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WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATIONWeather • Climate • WaterREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II(ASIA)THIRTEENTH SESSIONHONG KONG, CHINA, 7–15 DECEMBER 2004ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT WITH RESOLUTIONSWMO-No. 981Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization - Geneva - Switzerland


REPORTS OF RECENT WMO CONSTITUENT BODY SESSIONSCongress and Executive Council915 — Executive Council, fifty-second session, Geneva, 16–26 May 2000929 — Executive Council, fifty-third session, Geneva, 5–15 June 2001932 — Thirteenth World Meteorological Congress, Proceedings, Geneva, 4–26 May 1999945 — Executive Council, fifty-fourth session, Geneva, 11–21 June 2002960 — Fourteenth World Meteorological Congress, Geneva, 5–24 May 2003961 — Executive Council, fifty-fifth session, Geneva, 26–28 May 2003972 — Fourteenth World Meteorological Congress, Proceedings, Geneva, 5-24 May 2003977 — Executive Council, fifty-sixth session, Geneva, 8–18 June 2004Regional associations924 — Regional Association II (Asia), twelfth session, Seoul, 19–27 September 2000927 — Regional Association IV (North and Central America), thirteenth session, Maracay, 28 March–6 April 2001934 — Regional Association III (South America), thirteenth session, Quito, 19–26 September 2001942 — Regional Association VI (Europe), thirteenth session, Geneva, 2–10 May 2002944 — Regional Association V (South–West Pacific), thirteenth session, Manila, 21–28 May 2002954 — Regional Association I (Africa), thirteenth session, Mbabane, 20–28 November 2002Technical commissions923 — Commission for Basic Systems, twelfth session, Geneva, 29 November–8 December 2000931 — Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology, first session, Akureyri,19–29 June 2001938 — Commission for Climatology, thirteenth session, Geneva, 21–30 November 2001941 — Commission for Atmospheric Sciences, thirteenth session, Oslo, 12–20 February 2002947 — Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation, thirteenth session, Bratislava, 25 September–3 October 2002951 — Commission for Agricultural Meteorology, thirteenth session, Ljubljana, 10–18 October 2002953 — Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology, twelfth session, Montreal, 16–20 September 2002955 — Commission for Basic Systems, extraordinary session, Cairns, 4–12 December 2002979 — Commission for Hydrology, twelfth session, Geneva, 20–29 October 2004In accordance with the decision of Congress,the reports are published in the following languages:Congress — Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, SpanishExecutive Council — Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, SpanishRegional Association I — Arabic, English, FrenchRegional Association II — Arabic, Chinese, English, French, RussianRegional Association III —Regional Association IV —English, SpanishEnglish, SpanishRegional Association V — English, FrenchRegional Association VI —Technical Commissions —Arabic, English, French, RussianArabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, SpanishWMO issues authoritative publications on scientific and technical aspects of meteorology, hydrology and related subjects.These include manuals, guides, training materials, public information and the WMO Bulletin.


WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATIONWeather • Climate • WaterREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II(ASIA)THIRTEENTH SESSIONHONG KONG, CHINA, 7–15 DECEMBER 2004ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT WITH RESOLUTIONSWMO-No. 981Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization - Geneva - Switzerland2005


© 2005, World Meteorological OrganizationISBN 92-63-10981-8NOTEThe designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply theexpression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World MeteorologicalOrganization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, orconcerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.


C O N T E N T SGENERAL SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE SESSIONPage1. OPENING OF THE SESSION (XIII-RA II/PINK 1; PINK 1, ADD. 1) ................................................................ 12. ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSION (XIII-RA II/PINK 2) ............................................................................ 22.1 Consideration of the report on credentials .................................................................................. 22.2 Adoption of the agenda (XIII-RA II/Doc. 2.2(1); 2.2(2))......................................................................... 22.3 Establishment of committees .................................................................................................... 22.4 Other organizational matters ..................................................................................................... 33. REPORT BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION (XIII-RA II/Doc. 3; PINK 3) ......................................................... 34. WORLD WEATHER WATCH PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS ....................................................... 34.1 WWW Planning and Implementation Programme, including the report of thechairperson of the Working Group on Planning and Implementation of the WWWin Region II (XIII-RA II/Doc. 4.1; PINK 4.1) ........................................................................................... 34.2 Integrated Observing System, including the Instruments and Methods ofObservation Programme (XIII-RA II/Doc. 4.2; PINK 4.2; PINK 4.2(2)) ........................................................................ 44.3 Information system and services, including telecommunications, data managementand operational information service (XIII-RA II/Doc. 4.3; PINK 4.3) ........................................................................ 84.4 Global Data-processing and Forecasting System (XIII-RA II/Doc. 4.4; PINK 4.4) .............................................. 114.5 Tropical Cyclone Programme (XIII-RA II/Doc. 4.5; PINK 4.5) .................................................................................... 125. WORLD CLIMATE PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS .................................................................... 135.1 World Climate Programme coordination and support activities, as wellas the report of the chairperson of the Working Group on Climate-Related Matters,including Climate Information and Prediction Servicesin Region II (XIII-RA II/Doc. 5.1(1); (2); (2), ADD. 1; PINK 5.1(1); PINK 5.1(2)) ................................................................ 135.2 World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme (XIII-RA II/Doc. 5.2; PINK 5.2) ................................................ 155.3 World Climate Applications and Services Programme,including CLIPS (XIII-RA II/Doc. 5.3; PINK 5.3) .............................................................................................................. 175.4 Global Climate Observing System (XIII-RA II/Doc. 5.4; PINK 5.4) ........................................................................... 195.5 World Climate Research Programme (XIII-RA II/Doc. 5.5; PINK 5.5) ..................................................................... 206. ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS(XIII-RA II/Doc. 6; 6, ADD. 1; PINK 6) .................................................................................................................................... 216.1 Support to ozone and other environment-oriented conventions (XIII-RA II/Doc. 6.1) .................................... 216.2 Global Atmosphere Watch (XIII-RA II/Doc. 6.2) .......................................................................................................... 226.3 World Weather Research Programme (XIII-RA II/Doc. 6, ADD. 1) ......................................................................... 236.4 Tropical Meteorology Research Programme .............................................................................. 236.5 Programme on Physics and Chemistry of Clouds and WeatherModification Research (XIII-RA II/Doc. 6.5) .................................................................................................................. 247. APPLICATIONS OF METEOROLOGY PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS ............................................ 247.1 Public Weather Services Programme (XIII-RA II/Doc. 7.1; 7.1(2); PINK 7.1; PINK 7.1(2)) ..................................... 247.2 Agricultural Meteorology Programme (XIII-RA II/Doc. 7.2(1); 7.2(2); PINK 7.2 (1); PINK 7.2(2)) ............................ 277.3 Aeronautical Meteorology Programme (XIII-RA II/Doc. 7.3; 7.3(2); PINK 7.3; PINK 7.3 (2)) .................................. 287.4 Marine Meteorology and Oceanography Programme (XIII-RA II/Doc. 7.4(1); 7.4(2); PINK 7.4) ....................... 308. HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS(XIII-RA II/Doc. 8(1); 8(2); 8(3); PINK 8) ................................................................................................................................ 319. EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS (XIII-RA II/Doc. 9(1); 9(2); PINK 9) ................. 3610. TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS (XIII-RA II/Doc. 10; PINK 10) ......................... 39


IVABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II11. NATURAL DISASTER PREVENTION AND MITIGATION PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS(XIII-RA II/Doc. 11; PINK 11) ................................................................................................................................................. 4112. WMO SPACE PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS (XIII-RA II/Doc. 12; PINK 12) ................................................. 4213. INFORMATION AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS PROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS (XIII-RA II/Doc. 13; PINK 13) ......... 4414. LONG-TERM PLANNING — REGIONAL ASPECTS (XIII-RA II/Doc. 14; PINK 14) .......................................................... 4615. EMERGING ISSUES AND SPECIFIC CHALLENGES ......................................................................................................... 4815.1 Evolving role of WMO (XIII-RA II/Doc. 15.1(1); 15.1(2); 15.1(2), ADD .1; PINK 15.1) .................................................. 4815.2 Role and operation of NMHSs (XIII-RA II/Doc. 15.2; PINK 15.2) .............................................................................. 5015.3 International exchange of data and products (XIII-RA II/Doc. 15.3; PINK 15.3) ................................................... 5115.4 WMO Quality Management Framework (XIII-RA II/Doc. 15.4; PINK 15.4) ............................................................ 5215.5 Group on Earth Observations process (XIII-RA II/Doc. 15.5; 15.5, ADD. 1; PINK 15.5) ......................................... 5316. OTHER REGIONAL ACTIVITIES ....................................................................................................... 5416.1 Strategic Plan for the Enhancement of National Meteorological Servicesin Regional Association II (Asia) (XIII-RA II/Doc. 16.1; PINK 16.1) .......................................................................... 5416.2 Fourth Technical Conference on Management of Meteorological and Hydrological Servicesin Regional Association II (Asia) (XIII-RA II/Doc. 16.2; PINK 16.2) ........................................................................... 5516.3 Internal matters of the Association (XIII-RA II/Doc. 16.3; PINK 16.3) ...................................................................... 5617. WMO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE SOUTH-W EST PACIFIC, INCLUDING THESUBREGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA (XIII-RA II/Doc. 17; PINK 17) ................................................................................... 5618. SCIENTIFIC LECTURES AND DISCUSSIONS (XIII-RA II/PINK 18) ................................................................................... 5719. REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE ASSOCIATION ANDOF RELEVANT EXECUTIVE COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS (XIII-RA II/Doc. 19; PINK 19) .................................................... 5720. ELECTION OF OFFICERS (XIII-RA II/PINK 20; PINK 20(2)) .............................................................................................. 5721. DATE AND PLACE OF THE FOURTEENTH SESSION (XIII-RA II/PINK 21) ..................................................................... 5722. CLOSURE OF THE SESSION (XIII-RA II/PINK 22) ............................................................................................................. 57PageRESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE SESSIONFinalNo.SessionNo.1 4.1/1 Working Group on Planning and Implementation of the WWW in Region II ............... 592 4.2/1 Regional Basic Synoptic Network ........................................................................... 613 4.2/2 Regional Basic Climatological Network in Region II ................................................. 794 4.2/3 Rapporteur on Regional Aspects of Instrument Development, Related Trainingand Capacity-Building ............................................................................................ 865 4.3/1 Amendments to the Manual on the Global Telecommunication System(WMO-No. 386), Volume IIRegional Aspects — Region II (Asia) — Part I ............ 876 4.3/2 Amendments to Regulation 2/12.4.4 in the WMO Manual on Codes (WMO-No. 306),Volume II, concerning regional coding procedures for 6- and 12-hour precipitation .... 877 5.1/1 Working Group on Climate-Related-Matters in Region II .......................................... 888 5.1/2 Climate Information and Prediction Services (CLIPS) Project ................................... 89


CONTENTS V9 5.1/3 Establishment of a Regional Climate Centres Network in RA II (RCC-RAII) ............... 9010 6.6/1 Rapporteur on Atmospheric Ozone ......................................................................... 9211 6.2/1 Co-Rapporteurs on the Global Atmosphere Watch................................................... 9212 6.3/1 Rapporteur on WWRP-THORPEX .......................................................................... 9313 6.5/1 Rapporteur on the Physics and Chemistry of Clouds and Weather ModificationResearch............................................................................................................... 9314 7.1/1 Pilot project on the provision of city-specific numerical weather prediction productsto developing countries via the Internet .................................................................... 9415 7.2/1 Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology ............................................................. 9516 7.3/1 Rapporteur on Regional Aspects of the Aeronautical Meteorology Programmein Region II ............................................................................................................ 9617 7.3/2 Pilot project to develop support for developing countries in the AeronauticalMeteorology Programme ........................................................................................ 9618 7.4/1 Rapporteur on Regional Marine Meteorological and Oceanographic Services ............ 9719 8/1 Working Group on Hydrology .................................................................................. 9820 8/2 Strategic Plan for the Enhancement of National Hydrological Services inRegional Association II (Asia) ................................................................................. 9921 9/1 Rapporteur on Education and Training Matters ........................................................ 9922 11/1 Working Group on Natural Disaster Prevention and Mitigation inRegional Association II (Asia) .................................................................................10023 12/1 Rapporteur on the WMO Space Programme ............................................................10124 15.5/1 Rapporteur for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems..............................10125 16.1/1 Strategic Plan for the Enhancement of National Meteorological Services inRegional Association II (Asia) (2005–2008) .............................................................10226 16.3/1 Advisory Working Group of Regional Association II (Asia)(RA II AWG) ......................10327 19/1 Review of previous resolutions and recommendations of the Association ..................104PageANNEXIThe RMTN network for Region II (Asia) (paragraph 4.3.5 of the general summary)........................107APPENDICESA. List of persons attending the session .......................................................................................110B. List of abbreviations ................................................................................................................112


GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE SESSION1. OPENING OF THE SESSION(agenda item 1)1.1 At the kind invitation of the Government ofthe Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of thePeople’s Republic of China, the thirteenth session ofRegional Association II (Asia) was held in HongKong, China, from 7 to 15 December 2004. Thesession was declared open by Mr A. Majeed H. Isa,acting president of the Association, in the MainMeeting Room, Hong Kong Convention andExhibition Centre, at 10.00 a.m. on 7 December2004.1.2 Mr A. Majeed H. Isa expressed hisappreciation to the Government of Hong Kong,China, represented by the Hong Kong Observatory,for hosting the session and for the excellentarrangements made. He also extended his gratitudeto the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)Secretariat for its continued advice and contributionsto strengthening National Meteorological andHydrological Services (NMHSs). He mentioned thatthe Region was prone to extreme adverse weatherpatterns, such as tropical cyclones, floods anddrought, which had a significant impact on nations’sustainable development. In that regard, he stressedthat the WMO Natural Disaster Prevention andMitigation (DPM) Programme should be successfullyimplemented in the Region. Mr Isa informedparticipants that WMO had decided to establish theSubregional Office in Bahrain which would contributeto the development of technical cooperation betweenWMO Members in Asia.1.3 On behalf of the Government of HongKong, China, Mr. S. Ip, Secretary for EconomicDevelopment and Labour, extended a warm welcometo all participants. He stated that MeteorologicalServices were an important part of the infrastructureof any society and provided critical information thatenabled people to live and work in a safeenvironment, and to make good use of naturalresources.1.4 Mr Ip emphasized that, given the complexityand global nature of the meteorological system,collaboration among Meteorological Services aroundthe world was essential for meeting new challengesand seizing opportunities. In that regard, heexpressed his appreciation to WMO for providing anexemplary framework for international and regionalcooperation in terms of information exchange,research and development, and technology transferin the field of meteorology. He added that the HongKong Observatory had been contributing to suchinternational cooperation by developing andmanaging the World Weather Information Service(WWIS) and the Severe Weather Information Centreon behalf of WMO, as well as providing professionaltraining to staff from WMO Members. He reiteratedthat Hong Kong, China, would continue to workclosely with WMO and its Members for the benefit ofall people.1.5 Mr M. Jarraud, Secretary-General of WMO,in his address, expressed the deep appreciation ofWMO to the Government and people of Hong Kong,China, for their kind invitation to host the session aswell as the Second Regional Seminar on CostRecovery and Administration in RA II (Asia). Heextended a warm welcome to all participants. Hethanked Mr A. Majeed H. Isa, acting president, andMr Chiu-Ying Lam, vice-president of RA II, for theirleadership and contribution, as well as thechairpersons, rapporteurs and members of theworking groups for their valuable service andcontribution to the successful implementation of theAssociation’s programmes and activities during theintersessional period.1.6 Mentioning that it was the first session of aRegional Association that he was attending asSecretary -General of WMO, Mr Jarraud assuredparticipants of his commitment to realizing WMO’svision and goals and promoting meteorology andoperational hydrology in the Region and elsewhere.WMO would maintain its leading role in the globalinitiatives and activities in addressing society’sconcern with weather, climate and water, as well asrelated issues.1.7 The Secretary-General emphasized someof the most import events since the twelfth session ofthe Association in Seoul, Republic of Korea, in 2000.Those included the strengthening of the closecooperation between WMO and key regionalinstitutions, the impact of globalization, globalsecurity, climate change and variability, and therapid developments in telecommunications andinformation technology. He encouraged Members totake advantage of the most recent scientific andtechnical advances and put more emphasis oninitiatives for food security, sustainable developmentand the struggle against poverty.1.8 The Secretary-General indicated thatMembers in Asia were highly vulnerable to naturaldisasters such as typhoons, tropical cyclones andassociated storm surges, floods, droughts and othersevere events. In that regard, he mentioned that


2 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIWMO was committed to the protection of life andproperty, and to sustainable social and economicdevelopment through the implementation of therelated WMO programmes and activities.1.9 Mr Jarraud stressed the importance of theavailability of well-trained personnel with specializedtraining in various fields. He said that WMO wouldcontinue to strengthen its efforts in bridging the gapbetween the levels of meteorological and relatedservices provided in developed and developingcountries, including those whose economies were intransition and the small island developing States(SIDS), especially the least developed countries(LDCs). In that regard, the new WMO Programmefor the LDCs would receive particular emphasis.1.10 Mr Chiu-Ying Lam, Director of theHong Kong Observatory and vice-president of RA II,extended a warm welcome to participants. Hementioned that Hong Kong, China, had beenextremely fortunate to be part of the globalmeteorological community, in which data andinformation were exchanged freely. He stated thatWMO was indeed a hallmark of cooperation at theglobal level, unhindered by commercialconsiderations and firmly focused on thehumanitarian cause. He stressed the importance ofregional and international cooperation and that HongKong, China, would continue to operate the twoWMO web sites on official city forecasts and globalsevere weather. Mr Lam wished participants apleasant stay in the wonderful city of Hong Kong,where the East and West met.1.11 His Excellency Mr Mallam Isa Yuguda,Honourable Minister of Aviation of the FederalRepublic of Nigeria, expressed the appreciation ofthe Government and people of Nigeria to Membersof Regional Association II. He informed them thatthe former Department of Meteorological Services inNigeria had been transformed into a semiautonomousagency known as the NigerianMeteorological Agency (NIMET). In that regard, theMinister acknowledged with deep appreciation theimmeasurable assistance and cooperation receivedfrom some Members of the Region, in particular fromChina and India, for providing consultants andtraining for NIMET staff.1.12 The Minister noted that NIMET had openedup opportunities for improvement in providingservices to various economic sectors, includingaviation and agriculture. However, the Agencywould require the assistance of RA II Members aspartners in collaborating in technology transfer andmanpower development. Mr Yuguda called on thethirteenth session of RA II to give attention toscientific and technical issues, especially emergingnew technologies in weather forecasting and tostrengthening the existing cooperation betweenNational Meteorological or HydrometeorologicalServices (NMSs) within the WMO family.2. ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSION(agenda item 2)2.1 CONSIDERATION OF THE REPORT ONCREDENTIALS (agenda item 2.1)2.1.1 The representative of the Secretary-General presented reports on credentials taking intoaccount the credentials received prior to and duringthe session. The Association accepted the reportsand therefore decided that it would not be necessaryto establish a Credentials Committee.2.1.2 There were 102 participants at the sessionfrom 33 Members of the Association, 17 observersfrom five Members from outside the Region and twoobservers from two international organizations. Acomplete list of participants is given in Appendix A tothis report.2.2 ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA(agenda item 2.2)The provisional agenda for the session wasadopted unanimously.2.3 ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMITTEES(agenda item 2.3)The following committees were establishedfor the duration of the session:Nominations Committee2.3.1 A Nominations Committee was establishedcomposed of the principal delegates of China, Japanand the United Arab Emirates.Working Committees2.3.2 Two Working Committees, A and B, wereestablished to deal with the various agenda items asfollows:(a) Working Committee A was assignedagenda items 4, 6, 7.1, 7.3 and 7.4.Mr Qamar-uz-Zaman Chaudhry (Pakistan)and Mr G.H.P. Dharmaratna (Sri Lanka)were elected to serve as co-chairpersons ofCommittee A;(b) Working Committee B was assignedagenda items 5, 7.2, 8, 9, and 10.Mr T. Kudekov (Kazakhstan) and Mr KyungsupShin (Republic of Korea) were electedto serve as co-chairpersons ofCommittee B;(c) It was further decided that other agendaitems would be considered at theCommittee of the Whole or the plenarymeetings.Coordination Committee2.3.3 A Coordination Committee composed of theacting president, the vice-president, the cochairpersonsof the two Working Committees, therepresentative of the Secretary-General and thesecretaries of the working committees wasestablished.


GENERAL SUMMARY 32.4 OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS(agenda item 2.4)2.4.1 The Association decided on the workinghours for the duration of the session. It was decidedthat there would be no minutes of the plenarymeetings of the session unless otherwise decided forspecial items.2.4.2 The Association agreed to waiveRegulation 109 for the duration of the session.2.4.3 The Association designated Mr San HlaThaw (Myanmar) as Rapporteur on agenda item 19— Review of previous resolutions andrecommendations of the Association and of relevantExecutive Council resolutions.3. REPORT BY THE PRESIDENT OF THEASSOCIATION (agenda item 3)3.1 The Association noted with appreciationthe report of the president of RA II which provided anoverall review and assessment of the major activitiesof the Association since its twelfth session andexpressed satisfaction at the effective manner inwhich the activities of the Association were beingundertaken.3.2 The Association commended its formerpresident, the late Mr Sung-Euii Moon (Republic ofKorea), and acting president, Mr A. Majeed H. Isa(Bahrain), for the dedication, enthusiasm andinitiative with which they had conducted the affairs ofthe Association, thus contributing to the furtherdevelopment of meteorology and hydrology in theRegion. The Association also commended theformer vice-president, Mr Hung-Kwan Lam (HongKong, China), and the current vice-president,Mr Chiu-Ying Lam (Hong Kong, China), for theirvaluable contribution to the work of the Association.It also expressed its appreciation to the chairpersonsand members of the working groups andrapporteurs, who had effectively collaborated incarrying out the activities of the Association.3.3 The Association extended its appreciationto Members who had hosted various regional eventsduring the intersessional period and encouragedthem to continue to provide the necessary support tothe activities of the Association.3.4 The Association gave its full support to thepriorities and future work programme during thefourteenth financial period as presented by thepresident, in particular those related to the WMOscientific and technical programmes focusing onspecific needs and requirements of the Region andnew priority areas such as climate change andrelated environmental issues, natural disasterprevention and mitigation and water resourcesmanagement. It requested the Secretary-General totake into consideration the regional needs of theAssociation in the implementation of WMOProgrammes and activities.3.5 The Association noted that naturaldisasters had occurred more frequently and thatMembers suffered from various natural disasters,such as typhoons, floods and drought. In thatregard, NMHSs should focus on natural disasterprevention and mitigation.3.6 The Association noted with appreciationthat China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea and theRussian Federation had launched or planned tolaunch satellites which would contribute to thestrengthening of the observation andcommunications networks, in particular in RA II.3.7 The Association expressed its support forthe Strategic Plans for the Enhancement of NationalMeteorological Services in RA II (Asia) andrequested that highest priority be given to theirimplementation (see also items 8 and 16).4. WORLD WEATHER WATCHPROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS(agenda item 4)4.1 WWW PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATIONPROGRAMME, INCLUDING THE REPORT OF THECHAIRPERSON OF THE WORKING GROUP ONPLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THEWWW IN REGION II (agenda item 4.1)4.1.1 The Association noted with appreciationthe report of the chairperson of the Working Groupon Planning and Implementation of the WorldWeather Watch (WWW) in Region II (RA II/WG-PIW), Mr Rajesh Rao (India). It was noted that theWorking Group had made good progress towardsaccomplishing the tasks assigned in its workprogramme. The full report of the chairperson wasavailable on the WMO web site. The major resultswere considered in detail under the relevant agendaitems of the session.4.1.2 The Association expressed its thanks tothe Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorologyand Environmental Monitoring (ROSHYDROMET)for hosting the fourth session of the RA II/WG-PIW inMoscow in September 2003 and to the WorkingGroup chairperson, coordinator and rapporteurs forthe work accomplished during the intersessionalperiod.4.1.3 The Association gave particular attention toResolution 2 (Cg-XIV) — World Weather WatchProgramme for 2004–2007 and Resolution 25(Cg-XIV) — Sixth WMO Long-term Plan, whichconfirmed that the WWW continued to have thehighest priority as the basic WMO Programme andprovided the basis for operations of NMHSs andinternational exchange of data and products. TheAssociation also noted Resolution 5 (Cg-XIV), underwhich the new major WMO Space Programme wasestablished to increase the effectiveness andcontributions from satellite systems to WMOProgrammes as indicated in the Sixth WMO LongtermPlan (6LTP).4.1.4 In light of decisions of Congress, theAssociation reiterated that, to improve the basicsystems infrastructure and operations, the strategicplan of the Region would continue to serve as aroadmap, and that all possible measures should be


4 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIundertaken, including continuation of fact-findingmissions, formulation of technically and economicallyfeasible projects and provision of assistance throughthe Voluntary Cooperation Programme (VCP) andbilateral arrangements.4.1.5 When considering the specific activitiesplanned for the fourteenth financial period, theAssociation agreed that the following issues requiredparticular attention in Region II:(a) To propose projects and procedures, asnecessary, for the coordinatedimplementation of the WWW in the Region;(b) To develop systems support and technicalcooperation activities needed to assistMembers in their implementation andoperation of the WWW, including themigration to table-driven code forms(TDCF);(c)To keep the status of the WWW systems inRA II under continuous review and establishrequirements for adjustments in light ofMembers’ changing requirements anddevelopments in science and technology,bearing in mind the principles and directiveslaid down in the 6LTP.4.1.6 The Association urged Members and theSecretary -General to continue to strengthencooperation among Members and make every effortto resolve expeditiously the technical problems in theimplementation of WWW in the Region. TheAssociation agreed that in light of the issuesidentified above in connection with theimplementation of the WWW and taking into accountthe specific tasks related to the basic WWWcomponents expressed in agenda items 4.2 to 4.4, itwas necessary to re-establish the Working Group onPlanning and Implementation of the WWW inRegion II. Accordingly, Resolution 1 (XIII-RA II) wasadopted.4.2 INTEGRATED OBSERVING SYSTEM , INCLUDINGTHE INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OFOBSERVATION PROGRAMME(agenda item 4.2)General4.2.1 The Association recalled that the GlobalObserving System (GOS), as described in the 6LTP,was a composite system comprising the surfacebasedand space-based sub-systems. The formerwas composed of the Regional Basic SynopticNetwork (RBSN) of surface and upper-air stationsand other networks of observing stations on land, atsea and in the air, while near-polar orbiting andgeostationary environmental observation satelliteswith associated ground stations formed the latter.Surface-based sub-systemRegional Basic Synoptic Network4.2.2 The Association noted that FourteenthCongress had strongly encouraged individual andmultilateral efforts of Members, including VCPsupport to rehabilitate and improve RBSN operationsin the regions concerned. In that connection, theAssociation recalled that its previous session hadapproved the list of RBSN stations comprising 1 198surface stations, 298 radiosonde stations and 35rawin stations. The implementation andmaintenance of the RBSN combined with the realtimemeteorological data exchange over the GlobalTelecommunicaiton System (GTS) continued to beone of the most important commitments of Members.During the intersessional period, the number ofRBSN surface stations was increased from 1 198 to1 241, and the percentage of SYNOP reportsreceived at Main Telecommunication Network (MTN)centres had seen a gradual increase from 82 percent in 1999 to 86 per cent in 2003. The number ofupper-air stations included in RBSN had decreasedfrom 334 in 1999 to 295 in 2003. The percentage ofTEMP reports received in comparison with expectedreports from RBSN stations had shown a clearlypositive trend starting from 52 per cent in 1999 andamounting to 59 per cent in 2003. The main reasonfor the improved availability of observational datawas seen in the prompt coordinated action beingtaken by the Members concerned, the Secretariatand donor countries. However, the existing gaps inthe observational data coverage continued to bemainly due to deficiencies in the operations of bothobserving and telecommunication networks, highcosts and lack of consumables and spare parts,especially in developing countries and countries witheconomies in transition.4.2.3 The Association stressed that every effortshould be made to improve current networkperformance. In particular, it encouraged individualand multilateral efforts of Members, including VCPsupport to rehabilitate and improve RBSN operationin the Region. The Association also stressed thatongoing activities of the Commission for BasicSystems (CBS) on the redesign of the GOS hadbeen producing many important recommendationson the future structure and operations of the GOS,including the modernization of old, andimplementation of new, methods and systems ofobservation. The implementation of thoserecommendations could potentially help alleviatesome of the deficiencies in RBSN operation. It alsonoted the recommendation of Fourteenth Congressto use in other Regions the experience gained inRA VI in the optimization of the data coverage overEurope. The Association noted that some elementsof the future GOS were already being implementedin different parts of the Region and emphasized thenecessity to support the activities on redesigning theGOS at regional level. In light of the above, theAssociation agreed to task its WG-PIW to carry out asurvey on the situation in the countries in the Regionwith respect to the current and planned RBSNoperation; to assess the recommendationsdeveloped by CBS on the redesign of the GOS withrespect to their applicability for implementation in the


GENERAL SUMMARY 5Region; to advise the Association accordingly; and tomake the findings available to its Members.4.2.4 As regards the revision of RBSN, theAssociation confirmed the principles endorsed by itsprevious session to be applied for the inclusion ofstations in the RBSN. It noted with appreciation theefforts undertaken by Mr Chen Yongqing (China),the Rapporteur on Regional Aspects of the GOS, incompiling, in coordination with the Secretariat, arevised list of RBSN stations. The Associationreviewed and updated the list of stations and, byadopting Resolution 2 (XIII-RA II), it approved thenew list of RBSN stations as given in the annex tothe resolution.Other networks of observing stations4.2.5 The Association noted that the totalnumber of ships recruited by Members of theAssociation had increased slightly. However, thenumber of SHIP reports received at MTN centres inthe Region had not changed significantly during thepast four years. At the same time, there had been acontinuing increase in the deployment of other typesof sea stations. In late 2003, the total number ofactive drifting buoys deployed by five countries wasunchanged, at 57, compared with 1998. In addition,a substantial number of drifting buoys deployed bycountries in other Regions were also reporting fromwaters within the Region. Three countries in RegionII were operating, on average, 33 moored buoyswithin regional waters. The Association was pleasedto note that the implementation of sub-surfaceprofiling floats (Argo) was well under way. InFebruary 2004, 293 floats were deployedoperationally by five Members of the Association.Reports from those different automated sea stationswere exchanged in real time on the GTS. As far asupper-air observations were concerned, fiveJapanese ships equipped with upper-air soundingequipment were operational in 2004.4.2.6 The Association was pleased to note that,as a result of the significant efforts of many NMHSsand their governments and the very goodcollaborative efforts of numerous airline operatorswhose aircraft carry the Aircraft Meteorological DataRelay (AMDAR) systems, the number of AMDARreports disseminated on the GTS per day hadincreased globally to about 150 000 at the end of2003, representing a threefold increase since 1998.The Association further noted that, following therecommendations of Congress and the ExecutiveCouncil, the arrangements for the future integration ofAMDAR into the WWW Programme had beeninitiated. The Association urged Members to continueand strengthen efforts towards achieving a wideroperational availability of AMDAR reports at theNational Meteorological Centres (NMCs) in theRegion. In that connection, it was welcomed that theRegional Telecommunication Hub (RTH) Washingtonwas offering the use of its FTP services to receivedata from various providers of AMDAR via the Internetand to route the data to the RTH Tokyo for furtherdissemination in the Region, and that the ChinaMeteorological Administration (CMA) had started toinsert AMDAR reports into the GTS and to make themavailable via its web site.4.2.7 The Association noted with satisfaction thatsome Members in Region II were alreadyimplementing or developing national AMDARprogrammes. Those Members included Hong Kong,China; Japan; the Republic of Korea; and China.Furthermore, the implementation of the Middle EastHigh Priority AMDAR Project led by Saudi Arabia wasmaking progress with system testing from 29 SAUDIMD90 aircraft being completed and data from someaircraft being disseminated on the GTS. Othercountries in the region, including Islamic Republic ofIran, Oman and United Arab Emirates, had expressedinterest in joining the programme. In that regard, theAMDAR Panel, in cooperation with a number ofcountries in the Middle East, had conducted aworkshop for interested stakeholders in the UnitedArab Emirates and Oman in May 2004.Regional Basic Climatological Network4.2.8 The Association noted with satisfaction thatthe establishment of the Regional BasicClimatological Network (RBCN) in all WMO Regionsand in the Antarctic had allowed a more effective andconsistent monitoring of the availability ofclimatological data. The availability of CLIMAT andCLIMAT TEMP was at 63 per cent and 64 per cent,respectively, of the expected reports. TheAssociation noted with concern that the density ofreports was particularly low in some regions inCentral Asia, South West and South-East Asia. Inorder to increase the availability of CLIMATmessages, further efforts by Members should bemade to ensure that their operational observingstations compiled and transmitted the CLIMAT andCLIMAT TEMP messages according to existing WMOregulations. The Association welcomed thepreparation of special guidance material by theSecretariat related to the operational procedures andpractices to be used by observers and technicians forthat purpose. The Association requested theSecretary -General to organize training workshops forpersonnel from countries concerned in the Region toassure correct implementation of the above guidancematerial in practice with a view to increasing theavailability of those reports on the GTS.4.2.9 The Association reviewed the list of RBCNstations proposed by its WG-PIW. By adoptingResolution 3 (XIII-RA II), the Association approvedthe list of RBCN in Region II.Space-based sub-system4.2.10 The Association noted with greatappreciation the implementation and future plans forspace and ground segments of the space-based subsystemof the GOS. It acknowledged the continuingand extremely valuable inputs to NMHS operations inthe Region provided by operational meteorological


8 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II4.3 INFORMATION SYSTEM AND SERVICES,INCLUDING TELECOMMUNICATIONS, DATAMANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONALINFORMATION SERVICE (agenda item 4.3)Telecommunication system4.3.1 The Association noted with satisfaction thatthe implementation of the Regional MeteorologicalTelecommunication Network (RMTN) circuits inRegion II had made very significant progress, inparticular:(a) Upgrade of all but one of the MTN circuits inthe Region through data-communicationnetwork services, according to CBS plansfor the Improved MTN;(b) Upgrade of several regional circuits toFrame Relay circuits in the south-easternpart of the Region;(c) Upgrade of several regional circuits to64 kbit s -1 digital leased circuits, in particularin the area of responsibility of RTH Jeddah;(d) Upgrade of a number of regional circuits toV.34 (19.2-33.6 kbit s -1 ) leased circuits inthe northern part of the Region;(e) Upgrades of data-dissemination systems,by the replacement of a high frequency(HF) radio broadcast by a satellite-basedsystem using digital audio broadcasting(DAB) techniques (RTH New Delhi), and inthe satellite-based TV -Inform-Meteosystem.4.3.2 The Association noted, however, that therewere still a number of shortcomings:(a)(b)Three NMCs were only connected by GTSconnections operating at low speeds:Colombo, Kathmandu and Yangon;Six NMCs had no connection to the GTS:Baghdad, Dushanbe, Kabul, Phnom Penh,Sana and Thimpu (Bhutan);(c) A number of regional circuits wereoperating at low speed, with a very lowcost-effectiveness.The Association also noted that the aboveshortcomings had been alleviated by theimplementation of Internet-based circuits betweenseveral NMCs and their associated RTH. TheAssociation agreed that every effort should be madeto re-establish the GTS circuits Baghdad–Jeddah andBaghdad–Tehran, according to the GTS plan of RA II,with a view to assisting in the rehabilitation ofoperational meteorological services in Iraq.4.3.3 The Association expressed its appreciationthat the implementation of the Transmission ControlProtocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and relatedprotocols on the GTS was progressing quickly, notingthat the use of TCP/IP had considerable benefits forthe development of the GTS, enabling reduced costsfor communications equipment and software throughthe use of industry standard systems and of a largerpanel of cost-effective telecommunication services. Itnoted that the introduction of the multi-protocol labelswitching (MPLS) technology in RTH Washingtonwould make it necessary to change the connection ofthe RA II Frame Relay cloud to the RTH WashingtonMPLS cloud at some point between July 2005 andNovember 2006. Furthermore, it was noted that RTHJeddah was planning, in collaboration with itsassociated NMCs, to develop and implement asubregional Frame Relay cloud.4.3.4 The Association agreed upon the followingamendments to the RMTN:(a) The United Arab Emirates, with NMC Abu-Dhabi, be included in the zone ofresponsibility of RTH Jeddah;(b) Bhutan, with NMC Thimpu, be included inthe zone of responsibility of RTH New Delhiand a link be included in the RMTN;(c) The Bangkok–New Delhi link be re-includedin the RMTN; it was noted that, in theframework of the upgrade of the GTScircuits linking RTHs Tokyo, Bangkok andNew Delhi and the resulting improvement incost-effectiveness, the current link would be(d)also upgraded;The additional circuit Beijing–New Delhi,operating at 9.6 kbit s -1 , be included in theRMTN plan as a circuit interconnecting twomajor RTHs in the Region and ensuring ahigher reliability and capacity of the wholeRMTN;(e) The circuit Bangkok –Singapore beendorsed as an interregional circuit.4.3.5 The Association confirmed a practical stepby-stepapproach for the implementation of theImproved RMTN, taking due account of the fact thatdata network services, such as Frame Relay, wereavailable and/or cost-effective only in parts of theRegion, while digital or even analogue leased circuitswere the optimum solution in other parts. TheAssociation agreed upon the RMTN plan for 2005–2007, which is included in the annex to this generalsummary paragraph. It requested its WG-PIW tokeep the plan under review to gain early benefits fromprogress in telecommunication technology anddevelopment.4.3.6 The Association endorsed the generalstrategy for promoting the Improved RMTNimplementation as follows:(a)(b)(c)Each RTH should survey the technicalstatus, capabilities and opportunities of itsassociated NMCs, as well as the datacommunicationnetwork services that werecommercially available and cost-effective intheir respective zone;RTHs should assist their associated NMCsin developing implementation plans,including target implementation dates;those plans should include the migration toTCP/IP;As an initial step, current circuits should beupgraded as soon as possible using data-


GENERAL SUMMARY 9communication services that were the mostcost-effective, such as Frame Relayservices, where available;(d) NMHSs should take the necessarymeasures for ensuring adequate training ofthe technical staff of NMCs on the relevantinformation and communication technology(ICT) for the Improved RMTN;(e)Financial assistance was expected to berequired for a number of NMCs for theimplementation of the Improved RMTN,through individual VCP projects on thebasis of the NMC/RTH plans mentionedabove, or other cooperation projects.4.3.7 The Association noted that Region II wascovered by several satellite-based data-distributionsystems: the International Satellite CommunicationSystems (ISCS) (primarily ISCS (Pacific)) and theEmergency Managers Weather Information Network(EMWIN), METEOSAT/MDD, MTSAT, TV-Inform-Meteo (Russia), VSAT systems operated by China,India and Thailand, and the United Kingdom SatelliteFacilities (UKSF) WWW project. Furthermore, Indiahad commenced a new satellite-based broadcastingservice via the World Space Asia Star satellitetransmitting observations and products for L-Bandreceiver ground stations. The satellite systemoperated by China and METEOSAT/MDD wereintegrated into the RMTN. The Associationunderlined the importance of data distributionsystems as crucial elements of the RMTN. TheAssociation also noted with appreciation that thedigital video broadcast (DVB) and DAB techniquesrecommended by CBS were being introduced in theRegion.4.3.8 With respect to EUMETSAT-MDD, it notedthat EUMETSAT had implemented a disseminationsystem via telecommunication satellite services,EUMETCast, based on DVB techniques, whichincluded the MDD service. The Associationrequested its WG-PIW to review implementationaspects of METEOSAT-MDD in Region II incoordination with EUMETSAT, in light of the finalizedspecifications of EUMETCast. The Association alsonoted that its WG-PIW developed a coordinationmechanism to review the MDD programme oftransmission with respect to Region II. TheAssociation agreed to amend the Manual on theGlobal Telecommunicaiton System (WMO-No. 386)to reflect the inclusion of METEOSAT-MDD in theRMTN by including the following paragraph 3.11.2 inVolume IIRegional Aspects — Region II (Asia) —Part I: “3.11.2 The METEOSAT geostationarymeteorological satellites operated by EUMETSATprovide a meteorological data distribution (MDD)service as part of the RMTN. With Meteosat SecondGeneration (MSG), the MDD programme will beembedded in the data distribution service operated byEUMETSAT.”4.3.9 The Association also noted that theforeseen technological changes in the satellitebroadcastsystem providing the Satellite DistributionSystem for Information Relating to Air Navigation(SADIS), as well as the UKSF project, were likely tochange the UKSF/WWW project specifications andimplementation planning. Noting the interest ofseveral NMCs in that project, the Association invitedthe United Kingdom Met Office (UKMO) to review theUKSF/WWW project accordingly and inform the WG-PIW and RA II NMHSs concerned.4.3.10 Five RTHs were operating a radio facsimilebroadcast. The Association underlined the highfinancial burden of the operation of HF radiobroadcasts for the RTHs concerned, and the limitedefficiency. It recommended that RTHs should planthe discontinuation of the HF radio broadcasts andtheir replacement by more efficient techniques, suchas DAB datacast via satellite, benefiting from theexperience gained by RTH New Delhi.4.3.11 The Association noted with appreciationthat RA II MTN centres (Beijing, Moscow, New Delhi,Tokyo) had implemented the new databaseprocedures for the improved Volume C1 of theCatalogue of Meteorological Bulletins (WMO-No. 9),and that RTH Jeddah was taking the necessaryaction. The routing catalogues, accessible by otherGTS centres via the Internet, were also beingmaintained by five RTHs, while the other four RTHswere in the implementation process.4.3.12 Noting that CBS further developedprocedures related to GTS operation and informationexchange and refined the functions andresponsibilities of RTHs, the Association agreed toalign the text of “3.3 Functions of RTHs” included inthe Manual on the Global Telecommunication System(WMO-No. 386), Volume II — Region II (Asia)accordingly, as follows: “RTHs in Region II shouldperform the functions defined in 2.1, Part I, Volume Iof the Manual.”4.3.13 As regards the necessary amendments tothe Manual on the GTS, Volume II —– RegionalAspects —– Region II (Asia) as referred to in theabove general summary paragraphs 4.3.4, 4.3.8 and4.3.12, the Association adopted Resolution 5(XIII-RA II).4.3.14 The Association noted that theimplementation and capacity of the Internet wasuneven, but there were rapid developments andchanges that the meteorological community shouldtake up as an opportunity for progress. The currentInternet could not generally guarantee the quality ofservice (reliability and committed information rate) forthe operational real-time exchange, and thededicated GTS links would continue to be dedicatedto the exchange of real-time and critical data andproducts. The Internet was, however, playing anincreasingly important role for the exchange of lesstime-critical information, for the supply of data andproducts to other users as well as for the activeparticipation of NMHSs in WMO and relatedcoordination activities. In some cases, the Internetmight be the only telecommunication means that was


10 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIavailable and affordable for connecting an NMC withthe GTS.4.3.15 The Association noted with appreciationthat all RTHs were operating a web server. Almost allNMCs had access to the Internet, at least for e-mailservices, and many NMCs were also maintaining aweb site. Some RTHs’ web servers were used as anefficient complementary means for providing data andproducts to the NMCs, in particular for those NMCswith low-speed or no connection to the GTS. TheAssociation noted that some RTHs were alsocollecting observational data from NMCs by e-mail,and it recommended that RTHs should be capable ofcapturing meteorological data (e.g. from e-mail), inparticular as a back-up function, with a view to itsinsertion into the GTS. NMCs should also developInternet functionality as an integrated component ofthe upgrade of WWW systems. With respect to theuse of the Internet by WWW centres, the Associationemphasized the critical importance of adequatesecurity measures to ensure the efficiency and safetyof WWW and all meteorological operations. It notedwith appreciation the guidance that had beendeveloped and was being updated by CBS in thatrespect.Framework for the WMO Information System4.3.16 The Association noted that Congress hadendorsed the concept of the Framework for the WMOInformation System (FWIS) as an overarchingapproach to meet the information exchangerequirements of all WMO Programmes. Congresshad requested CBS to pursue the furtherdevelopment of the FWIS towards the refinement andconsolidation of the concept and then the design andimplementation planning phases, while emphasizingthat all WMO Programmes and technicalcommissions should actively participate andcontribute their own expertise and resources in allphases of FWIS development. It also noted that theExecutive Council had established anIntercommission Coordination Group on the FWIS.The Association underlined the importance of theFWIS as one of the fundamental contributions ofWMO to the Global Earth Observation System ofSystems (GEOSS).4.3.17 The Association was pleased that a pilotproject on virtual private networks (VPN) was beingdeveloped by a number of volunteering NMHSs fromRegions II and V as part of FWIS development. TheAssociation fully supported that initiative as one of theprojects contributing to the development andimplementation of the FWIS within WMO andrequested its WG-PIW to stay abreast ofdevelopments of that very important concept and toprovide timely advice to Members in the Region onthe emerging implications and implementationaspects.Data management4.3.18 Concerning the migration to TDCFs,endorsed by Fourteenth Congress, a nationalmigration plan, derived from the international plan,with analysis of impacts, costs, solutions, sources offunding (as necessary), national training, technicalplanning and schedule, should be developed. TheAssociation urged Members, who had not done so, toprepare a migration plan. It took note withsatisfaction that BUFR and CREX encoding/decoding software was now available fordownloading via the Internet (e.g. from the EuropeanCentre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts(ECMWF)). The coding of observations in BUFRformat aboard voluntary observing ships (VOS) mightbe a difficult and lengthy process, and theAssociation noted in that connection that JMA wasproviding for the conversion of SHIP observationsinto the BUFR format at RTH Tokyo. The Associationnoted with satisfaction that a regional trainingseminar on TDCF for eastern RA II and RA Vcountries had been organized by WMO in Malaysia inJune 2004, and it wished for a similar event to beheld for western RA II countries in 2005. TheAssociation also noted the possible impact of the useof TCDF on the software and practices for monitoringof the WWW, and it invited CBS to address the issue.4.3.19 The Association agreed to revise regionalreporting practices so as to report precipitation for thepreceding 6- and 12-hour periods in accordance withthe global procedures, as recommended by the WG-PIW, for implementation on 2 November 2005, andadopted Resolution 6 (XIII-RA II).4.3.20 The Association noted through a surveythat many NMHSs in the Region had expressedadditional requirements for data such as aircraft,satellites, ATOVs and wind profiler data. TheAssociation invited RTHs and requested its WG-PIWto develop and coordinate the necessaryarrangements for the exchange of the data on theGTS to the largest extent feasible, as well as via theInternet. It also requested the Working Group toaddress and coordinate the development of astandard layout of the web pages for use by theNMCs to make access and retrieval of data andproducts easier and quicker for users. The IslamicRepublic of Iran had kindly offered to take the lead inthat activity.Radio-frequencies for meteorological activities4.3.21 The Association took note that FourteenthCongress had re-affirmed the prime importance ofradio-frequency matters for meteorological and relatedenvironmental operations and research. It particularlyemphasized that the utmost importance should beattached to ensuring absolute protection of thespecial bands allocated to space-borne passivesensing (e.g. the exclusive 23.6 – 24 GHz passiveband for measurement of atmospheric water vapour),which were a unique natural resource for atmosphericmeasurements and had an increasing importance inmeteorology (e.g. observation, NWP, climatology).The Association strongly urged Members to activelyparticipate in radio-frequency activities, especially the


GENERAL SUMMARY 11preparation of World RadiocommunicationConference (WRC) issues, conducted by theirnational radiocommunication administrations, byregional radiocommunication organizations (withrespect to WMO Region II, the Asia-PacificTelecommunity (APT) for Asia-Pacific, and the ArabLeague for the Middle East), and by the InternationalTelecommunication Union (ITU). The Associationalso noted with appreciation the favourable outcomeof the recent WRC 2003 as regards the several itemsof serious concern for meteorology.Operational Information Service4.3.22 The objective of the Operational InformationService (OIS) was to collect from, and distribute to,WMO Members and WWW Centres detailed and upto-dateinformation on the facilities, services andproducts made available in the day-to-day operationof the WWW.4.3.23 The Association noted with appreciationthat operational information was posted on the WMOserver under (http://www.wmo.ch/web/www/ois/oishome.htm)and was dispatched on CD-ROM once ayear.4.4 GLOBAL DATA-PROCESSING ANDFORECASTING SYSTEM (agenda item 4.4)4.4.1 The Association reviewed the presentstatus of implementation of the Global Dataprocessingand Forecasting System (GDPFS) in theRegion. It noted that the survey of GDPFS centresconducted by the Rapporteur on GDPFS, Mr Woo JinLee (Republic of Korea), showed that there had beenconsiderable improvements in the infrastructure andmodels in several centres. Several new centres hadnow started to run numerical weather prediction(NWP) limited area models and many had enhancedtheir computer power.4.4.2 While those developments wereencouraging, there was still a wide technological gapamong Members in terms of capacity to develop andoperate NWP systems and to apply the model outputto weather forecasting. More than half of theMembers in Region II were not planning to preparefor their own NWP system. The Association stressedthe need to put more effort into promoting the NWP,including the NWP based on PC-cluster platforms,and into strengthening bilateral or regionalcooperation for technology transfer and assistance.The Association recommended that expertise on dataassimilation schemes be shared between Membersto improve the use of remote-sensing measurementsand other asynoptic observations, including AMDAR.4.4.3 A few Members in the Region haddeveloped their tools for nowcasting and mesoscalemodels for severe weather. The Association taskedits WG-PIW to gather, and collate on a regular basisfor general reference, information on automatednowcasting systems operated by Members. It alsorequested the WG-PIW to identify a list of usefulNWP products focusing on severe or high-impactweather forecasting while giving consideration to alimited bandwidth for the exchange of the productsand other local operational conditions, and to developrelated forecasting standards or recommendedpractices, possibly as a contribution to the WMOQuality Management Framework (QMF). TheAssociation recommended that a demonstrationproject be organized on the utility and beneficialpotential of such tools for the operational forecastingof severe weather. In that regard, the Associationalso urged Members to participate actively in therelated Observing System Research andPredictability Experiment (THORPEX) experiments.4.4.4 The Ensemble Prediction System (EPS)outputs for the medium and long range from severalGDPFS centres were available in the Region throughthe Internet. The Association recommended that theinstructions for the interpretation of the product andassociated standard verification scores be providedalong with the product, including the interpretation ofprobabilistic forecasts. It noted with appreciation thatJMA was hosting two Internet sites for exchangingthe EPS verification results between EPS-producingcentres, and that Oman was prepared to makeavailable to interested users, upon request, a PCbasedNWP/MOS verification package that had beendeveloped in collaboration with the DeutscherWetterdienst (DWD, Gemany).4.4.5 The Association underlined the high level ofrequirements for training in the application of EPS, forexample for probability forecasts for risk managementand of high-impact weather. The Associationrecognized that computer-assisted learning moduleswere rapidly developing under various WMOProgrammes and recommended that such modulesbe developed and distributed in the Region withsupport from WMO, to use them for capacity-buildingin various NWP subjects, including EPS.4.4.6 Many Members had requested additionalgrid point value data from ECMWF and otheradvanced centers for more variables and longer leadtime. The Association considered that it would bedesirable and cost-effective to establish a regionaldatabase to access high-resolution model output andEPS products from World Meteorological Centres(WMCs)/Regional Specialized MeteorologicalCentres (RSMCs), or leading NMCs. The RegionalAssociation asked the WG-PIW to study thedevelopment and implementation of such a database.4.4.7 With respect to emergency responseactivities (ERA), the Association noted the WMOglobal and regional arrangements for emergencyresponse in cases of nuclear emergencies. TheAssociation underlined the need to keep thosearrangements under review to adjust them to theoperational requirements of NMHSs and nationaldisaster management authorities. It requested itsWG-PIW to address the issue within its workprogramme and to develop recommendations asappropriate.


