improvement of these systems.Surprisingly, water discharges are only monitored at some key points on the directorate-level inEgypt, although there is a policy to improve irrigation systems and increase efficiency of water use.Fortunately, measurement of discharges can be easily achieved since there are many water structuresalong canals and drains that can be calibrated. In these guidelines, the calibration concept is presented,along with the process, procedures, and formulas to be used with some relevant examples.Calibration: Concept and Choice of FormulasCalibration is the process that results in developing a hydraulic relationship between differentchannel characteristics and flow parameters, the objective being a simple translation of water levelsinto discharges.In any channel reach there is a relationship between discharge, water surface profile, andhydraulic characteristics of the channel. For any water structure, there is also a relationship thatrelates the discharge passing through the structure, water levels upstream and downstream of thestructure, and the characteristics of the structure. These relationships are either theoretical orempirical equations. Therefore, the calibration process can consider two options:• Calibration of a water structure such as weir, orifice, pump, or pipe• Calibration of a canal cross-section.The calibration of a water structure is the preferred solution, as the structure provides morepermanent/stable flow conditions than the cross-section of a canal. By order of preference, theoptions are:1. Non-submerged weirs are often used for discharge evaluation as they offer reliable stage–discharge correlations. (provided submergence ratio is kept within permissible limits).2. Orifices (structures with openings or gates) are the second preferred method for flowcalibration (again under specific hydraulic conditions, with upstream submergence of theopening providing sufficient head).Calibration of a canal reach is also possible, although it usually involves collecting more data andis less accurate. By order of preference, the formulas are:122 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating Curves1. Slope area method, essentially the Manning formula2. Stage–discharge relationship that can be, to some extent, used to estimate the canal flow.All these formulas are explained in detail hereafter. It is important to keep in mind that:• The calibration of a structure is preferred because it is simpler and more accurate. Underthe proper hydraulic conditions, only one depth of water can exit for a given discharge. Thecorresponding formulas are based on physical principles of fluid mechanics.• The calibration of a canal reach requires data on the slope and it is less accurate. In a canalwith weak slope, the discharge is a function of the water level and the slope (for a givenwater level, the discharge can vary depending on the slope). Calibrating a canal reach usesempirical (slope–discharge) or statistical (stage–discharge) formulas. Two formulas may beused for one site due to varying operational conditions of canals. As an example the unsubmergedweir formula can no longer be used if a weir becomes submerged at some timesover the year.The decision tree shown in Figure 3.3.1below guides the choice of a calibration formula.Calibration ProcessThe process of calibration involves the following steps:1. Data CollectionData collection includes two types of data:1. Constant data—These include physical data about the water structure and channel reachsuch as invert level, gate width, canal cross section (bed level, side slopes, and longitudinalslope), and the location of the next gauge used to calculate the water surface profile.2. Time-variant data—These data include routine measurements of water discharges andcorresponding water levels and gate openings. Water levels include upstream anddownstream water levels from the gate, upstream and downstream water levels from theweir, and water level at the next gauge (end of reach water level). For proper calibration,these data need to be collected over a period of time that includes the full range of channelflows. For channel flows that do not fluctuate rapidly, data can be collected weekly or twicea month, depending on flow characteristics, and whenever changes in water levels occur. It isrecommended that the engineer checks the measurements himself, reading the gauge, insteadof relying on data reported by gate keepers.2. Data Refinement (Consistency)Consistency of data needs to be checked. If the responsible engineer discovers inconsistent data,he may decide on additional measurements or seek solutions to enhance the data records.An example of data review and refinement is the measured flow. The sheet that is used formeasurement shows the water levels before and after the measurements. If a significant differencebetween the water levels before and after measurement is found, then such measurement should beexcluded from calibration. All measurement data should be carefully reviewed and checked aftermeasurement to decide whether to add them to the database.3. Data TabulationData on flow measurements are tabulated into a database prepared primarily for this purpose.We recommend filling all data records in this database. For calibration purposes, these data will beLIFE–IWRM 123International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesFigure 3.3.1Decision Tree for Calibration124 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating Curvesexported to an Excel spreadsheet. Excel is a flexible and easy to use tool for checking data andperforming calibrations. In these guidelines a table format was prepared to store data records andmake them available for calibration. See table 3.3.2 at the end of this guideline.4. Definition of Discharge FormulaTo establish the discharge/rating formula, simply follows these steps:1. Discharge and water level data is plotted on a graph2. The trend of data is assessed using one or several of the proposed formulae (the choice ofthe formula to be used is made using the decision tree of Figure 3.3.1 above)3. Regression analysis is made to find the formula constants4. Correlation is assessed using the correlation coefficient and standard error5. The formula can be used if the correlation is good6. In some cases, several formulae have to be investigated before a formula fits. If no formulafits, then data collection has to be improved.The accepted relationship can then be used to calculate the daily flow (or hourly flow if telemetryexists) from water level readings from the calibrated sites.Usual Discharge FormulasThe main formulae available for calibration are presented below. Table 3.3.1 summarizes theseformulae by order of preference:Table 3.3.1Summary of Common Hydraulic FormulaeOrderType ofFormulaDetailedNeededDataConstantsto beCalibratedUsualValues1 Weir Q = c x H n upstream water level c, n n around 1.52 Orifice Q = c A gH3Manning (slopeareamethod)d o21Q = ARn23S0.5upstream anddownstream levels of theof gate, gate opening AoReach length, waterlevels at head and tail ofthe reach, cross sectiondata; bed level, sideslopes, bed widthcd1nc around 0.6-0.81n≡ 20 - 40for alluvialcanals1n≅ 60 forlined canals4SimplifiedManningQ = kh53( L − L12)0.5Reach length, waterlevels at head, L1,and attail of the reach, L2, bedlevel, Fh=L1-FKlocalized5 Stage-dischargeIt takes different forms:Power Q = a h bpolynomialQ = c1+c2 h+c3h 2water level (or waterdepth), ha,b for powerformula and, c1,c2, c3 forpolynomialb around 1.3-1.8 whenwater depthis usedLIFE–IWRM 125International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesOrderType ofFormulaDetailedNeededDataConstantsto beCalibratedUsualValues6Linear stagedischarge(forsmall range ofwater levels)Q = a + b hwater level, or waterdepth ha,blocalizedNote:The usual value of c d is 0.6, but due to water leakage around the gate, it can be higher than0.6 depending on the volume of leakage.1The value of depends on the canal conditions. It decreases when the canal is infested with weedsn1. Weir EquationWeirs are the most commonly used structures used to measure water discharge in the openchannel. Different types of weirs are used. These structures are usually called overflow structures.Water is passed over the top of the weir (weir crest) and consequently a general equation is used forall weirs:n(1) Figure 3.3.2 Free Flow WeirQ = c Hwhere:HH is water head on weir crestc and n are the calibration constantsQOne important governing factor in the weir equation is the submergence ratio. The weir is calledsubmerged when the downstream water level rises higher than the crest of the weir. Then the flowpassing over the weir is affected by the downstream water level. Hence, equation (1) is no longerused. There are several trials to find a relationship that can be used for the submerged weir, but theyare not very accurate. The submergence ratio is defined as:HhQ(2) Sub =h × 100 Figure 3.3.3 Submerged WeirH126 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesThus, the submergence ratio needs to be calculated first. When the submergence ratio is lessthan 70 percent, the flow over the weir is called free flow and equation (1) can be used.2. Orifice EquationAn orifice is any type of opening in which the upstream water level is higher than the top of theopening. Flow through the opening can be classified into two types:1. Free flow conditions—This occurs when the jet of the water emanating from the orificedischarges freely into the air or the downstream channel without backwater or tail watereffect. In this case the discharge equation is written as follows:(3) Q = C A gHFigure 3.3.4 Free Orifice Flow2d guswlgateHdswld oQFigure (4) Free Orifice FlowWhere:C d : Discharge CoefficientA g : Area of the gate opening = do × gate widthH: Water head on the gate and measured vertically from the upstream water level(uswl) to the centroid of the gate opening2. Submerged Flow Conditions— This occurs when the downstream water level (dswl) isabove the top of the opening. In this case equation (3) is used, but: H = uswl – dswlFigure 3.3.5Submerged Orifice FlowuswlHdswld oQSubmerged conditions will affect estimating the discharge coefficient (C d ), i.e. C d depends on, inaddition to the shape of the gate and the opening, the flow conditions; submerged or free. Usually C dranges from 0.6 to 0.8. A linearized equation of the orifice is commonly used in Egypt.Linearization of the orifice flow equation—Suppose that a head intake consists of one gateof width b. If the gate is raised so that the height of the gate opening is equal to do, then equation (3)can be rewritten as follows:LIFE–IWRM 127International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesQ = Cd ( bdo) 2gHQ = C doHQ = C d (4)oHQEquation (4) shows a linear relation between the two quantities; ( H ) and (do). If the twoQquantities are plotted so that (do) is abscissa and ( ) is ordinate, the line passes through theHorigin and the slope of the line is the value of the constant (C). This may happen for a perfect headgate. In fact, the performance of the gate is affected by other conditions such as water leakage aroundthe gate. Therefore, the line may intercept the Y-axis, and hence, the linearized orifice equation canbe rewritten as follows:QH= C1d o+ C2 (5)This equation is a commonly used one for Egyptian canals. The calibration of this equationinvolves finding the two constants C1 and C2 through regression analysis.3. Slope–Area MethodIn the Slope–Area method, discharge is computed on the basis of a uniform flow equationinvolving channel characteristics, water surface profile, and a roughness or retardation coefficient. Thechange in water surface profile for a uniform reach of channel represents losses caused by bedroughness. The most commonly used Slope-Area method is the Manning equation. It is written as:Q =1nAR23S0 .5(6)Where:And:S: slope of water surfaceA: cross section areaR: hydraulic radius, whereR =APP = wetted perimetern: is the Manning coefficient that depends on the roughness of the canal sides.Usually “1/n” values ranges from 20 to 40 for alluvial canals depending on thechannel roughness and weed growth. For design purposes according to the EgyptianCode for Irrigation and Drainage, “1/n” is taken as 40 for alluvial canals, 30 fordrains, and 60 for lined canals.Simplification of Manning Equation—For a wide, rectangular cross-section where waterwidth “B” is much greater than water depth “d”” then,P= B + 2d ≅ B and A = B × d , so: R = A/p ≅ dThen, Equation (6) can be rewritten as:128 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating Curves(7) Q = ( B/n)d 5/3 S 0.5But knowing that d = DS – F and S = (DS – FG)/L , (see figure 3.3.6) then equation (7) can be writtenas:50.5(8)3Q = K ( DS − F ) ( DS − FG )Where K =B0.5nLDS: water level downstream the gate (at head of the canal reach)FG: water level at the tail of the reachF: canal bed level (or invert level)L: length of the canal reachCalibration of this equation involves finding the average value of the constant K, and 1/n can be thendetermined.Figure 3.3.6Definition Schematic of Water Surface ProfileMain CanalUSDSPlan ViewLdUSDSQFGBAverage X-SectionProfileThe canal reach is usually taken so that the water surface slope is significant. Since the waterslope in an Egyptian canal is around 5 cm/km, it is preferable that the selected canal reach, L, isgreater than a single km. along this reach, there should not be off takes that affect the uniformity ofthe flow.4. Stage–Discharge RelationThere are several equations that describe the relationship between water level and thecorresponding discharge at a certain location on the waterway. The most common is written in thefollowing format:(9)Q = a( h − )h obWhere:Q = Water discharge flowing in the open channelh = water level at measuring location corresponding to QLIFE–IWRM 129International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating Curvesh o = a constant usually known as water shift and defined as the water level in the canalat which the discharge is zero (the water level of zero-discharge)a and b = the calibration constants.In many cases h o is usually omitted from equation (9) and the following formula is used:bQ = ah(10)Sometimes, a polynomial equation is used in the stage-relation discharge. Values of h are plottedon the ordinate and corresponding discharges on the abscissa on arithmetic graph paper. The generalpolynomial expression is:Q = c 1 +c 2 h+c 3 h 2 + ……….