12 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II4.4.8 The Association also considered thenecessity to periodically review and test theimplementation of the arrangements and in particularthe associated alerting mechanisms, in cooperationwith the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)and the relevant designated RSMCs (Beijing,Obninsk and Tokyo). The Association noted that theIAEA was organizing a major international exercise,CONVEX-3 (2005), to be held in May 2005 incollaboration with relevant international organizations,including WMO. It requested Members to activelyparticipate in the exercise and the Secretary-Generalto organize, coordinate and evaluate the participationof NMCs and RSMCs.4.4.9 Fourteenth Congress had decided to worktowards expanding the WMO ERA programme toinclude non-nuclear environmental emergencies, inparticular chemical accidents, wildland fires, air-borneviral diseases and volcanic eruptions, for whichatmospheric transport model products could beapplied as means of mitigation. The Associationinvited its Members to actively participate in thoseprojects, which were pursued under the auspices ofCBS.4.5 TROPICAL CYCLONE PROGRAMME(agenda item 4.5)4.5.1 The Association noted with appreciation theachievements and further progress accomplished inthe implementation of both the general and regionalcomponents of the Tropical Cyclone Programme(TCP) towards the mitigation of typhoon and tropicalcyclone disasters in its Region, especially inassociation with the International Strategy forDisaster Reduction (ISDR) and in the context of thesustainable development of developing States.4.5.2 The Association invited Membersconcerned to make full use of reports in the TCPseries as well as the TCP web site, which providedguidance and information for tropical cycloneforecasters, and updated information on the TCP,respectively. It also invited Members affected bytropical cyclones to take advantage of relevanttraining events such as training workshops orseminars on tropical cyclone and storm surgeforecasting and warnings. The Association wasinformed that the fourth Typhoon OperationalForecasting Training at RSMC Tokyo TyphoonCenter had been successfully undertaken from 28July to 6 August 2004, with two women typhoonforecasters, from Hong Kong, China, and Malaysia.Following the first seminar held in January 2004,Japan would also hold the second InternationalSeminar on Typhoon Monitoring and Forecasting inthe Western North Pacific in February 2005. TheSeminar aimed to enhance the tropical cyclonewarning capabilities of NMSs in the Asia/Pacificregion. In the Seminar, four experts were invitedfrom four NMHSs in the Region to obtain the latesttechniques on tropical cyclone operation at theRSMC Tokyo Typhoon Centre. It was also informedthat India would make arrangements for the firstattachment of tropical cyclone forecasters from thePanel Members at the RSMC New Delhi in October2005. The Association expressed its appreciation tothe Indian Institute of Technology for the organizationof annual training attachments of storm surge expertsfrom Members of the Panel. The Association waspleased to note that the third Workshop on StormSurge, Waves and Ocean Circulation Forecasting – ahands-on ocean forecast training laboratory for theSouth China Sea region and the Bay of Bengal andArabian Sea areas – would be jointly organized bythe Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission forOceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM)and the TCP in China in July/August 2005. TheAssociation also noted that a workshop on effectivetropical cyclone warning (tentatively planned for May2005 in China) would be organized by the TyphoonCommittee to promote research and development forthe mitigation of disasters associated with tropicalcyclones through collaboration among variouscomponents including meteorology, hydrology, anddisaster prevention and preparedness. It was alsopleased to learn that WMO had organized the secondRegional Technical Conference on TropicalCyclones, Storm Surges and Floods, in Brisbane,Australia, in July 2004 for Members of the Panel onTropical Cyclones and the Typhoon Committee. TheAssociation requested the Secretary-General tocontinue providing maximum support for trainingactivities under those programmes within the limits ofavailable funding.4.5.3 Recognizing that the internationalworkshops on tropical cyclones (IWTC) continued toserve as a forum for the interaction betweenforecasters and researchers and encouraged theapplication of research results to operational usage,the Association was pleased to learn that IWTC-VIwould be held in Costa Rica in 2006 and urged itsMembers to seek possible financial assistance toenable as many tropical cyclone forecasters andresearchers from the Region as possible toparticipate.4.5.4 The Association recorded its appreciation tothe two intergovernmental bodies of theWMO/Economic and Social Commission for Asia andthe Pacific (ESCAP) Panel on Tropical Cyclones andthe ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee for theexcellent work being done through their RegionalCooperation Programme Implementation Plan andCoordinated Technical Plan, respectively, to promotethe strengthening of the tropical cyclone, storm surgeand flood warning services and related disasterpreparedness and prevention measures in theRegion. The Association noted that the thirty-seventhsession of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committeehad been held from 16 to 20 November 2004 inShanghai, China. The session had had a broaddiscussion on the improvement of its role in thedisaster reduction associated with typhoons andtropical cyclones and established its programme for


GENERAL SUMMARY 132005. It expressed its appreciation to India andJapan for substantially upgrading the facilities,capabilities and services provided by the RSMCTropical Cyclones New Delhi and RSMC TokyoTyphoon Center. In that regard, the Associationnoted the official launch of the Numerical TyphoonPrediction web site by Japan on 1 October 2004.The web site offered predictions of tropical cyclonetracks performed by major NWP centers in the worldto assist the NMHSs of the Typhoon CommitteeMembers in better tropical cyclone forecasting andwarning services. The web site had started with thekind cooperation of eight NWP centers: AustralianBureau of Meteorology (BoM), the CanadianMeteorological Centre (CMC), DWD, ECMWF, theKorea Meteorological Administration (KMA), theNational Centres for Environmental Prediction(NCEP, United States), UKMO and JMA. The siteincluded lists of positional data of predicted tracksand several useful functions such as deriving anensemble mean from any combination of the centers’predictions of a user’s choosing. Japan was going tocontinue the improvement of the web site in order tomeet the requirements of Typhoon CommitteeMembers’ requests that had been approved. TheAssociation commended the Panel on havingestablished a tropical cyclone naming system on anexperimental basis from the 2004 cyclone seasonand recalled with appreciation that the TyphoonCommittee had established a typhoon naming systemon 1 January 2000. The meeting noted theappreciation expressed by the International CivilAviation Organization (ICAO) observer on the serviceto the international air navigation provided by RSMCNew Delhi and RSMC Tokyo as designated TropicalCyclone Advisory Centres (TCAC) in the frameworkof the ICAO system for tropical cyclone advisoriesand warnings.4.5.5 The Association thanked the Secretary-General for making timely arrangements inaccordance with the established procedures, for useof the trust funds of the Typhoon Committee and thePanel, to provide support to their Members, andfacilitate implementation of their respective technicalplans, aimed at the mitigation of tropical cyclonedisasters in the Region. The Association requestedthe Secretary-General to continue his efforts infurther mobilizing resources to support TCP activitiesin the Region.5. WORLD CLIMATE PROGRAMME —REGIONAL ASPECTS (agenda item 5)5.1 WORLD CLIMATE PROGRAMME COORDINATIONAND SUPPORT ACTIVITIES, AS WELL AS THEREPORT OF THE CHAIRP ERSON OF THEWORKING GROUP ON CLIMATE-RELATEDMATTERS, INCLUDING CLIMATE INFORMATIONAND PREDICTION SERVICES IN REGION II(agenda item 5.1)5.1.1 The Association was informed of the overallcoordination of the World Climate Programme(WCP). In that regard, the Association noted withsatisfaction the decisions made by FourteenthCongress (Geneva, May 2003) relating to buildingpartnerships within the climatology community toimprove effectiveness. The Association also noteddiscussions held during the fifty-sixth session of theExecutive Council (Geneva, June 2004) with specialemphasis on steps that should be taken to maintainWMO leadership in climate issues and urgedMembers to develop relations with international andregional agencies involved in areas of high priority toWMO and strengthen linkages between climate andtheir high priority national issues.5.1.2 The Association noted with satisfaction that,since its last session, a number of high-levelconferences on climate change had been convened,namely the World Climate Change Conference(Moscow, 29 September–3 October 2003), thethird Regional and first National Conference onClimate Change (Esfahan, 21–23 October 2003), andthe International Symposium on Climate Change(Beijing, 31 March–3 April 2003).United Nations Framework Convention onClimate Change5.1.3 The Association noted with satisfaction theactions taken by the Secretary -General to ensure theactive and expanded participation of WMO and theNMHSs of its Member countries in the work of theUnited Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange (UNFCCC). The Association was pleased tonote that WMO, as well as the Global ClimateObserving System (GCOS), would be represented atfuture Subsidiary Body for Scientific andTechnological Advice (SBSTA) and UNFCCCmeetings. The Association was pleased to note thatGCOS had continued its interaction with UNFCCC atthe eighteenth session of SBSTA in June 2003, theninth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP),and the accompanying nineteenth session of SBSTA,in Milan in December 2003. The Association wasinformed that the Executive Council had stated thatthe development of a global observation system for aclimate implementation plan, and other currentUNFCCC activities on climate impacts andadaptation, offered significant opportunities for theengagement by WMO and GCOS in United Nationsactivities on climate.International Strategy for Disaster Reduction5.1.4 The Association noted that pursuant to thedecision of the General Assembly of the UnitedNations (resolution A/RES/56/214), the Governmentof Japan would host the second World Conference onDisaster Reduction (WCDR) held in Kobe, Japan, inJanuary 2005. The Conference would follow up thelast WCDR held in 1994 in Yokohama. In preparationfor the event, two meetings had been held at theUnited Nations in Geneva. The Interagency TaskForce of the ISDR had held its ninth session from 4 to5 May and the preparatory committee from 6 to7 May 2004 in Geneva.


14 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II5.1.5 The Association noted with satisfaction thatWMO had actively participated in those meetings.According to the preliminary distribution of thematicareas, WMO would co-chair with the United NationsDevelopment Programme (UNDP) the WorkingGroup on Reducing Risk for Adaptation to ClimateChange. The Association urged Members to promotethe representation of NMHSs for disaster reductionactivities at national level; enhance early warningdelivery activities to influence visibility in the Region;and identify areas of partnership and activeinvolvement, especially in connection withpreparations for the WCDR, at national level.APEC Climate Network meeting5.1.6 The Association was informed that the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) ClimateNetwork (APCN) meetings had been held in Jeju,Republic of Korea, from 7 to 10 October 2003 and inBusan, Republic of Korea, from 9 to 12 November2004. The Association noted that WMO had beenrepresented at the Conference and its representativehad delivered a keynote lecture on climate activities.The Association noted that the establishment of theAPEC Climate Center (APCC) in the Republic ofKorea had been supported at the twenty-seventhAPEC Industrial Science and Technology WorkingGroup Meeting held in Singapore from 14 to 15September 2004, and that the APCC would beformally established in 2005. The Association alsonoted that some Members had expressed theirconcerns over activities with non-Member countriesof WMO.International Conference on High-Impact Weatherand Climate5.1.7 The Association noted that the InternationalConference on High-Impact Weather and Climatehad been held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 21 to25 March 2004. WMO had been a co-sponsor of theConference and had been represented at the event.During the Conference, KMA had celebrated the100 th anniversary of modern meteorology in Korea.United Nations Convention to CombatDesertification5.1.8 The Association expressed its appreciationto the Secretary -General for his continued support tothe United Nations Convention to CombatDesertification (UNCCD) activities and theConvention Secretariat and for the active participationof WMO at the Sixth Conference of the Parties (COP-6) to the Convention. It noted with satisfaction thatMembers had been informed of the major decisionstaken at COP-6.5.1.9 The Association noted the emphasis placedby COP-6 on case studies to demonstrate the use oftraditional knowledge to combat drought anddesertification and on early warning systems andurged Members to examine the possibility ofundertaking such case studies with appropriateinstitutions in their countries.Convention on Biological Diversity5.1.10 The Association expressed its appreciationto the Secretary-General for the report on the ninthsession of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific,Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of theConvention on Biological Diversity (CBD) that hadbeen held in November 2003. It noted that increasingattention was now being paid by the CBD to severalimportant weather- and climate-related issues relatedto biological diversity.5.1.11 The Association was pleased to note thatWMO was a member of the Ad Hoc Technical ExpertGroup on Biological Diversity and Climate Change,established by the CBD, and that that team had nowpublished a book on the subject.5.1.12 The Association agreed with theconclusions of SBSTTA that there were opportunitiesto implement climate change mitigation andadaptation activities in ways that were mutuallybeneficial and synergistic, and that that wouldcontribute simultaneously to the UNFCCC, CBD andother international agreements, all within broadernational development objectives.World Climate Impact Assessment and ResponseStrategies Programme5.1.13 The United Nations EnvironmentProgramme (UNEP) was responsible forimplementing the World Climate Impact Assessmentand Response Strategies Programme (WCIRP).UNEP had made progress in its joint programmeswith WMO since Fourteenth Congress. TheAssociation noted the closer working relationshipbetween WCIRP and the WMO WCP and expressedinterest in joint projects and adaptation to climatechange that had been prepared.5.1.14 The Association noted with appreciation thereport of the chairperson of the Working Group onClimate-Related Matters (WGCRM), includingClimate Information and Prediction Services (CLIPS),which included a comprehensive Compendium ofClimate Information Services prepared by carryingout a survey of Members in the Region. TheCompendium gave the latest picture on howMembers in the Region were developing their climateservices in order to meet the requirements of varioususers of climate information and prediction products.The Compendium provided information on availablemethods, technology and human resources in theRegion needed in producing and providing climateinformation services. It further demonstrated therelevant technological and human resourcerequirements and future development in the Region.The Association urged Members to study theCompendium and take steps to improve theiractivities in the provision of climate informationservices, as appropriate.5.1.15 The Association noted that the chairpersonof the Working Group had elaborated on the effortsbeing made by Members and WMO to improveactivities related to climate data management and


GENERAL SUMMARY 15rescue, through the establishment of supportstructures for the production and management ofhigh-quality climate data and replacement of thecurrent climate computing (CLICOM) system withclimate database management systems (CDMSs).The Association noted that some Members had notbeen able to improve their infrastructure in datamanagement and rescue owing to the lack of skilledmanpower, computational facilities, languageservices, general awareness and financial resources.The Association urged WMO and Members in theRegion to facilitate the training of data experts,improve basic meteorological infrastructure related todata management and rescue and to ensure thetransfer of relevant technologies, including software.Realizing the differences in political, social andeconomic systems and considering the importance ofdata management and data rescue in Region II, thefollowing tasks could be implemented:(a) To strengthen capacity-building throughmanpower planning, training courses, andregional and subregional cooperation;(b) To complete the guidance material on datarescue preservation of climate data whichhad started during the WMO Commissionfor Climatology (CCl) Expert Session inMalaga;(c) To request RA II Members which had thenecessary capabilities to support LDCsthrough the VCP, technical cooperation,exchange of experts and training of expertsthrough on-the-job training;(d) To provide quality control software to bridgethe gap between developed and developingcountries;(e)To support countries to facilitate hardwarefor providing digitized archives.5.1.16 In light of the decisions of Congress, itwas emphasized that the Association would continueto play an active role in implementing those activitiesrelated to climate matters, including CLIPS, throughidentifying deficiencies, specifying requirements andplanning support projects. When considering thespecific activities planned for the fourteenth financialperiod, the Association agreed that the followingissues would require particular attention in Region II:(a)(b)(c)To recommend projects on improving basicmeteorological infrastructures;To recommend more activities on capacitybuildingto improve human resources;To recommend projects to transfer newtechnology to the Region.5.1.17 The Association agreed that, in light of theissues identified above concerning climate-relatedmatters, including CLIPS, in Region II, it wasnecessary to re-establish the WGCRM, includingCLIPS. Accordingly, Resolutions 7 and 8 (XIII-RA II)were adopted.5.1.18 The Association noted from the report ofthe chairperson of WGCRM, including CLIPS, thatunfavourable climate events were a limiting factor ofsocio-economic development of most of the RA IIMembers, but that their impacts could be reducedthrough adequate planning of mitigation andprevention measures, including the establishment ofearly warning and preparedness systems to increasethe effectiveness of the emergency responsetriggered by early warnings.5.1.19 The Association also noted from thereport of the chairperson of the Working Group thatmuch effort needed to be made to improve theregional climate observation network, throughcapacity-building, training and educational activities,and improving the infrastructure in developingcountries.5.1.20 The Association was informed that followingthe guidelines set out at the meeting on Organizationand Implementation of Regional Climate Centres(Geneva, 27–28 November 2003), the WorkingGroup had conducted a survey in RA II using aquestionnaire to examine the capability in the Regionfor long-range forecasting of seasonal to interannualclimate and user requirements.5.1.21 The Association noted with appreciation thereport of the chairperson of the Working Group on itsmeeting held in Tokyo, Japan, from 25 to 27 October2004, which focused on arrangements for theestablishment of the Regional Climate Centre (RCC)in RA II. The Association was informed that, basedon the summary and review of the questionnaire onrequirements for the establishment of an RCC, theWorking Group had proposed a network of multiplemultifunctional centres and/or specialized centres(RA II RCC network) as the structure forimplementing RCC activities in RA II. The WorkingGroup had agreed that RCCs for RA II should beNMHSs with multifunctional capability, preferablywith the capability of a wide range of climate-relatedoperational functions, and single-function centreswould be included in the RA II RCC network asspecialized centres, not as RCCs. The Associationnoted that the designation procedures for RCCs weresubject to agreement between CBS and CCl andurged both commissions to undertake the necessaryactions as soon as possible. Therefore, asimmediate interim action, up until the conclusion ofan agreement between by CBS and CCl, theAssociation agreed with the recommendation of theWorking Group to initiate a process on theestablishment of an RCC network in RA II during thenext intersessional period. Accordingly, Resolution 9(XIII-RA II) was adopted.5.2 WORLD CLIMATE DATA AND MONITORINGPROGRAMME (agenda item 5.2)5.2.1 The Association noted the activitiesinvolved in preserving and managing climate data,and in monitoring the global climate. Through the RAII WGCRM and CCl, experts had made goodprogress on the three highest priority projects withinthat Programme: climate system monitoring, datarescue and digitization, and climate databasemanagement.


16 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II5.2.2 The Association noted the urgencyassociated with each of the projects, namely:(a) Coordinated climate system monitoring wasneeded to elevate the awareness of risks,for planning on all time scales, to exploitdistributed information that was increasinglyavailable through the Internet and otherinformal means;(b) Data rescue activities must prevent theirreversible loss to science and society ofhistorical climate data sets, by helpingNMHSs to make computerized records oftheir own climate data holdings, and to findand record the data held in other data sets;(c) Support activities in climate databasemanagement were urgently needed toensure that national climate databasescould provide the high quality historical data– including the rescued data – needed forthe authoritative climate assessmentsproduced through climate systemmonitoring.Observing requirements and standards forclimate5.2.3 The Association expressed its appreciationto the World Climate Data and MonitoringProgramme (WCDMP) for the efforts made with CClto develop the Guidelines on Climate ObservationNetworks and Systems (WCDMP-52, WMO/TD -No.1185). The Guidelines series provided information onhow to organize and implement climate services.5.2.4 The Association noted with appreciation thecollaboration between WCP and GCOS, funded bythe United States, to produce software to encode anddecode CLIMAT and CLIMAT TEMP messages andrequested that the CLIREP software be providedpromptly to Members. It was informed that an expertfrom ROSHYDROMET had developed the software,and that that CCl-led project would be completed in2005.Climate watches5.2.5 The Association noted with appreciation thework of the CCl Expert Team to Develop Guidanceon Climate Watches (chaired by an expert fromCMA). The terms of reference and work planincluded a schedule to create Guidelines on ClimateWatches.5.2.6 The team had defined a "climate watch" asan advisory that was to be issued to heightenawareness in the user community concerning aparticular state of the climate system. Climatewatches would be based on real-time monitoring ofconditions and current climate outlooks, aimed toaffect user decision-making and initiation ofpreparedness activities. A climate watch would beissued by individual NMHSs in coordination withRCCs and other NMHSs in the Region, or beyond, asneeded. The climate watch process and outputproducts would be developed as a result ofcontinuous and iterative collaboration with users.5.2.7 The Association concurred with the ExpertTeam’s conclusions that NMHSs retained exclusiveresponsibility for the issuance of climate watches fortheir countries and territories, as well as formeteorological warnings.Climate analysis and monitoring techniques(including climate change detection)5.2.8 The Association expressed its support forthe activities of the CCl/CLIVAR Expert Team onClimate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices. Itnoted with appreciation that the Expert Team’sobjectives supported monitoring and understanding ofthe global climate system; collection, rescue andmanagement of climate data; detection andassessment of climate variability and changes; andcapacity-building, transfer of knowledge andtechniques and guidance. It noted with appreciationthe Expert Team’s plans to develop indices of climatechange and variability with emphasis on daily toseasonal extremes, and standardized softwarepackages; and to study additional indices and theirapplication as input data for models and homogeneityissues. It urged Members to provide daily datarecords to build the data sets needed for thecalculation of indices.5.2.9 The Association endorsed the ExpertTeam’s intention to provide guidance for NMHSs,software to calculate indices, participation in trainingworkshops, and the use of results in the WMO'sclimate system monitoring programme. It noted withappreciation the workshops planned for all WMORegions to fill gaps in the climate data sets.Climate system monitoring5.2.10 The Association noted with satisfaction thesignificant results that had been achieved in climatesystem monitoring. The seventh Global ClimateSystem Review (June 1996–December 2001) hadassessed climate variations across the globe, for theentire cycle of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation(ENSO), from neutral conditions through the mostintense El Niño event of the twentieth century, to theestablishment of La Niña conditions that had usheredin the new century. The WMO annual Statement onthe Status of the Global Climate documented eachyear’s anomalies and its global impacts.5.2.11 The Association noted with interest thecollaboration of a number of the Region’s expertswith the National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Centre(NCDC) to produce a global climate review, publishedin the June 2004 issue of the Bulletin of the AmericanMeteorological Society and planned to be enhancedand published by WMO. WMO had arranged forexpanded participation of international authors. TheAssociation endorsed CCl's intention to explore thatprocess as a cost-effective means to provide futureWMO Global Climate System Reviews.5.2.12 The Association welcomed the fact that theWMO Statement on the Status of the Global Climatein 2003 (WMO-No. 966) had been produced in


GENERAL SUMMARY 17English, French, Spanish and Russian and had beenprinted and distributed in time for the WorldMeteorological Day (WMD) celebrations.Data rescue, digitization and data exchange5.2.13 The data rescue (DARE ) project providedregional seminars and initiated national projects inRegion II. The new projects introduced digitalcameras into the computerization process.5.2.14 The Association noted that the CCl ExpertTeam on the Rescue, Preservation and Digitization ofClimate Records had met from 7 to 10 October 2003in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to define the DAREstrategy and identify activities for the next two tothree years; to find support for data rescue activities;and to design a file naming convention for image filestaken from digital cameras.5.2.15 The Association endorsed the mainconclusions of the meeting, as follows:(a) To increase awareness of data rescue asan activity by developing posters, brochuresand organizing seminars, conferences andtraining events, as well as engaging thescientific community to support data rescueprojects;(b) To produce a complete inventory ofavailable data and metadata for all Regions;(c)(d)(e)To develop a standard survey form;To identify, through surveys and seminars,the data rescue priorities of WMOMembers;To determine procedures adapted to eachcountry such as analogue imaging, digitalimaging, conservation of records, improvedphysical storage techniques, etc.Data sets and metadata5.2.16 The Association noted the imminentconclusion of the World Weather Records for 1991–2000. It expressed appreciation for the regionalcollection provided by 10 Members and for NOAANCDC's coordination and production of the data sets.5.2.17 The Association expressed appreciation forthe completion of the Guidelines on Climate Metadataand Homogenization (WCDMP-53, WMO/TD -No.1186).Climate database management systems5.2.18 The Association noted with appreciationthat new CDMSs had been implemented in a numberof countries, through the voluntary cooperation of sixWMO Members who had offered to share theirsystems. The CDMSs had been demonstrated andevaluated for their performance on standard criteria.Most of them used multi-tier, client/server relationaldatabases. The implementations had resulted frombilateral as well as multilateral cooperation, frequentlycoordinated through the WMO's TechnicalCooperation Programme (TCOP).5.2.19 The Association welcomed the acceleratedtransition from CLICOM to CDMSs. It noted withappreciation that 16 CDMSs had been installedworldwide and 21 more had been planned in 2004,while 30 more requests or expressions of interest hadbeen received. It noted with appreciation the supportby the Russian Federation for systems in RAs II andVI.5.2.20 The Association recalled FourteenthCongress' request for CDMS training materials andmanuals, and endorsed CCl's plans for the relevantimplementation coordination team to developWCDMP Guidelines on Climate DatabaseManagement.5.2.21 The Association noted with appreciationthat WMO had conducted two seminars on ClimateData Rescue and Management, one in KualaLumpur, Malaysia, from 13 to 17 October 2003 forRegion V and another in Vientiane, Lao PDR, from24 to 28 November 2003 for Region II.5.2.22 The two seminars had reviewed the statusof climate data management and data rescueactivities in each Region and presented the six newclimate database management systems (CLIDATA,CLISYS, CLIWARE, CLIMSOFT, JCDMS andSDCLIM) and national plans had been drafted. TheAssociation endorsed the following recommendationsof the seminars’ participants:(a) Several archive recovery centers beestablished to maintain copies of files forWMO Members’ backup purposes, to safelyarchive copies of the image files on CDsand refresh the data on new advancedmedia and current software;(b) Each Member of the Region takes initiative(c)for CDM/DARE;WMO assists Members in their data rescueeffort and restoration of their CDMSs;(d) WMO conducts expert missions toMembers that urgently need assistance inclimate data management and data rescue(e.g. Cambodia, Laos People’s DemocraticRepublic and Bhutan);(e)(f)That experts from Viet Nam be consideredin requests for resource persons forassisting other Members in the Region intheir DARE projects;WMO ensures adequate financial supportfor workshops on CDM;(g) WMO urges agencies holding otherMembers’ climate records to return them(paper or digital) to the country of origin;(h)(i)WMO makes available demo versions ofthe new CDMSs;Members requiring training support on CDMshould make use of facilities at RMTCs (likeIndia).5.3 WORLD CLIMATE APPLICATIONS ANDSERVICES PROGRAMME, INCLUDING CLIPS(agenda item 5.3)5.3.1 The Association noted with appreciationthat nominations of CLIPS Focal Points for RA II hadcontinued, but noted that some Members still had notnominated the Focal Points. The Association urged


18 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIthe remaining Members to submit their nominationsas soon as possible. The Association further notedthat a CLIPS Focal Point Training Workshop hadbeen held in Doha, Qatar (17–28 October 2004), forparticipants from Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh,Bhutan, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives,Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Yemen, Saudi Arabia,Sri Lanka and the United Arab Emirates. Workshopsfor the remaining countries would be organized at alater date depending on the availability of funds. TheAssociation emphasized the importance of suchworkshops and other CLIPS-related activities for thecapacity-building of the Members’ NMHSs. It furtherappreciated the existing system of informationsharing between Focal Points through the CLIPSweb site.5.3.2 The Association expressed appreciation toChina, Japan and the Republic of Korea, which hadcontinued to support activities related to climateapplications and prediction in the Region. It notedthat China had organized the sixth Joint Meeting forSeasonal Prediction of the East Asian SummerMonsoon (11–13 May 2004), the InternationalSchool on Climate System and Climate Change(23 August–1 September 2004), and the ChineseAcademy of Sciences/Third World Academy ofSciences/WMO Forum on Climate Change andTraining Course on Short-term Climate Prediction(20–31 October 2003). It was pleased to note thatCMA would continue to organize the InternationalSchool on Climate System and Climate Change andthe Forum on Regional Climate Prediction,Assessment and Application every year. TheAssociation further noted that Japan had hosted theJoint Meeting for Seasonal Prediction of the EastAsian Winter Monsoon (11–13 November 2003); anda Training Workshop on Climate System Monitoring,Diagnosis and Prediction in the Asia-Pacific Region(25–28 November 2003); and the Republic of Koreahad organized an International Symposium on theMulti-model Ensemble for Climate Prediction (7–10 October 2003) and the fifth Joint Meeting forSeasonal Prediction of the East Asian WinterMonsoon (12–13 November 2004).5.3.3 The Association noted that prediction onseasonal to interannual time scales had continued topresent challenges in terms of informationpresentation and interpretation, and conversion intodecisions within each application area, as well as inverification of predictions. The Associationwelcomed activities directed at examining andimproving capabilities in each of those areas, andrequested that benefits be transferred to the Regionthrough training workshops, through holding regionalclimate outlook forums, and through thedevelopment of showcase projects. The Associationnoted with appreciation that, as part of that process,a multidisciplinary conference on decision processesin climate applications was being planned for spring2006. The participants at that workshop wouldinclude policy makers, climate experts and usersfrom various sectors. The Association was pleasedthat JMA wished to host the Regional Oulook Forumin 2005 or later.5.3.4 The Association noted the developmentsthat had taken place in considering possible roles,requirements and guidelines for establishing RCCs.The Association reiterated its support for theestablishment of RCCs, where appropriate, in orderto assist NMHSs in interpreting and applyingseasonal to interannual forecasts, and in carrying outregional climate activities. In that regard, theAssociation commended the effort made by CCl indeveloping guidelines that would help eachrespective regional association establish itsrequirements for, and implementation of, RCCs. TheAssociation urged Members to cooperate with theregional president in order to facilitate the process ofestablishing RCCs in RA II.5.3.5 The Association noted the collaborationbetween CCl and other WMO Programmes andUnited Nations organizations/agencies whichenhanced the application of climate information andproducts in various sectors in the Region. Anexample was the Synthesis Workshop on ClimateVariability, Climate Change and Health in SmallIsland States organized by the World HealthOrganization (WHO) and co-sponsored by WMO andUNEP (Maldives, 1–4 December 2003), in whichMaldives and Sri Lanka participated. TheAssociation urged CCl and RA II Members toaugment such initiatives.5.3.6 The Association reiterated its support tothe concept that, in developing climate applicationswithin the context of CLIPS, special attention shouldbe given to each sector concerned such as foodproduction, water resources, human health andenergy. In order to achieve that, the Associationnoted that that required building a partnership andcooperative strategy within the Region between theWorld Climate Applications and ServicesProgramme (WCASP) and other WMO programmes,such as the Agricultural Meteorology Programme(AgMP), the Public Weather Services Proramme(PWSP) and the Hydrology and Water ResourcesProgramme (HWRP). To increase the awareness ofCLIPS and its potential value for end-users anddecision makers in many socio-economic sectors,the United Arab Emirates suggested a workshopwhich would be held in Abu Dhabi in May 2005. TheAssociation noted that the Russian Federation wascompleting the development of maps of climatezoning with different living conditions andrecommended a similar approach to other NMHSs inlarge countries within various climate regions. Suchmaps would be of value for economic applications,such as the duration of heating and cooling periodsin countries with a severe climate.5.3.7 The Association was informed of progressin the Showcase Projects on Climate and HumanHealth. It noted with appreciation that theheat/health warning systems (HHWSs) in Rome,


GENERAL SUMMARY 19Italy, and Shanghai, China, were progressing well,and efforts were being made to initiate a follow-upphase that included the development of HHWSGuidelines and establishing a mechanism to shareinformation and software.5.3.8 The Association noted the progress madeby CCl to provide guidance on heat waves bydeveloping guidelines on HHWS for use by NMHSs,for which the Meeting of Experts to DevelopGuidelines on HHWS was held (Freiburg, Germany,14–16 April 2004) and a WMO brochure on heatwaves developed. The guidelines and brochurewould facilitate the task of NMHSs in formulating aHHWS applicable to its country’s needs and in givingwarnings and/or advice to the public.5.3.9 The Association noted the effective andongoing collaboration between WMO, UNEP andWHO on issues related to the application of climateinformation and products in mitigating the impacts ofclimate variability and change on the health sector.The Association noted with appreciation that,through that collaboration, two books that would beuseful in the Region had been published: ClimateChange and Human Health — Risks andResponses; and Methods of Assessing HumanHealth Vulnerability and Public Health Adaptation toClimate Change. The Association urged WMO toenhance and extend such collaboration with otherinstitutions working on similar issues.5.3.10 The Association was pleased to learn ofthe activities that addressed environmental issuesrelated to mega-cities and urban areas, in particularthose that dealt with urban issues in the context ofhuman health. The Association noted that CCl hadplaced much emphasis on that theme, which wouldincrease focus in the work of the Commission, andrequested that it be further developed incollaboration with the urban-related projects of othercommissions. The Association also noted that someNMHSs had been approached by their healthauthorities to contribute to studies on commutablediseases, such as encephalitis and dengue fever,and urged NMHSs to respond positively to suchdevelopments.5.3.11 The Association noted with appreciationthe efforts of WMO to support activities thatpromoted the development of renewable energyresources and their efficient use. The Associationfurther noted with appreciation that CCl had decidedto revise a number of outdated WMO TechnicalNotes on energy which were useful in demonstratingthat climate, water and weather information werevital for sustainable energy. The Association urgedthat similar initiatives should be extended to otherimportant documents. The Association suggestedthat WMO and NMHSs should actively participate inthe assessment and development of wind energy.5.4 GLOBAL CLIMATE OBSERVING SYSTEM(agenda item 5.4)5.4.1 The Association noted with approval theoverall progress being achieved by GCOS since thelast RA II session in: (a) implementing the GCOSBaseline Networks; (b) preparing the Second Reporton the Adequacy of the Global Observing Systemsfor Climate in Support of the UNFCCC (GCOS-82,WMO/TD-No. 1143); (c) undertaking the RegionalWorkshop Programme; and (d) mobilizing resourcesfor improving GCOS stations, including developmentof a GCOS cooperation mechanism.5.4.2 The Association also noted that the fulloperation of the monitoring, analysis, and archivingcentres for the GCOS Surface Network (GSN) andthe GCOS Upper-Air Network (GUAN) had occurredunder the guidance of the Atmospheric ObservationPanel for Climate (AOPC) and in cooperation withCBS. It expressed its appreciation to JMA forparticipating in the CBS lead centre for GSN whichhad given even greater insight into the operation ofthose networks. Members of the Association agreedto submit the historical data and metadata from theirGSN stations and to continue their ongoing supportfor GSN and GUAN observations.5.4.3 The Association welcomed GCOS effortsutilizing support provided by several WMO Members(notably Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdomand the United States, under its national GCOSSupport Program) to revitalize operations at anumber of specific GUAN and GSN stations,especially in the tropical regions, as well as tosupport specific Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)activities (e.g. aerosol monitoring in China). The highcost of consumables was a particularly difficultproblem facing NMHSs in all regions, and activitieswere under way to investigate potential solutions tothat problem. The Association urged Members tocontinue and, where possible, strengthen theirsupport for the GSN and GUAN networks, noting thatrobust, backbone networks that met the goals ofGCOS could provide significant benefits for otherregional objectives.5.4.4 The Association noted the collaborationbetween GCOS/AOPC, CCl and the CBS ExpertTeam on Observational Data Requirements andRedesign of the Global Observing System indeveloping statements of guidance on therequirements for observations in support of climateapplications. It also noted the collaboration betweenGCOS and the World Climate Research Programme(WCRP) in the WMO Consultative Meetings on High-Level Policy on Satellite Matters on climaterequirements for satellites.5.4.5 The Association welcomed Decision11/CP.9 — Global observing systems for climate,adopted by the ninth session of the UNFCCC COP,and taken in response, among other things, to theSecond Report on the Adequacy of the GlobalObserving Systems for Climate in Support of theUNFCCC. The Decision also requested that theGCOS Secretariat, under the guidance of the GCOSSteering Committee and taking into accountinternational and intergovernmental mechanisms,coordinate the development of a phased five- to


20 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II10-year implementation plan for the integrated globalobserving systems for climate, using a combination ofhigh-quality satellite and in situ measurements,dedicated infrastructure and targeted capacitybuilding.Finally, it requested that GCOS and the adhoc Group on Earth Observations (GEO) collaborateclosely in developing their respective implementationplans. The Association noted with appreciation thatthe Implementation Plan for the Global ObservingSystems for Climate in Support of the UNFCCC hadbeen completed in time for the tenth session of theCOP and coordinated with the GEO process.5.4.6 The Association noted with appreciation theefforts of the GCOS Secretariat in responding to thedecisions of the COP and commended the continuinginteraction between GCOS, on behalf of WMOMembers and the global observing systems forclimate, and UNFCCC. It encouraged GCOS tocontinue the strategy of engaging UNFCCC and itssubsidiary bodies to develop support for the globalclimate observing systems, as had been endorsed byFourteenth Congress.5.4.7 The Association reiterated its strongsupport for the GCOS Regional WorkshopProgramme and noted that three regional workshopshad been completed in RA II with a high level ofparticipation by Association Members. TheAssociation expressed its appreciation to theMembers contributing to the development of regionalplans, in particular to the GCOS Regional Action Planfor Central Asia, and endorsed activities suggestedtherein. It noted with satisfaction that COP-9 hadalso re-confirmed its support through its invitation tothe Global Environment Facility (GEF) to giveappropriate consideration to addressing the priorityneeds identified by non-Annex I Parties in theirregional action plans relating to global observingsystems for climate (Decision 4/CP.9 — Additionalguidance to an operating entity of the financialmechanism). The Association further requestedMembers to participate fully in the implementation ofall regional action plans and to ensure support ofproposed projects by governments, external donorsand international organizations.5.4.8 The Association welcomed theestablishment of the GCOS Cooperation Mechanism(GCM), aimed at addressing priority improvements inobserving systems for climate, especially indeveloping countries. Eight countries, includingChina, India, and the European Commission andWMO/TCO had participated in the inaugural meetingof the GCM in June 2004. The Association noted theimportance of Member support for furthering theimplementation of the GCOS networks.5.4.9 The Association recognized the efforts thatGCOS had made to advance systematic observationsand requested that Members assist GCOS to theextent possible, especially as regards progress inRA II.5.5 WORLD CLIMATE RESEARCH PROGRAMME(agenda item 5.5)5.5.1 Members of the Association continued toparticipate actively in many projects of the WCRP. Aparticularly important activity was the Global Energyand Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) AsianMonsoon Experiment (GAME), which aimed toimprove the simulation and seasonal prediction of theAsian monsoon and its impact on water resources inthe Asian region. Process studies that had beencarried out included a tropical monsoon region(GAME-T), the Tibetan Plateau area (GAME Tibet), alarge catchment basin (Huai-He River – GAMEHUBEX), and a cold region (GAME Siberia,coordinated jointly with the Climate and CryosphereProgramme (CliC)). The second phase of GAMEwhich had been planned as a regional component ofthe GEWEX Coordinated Enhanced ObservingPeriod (CEOP), under the name of the CEOP Asian-Australian Monsoon Project (CAMP). CAMP,coordinated jointly with the Climate Variability andPredictability (CLIVAR) study, focused on applyingimproved analysis methodologies to obtain acomprehensive view of the monsoon and its specialatmospheric and hydrological aspects. The Regionhad hosted the fifteenth session of the GEWEXScientific Seering Group in Bangkok, Thailand, inJanuary 2003.5.5.2 The Association expressed interest in theongoing activities under CLIVAR in the Region,particularly the investigations of monsoon variabilityand predictability under its Asian/Australian MonsoonPanel (AAMP), and the establishment of the IndianOcean Panel to help drive forward theimplementation of ocean observations in the Region.The eleventh session of the CLIVAR ScientificSteering Gruop had been held in Xi’an, China, inMay 2002. A joint meeting of the Indian Ocean Paneland the AAMP had been held in Pune, India, inFebruary 2004. That had been followed by anInternational Workshop on the Role of the IndianOcean in Climate Variability over India.5.5.3 The Association noted the evolving needsof WCRP, its renewed thrust in space-related mattersand appreciated the important contribution to WCRPobjectives by the space activities led by Japanese,Indian and Chinese space agencies and relatedresearch conducted by the meteorological agenciesof those three countries. The Association alsoappreciated WCRP’s active role in the IntegratedGlobal Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P),especially in all issues related to water.5.5.4 The Association recognized theachievements of the WCRP Arctic Climate SystemStudy (ACSYS) which had had a successful finalscience conference on the ACSYS Decade andBeyond, in St. Petersburg, Russia, in November2003. It also appreciated the development of a newWCRP core project on Climate and Cryosphere, withits first science conference planned in Beijing, China,in April 2005. The session noted that the project was


GENERAL SUMMARY 21very timely, because the cryosphere was expected tobe increasingly affected by climate change, andexpressed its support for it.5.5.5 The Association noted with interest theprogress of the WCRP Stratospheric Processes andtheir Role in Climate (SPARC) project, particularly theassessments of trends in the stratospherictemperature, water vapour, ozone and aerosols,which had been internationally recognized. Itexpressed support to the new strategic areas ofSPARC research and its increasing focus on climate— chemistry interactions. At the tenth session of theSPARC Scientific Steering Group, which had takenplace in Kyoto, Japan, in November 2002, a newstrategy for the development of stratospheric studieshad been proposed. It had been preceded by asuccessful and well-attended InternationalSymposium on Stratospheric Variations and Climate(Fukuoka, Japan, November 2002).5.5.6 The Association noted the progress beingmade under the Earth System Science Partnership(ESSP), initiated by WCRP, the InternationalGeosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), theInternational Human Dimensions Programme onGlobal Environmental Change (IHDP) andDIVERSITAS (an international programme ofbiodiversity science) for the integrated study of theEarth system, the changes occurring to the system,and the implications of those changes for globalsustainability. The Association noted withappreciation that the Japanese 25-year reanalysisproject (JRA-25) implemented jointly by JMA and theCentral Research Institute of Electric Power Industrywould be completed in March 2006 and that itsoutcomes would be made available to NMHSs via theInternet. The Association appreciated WCRP’s keeninterest in promoting regional research and capacitybuildinginitiatives. The Association encouraged theNMHSs to participate as fully as possible in nationalclimate research programmes led by other nationalinstitutions. The Association emphasized theimportance of the implementation of the InternationalPolar Year (IPY) 2007–2008 and encouraged theinterested Members to take an active part in itsplanning and implementation (see also agendaitem 6).6. ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH ANDENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME —REGIONAL ASPECTS (agenda item 6)6.0.1 The Association noted the activities thathad taken place within the Atmospheric Researchand Environment Programme (AREP) over the pastfour years and that its Members had played an activepart in many of them. The Association noted withsatisfaction that Members in the Region hadsubmitted candidates for the WMO Research Awardfor Young Scientists, and had won the prizes in 2001,2002 and 2003.6.0.2 The Association was informed on the statusof preparation of IPY 2007–2008 initiated by WMOand the International Council for Science (ICSU) in2003, an intensive burst of internationally coordinatedinterdisciplinary, scientific research and observationsfocused on the Earth’s polar regions, and WMOpriority activities, developed across the WMOtechnical programmes, AREP, WWW, WCRP, theApplications Programme (APP), HWRP and theSpace Programme. The Association noted that theIntercommission Task Group on the IPY, chaired byMr Qin Dahe (China), coordinated activities amongWMO technical commissions and NMHSsparticipating in the IPY, and the Joint Committee,established with ICSU and other relevantinternational organizations, planned and coordinatedthe IPY. The Association was pleased that a numberof its Members participated in the IPY, andencouraged Members to actively support the IPY.6.1 SUPPORT TO OZONE AND OTHERENVIRONMENT-ORIENTED CONVENTIONS(agenda item 6.1)6.1.1 The Association recalled that theatmospheric composition information provided by theGAW network in the Region was a major contributionto the implementation of a number of United Nationsenvironmental conventions. With respect to theVienna Convention for the Protection of the OzoneLayer, the Association noted with satisfaction that itsMembers were regularly submitting their ozone datato the GAW World Ozone and UV Data Centre inToronto and that that information had been used inthe WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion:2002 which confirmed that ozone over northern midlatitudescontinued to be depleted. The Associationencouraged Members to continue to conduct qualityassurance of ozone measurements that ensured alink to GAW world reference standards and to followmeasurement guidelines published in the WMO/GAWReport series.6.1.2 The Association noted with appreciation thereport of the Rapporteur on Atmospheric Ozone,Mr S.K. Peshin (India). It noted the continuing needfor Members to monitor and study both troposphericand stratospheric ozone levels and the role of ozonein climate forcing and human health matters. In thatconnection, the Association urged Members tomaintain and expand, if possible, their ozoneobserving activities. Members were strongly urged toensure the regular submission of data and qualityassurance information to the GAW World DataCentres in Toronto (total column and balloon sonde)and in Tokyo (surface ozone), and to continueactivities to assure data quality. The continuedoperation of the Quality Assurance/Scientific ActivityCentre based in Japan would be of great assistancein that matter.6.1.3 The Association, recalling the importance ofpromoting and stimulating regional ozone activities,decided to re-appoint a Rapporteur on AtmosphericOzone and adopted Resolution 10 (XIII-RA II).


22 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II6.2 GLOBAL ATMOSPHERE WATCH(agenda item 6.2)6.2.1 The Association welcomed the introductionof the GAW Station Information System (GAWSIS)and its new interactive mapping function. Itencouraged Members to use that web-based tool toreview and update descriptions of their GAW stationsand measurements. It noted that a majority of itsMembers operated GAW stations. The MountWaliguan Global station established in China wasnow fully operational and plans were under way byChina to establish, in collaboration with theSecretariat, a fully operational network of sixRegional GAW stations. The announcement by theRussian Federation at the fifty-sixth session of theExecutive Council to re-establish greenhouse gasmonitoring through the Main GeophysicalObservatory had been recognized as an importantstep toward filling a major gap in the GAW network.The Association supported the many activities in theRegion that were under way to establish aerosolmeasurements consistent with the core measurementprogramme recommended by the GAW ScientificAdvisory Group on Aerosols in Report No. 153,WMO/GAW Aerosol Measurement Procedures,Guidelines and Recommendations (WMO/TD -No. 1178). In particular, it noted the strongrepresentation and interest of the Region in a GAWcoordinated global aerosol optical depth networkfollowing from recommendations of the WMO/GAWExperts Workshop on a Global Surface-BasedNetwork for Long-term Observations of ColumnAerosol Optical Properties (Davos, Switzerland, 8–10 March 2004) organized by the Secretariat andhosted by the GAW World Optical Depth Researchand Calibration Centre. Finally, the Associationencouraged its Members to build the capacity of itsGAW monitoring programmes through participation inmajor research projects such as the AtmosphericBrown Cloud (ABC) study and projects under theInternational Global Atmospheric ChemistryProgramme (IGAC) project of IGBP. The Associationnoted that KMA had organized the InternationalWorkshop for ABC-Asia Intensive Observation Periodat Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, from 20–22September 2004, and that an intensive observationexperiment entitled ABC Gosan Campaign would beconducted from March to May 2005 for understandingthe uncertainties in critical ABC measurements andfacilitating improvements in instruments, observingtechniques and protocols.6.2.2 The Association recognized the need forthe international scientific community and decisionmakers to have ready access to atmosphericcomposition information. It therefore urged Membersto submit their measurement and quality assurancedata regularly to the relevant GAW World DataCentre. Although the decision by Japan to addsurface ozone observations archived at the WorldData Centre for Greenhouse Gases had resulted inconsiderable progress in assembling a globaldatabase for surface ozone, much remained to bedone in filling gaps in the global network throughpartnerships with regional environmental networks.Members were urged to submit surface ozone data tothe Centre as well as other greenhouse data. Thesame applied to the global precipitation chemistrynetwork of GAW, comprised of a number of regionalnetworks operated by WMO Members and partners.Regional networks contributed data to the World DataCentre for Precipitation Chemistry. In order to fill agap in that global data set in Region II, theAssociation encouraged its Members to support thedata exchange agreement that was underdevelopment between the Acid Deposition MonitoringNetwork in East Asia (EANET) and GAW.6.2.3 Activities related to the analysis andapplication of GAW observations were encouragedby the Association. Further to the ongoingoperational forecasting service for sand storms, theplan of Japan to implement an operational UVforecasting system in 2005 was an important additionto the delivery of products utilizing GAWobservations.6.2.4 Appreciation was expressed to thosecentres involved in organizing intensive GAWcapacity-building activities and training throughcourses, personnel exchanges and technicalcalibration workshops. The Association noted thescope of the training events arranged by WMOconcerned with ensuring that high-qualitymeasurement data were available for research andmonitoring purposes. In particular, it encouragedMembers to take full advantage of the experts visitingGAW stations and training and instrument calibrationadvice available at the GAW QualityAssurance/Science Activity Centre operated by JMA.In addition, the GAW Training and Education Centrein Germany and the WMO Secretariat wereacknowledged for providing opportunities for RA IIMembers to participate in training courses onmeasurements of gases, aerosols and UV for stationoperators.6.2.5 The Association noted with satisfaction theprogress made in the GAW Urban ResearchMeteorology and Environment (GURME) pilotprojects in Moscow and Beijing. In the Moscowproject, several services for regulatory and public usehad been developed. The Beijing project predictionsystem for air pollution was coordinated with theWorld Weather Research Programme (WWRP)Beijing 2008 Forecast Demonstration Project. TheAssociation expressed the need for a trainingworkshop for its Members to learn from thoseexperiences so that such pilot projects could be run inother countries. The Association recommended thatMembers develop contacts and cooperation withregional WHO bodies and local environmentalagencies on urban issues.6.2.6 The Association noted with appreciation thereports submitted by its Co-Rapporteurs on theGlobal Atmosphere Watch, Messrs Serguei Chicherin


GENERAL SUMMARY 23(Russian Federation) and Toru Sasaki (Japan), whichelaborated on GAW activities in the Region. TheAssociation expressed its concerns over the progressreported in the Region with respect to GAW activitiesand recognized the necessity to further develop theGAW network.6.2.7 The Association recognized the concept ofcategories of GAW global and regional stationsoperated by NMHSs and a contributing stationcategory. The latter was necessary in order toinclude key part ners in the global monitoring networkand fulfil the GAW mandate coordinated by GAW.6.2.8 An increasing number of countries in theRegion were experiencing growing economies as wellas rapid development. The Association, therefore,urged Members to establish GAW regional stations tomonitor the build-up and transport of anthropogenicpollutants in the atmosphere.6.2.9 Considering the need to be kept fullyinformed of developments in the Region concerningthe GAW, the Association decided to appoint Co-Rapporteurs on the Global Atmosphere Watch andadopted Resolution 11 (XIII-RA II).6.3 WORLD WEATHER RESEARCH PROGRAMME(agenda item 6.3)6.3.1 The Association noted with satisfaction thehigh level of interest shown by its Members in theactivities of the WWRP. Members in the Region hadhosted and participated in meetings and workshopsorganized under WWRP. Members were urged tocontinue their support to the Programme.6.3.2 The Association noted with satisfaction thegreat interest of its Members shown in the newWWRP component programme THORPEXestablished by Congress in May 2003.6.3.3 THORPEX was led by the Commission forAtmospheric Sciences (CAS) International CoreSteering Committee (ICSC) and International ScienceSteering Committee (ISSC) in cooperation with theCAS Science Steering Committee for WWRP,JSC/CAS Working Group on NumericalExperimentation and CBS. Regional activities werecoordinated by the Asian THORPEX RegionalCommittee, chaired by Japan and open to allinterested Members, which had set up its regionalprogramme including a forecast experiment targetedat heavy rainfall events and tropical cyclones over theAsian monsoon region. The Association invited itsMembers to join the Committee and to nominateTHORPEX Focal Points.6.3.4 The Association noted with appreciationthat in 2003 the THORPEX International SciencePlan had been prepared and the InternationalImplementation Plan had been developed (detailedinformation is published on the web sitewww.wmo.int/thorpex) with contributions from theRegion and in collaboration with the WWW, WCRP,WMO Space Programme, and other relevant WMOProgrammes and international organizations and inconnection with GEO and IPY initiatives. Itemphasized that cooperation between NMHSs anduniversity research communities was greatly neededto implement THORPEX and urged Members tofavour the commitment of NMHSs (operationalforecast and research entities and consumers of theirproducts and services) and national academicinstitutions to THORPEX research, experiments anddemonstration projects and especially welcomed theinvolvement of developing countries.6.3.5 The Association further noted that theTHORPEX International Programme Office had beenestablished at the WMO Secretariat, as well as theTHORPEX Trust Fund. The Association appreciatedthe active support of Japan, China, RussianFederation, Republic of Korea and India. TheAssociation urged all its Members to provide furthersupport to THORPEX research activities and tocontribute to the Trust Fund.6.3.6 Recognizing the importance and benefits ofTHORPEX research to all Members of the Region,the Association agreed to establish and appoint aRapporteur on WWRP-THORPEX and adoptedResolution 12 (XIII-RA II).6.3.7 The Association was pleased to learn of theprogress made in the development of the newWWRP’s Sand and Dust Storms (SDS) Researchand Development Project by a number of countriesand urged its Members to actively participate in theproject and to enhance their research efforts toimprove the prediction and early warnings of SDS.That 10-year project would start with a pilot projectfocusing on East Asia. Advances made in thatprogramme would result in an improved operationalforecast of SDS. Japan, Republic of Korea,Mongolia, Kazakhstan and other Members wereinvited to recommend scientists in the SDSforecasting field to join the SDS Science SteeringCommittee chaired by China. The Association alsowelcomed the establishment of the WWRP Beijing2008 Olympic Games Forecast DemonstrationProject. The Association noted that Oman wasdeveloping equipment that could capture and weighdrifting sand/dust storms from any given direction.The test trials of that equipment would hopefully bepresented at the forthcoming session of CIMO.6.4 TROPICAL METEOROLOGY RESEARCHPROGRAMME (agenda item 6.4)6.4.1 Members of the Association had continuedto show great interest in activities related to thedevelopment of the Tropical Meteorology ResearchProgramme (TMRP). India and China hadsuccessfully hosted the second and third InternationalWorkshop on Monsoon Studies, respectively, inMarch 2001 and November 2004, which had broughtoperational forecasters and research scientiststogether in a workshop environment to discussproblems of mutual interest and solutions forforecasting the monsoon with lead times of days todecades. The Association urged its Members and allconcerned to endeavour to implement therecommendations made by those workshops relevantto their activities. The Association also noted with


24 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIsatisfaction the successful holding in the Region ofthe seventh WMO Regional Workshop onAsian/African Monsoon Emphasizing TrainingAspects (Nanjing, China, 26–30 October 2004).6.4.2 The Association commended the work ofthe Regional Activity Centre for Monsoon Studies,operated by India, for its contributions in dataacquisition and analyses, the issuing of annualreports, hosting workshops and for monsoonresearch. Members were encouraged to continuetheir support of the TMRP.6.4.3 The Association recognized that greatchallenges existed for improving the prediction oftropical cyclone landfall and welcomed theorganization of the WMO International Workshop onTropical Cyclone Landfall Processes to be held inMacao, China, from 21 to 25 March 2005 as well asthe suggestion from China of a workshop oneffectiveness of tropical cyclone warning in Shanghaiin 2005, and the suggestion from India of a workshopon cyclone track forecasting, storm surge anddisaster management in late 2005 or early 2006,which would contribute to improving further safetyand reducing the economic losses of tropical cycloneaffectedcountries. The Association urged itsMembers to participate in, and contribute to, theworkshops.6.5 PROGRAMME ON PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OFCLOUDS AND W EATHER MODIFICATIONRESEARCH (agenda item 6.5)6.5.1 The increasing shortage of water in manyparts of the world as well as the recent appearancesof new promising cloud/precipitation observationaland modelling techniques had increased interest inthe initiation of systematic planning of weathermodification projects on scientific bases.Precipitation enhancement would be looked at moreand more as an option to meet part of the waterneeds where proper conditions for cloud seedingexisted. Similarly, the enormous damage caused byhail had stimulated increasing attempts for hailsuppression. The Association noted that the WMOStatement on the Status of Weather Modification andthe Guidelines for Advice and Assistance Related tothe Planning of Weather Modification Activities hadbeen updated and approved by the fifty-third sessionof the Executive Council (2001). As requested byFourteenth Congress, CAS continued to review thecriteria for assessing the success of weathermodification experiments in collaboration with theInternational Association of Meteorology andAtmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). WMO wouldcontinue to provide guidance based on expertassessments encouraging countries to study firstly allscientific aspects of weather modification proposalsbefore engaging in operations aimed at precipitationenhancement and/or hail suppression. TheAssociation noted with appreciation that WMO andthe United Arab Emirates had established a Prize forExcellence in Advancing the Science and Practice ofWeather Modification which would be executedduring 2004/2005. Members of the Association wereinvited to participate in that award.6.5.2 The Association noted with appreciation thereport of the Rapporteur, Mr Myoung-Hwan Ahn(KMA). At least 13 of its Members had carried outoperational, but only a few research oriented,precipitation enhancement projects over a total areaexceeding 3.7 million km 2 . Three of the Membersreported hail suppression projects over an area closeto 500 000 km 2 as well as occasional fog and clouddispersion activities. The Members carrying outweather modification projects were urged to reportregularly to the WMO Annual Register of NationalWeather Modification Activities in order to ensure therapid exchange of information.6.5.3 A number of Members had participated inthe eighth WMO Scientific Conference on WeatherModification (Casablanca, Morocco, 2003), theRegional Seminar on Cloud Physics and WeatherModification for Interested Members of the League ofArab States (Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic, 2003)and the Meeting of Experts to Review HailSuppression Methods and Results (Nalchik, RussianFederation, 2003). The Association considered that itwas to the benefit of the interested Members to joinefforts and utilize a regional approach in the planning,training and, when appropriate, in the execution ofthe precipitation enhancement experiments.Furthermore, it recognized the potential benefits forneighbouring countries with similar meteorologicalconditions and therefore requested guidance andassistance for such initiatives.6.5.4 The Association decided that in view of thefact that there were a number of regional tasks andissues identified above which needed to beaddressed by a rapporteur, to re-appoint aRapporteur on the Physics and Chemistry of Cloudsand Weather Modification Research and adoptedResolution 13 (XIII-RA II).7. APPLICATIONS OF METEOROLOGYPROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS(agenda item 7)7.1 PUBLIC WEATHER SERVICES PROGRAMME(agenda item 7.1)7.1.1 The Association was pleased to note theprogress of the PWSP and expressed satisfactionthat the needs of Members of the Region had beenadequately reflected in the priority activities of theprogramme as outlined in the WMO Long-term Plan(LTP). In particular, the Association noted that theprogramme’s activities regarding capacity-building,media issues, application of new technology andimproving products and services had been developedaccording to the recommendations of thetwelfth session of RA II.7.1.2 The Association emphasized that staff mustbe provided with the best available training to enableNMSs to deliver high-quality public weather servicesmatching legitimate public expectations and as areasonable return on governments’ investment. In


GENERAL SUMMARY 25that regard, it appreciated the organization of theExpert Meeting on Strategies Towards CapacityBuilding in Public Weather Services (PWS) that hadbeen held in Costa Rica prior to the Associationsession. In addition, the Association appreciated thefollowing PWS training opportunities for the Region’smeteorologists: selected Members of theESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee had attended anRA IV Workshop on Hurricane Forecasting andWarning in Miami, United States, in 2000;meteorologists from the Panel on Tropical Cycloneshad attended similar workshops at the same venue in2001 and 2002; participants from the Region hadattended training seminars on interpretation of globaldata processing systems and improvement of PWS,for RA II/RA VI in Bahrain (14–26 September 2002)and for RA II/RA V in Brunei Darussalam (8–19 December 2003).7.1.3 The Association welcomed the preparationand distribution through the PWSP, since thetwelfth session of RA II, of several technicaldocuments, especially ones targeting developingcountries, to assist with the development andimprovement of national PWS efforts. The followingdocuments had already been prepared or were underpreparation:(a) Technical Framework for Data andProducts in Support of Public WeatherServices (PWS-1, WMO/TD-No. 1054);(b) Weather on the Internet and other NewTechnologies (PWS-2, WMO/TD-No. 1084);(c) Guidelines on the Improvement of NMSs–Media Relations and Ensuring the Use ofOfficial Consistent Information (PWS-3,WMO/TD-No. 1088);(d)Guidelines on Graphical Presentation ofPublic Weather Services Products (PWS-4,WMO/TD-No. 1080);(e) Guide on the Application of NewTechnology and Research to PublicWeather Services (PWS-6, WMO/TD -No. 1102);(f)(g)(h)(i)Supplementary Guidelines on PerformanceAssessment of Public Weather Services(PWS-7, WMO/TD-No. 1103);Guide on Improving Public Understandingof and Response to Warnings (PWS-8,WMO/TD-No. 1139);Guidelines on Cross-border Exchange ofWarnings (PWS-9, WMO/TD-No. 1179);Guidelines on Biometeorology and AirQuality Forecasts (PWS-10,WMO/TD-1184).7.1.4 The Association noted with satisfaction thatthe PWSP had established a rapport with theinternational media on matters of mutual interest, andthat efforts had been made to better prepare NMSs torespond to media demands for information, especiallyon meteorological-related disasters. It acknowledgedthe desirability and benefits of a strong NMS-mediarelationship for both partners as well as its significantimpact on public safety issues. NMSs were obligedto ensure that the desired message was conveyedeffectively and that the public and media received thelevel and quality of information they required. Inwelcoming information on the preparation ofguidelines on presentation skills and disseminationtechnologies, the Association recommended that allPWS training events incorporate topics and exercisesaimed at improving the media and presentation skillsof participants and as a result help improve NMScredibility and visibility.7.1.5 The Association was pleased to note thatthe two web-based WMO-sponsored pilot projectsthat had been developed and were managed byHong Kong, China, were highly popular andsuccessful. The fifty-sixth session of the ExecutiveCouncil had congratulated the Hong KongObservatory for its leadership of the projects that hadwon the Certificate of Merit – Best in E-Governmentand Services, in the Asia Pacific Information andCommunication Technology Awards 2003, held inBangkok, Thailand. The Association commendedHong Kong, China, for its efforts and willingness toassist other WMO Members in hosting otherlanguage versions. Twenty-eight Members from theRegion were participating in the WWIS web site thathad been established as a centralized source ofofficial weather information on the Internet for easyaccess providing forecasts for 250 cities in theRegion. The average number of page visitsamounted to some 40 000 per day. Its contentsincluded city climatological information (for1 050 cities from 153 WMO Members, including 252cities from 31 RA II Members), medium-termforecasts (supplied for 1 003 cities by 97 WMOMembers) and hyperlinks to contributing Members’national web sites. Already, there were Portuguese,Chinese and Arabic versions of WWIS operated byMacao, China; China and Oman, respectively, withplans for Russian and French versions. The SevereWeather Information Centre (SWIC) web siteprovided a centralized source for media access toofficial tropical cyclone warnings and informationissued by NMSs. The project, which had globalcoverage and 20 participating Members (including 10from the Region), was expected to expand to coverother severe weather types. The Association invitedCBS to consider the transition of the projects tooperational status.7.1.6 The Association acknowledged naturaldisaster mitigation and public response as a majorconcern of Members and appreciated the efforts ofWMO and the PWSP in that regard. In particular, itstrongly supported close collaboration between thePWSP and the new major cross-cutting WMO DPMProgramme to assist Members in the all-round effortto minimize the adverse effects of severe weatherevents. The Association believed that in addition todeveloping strategies for effective warning servicesand dissemination and presentation of warningproducts, other urgent parallel issues for


26 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIconsideration were the use and understanding ofwarnings by the public and effective coordination andcommunication with emergency managers, and itcommended the provision to Members of the relevantPWS guidelines.7.1.7 The Association expressed appreciation forthe emphasis placed by the PWSP on the applicationof new technology and research, including workstationsystems, integration and packaging of weatherinformation, communication and disseminationmechanisms and Internet communications, and theirimpacts on service delivery. There were several newand exciting possibilities that could be applied toenhance PWS, including: the impact of the EPS onpublic weather forecasting, digital forecasting,provision of air quality forecasts and biometeorologyinformation, increasing opportunities of disseminatingnowcasting products through the Internet and otherwireless delivery channels and application of XML forseamless data exchange between computers. Inenumerating those opportunities, the Associationstrongly supported the call by Fourteenth Congressfor increased cooperation between developed anddeveloping countries to enable the latter to realize thebenefits of new technologies. In that connection,Oman reported that in order to keep its publicinformed of the latest weather and forecastinformation, it had introduced new SMS and WAPservices to relay hourly observations from its networkof stations using mobile devices.7.1.8 The Association acknowledged the need,and supported recommendations, for increasedbilateral and/or regional cooperation and agreementsto develop and expand arrangements for the crossborderexchange of warnings, forecasts andinformation. It welcomed the preparation of relevantguidelines to assist Members with the implementationof cross-border exchange of warnings and noted thatthey included advice on standardized formats andcontent of exchange messages as well as a list ofhazard types and threshold values currently in use. Inurging Members to actively pursue cross-borderwarning programmes, the Association asserted thatsuccessful exchange would rely on the developmentand maintenance of efficient and reliablecommunication systems, and staff with specializedtraining in severe weather forecasting, issuing ofwarnings and communication skills.7.1.9 The Association expressed appreciation forthe priority given by the PWSP to assist Members todevelop programmes on warnings and forecastverification and service evaluation and viewed userbasedservice assessment as required input for thedesign and development of new and appropriateproducts and services. Noting that NMS customershad been seeking higher assurances on the quality ofproducts and services, Members agreed that moreprecise standards and quality control should beapplied to enhance NMS operations, products andservices. Members recalled Resolution 27 (Cg-XIV)— Quality management, that had initiated stepstowards the development of a WMO QMF based onthe already existing comprehensive system of WMOprocedures and practices. In that regard, theAssociation welcomed the development of guidelineson quality management procedures and practices forPWS.7.1.10 The Association stressed that the provisionof high-quality PWS was a fundamental function ofNMSs and represented the most visible and tangiblebenefit that national communities could derive fromthe work of the NMSs. In expressing appreciation forthe continuing efforts of the WMO PWSP instrengthening the capacity of Members to effectivelydeliver the best quality public weather services, theAssociation recommended that future high priorityshould be given to the following areas:(a) Capacity-building and transfer of knowledgeand technology;(b) Application of new technology and researchin NMS systems and operations;(c) Verification and user-based serviceassessment;(d) Raising the level of public awareness,understanding and response to weatherwarnings as part of natural disastermitigation efforts;(e) Improving relationships and coordinationwith emergency management and themedia;(f) Promoting and enhancing cross-borderexchange of warnings;(g) Facilitating the international exchange ofpublic weather products and makingweather information available on theInternet;(h) Promoting awareness of the impact ofhigh-quality, well-delivered public weatherservices on the image and visibility ofNMS.Pilot Project on the Provision of City-SpecificNumerical Weather Prediction Products toDeveloping Countries via the Internet7.1.11 The Association was pleased to note thedocument submitted by Hong Kong, China, entitledthe Pilot Project on the Provision of City-SpecificNumerical Weather Prediction Products toDeveloping Countries via the Internet.7.1.12 The Association acknowledged howimportant it was for NMHSs in developing countriesto benefit directly from the progress in NWP.Meanwhile, the Association was pleased to note thatwith the maturity of Internet technology, Internetgraphic capability was now available to the NMHSsof most developing countries, even LDCs.7.1.13 The Association noted that NWP centreswould also benefit from the experience gained in thewider use of model products in different parts of theRegion, especially in areas with complextopography, such as the Himalayas, and fromevaluating their NWP products.


GENERAL SUMMARY 277.1.14 The Association thanked Hong Kong,China, and welcomed its proposal to launch a pilotproject on the provision of city-specific NWPproducts to developing countries via the Internetwithin the Region. The proposal would be beneficialfor developing countries by providing city forecasts.7.1.15 The Association agreed that the work tocoordinate the implementation of the pilot projectshould be carried out by a Pilot Project CoordinationGroup and adopted Resolution 14 (XIII-RA II).7.2 AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY PROGRAMME(agenda item 7.2)7.2.1 The Association complimented theSecretary -General and the Commission forAgricultural Meteorology (CAgM) for the progressmade in the field of agricultural meteorology,including the publication of a large number oftechnical notes and CAgM reports.7.2.2 The Association noted with appreciationthe theme adopted by the Commission, namely “topromote operational applications of agrometeorologyusing innovative technologies forservices to agriculture, silviculture and aquaculture”,and stressed the need to increase the awareness ofusers of the economic, environmental and healthbenefits of the application of meteorological,climatological and hydrological information toagriculture to meet the food, fodder and fuel needsof the growing populations in Asia. The Associationconsidered the theme to be of extreme importance tothe Region. The Association noted with interest theintersessional activities of CAgM and agreed thatthey would contribute greatly to the economicdevelopment of the countries in Asia.7.2.3 The Association noted with satisfaction thatan Expert Team Meeting on StrengtheningInformation and Dissemination Networks, includingMonitoring and Early Warning Systems of theCommission for Agricultural Meteorology had beenheld in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 22 to26 September 2003. The Association stressed theimportance of undertaking case studies in the Regionto demonstrate the importance of effectiveinformation and dissemination networks for diffusingagrometeorological information and applications.7.2.4 The Association noted with appreciationthat an Expert Team Meeting on Reduction of theImpact of Natural Disasters and Mitigation of ExtremeEvents in Agriculture, Rangelands, Forestry andFisheries had been held from 16 to 20 February 2004in Beijing, China. The Association agreed that therewas a need for an integrated data managementsystem including adequate collection, quality control,analysis and presentation of data specific to naturaldisasters. The Association pointed out that currentnatural disaster management was largely crisis drivenand that there was an urgent need for a more riskbasedmanagement approach to natural disasterplanning in agriculture, rangelands, forestry andfisheries. The Association was pleased to note thatthree experts from JCOMM had participated in themeeting and it encouraged CAgM and JCOMM tocontinue to work together in developing a project onan integrated coastal management approach toreducing the impacts of natural disasters onagriculture, rangelands, forestry and fisheries.7.2.5 The Association noted with satisfaction thattwo Seminars on Radio and Internet (RANET) forDiffusion of Agrometeorological Information andMonsoon Research in India had been organized incollaboration with the India MeteorologicalDepartment (IMD) in Pune, India, on 30 and31 July 2001. The Association stressed theimportance of fast and effective channels for thediffusion of agrometeorological information to endusersand recommended that projects such asRANET be implemented in the Region.7.2.6 The Association noted with satisfaction thetraining events held in the Region and stronglysupported the continued organization of such events,for the benefit of the participants from the Region.The Association agreed that training in agriculturalmeteorology should receive high-priorityconsideration and it requested the Secretary-Generalto continue to provide strong support to the trainingactivities in agricultural meteorology which werehelping to build the much-needed capacity to addressthe emerging issues in agrometeorology in theRegion.7.2.7 The Association noted the WMO activitieson desertification and urged Members to participateactively in the implementation of the UNCCD. TheAssociation commended the efforts of theSecretariat in publishing and distributing theproceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on EarlyWarning Systems for Drought Preparedness andDrought Management at the fourth session of theConference of the Parties (COP-4). The Associationurged Members to benefit from the support of theGlobal Mechanism of the Convention for projects inthat area. The Association welcomed theestablishment of a drought monitoring centre inObninsk, Russia, for CIS Member countries.7.2.8 The Association complimented thechairman of the RA II Working Group on AgriculturalMeteorology and the members of the Group for theactivities carried out and for the final technical report.The Association expressed its appreciation to thePresidency of Meteorology and Environment of theKingdom of Saudi Arabia for having hosted aWorking Group meeting from 15 to17 December 2003. The Association recommendedthat the report of the Working Group be published byWMO and distributed widely.7.2.9 The Association agreed that the applicationof meteorology to agriculture continued to be of highimportance to the Region. Hence the activities of theWorking Group on Agricultural Meteorology shouldbe continued, taking into account the developmentsin the Region, such as promoting more active use ofagrometeorological products by the end-users,


28 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIprediction and monitoring of droughts, impacts ofclimate change on agriculture and water resources,modern and traditional methods of water harvesting,agrometeorological modelling, and education andtraining. The Association therefore re-establishedthe Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology withrenewed terms of reference and adopted Resolution15 (XIII-RA II).7.3 AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGY PROGRAMME(agenda item 7.3)7.3.1 The Association noted with satisfaction thatFourteenth Congress in 2003 had re-emphasized theimportance it continued to attach to an expandedand vigorous Aeronautical Meteorology Programme(AeMP) to meet the needs of the worldwide aviationcommunity and requested the Secretary-General toassist in its implementation. Congress hadrequested in particular that high priority be given totraining requirements and that monitoring becontinued of the evolution of national and regionalinstitutional frameworks for the provision ofmeteorological services for international airnavigation. The Association noted with satisfactionthat the Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology(CAeM) session in 2002 had established a newCAeM structure composed of two Open ProgrammeArea Groups (OPAGs), eight expert teams, aRapporteur on AMDAR and a Rapporteur onAviation and the Environment.7.3.2 The Association was pleased to note thatthe highest priorities of the AeMP 6LTP had beentraining, focus on aviation users and improvedterminal forecasting. It noted with appreciation themajor contributions of Members, ICAO and the WMOSecretariat in training aeronautical meteorologicalpersonnel. In that regard, the Association noted withappreciation the financial support provided byMembers to participants from developing countries.7.3.3 The Association welcomed the conjointCAeM session/ICAO Meteorology Divisional MeetingRecommendations 4/1 and 4/2 in 2002 that called forWMO, in coordination with ICAO, to continue toarrange seminars on cost recovery as a matter ofpriority, and for ICAO, in coordination with WMO, toupdate cost recovery guidance material. In thatregard, the Association was informed that, followingthe completion of the current update of the ICAOManual on Air Navigation Services Economics by theend of 2004, the WMO Guide on AeronauticalMeteorological Services Cost Recovery — Principlesand Guidance (WMO-No. 904) would also beupdated.7.3.4 The Association not ed with appreciation thelarge volume of training material available on theAeMP web site and the efforts being made toprovide new or updated guidance material to backup the training process. It welcomed the distributionto all Regional Meteorological Training Centres(RMTCs) of copies of the proceedings of theUK/WMO seminars. The Association was pleased tonote that the Compendium on Tropical Meteorologyfor Aviation Purposes (WMO-No. 930) had beenpublished in English in 2003 and that, in 2004, theGuide to Practices for Meteorological Offices ServingAviation (WMO-No. 732) had been updated andpublished in four languages, and that the Frenchversion of the AMDAR Reference Manual as well asthe booklet Aviation and the Global AtmosphericEnvironment in English had also been published.Furthermore, the draft update of the Guide onMeteorological Observation and InformationDistribution Systems at Aerodromes (WMO-No. 731)had been completed.7.3.5 The Association welcomed advances madein implementing the World Area Forecast System(WAFS) and recalled that the final transition to theGRIB and BUFR coded WAFS forecasts (referred toas the “final phase of WAFS” before the conjointCAeM session/ICAO Meteorology DivisionalMeeting, 2002) was planned to take place on1 July 2005. As a result of that, each of thetwo World Area Forecast Centres (WAFCs) wouldthereafter transmit by satellite broadcasts globalwind and temperature and SIGWX forecasts only inGRIB and BUFR coded format. Wind andtemperature and SIGWX forecast charts wouldtherefore need to be produced locally by serviceproviders from the GRIB and BUFR coded WAFSproducts, since WAFS T.4 charts would no longer bepart of the WAFS broadcasts. The Association wasreminded that all Members would need to install thenecessary equipment and workstation visualizationsoftware, and to train operational staff to enablethem to access, decode and use the GRIB andBUFR coded WAFS products for the preparation ofthe T.4 charts for flight documentation locally.7.3.6 The Association was informed by theobserver from ICAO that, based onRecommendation 1/6 of the 2002 conjoint CAeMsession/ICAO Meteorology Divisional Meeting, aWAFS Operations Group (WAFSOPSG) had beenestablished by ICAO to ensure the furtherdevelopment of the system in a globally harmonizedway in order to meet the evolving operationalrequirements for upper-air wind and temperature andsignificant weather forecasts. The Group wascomposed of experts from all Regions andconcerned international organizations: WMO, theInternational Air Transport Association (IATA), theInternational Federation of Airline Pilots’Associations (IFALPA) and the Agency for AirNavigation Safety in Africa and Madagascar(ASECNA). The Association was represented on theWAFSOPSG by members from China and Omanand Hong Kong, China, as an advisor. TheAssociation was also informed that the secondmeeting of the WAFSOPSG, which would be held inMarch 2005, would consider the requests for theextension of the availability of the WAFS products ingraphic and digital forms to allow Members to


GENERAL SUMMARY 29develop their capacity to use GRIB and BUFRproducts for aeronautical charts.7.3.7 The Association noted with satisfaction thatvarious amendment proposals to Volume II of theTechnical Regulations (WMO-No. 49) developed inclose cooperation with CBS and CIMO, and incoordination with ICAO, had been implemented.Those included in particular those related to qualityassurance and quality control of meteorologicalinformation that came into force in November 2001as part of Amendment 72 to Technical Regulations[C.3.1]. Other provisions related, among others, toobserving and reporting certain meteorologicalelements that had become part of Amendment 73(applicable on 25 November 2004).7.3.8 The Association was informed aboutprogress made in automating meteorologicalobserving systems, and noted that the Provision ofMeteorological Information Required by Civil Aviation(PROMET) session in 2001 had recognized thatwork was still needed to ensure that thoseautomated systems fully met aeronauticalrequirements contained in Technical Regulations[C.3.1]. In that regard, the Association noted withsatisfaction that the conjoint CAeM session/ICAOMeteorology Divisional Meeting in 2002 hadrecommended that ICAO, in close coordination withWMO, develop a Manual on the Use of AutomaticMeteorological Observing Systems at Aerodromes.The Association agreed with the twelfth session ofCAeM that automated systems had undeniableadvantages in terms of performance, continuity anduniformity of measurements, which made them veryuseful when continuous human presence at theobserving site was not possible.7.3.9 The Association recalled that the AMDARPanel had been established in 1998 to enhance theupper air component of the WWW/GOS and notedwith satisfaction that since 1998 the number ofaircraft observations disseminated on the GTS perday had increased to over 150 000, and that thatvolume of data represented a more than threefoldincrease since 1998. The Association noted withsatisfaction that several countries in the Region werePanel members and that national AMDARprogrammes were either being implemented ordeveloped. In that regard, the Associationexpressed its appreciation to the airlines whichprovided AMDAR data for the national AMDARprogrammes. The Association encouraged otherMembers to join the Panel, and the Panel tocontinue to promote the development of humiditysensors and provide assistance to Members whoexpressed interest in implementing AMDARprogrammes and convening AMDAR training events.7.3.10 The Association expressed strong supportfor the implementation of the directives of Congressand the Executive Council to migrate AMDARactivities to the WWW/GOS. In that regard, theAssociation noted with satisfaction that a CBSRapporteur on AMDAR had been appointed toreview and report on the integration of AMDAR tothe CBS OPAG/IOS.7.3.11 The Association was pleased to note thatCAeM had been represented at meetings of theICAO Committee on Aviation EnvironmentalProtection. The Association noted with satisfactionthat the booklet Aviation and the Global AtmosphericEnvironment, referred to earlier, summarized thecurrent scientific and operational knowledge on theimpact of aviation on the environment. TheAssociation was pleased that that booklet had beenprepared in cooperation with UNEP and jointlypublished in English by UNEP and WMO inMay 2004.7.3.12 In view of the vital importance of AeMP forthe Region, the Association decided to appoint aRapporteur on Regional Aspects of the AeronauticalMeteorology Programme and adopted Resolution 16(XIII-RA II).Pilot Project to Develop Support for DevelopingCountries in the Aeronautical MeteorologyProgramme7.3.13 The Association was pleased to note thedocument submitted by Hong Kong, China, entitledthe Pilot Project to Develop Support for DevelopingCountries in the Aeronautical MeteorologyProgramme.7.3.14 The Association acknowledged theimportance of weather information for the safeoperation of aviation and that numerical weatherguidance products would help the NMHSs ofdeveloping countries, and in particular LDCs, inbuilding their capacity in the provision of aviationweather services. It was pleased to note thatadvanced centres in RA II had the ability to developsuch guidance products. It was further noted thataccess to, and the use of, the Internet had grownsignificantly in the Region and that the Internetoffered a good opportunity to strengthen thecapabilities of NMHSs by expanding informationdissemination methods and connectivity at low costs.7.3.15 The project scope should cover numericalweather guidance products to help build the capacityof developing countries, especially LDCs, in theprovision of aviation weather services, includingTAF, SIGMET and flight documentation. The projectwas not intended to duplicate the effort of WAFS andthe agreement on working arrangements betweenWMO and ICAO should be respected. The pilotproject would include activities to enable the NMHSsof LDCs to make use of WAFS products in theprovision of aviation weather services.7.3.16 The Association was informed that ICAOwas fully aware of the difficulties experienced bysome developing countries in receiving and utilizingthe WAFS products and was addressing them atregional level, through the ICAO Planning andImplementation Regional Groups, and at global levelthrough the WAFSOPSG and the SADIS OperationsGroup. It was expected that the programme to be


30 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIdeveloped for the proposed project would pay dueattention to the existing working arrangementsbetween WMO and ICAO spelled out in the WorkingArrangements between the International CivilAviation Organization and the World MeteorologicalOrganization (ICAO Doc. 7475)/Agreements andWorking Arrangements with other InternationalOrganization (WMO-No. 60), in particular the part onplanning for the exchange of operationalmeteorological information, including WAFSforecasts. It was also recalled that both ICAO andWMO had a similar strategy with regard to theutilization of WAFS data, which includeddevelopment of the capacity of States’meteorological authorities/NMSs to produce locallystandard flight documentation based on GRIB andBUFR coded WAFS products.7.3.17 The Association considered with interestthe proposal to launch a Pilot Project to DevelopSupport for Developing Countries in the AeronauticalMeteorology Programme. In that regard, theAssociation agreed that the work to coordinate theimplementation of the pilot project should be carriedout by a Pilot Project Coordination Group andadopted Resolution 17 (XIII-RA II).7.4 MARINE METEOROLOGY ANDOCEANOGRAPHY PROGRAMME(agenda item 7.4)7.4.1 The Association noted with interest thatFourteenth Congress had emphasized theimportance of the Marine Meteorology andOceanography Programme (MMOP), including itstraditional activities in areas such as maritime safetyservices as well as the new priorities in operationaloceanography and the implementation of anintegrated ocean observing system for climate, andhad approved the programme as part of the 6LTP.That programme provided overall objectives as wellas detailed guidelines for Members, regionalassociations and WMO in that field.7.4.2 The Association noted with satisfaction thatthe first session of JCOMM had taken placesuccessfully in Akureyri, Iceland, from 19 to 29 June2001. The Association recognized the importance ofJCOMM to its Members, noted that delegates fromseven Members in RA II had been represented atthe session, and offered its strong and ongoingsupport. Further specific action in that regard wasrecorded in a subsequent paragraph.7.4.3 With regard to the implementation ofmarine meteorological services, specifically inRegion II, the Association noted with appreciationthe comprehensive report of the Rapporteur onRegional Marine Meteorological Services,Mr Masaro Saiki (Japan). The Association agreedthat the further development of marinemeteorological and oceanographic services, togetherwith marine observing systems in the Region,particularly in light of the opinions of FourteenthCongress on the matter, should be an ongoingactivity. It therefore decided to re-appoint arapporteur and adopted Resolution 18 (XIII-RA II).Marine meteorological and oceanographicservices7.4.4 The Association noted with satisfaction thatmeteorological services through SafetyNET underthe WMO marine broadcast system under the GlobalMaritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)(forming a part of the International Convention forthe Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)) covering theRegion were fully operational and that mariners hadconfirmed (through surveys of user requirements)the satisfactory accuracy and usefulness of thoseservices. The Association recalled that, while thegreat majority of respondents emphasized theusefulness of radio facsimile products, there wasalso significant dissatisfaction with the quality ofthose services and unannounced terminations. Inthat regard, it noted with interest that JCOMM wasconducting a project regarding possible transmissionof SafetyNet graphical products via Inmarsat C. TheAssociation recognized the need to continuallyreview those services, including in particular theviews of users, and therefore urged Members in theRegion operating VOS to participate actively in thevarious marine meteorological services monitoringexercises being undertaken. The Association notedwith interest that a new web site(http://weather.gmdss.org) had been established toprovide, in real time, the global marine forecasts andwarnings broadcast via satellite under the GMDSSmarine broadcast system.7.4.5 The Association noted with interest that amajor JCOMM marine products workshop (OceanOps 04) had taken place in Toulouse in May 2004.The workshop had attracted a large number of bothproviders and users of operational ocean products,and had provided important input for the furtherdevelopment of the JCOMM Electronic ProductsBulletin as well as implementation of the MarinePollution Emergency Response Support System(MPERSS).7.4.6 The Association noted with appreciationthat the Marine Climatological Summaries Scheme(MCSS), the Global Digital Sea-Ice Data Bank(GDSIDB) and the Global Temperature SalinityProfile Programme (GTSPP) were all beingcontinually developed to meet requirements of awide range of operational and research users forvarious types of marine data. It therefore urged theMembers concerned in the Region to participateactively in those projects.Systems for marine observations and datacollection7.4.7 The Association shared the view ofFourteenth Congress that JCOMM was nowrecognized as a primary implementation mechanismfor the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS),and for operational oceanography in general, forwhich it was expected to play a role equivalent to


GENERAL SUMMARY 31that of CBS with regard to the WWW. For that task,JCOMM would require the enhanced, active supportof all maritime Members, especially collaborationbetween NMSs and appropriate nationaloceanographic agencies/institutions at national level.It therefore decided to keep in force Resolution 14(XII-RA II) — Support for the Joint IMO/IOCTechnical Commission for Oceanography andMarine Meteorology (JCOMM). The Associationfurther noted and strongly supported theestablishment of three GOOS regional alliancesrelevant to RA II for the North-East Asian Region,the South-East Asian Region and the Indian Ocean(NEAR-GOOS, SEAGOOS and IOGOOS).7.4.8 The Association agreed that VOS, theShip-of-Opportunity Programme (SOOP), the GlobalSea-Level Observing System (GLOSS), theAutomated Shipboard Aerological Programme,ocean data buoys, the Argo Programme andoceanographic satellites formed key components ofboth existing and future ocean observing systems. Itagreed on the importance of continued support byMembers of the Association for those activities and,in particular, urged its Members to:(a) To recruit more ships to the VOSprogramme, improve data quality andtimeliness and strengthen their portmeteorological officer (PMO) networks;(b) To participate where possible in the VOSClimate Project, SOOP, the AutomatedShipboard Aerological Programme (ASAP)and Argo programmes;(c)To develop and operate drifting buoyprogrammes in data-sparse ocean areas;and participate in the work of the DataBuoy Cooperation Panel (DBCP) and itsaction groups such as the InternationalBuoy Programme for the Indian Ocean(IBPIO) and the North Pacific Data BuoyAdvisory Panel.7.4.9 The Association recalled that a number ofMembers of the Association had wide coastallowlands vulnerable to sea-level rise. In addition topossible disasters caused by storm surges, the longtermsea-level rise associated with global warmingcould be of concern. It emphasized the importanceof enhancement of sea-level observation andmonitoring networks and urged Members to work inclose collaboration with GLOSS.7.4.10 The Association noted with appreciationthat Members of the Association were playing aprominent role in the Argo Programme and that thefirst Argo Science Workshop had taken place inNovember 2003 in Tokyo, Japan.7.4.11 The Association noted with satisfaction thatthe JCOMM In Situ Observing Platform SupportCentre (JCOMMOPS) facility continued to expand,with new support tools and services being offered tousers. It expressed its considerable appreciation tothose Members which contributed financially to theoperation of JCOMMOPS.7.4.12 The Association noted that the satellitesystem of the International Mobile SatelliteOrganization (INMARSAT), as well as being a keyelement in the GMDSS and thus in the WMO marinebroadcast system, was also the primary means fortransmitting meteorological and oceanographicreports from ships to shore. The Association agreedthat continuing efforts were required to ensure thatthe most efficient and cost-effective use was madeof INMARSAT, for the benefit of all Members. Ittherefore decided to keep in force Resolution 12 (X-RA II) — Use of INMARSAT for the collection ofships’ meteorological and oceanographic reports.Programme-supporting activities7.4.13 The Association agreed that specializedseminars, workshops and similar events were ofconsiderable value to Members involved in theoperation of marine observing systems and in theprovision of marine services, and should becontinued. It requested its Members to consider thepossibilities for hosting such activities in the future.7.4.14 The Association noted with satisfaction thatthe special seminar to celebrate the 150thanniversary of the Brussels Maritime Conference of1853, together with the second JCOMM Workshopon Advances in Marine Climatology (CLIMAR-II)(Brussels, November 2003), had been outstandingsuccesses. It expressed its appreciation to Japanfor supporting to those events.7.4.15 The Association noted that experts of theRegion had attended the second International PMOWorkshop (London, July 2003). It also noted withappreciation that Workshops on South China SeaStorm Surge, Wave and Ocean Forecasting hadbeen jointly organized by TCP, JCOMM andIOC/WESTPAC in Hanoi in January 2002 and inKuantan, Malaysia, in September 2003.7.4.16 The Association noted with appreciationthat the South East Asian Centre for Atmosphericand Marine Prediction (SEACAMP) project, whichhad been formally adopted by the Association ofSouth-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Sub-committeeon Meteorology and Geophysics, had now enteredits implementation phase, coordinated by theMeteorological Service Singapore. A project website had been established, which could eventually beopened to the public. The Association expressed itsongoing support for the project and urged that everyeffort be made to secure the funds necessary forfurther expansion.8. HYDROLOGY AND WATERRESOURCES PROGRAMME —REGIONAL ASPECTS (agenda item 8)8.1 The Association was pleased to note that,in general, the needs of Members in the Regionwere adequately reflected in the priority activities ofWMO in HWRP given in the Fifth WMO Long-termPlan (5LTP) and the 6LTP. It examined those topicsin the Plan which required more emphasis andrecommended that the aspects considered to be of