+ c n h n-1 (11)The common used formula is Q = c 1 +c 2 h+c 3 h 2However, in most of branch canals in Egypt where water level range is quite small (70 – 100 cm),a linear form of the equation can be used. It is written as follows:Q = a + b h (12)For more accurate calibration of stage-discharge relationships, the data can be classified intodifferent time series groups where each group can have different relationship constants. For example,there can be a formula for summer season (high water supply period) and one for winter season (lowwater supply period)Calibrations of PumpsDetermination of the water volume passing through a pumping station requires recordingoperating hours for each pump, supply water level (upstream of the pump), outlet water level(delivery side), and pump efficiency. These parameters can be used together with the pumpcharacteristic curve. Figure 3.3.7 shows the relationship between pump discharge and otherparameters such as brake horse power, lifting head, and efficiency.Figure 3.3.7Pump Characteristic Curve130 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesIt can be noted from this figure that the pump discharge can exceed 100 percent of the nominaldischarge if lifting head is reduced to be less than designed (the 100 percent lifting head). TheMechanical and Electrical Department (MED) of the MWRI is responsible for operating andmaintaining pump stations. Usually, there is a characteristic curve for each pump used to calculate thepump discharge. However, it is found that each pump has an estimate of its flow capacity based on acertain efficiency that is not known for the existing estimate in some cases. Therefore, measurementof the flow at the pump outlet in the canal is important to check the actual capacity of the pump.Because of the complexity of pump calibration, a simplified method can be used. A correction factorcan be developed, through flow measurements, and used to modify the pump discharges made by theMED.The correction factor can be written as:Measured Discharge(13) Correction factor =MED Re ported DischargeThis factor can be one value for the whole season or for a certain range of water levels. If thecorrection value (average value) is 0.7, it means that all MED-reported discharges (nominal discharges)need to be reduced by 30 percent to correct the existing pump efficiency numbers. This correctionfactor can be an important indicator for the MED to start evaluating the pump and determineappropriate rehabilitation and renovation activities.Accuracy of CalibrationThe question now is, “How accurate is the developed relationship”? To answer this, theregression concept and some statistical measurements need to be investigated. Simply, when oneparameter (constant) is calibrated, the average value, standard deviation of the average, and thecoefficient of variance need to be determined. Suppose that values of X are known as X 1, X 2, X 3,and X n. Then:(14) Average, X =i ni∑ ==1nxi(15) Standard Deviation, σ =∑( xi − X )n −12(16) Coefficient of Variance, Cv = Xσ × 100In order to use the calibrated constant with average equals X , the coefficient of variance shouldnot exceed 5 percent.In case of calibrating two constants in the regression analysis, the coefficient of determination isused as a statistical measure to judge the accuracy of the relationship. The coefficient ofdetermination is equal to the square of the correlation coefficient (R). The formula for the correlationcoefficient can be written as:LIFE–IWRM 131International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating Curves(17)R =∑∑(( XXii− X )( Y− X )2i∑− Y )( Yi− Y )2The Coefficient of Determination is equal to R 2 .The higher value of R 2 is, the more accurate the relationship is. Water managers in Egyptrecommend a value of 95 percent or more for R 2 . This may apply to primary and main canals.However, for branch canals, a value of 85 percent or more could be used. In either case, the value ofthe R 2 , to accept the relationship, depends on the importance of the site in terms of waterdistribution and management. The decision maker can decide on the level of R 2 to accept thecalibrated relationship. It should be noted that R 2 is not the sole measure of accuracy. There areother important statistical measures that can be used such as the standard error.Implementation of Calibrated Rating CurvesIn this step, the calibrated equation can be applied to estimate the discharge (water volume)passing through the canal intake over a certain period of time: t (hours).Annex 3.3.1 shows an example of calibrating canal flow for the Nekla Canal in BeheiraDirectorate. Three equations were developed: Orifice, Manning, and Stage–Discharge relationship.To find the canal flow, the Orifice equation will be used, since it showed high correlation.However, this may not work when head on the gate is very small (tends to be zero), particularlywhen the gate is fully open.The flow in this case becomes a canal free flow (not regulated by the gate) that can bedetermined by Manning or Stage–Discharge relationship. Manning is recommended; however, ifManning is not well calibrated, then Stage–Discharge can be used.For Nekla Canal, the Stage–Discharge relationship did not show good correlation. Therefore itcould not be used and Manning was substituted. This demonstrates the importance of using morethan one method so that the most reliable estimate of canal flow is achieved.Tables 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 are useful for data collection for general calibration and calibration ofpumps.132 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesTable 3.3.2DirectorateIWMDData Collection Format for Calibration…………..…………..Canal name …………..Site name &location …………..Area Served ds site ………. feddanFlow (Continous, Rotation) C/R: ………….Invert Level (F)…………..Weir Crest (top) Level ( C ) …………..Width of weir ………….. m Gate width (m)Next Guage name ………….. Gtae No. G1 G2 G3 G4 G5Distance from measuring site ………….. m width (m)to next guageDateUSWL (L1)upstreamthe gateDSWL (L2)downstreamthe gateWL dsWeir (L3)Gate Op(m)WL at thenextguage(L4)Q(m 3 /s)1. average data are used for water levels (before and after measurements)2. Next guage is the water level guage that is not less than one kilometer far from the measuring site.3. There should not be any major offtakes in the reach from measuring site to the next guageLIFE–IWRM 133International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesTable 3.3.3Data Collection Format for Calibration of PumpDirectorateIWMD…………..…………..Canal name ………….. PS name………………….Site name &location ………….. unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5Area Served ds site ………. feddan max. uswlFlow (Continous, Rotation) C/R: …………. min. uswlcanal bed level(F) ………….. level of upper rim of delivery pipeWeir Crest (top) Level ( C ) ………….. diameter of delivery pipeWidth of weir ………….. m Pump capacity (m 3 /s)Next Guage name ………….. date of constructionDistance from measuring site ………….. m date of recent rehabilitationto next guagedate of last calibrationexisting pump characterstics curve ( y/n)DateUSWL (L1)DSWL (L2)dsupstreamthe PSthe PSWL dsWeir (L3)WL at thenext guage(L4)Q (m 3 /s)operating unitsunite 1, unite 2, unite 5unite 3, unite 41. average data are used for water levels (before and after measurements)2. Next guage is the water level guage that is not less than one kilometer far from the measuring site.3. There should not be any major offtakes in the reach from measuring site to the next guageReferencesEgyptian Irrigation and Drainage Code, MWRIFlow Measurement and Calibration, M. Bahaa Saad, 1995Flow Measurement Guidelines, APRP, 1999Flow Measurement and Calibration Procedures, Hydraulic Research Institute, NWRCNile Water Management, Mott Macdonald, 1991134 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesAnnex 3.3.1 – Examples of Field CalibrationTable (I-1) shows a summary of measurements and data collected for a canal in BeheiraGovernorate called Nekla Canal, which serves a command area of about 3,000 feddans. Its length isabout 9.8 km and it takes its water from the Mahmoudia Canal through a one-gate head regulator.Trials are made to calibrate the water discharge entering the canal. The three rating methods weredeveloped: Stage–Discharge Relationship, Orifice Flow equation, and Slope–Area Method equation.Calibration of the weir is made for another site (downstream of the Saidia Canal intake that drawsfrom the Ismailia Canal).I.1 Calibration of Head Gate of the Nekla CanalThere are two ways of calibrating the gate:Calibration of the discharge coefficient, C dBased on Equation (3), that is written as:Q = C A 2gHd gWhere A g = b × d o ,Then,Cd=oQ( b × d )2gHFigure I-1Submerged Orifice FlowuswlbHdswld oQFigure (4 ) Submerged Orifice FlowTable I-2 shows a tabulation of measurement data that includes uswl, dswl, gate opening, do, andmeasured discharge, Q. The gate width, b =2.5 m, the gravitational acceleration g = 9.81 m/s 2 .Calculations are made on the same sheet that shows H = uswl-dswl, and C d .The calculated values of C d were then averaged and showed that C d = 0.59The standard deviation, and hence the coefficient, of variance were also calculated. They were0,056 and 9 percent respectively. The coefficient of variance (9 percent) seems to be good. Howevera value of 5 percent or less is recommended. For small canals (branch canals) a value of 10 percent orless might be acceptable.Now, the calibrated formula for the canal intake can be written as follows:Q = 0.59Ag 2gHLIFE–IWRM 135International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesTable (I-1) Water Measurement on Nekla CanalArea Served (feddans) 3000 number og gates 1Canal Length (m) 9800 gate width (m) 2.5Reach Lenth (m) 9800 invert level (F) 1.15Average Canal Width (m) 5.00Date uswl dswlgateopeningNextGuageQ (m3/sec)(do) (m) Level05/06/1999 3.85 2.05 0.15 0.85 1.58505/07/1999 3.95 1.90 0.12 1.08 1.37405/08/1999 3.90 1.80 0.08 1.05 0.90605/11/1999 3.85 1.85 0.13 0.90 1.18805/12/1999 3.85 1.90 0.15 1.05 1.57913/05/1999 3.85 1.70 0.10 0.95 1.17615/05/1999 3.85 1.72 0.10 0.77 1.20320/05/1999 3.87 1.90 0.25 0.55 2.3221/05/1999 3.85 2.00 0.27 0.93 2.4222/05/1999 3.84 1.92 0.25 0.90 2.2723/05/1999 3.95 1.95 0.25 0.92 2.324/05/1999 3.75 1.71 0.15 0.80 1.6630/05/1999 4.05 1.97 0.28 0.38 2.5431/05/1999 4.05 2.04 0.28 0.45 2.8206/01/1999 4.04 2.06 0.28 0.75 2.3906/02/1999 4.05 1.92 0.20 0.90 2.0106/03/1999 4.05 1.88 0.20 0.83 1.99806/08/1999 4.04 1.96 0.25 0.55 2.4406/09/1999 4.04 2.03 0.25 1.07 2.3506/11/1999 4.04 1.85 0.20 0.95 1.7306/12/1999 4.04 1.85 0.20 0.95 2.04713/06/1999 4.05 1.88 0.20 0.95 2.08107/01/1999 4.20 2.04 0.30 0.87 2.6407/02/1999 4.20 1.90 0.26 0.94 2.3307/03/1999 4.12 1.87 0.23 1.03 2.1607/04/1999 4.18 1.93 0.23 0.87 2.3507/10/1999 4.19 1.95 0.32 0.43 3.0807/12/1999 4.20 2.04 0.33 0.96 3.1413/07/1999 4.20 2.03 0.33 1.09 3.0920/07/1999 4.20 2.01 0.30 0.55 2.7821/07/1999 4.19 2.14 0.33 1.13 3.0122/07/1999 4.20 2.00 0.30 1.07 2.6823/07/1999 4.20 2.06 0.30 1.06 2.629/07/1999 4.18 1.83 0.33 0.68 3.0608/01/1999 4.20 1.78 0.28 1.17 2.84708/02/1999 4.20 1.58 0.25 1.09 2.29208/03/1999 4.20 1.73 0.25 1.09 2.35008/09/1999 4.18 1.92 0.30 0.82 2.74008/10/1999 4.20 1.90 0.30 1.09 2.79008/12/1999 4.20 2.00 0.30 1.30 2.62017/08/1999 4.20 2.00 0.28 1.10 2.51021/08/1999 4.20 1.80 0.23 1.15 2.33022/08/1999 4.20 1.82 0.23 1.15 2.47027/08/1999 4.18 1.85 0.30 0.94 2.78029/08/1999 4.20 1.80 0.22 1.23 2.25030/08/1999 4.20 1.70 0.20 1.20 2.12031/08/1999 4.20 1.75 0.20 1.22 1.990Note: location of the next guage is at canal end. I.e the canal is one reach136 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesTable (I-2) Calibration of Cd coefficient in Orifice Flow EquationArea Served (feddans) 3000 number og gates 1Canal Length (m) 9800 gate width (m) 2.5Reach Lenth (m) 9800 invert level (F) 1.15Average Canal Width ( 5.00measurementscalculationuswl dswl Q (m3/s) do (m) H Cd3.95 1.90 1.374 0.12 2.05 0.7223.90 1.80 0.906 0.08 2.10 0.7063.85 1.85 1.188 0.13 2.00 0.5843.85 1.90 1.579 0.15 1.95 0.6813.85 1.70 1.176 0.10 2.15 0.7243.85 1.72 1.203 0.10 2.13 0.7443.87 1.90 2.320 0.25 1.97 0.5973.85 2.00 2.420 0.27 1.85 0.5953.84 1.92 2.270 0.25 1.92 0.5923.95 1.95 2.300 0.25 2.00 0.5873.75 1.71 1.660 0.15 2.04 0.7004.05 1.97 2.540 0.28 2.08 0.5684.05 2.04 2.820 0.28 2.01 0.6424.04 2.06 2.390 0.28 1.98 0.5484.05 1.92 2.010 0.20 2.13 0.6224.05 1.88 1.998 0.20 2.17 0.6124.04 1.96 2.440 0.25 2.08 0.6114.04 2.03 2.350 0.25 2.01 0.5994.04 1.85 1.730 0.20 2.19 0.5284.04 1.85 2.047 0.20 2.19 0.6254.05 1.88 2.081 0.20 2.17 0.6384.20 2.04 2.640 0.30 2.16 0.5414.20 1.90 2.330 0.26 2.30 0.5344.12 1.87 2.160 0.23 2.25 0.5654.18 1.93 2.350 0.23 2.25 0.6154.19 1.95 3.080 0.32 2.24 0.5814.20 2.04 3.140 0.33 2.16 0.5854.20 2.03 3.090 0.33 2.17 0.5744.20 2.01 2.780 0.30 2.19 0.5654.19 2.14 3.010 0.33 2.05 0.5754.20 2.00 2.680 0.30 2.20 0.5444.20 2.06 2.600 0.30 2.14 0.5354.18 1.83 3.060 0.33 2.35 0.5464.20 1.78 2.847 0.28 2.42 0.5904.20 1.58 2.292 0.25 2.62 0.5114.20 1.73 2.350 0.25 2.47 0.5404.18 1.92 2.740 0.30 2.26 0.5494.20 1.90 2.790 0.30 2.30 0.5544.20 2.00 2.620 0.30 2.20 0.5324.20 2.00 2.510 0.28 2.20 0.5464.20 1.80 2.330 0.23 2.40 0.5914.20 1.82 2.470 0.23 2.38 0.6294.18 1.85 2.780 0.30 2.33 0.5484.20 1.80 2.250 0.22 2.40 0.5964.20 1.70 2.120 0.20 2.50 0.6054.20 1.75 1.990 0.20 2.45 0.574Average Cd 0.59ST dev 0.056Coefficient of Variance 9%LIFE–IWRM 137International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating Curves1.2 Calibration of the Linearized Orifice Flow EquationIn this case equation (5) is used. It is written as:QH= C + C 2Table (I-3) shows data tabulation and calculation ofQ . Then a graph is made to show theHplot betweenQHand gate opening, do. Then the best-fit line is deduced. Using Excel software, theline can be drawn and the equation as well as Coefficient of Determination, R 2 , can be shown on thegraph.1d oFigure (I-2) shows such relation, the calibrated constants C 1 and C 2 and the R 2The Coefficient of Determination, R 2 , for the head gate of Nekla is 95 percent after deleting thepoints that appear to be incorrect (outliers).The equation of the orifice becomes:QH= 5.32d+ 0.28oOr:Q = (5. 