32 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIparticular interest to countries in Asia be taken intoaccount as appropriate in the future work of theWorking Group on Hydrology (WGH). In particular,the Association took note of the water-relatedaspects in the new DPM Programme.8.2 The Association noted with interest that theHWRP had continued to be implemented inaccordance with the 5LTP and, more recently, the6LTP, as adopted by Thirteenth and FourteenthCongress, respectively. Emphasis had been onimplementing the tasks set by the twelfth session ofRA II to a satisfactory conclusion, carrying out thework programme as set by the eleventh session ofthe Commission for Hydrology (CHy) and respondingto the many new and urgent demands forcooperation originating from outside theOrganization, namely with regard to closercooperation with ESCAP and international riverbasin organizations and other regional organizations.8.3 The Association noted with appreciation thereport of the chairperson of the WGH, Mr Zurab D.Kopaliani (Russian Federation). It noted the progressmade in carrying out studies on aspects of particularconcern to Members through its six rapporteurs whohad been given specific assignments.8.4 The Association was pleased to note thatits WGH had made significant inputs to the activitieswithin the HWRP and, as required by Congress, theAssociation's activities were in general wellcoordinated with those of CHy. The session of theWGH of WMO Regional Association II (Asia) hadbeen held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 12 to 16 July2004 at the kind invitation of ESCAP.8.5 The Association expressed its appreciationfor the six technical documents that had beenproduced by dedicated rapporteurs in theintersessional period, namely reports on:(a) Drought, Climate and Water-related issues(Mr M.Y. Apte, India);(b) Mathematical Models for Flood Forecasting(c)(Mr Liu Jinping, China);Assessment of Surface Water and GroundWater Resources (Quantity/Quality)(Mr Kazuhiko, Japan);(d) Watershed Management andSedimentation in Rivers (Mr Ngo TrongThuan, Viet Nam);(e)WHYCOS in Asia (Mr Anh Akhtar Hossain,Bangladesh);(f) HOMS, Recommended Practices andHydrological Services (Ms ZhannaBalonishnikova, Russian Federation).8.6 The Association noted with interest therecommendations of the WGH to implement itsfuture work programme through identified themes,headed by theme leaders rather than rapporteurs ashad been previous practice. The Association furthernoted that the achievement of the objectives of theproposed themes would be accomplished throughreports, dialogue and pilot projects that requiredextrabudgetary funds and a strong supportingnetwork of experts and institutions mainly from theRegion.8.7 The Association endorsed the futureprogramme of work of the WGH, which conformedclosely to the 6LTP, and included the terms ofreference of the Group.8.8 On the basis of the recommendations madeby the Working Group, and taking into account thedecisions of Fourteenth Congress and therecommendations of the twelfth session of theCommission for Hydrology, the Association adoptedResolution 19 (XIII-RA II) re-establishing the WGH,open to all Members of the Region, with five themeleaders who were to undertake specific work ondifferent aspects of the Group's terms of reference.With respect to the Group's membership, theAssociation requested its Members to ensure anadequate representation of the Hydrological Servicesof Members. It further recommended that at least onesession of the Working Group should be arrangedduring the next intersessional period.Regional Strategic Plan for the Enhancement ofNational Hydrological Services in Asia (2005–2008)8.9 The Association noted with appreciation thedevelopment of a regional Strategic Plan for theEnhancement of National Hydrological Services inAsia (2005–2008). Mr Liu Heng (China) had beentasked to prepare the draft Strategic Plan for theEnhancement of National Hydrological Services in RAII for the period 2005–2008. The Association wasinformed of the aims and objectives of the StrategicPlan and of priority activities to be undertaken in theimplementation of the Plan based on therequirements of Members.8.10 The Association considered the StrategicPlan for the Enhancement of National HydrologicalServices in RA II (Asia) covering the period from2005–2008 which had been prepared in accordancewith its request to the Secretary -General at its twelfthsession (Seoul, Republic of Korea, September 2000)to prepare a Strategic Plan for the Enhancement ofNational Hydrological Services in RA II (Asia).8.11 The goals of the Strategic Plan were todevelop an agreed understanding between all theNational Hydrological Services (NHSs) in the Regionon priorities and objectives for their individual andcommon development through mutual cooperation,and to implement programmes and activities toensure those were achieved. The Plan was also toassist in the implementation of components based onthe regional priorities established by the Association.8.12 The Association expressed its appreciationto all those involved in the development andpreparation of the Strategic Plan, including themembers of the WGH for their commendable effortsto review the draft Strategic Plan. It also thanked theSecretary -General for his valuable efforts inpreparing a comprehensive Strategic Plan. It notedwith satisfaction that the draft Strategic Plan hadbeen developed in the context of the 6LTP, covering


Monsigno Brunero Gherardinidel Magistero, potrebbe nuovamentesperimentar il calore della casa paternae la Chiesa avvalersi della sua operapreziosa, soprattutto in ordine allaformazione e santificazione del clero».Splendido poi l’elogio che indirizza adon Davide Pagliarani, già Superioredel Distretto italiano della Fraternitàe oggi Rettore del Seminario NuestraSeñora Corredentora di La Reja, inArgentina: «È una penna non solo prolifica,ma efficace perché dotata di notevolechiarezza, d’agile fraseggio e diforte consequenzialità. Il suo indirizzoa favore della Tradizione è scontato;in nome e sulla base della Tradizione,svolge l’analisi critica dei documenticonciliari, nonché “l’ermeneutica dell’ermeneutica”,com’egli ha chiamatol’analisi delle varie interpretazioni.[…]. Saldamente ancorato ad essa [laTradizione], ha rivendicato al Magisterod’esser il suo unico interprete, inopposizione all’andazzo d’un Concilio“sistematicamente spiegato ed applicatoattraverso l’unica, autosufficiente,autoreferenziale, indiscutibile autoritàdel Concilio stesso”».Sono due le domande essenzialialle quali il teologo risponde conmagistrale limpidezza: «Il Vaticano IIinsegna veramente e soltanto ciò chefu rivelato e trasmesso?» E «il sensooggettivo delle parole usate dal VaticanoII corrisponde a quello del precedenteMagistero ed in ultima analisi aquello della divina Rivelazione?». Lesue sono riposte che escono dal corodella vulgata, a tutti i costi celebrativa,dell’Assise che, proprio perché cosìosannata, pare nascondere più chequalcosa.La disamina è precisa e puntale:scorrono tutti i principali responsabilidelle filosofie e teologie distorte emoderne che hanno infettato lo spiritodel Vaticano II e viene messo in risaltoil linguaggio conciliare e postconciliare,ben distante da quello patristicoe da quello proprio della Tradizione.Ed ecco che Gherardini individuail grande “equivoco”, che si chiamaantropocentrismo. «L’uomo moderno,verso il quale si protende l’antropocentrismoconciliare, ne assorbe leidee che sovverton i rapporti naturalie rivelati fra la creatura e il Creatore,diventa di codest’idee il portabandierae l’araldo, e dalle medesime vien percosì dir inchiodato in uno stato d’inconciliabilitàcon le verità della dottrinae della Tradizione». Questi veleni sonoparticolarmente presenti nella dichiarazioneconciliare sulla libertà religiosa(Dignitatis humanae), nella dichiarazionesulle relazioni della Chiesa conle religioni non cristiane (Nostra aetate)e nel decreto sul dialogo ecumenico(Unitatis redintegratio).Il lavoro gherardiniano non è finea se stesso, ma è un appello alla sacragerarchia della Chiesa ad arrestarequanto prima la deriva antropocentrica,affinché non ne venga travolta lasua configurazione romana, ed è ancheun’accorata invocazione alla «VergineSanta […] perché […] salvaguardil’identità cattolica e precluda la stradache conduce all’eretico accomodamentodella Tradizione apostolico/ecclesialecon i principi ideologici e la culturadella modernità».La TradizioneCattolica40


34 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIFlood forecasting initiative8.23 The Association was informed that WMOhad launched a flood forecasting initiative based onthe recommendations of a start-up expert meetingheld in April 2003 at the WMO Secretariat. Theprincipal objective of the initiative was to improveflood forecasting by making use of advancedweather forecasting products through the enhancedcooperation between NMSs and NHSs. So far,regional workshops had been held in South Africa inDecember 2003 and for RA III and RA IV inValencia, Spain, in March 2004. Further regionalworkshops were planned for West Africa in 2004 andfor Regions II and VI in 2005.8.24 The Association noted with appreciationthe offer of Japan to host a regional workshop onflash flood forecasting in Tsukuba, Japan, beforeMarch 2005.8.25 Another CHy project under implementationwas on risk management with the objective to assistNHSs in implementing risk management practices tomitigate social, economic and environmental lossesresulting from flooding, including aspects of climatevariability and change. A Web-based study hadprovided a first survey on approaches,methodologies and techniques currently used in riskmanagement related to flooding and climatevariability. WMO had also contributed significantly tothe publication United Nations Guidelines forReducing Flood Losses that had been prepared bythe United Nations Department of Economic andSocial Affairs (UN-DESA)/NOAA. That activity wasalso related to the risk management project.Hydrology in the context of global environmentalissues8.26 The Association was informed on a numberof significant programme activities that had beencarried out and which were related to the GlobalRunoff Dat a Centre (GRDC), the Global TerrestrialNetwork – Hydrology (GTN-H), the World ClimateProgramme – Water (WCP -Water) and theInternational Groundwater Resources AssessmentCentre (IGRAC).8.27 The Association was informed on theresults of the Fifth Steering Committee of the GlobalRunoff Data Centre held in June 2003, as well as thepresent status of the activities of the Centre, andnoted with appreciation its continued provision ofdata and services to the water management, climateand research communities.8.28 The Association noted that the GRDCcontinued to be the principal provider of dischargeinformation on a global level and had enhanced itsrole in its collaboration with WCP-Water and GTN-H.Current efforts aimed, among other things, to collectand provide near real-time runoff information fromonline gauging stations worldwide.8.29 The Association noted progress made inthe development of the GTN-H as a “network ofnetworks” of global data centres and informationproviders for hydrological and relevantmeteorological data and information. Establishedjointly with GCOS and in collaboration with theGlobal Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) in2002, GTN -H implementation activities includedprocedures for harmonizing data products amongthe participants and processes to be used for datadissemination. An integrated data managementstrategy (data collection, archiving, anddissemination through the GTN-H network) was alsoconsidered together as one of the core functions ofGTN-H.8.30 The Association noted that the GTN-H wascarrying out projects such as the development of astandardized metadata catalogue and online nearreal-time access to runoff and precipitation data. Theprogress of GTN-H was seen as a major contributiontowards the implementation of IGOS-Water withclose collaboration between HWRP and GCOS.8.31 With regard to WCP-Water, the Associationnoted with interest that the Expert Meeting onHydrological Sensitivity to Climate Conditions hadbeen held from 2 to 4 December 2003 at the Centrefor Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UnitedKingdom, with a view to preparing a global statisticalanalysis on the sensitivity of runoff to precipitation.Three reports developed under WCP-Water were inthe process of being published and dealt with longtermanalysis of hydrological time series; peak-overthreshold analysis methods that were applied to anumber of gauging stations worldwide; and thedocumentation of a newly developed software thatallowed statistical analysis of trends and othersignificant changes in hydrological time series.8.32 The Association was pleased to beinformed that IGRAC had been in operational modesince May 2003 and had made considerableprogress in the development of a Web-based GlobalGroundwater Information System and on thecollection and analysis of groundwater-relatedguidelines and protocols. IGRAC would operateunder the auspices of WMO and the United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO). A Memorandum of Understanding(MoU) between WMO and IGRAC had been signedin June 2004 formalizing the collaboration betweenWMO and IGRAC.8.33 The Association expressed its appreciationto the Government of The Netherlands for its supportto IGRAC.Programme on Sustainable Development ofWater Resources8.34 The Association was pleased that, underthat programme, technical guidelines on thehydrology of urban areas had been prepared. Itlearnt of further plans to organize workshops ongroundwater resources management for smallislands States and countries in arid and semi-aridzones. Such activities would be carried out inpartnership with international and regional bodies.The Association noted that WMO had co-sponsored


GENERAL SUMMARY 35the International Conference on Urban Hydrology forthe 21 st Century (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2002)and that Guidelines on Urban Hydrology were beingdeveloped on the basis of the papers presented atthe Conference.Programme on Capacity-Building in Hydrologyand Water Resources8.35 The Association noted that that programmeactivity, implemented in close cooperation with theEducation and Training Programme (ETRP) ofWMO, encouraged the systematic review of staff andtraining needs of NHSs and supported varioustraining events. It also noted the development of astrategy for capacity-building to build up a long-termperspective on capacity-building in hydrology andwater resources.8.36 The Association was informed that WMOhad organized or co-sponsored a number of coursesand workshops in hydrology and water resourcesduring the past intersessional period. Those coursesincluded regular training courses which wereapproved by Thirteenth and Fourteenth Congressand others that had been proposed by Membercountries.8.37 The Association was pleased to learn thatthe Guidelines for the Education and Training ofPersonnel in Meteorology and OperationalHydrology (WMO-No. 258), Volume I — Hydrologyhad been prepared by the Editorial Task Force —Hydrology and covered the field of integrated waterresources management. The volume had beenprepared with contributions from the HydrologicalServices of various Regions, and CHy, UNESCOand external experts had carried out its review in twosteps: (1) by CHy and UNESCO; and (2) by twoexternal reviewers. The English version of thatvolume had been sent to all Members during the firsthalf of 2004.Programme on Water-Related Issues8.38 The Association noted that closecollaboration had been maintained between WMOand other United Nations organizations dealing withwater in the framework of the United NationsInteragency Committee on Freshwater (UN-Water)and that one of the main activities of UN-Water wasnow directed towards the preparation of the secondWorld Water Development Report (WWDR) withemphasis on development of performanceindicators. WMO was contributing to the chapterson: 'The nature of the resource', for which WMO hadlead responsibility; 'Managing risks' for which WMOhad joint lead responsibility with ISDR; and 'Ensuringthe knowledge base', for which WMO was one of thecontributing agencies.8.39 The Association was informed that WMOand ISDR had been the lead secretariats within theUnited Nations for the global celebration of WorldWater Day (WWD) 2004 with “water and disasters”as the theme. The emphasis in the awarenesscampaign was ‘be informed and be prepared’. WMOhad prepared an information kit that included abooklet, a poster and fact sheets on the activities ofvarious United Nations agencies in the field of waterrelateddisasters.8.40 The Association noted with interestactivities aimed towards the establishment of a jointWMO/UNESCO Committee on Floods. It furthernoted that a Task Team had been established by theWMO and UNESCO Secretariats to develop aconcept paper for that purpose based on needs andrequirements, the core competences of the twoorganizations and tasks that could be jointlyundertaken. The Association saw the opportunity forenhanced collaboration between WMO andUNESCO in the establishment and implementationof the planned Joint UNESCO/WMO Flood Initiative(JUWFI), which it recognized as having potentiallysignificant benefit for its Members.8.41 The Association was informed that theUnited Nations General Assembly, with its resolutionA/RES/58/217 adopted on 23 December 2003, hadproclaimed the period from 2005 to 2015 as theInternational Decade for Action, “Water for Life”,commencing on WWD on 22 March 2005. Theresolution called upon the relevant United Nationsbodies, specialized agencies, regional commissionsand other organizations of the United Nationssystem to deliver a coordinated response, to makethe “Water for Life” a “Decade for Action”.8.42 The Association was pleased to learn ofWMO’s participation at the third World Water Forum(WWF3) and the Ministerial Conference on theoccasion of WWF3 held from 16 to 23 March 2003 inKyoto, Japan. It was pleased to learn that WMO hadconvened a joint session on integrated floodmanagement along with the session on people,floods and vulnerability reduction. WMO had alsoconvened sessions on climate change and variabilityimpact on water resources in Africa during theregional Day for Africa, and on water and informationin Osaka, Japan. The Association was alsoinformed of the publication of the booklet Water anddisasters: Be informed and be prepared (WMO-No.971) as part of the public awareness effort of WWD2004. In that same context, the January 2004 issueof the WMO Bulletin had been dedicated to thetheme “Water and Disasters”.8.43 The Association noted with interest theimplementation of the Associated Programme onFlood Management (APFM), funded by Japan andthe Netherlands, which was of special significance toWMO and Members. The initiative was a joint projectundertaken by WMO and the Global WaterPartnership (GWP). In the framework of that project,a concept paper on integrated flood managementhad been developed, printed in several languagesand circulated. Major activities of the APFM aimed atthe preparation and publication of advisory material;collection of approximately 20 case studies andextraction of good practices; implementation ofregional pilot projects; and the dissemination of


36 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIknowledge at various conferences, exhibitions andother related forums. In RA II, a pilot project oncommunity-based approaches to flood managementwas being undertaken in selected communities inBangladesh, India and Nepal.Cooperation with international river basincommissions and non-governmentalorganizations8.44 The Association was informed of thecontact between WMO and a number of internationalriver basin commissions, including MRC, ICIMODand ESCAP, leading to very fruitful collaboration oncertain joint projects, including activities related tothe TCP, and the establishment of hydrologicalinformation and forecasting systems, also in thecontext of WHYCOS.8.45 With a view to expanding andstrengthening cooperation between regional andriver basin organizations in the Region, theAssociation noted with appreciation that a number ofcollaboration activities had been initiated, amongstthem the signing of a MoU between WMO and theMRC in 2002 with the aim of assisting the MRCthrough the establishment of a flood informationsystem and improving the flood forecasting capacityof NHMSs in the Mekong river basin in theframework of a Mekong-HYCOS project. A MoUbetween WMO and ICIMOD had been signed in2002 with the principal aim to establish a floodinformation system and to improve flood forecastingcapacity of NHMSs in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin in the Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH)region in the framework of an HKH-HYCOS project.Furthermore, a MoU with ESCAP had been signed in2003 with the objective to enhance cooperationbetween WMO and ESCAP in the fields of disasterreduction, hydrology and water resources as well asissues related to climate and weather.Exchange of hydrological data and products8.46 The Association was informed on progressin the promotion of the issue of international dataexchange and encouragement of the implementationof Resolution 25 (Cg-XIII) — Exchange ofhydrological data and products, at internationalforums such as during the World Summit onSustainable Development (WSSD)(August/September 2002, South Africa), the WWF3(March 2003, Japan) and the Pan AfricanImplementation and Partnership Conference onWater (December 2003, Ethiopia). As requested byFourteenth Congress, a questionnaire on theexchange of hydrological data and products hadbeen circulated to river basin organizations andInternational Data Centres (IDCs) to obtain theircomments and views on the status of theinternational exchange of data.8.47 The Association noted with concern thatthe exchange of hydrological data and information ina timely manner was still inadequate to meet userrequirements, especially in the fields of global andregional water resources assessment and globalclimate issues, and recommended that further effortsbe undertaken to implement Resolution 25 (Cg-XIII)in the region.8.48 Progress had also been achieved in theCHy project on metadata that was undertaken inclose collaboration with the GRDC and GTN-Hwhere a draft report was under preparation. Thoseactivities were undertaken in close collaboration withthe WWW Group on Data Management, in particularwith regard to the refinement and implementation ofa WMO metadata standard that conformed torelevant International Organization forStandardization (ISO) standards, which were ofrelevance to the international exchange ofhydrological and meteorological data.8.49 The Association also recognized theimportance of standardization of data and metadatain hydrology to facilitate the international exchangeof hydrological data and information, in the context ofthe FWIS.9. EDUCATION AND TRAININGPROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS(agenda item 9)General9.1 The Association examined the informationon the implementation of the ETRP in the Regionsince its last session. In noting with appreciation theprogress achieved and the assistance provided toMembers in developing their trained manpowerresources, the Association stressed that educationand training activities were fundamental for thesuccess of all WMO Programmes.9.2 The Association was pleased to noteChapter 6.6 of the 6LTP (2004–2011) as adopted byFourteenth Congress and urged its Members toensure that all necessary actions were taken to meetthe objectives of the Plan.Human resources development9.3 The Association reaffirmed the importanceof the human resources development programme inassisting the Secretariat and NMHSs, particularly indeveloping countries, to plan and mobilize thefinancial and other resources to meet Members’training needs. In that respect, the Associationnoted that 58 per cent of its Members hadresponded to the survey questionnaire and that theresults of the 2002 survey of Members’ trainingrequirements for the fourteenth financial period(2004–2007) had been published as WMO/TD -No.1154.9.4 Noting the identified increase in thenumber of personnel to be trained, the Associationencouraged its Members to make every effort tobecome self-reliant in the basic training ofmeteorological and operational hydrologicalpersonnel. The Association felt that there was aneed for cooperation and coordination of educationand training activities in the Region to better meetthe expressed requirements and to use available


GENERAL SUMMARY 37capabilities effectively. The Association agreed thatan increasing number of employees at technicallevel might cause an additional budgetary constraintand further retardation of development for therespective Services, and, therefore, priority shouldbe concentrated on capacity-building and applicationof new technologies in performing the requiredservices and activities. The Association hoped thatan active participation of Members in the next surveyof training requirements, planned for 2006, wouldallow a proper assessment of regional training needsand would be a basis for modifications andimprovements in the ETRP to the benefit ofdeveloping countries and countries with economiesin transition.Training activities9.5 The Association noted that since its lastsession, WMO had organized more than 12 trainingevents in the Region. The Members of theAssociation also had had the opportunity to benefitfrom other training events organized and hosted bynational or international institutions, with WMOacting as co-sponsor or providing partial financialsupport. Those events, which were listed in theWMO Annual Reports, covered a wide range ofsubject areas of interest to the Region.9.6 The Association expressed its gratitude tothose of its Members, as well as Members fromother Regions, which had made their nationaltraining facilities available for the training ofmeteorological and operational hydrologicalpersonnel of RA II. The Association invited itsMembers to participate actively in the provision oftraining services to Members from other Regionsand to WMO RMTCs. The Association agreed that itwould be necessary to attract additional financial,human and other resources to enable the variousidentified training requirements to be met.9.7 The Association was pleased to note thepledge by Hong Kong, China, to continue to providetraining courses under the VCP. It noted theinitiatives by Hong Kong, China, to outreach to thepublic through the offer of introductory weathercourses and through the introduction of more publiceducation material on the Internet, with impressiveresults. The experience in Hong Kong, China,showed that the demand for introductorymeteorological education existed and that peoplewere willing to pay to learn weather basics.9.8 The Association recognized the specifictraining needs and requirements of Iraq andAfghanistan and appealed to Members and WMO fora special technical assistance scheme. In thatregard, the Association was pleased to note theassistance provided by the Islamic Republic of Iranand the Secretary-General for the training of theirpersonnel.9.9 The Association recognized that publicweather services played a significant role inincreasing the profile of NMHSs. Furthermore, theAssociation noted that an expert meeting had beenorganized in San Jose, Costa Rica, in December2004 for the preparation of PWS guidelines; NMHSsshould be provided with the guidelines, and trainingthrough workshops and seminars should beorganized for RA II Members for that purpose.9.10 The Association noted with satisfaction theinformation on the activities of the Training Libraryand the use made of its services by six Members ofthe Region. It also appreciated the continuousupdating of the Virtual Training Library in an effort toprovide the latest and most suitable availabletraining material through the Internet, andrecommended that those actions should beencouraged and continued. In that regard, theAssociation noted with appreciation that JMA andBoM had established servers to provide trainees withthe latest satellite data as well as training softwareSATAID for real-time satellite data analysis in virtualtraining.9.11 The Association noted with satisfaction thatthe quadrennial WMO Symposium on NewPerspectives of Education and Training inMeteorology and Hydrology had been successfullyheld in Madrid (April 2003). The Association agreedthat the recommendations of the Symposium were ofconsiderable value as a guide to Members in theirefforts to strengthen their human resources byimproving staff’s skills and knowledge throughcontinuing education and training and the use of newmethods and modern information technology basedon learning techniques.Regional Meteorological Training Centers9.12 The Association noted with appreciationthat WMO RMTCs in RA II continued to carry outsatisfactorily their routine training programmes andto organize specialized courses in response to theneeds of Members in the Region as well as otherRegions. In urging its Members to make themaximum use of the training programmes offered byRMTCs, the Association agreed with the need,stressed by Fourteenth Congress, for moreemphasis to be placed by RMTCs on regionaltraining requirements for specialized courses invarious areas. In that connection, Members wererequested to assist RMTCs in organizing courses,using ways and means such as the provision ofinstructors for short-term assignments, the provisionof relevant training materials, the use anddevelopment of distance learning tools and methods,and other sorts of assistance under bilateral ormultilateral arrangements.9.13 The Association further recommended thatfor the RMTC network in the Region to become moreefficient and focused on the highest priority needs ofthe WMO community, Members hosting RMTCsshould make every effort towards bearing theresponsibilities and obligations in accordance withthe criteria laid down by the Executive Council forthe designation of WMO RMTCs.9.14 The Association noted that the fifty-sixthsession of the Executive Council had encouraged


38 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIRMTCs to implement new relevant programmes andadvanced specialized courses on topics such asclimate prediction, climate change, marinemeteorology and physical oceanography, hydrology,and economic meteorology. In that connection, theAssociation requested Members and the Secretary-General to continue their efforts in the training oftrainers.9.15 The Association was informed that theRegional Training Seminar for National Trainers ofRA II and RA V would be organized in KualaLumpur, Malaysia, from 16 to 27 May 2005 andwould focus on specific topics of interest to theRegion and new training techniques.9.16 The Association noted with appreciationthat, during the intersessional period, RMTCs hostedby China, India and Uzbekistan had been externallyreviewed by the Executive Council Panel of Expertson Education and Training and that it had beenagreed by the Executive Council that they shouldcontinue to be recognized as WMO RMTCs.9.17 The Association noted that the twenty-firstsession of the Executive Council Panel of Experts onEducation and Training (Antalya, Turkey, 3–7 May2004) had reviewed and developed the Action Planon the Future Role and Operation of RMTCs. TheAssociation encouraged all stakeholders to makeevery effort towards the effective implementation ofthe actions envisaged, including regionalcooperation. In that connection, the Associationencouraged NMHSs and RMTCs to work moreclosely together to identify regional trainingrequirements and to explore new ways to meet thoseneeds.9.18 The Association recognized that the RMTCin Iraq needed to be rehabilitated in order to meet itsregional responsibilities. In that connection, theAssociation requested Members and the Secretary-General to provide support, as appropriate.9.19 The Association was pleased to note that aMeeting of Directors of WMO RMTCs had been heldon 26 April 2003 in Madrid immediately following theWMO Symposium. The Association encouragedMembers to strengthen interaction among RMTCsand with other training and educational centers,particularly from advanced countries, to bridge thepresent scientific and technological gap.9.20 The Association was informed that thesixth meeting of the Standing Conference of Headsof Training Institutions of National MeteorologicalServices (SCHOTI) had been held in Madrid on25 April 2003 and a new Coordinating Committee(CO-COM) of SCHOTI had been elected. TheAssociation noted with appreciation that the variousannual meetings of CO-COM/SCHOTI haddiscussed ways and means to improve cooperationbetween Members for the mutual benefit of all, and,in particular, how to better support WMO’s ETRP,including assistance to RMTCs through thepromotion of distance education and computerassistedlearning systems.New WMO classification of meteorological andhydrological personnel9.21 In relation to the new WMO classification ofpersonnel in meteorology and operational hydrology,the Association noted with appreciation that neweditions of the Guidelines for the Education andTraining of Personnel in Meteorology andOperational Hydrology (WMO-No. 258), Volume I —Meteorology with its supplement, and Volume II —Hydrology had been prepared and distributed to allMembers for gradual implementation of the newclassification and curricula. It also noted that thetranslation of the Guidelines for the Education andTraining of Personnel in Meteorology andOperational Hydrology (WMO-No.258), Volume I —Meteorology into Russian and Spanish had beencompleted and that translation into French would becompleted in early 2005.9.22 The Association was informed of theimpacts of the new WMO classification on the staff ofsome NMHSs in relation to their civil serviceemployment scheme and their career development.It requested the Secretary-General to assistMembers, RMTCs and other parties in theimplementation of the new classification andcurricula.Education and training fellowships9.23 The Association noted that WMOfellowships remained crucial in assisting developingcountries in the field of capacity-building, in particularemerging new needs such as satellite meteorology,information technology, new telecommunicationsystems, computer technology, modern dataprocessingsystems, climate change, naturaldisasters and the atmospheric environment. It notedwith satisfaction the efforts being made to furtherenhance the programme and to improveeffectiveness and transparency in the granting andimplementation process of fellowships. TheAssociation expressed its appreciation for theinnovative measures taken by the Secretary-General, including the establishment of theFellowships Committee and urged its Members tocontinue to utilize more effectively the fellowshipsprogramme.9.24 The Association recognized the need tomake training cost-effective and requested Membersto ensure, amongst other measures, that traineesshare their knowledge and expertise with therelevant staff when they return to their NMHSs.9.25 The Association also recognized that LDCsshould continue to be given high priority in thefellowships programme.Report of the Rapporteur on Education andTraining Matters9.26 The Association noted with appreciationthe report of the Rapporteur on Education andTraining Matters, Mr J.B. Jamali (Islamic Republic ofIran), which reflected the WMO global survey 2002


GENERAL SUMMARY 39that had been published in April 2003 as WMO/TD-No. 1154 (Members’ Training Requirements,Opportunities and Capabilities in Meteorology andOperational Hydrology: WMO Survey 2002). It alsonoted that only 46 per cent of Members hadresponded to the Rapporteur’s questionnaire. TheAssociation urged Members to forward their repliesto such questionnaires in order to better assessMembers’ training needs, requirements andopportunities from a regional perspective and toenhance the development of education and trainingprogrammes of NMHSs within the Region.9.27 The Association noted that Members of RAII had different qualification requirements for the jobentrylevels of both professional and techniciancategories. It urged its Members to adopt as muchas possible the Guidelines for the Education andTraining of Personnel in Meteorology andOperational Hydrology (WMO-No. 258), Volumes Iand II as references for such requirements. TheAssociation agreed that continuing professionaldevelopment and a lifelong learning culture shouldbe promoted within the Region. It therefore calledon all Members that had not done so, to establishrefresher programmes for continuing education inorder to ensure that the knowledge and skills of theirstaff were constantly updated.9.28 The Association was pleased to note thatMembers paid attention to human resourcesdevelopment in the Region and that the participationof women in meteorology and hydrology wasincreasing. The Association, however, noted thatthere was a lack of expertise in new fields in someMember countries of the Region.9.29 The Association recognized that trainingprogrammes of RMTCs in RA II were valuable andvery useful and called for closer contact betweenRMTCs and NMHSs through joint programmes to beorganized with national training institutes, includingmaking use of new teaching materials such ascomputer-assisted learning, modules, videos anddistance learning.9.30 The Association further recognized that asignificant number of short-term and long-termfellowships were required particularly for LDCs in theRegion. It requested that the best use of availableresources should be made to meet suchrequirements, amongst others, by choosing the mostcost-effective training institutions for the placementof fellows.9.31 The Association recalled that the Councilhad requested Permanent Representatives withWMO to ensure that Rapporteurs on RegionalEducation and Training Matters received thenecessary local support to fulfil their tasks. It notedthat the Council also had requested the Secretary-General to provide those Rapporteurs withassistance, including financial support, within thelimit of available resources.9.32 In order to better assess and meet theregional needs, requirements and demands for basiceducation and high-quality continuing education andtraining, the Association decided to appoint aRapporteur on Education and Training Matters andadopted Resolution 21 (XIII-RA II) accordingly.10. TECHNICAL COOPERATIONPROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS(agenda item 10)10.1 The Association reviewed the technicalcooperation activities carried out during the reportingperiod and noted that several countries in the Regionhad received technical assistance under projectsfunded by various sources such as UNDP, trustfunds, GEF and WMO’s VCP. The Associationexpressed its appreciation to UNDP, GEF, otherdonors and Members for the support provided toNMHSs.10.2 The Association noted that during theperiod 2000–2003, six UNDP projects withgovernment cost sharing had been implemented inBahrain, Maldives and the United Arab Emirates.The Association was pleased to note that thoseprojects had contributed in the development andenhancement of the capacity of NMHSs and relevantinstitutions through the provision of expert/consultantservices, equipment and education and training.The Association emphasized the importance of therole of the Permanent Representatives of Membersin mobilizing resources from UNDP and requestedthe Secretary-General to continue his efforts inenhancing cooperation with UNDP through furtheringthe proactive participation of NMHSs in UnitedNations processes at country and regional levels.10.3 The Association noted that a GAW stationhad been established at Mount Waliguan in Chinaand spare parts had been provided to the stationwithin the GEF-financed project Global Monitoring ofGreenhouse Gases, including Ozone. TheAssociation encouraged Members to continue effortsin seeking support from that scheme.10.4 The Association noted that several trustfund projects had been implemented in somecountries for the procurement of equipment,education and training, and improvement of services.The Association encouraged Members to make useof such arrangements, which had proven to be costeffectivefor their NMHSs.10.5 The Association was pleased to note that,within the framework of the WMO VCP, 14 countriesin RA II had received support for a total of 27 VCPprojects (training projects excluded) during the period2000–2003, in particular for strengthening WWWoperational facilities, and for climatological andhydrological activities. The Association noted withappreciation that the Russian Federation planned,through the VCP, to provide Members in the Regionwith some equipment such as TV-INFORM-METEOterminals and small satellite receivers with theapplication software (ALISA-VARYAG) andtechniques for modernization of upper-air groundstations (AVK-1). The Association urged Members


40 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIto actively participate in the VCP, not just as VCPrecipients but also as donors.10.6 The Association expressed its satisfactionwith the education and training activities through theprovision of short- and long-term fellowships underUNDP, VCP, trust funds and the WMO RegularBudget, and requested the Secretary -General tocontinue his efforts to secure more funding in orderto meet the increasing demand of Member countriesfor training of meteorological and hydrological stafffor the development of their Services.10.7 The Association reiterated the importanceof Technical Cooperation among DevelopingCountries (TCDC) as a means of promoting regionaland international cooperation. The Association waspleased to note that a number of activities in the formof expert missions, familiarization visits, study tours,periodical seminars, workshops and training hadbeen implemented during the reporting period, andChina and the Republic of Korea were planning tocontinue to organize such events. The Associationurged Members to take an active part in thatimportant activity. In addition, the Associationstressed the importance of close cooperationbetween developing and developed countries inorder to reduce the gap between NMHSs of thecountries concerned and to ensure regionalintegration and harmony. Furthermore, theAssociation encouraged Members to exchange andshare experiences of the development and operationof new technologies related to NWP, including stormsurge models.10.8 The Association also noted that NMHSshad benefited from support through bilateral andmultilateral arrangements in the promotion of theirmeteorological and hydrological services and urgedMembers to provide the WMO Secretariat withrelevant information on such assistance, asrequested by the WMO Executive Council.10.9 The Association noted that the World Bankand regional development banks had recognizedfurther the importance of meteorological andhydrological information and products for majorsocial and economic development programmes aswell as for national disaster preparedness andmitigation activities. The Association noted withsatisfaction that Memoranda of Understanding hadbeen concluded between the World Bank and aregional development bank for cooperation in areasof mutual interest that included climate change,natural disaster prevention and mitigation, El Niñophenomenon and integrated water resourcesmanagement. The Association also noted that theSecretary -General was negotiating similararrangements with other banks, including the AsianDevelopment Bank, to foster stronger cooperationand implementation of projects of common interestto WMO and to the banks. The Associationencouraged Members to participate in national andregional initiatives related to bank -fundedprogrammes.10.10 The Association noted with satisfaction thata number of regional initiatives had been developedand were now either being finalized or were underconsideration by respective countries and/or thedonor community. The Association requested theSecretary -General to assist Members in securing therequired resources from different financial schemesin order to enable the implementation of thoseproposals as soon as possible.10.11 The Association discussed the futureneeds of the Region and endorsed its support to theTCOP as a high priority programme which formed anintegral part of the Organization’s mandate andwhich supported the implementation of the scientificand technical programmes. The Association agreedthat future needs would be based on requirements inmajor areas such as:(a) Maintenance and further development ofWWW facilities (observations, telecommunicationsand data processing), andimprovement of use of NWP productsavailable from GDPFS centres;(b) Use of new information technology for thedistribution of data and information tousers;(c)Natural disaster mitigation and preventionthrough the implementation of improveddetection, prediction and warning systems;(d) Climate monitoring, research andapplication including regional climateprediction;(e)Development of effective public weatherservices;(f) Capacity-building, including humanresources development throughfellowships, training seminars andworkshops, as well as the use of moderntechnology;(g) Planning and management of waterresources.10.12 The Association requested the PermanentRepresentatives of Members and other seniorofficials of NMHSs to play a more important role inresource mobilization for fulfillling futurerequirements through strong partnerships withpossible sources of funding, including governmentagencies, bilateral/multilateral sources, the privatesector and United Nations programmes such asUNDP. The Association also requested theSecretary -General to continue assisting Members inthe mobilization of resources for that purpose.10.13 The Association noted that a few affectedcountries in the Region had received support withinthe framework of the Natural Disaster AssistanceFund for Meteorological and Hydrological Services,through donations of Member countries and privatecompanies, for rehabilitating networks of stations andassociated facilities destroyed by natural disasters.The Association urged Members to contribute to theFund.


GENERAL SUMMARY 4110.14 The Association was pleased to note thatseveral WMO initiatives had been taken in 2004 tofind ways and means of assisting Iraq in its efforts torehabilitate the meteorological and hydrologicalinfrastructure of the Iraqi Meteorological Organizationsuch as the establishment of the WMO Trust Fundfor the Reconstruction of the Iraqi MeteorologicalOrganization and creation of an emergencyassistance response team (EART) as a steeringgroup. The Association expressed its appreciation toall those who had provided experts and training andhad contributed to the Trust Fund. The Associationurged Members to assist Iraq in restoring itsmeteorological and hydrological services, through thecoordinated mechanism established by WMO toassist Iraq.10.15 The Association was informed that aRegional Workshop on Management: StrengtheningCapacity-Building of the National Meteorological andHydrological Services of Least Developed Countriesin Asia had been held in Bangkok, Thailand, inOctober 2002. The Workshop had addressed theneeds of NMHSs of LDCs in Asia and it hadrecommended that high priority be given to theintroduction of new technologies as well as therehabilitation and improvement of the infrastructureof meteorological facilities. In that connection, theAssociation welcomed the establishment of a newWMO programme for the LDCs by FourteenthCongress in May 2003 and a special WMO TrustFund for LDCs.10.16 The Association noted that strategies forimplementing the WMO programme for LDCs hadbeen developed and that activities for the period2004–2005 and project briefs had been prepared.The Association requested that the Secretary-General take the selection of eligible countries andthe process of formulating project proposals intoaccount when developing further proposals for theprogramme. The Association encouragedPermanent Representatives of Members to play anactive role in the mobilization of resources forNMHSs of LDCs.10.17 The Association welcomed the Secretary-General’s initiative to create a new Regional andTechnical Cooperation Activities for Development(RCD) Department to ensure the smooth andefficient implementation of activities within theframework of the Regional Programme (RP) and theTCOP. The Association requested the Secretary-General to achieve greater synergy andharmonization within the available human andfinancial resources for the improvement of delivery ofservices to Members and development ofpartnerships with national and regional institutionsand organizations. In that connection, theAssociation encouraged the Regional Office and aSubregional Office to participate actively in technicalcooperation activities, especially through assistanceto Members in the formulation of project proposals,and resource mobilization activities for fundingnational and regional projects.11. NATURAL DISASTER PREVENTIONAND MITIGATION PROGRAMME —REGIONAL ASPECTS (agenda item 11)11.1 The Association recalled Resolution 29(Cg-XIV) — Natural Disaster Prevention andMitigation Programme, by which Congress haddecided to initiate a major Programme on DPM. Itnoted that the Secretary-General had takenmeasures for the development and implementationof the new Programme and had established aSteering Committee on Disaster Reduction in March2004, as well as a programme team.11.2 The Association noted that the fifty-sixthsession of the Executive Council had approved theimplementation plan of the DPM Programme and thepriorities proposed, and that some actions at regionallevel were under consideration, namely the activitiesof the Regional Expert Group on Natural DisasterPrevention and Mitigation.11.3 The Association noted the Focal Points onNatural Disaster Prevention and Mitigation that hadbeen nominated by the Permanent Representativesfrom Region II and urged the PermanentRepresentatives of the Region who had not yetnominated their national focal point to do so as soonas possible. The Association urged the nationalfocal points to network at subregional level accordingto their different needs and interests and stressedthe need for effective collaboration between thenetwork of focal points and the Working Group onNatural Disaster Prevention and Mitigation. TheAssociation also stressed the role of the focal pointsin promoting at national level the adoption ofadequate measures for natural disaster preventionand mitigation, and the importance of ensuring aneffective means of information dissemination.11.4 The Association highlighted the need forthe introduction of national policy frameworks fornatural disaster prevention and mitigation and thebuilding and management of a knowledge base atnational and regional level.11.5 The Association recognized the importanceof seamless information and communicationchannels extending from NMHSs to the affectedcommunities which should include all adequatemeans of communication and dissemination ofinformation, in particular focusing on timely andaccurate forecasting.11.6 The Association noted Resolution 5(EC-LVI), which had established an ExecutiveCouncil Advisory Group on Natural DisasterPrevention and Mitigation as an effective frameworkfor the coordination of natural disaster risk reductionmatters and a continuous mechanism to review andadvise on those matters on a regular basis.11.7 The Association recognized that inconnection with the establishment of the new majorDPM Programme, it was necessary to ensure theactive participation of WMO in the WCDR, to be heldin Kobe, Japan, from 18 to 22 January 2005. TheAssociation recognized the importance ofparticipating in that Conference to enhance WMO’s


42 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIrole as a leading international organization dealingwith natural disaster reduction, promote the activitiesfrom the perspective of various WMO Programmes,and enhance the recognition of the contribution ofNMHSs in natural disaster mitigation andmanagement at national and regional levels bydecision makers, international organizations anddevelopment partners. The Association noted withappreciation that the Secretary-General hadestablished a Task Team in the Secretariat for thepreparation of the WCDR for the planning andcoordination of WMO’s activities in that regard.11.8 The Association noted that, in the course ofthose activities, several actions had beenundertaken, including the preparation of a pamphlet,a brochure and media information material on WMOactivities on disaster prevention and mitigation; theparticipation in various meetings, especially throughthe ISDR Inter-agency Task Force working groups inreviewing material on prospective outcomes of theConference; the preparation for the thematic areaevents during the Conference in which theOrganization would take a leading role; thesensitization of Members on events leading up to theConference; and the preparation and distribution ofWMO’s position paper on the subject.11.9 The Association recognized the importanceof a large participation of NMHSs in WCDR andurged its Members to make efforts in ensuring thatNMHS representatives were part of nationaldelegations to the Conference and worked closelywith relevant national committees on disasterreduction, particularly those coordinating nationalpositions for the Conference Secretariat, as vitalinputs to a successful event in Kobe, Japan.11.10 The Association noted that during theConference a WMO Public Forum was scheduled tobe held on 21 January 2005 co-sponsored by theOrganization and JMA.11.11 The Association noted the development ofthe DPM web page in collaboration with Hong Kong,China, and urged Members to provide support to thatinitiative. The Association recognized theimportance of that web page in enhancing WMO’svisibility in the area of natural disaster preventionand mitigation. The Association urged its Membersto provide relevant information on their activities tothe Secretariat to be included in the web page inorder to ensure that that page would become areference page for the natural disaster riskmanagement community.11.12 The Association was informed of theactivities of the Emergency and Disaster ResponseGroup (EDRG) within the WMO Secretariat andnoted the active involvement of the regional andsubregional offices in those activities.11.13 The Association adopted Resolution 22(XIII-RA II), which established a Working Group onNatural Disaster Prevention and Mitigation. TheAssociation requested the Secretary-General to takethe necessary measures, within the available budgetand resources, to support the activities of the Group.12. WMO SPACE PROGRAMME —REGIONAL ASPECTS (agenda item 12)12.1 The Association was informed thatFourteenth Congress had established a new majorcross-cutting Programme, the WMO SpaceProgramme, in response to the momentousexpansion in the availability of satellite data,products and services and in recognition of theincrease in responsibilities for WMO. The fifty-fourthsession of the Executive Council had agreed toestablish a WMO Space Programme as a matter ofpriority, and had felt that the scope, goals andobjectives of the new WMO Space Programmeshould respond to the tremendous growth in theutilization of environmental satellite data, productsand services within the expanded space-basedcomponent of the GOS that now includedappropriate R&D environmental satellite missions.Fourteenth Congress had also supported the WMOSpace Programme Long-term Strategy reviewed atthe third session of the Consultative Meetings onHigh-level Policy on Satellite Matters. FourteenthCongress had agreed that the WMO SpaceProgramme Long-term Strategy provided anexcellent balance to the 6LTP and the programmeand budget for 2004–2007. Thus, FourteenthCongress had believed it important to establish thenew WMO Space Programme as a major crosscuttingProgramme and had adopted Resolution 5(Cg-XIV).12.2 The Association noted that FourteenthCongress had agreed that the main thrust of theWMO Space Programme Long-term Strategy shouldbe:To make an increasing contribution to thedevelopment of the WWW GOS, as well asto the other WMO-supported Programmesand associated observing systems (suchas AREP’s GAW, GCOS, WCRP, HWRP’sWHYCOS and JCOMM’s implementation ofGOOS) through the provision ofcontinuously improved data, products andservices, from both operational and R&Dsatellites, and to facilitate and promote theirwider availability and meaningful utilizationaround the globe.12.3 The Association noted further that the mainelements of the WMO Space Programme Long-termStrategy had been agreed as follows:(a) Increased involvement of space agenciescontributing, or with the potential tocontribute, to the space-based componentof the GOS;(b) Promotion of a wider awareness of theavailability and utilization of data, products— and their importance at levels 1, 2, 3 or4 — and services, including those fromR&D satellites;