32d + 0.28) HoThis equation shows that even if the gate is totally closed, there is a flow in the canal. This flow iscalled leakage. The leakage can be calculated as:Q = 0.28HFigure I-2Orifice Flow Equation for Nekla IntakeFigh (I-1) Orifice Flow Equation forNekla Intake2.5002.000Q/H 0.51.5001.0000.500Q/H 0.5 = 5.32 d o + 0.28R 2 = 0.950.0000.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40do (m)138 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesTable (I-3) Linearized Orifice Flow Equation for Nekla Canal Intakemeasurementscalculationuswl dswl Q (m3/s) do (m) H = US - DS H 0.5 Q/H 0.53.85 2.05 1.585 0.15 1.80 1.342 1.1813.95 1.90 1.374 0.12 2.05 1.432 0.9603.90 1.80 0.906 0.08 2.10 1.449 0.6253.85 1.85 1.188 0.13 2.00 1.414 0.8403.85 1.90 1.579 0.15 1.95 1.396 1.1313.85 1.70 1.176 0.10 2.15 1.466 0.8023.85 1.72 1.203 0.10 2.13 1.459 0.8243.87 1.90 2.320 0.25 1.97 1.404 1.6533.85 2.00 2.420 0.27 1.85 1.360 1.7793.84 1.92 2.270 0.25 1.92 1.386 1.6383.95 1.95 2.300 0.25 2.00 1.414 1.6263.75 1.71 1.660 0.15 2.04 1.428 1.1624.05 1.97 2.540 0.28 2.08 1.442 1.7614.05 2.04 2.820 0.28 2.01 1.418 1.9894.04 2.06 2.390 0.28 1.98 1.407 1.6984.05 1.92 2.010 0.20 2.13 1.459 1.3774.05 1.88 1.998 0.20 2.17 1.473 1.3564.04 1.96 2.440 0.25 2.08 1.442 1.6924.04 2.03 2.350 0.25 2.01 1.418 1.6584.04 1.85 1.730 0.20 2.19 1.480 1.1694.04 1.85 2.047 0.20 2.19 1.480 1.3834.05 1.88 2.081 0.20 2.17 1.473 1.4134.20 2.04 2.640 0.30 2.16 1.470 1.7964.20 1.90 2.330 0.26 2.30 1.517 1.5364.12 1.87 2.160 0.23 2.25 1.500 1.4404.18 1.93 2.350 0.23 2.25 1.500 1.5674.19 1.95 3.080 0.32 2.24 1.497 2.0584.20 2.04 3.140 0.33 2.16 1.470 2.1364.20 2.03 3.090 0.33 2.17 1.473 2.0984.20 2.01 2.780 0.30 2.19 1.480 1.8794.19 2.14 3.010 0.33 2.05 1.432 2.1024.20 2.00 2.680 0.30 2.20 1.483 1.8074.20 2.06 2.600 0.30 2.14 1.463 1.7774.18 1.83 3.060 0.33 2.35 1.533 1.9964.20 1.78 2.847 0.28 2.42 1.556 1.8304.20 1.58 2.292 0.25 2.62 1.619 1.4164.20 1.73 2.350 0.25 2.47 1.572 1.4954.18 1.92 2.740 0.30 2.26 1.503 1.8234.20 1.90 2.790 0.30 2.30 1.517 1.8404.20 2.00 2.620 0.30 2.20 1.483 1.7664.20 2.00 2.510 0.28 2.20 1.483 1.6924.20 1.80 2.330 0.23 2.40 1.549 1.5044.20 1.82 2.470 0.23 2.38 1.543 1.6014.18 1.85 2.780 0.30 2.33 1.526 1.8214.20 1.80 2.250 0.22 2.40 1.549 1.4524.20 1.70 2.120 0.20 2.50 1.581 1.3414.20 1.75 1.990 0.20 2.45 1.565 1.271LIFE–IWRM 139International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesI.2 Calibration of Canal Reach of the Nekla Canal (Slope–Area Method)The most common equation used in calibrating the canal reach is the Manning equation. We willuse Equation (8), which is a simplification of Manning.(8)Q=K53( DS − F ) ( DS − FG)0.5Calibration of this equation means finding the constant K. Then, the value of 1/n can be calculatedBWhere K =0. 5nLFrom Equation (8), Q, DS, FG are measured and F is the canal bed level at the head of the canal.Table (I-4) shows tabulation of these data and the calculation process to get an average value of K.The average value of K was found to be 3.285 and hence 1/n = 32.5The coefficient of variance was found to be 17 percent. Data needs to be checked and improvedthrough more measurements to get a coefficient of variance less than 10 percent.The value of 1/n was 32.5, which would reflect that the canal is infested with weeds and that theflow is affected. The higher the value of 1/n, the more the flow is over estimated in the canal.I.3 Calibration of Stage–Discharge RelationshipThe Power Stage–Discharge RelationshipIn this case, we use equation 10, which is written as:bQ = ah(10)Figure (I-3) shows the power relationship between canal discharge, Q, and water level, h, fordownstream the gatePolynomial Relation for Stage–Discharge RelationshipIn this case we use equation (11) that is written as:Q = c 1 +c 2 h+c 3 h 2 + ……….+ c n h n-1 (11)The commonly used formula is Q = c 1 +c 2 h+c 3 h 2Figure (I-4) shows the regression analysis of the polynomial equationLinear Stage–Discharge RelationshipThis equation is written as:Q = a DS + b (12)Knowing Q (discharge, m 3 /s) and DS (water level downstream the gate), then the constants a & bcan be found from regression analysis. A plot is made between Q as ordinate and DS as abscissa andthe best-fit line is made using Excel software. Figure (I-5) shows the results of this Calculation andRegression analysis.140 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesThe three different equations showed a value of R 2 as 94 percent for Power relationship,94 percent for the polynomial equation, and 93 percent for the linear equation. It can be concludedthat for a small range of water level variations, there is no significant difference in R 2 . Therefore, thelinear equation can be used, as it is simpler.Table (I-4) Manning Equation for Nekla CanalCalibration of KL 9800 mFL 1.15 m (a.m.s.l)B 10 mmeasurementscalculationdswl FG Q DS-FL DS-FG (DS-FL) 5/3 (DS-FG) 0.5 K1.9 1.08 1.374 0.75 0.82 0.619 0.906 2.4511.8 1.05 0.906 0.65 0.75 0.488 0.866 2.1451.85 0.9 1.188 0.7 0.95 0.552 0.975 2.2091.9 1.05 1.579 0.75 0.85 0.619 0.922 2.7661.7 0.95 1.176 0.55 0.75 0.369 0.866 3.6781.72 0.77 1.203 0.57 0.95 0.392 0.975 3.1501.9 0.55 2.320 0.75 1.35 0.619 1.162 3.2252 0.93 2.420 0.85 1.07 0.763 1.034 3.0671.92 0.9 2.270 0.77 1.02 0.647 1.010 3.4751.95 0.92 2.300 0.8 1.03 0.689 1.015 3.2871.71 0.8 1.660 0.56 0.91 0.380 0.954 4.5741.97 0.38 2.540 0.82 1.59 0.718 1.261 2.8042.04 0.45 2.820 0.89 1.59 0.823 1.261 2.7162.06 0.75 2.390 0.91 1.31 0.855 1.145 2.4441.92 0.9 2.010 0.77 1.02 0.647 1.010 3.0771.88 0.83 1.998 0.73 1.05 0.592 1.025 3.2951.96 0.55 2.440 0.81 1.41 0.704 1.187 2.9192.03 1.07 2.350 0.88 0.96 0.808 0.980 2.9681.85 0.95 1.730 0.7 0.9 0.552 0.949 3.3041.85 0.95 2.047 0.7 0.9 0.552 0.949 3.9101.88 0.95 2.081 0.73 0.93 0.592 0.964 3.6462.04 0.87 2.640 0.89 1.17 0.823 1.082 2.9641.9 0.94 2.330 0.75 0.96 0.619 0.980 3.8411.87 1.03 2.160 0.72 0.84 0.578 0.917 4.0751.93 0.87 2.350 0.78 1.06 0.661 1.030 3.4531.95 0.43 3.080 0.8 1.52 0.689 1.233 3.6242.04 0.96 3.140 0.89 1.08 0.823 1.039 3.6692.03 1.09 3.090 0.88 0.94 0.808 0.970 3.9442.01 0.55 2.780 0.86 1.46 0.778 1.208 2.9582.14 1.13 3.010 0.99 1.01 0.983 1.005 3.0462 1.07 2.680 0.85 0.93 0.763 0.964 3.6442.06 1.06 2.600 0.91 1 0.855 1.000 3.0431.92 0.82 2.740 0.77 1.1 0.647 1.049 4.0392 1.3 2.620 0.85 0.7 0.763 0.837 4.1062 1.1 2.510 0.85 0.9 0.763 0.949 3.469Average 3.285ST dev 0.563Coefficient of Variance 17%LIFE–IWRM 141International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesFigure (1-3) Power Relation for Stage–DischargeReg km 56 on muis (Safra Reg)DSQ4.1 13.833.9 12.984.15 18.283.98 13.194.3 23.094.5 29.574.5 28.144.85 45.684.55 32.324.7 35.384.3 26.064.45 29.044.65 33.914.7 38.574.3 22.44.35 18.144.6 34.97Discharge (m3/s)5045403530252015105Stage-Discharge Relation for Flow dsSafra RegQ = 0.0029 h 6.13R 2 = 0.9403.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5Water Level (m a.m.s.l)Fig (1-3) Power Relation for Stage- Discharge RelationFigure (1-4) Polynomial Relation for Stage–DischargeReg km 56 on muis (Safra Reg)DSQ4.1 13.833.9 12.984.15 18.283.98 13.194.3 23.094.5 29.574.5 28.144.85 45.684.55 32.324.7 35.384.3 26.064.45 29.044.65 33.914.7 38.574.3 22.44.35 18.144.6 34.97Polynomial Relation for Stage-Discharge Relation(Safra Reg)Discharge (m3/s)504540353025201510Q = 17.71 h 2 - 120.21h + 211.475R 2 = 0.9503.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5Water Level (m, a.m.s.l)142 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


3.3 Calibration of Canal Flow Rating CurvesFigure (I-5)Linear Equation at El-Safra RegulatorStage-Discharge relation forAlsafra regulator KM56 kafer SakrQ (m3/s)5040302010Q = 34.47 DS - 125.02R 2 = 0.9303.5 4 4.5 5DS (m a.m.s.l)I.4 Calibration of the Weir of Saidia Canal IntakeThis weir is constructed just downstream from the Saidia Canal intake to regulate the flow andcan be used to measure the flow. Table (I-5) shows the measurements and a plot was made for H asan abscissa and Q as an ordinate. H is head of water on the weir, which equals water level upstreamthe weir minus the level of weir crest. The Graph shows the exponential relationship that is writtenasQ = cHTable (1-5) Calibration of Weir Downstream Saidia Canal IntakeTable (I-6) Calibration of Weir downstream Saidia Canal intakeMeasuredFlow (Q)in m3/sCest level 7.15Water Head (h)Level us in mwier a.m.s.l0.082 7.25 0.10.233 7.35 0.20.365 7.37 0.220.428 7.45 0.30.759 7.57 0.421.303 7.78 0.631.365 7.8 0.651.526 7.85 0.71.864 7.95 0.82.374 8.09 0.9432.52nFig (I-3) Calibration of Saidia Weircrest level = 7.15Q = 2.6143H 1.463R 2 = 0.9925Q (m3/s)1.510.500 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1H (head on weir, m)The constants c and n are found from the regression analysis. They are 2.6 and 1.46 respectively.The relation showed very high correlation. The Coefficient of Determination, R 2 is 99 percent.LIFE–IWRM 143International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.4 Matching Irrigation Supply and Demand (MISD)ForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.IntroductionThe Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR) policy of free cropping choice forfarmers has made determination of irrigation water demands much more difficult and has led to asignificant mismatch in supplies and demands at times. Water shortages in some areas have resultedfrom the lack of information on crop selection and dates of planting and harvesting.The MWRI and the MALR have recognized the necessity of establishing a routine, accurate, andsystematic transfer of this information from farmers or the MALR to the MWRI. This is an importantstep toward an efficient, demand-driven irrigation system. In 1999, the Matching Irrigation Supply andDemand (MISD) process was initiated and implemented in four pilot districts, followed by another 26districts. Currently, about 100 districts (serving about half of the total command area in Egypt) areapplying the MISD process in their water management program. Facilities such as computers, maps,databases, and training have been provided to these districts to assist in efficient implementation ofthe process. In this paper, brief guidelines are presented on the MISD process.Principles of the MISD SystemThe MISD system is based on:• Forging cooperative links between the MALR and MWRI at the district level• Collecting agricultural data on cropping patterns and calendars in advance of planting (twiceeach month; at the beginning and middle of the month) by MALR Hood 4 extension agents.