GENERAL SUMMARY 43(c)(d)(e)(f)Considerably more attention to be paid tothe crucial problems connected with theassimilation of R&D and new operationaldata streams in nowcasting, NWP systems,reanalysis projects, monitoring climatechange, chemical composition of theatmosphere, as well as the dominance ofsatellite data in some cases;Closer and more effective cooperation withrelevant international bodies;Additional and continuing emphasis oneducation and training;Facilitation of the transition from researchto operational systems;(g) Improved integration of the spacecomponent of the various observingsystems throughout WMO Programmesand WMO-supported programmes;(h) Increased cooperation amongst WMOMembers to develop common basic toolsfor utilization of research, development andoperational remote-sensing systems.12.4 The Association also noted that FourteenthCongress had considered the progress and results ofthe sessions of the Consultative Meetings on HighlevelPolicy on Satellite Matters. A mechanism forbuilding a closer partnership under the auspices ofWMO between the Meteorological and HydrologicalServices and environmental satellite communitiesshould be provided through the convening of theConsultative Meetings. The Association furthernoted that Congress had considered it appropriate toinstitutionalize the sessions as WMO ConsultativeMeetings on High-level Policy on Satellite Matters inorder to establish more formally the dialogue andparticipation of environmental satellite agencies inWMO matters.12.5 The Association took note that the WMOuser community should be represented at thehighest level at the sessions and that the spaceagencies should also be represented by theirDirectors. Sessions of the Consultative Meetings onHigh-level Policy on Satellite Matters would bechaired by the President of WMO. The ConsultativeMeetings would continue to provide advice andguidance on policy-related matters and wouldmaintain a high-level overview of the WMO SpaceProgramme. CBS would continue to take the leadrole in full consultation with the other technicalcommissions for the new WMO Space Programme.WMO Space Programme Implementation Plan12.6 The Association noted that the WMOSpace Programme Implementation Plan for 2004–2007 as contained in Section 4 of, and Annex III to,the report of the fourth session of the WMOConsultative Meetings on High-level Policy onSatellite Matters (CM-4) (the CM-4 report is availableat: http://www.wmo.int/hinsman/publications/CM-4_Final_Report.doc)had been approved by the fifty-sixth session to theExecutive Council and that the Implementation Planprovided further details of the WMO SpaceProgramme Long-term Strategy as given in the6LTP.12.7 The Association agreed that it would assigna rapporteur to work with the WMO SpaceProgramme for implementation of regional aspects ofthe WMO Space Programme Implementation Planand, in particular, regional advanced disseminationmethods (ADM) within the context of the plannedIntegrated Global Data Dissemination Service(IGDDS), and adopted Resolution 23 (XIII-RA II).12.8 The representative of Australia informedthe Association that BoM was already operating anADM in the form of a dedicated Internet server onsatellite animation and interactive diagnosis(SATAID), and plans were also in hand to hostanother server on the Regional ATOVSRetransmission Service (RARS). Satellite data fromthose servers would be available for access by RA IIMembers.12.9 The Association was pleased to beinformed of the formal commitments made by theGovernments of India and the Republic of Korea toparticipate in the space-based component of theWWW/GOS. The IMD recalled that it had a longhistory of satellites in both geostationary and polarorbits. The INSAT-3D satellite was planned to belaunched in 2006. As a result of new technologies,including ADM, it was now possible to make satellitedata and products, including GTS data and NWPproducts, freely available to WMO Members in theRegion and that detailed information would beprovided through correspondence. IMD announcedits plans to meet the WMO requirements for halfhourlyimagery in a phased manner with an ultimategoal to be achieved in the next three to four years.The Association was also informed that the Republicof Korea intended to participate in the space-basedGOS with its new geostationary communications,oceanographic and meteorological satellites (COMS)due to be launched in 2008. KMA planned to makemeteorological observations available for research,operations and applications without restrictions.Data would be distributed directly from COMS or byalternative approaches such as the Internet.12.10 The Association noted with appreciationthat China had successfully launched its firstoperational geostationary satellite FY-2C. After thetest phase the new satellite would be put intooperational use in early 2005. A successor satelliteFY-2D was planned to be launched within threeyears. Members were invited to make use of thedata provided by China’s FY satellites. In thatconnection, the Association expressed itsappreciation to CMA for the implementation of thespace programme, which was regarded for itsimportant role in natural disaster prevention andmitigation in the Region and its significantcontributions to the WMO Space Programme.12.11 The Association was informed that theGMS-5 was now backed up by the GEOS-9 satelliteunder a cooperation arrangement between theUnited States and Japan. The WMO Space


44 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIProgramme was expected to serve as an instrumentof coordination for such arrangements (forinformation on the launch plans of MTSAT-1R ofJapan see general summary paragraph 4.2.10).12.12 The Association agreed that WMO, throughits Space Programme, had acted as a catalyst togreatly improve the utilization of satellite data andproducts. The Virtual Laboratory for Education andTraining in Satellite Meteorology had already made aconsiderable impact throughout the Region throughits Centre of Excellence co-sponsored by China atthe RMTC in Nanjing, China. The Association waspleased to see the integration of the new R&Dconstellation into education and training activities. Italso noted that the WMO Space Programme LongtermStrategy and associated Implementation Planhad provided for increased utilization of the VirtualLaboratory to the benefit of WMO Membersespecially for fuller exploitation of R&D data,products and services, as well as those from newand existing operational meteorological satellitesystems.12.13 With regard to the Centres of Excellence,the Association was pleased to learn of the offermade by Oman to host such a centre and that therehad been preliminary offers to co-sponsor it jointly byEUMETSAT and IMD. The Association recalled thebasic principle that education and training shouldoccur in the working language of the localmeteorological staff and therefore expressed a greatneed for a Centre of Excellence in the south-westernregion of Asia where a gap existed especially forArabic-speaking countries. The Associationencouraged Oman to move ahead with theestablishment of that centre and acknowledged thatthe approval process to achieve status as a Centreof Excellence was in progress. It was anticipatedthat CBS, at its thirteenth session, would considerthe proposal. The present configuration of the sixCentres of Excellence provided for education andtraining in Chinese, English, French and Spanish.Furthermore, the Association noted the recent effortsmade by EUMETSAT in holding a training event inOman that had confirmed the existence of thefacilities described in the proposal.12.14 The Association was informed thatROSHYDROMET had conducted training seminarson satellite data utilization in 2002 and again in 2004for countries from Central Asia in Russian and hadplans to continue that activity in future years.13. INFORMATION AND PUBLIC AFFAIRSPROGRAMME — REGIONAL ASPECTS(agenda item 13)13.1 The Association recalled that Resolution 23(Cg-XIV) — Information and Public AffairsProgramme, of Fourteenth Congress had underlinedthe need for greater visibility of the Organization andNMHSs, the importance of communication inmitigating the devastating impact of extreme weatherand climate events, and the necessity of a WMOGlobal Communication Strategy to guide andenhance the process of making NMHSs and WMOmore visible and better appreciated.13.2 The Association welcomed the GlobalCommunication Strategy of the Organizationcomprising five basic elements: projecting a unifiedand consolidated image of WMO and NMHSs;constituency-building both at national and regionallevels; spreading key messages giving a local voiceto a global undertaking and vision; fostering strategicalliances with the media; and promoting acommunication culture through which to demonstratethe great relevance of WMO and NMHSs to the dailylives of all citizens of the world. In that context, theAssociation noted with appreciation the increasedinteraction between the WMO Communications andPublic Affairs Office and Information and PublicAffairs (IPA) Focal Points and the electronic accessfor Members to the quarterly WMO press review.The Association also welcomed the initiative toconsult Members on WMO publications, includingthe Bulletin.13.3 The Association noted with appreciationthe public outreach activities undertaken by the IPAProgramme during the WSSD (Johannesburg, SouthAfrica, August/September 2002). New productsdeveloped for that occasion had resulted insignificant visibility of the Organization and NMHSsamongst the participants at the Summit, includingdelegates, media representatives and nongovernmentalorganizations (NGOs). Several pressconferences, including one held jointly with ISDR,had been organized for the media attending theSummit. Press releases and information materialshad been widely disseminated, including newbrochures, postcards, posters and videos. WMO andNMHSs had featured prominently in the UnitedNations system exhibit and in other exhibits set upfor the Summit. The Association welcomed the factthat the new brochures on sustainable developmentand the new video had been made available toNMHSs as valuable tools for their own publicinformation needs.13.4 In response to Resolution 23 (Cg-XIV), theAssociation invited its Members to ensure mutualassistance and support in matters related to publicinformation and communication, includingpartnerships and constituency-building, resourcemobilization and closer cooperation with the media,NGOs and advocacy groups, academic circles,parliamentarians, schools, universities, nationalmeteorological and hydrological societies, the privatesector and corporate foundations and other civilsociety institutions and public figures.13.5 With reference to the call by Congress foradditional public awareness-raising activities andproducts, the Association welcomed thedevelopment and dissemination of WMO greeting


GENERAL SUMMARY 45cards, a cartoon book for children about climatechange and its effects, and a travel exhibition kitwidely used at international and regional fairs andexhibits. It appreciated the electronic access forNMHSs to the greeting cards allowing them to freelyuse them while adding their logo. It expressedappreciation for WMO web site developments, suchas the availability of a video library, the power pointpresentation on WMO programmes and activities,and the establishment of a segment News fromMembers aimed at increasing international attentionto NMHSs’ press statements, in response to therecommendation made by Congress that the IPAProgramme should serve as a clearing house forpublic information materials developed by NMHSsand the Secretariat. The Association called upon itsMembers to continue to develop or establish, asnecessary, their own web sites.13.6 The Association recalled the need for IPAto take advantage of available technologies andwelcomed the continued development of the NewsCentre at the WMO web site, electronic access forNMHSs to artwork for major events such as WWDand WMD, and the availability of the WMD film onDVD, in addition to videotapes.13.7 The Association welcomed WMO’soutreach activities for radio and television networksand communication professionals around the worldwith a view to fostering greater public awareness ofthe role and services provided by WMO and NMHSsand their indispensable contribution to the socioeconomicdevelopment and progress of all nations.In that context, it highly appreciated the organizationof the Media Training Workshop for fifteen FrenchspeakingDeveloping Countries in RA I, held inSenegal in 2004. It also welcomed the activeinvolvement of WMO in the training event fortelevision weather presenters from developingcountries organized in connection with the first WorldConference on Broadcast Meteorology held inBarcelona in June 2004 at the initiative of theInternational Association of Broadcast Meteorology(IABM), as well as in the Conference proper, whichhad benefited from the support of the BarcelonaForum 2004. Such training enhanced theparticipants’ skills in effective presentation ofaccurate weather information on television.13.8 The Association saw great benefit in thePublic Service Announcements aired by CNN, at theinitiative of WMO, to enhance visibility of therelevance of the activities of NMHSs during theperiods leading up to WMD 2004 and to the secondWCDR (Kobe, Japan, 18–22 January 2005). It alsowelcomed the fact that the film on “Weather, climateand water in the information age”, produced by WMOfor WMD 2004, had been made available in the sixofficial languages of the Organization, both onvideotape and DVD.13.9 The Association noted with appreciationthe comprehensive public information kit for WWD2004 on the theme of “Water and disasters”,developed and disseminated worldwide by WMO,which, jointly with ISDR, was the lead agency withinthe United Nations system for the global publicinformation campaign about the Day. The attractiveinformation folder contained a poster, a booklet andfact sheets. In addition, a message from theSecretary -General and a press release had beensent to all Members. A special web site(http://www.waterday2004.org) had been set up byWMO.13.10 The Association welcomed the publicinformation products produced and disseminated toall Members in support of national plans for theannual celebration of WMD. Those included amessage from the Secretary-General, a poster, abrochure and a film. The Association noted withappreciation the contributions of Members of theRegion to the celebrations of WMD and WWD andinvited its Members to celebrate such events in waysthat would promote NMHSs and enhance theirvisibility amongst the public, decision makers and themedia. It requested the Secretary-General toprovide timely background documents andinformation in that regard. The Association wasinformed of some Members’ celebration experiences,including joint programmes with other institutions.13.11 The Association took note of the numerouspress releases and Info Notes issued on specificWMO topics and activities related to weather, climateand water and of the various outreach activitiesundertaken by the IPA Programme on the occasionof major events, such as the 150 th anniversary ofinternational cooperation in meteorology (Brussels,Belgium, 17–18 November 2003).13.12 The Association welcomed the progressmade in the “branding” of the Organization, asrequested by Congress, and the fact that the subtitle“weather, climate and water” featured prominently onall official documentation, correspondence andpublications as requested by Congress.13.13 The Association called upon Members totake appropriate measures to support the IPAProgramme, to develop an active public informationprogramme at national and regional levels and toimplement the WMO Global CommunicationStrategy, giving a local voice to a global vision andmaking available to the Secretariat relevant materialproduced at national level. The Association notedwith appreciation that CMA had held monthlybriefings on weather, climate and its services formedia and the public since 2004, which had furtherimproved and enhanced the image and visibility ofCMA.13.14 The Association noted with satisfaction theefforts of the Regional Office for Asia and the South-West Pacific as an information focal point in the


46 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIWMO Secretariat for the Region. In order toenhance WMO's IPA Programme in the Region, itrequested the Regional Office to further strengthenits links with the Members of the Association. TheAssociation called upon its Members to considerdesignating a regional IPA Focal Point who mightwork for a short period with the Communications andPublic Affairs Office at WMO Headquarters to launchregionally targeted outreach activities. TheAssociation invited its Members to update their listsof IPA Focal Points, which it said served as a usefullink with the WMO Secretariat, and to provide it withrelevant audio-visual and other public informationmaterials prepared by them for their own publicinformation activities. It welcomed the invitationaddressed to United Nations offices in the field forenhanced interaction with NMHSs.14. LONG-TERM PLANNING — REGIONALASPECTS (agenda item 14)General considerations14.1 The Association recalled the importancegiven to WMO long-term planning by FourteenthCongress.14.2 The Association agreed on the importanceof identifying what WMO should be aspiring to as abasis for the WMO LTP, particularly in connectionwith its leadership role. It also agreed on the use ofthe 6LTP framework (vision, desired outcomes,strategies and goals) as a basis for future LTPs. TheAssociation further agreed that information about theissues that concerned Members would help informulating an effective strategy on how to addressthose concerns. For the Region, those includedenhancement of their visibility, improvement inservices and recognition, capacity-building, etc.14.3 The Association also agreed that crosscuttingactivities such as the Space Programme andthe DPM Programme merited more in-depthconsideration in the LTP process. In view of theincreasing importance of cross-cutting issues, theWMO programme structure might need to bemodified in the future. That was also related todevelopments on the further consolidation of WMOactivities such as those on the integrated observingsystem (including the GEOSS initiative) and FWIS.In that regard, the Association requested the Councilto give comprehensive consideration to seeking theway to implement those newly emerging issues moreeffectively and to continue the approach to modifythe WMO programme structure to meet such issues,including cross-cutting issues.14.4 Support to policy formulation andimplementation by WMO (and NMHSs) in relation tonatural disasters, climate and water, as well as inother sectors such as aviation, agriculture, healthand planning, were recognized by the Association asalso needing further improvement. In connectionwith addressing the essential, though difficult,challenge of how it and NMHSs could be morerelevant to policy formulation and implementation inareas which fell within their competence, theAssociation requested that the president provide theSecretary -General with input based on the relevantmonitoring for the Region.14.5 The Association agreed on the importanceof ensuring better appreciation of the socio-economicvalue of NMHS products, including in the context ofthe need to measure the value of the impact of whatWMO does as an organization. It was alsounderscored that it would be necessary for WMOand NMHSs to undertake studies on the economicvalue of meteorological and related products asthose could help secure better recognition and moreadequate resources for WMO and NMHSs.The long-term planning process14.6 The Association reaffirmed that the WMOlong-term planning process, with its refinements overthe years, had stood the Organization in good stead.The purposes and characteristics identified for theprocess remained essentially valid. The Associationconsidered that the WMO LTPs were of use toNMHSs as a comprehensive guideline to plan andmanage their activities at national level andformulate their plans for participation in cooperationprogrammes. The WMO LTPs helped NMHSs toprovide their relevant authorities with an overview ofWMO Programmes separately. Also, the LTPserved as supporting material to explain the futuretrends of meteorological and hydrological services inthe world.14.7 The Association recognized the variedchanges relating to national, regional and globalissues. It agreed that consideration should be givento the significant opportunities that were ahead ofWMO and major challenges to be met in dealing withthose opportunities; those included a survey ofMembers’ interests and newly emerging issues.Sixth WMO Long-term Plan14.8 The Association noted the adoption byFourteenth Congress of the 6LTP covering theperiod 2004–2011. It further noted that regionalassociations, among others, had been requested toadhere to the policies and strategies set forth in thePlan and to organize their activities so as to realizethe WMO vision, desired outcomes, strategies andassociated goals described in the Plan, as well as toachieve the overall and main long-term objectivesassociated with the WMO Programmes containedtherein.14.9 The Association expressed its appreciationfor the publication of the 6LTP and a separatesummary for decision makers which identified theresults expected and how those would be realized.That would help governments understand better theway in which WMO and Members’ NMHSs workedand their contributions, thus helping them to obtainenhanced financial and other support.14.10 The Association agreed on the importanceof ensuring the appropriate implementation of the


GENERAL SUMMARY 476LTP, as well as the related monitoring andevaluation of that implementation. The Associationrequested its president to ensure the provision of therelevant contribution expected from RA II in thepertinent evaluation process.14.11 The Association felt that, in theimplementation of the 6LTP, it was important to bearin mind that there were newly emerging issuescaused by technical advances and social needsidentified through interim evaluations.14.12 The Association noted that reports to futuresessions of the Executive Council (particularly bypresidents of regional associations and technicalcommissions, as well as the Secretary-General)should address the way particular programmes werecontributing to the implementation of the LTP andconfirm whether the implementation of the 6LTP inthat particular area was on track or not. The reportshould also dwell on the programmes’ contribution tothe realization of the six WMO desired outcomes andnine strategies (with their associated goals)contained in the 6LTP. The Association agreed thata similar approach should be taken into account inthe preparation of the future sessions of theAssociation.14.13 The Association noted that the Council hadrequested that consideration be given on how best toprovide an update on the 6LTP and itsimplementation in light of latest developments suchas the GEOSS initiative, the expanded satelliteactivities which now covered R&D satellites and thechanges in the Secretariat, including those related tothe way cross-cutting issues were being addressed.The Association requested that the Secretary-General take the necessary action to issuesupplements to the current 6LTP through Councildiscussions.Preparation of the Seventh WMO Long-term Plan14.14 The Association recalled that FourteenthCongress had decided that the Seventh WMO LongtermPlan (7LTP) should be prepared. In so doing,Fourteenth Congress had requested the regionalassociations:(a) To provide a forum for consideration of thePlan and, in particular, to provide anintegrated view of their respective activitiesand priorities within the context of the7LTP, including through regional analyses(b)and assessments;To coordinate, as necessary, nationalcontributions to regional projects of thePlan.14.15 The Association noted that FourteenthCongress had agreed that the 7LTP should build onthe WMO vision, the desired outcomes, and thestrategies and associated goals to be realizedthrough the major WMO Programmes, bearing inmind the purposes of WMO, which were reflected inthe WMO Convention and the evolving role of theOrganization. At the same time, the planningprocess should be simple and flexible to ensure aresponse to any new challenges and needs thatmight arise in the rapidly changing world.14.16 The Association noted that the Council hadagreed that, in the preparation of the 7LTP, thefollowing issues should be taken into account,among other things:(a) Protection of life and property againstnatural disasters;(b) Poverty alleviation;(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(h)(i)(j)(k)(l)Safeguarding the environment;Enhancing the economic and social wellbeingof various sectors of society in areassuch as food security, water resources,energy, health, transport and tourism;Policy-making and meeting internationalcommitments in pertinent areas through theprovision of required information,assessments and advice;Assuring the sustainability of the scientificleadership of the Organization by ensuringincreasing attention to the furtherdevelopment of the WMO core scientificprogrammes, as well as by strengtheningrelationships with the appropriate researchcommunities;Development of strategic alliances withinthe United Nations system in the areas ofweather, climate and water;Consideration of ways of strengtheningpartnerships with the private sector,academia, the media and NGOs in thework of the Organization;Proactively addressing emerging issueswith the aim of increasing the generalresponsiveness of the Organization;Development of innovative ways of buildingthe capacity of operators and potentialusers of the meteorological, hydrologicaland related infrastructure and facilities,particularly enhancing those in LDCs, aswell as the products and services derivingfrom them;Improvement of WMO visibility, communicationand transparency;Increased effectiveness and efficiency ofWMO's mode of operation.14.17 The Association agreed that the followingtrends, needs and developments should be takeninto account in the preparation of the 7LTP further toissues identified by the Council:(a) Full utilization of new technology, inparticular information technology;(b) Bridging the gap between the NMHSs ofdeveloping and developed countries;(c) Upgrade and modernization of NMHSs’technology and infrastructure;(d) Globalization and communication.14.18 The 7LTP should also take intoconsideration the countries’ concerns andrecommendations reflected in the United NationsMillennium Development Goals (MDG) and theJohannesburg Plan of Implementation of the WSSD.


48 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II14.19 The Association also agreed that, on aglobal perspective, priorities should be given to:(a) Strengthening and maintaining the basicWWW system;(b) Effective use of new technology inoperations and services, in particular thoseof satellite observations and informationtechnology;(c) Pursuing DPM activities;(d) Climate assessment and monitoring;(e) Development of long-range and seasonalforecasts;(f) Development and enhancement of thescientific base for services of NMHSs,including active participation in THORPEX;(g) Water resources assessment;(h) Preservation of the environment;(i) Enhancement of PWS and appliedmeteorological services;(j) Deep involvement in internationalprogrammes such as GEOSS, UNFCCC,etc.;(k) Capacity-building, including humanresources development;(l) Technology transfer through technicalcooperation as well as bilateral and othermultilateral schemes.14.20 In terms of its regional priorities, theAssociation attached the highest priority to thefollowing issues:(a) Maintenance and further development ofexisting observing and telecommunicationssystems and data-processingfacilities;(b) Natural disaster reduction, mitigation andprevention through the implementation ofimproved detection, prediction and warningsystems of tropical cyclones, monsoondepressions and other extreme weatherevents, including associated storm surges,flash floods and droughts;(c) Enhancement of climate observation andmonitoring as a regional component ofGCOS, research and applications,including regional climate prediction;(d) Enhancement of environment monitoring,including air and water quality, forest fires,ozone, and improvement of prediction ofsand/dust storms;(e) Implementation of the Strategic Plan for theEnhancement of NMSs to provide betterservices to the public, governments andusers, through improved infrastructure andmodern technology;(f) Development of effective public weatherservices to ensure better understandingand appreciation of the value of, andincreased benefit from, weather andclimate and related environmentalinformation;(g) Promoting and strengthening the principleof the free and unrestricted internationalexchange of data and products amongNational Meteorological, Hydrological andrelated Services;(h) Enhancement of capacity-building,including human resources development,to bridge the gap between the NMHSs ofdeveloping and developed countries andfacilitating associated technical transferthrough bilateral and multilateralarrangements;(i) Enhancement of collaboration andcooperation among all NMHSs in theRegion and between regional centres, inparticular RSMCs, RMTCs, RICs, climatecenters and drought monitoring centres,through the exchange of information andknowledge and research studies onmeteorology, hydrology, climate changeand related environmental sciences,including numerical modelling, in order toimprove understanding and predictions;(j) Strengthening meteorological applicationsand services for aviation, maritimetransportation and agriculture;(k) Formulation of the Strategic Plan for theEnhancement of NMSs in RA II,enhancement of the planning andmanagement of water resources, includingassessment of surface and groundwaterresources, through:(i) Improvement of the operationallinkages between Hydrological andMeteorological Services with the aimto improve hydrological forecastingand to minimize impacts of natural(l)(ii)disasters;Strengthening of the hydrologicalcomponents of the Tropical CycloneDevelopment Plans in the Region;(iii) Development of plans for theestablishment of HYCOS projects inthe Region;Strengthening of collaboration with relevantregional bodies, especially ESCAP, theEconomic and Social Commission forWestern Asia (ESCWA), ASEAN andothers.15. EMERGING ISSUES AND SPECIFICCHALLENGES (agenda item 15)15.1 EVOLVING ROLE OF WMO (agenda item 15.1)15.1.1 The Association noted that the fifty-sixthsession of the Executive Council, followingconsideration by Fourteenth Congress, haddiscussed the evolving role of WMO and hadunderscored the following areas of concern:(a) WMO and its environment;(b) WMO responsibilities;(c) Mode of operation;


GENERAL SUMMARY 49(d) WMO structure;(e) WMO Convention.15.1.2 The Association recalled that the Councilhad recognized the importance and urgency ofdeveloping a strategy for action to address thevarious issues of concern raised, particularly relatingto WMO’s leadership role and rendering it moreresponsive, proactive and relevant. There was alsoa need to ensure greater political awareness of itsrole and contribution in issues of concern to thenations it served, such as natural disasters, climatechange and water resources. Parallel considerationat national level with respect to NMHSs should alsobe undertaken. In that regard, the Associationagreed that WMO should continue to be moreresponsive, proactive and relevant.15.1.3 In that connection, there was a need for aclear and proactive WMO response to globalconcerns as expressed in the MDG adopted by theUnited Nations General Assembly in 2000 and theJohannesburg Plan of Implementation adopted bythe WWSD in 2002; those included povertyalleviation, natural disaster mitigation, climatechange, and water resources needs. Accountshould also be taken of recent developments andinitiatives such as those on the global Earthobservation initiative (under preparation by the EarthObservation Summit (EOS) and its ad hoc GEO)leading to the GEOSS.15.1.4 The Association recognized with theCouncil that WMO needed to evolve with urgency,but carefully and sensitively, to respond to Members’changing needs and expectations, including theirexpectations for an agreed WMO strategy and strongleadership across a wide range of Earth systemscience and service issues in the present rapidlychanging world.15.1.5 The Association noted that the Council haddecided to re-establish an Executive Council TaskTeam to Explore and Assess the Possible Changesto the WMO Convention and to establish anExecutive Council Action Group for an EnhancedWMO (Resolution 6 (EC-LVI) and Resolution 7 (EC-LVI), respectively). In connection with the work ofthose two bodies, the Association suggested that therelevant views of the Association as reflected at thethirteenth session be taken into account.15.1.6 Concerning the review of the WMOConvention, the Association recalled that the Councilhad felt that adequate preparatory work had alreadybeen carried out, but further progress needed to bemade to ensure appropriate consideration by thetime of Fifteenth Congress. That would require thatspecific recommendations and options should beready by the fifty-seventh session of the ExecutiveCouncil in 2005 to allow for sufficient deliberationand communication for Members (who should beable to participate in the process, for example duringsessions of regional associations) and so that thoseproposals that would need a decision by FifteenthCongress were sufficiently “mature” by the time ofthe fifty-eighth session of the Executive Council in2006, i.e. the Executive Council session beforeFifteenth Congress.15.1.7 As requested by the Executive Council, theAssociation was provided with information anddocumentation on the work of the Executive CouncilTask Team to Explore and Assess the PossibleChanges to the WMO Convention. The Associationexpressed its appreciation to the chairperson of theTask Team for the proposals made and expressedits views on that issue.15.1.8 The Association recognized the need tochange the WMO Convention in order to incorporatethe new developments of the past 50 years, such asclimate issues, natural disaster prevention andmitigation, contributions to sustainable developmentand others.15.1.9 The Association thought that, since theprocess of ratification by Members which wereStates in amending the Convention might requirecomprehensive procedures in many Members whichwere States, the change to the Convention shouldnot contain new commitments. It suggested thatFifteenth Congress should adopt the changesaccording to Article 28(c).15.1.10 The Association agreed on the need tointroduce a new preamble to the Convention in orderto clearly indicate the scope of the Organization. Italso agreed to consider the Geneva Declaration tobe the best starting point for drafting a newpreamble, since the Declaration had been adoptedunanimously by Thirteenth Congress in 1999. TheAssociation was of the opinion that the newpreamble should be the appropriate means tointroduce the relevant terminology and thought intothe Convention.15.1.11 The Association felt that the new preambleproposed by the Task Team was generallyappropriate and some Members suggested making itmore concise.15.1.12 The Association noted that the option of theadoption of protocols should not constitute acommitment for WMO Members to become parties ofthe protocols. The Association also noted thatMembers would later have to decide whether eachprotocol involved new obligations and thus wouldhave to be ratified or only adopted by Congress. Itrecognized the need for further reference materialssuch as protocols in other similar organizations andtypical draft texts of protocols on subjects of interestto WMO for in-depth consideration in order to assessany future implication of such specific protocols.15.1.13 The Association further requested that acareful study be conducted of the criteria to beapplied to the protocol scheme for the introduction ofnew subjects before the Congress decision on thatmatter. It requested that the draft resolution to besubmitted to Fifteenth Congress by the ExecutiveCouncil reflect the outcome of such a study andother refinements to the proposals of the Task Teamto Explore and Assess the Possible Changes to theWMO Convention.


50 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II15.1.14 With regard to the mode of operation, theAssociation felt that significant progress could bemade, particularly through improved ways ofaddressing cross-cutting issues, including the use ofmatrix management, and various measures that hadbeen proposed for achieving more effective andefficient operation of the constituent bodies. TheAssociation examined the priority given to issues ofconcern listed by the Executive Council Action Groupfor an Enhanced WMO and felt that its own mode ofoperation relating to its sessions and intersessionalactivities should be reviewed and improved. It calledupon its Members to contribute to that process. Italso felt that special consideration should be given toissues such as the establishment of RCCs and there-organization of technical commissions to underpinthe importance of PWS or applications.15.1.15 Consideration should also be given to howMembers, constituent bodies and the Secretariatcould coordinate better in relation to the provision ofrelevant information, including to the general publicand the media, relating to issues of interest such asnatural disaster prevention and mitigation, climatechange and water resources.15.1.16 In view of the above, the Association urgedits Members to contribute to the relevant discussionswhen participating in the various WMO programmeactivities. It requested its president to ensure thatappropriate views from the Region were taken intoaccount in the pertinent processes.15.2 ROLE AND OPERATION OF NMHSS(agenda item 15.2)15.2.1 The Association recalled that FourteenthCongress had had extensive discussions on the roleand operation of NMHSs, including on:(a) Findings of the questionnaire on the roleand operation of NMSs;(b) Economic framework and funding issues;(c) Legal instruments;(d) Aeronautical meteorological services;(e) Regional cooperation;(f) WMO standards for weather forecasts;(g) Quality management;(h) WMO statement on weather and climateforecasting;(i) Mechanisms for strengthening NMSs;(j) Involvement of the media, the private sectorand academia;(k) Cooperation with other internationalorganizations;(l) Definition of commonly used terms;(m) Role and operation of NHSs.15.2.2 The Association noted that the ExecutiveCouncil had provided guidelines on the role andoperation of NMSs, and that, on the basis of thatguidance, Congress had adopted Resolution 28(Cg-XIV) — Role and operation of NationalMeterological and Hydrological Services, whichinvited Members to take relevant actions to enhancethe role and operation of NMSs.15.2.3 The Association noted that Congress hadrequested the Executive Council to keep that matterunder review, and, in turn, the Executive Council hadestablished its Advisory Group on the Role andOperation of NMHSs to assist it in that area. TheAssociation suggested that the Group address topicsrelevant to the Region such as effectiveness andvisibility of NMHSs, particularly in connection withissues of interest to the Region, including naturaldisaster prevention and mitigation.15.2.4 The Association recognized that the roleand operation of NMHSs were intimately linked tomany other issues of major interest to WMO andNMHSs. It was also recognized that such linksshould be carefully considered and should be suchas to help WMO, its Members and their NMHSs tostrengthen complementarity and strategic alliancesas well as to meet the major challenges andcommitments facing the Organization. In thatconnection, the Association considered that theparticular issues of interest to the Region were theassessment of socio-economic benefits of NMHSs,alternative service delivery, regional cooperation,capacity-building, assistance to the NMHSs in LDCsin the Region, and government awareness of the roleand contribution of NMHSs.15.2.5 The Association underscored the linkagebetween the leadership role, contribution andvisibility of NMHSs at national level, on the onehand, and of WMO at international level, on theother. NMHSs should be the official voice in issuingweather warnings for public safety at national level,while WMO served as the authoritative voice in theUnited Nations system on matters relating toweather, climate and water. Their leadership rolesstemmed from their respective core competencewhich should continue to be enhanced.15.2.6 While maintaining leadership in therelevant areas, partnerships should also be a keycharacteristic of the work of NMHSs and WMO. Thatcould provide opportunities which might otherwisenot be available to NMHSs and WMO. TheAssociation encouraged Members to facilitatepartnerships between NMHSs and relevantinstitutions in their countries such as othergovernment agencies.15.2.7 The Association agreed that the NMHSs’and WMO’s visibility could be further increased byworking more closely with the media and ensuringthat appropriate communications with them wereestablished and/or maintained.15.2.8 The Association encouraged its Membersto pursue economic valuation studies to strengthenthe case for the recognition of the role andcontribution of NMHSs in relation to the provision ofmeteorological and hydrological services. It agreedthat there was a strong case for resourcescommitted to NMHSs to be considered asinvestments, rather than expenditures, in view of thehigh benefit-to-cost ratio. In that regard, theAssociation was informed of successful economic


GENERAL SUMMARY 51valuation studies/samples for some Members,particularly the case study conducted by theInternational Bank for Reconstruction andDevelopment (IBRD) economists on the usefulnessof NMHS activities in the Russian Federation.15.2.9 In that connection, the Associationrecognized the importance of further highlightingsuch socio-economic benefits, particularly throughtechnical conferences on the economic and socialbenefits of Meteorological and Hydrological Services.It requested Members to share their experience onthat topic in order to submit to the representatives ofIBRD in RA II Members’ proposals to conducteconomic valuation studies on NMHSs’ activitiessuch as issuing timely forecasts and warnings fornatural disaster prevention and mitigation.15.2.10 The Association requested the Secretary -General to collect relevant information on successfulpractical experiences on socio-economic valuationstudies and to disseminate them among WMOMembers.15.2.11 The Association considered that theinvolvement of the media, the private sector andacademia continued to be of particular interest. Itrecalled that Fourteenth Congress had noted thatthere was growing recognition of the importance ofcooperation with the media, the private sector andacademia and of the need to consider theopportunities that such cooperation could providewhile recognizing the associated challenges.Congress had recognized that that included both theinvolvement of the media, the private sector andacademia in the international programmes of WMOand cooperation, at national level, between thosesectors and NMHSs.15.2.12 The Association recognized theimportance of, and need for, reinforcing capacitybuildingof NMHSs, particularly through training insuch relatively new areas as management,partnerships, networking, communication, userinteraction, cost recovery, commercialization, andvaluation of the socio-economic benefits ofmeteorological and related services.15.2.13 The Association also emphasized theimportance of continually assessing, through itsAdvisory Working Group (AWG) and otherintersessional forums, the role and operation ofNMHSs in light of the rapid changes occurring andidentifying appropriate actions that might be taken byNMHSs and WMO. The Association considered thatmodernization and capacity-building were ofparticular concern in the Region in view of bridgingthe gap between developed and developingcountries.15.2.14 The Association agreed that it was importantto address the relevant priority areas of concern whichprovided challenges and opportunities to its Members.It therefore called upon its Members to takeappropriate action. Moreover, it felt that Directors ofNMHSs should be proactive in that regard.15.3 INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE OF DATA ANDPRODUCTS (agenda item 15.3)15.3.1 The Association recalled the discussionsthat had taken place during Fourteenth Congress inconnection with the topic of international exchange ofdata and products. Those included discussions onthe following areas:(a) Implementation of Resolution 40 (Cg-XII);(b) Implementation of Resolution 25 (Cg-XIII);(c) Exchange of climate data and products;(d) Oceanographic data exchange policy;(e) Aeronautical exchange of meteorologicaldata and products;(f)(g)Exchange of agrometeorological data;Database protection mechanism and theWorld Intellectual Property Organization.Implementation of Resolution 40 (Cg-XII)15.3.2 The Association noted that the experienceof Resolution 40 (Cg-XII) — WMO policy andpractice for the exchange of meteorological andrelated data and products including guidelines onrelationships in commercial meteorological activities,had been largely positive and that there wasgenerally a strong commitment to make it work. Inthe case of the Region, the Association requestedMembers to regularly provide the WMO Secretariatwith updated information on their respectiveadditional data provided under Resolution 40(Cg-XII).Implementation of Resolution 25 (Cg-XIII)15.3.3 The Association was also pleased to noteprogress in the implementation of Resolution 25(Cg-XIII) — Exchange of hydrological data andproducts. It recalled that Congress had welcomedthe solidarity that was developing throughout thehydrological community in the adoption of the policyset out in the resolution and saw the monitoring ofthe exchange of hydrological data and products asan important ongoing activity to be overseen andreported on by CHy.15.3.4 The Association was informed that,following the request by Fourteenth Congress, thequestionnaire on the exchange of hydrological dataand products had been circulated to river basinorganizations and IDCs to obtain their commentsand views on the status of the internationalexchange of data. The outcome of the survey hadbeen considered by the twelfth session of theCommission for Hydrology for future actions in thespirit of Resolution 25 (Cg-XIII). The Associationwas also pleased to note that the technical report onthe exchange of hydrological data and productsprepared by CHy, after having been reviewed by theRegional Hydrological Advisers and the ExecutiveCouncil, had been published and distributed in early2004.Exchange of climate data and products15.3.5 With respect to the international exchangeof climate data and products, the Association notedthat CCl had been requested to continue to work with


52 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IICBS on the issues of the collection of CLIMAT andCLIMAT TEMP messages and their disseminationvia the GTS or the Internet. The Associationwelcomed the development of software to encodeand decode CLIMAT and CLIMAT TEMP messagesand requested that, after that had been thoroughlytested, it be distributed to relevant Members of theRegion.15.3.6 The Association urged its Members whohad not yet done so to send their daily historical datafor GSN observations to the WDC-A (World DataCentre, Asheville), as had been requested by theSecretary -General.Oceanographic data exchange policy15.3.7 The Association noted with interest that thetwenty-second session of the IntergovernmentalOceanographic Commission (IOC) Assembly in 2003had, among other things, approved an IOCOceanographic Data Exchange Policy, whichrecognized and was compatible with the WMO policyand practice on the international exchange ofmeteorological and related data and products asexpressed through Resolution 40 (Cg-XII). It recalledthat the Executive Council had expressed itsappreciation to IOC for its efforts in that regard,which would further serve to strengthen cooperationand coordination between the two organizations inthe exchange of relevant geophysical data. It waspleased to note that JCOMM was developing its dataexchange and management mechanisms andprocedures within the context of the data exchangepolicies of both its parent organizations, with aparticular focus on ensuring the full and openexchange of oceanographic data from all sources.Aeronautical meteorological informationexchange15.3.8 The Association noted that the conjointCAeM session/ICAO Meteorology Divisional Meetingheld in 2002 had endorsed Recommendation 4/7that called on ICAO, in consultation with WMO, todevelop guidelines for access to aeronauticalmeteorological information for air navigation supportpurposes only. The Association further recalled thatthe ICAO Council and the WMO Executive Councilhad approved that recommendation in 2003. TheAssociation noted with satisfaction that, as part ofthe implementation of Recommendation 4/6, ICAOhad established the Aviation Use of the PublicInternet Study Group (AUPISG) in September 2003and WMO had agreed to participate in the work ofthat ICAO Group. The Association was informedthat the work of AUPISG would be completed in thenear future.15.3.9 The Association was further informed that,similar to previous guidelines for authorized accessto WAFS satellite broadcasts prepared by ICAO andalready distributed to Members, ICAO haddeveloped guidelines for access to aeronauticalmeteorological information that had been alsodistributed to WMO Members. The Associationnoted with interest that the next step in thedevelopment of comprehensive guidelines related tothe exchange of aeronautical meteorologicalinformation under ICAO responsibility, taking intoaccount Note 3 of Annex 4 to Resolution 40 (Cg-XII),would be the expansion of currently availableguidelines as a result of the work of AUPISG.Recent developments15.3.10 The Association noted that recentdevelopments and initiatives such as those on theexpanded satellite activities which now covered R&Dsatellites and the GEOSS initiative had implicationsfor the free and unrestricted international exchangeof meteorological and related data and products thatwere under consideration.15.3.11 In view of the above, the Associationencouraged Members’ NMHSs and otherorganizations concerned to work closely at nationallevel to ensure the development of well-coordinatedactivities for the implementation of those newinitiatives.15.3.12 The Association was informed that adocument on the concept of the hydrometeorologicalsafety of CIS Member countries hadbeen signed by Heads of Governments on 16 April2004 in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. The conceptunderlined the role of NMHSs in ensuringhydrometeorological safety as an integral part of thesecurity of States, and the need to strengthen theinternational exchange of hydrometeorologicalinformation in order to improve forecast products.15.3.13 The Association requested the Secretary-General to keep Members informed of any furtherdevelopments in the international exchange of dataand products.15.4 WMO QUALITY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK(agenda item 15.4)15.4.1 The Association recalled that Congresshad decided, by adopting (Resolution 27 (Cg-XIV) —Quality management, that WMO should worktowards a QMF for NMSs that would eventuallyinclude and develop the following distinct thoughrelated elements, which could address, possibly on aphased basis:(a) WMO technical standards;(b) Quality management system(s), includingquality control;(c) Certification procedure(s).15.4.2 The Association noted the deliberationsand decisions on that subject of the fifty-fifth andfifty-sixth sessions of the Executive Council. Asurvey among NMSs to assess the qualitymanagement (QM) activities, plans and requirementsfor assistance through WMO had revealed that morethan forty Members required technical guidance andother assistance from WMO as a matter of urgency.The survey also showed that the implementation of aquality management system (QMS) could bepursued for separate sectors, such as aeronauticalmeteorological, marine meteorological and


GENERAL SUMMARY 53climatological services, or for the Service as a whole.The Association noted that some NMSs wereimplementing their own QMS and audit mechanisms.It had also been reported that several Members hadgained positive experience with the QMS based onISO 9001, which had resulted in a continuousprocess of improvements in the management andoperation of NMSs and the delivery of services tousers.15.4.3 While there was general concern over thepotential high costs involved, some Members hadgiven preference to a WMO certification procedure,but others felt that such a certification procedurewould lack the full international recognition neededfor strengthening their commercial activities andcompetitiveness.15.4.4 The Association noted with interest theoutcome of the WMO Workshop on QualityManagement, held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, inOctober 2004. The WMO Workshop had furtherdeveloped QM aspects related to observing systemsand instrumentation and aviation meteorologicalservices, reviewed available QM documentationrelevant to NMSs to assess suitability for WMOpublication, and developed additional guidancematerial, and recommended future working activitiestowards meeting the objectives set out inResolution 27 (Cg-XIV). The draft report of theworkshop was currently being reviewed by thepresidents of the technical commissions inpreparation of their January 2005 meeting and wouldbe published in the near future and distributed to allMembers.15.4.5 The Association was satisfied thatguidance material had already been, or was being,developed for distribution to Members. Itappreciated that several Members had offered QMbasic documentation developed in their NMSs, whichcould be published by WMO. Noting that thatmaterial was written in national languages, theAssociation considered it appropriate, wherenecessary, to procure the English translation of themost useful material.15.4.6 Study reports had been completed onQM implications on the instrument sector and on theQM approach to in situ observing systems, and adraft Guide on QM Procedures and Practices forPWS was being prepared. CBS and CIMO wouldconsider that material in due course, as appropriate.The Association also noted that the new edition ofthe Guide to Practices for Meteorological OfficesServing Aviation (WMO-No. 732) developed byCAeM now contained a new section on QM, thatICAO was preparing a Guide on QM orientedtowards ISO 9001 in collaboration with WMO, andthat the new revision of the Guide to AgriculturalMeteorological Practices (WMO-No. 134), beingdeveloped by CAgM, would have a chapter on QM.15.4.7 The Association noted that the fifty-sixthsession of the Executive Council had agreed topursue the phased approach recommended by thepresidents of the technical commissions, i.e. theWMO QMF should focus on technical aspects of theoperation of the NMSs and the first step was toaddress the QM aspects of observing systems andthe QMF aspects with respect to aeronauticalmeteorological services.15.4.8 The Association underlined that thedevelopment and implementation of QMS was achallenge for, and a burden on, the scarceresources, in particular of NMSs in developingcountries. It appealed to Members whose NMSs hadsuccessfully implemented a QMS, or completed aQMS certification according to ISO 9001, to sharetheir experiences with others by making availablerelevant documents for information and guidance. Itwas seen as being particularly important that theWMO QMF would provide clear and unambiguousguidance on QMS and show that the WMO QMFwas complementary, and not exclusive, to QMSaccording to ISO 9001. The WMO QMF should alsoidentify options for pursuing ISO 9001 QMS andcertifications at a reasonable cost, and it shouldaddress quality control aspects related to forecastingand warning products and services in order toachieve quality improvement in the outputs of theNMSs.15.4.9 The representative of ICAO recalledAmendment 72 (2001) to ICAO Annex 3 —Meteorological Service for International AirNavigation, that recommended the implementation ofISO 9001 QMS for aeronautical meteorologicalservices and expressed the hope that it would bepossible to carry out a training seminar onaeronautical meteorology in the Asia/Pacific regionof ICAO in 2005, as that would be a valuableoccasion for addressing QMS issues.15.4.10 The Association invited the Secretary -General to give priority to the early publishing ofguidance material in the English language andthrough electronic means (preferably as a CD-ROMcompilation) to meet the urgent needs of Memberswho would have to address the QM issues in thenear future. It was satisfied that the TechnicalConference held prior to the session of theAssociation had addressed the topic of the WMOQMF and that the first publication of guidancematerial by the Secretariat was foreseen for the endof January 2005. The Association requested theSecretary -General to organize capacity-buildingefforts to help in particular the NMSs of developingcountries, individually or as part of regional groups,in the implementation of QMS, through trainingevents, such as seminars, workshops orconferences, and, where appropriate, expert visits.15.5 GROUP ON EARTH OBSERVATIONS PROCESS(agenda item 15.5)The Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Group on EarthObservations Status and PlansThe first Earth Observation Summit15.5.1 The Association was informed that at theinvitation of the United States, on 31 July 2003 in