• Collecting agricultural data for all Hoods and branch canals within the irrigation districtboundaries and delivering it to the District engineer• Using a computer database program that allows the processing of the agricultural data and itstranslation in terms of water demands (preferably at the district level)• Forwarding agricultural data and water demand information from the district through theIrrigation General Directorate to the General Directorate of Water Distribution, then tothe Central Directorate for Water Distribution (CDWD) for scheduling water releases fromthe High Aswan Dam (HAD)• Preparing the water allocation schedule and sending it back from the CDWD to the Districtengineer through the Irrigation General Directorate• Scheduling canal rotations based on the District engineer’s water quota and crop waterrequirements determined by the MISD process• Communicating information on canal rotations and water availability by the District engineerto all farmers within the district (through the BCWUAs or through the MALR agents).4 The hood is the smallest agricultural subdivision; it usually covers 100–300 feddans of adjacent plots irrigatedfrom the same branch canal (possibly through different mesqas).144 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.4 MISDBasic/Preliminary Arrangements for MISD ImplementationFormation of District Joint CommitteeIn most cases, the District irrigation command area overlaps more than one Agricultural/Administrative District. The joint committee includes both the District Engineer and the AgricultureDirector of the main Administrative District, in addition to other supporting staff, to support andfollow-up the implementation of MISD process. This Agriculture Director also coordinates thecollection of crop information from other agricultural administrations within the boundary of theDistrict.Adjustment and Verification of the Command AreaThe District Engineer prepares a list of all branch and main canals in the district and relatedcommand areas and sends it to the Agriculture Director.Agriculture staff defines the Agricultural “Hoods” served by each canal and the related commandareas. The “Hood” area is assessed from the agricultural data that contains all landholdings. The totalcanal command area can be determined as the summation of Hood areas served by that canal. If thereis some uncertainty or a difference between MALR estimates and MWRI estimates, it should besolved through common field visits, review of cadastral maps, and the use of GPS equipment, ifavailable.Define the Main Crops for Data CollectionThe joint committee should agree on the two or three main crops on which to collect data every15 days. Those crops are usually the most dominant/water-greedy crops in the district. Sugarcane inUpper Egypt and rice in summer in the Delta are usual dominant crops. Other crops can be lumpedas one crop called “others.” There is no need to collect detailed information on these crops sincethey involve small areas, and have lower water requirements.The other important crop information to be collected is the total “non-irrigated area,” i.e. allareas that do not require water for the period considered because these are:• Lands under preparation• Lands about to be harvested or already harvested• Lands being left fallow.Crop Data FormatFour tables have to be filled in by Agricultural staff:1. A first Hood table prepared (once) for each Hood to include all farmers with theirlandholdings and assess the total area2. A second Hood table to collect crop data every 2 weeks in each Hood and to be submittedto the Agricultural Cooperative3. A third table is for the biweekly aggregation of crop data at Agricultural Cooperative level4. Finally the fourth table is used to compile, by canal, all crop information in the Districtbiweekly; this table is to be transmitted to the District on the 1 st and 15 th of every month.Type of DataThe crop data to be collected and compiled includes:• Areas for each of the two or three main crops• Areas for other crops (lumped together)• Non-irrigated areas.LIFE–IWRM 145International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.4 MISDCrop data should include the crop areas for the coming 2 weeks (defined as ‘current period,’ andthe crop areas ‘expected’ for the 2 weeks after that.DatabasesAccess and Excel databases exist and can be used if computers are available. These databases canassist the aggregation of data at different levels (Agricultural Cooperative, canal, and District) and thecalculation of water requirements for each canal and district on a biweekly basis.Operation of the MISD ProcessEvery two weeks these activities should be carried out:• MALR Extension Agents collect crop areas and calendar for each Hood through fieldobservations and interviews with BCWUA representatives or key farmers. This should takea couple of days.• Data is sent to the Director of the Agricultural Cooperative (village level), who compiles thecrop data within the cooperative area. This should also take a couple of days.• Data is then sent to the Director of the Agricultural District for compilation and transmittalto the District.• In the District, crop data is used to calculate the biweekly water requirements for thedistrict.• Crop data and water requirements are compiled every 2 weeks at the Irrigation GeneralDirectorate, and sent first to the regional Water Distribution General Directorate (in Tantaor Assuit) and eventually to the Central Directorate for Water Distribution in Cairo.• Based on availability and priorities, decisions are then made to release adequate amounts ofwater from the HAD to meet the water requirements both in time and geographically.• Information regarding the volume of water allocated is then passed back to the regionalWater Distribution General Directorate, the Irrigation General Directorate, and District,and eventually to the farmers and water users at large.146 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.4 MISDData Flow Diagram on Different Levels of MISD ProgramLIFE–IWRM 147International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.4 MISDStandard Tables for Collecting Crop InformationTable 1 List of Farmers and Cultivated Areas (prepared once by extension agent)GovernorateAgricultural AdministrationAgricultural CooperativeHoodExtension Agent NameDateNo.Farmer’s NameFeddanAreaKirat123…TotalTable 2 Biweekly Cropping Pattern at Hood Level (prepared by extension agent)GovernorateAgricultural AdministrationAgricultural CooperativeHoodCanalExtension AgentHoodNamef: feddan = 24 k k: KiratTable 3 Cropping Pattern at Agricultural Cooperative Level (prepared by extensionagent)GovernorateAgricultural AdministrationAgricultural CooperativeHoodNameHood 1Hood 2Hood 3……TotalExisting Crops 1–15 December Expected crops 15–end of DecemberTotalArea NonirrigateirrigatedNon-Wheat Berseem OthersWheat Berseem Othersf k f k f k f k f k f k f k f k f kExisting Crops 1–15 December Expected crops 15–end of DecemberTotalArea NonirrigateirrigatedNon-Wheat Berseem OthersWheat Berseem Othersf k f k f k f k f k f k f k f k f k148 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.4 MISDTable 4 Cropping Pattern at District Level (prepared by agricultural district)GovernorateAgricultural AdministrationExisting Crops 1–15 December Expected crops 15–end of DecemberTotalCanal Area Wheat Berseem OthersWheat Berseem OthersCanal1Canal2Canal3……NonirrigatedNonirrigatedf k f k f k f k f k f k f k f k f k……TotalLIFE–IWRM 149International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.4 MISDTables and Data Flow for MISD ProcessWater Requirements downstream main barragesCrop areasWater DemandCurrent Expected current ExpectedCotton Cotton OthersMaize Others Maize50 30 70 40 30 80Aswan DamIsna 30 60 15 50 50 55Nagaa Hammadi …… …… …… …… …… ……AssuitDelta- RosettaDelta- DamiettaZiftaTotalWater Requirements on Principle Canal -1Crop areasWater DemandCurrent Expected current ExpectedCotton Cotton OthersMaize Others Maize50 30 70 40 30 80Directorate - 1Directorate - 2 30 60 15 50 50 55…… …… …… …… …… …… …………Directorate - 11Directorate - 21TotalWater Requirements on Principle Canal -2Directorate 1Crop areasWater DemandCurrent Expected current ExpectedMaize Cotton Others Maize Cotton OthersIWMD 1 50 30 70 40 30 80IWMD 2 30 60 15 50 50 55…… …… …… …… …… …… …………IWMD 7IWMD 8TotalDirectorate 12IWMD 1Crop areasWater DemandCurrent Expected current ExpectedMaize Cotton Others Maize Cotton OthersCanal 1 50 30 70 40 30 80Canal 2 30 60 15 50 50 55Canal 3 …… …… …… …… …… …………….Canal 10Canal 11TotalAg. DistrictCurrentExpectedMaize Cotton Others Maize Cotton OthersCanal 1 50 30 70 40 30 80Canal 2 30 60 15 50 50 55Canal 3 …… …… …… …… …… …………….Canal 10Canal 11TotalIWMD 8Coop 1Coop 2Coop 3CurrentExpectedMaize Cotton Others Maize Cotton OthersHood 1 50 30 70 40 30 80Hood 2 30 60 15 50 50 55……. …… …… …… …… …… ……Hood 1Hood 2Hood 3CurrentExpectedMaize Cotton Others Maize Cotton Others50 30 70 40 30 80150 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.5 Water Resource InventoryForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.What is the Water Resource Inventory?The Water Resource Inventory (WRI) is a process used to identify the availability of water fromdifferent sources, the water needs of different users, and the tools (facilities) to store and/or carrywater to the users.Purpose of the WRIThe WRI provides information for the Directorate’s annual water management plan. Themanagement plan tells how much water will be allocated to each IWMD on a monthly basis fromdifferent sources to meet the water needs for the IWMD.Output of the WRIThe WRI produces two main outputs:1. Directorate annual water management plan on monthly basis2. Scheduling and water distribution at the IWMD on daily basis (canal rotation).Table 3.5.1 and figure 3.5.1 describe these outputs.Conducting the WRIThe three parts of WRI are:1. Water supply2. Water demand3. System physical facilitiesAvailable water supply to each area (Directorate or IWMD) can be determined by theDirectorate together with the central departments such as the Irrigation and Groundwater Sectors tocope with the MWRI policy and plans of water allocation.The water demand plan will be prepared by the IWMD to meet all water needs within thedistrict such as agricultural, municipal, and industrial water needs. The IWMD will also provideinformation on the system facilities such as irrigation and drainage networks, structures, and pumps.Water Supply (Water Resources)Available water supply to each area (Directorate or IWMD) can be determined by theDirectorate and the central departments.Available water resources include:• Surface water (from canals, drainage reuse and wastewater reuse)• Groundwater• Rainfall.LIFE–IWRM 151International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource Inventory152 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource InventoryFigure 3.5.1IWMD Water Distribution and Scheduling Plan (Canal Rotation)Canal Rotation for Rice Areas1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31OctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTurn A Winter ClosureWinter Turn B partial closure/oppenningTurn CSummer Turn DTurn ELIFE–IWRM 153International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource InventoryCanal WaterThe Central Directorate for Water Distribution will determine an annual water volume availableto the Directorate based on the operation policy of the High Aswan Dam (HAD), the allocation ofwater to new areas, and the national water allocation plan. The Directorate, together with theCentral Directorate for Water Distribution will determine the monthly allocation of water to theDirectorate. Then, the Directorate, together with the IWMDs, determines the targeted waterallocation to each IWMD on a monthly basis. Table 3.5.2 can be produced:Table 3.5.2DirectorateIWMD 1IWMD 2IWMD 3IWMD 4IWMD 5Targeted Water Allocation to the Directorate (million cubic meters),Year 2007–08Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TotalDrainage and WastewaterReuse—Based on the national water resources plan, the Directorate will determine, with theIrrigation Sector, the sites of water reuse (existing and proposed) according to tables 3.5.3 and 3.5.4:Table 3.5.3 Existing Drainage Reuse Sites (Available for Year 2007–08)SiteSourceLocationGPS On canal On drainOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotaSite 1Site 2Site 3TotalTable 3.5.4Proposed (Planned by MWRI) Drainage Reuse SitesSiteSourceLocationGPS On canal On drainOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotaSite 1Site 2Site 3TotalGroundwaterThe Groundwater Sector of the MWRI is the main entity responsible for licensing groundwateruse according to the groundwater maps that show the existing and potential withdrawal from theaquifer. Some areas have already reached the maximum withdrawal, and consequently there is nofurther licensing for groundwater use in these areas.The Directorate will work with the Groundwater Sector to develop a plan for groundwater use,beginning by conducting a survey of existing groundwater use (private and governmental wells).154 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource InventoryThe Directorate may plan for increasing groundwater withdrawal. Such plans need to bediscussed with the Groundwater Sector to determine the current extent of withdrawal from theaquifer, and the safe potential yield. Therefore, the Directorate will require this information:• Groundwater map and tables that show zones, existing withdrawal, and safe yield (providedby the Groundwater Sector)• Directorate and IWMD groundwater well inventory• Directorate plans for new groundwater wells.Using tables 3.5.5 and 3.5.6 may be useful.Table 3.5.5 Groundwater Wells Inventory and Monthly Water Pumping (m 3 )GWWellType(gov/priv)LocationUse (Irrig/M/I) GPS BCOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal1234TotalTable 3.5.6 Proposed Groundwater Wells and Expected Monthly Water Pumping (m 3 )GWWellType(gov/priv)LocationUse (Irrig/M/I) GPS BCOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal1234TotalTotal withdrawal (existing + Proposed)Potential withdrawal (safe yield)Note: This table should be updated every year to be used as an input to the water management planRainfallEgypt is an arid country where rainfall is not a dependable resource. However, in the northernarea (North of the Delta), rainfall in January can be effective. This will be known through collectingclimatic information from meteorological stations in each Directorate. Table 3.5.7 can be used:Water DemandThese include:• Agricultural• Municipal (drinking and domestic uses)• Industrial• Other—environmental, navigation, fishing and ecological, hydropower generation, andrecreational uses.LIFE–IWRM 155International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource InventoryTable 3.5.7Data from Meteorological StationRainfall (mm)Effective rainfall(mm)TempMaxMinAvg. sunshine hoursAvg wind speedHumidity %ETo (mm/day)Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TotalAll records are averaged over the month and over years (last 5 years)Agricultural Water DemandThe following information needs to be collected to determine agricultural water demand:• Area• Crops and cropping pattern (indicative/targeted cropping pattern + actual cropping patternfrom last year’s records at the MISD)• Crop water requirements (ETc)• Irrigation efficiency• Soil leaching water requirements• Phreatophytes