54 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIWashington D.C., thirty-three nations, and theEuropean Commission, joined together at the firstEarth Observation Summit (EOS-I) to adopt aDeclaration that called for action in strengtheningglobal cooperation on Earth observations. Thepurpose of the Summit was to:Promote the development of acomprehensive, coordinated and sustainedEarth observation system or systemsamong governments and the internationalcommunity to understand and addressglobal environmental and economicchallenges; and begin a process to developa conceptual framework andimplementation plan for building thiscomprehensive, coordinated, andsustained Earth observation system orsystems.15.5.2 To that end, the Summit participantslaunched the ad hoc GEO, with the goal of furtheringthe creation of a comprehensive, coordinated andsustained Earth observing system or systems. TheGroup, co-chaired by the United States, theEuropean Commission, Japan and South Africa, andjoined by more than 21 international andintergovernmental organizations, began its work byorganizing five subgroups, as well as a secretariat tosupport its activities. In order to promote thedevelopment of the now named GEOSS, GEOdecided that a document describing the GEOSSframework and an associated 10-yearImplementation Plan would be developed.The second Earth Observation Summit15.5.3 The Association noted that four sessions ofGEO had been held, followed by the second EarthObservation Summit (EOS-II). A Communiquéstating approval of the Framework Document,pointing the way forward in the GEO effort andencouraging broad participation in, and support for,the GEO effort, had been approved at EOS-II on 25April 2004. Also agreed at EOS-II was a FrameworkDocument consisting of a high-level synopsis of theGEO effort for senior policy makers; a description ofthe GEOSS purpose and expected benefits; and abroad framework for developing the 10-yearImplementation Plan.15.5.4 A GEO Special Session on Governancewas held in Brussels, Belgium (27–28 September 2004), hosted by the EuropeanCommission. During the Special Session and at therequest of the European Commission, the Secretary-General was invited to provide details for thepotential for hosting the GEOSS Secretariat in theWMO building; and he expressed WMO’swillingness and keenness to do so. The reaction ofGEO Members and participating organizations at theSpecial Session was most supportive.15.5.5 The fifth session of GEO (GEO-5), held inOttawa, Canada (29–30 November 2004), hadcompleted the final draft GEOSS 10-yearImplementation Plan and had prepared the relateddraft Resolution of the third Earth ObservationSummit (EOS-III), planned to be held on 16 February2005 in Brussels, Belgium. While the final decisionwas expected to be taken by EOS-III, theAssociation welcomed with particular satisfactionthat there had been general support at GEO-5 forWMO to host the future GEOSS Secretariat.Future development of GEOSS15.5.6 The Association noted that the fifty-sixthsession of the Executive Council had adoptedResolution 9 (EC-LVI) — Global Earth ObservationSystem of Systems, affirming its full support for theGEO process and resulting GEOSS. The Associationrequested the Secretary-General to keep GEOMembers fully informed of WMO’s long-termexperience in operational observing andtelecommunication systems and service provisionand of its capacity to provide effective leadership inthe implementation and operation of several keycomponents of GEOSS. It expressed its strongsupport for WMO to host the future GEOSSSecretariat. The Association also expressed theexpectation that the implementation of strategicgoals of GEOSS would eventually give additionalvisibility to NMHSs, which operated importantportions of the observations systems, and result inan increased support to those systems and theassociated WMO programmes.15.5.7 The Association noted that according toResolution 9 (EC-LVI), WMO Members should workclosely with other Earth observation agencies atnational level to ensure the development of wellcoordinatednational plans for GEOSSimplementation. In that regard, it adopted Resolution24 (XIII-RA II) appointing a Rapporteur for GEOSS towork on regional implementation aspects of theGEOSS Implementation Plan with terms of referenceas contained in the resolution.16. OTHER REGIONAL ACTIVITIES(agenda item 16)16.1 STRATEGIC PLAN FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OFNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES INREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA)(agenda item 16.1)Implementation of the Strategic Plan for theEnhancement of National Meteorological Servicesin RA II (Asia) (2001–2004)16.1.1 The Association recalled that the twelfthsession of Regional Association II (Seoul, Republicof Korea, 19 to 27 September 2000) had approvedthe Strategic Plan for the Enhancement of NationalMeteorological Services in RA II (Asia) and endorsedthe steps of the implementation of the StrategicPlans.16.1.2 The Association expressed its appreciationand thanks to all those Members who had providedtechnical and expert support for the implementationof the Strategic Plan. It also expressed its


GENERAL SUMMARY 55appreciation to Hong Kong, China; Japan, Mongoliaand Saudi Arabia for their contribution to the trustfund for the development and implementation of theStrategic Plan and encouraged the other Members tocontribute to the fund.16.1.3 The Association noted with appreciationthe activities undertaken by the WMO Secretariatand RA II Members within the framework of theimplementation of the Strategic Plan.Update of the Strategic Plan for the Enhancementof National Meteorological Services in RA II (Asia)16.1.4 The Association recalled that FourteenthCongress had requested the Secretary-General toupdate the Strategic Plan for the Enhancement ofNMSs in RA II.16.1.5 In that regard, the Association consideredthe updated Strategic Plan for the Enhancement ofNational Meteorological Services in RA II (Asia)covering the period 2005–2008, expressed itsappreciation to the Secretary -General for all thenecessary measures taken, and also thanked HongKong, China, for providing an expert to assist in thework of updating the Strategic Plan.16.1.6 The Association examined in detail theupdated Strategic Plan for the Enhancement ofNational Meteorological Services in RegionalAssociation II (Asia) (2005–2008) and agreed toadopt the Plan and Resolution 25 (XIII-RA II). TheAssociation encouraged Members to adapt theStrategic Plan, as appropriate, as national plans.16.1.7 The Association also endorsed the stepsfor the implementation of the Strategic Plan asmentioned in the Plan. In that connection, theAssociation agreed that projects for theimplementation of the Plan at national, subregionaland regional levels should be developed by WMOand its Members and other regional and internationalinstitutions and donor agencies to further enhancetheir Services.16.1.8 As a measure for monitoring theimplementation of the Strategic Plan, the Associationinvited its Members to send the WMO Secretariat thecompleted survey on the basic capability of NationalMeteorological Services in Region II (Asia), asappended to the Strategic Plan, by the beginning ofeach year.16.2 FOURTH TECHNICAL CONFERENCE ONMANAGEMENT OF METEOROLOGICAL ANDHYDROLOGICAL SERVICES IN REGIONALASSOCIATION II (ASIA) (agenda item 16.2)16.2.1 The Association expressed its appreciationto the Secretary-General in assisting Members indeveloping their NMHSs, particularly by organizingregional events, including technical conferences onmanagement, to enable them to exchange views on,and share experience in, the management andoperation of the Services. The Association notedwith appreciation that the third Technical Conferenceon Management of Meteorological and HydrologicalServices in RA II had been held in Muscat, inDecember 2002, at the kind invitation of theGovernment of Oman. It expressed satisfaction that24 of its Members had participated in the Conferenceand that many Directors of NMHSs had presentedlectures or case studies on various topics.16.2.2 The Association noted with satisfaction thatFourteenth Congress had made budgetary provisionfor the organization of the fourth TechnicalConference on Management of Meteorological andHydrological Services in Asia to be held in thesecond biennium (2006–2007) of the fourteenthfinancial period. Considering that constantimprovement on management techniques andpractices was needed for NMHSs to increaseefficiency of the Services and to improve the abilityto address challenges facing them as regardsfinancial and other constraints, the Associationagreed that some of the following topics could bediscussed at the Conference:(a) Organization models of NMHSs;(b) The expectations and role of NMHSs;(c) Legal basis of NMHSs;(d) Planning, performance and qualitymanagement;(e) Strengthening of NMHSs to provideaccurate and timely information to endusers— the issue of interactions betweeninformation providers and end-users;(f) Economics of meteorology;(g) Support measures for the development ofNMHSs in Asia;(h)(i)E-meteorology;Natural disasters and adverse weather andtheir impact on sustainable development.16.2.3 In considering the organization of such atechnical conference on management in the future,the Association recommended that the fifth TechnicalConference on Management of Meteorological andHydrological Services in Asia be held during thefifteenth financial period.16.2.4 The Association also noted withappreciation that the second Regional Seminar onCost Recovery and Administration in RA II had beenheld in Hong Kong, China, from 4 to 6 December2004, at the kind invitation of the Government ofHong Kong, China. It expressed satisfaction with thelevel of participation of Members of the Associationin the Seminar and the fact that many Directors ofNMHSs had presented lectures or case studies onvarious topics.16.2.5 The Association also expressed itsappreciation to the Secretary-General for planning toorganize a regional seminar on cost recovery andadministration during the next financial period. Itagreed that the topics of the seminar could includethe following:(a) Quality management of NMSs;(b) Economic benefits of Meteorological andHydrological Services;(c) Adaptation of the structure of NMHSs toeconomic development;(d) Cost recovery and marketing.


56 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II16.2.6 The Association requested the AWG toselect, as appropriate, the topics of the abovementionedtechnical conference and seminar.16.3 INTERNAL MATTERS OF THE ASSOCIATION(agenda item 16.3)Report of the Advisory Working Group of RA II16.3.1 The Association noted with appreciationthe reports of the sessions of the RA II AWG. TheAssociation complimented Mr A. Majeed H. Isa,acting president and chairperson of the RA II AWG,and members of the Group for the activities carriedout according to its terms of reference, in particularfor the follow-up actions on the implementation of theStrategic Plan for the Enhancement of NMSs in Asia(2000–2004), the work of RA II working groups andrapporteurs, as well as the implementation of theWMO Programmes and activities in the Region. TheAWG made a number of recommendationsconcerning assistance to the NMSs of developingcountries in the implementation of the GTS, as perthe RA II RMTN, and arrangement of training events.The AWG also identified several issues that it wasaddressing, among others, the infrastructure ofseveral NMSs, difficulties in accessing observationdata and products, the use of the Internet, and theneed and requirements for climate information.16.3.2 The Association, in recognizing theimportance of coordinating its activities, agreed to reestablishthe Advisory Working Group of RA II andadopted Resolution 26 (XIII-RA II).Review of the subsidiary bodies of theAssociation16.3.3 The Association noted with appreciationthe information provided by the acting president onthe activities of the RA II subsidiary bodies during theintersessional period. It expressed its satisfaction forthe working groups’ activities but noted with concernthat many had not been able to perform satisfactorilyfor various reasons. The Association encouragedMembers to assist in ensuring that the designatedmembers of working groups and rapporteursdischarge their responsibilities efficiently.16.3.4 The Association decided to make thenecessary arrangements to keep its subsidiarybodies active throughout the intersessional periodand to keep the Association abreast ofdevelopments. In that regard, the Association, afterexamining the establishment of relevant workinggroups and rapporteurs, recorded its decisions underthe relevant agenda items.16.3.5 The Association encouraged thechairpersons and members of working groups, aswell as rapporteurs, to take all available opportunitiesto work very closely with each other and to facilitatecoordination of activities across the working groupsand rapporteurs.17. WMO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA ANDTHE SOUTH-WEST PACIFIC, INCLUDINGTHE SUBREGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA(agenda item 17)17.1 The Association reviewed the activities ofthe Regional Office for Asia and the South-WestPacific since its twelfth session. It noted that theOffice was continuing its functions andresponsibilities as an integral part of the WMOSecretariat. It also noted the effective assistanceprovided by the Office to the president, vicepresidentand subsidiary bodies of the Association indischarging their responsibilities. It expressed itsappreciation to the Secretary-General and the staffof the Regional Office for their continued support tothe activities of the Association during theintersessional period.17.2 The Association noted with satisfaction theincreasing role of the Regional Office as a focal pointand an information centre for regional activities andin assisting Members to develop their NMHSs andimplement WMO Programmes and other activitiesthat had a regional focus. It recognized the efforts ofthe Regional Office to contribute to the new highpriorityneeds in the areas of science andtechnology, capacity-building, climate variability andchange, water resources management and disastermitigation as well as other environmental issues thathad been identified by Members. The Associationrequested the Secretary-General to continue hisefforts to strengthen the Regional Office in order torespond quickly to the growing needs andrequirements of Members in the Region.17.3 The Association expressed satisfaction atthe commendable efforts of the Regional Office inmaintaining close contact with Members throughvisits and in supporting regional events in order toensure the strengthening of WMO activities in thedevelopment of meteorology and operationalhydrology at national and regional levels. TheAssociation agreed that the staff of the RegionalOffice should continue to make every effort to furtherstrengthen contact with Members and facilitate theimplementation of regional activities.17.4 The Association recognized the efforts ofthe Office in maintaining a close liaison andcollaborating with regional bodies such ESCAP,ESCWA and ASEAN. It invited the Office tocontinue that type of activity and to use thoseinstitutions to promote meteorology and operationalhydrology as well as related environmental issuesand to increase the awareness of policy makers ofthe role of NMHSs and WMO in contributing tosustainable development.17.5 The Association noted that the biannualNewsletter provided a vehicle for the exchange anddissemination of regional news and a means ofmaintaining a close liaison between the RegionalOffice and Members of RA II and RA V. TheAssociation welcomed the initiative of the Secretary-General regarding the optimization of public


GENERAL SUMMARY 57information material disseminated by WMO andrequested that newsletters should be issued in printform and electronic versions and posted on theInternet. The Association emphasized the need forthe newsletter to be focused on issues of interest tothe Region. In that connection, it urged Members toactively contribute news items and articles to theRegional Office on a regular basis. The Associationrequested the Secretary-General to include, in therelevant web site under WMO home page,information of the activities and programmes beingundertaken by Members in the Region.17.6 Noting the advantages and costeffectivenessof havi ng regional and subregionaloffices closer to the Members concerned, theExecutive Council, at its fifty-sixth session, hadrequested the Secretary -General to take themeasures required, in consultation with regionalpresidents, to relocate the Offices now based inGeneva. Members, however, expressed support forthe idea that the Regional Office for Asia and theSouth-West Pacific should remain in Geneva in viewof the advantages of its location at WMOHeadquarters to ensure effective and efficientimplementation of the RP and related activi ties. Inthat regard, the Association agreed that the Officeshould remain in Geneva for the time being and thatthat issue would be addressed after a carefulevaluation of the operations of the SubregionalOffice for Asia.17.7 The Association noted with appreciationthe decision of the Secretary-General to establishthe Subregional Office for Asia in Bahrain.17.8 The Association noted with satisfactionthat a certain number of measures undertaken bythe Secretary-General to effect structural andorganizational changes in the Secretariat, especiallywith respect to regional and subregional offices andthe Technical Cooperation Department. Itrequested the Secretary-General to continue hisefforts to strengthen the Regional Office for Asiaand the South-West Pacific and the SubregionalOffice for Asia to meet the requirements ofMembers in the respective Regions.18. SCIENTIFIC LECTURES ANDDISCUSSIONS (agenda item 18)18.1 The following scientific lectures werepresented during the session:(a) Long-term variations, signatures, sourcesof asian dust and role of climate changeversus desertification in Asian dustemission by Mr Zhang Xiaoye (China);(b) Challenges in providing weather servicesfor a world class airport by Mr H.G. Wai(Hong Kong, China);(c) Climate risk reduction and naturaldisasters by Mr Ali Mohammad Noorian(Islamic Republic of Iran);(d) Improvements in prediction of heavyrainfall events with the JMA nonhydrostaticmesoscale model by Mr KoichiNagasaka (Japan);(e) Science of climate change by Mr Qamaruz-ZamanChaudhry (Pakistan).18.2 The lectures were followed by fruitfuldiscussions in which delegates participated. TheAssociation expressed its appreciation to thelecturers for their informative and forward-lookingpresentations. It requested the Secretary-General,in consultation with the president of RA II, to makethe necessary arrangements for scientific lecturesduring the next session of the Association.19. REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RESOLUTIONSAND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THEASSOCIATION AND OF RELEVANTEXECUTIVE COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS(agenda item 19)19.1 The Association examined those of itsresolutions which were still in force at the time of thethirteenth session.19.2 The Association noted that most of its pastresolutions had been replaced by new resolutionsadopted during the session. It was further notedthat, while a few resolutions had been incorporatedin the appropriate WMO publications, some of theprevious resolutions were still required to be kept inforce.19.3 The Association accordingly adoptedResolution 27 (XIII-RA II).19.4 The Association considered thatResolution 1 (EC-LIII) — Report of the twelfthsession of Regional Association II (Asia) need notbe kept in force.20. ELECTION OF OFFICERS(agenda item 20)The Association unanimously electedMessrs A. Majeed H. Isa (Bahrain) as president andChiu-Ying Lam (Hong Kong, China) as vicepresidentof WMO Regional Association II.21. DATE AND PLACE OF THEFOURTEENTH SESSION(agenda item 21)In accordance with Regulation 170 of theWMO General Regulations, the president of theAssociation should determine the date and place ofthe fourteenth session in agreement with thePresident of WMO and after consultation with theSecretary -General.22. CLOSURE OF THE SESSION(agenda item 22)22.1 The principal delegates of China, India,Iraq, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Lao PDR,Macao, China; Myanmar, Nepal, Oman (on behalf ofArab countries), Pakistan, Republic of Korea,Russian Federation, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Turkeyexpressed their gratitude to the Government ofHong Kong, China, in particular the Hong Kong


58 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIObservatory, for hosting the session in an admirableway with the excellent arrangements made andgenerous hospitality extended to all participants.Appreciation was also expressed to the WMOSecretariat and the local secretariat for the supportthat had helped the smooth running of the session,including the interpretation of WMO officiallanguages provided at the session. Thanks weredue to Messrs A. Majeed H. Isa and Chiu-Ying Lam,acting president and vice-president of theAssociation, respectively, for their leadership andcontributions in supporting the activities of theRegion. Messrs A. Majeed H. Isa and Chiu-YingLam were also congratulated on their election aspresident and vice-president of the Association,respectively, and were wished every success inperforming their ongoing duties.22.2 Mr Hong Yan, the representative of theSecretary -General, thanked the Government ofHong Kong, China, and the Hong Kong Observatoryfor the commendable support, the excellentarrangements and generous hospitality. Heextended his appreciation to all delegates for theirfruitful contributions and the high spirit ofcooperation and understanding demonstrated in thecourse of the session. He thanked the actingpresident and vice-president and co-chairpersons ofthe working committees for the efficient way inwhich they had carried our their tasks, which hadled to the success of the session. He also thankedMr Chiu-Ying Lam, Director of the Hong KongObservatory, and his staff for their valuable supportwhich had been one of the major factors of thesuccess of the session. He congratulated theelected president and vice-president and lookedforward to working with them closely in the comingyears.22.3 Mr Chiu-Ying Lam, the principal delegateof Hong Kong, China, on behalf of his Government,congratulated the participants on the success of thesession. He expressed his appreciation to alldelegates for their high spirit of cooperation andunderstanding. He thanked the acting presidentand co-chairpersons of the working committees fortheir contributions to the session. He also thankedthe Secretary-General of WMO and the staff of theSecretariat for the support they had provided.22.4 On behalf of all participants, Mr A. MajeedH. Isa, acting president of the Association,expressed his appreciation to the people andGovernment of Hong Kong, China, for hosting thesession in Hong Kong. He thanked all delegatesand hoped that the programmes and activities of theAssociation would be further strengthened and thatthe resolutions adopted would be implemented. Healso thanked Mr M. Jarraud, Secretary-General ofWMO, and his staff, in particular those from theRegional Office for Asia and the South-West Pacific,for their close cooperation and valuable support ofthe work of the Association.22.5 The thirteenth session of RegionalAssociation II closed at 11.15 a.m. on15 December 2004.


RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE SESSIONRESOLUTION 1 (XIII-RA II)WORKING GROUP ON PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE WWW IN REGION IIREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 2 (Cg-XIV) — World WeatherWatch Programme for 2004–2007,(2) Resolution 5 (Cg-XIV) — WMO SpaceProgramme,(3) Resolution 25 (Cg-XIV) — Sixth WMO LongtermPlan (2004–2011),(4) The report of the chairperson of the WorkingGroup on Planning and Implementation of theWWW in Region II,CONSIDERING:(1) That World Weat her Watch (WWW) data andproducts are of vital importance to Members ofRA II to meet existing and new requirementsfor meteorological services,(2) That the implementation of the WWW in theRegion needs to be kept under constantreview,(3) That the introduction of the new concepts andtechnology into the WWW will be of greatbenefit to all Members in the Region,(4) That full integration of the WWW functionalcomponents requires careful coordinationamong Members of RA II and constantevaluation of the related projects,DECIDES:(1) To establish a Working Group on Planningand Implementation of the WWW in Region IIwith the following terms of reference:(a) To monitor the progress made in theimplementation and operation of theWWW in the Region and advise onpossible improvements and priorities forappropriate action to be carried out underthe WWW and on the need for externalsupport, where required;(b) To keep under review the action takenunder the Sixth WMO Long-term Planwith a view to updating and furtherdeveloping the WWW relating to RA II;(c) To develop proposals for the furtherdevelopment and full integration of theWWW components and functions with aview to achieving a cost-effectiveoperation and a better supply of WWWdata and products throughout the Region;(d) To keep abreast of new developments inthe field of meteorological dataprocessing, observing techniques,telecommunications and codes and tomake recommendations for theirapplication as appropriate in the Region;(e) To identify and keep under reviewregional requirements for the exchange ofobservational data and processedproducts and to propose measures andprocedures as appropriate to meet thoseneeds for information from within andoutside the Region;(f)To promote implementation of the PublicWeather Services Programme in theRegion;(g) To advise the president of theAssociation on all matters concerning theWWW;(2) That the Working Group should be composedof:(a) A coordinator of a Subgroup on RegionalAspects of the Global TelecommunicationSystems and Data Management;(b) A Rapporteur on Regional Aspects of theGlobal Observing System;(c) A Rapporteur on Regional Aspects of theGlobal Data Processing and ForecastingSystem;(d) Co-Rapporteurs on Regional Aspects ofPublic Weather Services;(e) Other experts as nominated by Members;with the terms of reference of the subgroupand rapporteurs as indicated in the annex tothis resolution;(3) To designate in accordance with Regulation32 of the WMO General RegulationsMr A.K. Bhatnagar (India) as chairperson ofthe Working Group and Mr H. Ichijo (Japan)as coordinator of the subgroup;(4) To invite:(a) Mr Chen Yongqing (China) to serve asRapporteur on the Regional Aspects ofthe Global Observing System;(b) Mr Yoo Heedong (Republic of Korea) toserve as Rapporteur on the RegionalAspects of the Global Data Processingand Forecasting System;(c) Ms H. Lam (Hong Kong, China) andMr A. Lyakhov (Russian Federation) toserve as Co-Rapporteurs on the RegionalAspects of Public Weather Services;(d) To invite Members to nominate experts toserve on the group and on the subgroup;


60 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II(e) To request the chairperson of theWorking Group to submit progressreports at yearly intervals to the presidentof the Association and a final report nolater than six months before thefourteenth session of the Association._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 2(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.ANNEX TO RESOLUTION 1 (XIII-RA II)WORKING GROUP ON PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE WWW IN REGION IIThe terms of reference of the subgroup and rapporteurs nominated under Resolution 1 (XIII-RA II) are asfollows:(a)Subgroup on Regional Aspects of the Global Telecommunication System and Data Management(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi )(vii)To keep under review the organizational, technical and procedural aspects of the GlobalTelecommunication System (GTS) in the Region;To keep under review the status of implementation and operation of the Regional MeteorologicalTelecommunication Network (RMTN), including in particular routing arrangements for theexchange of observational data and processed information within the Region and with otherRegions;To keep under review both real-time and non-real-time WWW monitoring activities pertaining tothe GTS in the Region;To keep abreast of developments in telecommunication techniques, procedures and equipment,including in particular satellite-based telecommunication services, and to study their applicability,as appropriate, to the RMTN;To formulate recommendations for the further development and upgrading of the RMTN;To formulate recommendations for the coordination of the implementation of telecommunicationfacilities and techniques;To promote regional contributions in the framework of the development of the Framework for theWMO Information System (FWIS);(viii) To keep under review data and information presentation, including exchange formats and codesand conversion between formats and codes, especially the regional migration plan to table-drivencode forms, and make recommendations;(ix)(x)(xi)(xii)To keep under review data and product selection and presentation to recipients’ NationalMeteorological Centres (NMCs);To review procedures for the reception of WWW data and products in case of major outages atkey facilities;To advise and report to the chairperson of the Working Group on all matters concerning theregional aspects of the GTS and data management in the Region;To represent the Region on the CBS Implementation Coordination Team on Information Systemsand Services.(b)Rapporteur on Regional Aspects of the Global Observing System(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)To review and advise on the observational data requirements of Members of Regional AssociationII in the context of the WWW Programme and WMO Space Programme in the Sixth WMO LongtermPlan;To review and advise on the design and implementation of the Regional Basic Synoptic Network(RBSN) and Regional Basic Climatological Network (RBCN) of surface and upper-air stations;To keep abreast of matters related to the development and introduction of new observingsystems, particularly space-based and surface-based remote sensing, and advise on theirapplication in the Region and to review the exchange of weather radar data within the Region;To advise and report to the chairperson of the Working Group on all matters concerning regionalaspects of the Global Observing System;To represent the Region on the CBS Implementation Coordination Team on Integrated ObservingSystems.


RESOLUTIONS 61(c)Rapporteur on Regional Aspects of the Global Data-processing and Forecasting System(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)To keep abreast of developments in data-processing equipment and techniques which could bebeneficially introduced at national and regional centres to improve their operational capability bothwithin the WWW system and in related areas;To formulate recommendations for coordinated implementation of data-processing facilities andtechniques at GDPFS, GTS and other centres and, if required, for multi-purpose use;To advise and report to the chairperson of the Working Group on all matters concerning dataprocessingactivities in the Region;To represent the Region on the CBS Implementation Coordination Team on Data-processing andForecasting Systems.(d)Rapporteur on Regional Aspects of Public Weather Services(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)To keep under review the implementation of the Public Weather Services Programme inRegion II;To advise the chairperson of the Working Group on matters relating to formulation, presentationand dissemination of forecasts and warnings and establishing good relations with the media andthe private sector;To keep under review education and training requirements related to the Public Weather ServicesProgramme;To keep under review, in coordination with the Rapporteur on Regional Aspects of the GDPFS,aspects relating to exchange and coordination of hazardous weather information amongneighbouring countries;To represent the Region on the CBS Implementation Coordination Team on Public WeatherServices.RESOLUTION 2 (XIII-RA II)REGIONAL BASIC SYNOPTIC NETWORKREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 3 (XII-RA II) — Regional BasicSynoptic Network,(2) The Manual on the Global Observing System(WMO-No. 544), Volume I — Part III, —Regulations 2.1.3.1 – 2.1.3.5 and the definitionof the Regional Basic Synoptic Networks,(3) The Manual on the Global TelecommunicationSystem (WMO-No. 386), Volume I — Part I —Attachment 1–3, Section 3,CONSIDERING that the establishment andmaintenance of a regional basic synoptic network ofsurface and upper-air synoptic stations, adequate tomeet the requirements of Members and of the WorldWeather Watch, constitute one of the most importantobligations of Members under Article 2 of the WMOConvention,DECIDES that the stations and the observationalprogrammes listed in the annex to this resolutionconstitute the Regional Basic Synoptic Network(RBSN) in Region II;URGES Members:(1) To spare no effort in their endeavours tosecure, at the earliest date possible, fullimplementation of the network of the stationsand observational programmes set forth inthe annex to this resolution;(2) To comply fully with the standard times ofobservation, the global and regional codingprocedures and data collection standards, aslaid down in the WMO Technical Regulations(WMO-No. 49) and the Manuals on the GOS(WMO-No. 544), on Codes (WMO-No. 306)and on the GTS (WMO-No. 386);AUTHORIZES the president of the Association toapprove, at the request of the Members concernedand in consultation with the Secretary-General,minor amendments to the list of RBSN stations inaccordance with the procedures laid down in theManual on the Global Observing System (WMO-No. 544), Volume IIRegional Aspects —Region II (Asia)._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 3(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.


62 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIANNEX TO RESOLUTION 2 (XIII-RA II)LIST OF STATIONS COMPRISING THE RBSN IN REGION IIINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONSAFGHANISTAN, ISLAMIC STATE OF40904 FAIZABAD S40913 KUNDUZ S40922 MIMANA S40938 HEART S40938 HEART W R40942 CHAKHCHARAN S40945 BAMIYAN S40948 KABUL AIRPORT WR40954 JALALABAD S40971 KHOST S40974 FARAH S40977 TIRIN KOT S40988 BUST S40990 KANDAHAR AIRPORT S40996 DESHOO SBAHRAIN41150BAHRAIN (INT.AIRPORT)41151 JARIM S41152 HOWAR S41153 COUSWAY S41154 JABEL AL DOKHAN S41155 F1 (FORMULA 1) S41156 RAS ALBER SBANGLADESH41859 RANGPUR S41883 BOGRA S41883 BOGRA W R41886 MYMENSINGH S41891 SYLHET S41907 ISHURDI S41923 DHAKA S41923 DHAKA W R41936 JESSORE S41943 FENI S41950 BARISAL SCHITTAGONG41978 (PATENGA)S41992 COX'S BAZAR SCAMBODIA48966 SIEM REAP S48970 KVOTIES S48972 STUNG TRENG SKOMPONG SOM/VILLE48983 (EX SIHANOUKVILLE) S48985 KOMPOT SSINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONSPHNOM-48991 PENH/POCHENTONG S48991PHNOM-PENH/POCHENTONG W R48995 KOMPONG CHAM S48997 PREY VENG S48998 SVAY RENG SCHINA50557 NENJIANG S50557 NENJIANG W R50603 XIN BARAG YOUQI S50632 BUGT S50727 ARXAN S50745 QIQIHAR S50756 HAILUN S50774 YICHUN S50774 YICHUN W R50788 FUJIN S50915 ULIASTAI S50949 QIAN GORLOS S50953 HARBIN S50953 HARBIN W R50963 TONGHE S50978 JIXI S51076 ALTAY S51076 ALTAY W R51087 FUYUN S51133 TACHENG S51156 HOBOKSAR S51243 KARAMAY S51288 BAYTIK SHAN S51334 JINGHE S51431 YINING S51431 YINING W R51463 WU LU MU QI S51495 SHISANJIANFANG S51542 BAYANBULAK S51573 TURPAN S51644 KUQA S51644 KUQA W R51656 KORLA S51709 KASHI S51709 KASHI W R51716 BACHU S51730 ALAR S51747 TAZHONG S


RESOLUTIONS 63INDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS51765 TIKANLIK S51777 RUOQIANG S51777 RUOQIANG W R51811 SHACHE S51828 HOTAN S51828 HOTAN W R51839 MINFENG W R51886 MANGNAI S52203 HAMI S52203 HAMI W R52267 EJIN QI S52267 EJIN QI W R52323 MAZONG SHAN S52323 MAZONG SHAN W R52418 DUNHUANG S52418 DUNHUANG W R52495 BAYAN MOD S52533 JIUQUAN S52533 JIUQUAN W R52602 LENGHU S52652 ZHANGYE S52681 MINQIN S52681 MINQIN W R52713 DA-QAIDAM S52754 GANGCA S52818 GOLMUD S52818 GOLMUD W R52836 DULAN S52866 XINING S52866 XINING W R52983 YUZHONG S53068 ERENHOT S53068 ERENHOT W R53083 NARAN BULAG S53149 MANDAL S53192 ABAG QI S53231 HAILS S53276 JURH S53336 HALIUT S53391 HUADE S53463 HOHHOT S53463 HOHHOT W R53502 JARTAI S53513 LINHE S53513 LINHE W R53529 OTOG QI S53543 DONGSHENG S53564 HEQU SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS53588 WUTAI SHAN S53614 YINCHUAN S53614 YINCHUA N W R53646 YULIN S53723 YANCHI S53772 TAIYUAN S53772 TAIYUAN W R53798 XINGTAI S53845 YAN AN S53845 YAN AN W R53915 PINGLIANG S53915 PINGLIANG W R53959 YUNCHENG S54012 XI UJIMQIN QI S54026 JARUD QI S54027 LINDONG S54094 MUDANJIANG S54102 XILIN HOT S54102 XILIN HOT W R54135 TONGLIAO S54161 CHANGCHUN S54161 CHANGCHUN W R54208 DUOLUN S54218 CHIFENG S54218 CHIFENG W R54236 ZHANGWU S54273 HUADIAN S54292 YANJI S54292 YANJI W R54337 JINZHOU S54342 SHENYANG S54342 SHENYANG W R54374 LINJIANG S54374 LINJIANG W R54377 JI'AN S54401 ZHANGJIAKOU S54423 CHENGDE S54471 YINGKOU S54497 DANDONG S54511 BEIJING S54511 BEIJING W R54539 LETING S54618 POTOU S54662 DALIAN S54662 DALIAN W R54727 ZHANGQIU W R54753 LONGKOU S54776 CHENGSHANTOU S


64 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS54823 JINAN S54843 WEIFANG S54857 QINGDAO S54857 QINGDAO W R54909 DINGTAO S55228 SHIQUANHE S55279 BAINGOIN S55299 NAGQU S55299 NAGQU W R55472 XAINZA S55578 XIGAZE S55591 LHASA S55591 LHASA W R55664 TINGRI S55696 LHUNZE S55773 PAGRI S56004 TUOTUOHE S56018 ZADOI S56021 QUMARLEB S56029 YUSHU S56029 YUSHU W R56033 MADOI S56046 DARLAG S56079 RUO'ERGAI S56080 HEZUO S56080 HEZUO W R56096 WUDU S56106 SOG XIAN S56116 DENGQEN S56137 QAMDO S56137 QAMDO W R56146 GARZE W R56152 SERTAR S56172 BARKAM S56182 SONGPAN S56247 BATANG S56294 CHENGDU S56294 CHENGDU W R56312 NYINGCHI S56444 DEQEN S56462 JIULONG S56492 YIBIN S56571 XICHANG S56571 XICHANG W R56651 LIJING S56691 WEINING S56691 WEINING W R56739 TENGCHONG SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS56739 TENGCHONG W R56778 KUNMING S56778 KUNMING W R56951 LINCANG S56964 SIMAO S56964 SIMAO W R56969 MENGLA S56985 MENGZI S56985 MENGZI W R57036 XI'AN S57036 XI'AN W R57067 LUSHI S57083 ZHENGZHOU S57083 ZHENGZHOU W R57127 HANZHONG S57127 HANZHONG W R57178 NANYANG S57245 ANKANG S57265 GUANGHUA S57297 XINYANG S57328 DA XIAN S57411 NANCHONG S57447 ENSHI S57447 ENSHI W R57461 YICHANG S57461 YICHANG W R57494 WUHAN S57494 WUHAN W R57516 CHONGQING S57516 CHONGQING W R57633 YOUYANG S57662 CHANGDE S57687 CHANGSHA W R57687 CHANGSHA S57745 ZHIJIANG S57749 HUAIHUA W R57799 JI'AN S57816 GUIYANG S57816 GUIYANG W R57866 LINGLING S57902 XINGREN S57957 GUILIN S57957 GUILIN W R57972 CHENZHOU S57972 CHENZHOU W R57993 GANZHOU S57993 GANZHOU W R58027 XUZHOU S


RESOLUTIONS 65INDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS58027 XUZHOU W R58040 GANYU S58102 BOXIAN S58144 QINGJIANG S58150 SHEYANG S58150 SHEYANG W R58203 FUYANG S58203 FUYANG W R58221 BENGBU S58238 NANJING S58238 NANJING W R58251 DONGTAI S58265 LUSI S58314 HUOSHAN S58362 SHANGHAI S58362 SHANGHAI W R58424 ANQING S58424 ANQING W R58457 HANGZHOU S58457 HANGZHOU W R58472 SHENGSI S58477 DINGHAI S58527 JINGDEZHEN S58606 NANCHANG S58606 NANCHANG W R58633 QU XIAN S58633 QU XIAN W R58665 HONGJIA W R58666 DACHEN DAO S58725 SHAOWU S58725 SHAOWU W R58752 RUIAN S58847 FUZHOU S58847 FUZHOU W R58921 YONG'AN S58968 TAIBEI S58968 TAIBEI W R58974 PENGJIA YU S59007 GUANGNAN S59023 HECHI S59082 SHAOGUAN S59117 MEI XIAN S59134 XIAMEN S59134 XIAMEN W R59211 BAISE S59211 BAISE W R59265 WUZHOU S59265 WUZHOU W RINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS59280 QING YUAN W R59287 GUANGZHOU S59293 HEYUAN S59316 SHANTOU S59316 SHANTOU W R59358 TAINAN S59417 LONGZHOU S59431 NANNING S59431 NANNING W R59501 SHANWEI S59559 HENGCHUN S59644 BEIHAI S59663 YANGJIANG S59758 HAIKOU S59758 HAIKOU W R59792 DONGSHA DAO S59838 DONGFANG S59948 YAXIAN S59981 XISHA DAO S59981 XISHA DAO W R59985 SANHU DAO S59995 YONGSHUJIAO S59997 NANSHA DAO SDEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA47003 SENBONG S47005 SAMJIYON S47008 CHONGJIN S47014 CHUNGGANG S47016 HYESAN S47020 KANGGYE S47022 PUNGSAN S47025 KIMCHAEK S47028 SUPUNG S47031 CHANGJIN S47035 SINUIJU S47037 KUSONG S47039 HUICHON S47041 HAMHEUNG S47046 SINPO S47050 ANJU S47052 YANGDOK S47055 WONSAN S47058 PYONGYANG S47058 PYONGYANG W R47060 NAMPO S47061 CHANGJON S47065 SARIWON S47067 SINGYE S


66 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS47068 RYONGYON S47069 HAEJU S47070 KAESONG S47075 PYONGGANG SHONG KONG, CHINA45004 KOWLOON W RHONG KONG INT.45007 AIRPORTSINDIA42027 SRINAGAR S42027 SRINAGAR W R42071 AMRITSAR S42101 PATIALA S42101 PATIALA W R42111 DEHRADUN S42131 HISSAR S42165 BIKANER S42182NEWDELHI/SAFDARJUNG S42182NEWDELHI/SAFDARJUNG W R42189 BAREILLY S42260 AGRA S42309 NORTH LAKHIMPUR S42314DIBRUGARH/MOHANBARI S42314DIBRUGARH/MOHANBARI W R42328 JAISALMER S42339 JODHPUR S42339 JODHPUR W R42348 JAIPUR/SANGANER S42361 GWALIOR S42361 GWALIOR W R42369 LUCKNOW/AMAUSI S42369 LUCKNOW/AMAUSI W R42379 GORAKHPUR S42379 GORAKHPUR W R42398 SILIGURI S42397 SILIGURI W R42410 GUWAHATI S42410 GUWAHATI W R42415 TEZPUR S42452 KOTA AERODROME S42475 ALLAHABAD/BAMHRAULI S42492 PATNA S42492 PATNA W R42559 GUNA S42571 SATNA S42587 DALTONGANJ S42591 GAYA SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS42591 GAYA W42623 IMPHAL/TULIHAL S42623 IMPHAL/TULIHAL W42634 BHUJ-RUDRAMATA S42634 BHUJ-RUDRAMATA W42647 AHMADABAD S42647 AHMADABAD W R42667 BHOPAL/BAIRAGHAR S42667 BHOPAL/BAIRAGHAR W R42675 JABALPUR S42675 JABALPUR W42701 M.O. RANCHI S42701 M.O. RANCHI W R42706 BANKURA S42724 AGARTALA S42724 AGARTALA W R42734 JAMNAGAR W42737 RAJKOT S42754 INDORE S42779 PENDRA S42798 JAMSHEDPUR S42809 KOLKATA/DUMDUM S42809 KOLKATA/DUMDUM W R42840 SURAT S42867 NAGPUR/SONEGAON S42867 NAGPUR/SONEGAON W R42874 PBO RAIPUR S42874 PBO RAIPUR W R42886 JHARSIGUDA S42895 BALASORE S42909 VERAVAL S42909 VERAVAL W42921 NASIK CITY S42933 AKOLA S42971 BHUBANESHWAR S42971 BHUBANESHWAR W R42977 SANDHEADS S43003 BOMBAY/SANTACRUZ S43003 BOMBAY/SANTACRUZ W R43014AURANGABADCHIKALTHANAAERODROME S43014AURANGABADCHIKALTHANAAERODROME W R43041 JAGDALPUR S43041 JAGDALPUR W R43063 PUNE S43086 RAMGUNDAM S43110 RATNAGIRI S


RESOLUTIONS 67INDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS43117 SHOLAPUR S43128 HYDERABAD AIRPORT S43128 HYDERABAD AIRPORT W R43150CWCVISHAKHAPATNAM/WALTAIRS43150CWCVISHAKHAPATNAM/WALTAIRW R43185MACHILIPATNAM/FRANCHPET S43185MACHILIPATNAM/FRANCHPET W R43189 KAKINADA S43192 GOA/PANJIM S43192 GOA/PANJIM W R43198 BELGAUM/SAMBRE S43201 GADAG S43213 KURNOOL S43226 HONAVAR S43233 CHITRADURGA S43237 PBO ANANTAPUR S43245 NELLORE S43279CHENNAI/MINAMBAKKAM S43279CHENNAI/MINAMBAKKAM W R43284 MANGALORE/BAJPE SMANGALORE/43285 PANAMBURW R43295 BANGALORE S43295 BANGALORE W R43311 AMINIDIVI S43311 AMINIDIVI W R43314 KOZHIKODE SCOIMBATORE/43321 PEELAMEDU S43329 CUDDALORE S43333 PORT BLAIR S43333 PORT BLAIR W R43344 TIRUCHCHIRAPALLI S43346 KARAIKAL S43346 KARAIKAL W R43353 KOCHI/WILLINGDON S43353 KOCHI/WILLINGDON R43369 MINICOY S43369 MINICOY W R43371 THIRUVANANTHAPURAM S43371 THIRUVANANTHAPURAM W RIRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF40700 PARS ABAD MOGHAN S40701 MAKKO S40703 KHOY S40704 AHAR SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS40706 TABRIZ S40706 TABRIZ W R40708 ARDEBIL S40710 SARAB S40712 ORUMIEH S40713 MARAGHEH S40716 MEYANEH S40718 ANZALI S40719 RASHT S40721 MARAVE-TAPPEH S40723 BOJNOURD S40726 MOHABAD S40727 SAGHEZ S40729 ZANJAN S40731 GHAZVIN S40732 RAMSAR S40734 NOSHAHR S40736 BABULSAR S40737 GHARAKHIL S40738 GORGAN S40739 SHAHRUD S40740 GHUCHAN S40741 SARAKHS S40743 SABZEVAR S40745 MASHHAD S40745 MASHHAD W R40747 SANANDAJ S40754 TEHRAN-MEHRABAD S40754 TEHRAN-MEHRABAD W R40757 SEMNAN S40762 TORBAT-HEYDARIEH S40763 KASHMAR S40766 KERMANSHAH S40766 KERMANSHAH W R40768 HAMEDAN S40769 ARAK S40780 ILAM S40782 KHORRAM ABAD S40783 ALI-GOODARZ S40785 KASHAN S40789 KHOR S40791 TABAS S40792 FERDOUS S40794 SAFI-ABAD DEZFUL S40798 SHAHRE-KORD S40800 ESFAHAN S40800 ESFAHAN W R40809 BIRJAND S


68 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS40809 BIRJAND W R40811 AHWAZ S40812 MASJED-SOLEYMAN S40818 ABADEH S40821 YAZD S40827 NEHBANDAN S40829 ZABOL S40831 ABADAN S40833 OMIDIEH SGACH SARAN DU40835 GUNBADANS40836 YASOGE S40841 KERMAN S40841 KERMAN W R40848 SHIRAZ S40848 SHIRAZ W R40851 SIRJAN S40853 BAFT S40854 BAM S40856 ZAHEDAN S40856 ZAHEDAN W40857 BUSHEHR S40859 FASA S40872 BANDAR DAYYER S40875 BANDARABBASS S40875 BANDARABBASS W R40877 KAHNUJ S40878 SARAVAN S40879 IRANSHAHR S40882 KISH ISLAND S40883 BANDAR LENGEH S40889 SIRI ISLAND S40890 ABU MUSA S40893 JASK S40897 KONARAK S40898 CHAHBAHAR SIRAQ40608 MOSUL S40608 MOSUL W R40621 KIRKUK S40634 HADITHA S40637 KANAQIN S40642 RUTBAH S40650 BAGHDAD W R40658 NUKAIB S40665 KUT-AL-HAI S40672 DIWANIYA S40676 NASIRIYA S40676 NASIRIYA WINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS40684 AL-SALMAN S40686 BUSSAYA S40689 BASRAH WJAPAN47401 WAKKANAI S47401 WAKKANAI W R47407 ASAHIKAWA S47409 ABASHIRI S47412 SAPPORO S47412 SAPPORO W R47418 KUSHIRO S47420 NEMURO S47420 NEMURO W R47421 SUTTSU S47426 URAKAWA S47430 HAKODATE S47570 WAKAMATSU S47575 AOMORI S47582 AKITA W R47582 AKITA S47585 MIYAKO S47590 SENDAI S47590 SENDAI W R47598 ONAHAMA S47600 WAJIMA S47600 WAJIMA W R47602 AIKAWA S47605 KANAZAWA S47618 MATSUMOTO S47624 MAEBASHI S47636 NAGOYA S47646 TATENO W R47648 CHOSHI S47655 OMAEZAKI S47662 TOKYO S47663 OWASE S47675 OSHIMA S47678 HACHIJOJIMA S47678 HACHIJOJIMA W R47740 SAIGO S47741 MATSUE S47744 YONAGO W R47746 TOTTORI S47750 MAIZURU S47755 HAMADA S47772 OSAKA S47778 SHIONOMISAKI S47778 SHIONOMISAKI W R


RESOLUTIONS 69INDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS47800 IZUHARA S47807 FUKUOKA S47807 FUKUOKA W R47815 OITA S47817 NAGASAKI S47827 KAGOSHIMA S47827 KAGOSHIMA W R47830 MIYAZAKI S47837 TANEGASHIMA S47843 FUKUE S47887 MATSUYAMA S47891 TAKAMATSU S47898 SHIMIZU S47899 MUROTOMISAKI S47909 NAZE S47909 NAZE/FUNCHATOGE W R47918 ISHIGAKIJIMA S47918 ISHIGAKIJIMA W R47927 MIYAKOJIMA S47936 NAHA S47936 NAHA W R47945 MINAMIDAITOJIMA S47945 MINAMIDAITOJIMA W R47971 CHICHIJIMA S47971 CHICHIJIMA W R47991 MINAMITORISHIMA S47991 MINAMITORISHIMA W RKAZAKHSTAN (IN ASIA)28679 PETROPAVLOVSK S28766 BLAGOVESHCHENKA S28867 URITSKY S28879 KOKSHETAU S28952 KOSTANAY S28952 KOSTANAY W R28966 RUZAEVKA S28978 BALKASHINO S28984 SHCHUCHINSK S29802 MIKHAILOVKA S29807 IRTYSHSK S35067 ESIL S35078 ATBASAR S35085 AKKOL S35108 URALSK S35173 ZHALTYR S35188 ASTANA S35217 DZHAMBEJTY S35229 AKTOBE S35229 AKTOBE W RINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS35302 CHAPAEVO S35358 TORGAI S35376 BERLIK S35394 KARAGANDA S35394 KARAGANDA W R35406 TAIPAK S35416 UIL S35426 TEMIR S35497 ZHARYK S35532 MUGODZARSKAJA S35576 KZYLZAR S35686 ALGAZY OSTROV S35699 BEKTAU-ATA S35671 ZHEZKAZGAN S35671 ZHEZKAZGAN W R35700 ATYRAU S35700 ATYRAU W R35746 ARALSKOE MORE S35796 BALHASH S35849 KAZALINSK S35925 SAM S35953 DZHUSALY S35969 ZLIKHA S36003 PAVLODAR S36003 PAVLODAR W R36152 SEMIJARKA S36177 SEMIPALATINSK S36208 LENINOGORSK S36397 ZHANGIZTOBE S36428 BOL'SHENARYMSKOE S36535 KOKPEKTY S36639 URDZHAR S36821 BAKANAS S36859 ZHARKENT S36864 OTAR S36870 ALMATY S36870 ALMATY W R38001 FORT SHEVCHENKO S38062 KYZYLORDA S38069 CHIILI S38196 ACHISAY S38198 TURKESTAN S38222 TOLE BI S38232 AKKUDUK S38328 SHYMKENT SAUL TURARA38334 RYSKULOVA S38341 ZHAMBYL S38341 ZHAMBYL W R


70 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS38343 KULAN S38439 CHARDARA SKUWAIT40570 AL-SALMI S40582 KUWAIT INT. AIRPORT S40582 KUWAIT INT. AIRPORT W RKYRGYZSTAN36911 TOKMAK S36974 NARYN S36982 TIAN-SHAN' S38345 TALAS S38353 BISHKEK S38613 JALAL-ABAD S38616 KARA -SUU SLAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICLUANG NAMTHA48924 (M.SING)S48925 OUDOMXAY S48926 HOUEI-SAI S48927 VIENGSAY S48928 SAMNEUA S48930 LUANG-PRABANG SPLAINE DES JARRES48935 (XIENGKHOUANG) S48940 VIENTIANE S48945 PARKXANH S48946 THAKHEK S48947 SAVANNAKHET S48952 SARAVANE S48955 PAKSE S48957 ATTOPEU SMACAO, CHINA45011 TAIPA GRANDE SMALDIVES43533 HANIMAADHOO S43555 MALE S43555 MALE W43577 KADHDHOO S43588 KAADEHDHOO S43599 GAN S43599 GAN W RMONGOLIA44203 RINCHINLHUMBE S44207 HATGAL S44212 ULAANGOM S44212 ULAANGOM W R44213 BARUUNTURUUN S44214 ULGI S44215 OMNO-GOBI S44218 HOVD SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS44230 TARIALAN S44231 MUREN S44231 MUREN W R44232 HUTAG S44239 BULGAN S44241 BARUUNHARAA S44256 DASHBALBAR S44259 CHOIBALSAN S44259 CHOIBALSAN W R44265 BAITAG S44272 ULIASTAI S44277 ALTAI S44277 ALTAI W R44282 TSETSERLEG S44284 GALUUT S44285 HUJIRT S44287 BAYANHONGOR S44288 ARVAIHEER S44288 ARVAIHEER W R44292 ULAANBAATAR S44292 ULAANBAATAR W R44294 MAANTI S44298 CHOIR S44302 BAYAN-OVOO S44304 UNDERKHAAN S44305 BARUUN-URT S44313 KHALKH-GOL S44314 MATAD S44336 SAIKHAN-OVOO S44341 MANDALGOBI S44347 TSOGT-OVOO S44352 BAYANDELGER S44373 DALANZADGAD SMYANMAR48001 PUTAO S48004 HKAMTI S48008 MYITKYINA S48008 MYITKYINA W R48010 HOMALIN S48018 KATHA S48019 BHAMO S48020 MAWLAIK S48025 KALEWA S48035 LASHIO S48037 MONYWA S48042 MANDALAY S48042 MANDALAY W R48045 MINDAT S


RESOLUTIONS 71INDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS48048 NYUNG-U S48053 MEIKTILA S48053 MEIKTILA W R48057 TAUNGGYI S48060 KENGTUNG S48060 KENGTUNG W48062 SITTWE S48062 SITTWE W R48071 KYAUKPYU S48077 PROME/PYAY S48078 TOUNGOO SSANDOWAY/48080 THANDWES48094 PATHEIN S48094 PATHEIN W48097 YANGON S48097 YANGON W R48108 DAWEI S48109 COCO ISLAND S48109 COCO ISLAND W48110 MERGUI/MYEIK SVICTORIA POINT/48112 KAWTHOUNG SNEPAL44404 DADELDHURA S44406 DIPAYAL S44409 DHANGADHI S44416 SURKHET S44418 NEPALGUNJ AIRPORT S44424 JUMLA S44429 DANG S44434 POKHARA AIRPORT S44438 BHAIRAWA AIRPORT S44449 SIMARA S44454 KATHMANDU AIRPORT S44462 OKHALDHUNGA S44474 TAPLEJUNG S44477 DHANKUTA S44478 BIRATNAGAR AIRPORT SOMAN41240 KHASAB S41242 DIBA S41244 BURAIMI S41246 SOHAR MAJIS S41253 RUSTAQ S41254 SAIQ S41255 NIZWA S41256 SEEB, INT. AIRPORT S41256 SEEB, INT. AIRPORT W R41257 SAMAIL SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONSMINA SULTAN41258 QABOOSS41262 FAHUD S41263 BAHLA S41264 ADAM S41265 IBRA S41267 QALHAT S41268 SUR S41275 QARN ALAM S41288 MASIRAH S41304 MARMUL S41312 MINA SALALAH S41314 THUMRAIT S41315 QAIROON HAIRITI S41316 SALALAH S41316 SALALAH W RPAKISTAN41504 GUPIS S41506 CHITRAL S41508 DIR S41515 DROSH S41516 GILGIT S41517 SKARDU S41518 BUNJI S41519 CHILLAS S41520 ASTORE S41523 SAIDU SHARIF S41530 PESHAWAR S41530 PESHAWAR W41532 MUZAFFAR ABAD S41533 RISALPUR S41535 KAKUL S41536 BALAKOT S41560 PARACHINAR S41564 KOHAT S41565 CHERAT S41571 ISLAMABAD AIRPORT S41573 MURREE S41577 ISLAMABAD CITY S41592 MIANWALI S41594 SARGODHA S41594 SARGODHA W R41598 JHELUM S41598 JHELUM W41600 SIALKOT S41600 SIALKOT W41620 ZHOB S41624 DERA ISMAIL KHAN S41624 DERA ISMAIL KHAN W


72 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS41630 FAISALABAD S41640 LAHORE CITY W R41641 LAHORE AIRPORT S41660 QUETTA AIRPORT SQUETTA (SHEIK41661 MANDA)W41672 RAFIQUE S41675 MULTAN S41675 MULTAN W41678 BAHAWALNAGAR S41678 BAHAWALNAGAR W41685 BARKHAN S41696 KALAT S41697 SIBI S41700 BAHAWALPUR S41710 NOKKUNDI S41712 DAL BANDIN S41715 JACOBABAD S41715 JACOBABAD W41718 KHANPUR S41718 KHANPUR W41725 ROHRI S41738 TURBAT S41739 PANJGUR S41739 PANJGUR W41744 KHUZDAR S41746 PADIDAN S41749 NAWABSHAH S41749 NAWABSHAH W41756 JIWANI S41756 JIWANI W41757 GAWADAR S41759 PASNI S41764 HYDERABAD S41764 HYDERABAD W41768 CHHOR S41768 CHHOR W41780 KARACHI AIRPORT S41781 KARACHI AIRPORT W R41785 BADIN SQATAR41170 DOHA INT. AIRPORT S41170 DOHA INT. AIRPORT W RREPUBLIC OF KOREA47090 SOKCHO S47090 SOKCHO W R47095 CHEORWON S47098 DONGDUCHEON S47099 MUNSAN SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS47100 DAEGWALLYEONG S47101 CHUNCHEON S47102 BAENGNYEONGDO S47102 BAENGNYEONGDO W R47105 GANGNEUNG S47106 DONGHAE S47108 SEOUL S47112 INCHEON S47114 WONJU S47115 ULLEUNGDO S47119 SUWON S47121 YEONGWOL S47122 OSAN AB W R47127 CHUNGJU S47129 SEOSAN S47130 ULJIN S47131 CHEONGJU S47133 DAEJEON S47135 CHUPUNGNYEONG S47136 ANDONG S47137 SANGJU S47138 POHANG S47138 POHANG W R47140 GUNSAN S47143 DAEGU S47146 JEONJU S47152 ULSAN S47155 MASAN S47156 GWANGJU S47158 GWANGJU AB W R47159 BUSAN S47162 TONGYEONG S47165 MOKPO S47168 YEOSU S47169 HEUKSANDO S47170 WANDO S47175 JINDO S47184 JEJU S47185 GOSAN S47185 GOSAN W R47189 SEOGWIPO S47192 JINJU SRUSSIAN FEDERATION (IN ASIA)POLARGMO IM. E.T.20046 KRENKELJA20069 OSTROV VIZE S20087 OSTROV GOLOMJANNYJ S20292 GMO IM.E.K. FEDOROVA S20667 IM. M.V. POPOVA SS


RESOLUTIONS 73INDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS20674 OSTROV DIKSON S20674 OSTROV DIKSON W R20744 MALYE KARMAKULY W R20744 MALYE KARMAKULY S20891 HATANGA S21432 OSTROV KOTEL'NYJ S21432 OSTROV KOTEL'NYJ W R21647 MYS SHALAUROVA W R21802 SASKYLAH S21824 TIKSI S21824 TIKSI W R21908 DZALINDA S21921 KJUSJUR S21931 JUBILEJNAJA S21946 CHOKURDAH S21946 CHOKURDAH W R21982 OSTROV VRANGELJA S21982 OSTROV VRANGELJA W R23022 AMDERMA S23032 MARESALE S23074 DUDINKA S23205 NAR'JAN-MAR S23205 NAR'JAN-MAR W R23219 HOSEDA -HARD S23256 TAZOVSKOE S23274 IGARKA S23330 SALEHARD S23330 SALEHARD W R23383 AGATA S23405 UST'-CIL'MA S23412 UST'-USA S23418 PECHORA S23418 PECHORA W R23426 MUZI S23472 TURUHANSK S23472 TURUHANSK W R23552 TARKO-SALE S23606 UHTA S23625 SOSVA S23631 BEREZOVO S23678 VERHNEIMBATSK STROICKO-23711 PECHERSKOE S23724 NJAKSIMVOL' S23734 OKTJABR'SKOE S23803 UST'-KULOM S23804 SYKTYVKAR S23804 SYKTYVKAR W R23849 SURGUT SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS23884 BOR S23884 BOR W R23891 BAJKIT S23909 GAJNY S23914 CHERDYN' S23921 IVDEL' S23921 IVDEL' W R23933 HANTY-MANSIJSK S23933 HANTY-MANSIJSK W R23955 ALEKSANDROVSKOE S23955 ALEKSANDROVSKOE W R23966 VANZIL'-KYNAK S23973 VOROGOVO S23975 SYM S23987 JARCEVO S24125 OLENEK S24125 OLENEK W R24143 DZARDZAN S24266 VERHOJANSK W R24266 VERHOJANSK S24329 SELAGONCY S24343 ZHIGANSK S24343 ZHIGANSK W R24382 UST'-MOMA S24507 TURA S24507 TURA W R24639 NJURBA S24641 VILJUJSK S24641 VILJUJSK W R24652 SANGARY S24656 BATAMAJ S24671 TOMPO S24688 OJMJAKON S24688 OJMJAKON W R24724 CHERNISHEVSKIJ S24726 MIRNVY W R24738 SUNTAR S24768 CURAPCA S24817 ERBOGACEN S24908 VANAVARA S24908 VANAVARA W R24923 LENSK S24944 OLEKMINSK S24944 OLEKMINSK W R24951 ISIT' S24959 JAKUTSK S24959 JAKUTSK W R24962 AMGA S


74 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS24966 UST'-MAJA S24988 ARKA S25123 CHERSKIJ S25173 MYS SHMIDTA S25248 ILIRNEJ S25325 UST'-OLOJ S25378 EGVEKINOT S25399 MYS UELEN S25400 ZYRJANKA S25400 ZYRJANKA W R25428 OMOLON S25428 OMOLON W R25538 VERHNE-PENZHINO S25551 MARKOVO S25563 ANADYR' S25563 ANADYR' W R25703 SEJMCHAN S25703 SEJMCHAN W R25744 KAMENSKOE S25913 MAGADAN S25913 MAGADAN W R25954 KORF S25954 KORF W R25956 APUKA S28009 KIRS S28044 SEROV S28049 GARI S28064 LEUSI S28076 DEM'JANSKOE S28116 KUDYMKAR S28144 VERHOTUR'E S28214 GLAZOV S28224 PERM' S28225 PERM' W R28240 NIZHNYJ TAGIL S28255 TURINSK S28275 TOBOL'SK S28275 TOBOL'SK W R28319 NOZOVKA S28321 OHANSK S28334 SAMARY S28367 TJUMEN' S28382 UST'-ISIM S28411 IZHEVSK S28419 JANAUL S28434 KRASNOUFIMSK S28440 EKATERINBURG S28445 VERHNEE DUBROVO W RINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS28481 VIKULOVO S28491 BOL'SIE UKI S28493 TARA S28506 ELABUGA S28552 SADRINSK S28573 ISHIM S28593 BOL'SHERECH'E S28621 BIRSK S28645 CHELJABINSK-GOROD S28661 KURGAN S28661 KURGAN W R28666 MAKUSINO S28698 OMSK S28698 OMSK W R28711 BUGUL'MA S28722 UFA-DIOMA S28722 UFA-DIOMA W R28748 TROIZK S28786 POLTAVKA S28797 ODESSKOE S28799 CERLAK SSAMARA28807 (SNYSLJAEVKA) S28825 STERLITAMAK S28838 MAGNITOGORSK S29023 NAPAS S29111 SREDNY VASJUGAN S29122 KARGASOK S29209 MAJSK S29231 KOLPASEVO S29231 KOLPASEVO W R29253 LOSINOBORSKOE S29263 ENISEJSK S29263 ENISEJSK W R29282 BOGUCANY S29282 BOGUCANY W R29313 PUDINO S29328 BAKCHAR S29348 PERVOMAJSKOE S29405 KYSTOVKA S29418 SEVERNOE S29430 TOMSK S29471 BOL'SHAJA MURTA S29481 DZERZHINSKOE S29524 KRESCHENKA S29551 MARIINSK S29553 BOGOTOL S29562 KEMCHUG SKRASNOJARSK29570 OPYTNOE POLE S


RESOLUTIONS 75INDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS29572 EMEL'JANOVO W R29581 KANSK S29594 TAJSHET S29602 CHANY S29605 TATARSK S29612 BARABINSK S29612 BARABINSK W R29631 KOLYVAN' S29634 NOVOSIBIRSK W R29636 TOGUCHIN SNOVOSIBIRSK29638 (OGOURTSOVO) S29653 UZUR S29654 CENTRAL'NYJ RUDNIK S29675 KOLBA S29676 AGINSKOE S29698 NIZHNEUDINSK S29698 NIZHNEUDINSK W R29706 KUPINO S29712 ZDVINSK S29724 KOCHKI S29726 ORDYNSKOE S29736 MASLJANINO S29759 KOMMUNAR S29766 IDRINSKOE S29789 VERHNJAJA GUTARA S29814 KARASUK S29827 BAEVO S29838 BARNAUL S29839 BARNAUL W R29846 NOVOKUZNETSK S29862 HAKASSKAJA W R29864 UYBAT S29869 ERMAKOVSKOE S29923 REBRIHA S29937 ALEJSKAJA S29939 BIJSK ZONAL'NAJA S29956 TASTYP S29998 ORLIK S30054 VITIM S30054 VITIM W R30230 KIRENSK S30230 KIRENSK W R30253 BODAJBO S30307 BRATSK S30309 BRATSK W R30328 ORLINGA S30337 KAZACHINSK S30372 CHARA SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS30372 CHARA W R30385 UST'-NJUKZHA S30393 CUL'MAN S30405 TANGUJ S30433 NIZHNEANGARSK S30455 UAKIT S30469 KALAKAN S30493 NAGORNYJ S30499 TYNDA S30504 TULUN S30521 ZHIGALOVO S30542 TASSA S30554 BAGDARIN S30554 BAGDARIN W R30603 ZIMA S30612 BALAGANSK S30622 KACUG S30627 BAJANDAJ S30635 UST'-BARGUZIN S30635 UST'-BARGUZIN W R30650 ROMANOVKA S30664 TUNGOKOCEN S30669 ZILOVO S30673 MOGOCHA S30683 EROFEJ PAVLOVIC S30692 SKOVORODINO S30695 DZALINDA S30703 INGA S30715 ANGARSK W R30731 GORJACINSK S30739 HORINSK S30741 ZAMAKTA S30745 SOSNOVO-OZERSKOE S30758 CHITA S30758 CHITA W R30764 USUGLI S30781 URJUPINO S30791 IRKUTSK S30802 MONDY S30823 ULAN-UDE S30829 NOVOSELENGINSK S30838 PETROVSKIJ ZAVOD S30844 HILOK S30846 ULETY S30859 AGINSKOE S30862 SHILKA S30879 NERCHINSKIJ ZAVOD S30925 KJAHTA S


76 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS30935 KRASNYJ CHIKOJ S30935 KRASNYJ CHIKOJ W R30949 KYRA S30957 AKSA S30965 BORZJA S30965 BORZJA W R30975 PRIARGUNSK S31004 ALDAN S31004 ALDAN W R31054 UST'-JUDOMA S31088 OHOTSK S31088 OHOTSK W R31123 CJUL'BJU S31137 TOKO S31168 AJAN S31168 AJAN W R31174 BOL'SOJ SANTAR S31253 BOMNAK S31263 LOKSAK S31295 MAGDAGACI S31300 ZEJA S31300 ZEJA W R31329 EKIMCHAN S31348 BURUKAN S31369NIKOLAEVSK-NA-AMURES31369NIKOLAEVSK-NA-AMUREW R31371 CHERNJAEVO S31388 NORSK S31416 IM POLINY OSIPENKO S31418 VESELAJA GORKA S31439 BOGORODSKOE S31442 SIMANOVSK S31445 SVOBODNYJ S31474 UST'-UMAL'TA S31478 SOFIJSKIJ PRIISK S31484 HULARIN S31489 GORIN S31510 BLAGOVESCENSK S31510 BLAGOVESCENSK W R31521 BRATOLJUBOVKA S31527 ZAVITAJA S31532 CEKUNDA S31534 SEKTAGLI S31538 SUTUR S31587 POJARKOVO S31594 ARHARA S31632 KUR S31655 TROICKOE SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS31702 OBLUC'E SEKATERINO-31707 NIKOL'SKOE S31713 BIROBIDZHAN S31725 SMIDOVICH S31735 HABAROVSK S31736 HABAROVSK W R31754 TIVJAKU S31801 GVASJUGI S31825 AGZU S31829 ZOLOTOJ S31845 KRASNYJ JAR S31866 SOSUNOVO S31873 DAL'NERECHENSK S31873 DAL'NERECHENSK W R31878 KIROVSKIJ S31909 TERNEJ S31915 POGRANICHNYJ S31921 ASTRAHANKA S31959 RUDNAJA PRISTAN' S31960 VLADIVOSTOK S31969 POS'ET SVLADIVOSTOK (SAD31977 GOROD)W R31981 ANUCINO S31987 PARTIZANSK S31989 PREOBRAZHENIE S32027 POGIBI S32053 NOGLIKI S3206132061ALEKSANDROVSK-SAHALINSKIJALEKSANDROVSK-SAHALINSKIJ32069 PIL'VO S32076 POGRANICHNOE S32098 PORONAJSK SSW R32098 PORONAJSK W R32121 ILYINSKIY S32150 JUZHNO-SAHALINSK S32150 JUZHNO-SAHALINSK W R32165 JUZHNO-KURIL'SK S32215 SEVERO-KURIL'SK S32215 SEVERO-KURIL'SK W R32252 UST'-VOJAMPOLKA S32389 KLJUCHI S32389 KLJUCHI W R32408 UST'-KAMCHATSK S32411 ICA S32509 SEMJACHIK SPETROPAVLOVSK-32540 KAMCHATSKIJ W R


RESOLUTIONS 77INDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONSPETROPAVLOVSK-32583 KAMCHATSKIJ S32594 OZERNAJA S32618 OSTROV BERINGA S35026 ZILAIR S35121 ORENBURG S35121 ORENBURG W R36021 KLJUCI S36022 VOLCIHA S36034 RUBCOVSK S36038 ZMEINOGORSK S36058 CEMAL S36061 TUROCAK S36096 KYZYL S36096 KYZYL W RSAUDI ARABIA40356 TURAIF S40357 ARAR S40360 GURIAT S40361 AL-JOUF S40362 RAFHA S40369 HAQL S40373 AL-QAISUMAH S40373 AL-QAISUMAH W R40375 TABUK S40375 TABUK W R40377 HAFR AL-BATIN S40386 AL-HULAIFAH S40394 HAIL S40394 HAIL W R40400 AL-WEJH S40405 GASSIM S40416 DHAHRAN S40417K.F.I.A. (KING FAHADINT. AIRPORT)DAMMAMW R40420 AL-AHSA S40430 AL-MADINAH S40430 AL-MADINAH W R40432 UQLAT AL-SUQ0R S40435 AL-DAWADAMI S40437KING KHALED INT.AIRPORTS40437KING KHALED INT.AIRPORTW R40438 RIYADH OBS. (O.A.P.) S40439 YENBO S41006 MUWAIH S41010 LAYLA S41014 OBAYLAH S41016 SHAWALAH SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONSJEDDAH (KING ABDUL41024 AZIZ INT. AIRPORT) S41024JEDDAH (KING ABDULAZIZ INT. AIRPORT) W R41036 AL-TAIF SWADI AL-DAWASSER41061 AIRPORTS41080 AL-QUNFUDAH S41084 BISHA S41112 ABHA S41112 ABHA W R41114 KHAMIS MUSHAIT S41128 NAJRAN S41136 SHARORAH S41140 GIZAN SSRI LANKA43415 VAVUNIYA S43418 TRINCOMALEE S43424 PUTTALAM S43436 BATTICALOA S43450 KATUNAYAKE S43466 COLOMBO S43473 NUWARA ELIYA S43495 GALLE S43497 HAMBANTOTA STAJIKISTAN38599 KHUDJANT S38609 ISFARA S38705 PENDJIKENT SURA-TYUBE/38713 ISTARAVSHAN S38744 LYAKHSH S38836 DUSHANBE S38836 DUSHANBE W R38838 ISANBAI S38846 KHOVALING S38847 DANGARA S38933 KURGAN-TYUBE S38937 SHAARTUZ S38944 PARKHAR S38947 PYANDJ S38954 KHOROG S38954 KHOROG W RTHAILAND48300 MAE HONG SON S48303 CHIANG RAI S48325 MAE SARIANG S48327 CHIANG MAI S48327 CHIANG MAI W R48328 LAMPANG S48330 PHRAE S


78 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS48331 NAN S48351 UTTARADIT S48353 LOEI S48354 UDON THANI S48354 UDON THANI W48356 SAKON NAKHON S48375 MAE SOT S48376 TAK S48377 BHUMIBOL DAM S48378 PHITSANULOK S48378 PHITSANULOK W48379 PHETCHABUN S48381 KHON KAEN S48383 MUKDAHAN S48400 NAKHON SAWAN S48405 ROI ET S48407 UBON RATCHATHANI S48407 UBON RATCHATHANI W R48421 THONG PHA PHUM S48426 LOP BURI S48431 NAKHON RATCHASIMA S48431 NAKHON RATCHASIMA W48432 SURIN S48455 BANGKOK S48455 BANGKOK W R48456 DON MUANG S48462 ARANYAPRATHET S48475 HUA HIN S48477 SATTAHIP S48477 SATTAHIP W48480 CHANTHABURI S48480 CHANTHABURI W48500 PRACHUAP KHIRIKHAN S48500 PRACHUAP KHIRIKHAN W48501 KHLONG YAI S48517 CHUMPHON S48532 RANONG S48551 SURAT THANI S48551 SURAT THANI W48552NAKHON SITHAMMARAT48565 PHUKET AIRPORT S48565 PHUK ET AIRPORT W R48567 TRANG S48568 SONGKHLA W R48569 HAT YAI S48583 NARATHIWAT SSINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONSTURKMENISTAN38388 EKEZHE S38392 DASHKHOVUZ W R38392 DASHKHOVUZ S38507 TURKMENBASHI S38507 TURKMENBASHI S38511 CHAGYL S38545 DARGANATA S38647 GAZANDZHYK S38656 ERBENT S38687 CHARDZHEV S38750 ESENGYLY S38763 GYZYLARBAT S38774 BAKHERDEN S38799 UCHADZHY S38806 BYRDALYK S38880 ASHGABAT KESHI S38886 TEDZHEN S38895 BAJRAMALY S38911 KERKI S38915 CARSANGA S38974 SARAGT S38987 GYSHGY SUNITED ARAB EMIRATESRAS AL KHAIMAH INT.41184 AIRPORT41194 DUBAI INT. AIRPORT SSHARJAH INTER.41196 AIRPORTS41198 FUJAIRAH S41216ABU DHABI BATEENAIRPORTS41217ABU DHABI INT.AIRPORTS41217ABU DHABI INT.AIRPORTW R41218 AL AIN INT. AIRPORT W RUZBEKISTAN38141 JASLYK S38149 KUNGRAD S38178 AK-BAJTAL S38262 CHIMBAJ S38264 NUKUS S38264 NUKUS W38396 URGENCH S38396 URGENCH W38403 BUZAUBAJ S38413 TAMDY S38457 TASHKENT S38457 TASHKENT W R38462 PSKEM SS


RESOLUTIONS 79INDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS38565 NURATA S38579 DZIZAK S38583 SYR-DAR'JA S38611 NAMANGAN S38618 FERGANA S38683 BUHARA S38683 BUHARA W38696 SAMARKAND S38812 KARSHI S38812 KARSHI W38927 TERMEZ SVIET NAM48803 LAO CAI S48806 SON LA S48808 CAO BANG S48820 HA NOI S48820 HA NOI W R48823 NAM DINH S48826 PHU LIEN S48830 LANG SON S48839 BACH LONG VI S48840 THANH HOA S48845 VINH S48848 DONG HOI S48852 HUE S48855 DA NANG S48855 DA NANG W R48860 HOANG SA (PATTLE) S48870 QUY NHON S48877 NHA TRANG S48887 PHAN THIET SSONG TU TAY (SOUTH48892 WEST CAY)S48900 TAN SON HOA SINDEX STATION NAME OBSERVATIONS48900 TAN SON HOA W R48914 CA MAU S48914 CA MAU W48916 THO CHU S48917 PHU QUOC S48918 CON SON S48919 HUYEN TRAN S48920 TRUONG SA SYEMEN41363 AL-BOUQE S41372 SAADA S41391 IIAJJAH S41393 AL-JOUF S41396 SEIYOUN S41398 AL-GHAIDA H S41399 AMRAN S41404 SANA'A S41407 MARIB S41431 HODEIDAH S41434 DHAMAR S41437 ATAQ S41438 AL-SADDAH S41443 RIYAN S41450 AL-KOOD S41450 AL-KOOD W R41452 IBB S41466 TAIZ S41477 MOKHA S41480 ADEN S41481 TOWAHI S41482 SAHAREEG S41494 SOCOTRA SRESOLUTION 3 (XIII-RA II)REGIONAL BASIC CLIMATOLOGICAL NETWORK IN REGION IIREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 4 (XII-RA II) — Regional BasicClimatological Network in Region II,(2) The report of the fourth session of the WorkingGroup on Planning and Implementation of theWWW in Region II,(3) The Manual on the Global TelecommunicationSystem (WMO-No. 386) , Volume I — Part I —Attachment 1–3, Section 2.4 (i),CONSIDERING that the Fourteenth WorldMeteorological Congress welcomed theestablishment of the Regional Basic ClimatologicalNetwork (RBCN) in all WMO Regions and theAntarctic and urged Members to ensure that theiroperational observing stations compiled andtransmitted the CLIMAT/CLIMAT TEMP messagesaccording to existing regulations,DECIDES that the stations listed in the annex to thisresolution constitute the RBCN in Region II;URGES Members:(1) To spare no effort in their endeavours toensure, at the earliest date possible, fullimplementation of the network of RBCN


80 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIstations set forth in the annex to thisresolution;(2) To comply fully with the global and regionalcoding procedures and data collectionstandards in accordance with procedures laiddown in the WMO Technical Regulations(WMO-No. 49) and the Manuals on the GOS(WMO-No. 544), on Codes (WMO-No. 306),and on the GTS (WMO-No. 386) whenoperating the RBCN;AUTHORIZES the president of the Association toapprove, at the request of Members concerned andin consultation with the Secretary-General, minoramendments to the list of RBCN stations followingthe procedures laid down for the RBSN in theManual on the Global Observing System, Volume IIRegional Aspects — Region II (Asia)._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 4(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.ANNEX TO RESOLUTION 3 (XIII-RA II)LIST OF STATIONS COMPRISING THE RBCN IN REGION IIINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMPAFGHANISTAN, ISLAMIC STATE OF40930 NORTH SALANG X X40938 HEART X X40942 CHAKHCHARAN X40948 KABUL AIRPORT X40990 KANDAHAR XAIRPORTBAHRAIN41150 BAHRAIN INT. XXAIRPORTBANGLADESH41859 RANGPUR X41883 BOGRA X X41891 SYLHET X41923 DAKKA X41936 JESSORE X41950 BARISAL X41992 COX'S BAZAR XCAMBODIA48966 SIEMREAP X48991 PHNOM-PENH X XCHINA50527 HAILAR X X X X50745 QIQIHAR X X50963 TONGHE X51076 ALTAY X X X51243 KARAMAY X51431 YINING X X51463 URUMQI X X X51644 KUQA X51656 KORLA X51709 KASHI X X X X51747 TAZHONG X51777 RUOQIANG X X X51828 HOTAN X X X52203 HAMI X X X52267 EJIN QI X53323 MAZONG SHAN X52418 DUNHUANG X52495 BAYAN MOD X52533 JIUQUAN X X X52681 MINQIN X X X52836 DULAN X X52818 GOLMUD X52866 XINING X52983 YUZHONG X X53068 ERENHOT X X X X53336 HALIUT X53463 HOHHOT X X53614 YINCHUAN X X XINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP53772 TAIYAN X X X53845 YAN AN X54026 JARUD QI X54102 XILIN HOT X X54161 CHANGCHUN X X54218 CHIFENG X54292 YANJI X54342 SHENYANG X X X54511 BEIJING X X X54662 DALIAN X X54823 JINAN X X54857 QINGDAO X X X55228 SHIQUANHE X55299 NAGQU X X55472 XAINZA X55591 LHASA X X X56004 TUOTUONE X56029 YUSHU X X56046 DARÇAG X56079 RUO'ERGAI X56106 SOG XIAN X56137 QAMDO X X56294 CHENGDU X X X56444 DEQEN X56571 XICHANG X X56739 TENG CHONG X X X56778 KUNMING X X X56964 SIMAO X56985 MENGZI X X57036 XI'AN X X X57083 ZHENGZHOU X X X57127 HANZHONG X57461 YICHANG X X X X57494 WUHAN X X57516 CHONGQING X57687 CHANGSHA X57745 ZHIJIANG X X57749 HUAIHUA X57816 GUIYANG X X57993 GANZHOU X X58027 XUZHOU X58238 NANJING X X58362 SHANGHAI X X X58606 NANCHANG X X58633 QU XIAN X X58666 DACHEN DAO X58847 FUZHOU X X58968 TAIBEI X X59211 BAISE X59280 QING YUAN X


RESOLUTIONS 81INDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP59287 GUANGZHOU X X59316 SHANTOU X X59358 TAINAN X59431 NANNING X X X59758 HAIKOU X X X59792 DONGSHA DAO X59948 YAXIAN X59981 XISHA DAO X XDEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA47014 CHUNGGANG X X47016 HYESAN X47025 KIMCHAEK X47035 SINUIJU X47055 WONSAN X47058 PYONGYANG X X47069 HAEJU XHONG KONG, CHINA45004 KOWLOON X X XINDIA42027 SRINAGAR X X X42071 AMRITSAR X42083 SHIMLA X X42147 MUKTESWAR X42165 BIKANER X X42182 NEW DELHI/ X X XSARDARJUNG42295 DARJEELING X X42314 DIBRUGARH X42339 JODHPUR X X42369 LUCKHOW/XAMAUSI42379 GORAKHPUR X42410 GUWAHATI X X X42452 KOTAXAERODROME42475 ALLAHABAD/ XBAMHRAULI42492 PATNA X42515 CHERRAPUNJI X X42539 DEESA X X42587 DALTONGANJ X X42619 SILCHAR X42647 AHMADABAD X X42671 SAGAR X X42731 DWARKA X X42754 INDORE X42779 PENDRA ROAD X X42798 JAMSHEDPUR X42807 CALCUTTA/ XALIPORE42809 CALCUTTA/XDUM DUM42867 NAGPURX XSONEGA42909 VERAVAL X42933 AKOLA X42971 BHUBANESWAR X X42977 SANDHEADS X43003 BOMBEY/XSANTACRUZ43041 JAGDALPUR X X43057 BOMBAY/COLABA X43063 POONA X X43128 HYDERABAD X X XAIRPORT43149 VISHAKHAPATNAM X43150 CWCVISHAKHAPATNAM43185 MACHILIPATNAM X43192 GOA/PANJIM X XXINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP43198 BELGAUM/ XSAMBRA43279 MADRAS/X X XMINAMBAKKAM43285 MANGALORE/XPANAMBUR43295 BANGALORE X X43311 AMINI DIVI X43314 KOSHIKODE X43333 PORT BLAIR X X X43339 KODAIKANAL X X43346 KARAIKAL X43363 PAMBAN X X43369 MINICOY X X X43371 THIRUVANANTHA X XPURAMIRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF40706 TABRIZ X X X40712 OROMIEH X40718 ANZALI X40745 MASHHAD X X X40754 TEHRAN-XMEHRABAD40766 KERMANSHAH X40800 ESFAHAN X40827 NEHBANDAN X40831 ABADAN X40841 KERMAN X X X40848 SHIRAZ X X40879 IRANSHAHR XIRAQ40608 MOSUL X40621 KIRKUK X40634 HADITHA X40637 KANAQIN X40642 RUTBAN X40650 BAGHDAD X40665 KUT-AL-HAI X X40676 NASIRIA XJAPAN47401 WAKKANAI X X X47407 ASAHIKAWA X47409 ABASHIRI X47412 SAPPORO X X X47418 KUSHIRO X47420 NEMURO X X X47421 SUTTSU X47426 URAKAWA X47430 HAKODATE X47570 WAKAMATSU X47575 AOMORI X47582 AKITA X X X47585 MIYAKO X47590 SENDAI X X47598 ONAHAMA X47600 WAJIMA X X X47602 AIKAWA X47605 KANAZAWA X47618 MATSUMOTO X47624 MAEBASHI X47636 NAGOYA X47646 TATENO X X47648 CHOSHI X X47655 OMAEZAKI X47662 TOKYO X47663 OWASE X47675 OSHIMA X47678 HACHIJOJIMA X X47740 SAIGO X47741 MATSUE X


82 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP47744 YONAGO X47746 TOTTORI X47750 MAIZURU X47755 HAMADA X47772 OSAKA X47778 SHIONOMISAKI X X X47800 ISAURA X47807 FUKUOKA X X47815 OITA X X47817 NAGASAKI X X47827 KAGOSHIMA X X X47830 MIYAZAKI X47837 TANEGASHIMA X47843 FUKUE X47887 MATSUYAMA X47891 TAKAMATSU X47898 SHIMIZU X47899 MUROTOMISAKI X47909 NAZE X47909 NAZE/XFUNCHATOGE47918 ISHIGAKIJIMA X X47927 MIYAKOJIMA X X47936 NAHA X X X X47945 MINAMIDAITOJIMA X X X47971 CHICHIJIMA X X X X47991 MINAMITORISHIMA X X X XKAZAKHSTAN28679 PETROPAVLOVSK X28766 BLAGOVESHCHENKA X28879 KOKSHETAV X28952 KOSTANAY X X X28966 RUZAEVKA X28978 BALKASINO X29807 IRTYSHSK X X35067 ESIL X35078 ATRASAR X X35108 URALSK X X35188 ASTANA X35217 DZHAMBEJTY X35229 AKTOBE X X35376 BERLIK X35394 KARAGANDA X X X35406 TAIPAK X35416 UIL X X35426 TEMIR X35532 MUGODZARSKAJA X35576 KZYLZAR X35671 ZHEZKAZGAN X35700 ATYRAU X X35746 ARALSKOE MORE X35796 BALHASH X X35849 KAZALINSK X X35925 SAM X X35953 DZHYSALY X36003 PAVLODAR X X36177 SEMIPALATINSK X X36208 LENINOGORSK X36428 BOL'SHEXNARYMSKOE36535 KOKPEKTY X X36859 ZHARKENT X X36870 ALMATY X X X38001 FORTSHEVCHENKO38062 KYZYLORDA X38069 CHIILI X38198 TURKESTAN X38232 AKKUDUK X38328 SHYMKENT XINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP38334 AUL TURARA XRYSKULOVA38341 ZHAMBYL X X38343 KULAN X38439 CHARDARA XKUWAIT40582 KUWAIT INT. X X XAIRPORTKYRGYZSTAN36982 TIAN-SHAN X38345 TALAS X38353 BISHKEK X38616 KARA -SUU XLAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC48930 LUANG-PRABANG X48940 VIENTIANE X X48947 SAVANNAKHET X48955 PAKSE XMACAO, CHINA45011 TAIPA GRANDE XMALDIVES43555 MALE X X43599 GAN X XMONGOLIA44203 RINCHINLHUMB X44207 HATGAL X44212 ULAAN-GOM X X X44213 BARUUNTURUUN X44214 UIGI X44215 OMNO-GOBI X44218 HOVD X X44230 TARIALAN X44231 MUREN X X X44232 HUTAG X44239 BULGAN X X44241 BARUUNKHARAA X44256 DASHBALBAR X44259 CHOIBALSAN X X X44265 BAITAG X44272 ULIASTAI X X44277 ALTAI X X44282 TSETSERLEG X44284 GAIUUT X44285 HUJIRT X44287 BAYANHONGOR X44288 ARVAIHEER X X X44292 ULAAN-BAATOR X X44294 MAANTI X44298 CHOIR X44302 BAYAN-OVOO X44304 UNDERKHAAN X44305 BARUUN-URT X44313 KHAEKH-GOL X44314 MATAD X44317 ERDENE-XXTSAGAAN44336 SAIKHAN-OVOO X44341 MANDALGOVI X X44347 TSOGT-OVOO X44352 BAYANDELGER X44373 DALANZADGAD X XMYANMAR48008 MYITKYINA X48042 MANDALAY X X48062 SITTWE X X48097 YANGON X X48112 VICTORIA POINT/KAWTHOUNGX


RESOLUTIONS 83INDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMPNEPAL44454 KATHMANDU XXAIRPORT44477 DHANKUTA XOMAN41246 MAJIS (SOHAR) X41253 RUSTAQ X41254 SAIQ X X41256 SEEB, INT.X XAIRPORT41262 FAHUD X41264 ADAM X41265 IBRA X41268 SUR X41288 MASIRAH X X41304 MARMUL X41314 THUMRAIT X41316 SALALAH X X XPAKISTAN41515 DROSH X X41530 PESHAWAR X X41560 PARACHINAR X X41571 ISLAMABAD XAIRPORT41594 SARGODHA X X41598 JHELUM X41600 SIALKOT X41620 ZHOB X X41624 DERA ISMAIL XXKHAN41640 LAHORE CITY X X X41660 QUETTAXAIRPORT41675 MULTAN X41685 BARKHAN X41710 NOKKUNDI X41712 DAL BANDIN X X41715 JACOBABAD X X41718 KHANPUR X41739 PANJGUR X41744 KHUZDAR X41749 NAWABSHAH X41756 JIWANI X41759 PASNI X41764 HYDERABAD X X41768 CHHOR X41780 KARACHIX X XAIRPORTQATAR41170 DOHA INT.X XAIRPORTREPUBLIC OF KOREA47090 SOKCHO X47101 CHUNCHEON X47102 BAENGNYEONGDO X47105 GANGNEUNG X47108 SEOUL X47115 ULLEUNGDO X X47122 OSAN AB X47133 DAEJEON X47138 POHANG X X X47158 GWANGJU AB X47159 BUSAN X47165 MOKPO X X47168 YEOSU X47169 HEUKSANDO X47184 JEJU X47185 GOSAN XINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMPRUSSIAN FEDERATION (IN ASIA)20069 OSTROV VIZE X X20087 OSTROVXXGOLOMJANNYJ20292 GMO IM. E.K. XXFEDOROVA20476 MYSXSTERLEGOVA20667 IM. M.V. POPOVA X X20674 OSTROV DIKSON X X X X20744 MALYEXXKARMAKULY20891 HATANGA X X X20982 VOLOCHANKA X X21432 OSTROVXXKOTEL’NYJ21802 SASKYLAH X X21824 TIKSI X21908 DZHALINDA X21921 KJUSJUR X X21931 JUBILEJNAJA X X21946 CHOKURDAH X X21982 OSTROVXXVRANGELJA23022 AMDERMA X23032 MARESALE X23058 ANTIPAJUTA X23074 DUDINKA X X23205 NAR'JAN-MAR X X X23242 NOVYJ PORT X23256 TAZOVSKOE X23274 IGARKA X23324 PETRUN’ X23330 SALEHARD X X X23383 AGATA X X23405 UST'-CIL'MA X X23445 NADYM X23463 YANOV-STAN X23472 TURUHANSK X X X X23552 TARKO-SALE X X23631 BEREZOVO X X23662 TOL’KA X23678 VERHNEIMBATSK X X23711 TROICKO-XXPECERSKOE23724 NJAKSIMVOL' X X23734 OKTYABR’SKOE X23804 SYKTYVKAR X23867 LAR’YAK X23884 BOR X X23891 BAJKIT X X23914 CHERDYN' X X23921 IVDEL’ X X X23933 HANTY-MANSIJSK X X X23955 ALEKSANDROVSKOE X X23966 VANZHIL’-KYNAK X23986 SEVERO-XENISEJSKIJ24125 OLENEK X X X24136 SUHANA X24143 DZARDZAN X X24266 VERHOJANSK X X X X24329 SELAGONCY X X24343 ZHIGANSK X X X24382 UST'-MOMA X X24507 TURA X X X24606 KISLOKAN X24641 VILJUJSK X X24661 SEGEN-KYUEL’ X24671 TOMPO X X


84 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP24688 OJMJAKON X X24713 NAKANNO X24738 SUNTAR X X24790 SUSUMAN X24817 ERBOGACEN X X24908 VANAVARA X X X24959 JAKUTSK X X X24966 UST'-MAJA X X24967 TEGYULTYA X25062 MYS BILLINGSA X25138 OSTROVNOE X25173 MYS SHMIDTA X X25206 SREDNE-XKOLYMSK25248 ILIRNEJ X X25282 MYS VANKAREM X25325 UST'-OLOJ X X25356 EN’MUVEEM X X25378 EGVEKINOT X25399 MYS UELEN X X25400 ZYRJANKA X X X25428 OMOLON X25503 KORKODON X25538 VERHNE-XXPENZHINO25551 MARKOVO X X25563 ANADYR’ X X25594 BUHTAXXPROVIDENIYA25677 BERINGOVSKAYA X25703 SEJMCHAN X25705 SREDNEKAN X X25744 KAMENSKOE X X25913 MAGADAN X25927 BROHOVO X X25932 TAJGONOS X25954 KORF X X X28009 KIRS X X28064 LEUSI X X28138 BISER X X28224 PERM' X X28255 TURINSK X28275 TOBOL'SK X X28418 SARAPUL X X28434 KRASNOUFIMSK X28445 VERHNEEXDUBROVO28493 TARA X X28552 SHADRINSK X X28573 ISHIM X28666 MAKUSHINO X28698 OMSK X X X X28704 CHULPANOVO X28722 UFA-DIOMA X X28748 TROITSK X29111 SREDNIJXVASJUGAN29231 KOLPASEVO X X X29263 ENISEJSK X X29282 BOGUCANY X X29313 PUDINO X29328 BAKCHAR X29379 TASEEVO X29570 KRASNOJARSK X X29572 EMEL'JANOVO X29594 TAJSHET X29612 BARABINSK X X29634 NOVOSIBIRSK X29645 KEMEROVOCGMSXINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP29752 NENASTNAYA X29789 VERHNYAYA XXGUTARA29862 HAKASSKAYA X X29866 MINUSINSK X X29939 BIJSK-XXZONAL’NAYA30054 VITIM X X30089 DZHIKIMDA X30230 KIRENSK X X X X30252 MAMAKAN X30309 BRATSK X X30372 CHARA X X X30385 UST’-NJUKZHA X30433 NIZHNEANGARSK X X30521 ZHIGALOVO X30554 BAGDARIN X X30612 BALAGANSK X30636 BARGUZIN X X30650 ROMANOVKA X30673 MOGOCHA X X30710 IRKUTSK X X30758 CHITA X X X30777 SRETENSK X30844 HILOK X30879 NERCHINSKIJ XXZAVOD30925 KJAHTA X X30935 KRASNYJ CHIKOJ X30949 KYRA X X30965 BORZJA X X31004 ALDAN X X X31088 OHOTSK X X X X31137 TOKO X31152 NEL’KAN X31168 AJAN X X X31174 BOL’SHOJXSHANTAR31253 BOMNAK X X31329 EKIMCHAN X X31369 NIKOLAEVSK-NA- XXAMURE31416 IM POLINY XXOSIPENKO31439 BOGORODSKOE X31478 SOFIJSKIJ PRIISK X31510 BLAGOVESCENSK X31707 EKATERINO- XXNIKOL'SKOE31736 HABAROVSK X31770 SOVETSKAYA XGAVAN’31829 ZOLOTOJ X X31873 DAL’NERECHENSK X X31960 VLADIVOSTOK X X31961 TIMIRYAZEVSKIJ X31977 VLADIVOSTOKX(SAD-GOROD)31989 PREOBRAZHENIE X32027 POGIBI X32061 ALEKSANDROVS X X XK-SAHALINSKIJ32076 POGRANICHNOE X32098 PORONAJSK X X32099 MYS TERPENIYA X32150 JUZHNO-X X XSAHALINSK32165 JUZHNO-XKURIL’SK32213 MYS LOPATKA X


RESOLUTIONS 85INDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP32252 UST-XXVOJAMPOLKA32287 UST’-XHAJRJUZOVO32389 KLJUCHI X X X32477 SOBOLEVO X32509 SEMYACHIK X32540 PETROPAVLOVSXXK-KAMCHATCHIJ32618 OSTROVXXBERINGA35011 SOROCHINSK X X35121 ORENBURG X X36038 ZMEINOGORSK X36064 YAJLJU X36096 KYZYL X36229 UST’-KOKSA X36259 KOSH-AGACH X X36307 ERZIN XSAUDI ARABIA40356 TURAIF X40357 ARAR X40360 GURIAT X40361 AL-JOUF X X40362 RAFHA X40373 AL-QAISUMAH X X40375 TABUK X X40377 HAFR AL-BATIN X40394 HAIL X X X40400 AL-WEJH X40405 GASSIM X40410 KHAYBER X40416 DHAHRAN X40417 KING FAHAD INT.AIRPORT40420 AL-AHSA X40430 AL-MADINAH X X X40435 AL-DAWADAMI X40437 KING KHALED X XAIRPORT40438 RIYADH OBS. X X40439 YENBO X41006 MUWAIH X41024 JEDDAH X X X41030 MAKKAH X41036 AL-TAIF X41055 AL-BAHA X41061 WADI AL-DAWASSERAIRPORT41084 BISHA X41112 ABHA X X X41114 KHAMIS MUSHA XIT41128 NAJRAN X41136 SHARORAH X41140 GIZAN X41141 GIZAN X XSRI LANKA43418 TRINCOMALEE X43424 PUTTALAM X43466 COLOMBO X X43473 NUWARA ELIYA X X43497 HAMBANTOTA X XTAJIKISTAN38599 KHUDJAND X38836 DUSHANBE X X38933 KHATLON(KURGAN-TYUBE)XXXXINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP38954 KHOROG X X38734 DEHAVZ X38878 MURGAB X38715 SHAKHRISTON X38748 ALTYN-MAZ X38852 TAVILDARA X38725 MADRUSHKAT X38847 DANGARA X38851 RASHT X38609 ISFARA X38937 SHAARTUZ X38869 IRKHIT XTHAILAND48327 CHIANG MAI X X X X48354 UDON THANI X X48378 PHITSANULOK X X48400 NAKHON SAWAN X X48407 UBONXXRATCHATHANI48431 NAKHONXXRATCHASIMA48455 BANGKOK X X X X48462 ARANYAPRATHET X X48480 CHANTHABURI X X48500 PRACHUAP XXKHIRIKHAN48517 CHUMPHON X X48568 SONGKHLA X X X XTURKMENISTAN38388 YEKEJE X38392 DASHOGUZ X38507 TURKMENBASHI X X38511 CHAGYL X38545 DARGANATA X38656 YERBENT X38687 TURKMENABAT X38750 ESENGULY X X38763 SERDAR X X38880 ASHGABAT X X X38895 BAYRAMALY X X38915 KOYTENDAG X X38974 SARAGT XUNITED ARAB EMIRATES41194 DUBAI INT. XAIRPORT41196 SHARJAH INT. XXAIRPORT41216 ABU DHABI XBATEEN AIRPORT41217 ABU DHABI INT. X X XAIRPORTUZBEKISTAN38178 AK-BAJTAL X38262 CHIMBAJ X X38396 URGENCH X38403 BUZAUBAJ X38413 TAMDY X X38457 TASHKENT X X X38611 NAMANGAN X X38618 FERGANA X38683 BUHARA X38696 SAMARKAND X38812 KARSHI X38927 TERMEZ X XVIETNAM48806 SON LA X48808 CAO BANG X48820 HA NOI X X48826 PHU LIEN X48830 LANG SON X


86 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP48840 THANH HOA X48845 VINH X48848 DONG HOI X48852 HUE X48855 DA NANG X X X48870 OUY NHON X48877 NHA TRANG X48887 PHAN THIET X48892 SONG TU TAY X48900 HO CHI MINH X XINDEX STATION NAME CLIMAT CLIMAT GSN GUANTEMP48914 CA MAU X48920 TRUONG SA XYEMEN41407 MARIB X41443 RIYAN X X41480 ADEN X X41494 SOCOTRA XRESOLUTION 4 (XIII-RA II)RAPPORTEUR ON REGIONAL ASPECTS OF INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT, RELATED TRAININGAND CAPACITY-BUILDINGREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) The Abridged Final Report with Resolutions ofthe Twelfth Session of Regional Association II(Asia) (WMO-No. 924),(2) Resolution 7 (EC-LV) — Report of thethirteenth session of the Commission forInstruments and Methods of Observation,CONSIDERING:(1) The importance of information on instrumentdevelopment as guidance for improving theequipment of surface-based observingstations with sensors and automatic weatherstations,(2) The need for updating information on thestatus of instrumentation used atmeteorological stations and on maintenanceand calibration of instruments,(3) The need for coordinating education andtraining activities for observers, stationinspectors and technicians in the field ofoperation, maintenance and calibration ofmeteorological instruments,DECIDES:(1) To appoint a Rapporteur on Regional Aspectsof Instrument Development, Related Trainingand Capacity-Building with the following termsof reference:(a) To update information on instrumentationoperated at meteorological stations andon its maintenance and calibration;(b) To prepare guidance for the best effectiveuse of meteorological instrumentation;(c) To keep abreast of all matters related toinstrument development;(d) To provide guidelines for the coordinationof education and training activities forinstrument technicians in collaborationwith the Regional Instrument Centres(RICs) and the WMO Secretariat;(e) To facilitate liaison between CIMO andRegional Association II on matterspertaining to capacity-building in the fieldof instruments and methods ofobservation;(2) To invite Mr Zhou Heng (China) to serve asRapporteur on Regional Aspects of InstrumentDevelopment, Related Training and Capacity-Building;(3) To request the rapporteur to submit annualprogress reports and a final report to thepresident of RA II at least six months beforethe next session of the Association._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 5(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.