requirements (natural vegetation such as trees and hedges along canals).Every year, each District receives an indicative/targeted cropping pattern from the MALRadministration at the District for the coming year. The IWMD will use these data, together with MISDdata (data collected in the previous year), to plan for agricultural water demands. Tables 3.5.8 and3.5.9 can be used:Table 3.5.8 MISD Actual Cropping Pattern for Year 2006–07 for Branch Canals atIWMDCanal Area Crops Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TotalWheatBerseemOtherwinterCottonRiceOtherssummerFallowTotal156 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource InventoryTable 3.5.9 Indicative/targeted Cropping Pattern for the IWMD for the Year 2007–08Canal Area Crops Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TotalWheatBerseemOtherwinterCottonRiceOtherssummerFallowTotalThrough consultation with MALR districts/directorate and MWRI Directorate, these tables canbe merged into one table showing the targeted (expected) cropping pattern for the next year. Waterdemand will be determined for each branch canal and for each summation (inflow) point.Crop Water RequirementsThe MWRI has figures on crop water requirements. These represent the crop consumption ofwater, and can be presented in a standard table to be used for planning (see sample table 3.5.10).Table 3.5.10Crop Water Consumption (ETc) for South Delta (m 3 /feddan)Crop Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TotalWheatBerseemVegetables....RiceCotton….Note: This table will be delivered to the Directorate and IWMD by Irrigation SectorIrrigation EfficiencyIrrigation efficiency is a key factor in determining water needs. It depends on the crop type, soil,and plant growth stage. The Irrigation Sector and NWRC use a figure of 50 percent for rice cropsand 70 percent for other crops. This seems to be high efficiency, but can be used for stressed waterallocation when water resources are scarce. Water demand needs for crops are calculated throughthe formula:Soil Leaching Water RequirementsWater demand for crops = Crop Area × ETc ÷ EfficiencyAdditional water is given to areas that suffer from salinity. This usually happens duringreclamation of new areas. The following table can be used to show the quantity of water needed forsoil leaching on monthly basis:Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TotalLIFE–IWRM 157International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource InventoryPhreatophyte Water RequirementsThis includes the trees and other natural vegetation on canal banks. The area can be determinedas: canal length × bank width × 2.Based on the above information, the IWMD will prepare a table similar to table 3.5.11 foragricultural water requirements per canal and per summation point:Table 3.5.11 Canal/summation Point Water Demand for Agriculture for Year 2007–08(million cubic meters)Canal Demand Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TotalCanal1Canal2Water demandfor cropsLeachingPhreatophytesTotalCanal3Municipal Water RequirementsTo calculate the water requirements for municipal uses, the following information is needed:• Population (per village)• Population growth• Per capita use (from ministry of housing).Data can be presented using table 3.5.12.Table 3.5.12 Municipal WRIBranch Canal Village Population Growth Rate12..TotalPer CapitaUse (l/d)Demand(m 3 /d)Source of water(Canal/Groundwater)Note: The population can be taken from the last census. Next year’s population can be calculated usingpopulation growth rates.Industrial Water RequirementsInformation needed is:• Type of industry• Location• Water requirements.Data can be presented using table 3.5.13.158 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource InventoryTable 3.5.13 Industrial WRIBranch Canal Factory Type of Industry12..TotalWater Requirements(m 3 /d)Source of water(Canal/Groundwater)Other Water RequirementsThis includes additional water needed to maintain the environment and ecological systems. Somecanals may be used for navigation and consequently maintaining a water depth for navigation isneeded. The term “minimum flow” of the canal can be used. The minimum flow is to meet all waterrequirements for agriculture, navigation, the environment, and others uses. Table 3.5.14 is useful.Table 3.5.14 Minimum Flow for each Branch Canal at Inflow Point (m 3 /d)BC Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TotalBC 1BC 2…The total Water Demand for the IWMD can be figured, using table 3.5.15, on a monthly basis foreach Branch Canal and inflow point:Table 3.5.15 Water Demand for IWMD for Year 2007–08 (million cubic meters)Canal Demand Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TotalCanal1AgricultureMunicipalIndustryOthersTotalCanal2Canal3TotalNote: If the total water demand for a certain canal is less than minimum flow, then minimum flow will beused instead.System Physical FacilitiesIn order to meet the water requirements, there should be infrastructure with suitable capacity tocarry water to the users and/or to store it. Physical facilities can be classified as:LIFE–IWRM 159International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource Inventory1. Irrigation1.1 canals1.2 water structures (regulators, barrages, tail escapes, aqueducts, and weirs)1.3 pumps1.4 groundwater wells2. Drainage2.1 tile drains2.2 open drains2.3 water structures2.4 pumps3. Drainage Reuse Sites3.1 pumps4. Municipal4.1 water supply4.1.1 pump stations on canals4.1.2 pumps on groundwater wells4.2 Wastewater4.1.1 treatment plant4.1.2 untreated outlet (source point)The inventory should describe each facility, its capacity, and its condition (state of repair) and anydeficiencies that prevent it from operating as designed. Descriptions of canals and drains shouldinclude length, cross-sections, and capacities at the head, at the tail, and at selected points along thelength, and a description of condition and any limitations on their capacity to convey water. It shouldinclude a table showing the length, area served, and capacity, and rotational schedule of all branchcanals served by the higher level canals.The description of surface water pumping plants should include the size and capacity of pumpsand motors and the approximate head they must pump against.The description of large public wells should include the size and capacity of the pump and thediameter and depth of the well. The description of private wells, as a first approximation, could be anestimate of the number and average capacity of all of the private wells in the district. If possible, thenumber should be broken down by branch canal or other sub-unit of the district.Tables 3.5.16–3.5.20 can be used as input to water management plan and/or scheduling:Table 3.5.16 Canal Network and Water StructuresCanalNameCanalFeederLength(m)Area (feddans)IrrigableNonirrigable*Max.Discharge(m 3 /s)ExistingCanalWidth(m)Bedwidth(m)Design data for the Cross-sectionSideslopesLongitudinalslopeMaxwaterlevel* at intake160 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.5 Water Resource InventoryTable 3.5.17 Drain Network and Water StructuresDrainNameSpills intoLength (m)AreaServed(feddans)Max.Discharge(m3/s)DrainWidthBedwidth(m)Design data of Cross-sectionSideslopesLongitudinalslopeTable 3.5.18 Irrigation/ Drainage Pump StationsPump Name Area Served Spills intoType(Irr./Drainage/GW/reuse)Location Capacity, m 3 /sPumpEfficiencyFor groundwater pumps only governmental pumps will be consideredTable 3.5.19 Water Supply Pumps for Municipal & IndustryCanal Pump Name LocationCapacity,Used form 3 /s Municipal IndustrySource(GW/canal)The “canal” column describes that the pump is located in the command area; either taking water from thecanal or from groundwaterTable 3.5.20 Wastewater Physical FacilitiesCanalName ofWastewaterOutletSpills intoLocationType (Treated/Untreated)Discharge, m 3 /sThe “canal” column describes that the wastewater outlet is located in the command area. It may spill into adrain or irrigate directly a certain area.The IWMD and Directorate will use physical facility information to make sure that these facilitieshave a capacity to meet all demands.LIFE–IWRM 161International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.6 Water Budget/Water BalanceForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.PurposeThe purpose of calculating the water balance and water budget is to help the Directorate toanswer three questions:3. How equally is water being allocated among districts?4. How efficiently is water being used within the district?5. Is the district receiving its target allocation of water from the branch canal?To answer these questions, data must to be collected for a certain period (seasonally and/orannually) and some indicators need to be determined.IWMD Water Budget AnalysisThis approach looks for how much water has actually been delivered to each IWMD comparedwith its water needs (target allocation). The process should answer the questions, “Is the districtreceiving it’s target allocation of water from the branch canal” and “How equally is water beingallocated among the districts?” Table 3.6.1 shows the sample breakdown of the water delivery anddiversion from different sources and types and the quantity of water needs for a district. This tableshould be made for the summer season (1 May–30 April), for the winter season (1 October–30 September), and annually.Water Diversion (Supply) Sources• Nile and Canal—Water diverted or pumped from the Nile and canals needs to becalculated for the season based on the daily measurements of water levels and flow ratingcurves. Calculation of the flow of canals and pumps are explained in Guideline 3.2, “FlowMeasurement,” and 3.3, “Calibration of Canal Flow Rating Curves.”• Drainage Reuse• Official Drainage Reuse—This includes the agricultural drainage water diverted intothe canal, mixed with canal water, through a pump or a pipe intake. This type of reuse isusually constructed or authorized by the government. When it is constructed andoperated by the government, the quantity of drainage reuse can be measured. Thepumped drainage water (Q) can be calculated from the operating hours of the pump (t),pump capacity (q), and pump efficiency (eff).Q = q × t × 60 × 60 × eff(1)Where Q is measured in cubic meters (over a period of time, t), t in hours, and q in m 3 /s.For pipe intakes, the head over the pipe intake needs to be measured. Other data such aspipe diameter, length of the pipe, and pipe slope also need to be measured. Calculation offlow through such a pipe is rather complicated, since it depends on many parameters. To162 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.6 Water Budget/Water Balancesimplify it, we can consider here the following two cases: full pipe flow and partial full pipe(open channel)For pipe flow, the key factor for calculation of the flow is water head on the pipe intake.Figure 3.6.1Drainage Pipe FlowDrainuswlHdswlTo canal• uswl•DrainHTo canaldswlQp= CdAp2gH(2)Where: Qp: the pipe flow m 3 /sCd: discharge coefficient can be calibrated or roughly taken as 0.6Ap =π D42where D is the pipe diameter in metersH: the head on the pipe intake; it equals the difference between the upstream anddownstream water levels when the downstream end of the pipe is submerged. Itequals the water depth between the upstream water level and the center of thepipe when dswl is lower than the upper rim of the pipe.If more than one pipe is used, n pipes, then the total flow of drainage water equals:QT = n × Qp (3)Then, the daily flow (cubic meters) can be calculated through measuring the uswl anddswl and consequently the seasonal drainage reuse can be calculated.QT = n × Qp × 24 ×60 × 60 m 3 /d (4)• Unofficial Drainage Reuse—Unofficial drainage reuse is made by farmers on theirown, without permission from the government. Farmers, particularly those at the tailend of the canal sometimes pump drainage water from a nearby drain to their fielddirectly to compensate for lack of irrigation water in the canal. This type of reuse isusually done during the summer season. It is difficult to measure the quantity of unofficialdrainage reuse; however, by making an inventory of farmers’ pumps along the drains,pump capacity, and operating hours, a reasonable estimate of the quantity of drainagereuse can be calculated using equation (1)• Groundwater• Government Groundwater Wells—This type of groundwater use is supported bythe government, which digs wells to pump groundwater into a canal. Calculation of thequantity of groundwater pump flow can be calculated using equation (1).• Individual Groundwater Wells—This type of groundwater use is made by farmersdigging wells in their fields and pumping groundwater to their fields when canal water isinsufficient. This type of groundwater use includes official and unofficial use. The officialone is licensed by the government for those who don’t have access to canal water. Theunofficial groundwater use is not licensed and farmers use it when water is insufficient ornot available. Measurement of quantity of individual groundwater use is difficult andLIFE–IWRM 163International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.6 Water Budget/Water Balanceneeds an extensive inventory. Information about pump capacity, pump operating hours,and efficiency are needed to calculate the groundwater use as explained before.Water Needs• Water Needs for Agriculture—this information needs to be collected seasonally• Irrigated area• Rice area—decreed and actual area• Sugarcane area• Water demand from MISD database.• Municipal Water Demand• Industrial Water Demand• Other Water Demand.IndicatorsAfter collecting data on water supply and demand for a certain season, it needs to be enteredinto table 3.6.1. Then indicators need to be determined for each IWMD. These indicators include:• Water surplus or deficit (m 3 ) = total water supplied less total water demand: If the resultof this indicator is positive it means there was a surplus of water and vice-versa.• Water use index = water supply divided by water demand: For best water management,this index should equal 1.0. If it is higher than one, it means that the IWMD received morewater than the demand and vice-versa.• Percentage of non-conventional water = Summation of drainage reuse plusgroundwater use divided by total water supply: This indicator shows how much nonconventionalwater is used within each IWMD. The higher the non-conventional water, theless the canal water is allocated.• Per feddan water delivery (m 3 ) = total water supplied to irrigated area divided byirrigated area. Total Water supplied to irrigated area = total water supply minus municipal andindustrial water withdrawals• Percent of rice (official and unofficial) = rice area divided by irrigated area.• Percent of sugar cane = sugar cane area divided by irrigated area.These indicators will help the directorate to differentiate among IWMDs. For example, theWater use index can be used to check the equality of water allocation among IWMDs. Thepercentage of non-conventional water can also show which IWMDs suffer from lack of canal waterand then the directorate can decide on procedures for improving water allocation to such IWMDs.Table 3.6.1Water Budget and Allocation at District, Summer SeasonWater Demand(million m 3 )Water Supply(million m 3 )1. Agriculture 1, Canal 2301-1 Area Served (f) 40,000 2. Drainage Reuse1-2 Rice Area (f) 10,000 2-1 Official 21-3 Sugar Cane Area (f) 0 2-2 Unofficial 101-3 Water Req. (MISD data) 240 3. Groundwater2. Municipal 1.8 3-1 Governmental 1.53. Industry 1.8 3-2 Individual 0.54. OtherTotal Non-conventional Water 14164 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.6 Water Budget/Water BalanceWater Demand(million m 3 )Water Supply(million m 3 )Total Water Demand 243.6 Total Water Supply 244Indicators1. Water surplus(+) or deficit (-) in million m 3 + 0.42. Water use index 1.0023. Percent of non-conventional water 64. Per feddan water delivery, m 3 6,1005. Percent of rice 256. Percent of sugar cane 0ConceptIndicative Balance of the IWMD Water AllocationPreparing an indicative water balance exercise for the IWMD supply helps to understand howefficiently water is used within the district. The recommended approach is a simple comparison ofDistrict supply to the amount of the District supply that flows out of the District as drainage (Districtsupply that is applied to the land but is not utilized within the District). This is illustrated in Figure3.6.2.Figure 3.6.2Schematic Diagram of Water Balance for a Command AreaCANAL INFLOWWater Consumption• Crops• Municipal• Industrial• OtherCANAL OUTFLOWThe water balance calculation can be made using the following factors:1. Water inflow – canal water supplied at the gate of the IWMD (or command area),disregarding other internal supplies such as drainage reuse or conjunctive groundwater usethat is made available within the district boundaries. If drainage water from outside of thedistrict boundaries is mixed with the canal water, it is considered as water inflow.2. Water outflow – canal water exiting the district measured, at the downstream boundary ofthe district3. Generated drain flow—the drainage water that is generated within the IWMD boundaries andflows out of the IWMD boundary to sinks or drains. To determine the amount of generateddrain flow, measure the drainage flow at the upstream IWMD boundary and at thedownstream IWMD boundary. Then;Generated drain flow = drainage outflow – drainage inflow4. Water depletion—this item accounts for water consumption by crops, municipal, andindustrial uses, evaporation, canal losses, and other miscellaneous consumptive uses. Waterdepletion can be calculated from:LIFE–IWRM 165International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.6 Water Budget/Water BalanceWater Depletion = Water inflow – (Water outflow plus Generated drain flow).Data NeededThe key information and data are canal water inflow and outflow and drainage inflow and outflowfor a certain command area (IWMD, in this case). The IWMDs presently have a monitoring programto measure these parameters on a biweekly basis.IndicatorsFrom these data, we can calculate the following indicators:1. System efficiency = Water depletion ÷ District allocationThis indicator shows how efficiently water is allocated and how the canal system operates. If theefficiency is low, the directorate should work with the IWMD to improve water management andallocation and to improve system performance through weed removal, and rehabilitation of gates andwater structures.2. Drainage ratio = Drain outflow ÷ Drain inflowThis indicator shows how much water is lost from the IWMD or a command area. The drainageratio of the irrigation system in Egypt is usually considered as 1:3 for design purposes.3. The drainage rate (m 3 /feddan) = (Generated drainage – M&I depletion)÷ Irrigated areaThis indicator shows how much water is drained from a feddan. It can be used to compareamong different IWMDs. The higher the drainage rate, the lower the system and managementperformance. Low drainage ratio may mean that the tile drainage system is insufficient or thatmaintenance and/or rehabilitation of the drainage system is needed.Related Guidelines3.2 Flow Measurement3.3 Calibration166 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.7 Computer and Networks MaintenanceForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.Systems and Networks Maintenance Guidelines• It is essential for safety and disk management to partition the PC’s hard disk(s) into morethan one partition. One of the partitions should be dedicated for the operating system (OS.system files) with a free space of not less than 2 Giga Byte (1 GB = 1024 MB). It is notallowed to save any other data on this partition.• One other partition should be dedicated for data and information and historic databases.Data on this partition should be archived on Compact Disks (CDs) or any other archivingmedia on a weekly basis.• Another partition should be dedicated for backups of the operating system.• After installing the OS, the computer system manager should update the operating systemdynamically, whenever new Service packs and/or patches from windows updates becomeavailable.• Follow up on OS updates through www.Microsoft.com on a weekly basis.• Install an Antivirus program and update its data file at least twice a week.• Issue routine backups of the operating system after installation and installation of othersoftware using “Norton Ghost” or “Drive Images,” to be used in case of emergencymaintenance.• The previous operation should be repeated every time a new software is installed onthe computer system.• In order to manage computer accounts, there should be two types of accounts:• User accounts, with limited privileges, to be used by normal users to accomplish dailyregular operations.• Administrative accounts, for systems management activities and installation of newhardware and issuing system updates, antivirus data file updates, and system images anddatabase backup procedures.• Do not install any unauthorized software, since this can have Spyware and viruses, which willreduce the computer system’s performance.• Copies of Hardware and PC card drivers should be done through the OS utilities. Thosedrivers can be used later, whenever required.• Local Area Network “file sharing” should be done only when needed and cancelledimmediately after the operation for which it is done is accomplished.• Internet activities should not be done before the system manager makes sure that the lastantivirus update is installed with the new virus definition.• Do not enter unknown advertising and/or commercial sites on the internet since they areoften used as a tool for propagating viruses and/or PC spyware.LIFE–IWRM 167International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.7 Computer and Networks Maintenance• Do not open any e-mail from unknown senders or with an unknown subject, since e-mailsare also vulnerable to viruses and PC spyware.168 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.8 Mapping Branch Canal AreasForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.ObjectiveAccurate maps of the branch canal (BC) areas assists in evaluating aspects of the agricultural areaserved by the BC. This will help improve the calculation of water needs, and the allocation of waterresources. Ultimately, this will improve matching irrigation supply and demand (MISD).Tools• GPS device• Computer with Autodesk Map and DNR Garmin 5 software• Cadastral maps or satellite imagery• Digitized base map of the district.MethodFor each BC, the area served is defined as the total irrigable land that is usually supplied withwater from the BC for crop production. Fallow lands—lands not irrigated this year or this season butirrigated the year before—should be included.This BC served area may differ:• Significantly from the total area within the boundaries of the BC, which may include urban,industrial, and other non-agricultural areas.• Slightly from the net agricultural area, because of the way it is measured (BCs, mesqas, minordrains, and roads may be included).• Significantly—especially in Upper Egypt—from the legal area, as new lands are developed andirrigated informally on the desert fringes.1. Before starting field work: Using the cadastral map, if available (or satellite photos),district digital maps, and district schematics, draw the boundaries of the BC served area onthe cadastral map. Identify landmarks along that boundary (such as roads, canals, and drains)to prepare for the field work. Also identify nonagricultural areas (urban, industrial, and otherareas). Because the available cadastral maps are quite old, expect that nonagricultural areaswill have significantly expanded.2. Field work: Go into the field and check the boundaries of the served areas. Use landmarksto compare with the boundaries initially drawn on the map. Ask farmers from which BC aplot is irrigated when there is a doubt. Correct the boundaries on the map.5 DNR Garmin software was designed to provide users the ability to directly transfer data between Garmin GPShandheld receivers and various GIS software packages. It can be downloaded at no cost at:http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/mis/gis/tools/arcview/extensions/DNRGarmin/DNRGarmin.htmlLIFE–IWRM 169International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.8 Mapping Branch Canal AreasOnce sure of the boundaries, use your GPS track function and circle (by car or on foot) thearea. Go back to your starting point to close the boundary line, and save the track on yourGPS device. At this point you can use the Area Calculator function of the GPS to give a firstestimate of the area.Investigate the non-agricultural areas and repeat the process: circle these areas by car or onfoot and save the track. Again using the Area Calculator function of the GPS can give you afirst estimate.3. Computer work: Connect the GPS device to your computer. Make sure you set the mapprojection correctly. Then import the tracks to Autodesk Map from the GPS using DNRGarmin software and save these tracks as shapefiles.Overlay the tracks on the 1/25,000 base map. On the screen, check that the tracks arecorrectly aligned on the map— i.e. that they match known landmarks. Then use the ‘list’command to evaluate the boundary area.Proceed similarly to evaluate and deduct the non-agricultural areas and to get the branchcanal served area.Results can be presented in a table:FeederCanalBranchCanalMainBoundariesGross Area(feddans)Non-agriculturalAreas(feddans)Net Irrigable Area(feddans)Comments:• Focus on one BC at a time.• Do not consider small urban areas (a few isolated houses, small villages of a dozen houses).Only consider villages or parts of towns that cover more than 5 feddans (5 feddans is about100 m × 200 m, or 4 football fields).• When circling an area, try to exclude the large canals and drains that may be the boundaries.• Be clear and consistent in the units you use: square kilometers, hectares, or feddans.• Be consistent in the map projection you use: GCS, WGS1984, Degree (lat and long) or WGS1984, UTM 36N, Meter.• If you have a planimeter, you should use it with the cadastral map to check that the areameasurement is correct.170 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.9 Integrated Water Resources Management PlanForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.IntroductionAn Integrated Water Resources Management Plan (IWRMP) is an annual plan to be implementedover the agricultural year starting from 1st October till end of September. The IWRMP is an outputof the Water Resources Inventory prepared by both the Integrated Water Management Districts(IWMDs) and Directorates (see guidelines 3.5). The Directorate plan is a consolidation of IWMDplans. Once completed; the Directorate IWRMP is sent to the General Directorate of WaterDistribution then to Irrigation Sector (Central Level) for checking and approval. The approved plan issent back to the Directorate and IWMDs for implementation. The approved plan should be madeavailable at IWMDs and Directorate before October 1 (preferably in mid-September).The elements of the plan include a discussion of:• Agricultural water requirements• Non-agricultural water requirements (municipal, industrial,…)• Targeted Water allocation to meet water requirements segregated by different sources(Nile, drainage, groundwater, rainfall,..)• Canal rotation• A proposal for canal maintenance and structure rehabilitation so as to avoid constraints forimplementing the plan• A proposal for involvement of BCWUAs in removing constraints and obstacles to the watermanagement planAnnex (1) shows sample IWRMP tables that include the above mentioned elements of the plans.These tables should be filled in and completed by IWMDs and the Directorate. In this guideline weexplain how these plan elements can be calculated. Calculation of plan elements will be made forinflow points of IWMDs and the Directorate.Agricultural Water RequirementsTo determine the agricultural water requirements, data on the following parameters need to becollected:• Cropping pattern and crop calendar• Overall water distribution efficiency (including field and conveyance efficiencies)• Standard MWRI crop water requirements• Salt leaching requirements• Canal banks natural vegetation water requirementsData on crop pattern can be collected from two sources; MISD database for the previous yearand MALR indicative cropping pattern for the coming year. Hence, the IWMDs and Directorate needto work closely together with MALR and decide on the expected cropping pattern for the next year.LIFE–IWRM 171International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.9 Integrated Water Resources Management PlanOverall water use efficiency and crop water requirements can be decided by Directorate andIrrigation Sector. Then, total crop water requirement can be calculate from:Crop Water Requirement for crop i = ETc(i) × Ac(i) / effThe leaching water requirement is dependent on the irrigation water quality, the volume ofirrigation water to be consumed by crops (ET) and the salt tolerance of the mix of crops beinggrown. The following equation can be used:ETAW− LRWhere LR is leaching factor and it is calculated as follows:= 1wWhere:ECwLR = 5 EC − ECeAW: Water to be appliedECe : the electrical conductivity of the soil, available from tables of salt toleranceECw : the electrical conductivity of the irrigation waterThe canal bank vegetation water requirement should be estimated based on actual conditions ofvegetation type and amount.Then, total agricultural water requirement includes leaching plus crop water requirements pluscanal bank vegetation water requirements and should be computed using Table !-1.Non-Agricultural Water RequirementsThese requirements include industrial, municipal, and other requirements. For municipal waterrequirements there are two ways to calculated them; (1) using population and daily per capitarequirements and (2) using actual water abstracted from Nile, canals, and groundwater specifically formunicipal use. Industrial water requirements data are available from each district’s Water ResourcesInventory tables. Table I-2 can then be completed by calculating the municipal and industrial demandsand estimating the “others” demand based on site-specific conditions and characteristics.Targeted Water Allocation to IWMDTable 1-4 shows the targeted water allocation segregated by various sources (Nile, canal,drainage reuse and groundwater) to meet the different water requirements of the IWMD. These dataare collected from Water Resources Inventory tables that contain actual canal flows, existing andplanned drainage reuse and groundwater abstraction.Canal RotationEach IWMD should prepare a table showing all canals and rotation turns planned dailythroughout the year (Table I-5A & I-5B). The “on periods” are denoted by a check mark (√) and the“off periods” are denoted by leaving the period blank. Rotation for each canal will consider the canalconditions, canal length, canal width, command area, % of rice/sugar cane, and the conditions of waterstructures.172 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.9 Integrated Water Resources Management PlanCanal and Water Structures MaintenanceImplementation of the IWRMP can be difficult if canals and water structures are not wellmaintained. Therefore, the IWMD water distribution Engineer should determine the canals and waterstructures maintenance requirements to be considered for the integrated maintenance plan. Theserequirements may include gate rehabilitation, canal pitching, etc. (see Table I-6).BCWUAs PlanParticipatory water management is a major part of implanting the IWRMP. Water users can playan important role in facilitating the implementation of the IWRMP. The IWMD water distributionEngineer in each IWMD should prepare a list of proposed activities for BCWUAs to be considered intheir BCWUA plan (see table I-7)Water Management at Directorate LevelIWMDs plan will be sent to Directorates to be consolidated and the Directorate IWRMP can bedeveloped by consolidating the various District plans. The Directorate will be responsible forreviewing IWMDs plans and calculations and developing the Directorate plan for the inflow points(see tables II-1 to II-4). The Directorate plan should be sent to the Water Distribution Directoratesand Irrigation Sector for review and approval to be considered in preparing the High Aswan Damreleases program. The approved plan will be sent back to Directorate for implementation.I. Integrated Water Resources Management Plan for IWMDTable I-1 Agricultural Water Requirements for IWMD (For inflow points), 2007/2008Canal/InflowPointArea(feddan) DemandOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal123TotalWaterdemandfor cropsLeachingCanalbanksvegetationTotalWaterdemandfor cropsLeachingCanalbanksvegetationTotalWaterdemandfor cropsLeachingCanalbanksvegetationTotalLIFE–IWRM 173International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.9 Integrated Water Resources Management PlanTable I-2Non-Agricultural Water Requirements for IWMD (for inflow points),2007/2008Canal/InflowpointArea(feddan)DemandOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal123MunicipalIndustrialothersTotalMunicipalIndustrialothersTotalMunicipalIndustrialothersTotalTotalTable I-3 Total Water Requirements for IWMD (for inflow points), 2007/2008Canal/InflowpointArea(feddan)OctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal123TotalTable I-4 Targeted Water Allocation to IWMD, 2007/2008Canal/InflowPointSourceofWaterOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotalTotal123CanalReuseGWTotalCanalReuseGWTotalCanalReuseGWTotalCanalReuseGWTotal174 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.9 Integrated Water Resources Management PlanTable I-5A Canal Rotation for IWMD, October 2007% ofCanal Area length rice/S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30caneTotal“ondays”BC1 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 11BC2BC3BC4BC5…..BC 40This table will be made for each monthTable I-5B Canal Rotation Plan, 2007/2008Canal Rotation for Rice Areas1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31OctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTurn AWinter ClosureWinter Turn B partial closure/oppenningTurn CSummerTurn DTurn ETable 1-6 Planned Canal Maintenance/Rehabilitation/Construction, 2007/2008CanalGateRehab.WaterStructures(Regulators/Weirs/ Pumps)PitchingGWWellsBC1 4 1 x-reg 3 km 1ReusePumpBC2 2 aqueducts 1BC3 2BC4 2BC51 tailscape….. 1BC 40Total 6 3 km 4 1LIFE–IWRM 175International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.9 Integrated Water Resources Management PlanTable 1-7 BCWUAs Maintenance Plan, 2007/2008Mesqa Removal ofIntake Encroachm PollutionCanalRehabilitationents/ ControlViolationsBC1BC2BC3BC4BC5…..BC 40Control ofIllegal RiceTable II-1Canal/InflowPointII. Integrated Water Resources Management Plan for DirectorateArea(feddan)Agricultural Water Requirements for Directorate (for inflow points),2007/2008DemandOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal12TotalTable II-2Water demandfor cropsLeachingCanal banksvegetationTotalWater demandfor cropsLeachingCanal banksvegetationTotalNon-Agricultural Water Requirements for Directorate (for inflow points),2007/2008Canal/InflowPointArea(feddan)DemandOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal12TotalMunicipalIndustrialothersTotalMunicipalIndustrialothersTotal176 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.9 Integrated Water Resources Management PlanTable II-3 Total Water Requirements for Directorate (for inflow points), 2007/2008Canal/InflowPointArea(feddan)OctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal12TotalTable II-4ATargeted Water Allocation to Directorate (by canal inflow point),2007/2008Canal/InflowPointSource ofWaterOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal12TotalCanalReuseGWTotalCanalReuseGWTotalCanalReuseGWTotalTable II-4BTargeted Water Allocation to Directorate (by IWMD by Source),2007/2008IWMD12345Source ofWaterCanalReuseGWTotalCanalReuseGWTotalCanalReuseGWTotalCanalReuseGWTotalCanalReuseGWTotalOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotalLIFE–IWRM 177International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.9 Integrated Water Resources Management PlanTable II-4CCanal Targeted Water Allocation to Directorate (by volume, by IWMD),2007/2008IWMDOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotal1m. 30 35 25 0 25 33m3% 10%10%10%2 m3%3 m3%4 m3%5 m3%Total m3%: the percentage of targeted canal water allocation to IWMD with respect to the total Directorate targetedwater.This % help the Directorate reallocates water among IWMDs in case of water shortage/surplus.Table II-4D Distribution of Canal Targeted Water among IWMDs, 2007/2008CanalSharingIWMDsOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepTotalElatfElsahelQuesna m. m3 30 35 25 0 25 33% 43% 43% 45% 0%Berket Elsabaa m. m3 40 45 30 2 32 46%57% 57% 55% 100%Total m. m3 70 80 55 2 57 79Quesna m. m3%S Zifta m. m3%Total m. m3178 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guidelines3.10 Water Quality ManagementForewordThese guidelines are meant to assist and guide MWRI staff in performing a specific task. Theseguidelines should be followed under most circumstances.PurposeThe process of water quality monitoring should principally be seen as a sequence of relatedactivities that starts with the definition of information needs, and ends with the use of the informationproduct. This sequence of activities is linked in a cycle, which is called the 'monitoring cycle.'Monitoring CycleWater Management—The need for information should be based on the main issues orproblems in management of water, and the active use of information in the decision-making process.Water management should consider the functions/use of a water system, the problems and threats tothe water system and the possible measures that can be taken to manage the water system.Information Needs—The most critical step in a successful water quality monitoring program isa clear definition and specification of the monitoring objectives and information needs for watermanagement. Information needs and monitoring objectives need to be specified so that the followingsteps in the monitoring cycle can logically follow.Monitoring Strategy—After the information needs have been specified, a monitoring strategyis required to design and operate the monitoring program in such a way that the desired informationis obtained. The strategy defines the approach and the criteria needed for a proper design of themonitoring program.Network Design—The design of the monitoring network includes selection of samplinglocations, parameters, and frequency. These aspects of the design can and should be specified in ashort document that answers the following question:• What are the monitoring objectives and relevance to information needs?• to build up an overall picture of the aquatic environment, enabling pollution cause andeffect to be judged• to provide long-term background data against which future changes can be assessed• to detect trends, gradients, patterns, structure, and cohesion• to provide warnings of potentially deleterious changes• to check for compliance or for charging purposes• to precisely characterize an effluent or water body (possibly to enable classification)• to investigate pollution and pollution loads.• Where to measure Water Quality Indicators to fulfill the intended uses?• Irrigation canals (by far the largest consumer)• Drainage systems and its contribution for reuse for agriculture• Deep wells used for drinking and agricultural purposes.LIFE–IWRM 179International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.10 Water Quality Management• What is the sampling frequency of the water quality indicators?Sampling frequency is defined as the number of samples taken per unit time at each samplingpoint. As with network density, frequency of sampling is closely linked to the monitoringobjective and other factors such as the known or suspected variability of the samples and thecost of the sampling and analytical effort. Since monitoring is costly and undertaken formanagerial purposes, it is of paramount importance to be aware of the added value of theincremental information obtained. If the added value is diminishing, the monitoring effortscan become less extended (space-, time- and parameter-wise). On the other hand, there isintrinsic value in monitoring for scientific reasons—to build up an archive about waterquality—and these efforts should not be abandoned easily.• Which Water Quality Parameters are to be measured and monitored?Suggested water quality parameters for each sample station are general (basic parameters,many of which can be measured instrumentally either in the field or in the laboratory).Sample Collection—Sample collection refers to going to the field and collecting the watersamples to be analyzed for water quality parameters. Samples are collected at the sampling locationsand with the sampling frequency as specified in the network design. Some simple 'field analyses' areconducted at the time of sample collection.District engineers have to be well educated and well equipped to perform the required samplingand analysis. The education of district engineers should contain at least:• Basic water quality concepts• Basic chemistry concepts• Sampling techniques for surface and groundwater• Theoretical and practical knowledge of “field measurement” methods, including calibration ofequipment, sampling, and sample preservation• Basic statistics, aiming at becoming acquainted with presentation in the form of box-whisker(percentiles, minima, mean, maxims), trend, gradient, and isopleths diagrams, enabling themto recognize structure and cohesion in water quality parameters.Samples are to be collected at the selected place at the intended date and time of sampling.Usually, the samples to be collected are grab-samples.Field Measurements—A number of water quality parameters will be measured in the field bythe district engineer. Normally, this is because these parameters are likely to change their valuebefore they can be analyzed in a laboratory. In the context of this program, there are four physicochemicalparameters that normally need to be measured in the field. These parameters are:1. Dissolved oxygen2. Temperature3. pH4. ConductivityThose parameters can most usefully be determined in the field by means of a small portableinstrument capable of measuring all of them. As instruments of this type require at least dailycalibration and regular maintenance a supply of distilled water, pH buffers, standard solutions,batteries, and basic spare parts should also be carried with the instrument.Laboratory Analysis—The majority of samples collected in the field are brought to a chemicallaboratory for analysis of various water quality parameters. The parameters to be analyzed areaccording to the specifications in the network design. Laboratory analysts have to be well trained and180 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.10 Water Quality Managementwell equipped to perform the required analysis. The education of laboratory analysts should contain atleast:• Basic water quality concepts• Basic chemistry concepts• Good laboratory practices• Theoretical and practical knowledge of most common analysis methods• Basic statistics• Quality Assurance methods for the laboratory.Data Handling—The results of the field and laboratory analyses are entered into a DatabaseManagement System. The Database Management System (DBMS) was designed, built, and introducedto districts as a water quality management tool for monitoring and surveillance purposes at thedistrict level. It allows for entry of results from field and laboratory tests, and for the introduction ofsimplified water quality status reports for each district.Data Analysis—In this step, the collected data are analyzed, keeping in mind the informationneeds and objectives of the monitoring program (as defined in step 2). Data analysis should provideinformation (i.e. transform data to information) that is relevant to the water managers. In thiscontext, data analysis will take place within the Database Management System.Reporting—In this step, the results of the data analysis are reported to the water managers andothers who want and need the water quality information. Reporting is typically done via a writtenreport, but can also be presented by a GIS system, electronically, or as a presentation.Information Utilization—The water managers who receive the information from themonitoring program via the report(s) can then act. For example, measures could be taken to addressidentified problems.Checklist for Field VisitTable 3.10.1 gives a list of items that should be checked before starting on a sampling mission. Atleast a day before sampling, make sure that all the arrangements are made, as per the checklist.Make sure that you know how to reach sampling site(s). Locate each site on a map that showsthe sample collection point with respect to prominent landmarks in the area. In case there is anydeviation in the collection point, record it on the sample identification form, giving the reason for thedeviation.Note that, depending on the local conditions, water body, or analysis requirements, not all itemson the checklist may be necessary. Other items not listed may be required. The field operationstechnician may make his or her own personal checklist based on Table 1.Decide how many of each item might be required, depending on the number of samples to becollected. It is always safer to carry a few extra items.If for any reason the laboratory conducting the analyses is different from the laboratory preparingthe sample bottles, ensure that the concerned laboratory is informed of the program and ready toreceive samples, particularly those that need immediate attention.Sample Identification FormsThe sample identification form provides a record of important information about the samplecollected. Complete the sample identification form at each monitoring site, detailing the samples thatare collected at that site. Note that if more than one bottle is filled at a site, for different types ofanalyses, this is to be registered on the same form.LIFE–IWRM 181International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.10 Water Quality ManagementTable 3.10.1Checklist for Field VisitItem/Activity Quantity Available• Itinerary for the trip (route, stations to be covered,start and return time)• Personnel and sample transport arrangement• Area map• Sampling site location map• Icebox filled with ice or icepacks• Weighted bottle sampler• DO sampler• Rope• BOD bottles• Sample containers• Special sample containers: bacteriological, heavymetals, etc.• Gloves and eye protection• Sample preservatives (e.g. acid solutions)• Thermometer• Tissue paper• Other field measurement kit as required• Sample identification forms• Labels for sample containers• Field notebook• Pen / pencil / marker• Soap and towel• Match box• Spirit lamp• Torch• Drinking water• KnifeLocal conditions, such as weather, human activity on the banks, and state of water body at thesampling site should be recorded on the form, at the time of sampling. Such information may be usefulin analysis of data.The form for identifying the sample and recording the field measurements and site conditions isshown in Figure 3.10.1.Sample identification forms should be given to the laboratory analyst together with the samples.The forms should all be kept in a master file at the laboratory where the samples are analyzed.182 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.10 Water Quality ManagementFigure 3.10.1Sample codeSample Identification Form for Surface Water SamplesObserver Agency ProjectDate Time Station codeParameterCode(1) Gen(2) Bact(3) BOD(4) COD,NH 3 ,NO 3-(5) H. Metals(6)Tr. OrganicsContainer Preservation TreatmentGlassPVCPETeflonNoneCoolAcidOtherNoneDecantFilterSource of sampleWater Body Point Approach Medium Matrixo Rivero Draino Canalo Reservoiro Main currento Right banko Left bankO BridgeO BoatO Wadingo Watero Susp mattero Biotapo Sedimento Fresho Brackisho Salto EffluentSample type o Grab o Time-comp o Flow-comp o Depth-integ o Width-integSampleo Weighted bottle o Pump o Depth samplerdeviceField determinationsTempo COdorCodePH EC μmho/cm DO mg/L(1) Odor free(2) Rotten eggs(3) Burnt sugar(4) Soapy(5) Fishy(6) Septic(7) Aromatic(8) Chlorinous(9) Alcoholic(10) UnpleasantColorcode(1) Lightbrown(2) Brown(3) Darkbrown(4) Light green(5) Green(6) Dark green(7) Clear(8) Other(specify)RemarksWeathero Sunny o Cloudy o Rainy o WindyWater vel. m/s o High (> 0.5) o Medium (0.1-0.5) o Low (< 0.1) o StandingWater use o None o Cultivation o Bathing & washing o Cattle washingo Melon/vegetable farming in river bedLIFE–IWRM 183International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.10 Water Quality ManagementSample LabelingLabel the sample container properly, by attaching an appropriately inscribed tag or label.Alternatively, the bottle could be labeled directly with a waterproof marker. Information on thesample container or the tag should include:• Sample code number (identifying location)• Date and time of sampling• Source and type of sample• Pre-treatment or preservation carried out on the sample• Any special notes for the analyst• Sampler’s name.Standard Analytical Procedures – Field DeterminationsGeneralMeasurements of color, odor, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen areclassified as 'Field Determinations' and should be made as soon as possible after collecting a sample.Measurement of these parameters can be made in the field if field meters are available. This is thebest option, as the analyses will be made immediately. Another option is to bring samples to thenearest laboratory, where equipment for analyses is set up. If samples are brought to a laboratory, thetravel time should be short so that parameter values do not change between the time the sample iscollected and the time of analysis. Note that the DO sample must be 'fixed' immediately aftercollection and that the temperature must be measured at the site.ColorDetermining the color in the field is relatively easy. Pour an aliquot of approximately 10mL of thesample into a glass test tube and judge the color observed. Assign one of the color codes fromTable 3.10.2 to the sample. In case the color of the water does not fall under code 1 to 7, select code8 and note the details of the color observed. Report the color code on the sample identification form.OdorDetermining the odor should always be done in the field, as soon as possible after collecting asample. After collection, fill a cleaned odorless bottle half-full of the sample, insert stopper, shakevigorously for 2–3 seconds, and then quickly smell the odor. Alternatively, pour an aliquot ofapproximately 5 mL of the sample into a glass test tube and judge the odor.Assign one of the odor codes from Table 3.10.3 to the sample. In case option 10, 'unpleasant,' isselected please try to note down the details of the odor observed (e.g. agreeable or disagreeable).Note: Do not select option 10 if the odor observed can be classified as one in the list from 1 to 9.Report the odor code on the sample identification form.Table 3.10.2Color Codes for Field Determination ParametersCodeColor1 Light brown2 Brown3 Dark brown4 Light green5 Green6 Dark Green7 Clear8 Other (specify)184 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.10 Water Quality ManagementTable 3.10.3Odor Codes for Field Determination ParametersCodeOdor1 Odor free2 Rotten eggs3 Burnt sugar4 Soap5 Fish6 Septic7 Aromatic8 Chlorine9 Alcohol10 UnpleasantTemperatureWater temperature should be measured in degrees Celsius, using a mercury thermometer or athermistor. Normally, if temperature is measured electronically using a thermistor, this device is builtinto an instrument that is capable of making other water quality measurements (e.g., pH and EC).Whenever possible, the temperature should be measured by directly dipping the thermometer inthe natural body of water being studied. In case it is not possible, collect about 500 mL sample in aplastic or glass container and measure temperature by immersing the thermometer in the sample.Read the temperature after equilibration (no more change in the temperature reading).Report the temperature on the sample identification form in degrees Celsius with one figure afterthe decimal point e.g. 13.2 ºC.Electrical ConductivityMeasurement of electrical conductivity should be made in the field at the time of sampling, using apurpose-built meter.pHMeasurement of pH should be made in the field at the time of sampling, using a purpose-builtmeter. Follow the procedure below:1. Prepare instrument according to manufacturer's instructions. Remove instrument electrodesfrom storage solution, rinse with distilled water, blot dry with soft tissue.2. First standardization: Place electrode in initial buffer solution and standardize pH meter tothe known pH according to manufacturer’s instructions.3. Second standardization: Remove electrodes from the first buffer, rinse thoroughly withdistilled water, blot dry, and immerse in second buffer preferably of pH within 2 pH units ofthe pH of the sample. Read pH of the second buffer, which should be within 0.1 unit of theknown pH of the buffer.4. Determine pH of the sample using the same procedure as in 3 (above) after establishingequilibrium between electrodes and sample. For buffered samples this can be done by dippingthe electrode into a portion of the sample for 1 minute. Blot dry, immerse in a fresh portionof the same sample, and read pH.5. With dilute poorly buffered solutions, equilibrate electrodes by immersing in three or foursuccessive portions of the sample. Take a fresh sample to measure pH.LIFE–IWRM 185International Resources GroupJanuary 2008


Guideline 3.10 Water Quality Management6. Stir the sample gently while measuring pH to ensure homogeneity.7. Report the pH on the sample identification form in pH units with one figure after the decimalpoint, e.g. 7.6.Dissolved OxygenReport the dissolved oxygen concentration on the sample identification form in mg/l with onefigure after the decimal point, e.g. 8.2 mg/l.District:Field Data FormStaff-Person:Location # Date Time ParametersE.C. pH DO T oCSalinity(ppm)1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.186 LIFE–IWRMInternational Resources GroupJanuary 2008


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