RESOLUTIONS 87RESOLUTION 5 (XIII-RA II)AMENDMENTS TO THE MANUAL ON THE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM (WMO-No. 386),VOLUME II — REGIONAL ASPECTS — REGION II (ASIA) — PART IREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 2 (Cg-XIV) — World WeatherWatch Programme for 2004–2007,(2) The Manual on the GlobalTelecommunication System (WMO-No.386), Volume IIRegional Aspects —Region II (Asia) — Part I,DECIDES that the Manual on the GlobalTelecommunication System, Volume IIRegional Aspects — Region II (Asia) — Part I beamended as given in the annex to this resolution,with effect from 2 November 2005;REQUESTS the Secretary-General to make theamendments, as given in the annex to thisresolution, to the Manual on the GlobalTelecommunication System, Volume IIRegional Aspects — Region II (Asia) — Part I;AUTHORIZES the Secretary-General to make anyconsequent purely editorial amendments of theManual on the Global Telecommunication System,Volume IIRegional Aspects — Region II (Asia)— Part 1;ANNEX TO RESOLUTION 5 (XIII-RA II)AMENDMENTS TO THE MANUAL ON THE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM (WMO-No. 386),VOLUME II — REGIONAL ASPECTS — REGION II (ASIA) — PART IREPLACE the text of section 3.3 — Functions of RTHs to read:RTHs in Region II should perform the functions defined in 2.1, Part I, Volume I of the Manual.AMEND the table in paragraph 3.4 to include United Arab Emirates in the zone of responsibility of RTHJeddah.AMEND Figure 1 — Regional meteorological telecommunication network for Region II (Asia), to include thefollowing regional circuits:?? RTH Jeddah – NMC Abu-Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)?? RTH New Delhi – NMC Thimpu (Bhutan)?? RTH Bangkok – RTH New Delhi?? RTH Beijing – RTH New Delhiand the interregional circuit Bangkok–Singapore.AMEND section 3.11 — Satellite-based communication systems, as follows:(a) Number the existing paragraph as 3.11.1;(b) Insert new paragraph 3.11.2:3.11.2 The METEOSAT geostationary meteorological satellites operated by EUMETSAT provide ameteorological data distribution (MDD) servi ce as part of the RMTN. With Meteosat Second Generation(MSG), the MDD programme will be embedded in the data distribution service operated by EUMETSAT.RESOLUTION 6 (XIII-RA II)AMENDMENTS TO REGULATION 2/12.4.4 IN THE WMO MANUAL ON CODES (WMO-No. 306),VOLUME II, CONCERNING REGIONAL CODING PROCEDURES FOR 6- AND 12-HOUR PRECIPITATIONREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING Paragraph 6.3.18 of the Abridged FinalReport with Resolutions and Recommendations ofthe Twelfth Session of the Commission for BasicSystems (WMO-No. 923),DECIDES:(1) To modify Regulation 2/12.4.4 in the WMOManual on Codes (WMO-No. 306), Volume II,as follows:Replacement of old Regulation 2/12.4.4 with:2/12.4.4 At 0600 and 1800 UTC, theprecipitation amounts over the preceding 6-hour period should be reported for RRR;2/12.4.5 At intermediate observationtimes, the periods to which RRR refers shallbe determined (in accordance withRegulation 2/12.4.1) by national decision


88 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIand in accordance with specifications ofCode table 4019(tR);(2) That these modifications shall come into forceon 2 November 2005;REQUESTS the Secretary-General:(1) To arrange for the inclusion of the modificationin the Manual on Codes, Volume II;(2) To bring this modification to the attention ofMembers of RA II.RESOLUTION 7 (XIII-RA II)WORKING GROUP ON CLIMATE-RELATED MATTERS IN REGION IIREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 10 (Cg-XIV) — Global ClimateObserving System,(2) Resolution 8 (Cg-XIII) — Climate Informationand Prediction Services Project,(3) Resolution 25 (Cg-XIV) — Sixth WMO LongtermPlan,(4) The report of the chairperson of the WorkingGroup on Climate-Related Matters, includingCLIPS, in Region II,CONSIDERING the need for the Association to expandits activities on climate-related matters of specialimportance to the Region,DECIDES:(1) To establish a Working Group on Climate-Related Matters in Region II with the followingterms of reference:(a) To keep abreast of climate-relatednational and international activities, inparticular those undertaken by Membersin Region II and within the World ClimateProgramme and other climate-relatedprogrammes;(b) To advise on the improvement of climatedata exchange and on the developmentof regional climate observing networks,and to liaise with relevant GCOS bodiesand make recommendations on itsimplementation in the Region;(c) To address problems faced by Membersin collecting, processing and archivingclimatological observations and facilitatethe transfer of advice on the climatedatabase management systems to meetthe varying needs of Members in theRegion;(d) To keep under review the development ofclimate data sets, in particular referencedata sets for climate change detection,especially on the regional scale;(e) To promote the implementation ofClimate Information and PredictionServices (CLIPS) with particularreference to the establishment andtraining of CLIPS Focal Points;(f) To review the progress in research andimplementation of predictive capability onseasonal to interannual timescales,including verification, informationinterpretation and conversion intodecisions within each application area, aswell as the arrangements necessary toensure that this capability is channelledeffectively through NMHSs;(g) To promote the implementation of climateapplications, with special attention to thefood production, water resources, humanhealth and energy sectors;(h) To keep under review the development ofclimate change assessments under IPCCand the implementation of the UNFCCC,and to make recommendations onrelevant action which may be required inthe Region;(i) To advise the president of theAssociation on all matters concerning theWCP;(j) To advise the president of theAssociation on all matters concerning theimplementation of RCCs in RA II;(2) To invite the following experts to serve on theWorking Group in the capacities indicated:(a) Mr Liu Wenquan (China) — Rapporteuron Regional Climate ObservingNetworks, including liaison with CBS andGCOS;(b) Mr G. Srinivasan (India) — Rapporteur onRegional Climate Data Management,including data rescue;(c) Mr Sungdae Kang (Republic of Korea) —Rapporteur on Regional ClimateApplications;(d) Mr Roman Vilfand (Russian Federation)— Rapporteur on CLIPS and PredictiveCapability;(e) Mr M. Rahimi (Islamic Republic of Iran) —Rapporteur on Climate Change Issues,including UNFCCC;(f) Mr Masato Sugi (Japan) — Rapporteuron Implementation of Regional ClimateCentres in RA II;(3) To designate, in accordance with Regulation32 of the WMO General Regulations,Mr Zheng Guoguang (China) as chairperson


RESOLUTIONS 89and Mr Masato Sugi (Japan) as vicechairpersonof the Working Group;REQUESTS the chairperson of the Working Group tosubmit annual progress reports to the president ofthe Association, and a final report no later thansix months before the fourteenth session of theAssociation._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 7(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.RESOLUTION 8 (XIII-RA II)CLIMATE INFORMATION AND PREDICTION SERVICES (CLIPS) PROJECTREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 11 (Cg-XIV) — Services of theWorld Climate Programme,(2) That Members of RA II are contributing to arange of CLIPS activities,(3) The climatic anomalies, and their impacts,associated with the 1997/98 El Niño event andthe subsequent La Niña event,(4) Resolution 7 (XIII-RA II) — Working Group onClimate-Related Matters in Region II,CONSIDERING:(1) That interannual climate variability, including,but not restricted to, variability linked to the ElNiño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), substantiallyimpacts socio-economic activities inthe Region,(2) That effective use of current seasonal tointerannual climate prediction technology canprovide substantial benefit in socio-economicplanning,(3) That improved use of climate information, inaddition to, or in combination with, climatepredictions, can provide further socioeconomicbenefits,(4) That the science and technology of seasonalto interannual climate prediction aredeveloping rapidly,(5) That effective application of climate predictionand information services requires capacitybuildingand development of correctlydesignedprojects,(6) That the implementation of CLIPS in theRegion should be kept under constant review,(7) That there is a need for close coordination inthe implementation of CLIPS-related activitiesin the Region,DECIDES:(1) That the following terms of reference will applyfor the members of the Working Group onClimate-Related Matters in Region II withrespect to the implementation of the CLIPSProject in the Region:(a) To act in support of all CLIPS activitieswithin the Region;(b) To act as coordinators of regionalnetworks of national CLIPS Focal Points;(c) To keep abreast of research activities onAsian climate variability, including inrelation to the activities and plans ofWCRP/CLIVAR;(d) To keep abreast of research anddevelopment activities appertaining to theapplication of climate information andprediction services, including in relation toactivities such as those underSTART/CLIMAG;URGES:(1) All Members to appoint national Focal Pointsfor CLIPS and to provide them with thefacilities necessary to undertake their roles;(2) Members to supplement throughextrabudgetary contributions the resourcesrequired for the further development andimplementation of the CLIPS Project;REQUESTS the rapporteurs to submit annual progressreports to the president of the Association, and finalreports no later than six months before thefourteenth session of the Association;REQUESTS the Secretary-General:(1) To provide the necessary support, within theresources available, to the rapporteurs on theimplementation of CLIPS in the Region and tothe national CLIPS Focal Points;(2) To bring this resolution to the attention of allconcerned.


90 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIRESOLUTION 9 (XIII-RA II)ESTABLISHMENT OF A REGIONAL CLIMATE CENTRES NETWORK IN RA II (RCC-RA II)REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 7 (XI-RA II) — Working Group onClimate-Related Matters,(2) Proceedings of the Meeting on Organizationand Implementation of Regional ClimateCentres (WMO/TD-No. 1198),RECOGNIZING:(1) That EC-LVI (2004) had urged regionalassociations interested in Regional ClimateCentres (RCCs ) to proceed quickly towardsimplementation,(2) The RA II president’s request to conduct asurvey on requirements for the establishmentof RCCs in RA II and report the result to XIII-RA II,(3) The urgent needs in Region II, identified bythe survey, to establish a system of RCCs inorder to enhance the climate informationservices of NMHSs,(4) The capacity in Region II, identified by thesurvey, to perform a broad range of RCCfunctions for the Region,(5) That designation procedures for RCCs aresubject to agreement between CBS and CCl,DECIDES:(1) To take immediate steps to implement anetwork of multiple multifunctional centresand/or specialized centres on a pilot basis asthe structure for implementing RCC activitiesin Region II, in order to determine optimalcomposition of the RA II RCC network whichwould best comply with the functions of RCCsas described below:Functions of RCCs(a) RCC functions should be composed of“operational function”, “coordinationfunction”, “data services function”,“training and capacity-building function”and “research and development function”.The functions and activities are listed inthe annex to this resolution;(b) In order to maintain the flexibility ofRCCs, network climate products andservices provided by each participatinginstitution may be subject to change overthe course of the evaluation process;Eligibility and overall structure(a) An NMHS, or an organizationrecommended by an NMHS, responsiblefor climate-related services which intendsto provide RCC services on its owninitiative and on a voluntary basis(participating institution) is eligible toparticipate in the RCC network, subject tobeing qualified by the RA II WorkingGroup on Climate-Related Matters(WGCRM) as being capable of carryingout the functions of an RCC as defined inGuidelines on the Eligibility of RCCs. Aparticipating institution should have atleast some of the listed functions,preferably including several operationalactivities for all, or a part, of the Region,and must adhere to WMO TechnicalRegulations and resolutions involvingdata policy (Resolutions 40 (Cg-XII) and25 (Cg-XIII));(b) In the RCC network, each participatinginstitution should establish and manageits web site on its own initiative. All of theweb sites are integrated by linking up tothe RCC network home page, to ensurethe visibility of the whole structure of thesystem and their activities;(c) Each participating institution shoulddevelop its implementation plan andsubmit it to the Region II WGCRM inadvance. In addition, participatinginstitutions should submit activity reportson an annual basis to WGCRM;(2) To request WGCRM to examine the eligibilityof NMHSs for the RCC network andrecommend to the president of RA II qualifiedNMHSs to be designated as RCCs;(3) To authorize WGCRM to be responsible forthe RCCs overall coordination, including:(a) To identify an NMHS to host the RCCnetwork home page;(b) To receive and consider applications of,and identify, participating institutions;(c) To review NMHSs’ requirements for RCCactivities;(d) To propose remedial measures foroutstanding RCC activities;(e) To deal with other issues related to RCCactivities;(f) To review and consider the adequacy ofeligibility and overall structure of the RCCnetwork through reviewing the network;(g) To monitor and review the current statusof RCC activities;REQUESTS:(1) The chairperson of the WGCRM to submitGuidelines on the Eligibility of RCCs to thepresident of Regional Association II;(2) The president of RA II to endorse theGuidelines on the Eligibility of RCCs and


RESOLUTIONS 91designate a procedure for the establishment ofan RCC network in Region II, both of whichare to be developed by the WGCRM.(3) The president of RA II to distribute theGuidelines to the Members of Region II and toinvite interested NMHSs to apply for RCCstatus.1. Operational functionANNEX TO RESOLUTION 9 (XIII-RA II)REGIONAL CLIMATE CENTRES NETWORK IN RA II (RCC-RA II)List of functions and activities of the RCC Network in RA II (RCC-RA II)Activities:(a) To provide interpretation and assessment of relevant output products from global prediction centres;(b) To generate and distribute tailored products to meet NMHSs’ needs, including seasonal outlooks etc.;(c) To undertake product verification, including hindcast verification of the tools, and the necessaryexchange of basic data;(d) To provide climate analysis and monitoring;(e) To provide climate advisories in coordination with NMHSs;(f) To undertake climate database management.2. Coordination functionActivities:(a) To develop systems to facilitate harmonization and assistance in the use of seasonal and interannualforecast products;(b) To assist coordination with end-users, including the organization of workshops and other forums onusers' needs (regional climate outlook forums);(c) To assist the introduction of climate information and predictions into early warning and disasterprevention systems.3. Data services functionActivities:(a) To assist in the rescue of climate data sets;(b) To provide climate database and archiving services;(c) To provide advice on data quality management.4. Training and capacity-building functionActivities:(a) To train NMHS staff in seasonal and interannual forecasting methods and characteristics to assistNMHSs to strengthen their services;(b) To assist the training of end-users on the application and impact of seasonal and interannual forecastproducts;(c) To assist the introduction of appropriate decision models for end-users, especially as regards probabilityforecasts;(d) To assist technical capacity-building at NMHS level.5. Research and development functionActivities:(a) To study climate variability, predictability and impact in the Region;(b) To develop tools for objective climate analysis and prediction;(c) To develop and/or validate regional models and methods of downscaling of global output products;(d) To undertake application research, and assist in the specification and development of sector-specificproducts;(e) To promote studies of the economic value of climate information.


92 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIRESOLUTION 10 (XIII-RA II)RAPPORTEUR ON ATMOSPHERIC OZONEREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING the report of the Rapporteur on AtmosphericOzone appointed by Resolution 10(XII-RA II),CONSIDERING:(1) The requirement of periodic scientific reviewsmandated by the Montreal Protocol onSubstances that Deplete the Ozone Layer(1987),(2) That there is a continuing need to keep underreview the regional activities in ozonemonitoring and research, with a view toextending and improving the ozone observingsystem and strengthening the coordination ofresearch activities,DECIDES:(1) To appoint a Rapporteur on AtmosphericOzone with the following terms of reference:(a) To keep under review the network ofozone stations in the Region and theirprogrammes and to coordinate theregional activities in this field, inaccordance with the plans for theimplementation of the GAW ozonenetwork;(b) To comply with requests from Membersof the Association for advice and topromote, within the Region, an exchangeof information and publications relating toozone;(c) To promote Umkehr and other (e.g.microwave, Lidar, balloonsonde, ozonesonde)vertical ozone measure-ments;(d) To promote calibrations and comparisonsof instruments and publication of theresults of such comparisons;(e) To promote the rapid submission of datawith appropriate calibration for publicationby the GAW World Ozone and UltravioletRadiation Data Centre at theMeteorological Service of Canada inToronto;(f)To stimulate appropriate ozone researchprojects within the Region;(2) To invite Mr A. Starovatov (Uzbekistan) toserve as the Rapporteur on AtmosphericOzone;(3) To request the Rapporteur to submit annualreports, as appropriate, to the president of theAssociation, and a final report no later than sixmonths before the next session of theAssociation._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 10(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.RESOLUTION 11 (XIII-RA II)CO-RAPPORTEURS ON THE GLOBAL ATMOSPHERE WATCHREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING the reports of the Co-Rapporteurs on theGlobal Atmosphere Watch appointed by Resolution 9(XII-RA II),CONSIDERING:(1) The wide interest in monitoring of, andresearch on, atmospheric composition andenvironmental pollution in the Region,(2) The continuing international concern aboutglobal change and implementation ofenvironmental conventions on climate changeand protection of the ozone layer,(3) The adverse effects of pollution on humanhealth and environmental resources,(4) The need to strengthen further and improvethe operation of GAW,(5) The rapid industrialization and urbanizationleading to increased pollution concerns in theRegion,DECIDES:(1) To appoint Co-Rapporteurs on the GlobalAtmosphere Watch with the following terms ofreference:(a) To liaise with agencies based both withinand outside the Region undertakingatmospheric composition andenvironmental pollution monitoring andresearch programmes, including themeteorological aspects of atmosphericpollution;(b) To encourage coordination of agencies’atmospheric monitoring and researchprogrammes and to encouragecooperation between agencies andNational Meteorological Services in thesefields;(c) To advise on the further development ofthe GAW network in the Region withspecial emphasis on data quality;


RESOLUTIONS 93(d) To assist Members in the exchange ofinformation and experience;(e) To assist development of cooperativeresearch projects in this field in theRegion;(2) To invite the following experts: Mr ZhangXiaoye (China), Rapporteur on Aerosols andother Matters; Mr T. Tsutsumi (Japan),Rapporteur on Greenhouse Gases; andMr S. Chicherin (Russian Federation),Rapporteur on Radiation to serve asCo-Rapporteurs on the Global AtmosphereWatch;(3) To request the Co-Rapporteurs to keep thepresident of the Association and theSecretariat informed of relevant events andproblems and to submit to the president of theAssociation a final report six months beforethe next session of the Association._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 9(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.RESOLUTION 12 (XIII-RA II)RAPPORTEUR ON WWRP-THORPEXREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),CONSIDERING:(1) The wide interest in participating in thedevelopment and implementation of theTHORPEX Programme in the Region,(2) That the Region should be kept informed ofthe progress of THORPEX, regional plans andactivities, coordinated by the Asian THORPEXRegional Committee,DECIDES:(1) To appoint a Rapporteur on WWRP-THORPEX with the following terms ofreference:(a) To serve as a focal point for WWRP -THORPEX in RA II;(b) To encourage and facilitate theparticipation of the NationalMeteorological Services, academia andrelated agencies of the Region in theactivities of the Asian THORPEXRegional Committee;(c) To keep the Association informed onTHORPEX activities in the Region inaccordance with the THORPEXInternational Science Plan and theTHORPEX International ResearchImplementation Plan;(d) To advise and promote within the Regionan exchange of information andpublications relating to THORPEXactivities;(2) To invite Mr Tetsuo Nakazak a (Japan) toserve as Rapporteur on WWRP-THORPEX;(3) To request the Rapporteur to submit annualreports, as appropriate, to the president of theAssociation, and a final report no later than sixmonths before the next session of theAssociation.RESOLUTION 13 (XIII-RA II)RAPPORTEUR ON THE PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF CLOUDS AND WEATHER MODIFICATIONRESEARCHREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING the report of the Rapporteur on the Physicsand Chemistry of Clouds and Weather ModificationResearch appointed by Resolution 11 (XII-RA II),RECOGNIZING the growing importance of physics andchemistry of clouds to many sub-disciplines ofatmospheric science and the increasing scientificbasis for weather modification as well as theassociated chemical-related considerations,CONSIDERING:(1) That many areas of Asia experience chronicnatural water deficiencies or damage causedby hail,(2) That applications of physics and chemistry ofclouds and weather modification offer potentialbenefits to the Region,(3) That the Region should be kept informed ofdevelopments in the physics and chemistry ofclouds and research as well as in operationalaspects of weather modification,DECIDES:(1) To appoint a Rapporteur on the Physics andChemistry of Clouds and Weather ModificationResearch with the following terms ofreference:


94 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA II(a) To survey and summarize existingknowledge of weather modification as itrelates to interests within the Region;(b) To prepare and periodically updatesurveys on ongoing activities on thephysics and chemistry of clouds andweather modification in the Region;(c) To advise Members that seek help indeveloping studies on the physics andchemistry of clouds and weathermodification;(d) To make proposals on the needs of theRegion with respect to guidance materialsuitable for governments and the public,international workshops and experiments;(e) To collaborate with national as well asinternational research institutes and otherorganizations;(2) To invite Mr Liu Qijun (China) to serve asRapporteur on the Physics and Chemistry ofClouds and Weather Modification Research;(3) To request the Rapporteur to submit annualreports to the president of the Association asprogress in the field suggests, and a finalreport six months before the fourteenthsession of the Association._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 11(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.RESOLUTION 14 (XIII-RA II)PILOT PROJECT ON THE PROVISION OF CITY-SPECIFIC NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTIONPRODUCTS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES VIA THE INTERNETREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING that many National Meteorological andHydrological Services (NMHSs) from developingcountries, including least developed countries(LDCs), while making great efforts to contributesynoptic observations, are unable to benefit fullyfrom the latest advances in numerical weatherprediction (NWP) for their public weather services(PWS) owing to the substantial resources requiredfor individual Members to operate NWP modelsand/or to acquire and process NWP output data intoproducts relevant to PWS work,CONSIDERING:(1) That NWP guidance contributes usefully to thequality of PWS,(2) That the need to demonstrate to governmentsthat maintaining observation stations in theglobal and regional basic observationalnetwork would bring tangible benefits,RECOGNIZING:(1) That NWP outputs of advanced centres giveuseful guidance for location-specific forecastsup to five to seven days ahead,(2) That the Internet offers an affordable meansfor NMHSs from developing countries,including LDCs, to access NWP products, inchart form and applicable directly to theirpublic weather services,DECIDES:(1) To establish under the auspices of a WMOpilot project in Region II with Members havingadvanced NWP capabilities to generateproducts such as point forecasts in the form oftime series of weather parameters for selectedcities up to five to seven days ahead and toset up appropriate facilities for the access ofsuch products over the Internet by otherMembers in the Region;(2) To set up a Pilot Project Coordinating Groupwith the following terms of reference:(a) To establish the requirements of RA IIMembers regarding city-specific NWPproducts;(b) To facilitate communication betweencentre(s) providing the required productsvia Internet and the recipient Members;(c) To organize assistance, includingtraining, to Members in accessing andutilizing the products;(d) To monitor the progress of the project;(3) To appoint the following members of thecoordinating group:Mr W.M. Ma (Hong Kong, China) asCoordinator of the Group;Ms Seth Vannareth (Cambodia), …. (China),Mr Masanori Obayashi (Japan), Mrs S.Phonevilay (Lao PDR), Mrs J. Oyunjargal(Mongolia) Mr San Hla Thaw (Myanmar), MrMadan L. Shrestha (Nepal), Mr Kwan-YoungChung (Republic of Korea) and Mr PravitJampanya (Thailand) as Members;(4) To invite Members desiring to participate inthe pilot project to designate experts to serveas members of the Coordinating Group;(5) To request the Coordinator of the Group tosubmit an annual progress report and a finalreport to the president of the Association nolater than six months prior to the fourteenthsession of the Association;(6) That the Group should normally conduct itswork by correspondence, including via the e-mail;REQUESTS the Secretary-General to assist Membersin the implementation of this resolution.


RESOLUTIONS 95RESOLUTION 15 (XIII-RA II)WORKING GROUP ON AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGYREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 14 (Cg-XIV) — AgriculturalMeteorology Programme,(2) The Abridged Final Report with Resolutionsand Recommendations of the ThirteenthSession of the Commission for AgriculturalMeteorology (WMO-No. 951),(3) Resolution 12 (XII-RA II) — Working Groupon Agricultural Meteorology,(4) The recommendations made by the sessionof the RA II Working Group on AgriculturalMeteorology held in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia,from 15 to 17 December 2003,CONSIDERING:(1) The economic importance of agriculture tothe countries in Region II,(2) The need for promoting more active use ofagrometeorological research products by theend-users for sustainable agriculture in theRegion,(3) That drought and deforestation continue toimpact the sustainability of agriculture in theRegion,(4) The importance of climate change and itspotential impacts on agriculture and waterresources in the Region,(5) The potential for improved applications ofwater harvesting for sustainable agriculturein the Region,URGES Members:(1) To undertake studies on the more activeapplications of agricultural meteorology forpromoting sustainable agriculture in theRegion;(2) To assess the potential impacts of climatechange on sustainable agriculture in theRegion and develop appropriate strategiesto cope with such impacts;DECIDES:(1) To establish a Working Group onAgricultural Meteorology with the followingterms of reference:(a) To review the approaches in promotingthe more active use ofagrometeorological research productsby the end-users for sustainableagriculture in the Region;(b) To review and summarize the status ofseasonal and early warning predictionas well as the monitoring of drought inthe region by both conventional andremote-sensing techniques;(c) To review and summarize the latestinformation on the impact of climatechange on the agricultural and waterresources sectors, and the adaptationstrategy to cope with the impacts;(d) To review and summarize the currentprocedures of agrometeorologicalforecasts in particular with respect topest and disease management;(e) To review and summarize both themodern and traditional methods ofrainwater harvesting for agriculturaluse;(f) To review and summarize theapplications of agrometeorologicalmodelling in the Region;(g) To evaluate the status of education andtraining of agrometeorologicalpersonnel with particular reference toearly warning and monitoring ofdroughts so as to promote and supportthe activities of centres in the Regionsuch as the RDMEC in Jeddah;(h) To review and evaluate the importanceof urban and indoor agriculture in theRegion and the strategy to promotethem for sustainable agriculture;(2) To invite the following experts to serve asmembers of the Working Group:Mr Wang Jianlin (China)Mr R.P. Samui (India)Ms Yelena V. Antipova (Kazakhstan)Mr D. Erdenetsetseg (Mongolia)Mr Ramesh Kumar (Nepal)Mr Bari Farooqi Anjum (Pakistan)Ms Kyungsuk Cho (Republic of Korea)Mr Viktor Zhukov (Russian Federation)Mr Somchai Baimoung (Thailand)Mr A’lo Abdullaev (Uzbekistan)Mr Nguyen Van Viet (Viet Nam)(3) To invite Mr G.A. Kamali (Islamic Republic ofIran) to act as chairperson of the WorkingGroup on Agricultural Meteorology;(4) To request the chairperson to allocateresponsibilities in consultation with themembers of the Group for the various taskscontained in the terms of reference;(5) To request the chairperson to submit a finalreport comprising individual reports of themembers to the president of the regionalassociation no later than six months beforethe next session of the Association.


96 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIRESOLUTION 16 (XIII-RA II)RAPPORTEUR ON REGIONAL ASPECTS OF THE AERONAUTICALMETEOROLOGY PROGRAMME IN REGION IIREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) The need for monitoring and keeping underreview developments in aeronauticalmeteorology in the Region,(2) The need for coordination among RA IIMembers of activities related to aeronauticalmeteorology and for reporting these activitiesto the Region and to the Commission forAeronautical Meteorology (CAeM),CONSIDERING that the monitoring, review andcoordination of aeronautical meteorological issueswould be of great benefit to Members in the Region,DECIDES:(1) To appoint a Rapporteur on Regional Aspectsof the Aeronautical Meteorology Programme(AeMP) with the following terms of reference:(a) To review and advise on observationaldata and product requirements ofcountries in the Region in the context ofthe AeMP;(b) To review the status of theimplementation of the AeMP in theRegion, including observing systems ataerodromes, aircraft data collection, andservices provided under the World AreaForecast System (WAFS), and toformulate proposals through the WMOSecretariat to the appropriateInternational Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) bodies for its future developmentand implementation;(c) To monitor and promote capacity-buildingactivities related to the AeMP within theRegion and to identify trainingrequirements;(d) To keep abreast of matters related to theimplementation of AMDAR programmesand projects in the Region;(e) To liaise by correspondence with CAeMOpen Programme Area Groups (OPAGs)and the ICAO meteorological groupsthrough their respective secretariats onspecific regional matters, in particularthose related to cost recovery ofaeronautical meteorological services;(f)To provide advice to the president of RAII on aeronautical meteorology mattersand to take actions in this regard;(2) To invite Mr C.M. Shun (Hong Kong, China) toserve as Rapporteur on Regional Aspects ofthe Aeronautical Meteorology Programme inRegion II;(3) To request the Rapporteur to submit anannual report on his activities to the presidentof the Association as well as a final report sixmonths before the next session of theAssociation, both copied to the WMOSecretariat.RESOLUTION 17 (XIII-RA II)PILOT PROJECT TO DEV ELOP SUPPORT FOR DEV ELOPING COUNTRIES IN THEAERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGY PROGRAMMEREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) That a number of NMHSs, especially those ofLeast Developed Countries (LDCs), encounterpractical difficulties in cost recovery foraviation weather services and cannot affordthe cost associated with the reception ofWAFS products via satellite broadcast,(2) That over one third of the Members in RA II,including a number of LDCs, do not haveaccess to WAFS products,(3) That the provision of en route weatherproducts in chart form would ceasesubsequent to the migration to exclusive useof BUFR and GRIB coded WAFS productswithin a couple of years,(4) That many of the Members in the Region haveyet to acquire the capability to operationallyconvert GRIB and BUFR coded WAFSproducts,CONSIDERING:(1) The importance of weather information for thesafe operation of aviation,(2) That LDCs in the Region are in need ofassistance in building-capacity in the provisionof aviation weather services,(3) The long established tradition of partnership,mutual cooperation and sharing of weatherproducts among the Members in the Region,RECOGNIZING:(1) That the NWP capacity to develop andgenerate numerical weather guidance


RESOLUTIONS 97products helpful to aviation weather serviceexists in RA II,(2) That the Internet offers a good opportunity toenable the NMHSs of developing countries toreceive these products in graphical format atlow costs,DECIDES:(1) To establish under the auspices of WMO apilot project on the development andexperimental production of numerical weatherguidance products helpful to aviation weatherservice and suited to the circumstances of thedeveloping countries in Region II withparticular emphasis on LDCs;(2) To set up a Pilot Project Coordination Groupwith the following terms of reference:(a) To establish the requirements of theNMHSs of developing countries and inparticular LDCs in the Region regardingnumerical weather guidance products insupport of aviation weather serviceincluding the preparation of TAF,SIGMET and flight documentation;(b) To facilitate communication betweencentre(s) willing to develop the requiredproducts and the recipient Members;(c) To organize assistance to recipientMembers in accessing and utilizingWAFS products and other guidanceproducts, including training;(d) To assess the performance of theproducts;(e) To monitor the progress of the project;(3) To appoint the following members of thecoordinating group:Ms Jiao Meiyan (China) as Coordinator of theGroup;Ms Seth Vannareth (Cambodia), Mr C.M.Shun (Hong Kong, China), Ms F. Mohammadi(Islamic Republic of Iran), Mr MasanoriObayashi (Japan), Mr Sithanh Southichack(Lao PDR), Mrs Nyam-Od (Mongolia), KyawLwin Oo (Myanmar), Mr Bijaya Kumar Vaidya(Nepal) and Mr A. Latif Al-Hada (Republic ofYemen) as Members;(4) To invite Members desiring to participate inthe pilot project to designate experts to serveas members of the coordinating group;(5) To invite the International Civil AviationOrganization and two World Area ForecastCentres (WAFCs) to designate experts toparticipate in the coordinating group asobservers;(6) To request the Coordinator of the Group tosubmit annual progress reports and a finalreport to the president of the Association nolater than six months prior to the fourteenthsession of the Association;(7) That the Group should normally conduct itswork by correspondence, including via the e-mail;REQUESTS the Secretary-General to assist Membersin the implementation of this resolution.RESOLUTION 18 (XIII-RA II)RAPPORTEUR ON REGIONAL MARINE METEOROLOGICAL AND OCEANOGRAPHIC SERVICESREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING the report of the Rapporteur on RegionalMarine Meteorological Services,CONSIDERING:(1) The need for continued development ofmarine meteorological and oceanographicservices in Region II,(2) The need to continue close liaison withJCOMM, in particular through its Capacity-Building Programme Area, with regard tomatters affecting the Region,DECIDES:(1) To appoint a Rapporteur on Regional MarineMeteorological and Oceanographic Serviceswith the following terms of reference:(a) To continuously review the status of theimplementation of marine meteoro-logicaland oceanographic services and marineobserving systems in Region II and toformulate suggestions for their furtherdevelopment;(b) To take action on marine meteorologicaland oceanographic matters assigned bythe president of RA II;(c) To liaise with the appropriate JCOMMsubsidiary bodies, in particular within theCapacity-Building Programme Area, onspecific matters concerning Region II;(2) To invite Mr Y. Kimura (Japan) to serve as theRapporteur on Regional MarineMeteorological and Oceanographic Services;(3) To request the rapporteur to submit annualreports, as appropriate, to the president of theAssociation with a final report to be presentedsix months prior to the fourteenth session ofthe Association;REQUESTS the Secretary-General to assist therapporteur in his work, as appropriate._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 13(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.


98 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF R A IIRESOLUTION 19 (XIII-RA II)WORKING GROUP ON HYDROLOGYREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) The report of its Working Group on Hydrology,(2) Resolution 17 (Cg-XIV) — Hydrology andWater Resources Programme,(3) Resolution 25 (Cg-XIII) — Exchange ofHydrological Data and Products,(4) Resolution 15 (XII-RA II) — Working Groupon Hydrology,CONSIDERING that Regional Association II plays animportant and active role in the implementation ofWMO regional activities in the field of hydrology andwater resources,DECIDES:(1) To re-establish the Working Group onHydrology with the following terms ofreference:(a) To provide assistance and advice to thepresident of the Association on allquestions pertaining to the regionalaspects of the Hydrology and WaterResources Programme (HWRP);(b) To identify the best means of meeting thehydrological needs in the Region;(c) To undertake activities relating to theHWRP as listed in item (2) below;(d) To cooperate with the Commission forHydrology (CHy) and other WMO bodieson projects related to hydrology andwater resources;(e) To seek cooperation with other regionalbodies and organizations on issuesrelated to the HWRP;(2) To invite all Members of the Region todesignate national hydrological experts toserve on the Working Group and attend itsmeetings. The following experts werenominated during the thirteenth session tolead the activities in the theme areas asfollows:(a) Mr Kazuhiko Fukami (Japan), inimproving institutional capacity (nationallyand regionally);(b) Mr Shaukat Ali Awan (Pakistan), in waterresources assessment (surface andgroundwater);(c) Mr Liu Zhiyu (China), in disastermanagement — climate variability andhydrological aspects of drought;(d) Ms Petvirojerai (Thailand), in disastermitigation — improvements to shortduration (flash) flood forecastingcapabilities in urban areas;(e) Mr M. Yazdan Dost (Islamic Republic ofIran), in improved accuracy of flowmeasurements and estimation;(3) To designate Mr I. Shiklomanov (RussianFederation) as the Hydrological Advisor to thepresident of RA II and as chairperson of theWorking Group;REQUESTS the chairperson of the Working Group:(1) In his capacity as Advisor, to assist thepresident of RA II in accordance with theduties stipulated in WMO GeneralRegulation 167(b);(2) As chairperson of the Working Group, toprepare an implementation plan inconsultation with the president of theAssociation, to undertake work on specialaspects of the theme areas;(3) To participate in Executive Council sessions,when invited, representing regional interests inrelation to hydrology and water resources andto coordinate the WGH activities with CHy andother regional WGHs;(4) To submit to the president of the RegionalAssociation an annual report by 31 Decemberevery year and a final report no later thansix months before the fourteenth session ofRA II.URGES Members concerned to provide full support tothe experts nominated in order to ensure that theyare able to fulfil the tasks assigned to them._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 15(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.


RESOLUTIONS 99RESOLUTION 20 (XIII-RA II)STRATEGIC PLAN FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF NATIONAL HYDROLOGICAL SERVICESIN REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA)REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) The Abridged Final Report with Resolutions ofthe Twelfth Session of Regional Association II(Asia), (WMO-No 924), paragraph 13.4.3,(2) Resolution 25 (Cg-XIV) — Sixth WMO LongtermPlan,(3) Resolution 26 (Cg-XIV) — Preparation of theSeventh WMO Long-term Plan,(4) The requirements of the United NationsMillennium Development Goals in the field ofwater resources availability,RECOGNIZING:(1) The need to improve hydrological networkstogether with the capacity of NationalHydrological Services (NHSs) to providerelevant data and information to various users,(2) The wide gap that exists between developedNHSs equipped with high-end facilities formodelling and specialized hydrological officesand less developed NHSs with limited budgetsand facilities, outdated technologies, andinsufficiently qualified staff,CONSIDERING the overall objective of the StrategicPlan, which is to increase support to the NHSs inAsia to enable them to provide appropriate andtimely hydrological services to their nations and fulfiltheir national, regional and international obligations,DECIDES that additional strategic suggestions shouldbe included with regard to the prevention andmitigation of water-related natural disasters and alsoon aspects of deglaciation and its effects onfreshwater resources;FURTHER DECIDES that the draft strategy should becirculated to Members of RA II for further commentsto be included in the Strategic Plan;AUTHORIZES the president of Regional Association II(Asia) to approve the Strategic Plan for theEnhancement of National Hydrological Services inRegional Association II (Asia) (2005–2008) after itsfinalization;URGES Members of RA II to participate actively in theimplementation of the Strategic Plan, includingthrough implementation at national level;FURTHER URGES Members of RA II to take theStrategic Plan into consideration in the advancementof their Hydrological Services;REQUESTS the Secretary-General:(1) To accord due priority to the activitiesproposed in the Strategic Plan;(2) To mobilize resources for technicalcooperation activities in line with the StrategicPlan;(3) To report to Regional Association II at itsfourteenth session on the progress made onthe implementation of the Strategic Plan.RESOLUTION 21 (XIII-RA II)RAPPORTEUR ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING MATTERSREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 19 (Cg-XIV) — Education andTraining Programme,(2) Resolution 16 (XII-RA II) — Rapporteur onEducation and Training Matters,(3) Report of the Executive Council Panel ofExperts on Education and Training (twentyfirstsession),CONSIDERING that there continues to be a pressingneed by Members for staff to be trained at all levelsso that they can plan, direct, organize and carry outprogrammes in meteorology and related fieldsessential to economic and social development,DECIDES:(1) To designate a Rapporteur on Education andTraining Matters with the following terms ofreference:(a) To identify regional training needsthrough surveys;(b) To determine how these needs may besatisfied by RMTCs, and to examine thefeasibility of introducing specializedtraining courses at these centres;(c) To monitor the effectiveness of RMTCsby measurable indicators;(d) To keep under review and provide adviceon priority subject requirements forregional and specialized education andtraining;(e) To advise on the application of atechnology-intensive approach to theeducation and training process;(f) To identify and prioritize requirements fortraining materials and initiate thepreparation of new training publications;


100 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF R A II(g) To assess needs in the training ofinstructors at national training institutionsand WMO RMTCs;(h) To explore innovative ways to enabletraining institutions and WMO RMTCs toaccess the Internet;(i) To assist in the development of WMOLong-term Plans for the implementationof the Education and TrainingProgramme;(2) To invite Mr M. Azadi (Islamic Republic ofIran) to serve as Rapporteur on Education andTraining Matters;(3) To request the Rapporteur to submit to thepresident of the Association annual activityreports and to submit to him a final report sixmonths prior to the fourteenth session of theAssociation.RESOLUTION 22 (XIII-RA II)WORKING GROUP ON NATURAL DISASTER PREVENTION AND MITIGATIONIN REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA)REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 29 (Cg-XIV) — Natural DisasterPrevention and Mitigation Programme,(2) The Abridged Final Report with Resolutions ofthe Fourteenth World MeteorologicalCongress (WMO-No. 960), general summaryparagraphs 7.4.1 to 7.4.21 and 3.4.1.23,(3) The Abridged Final Report with Resolutions ofthe Fifty-sixth Session of the ExecutiveCouncil, paragraphs 11.1 to 11.13,(4) The Announcement of the World Conferenceon Disaster Reduction (18–22 January 2005,Kobe, Japan),CONSIDERING:(1) That natural disaster prevention and mitigationis a major regional concern for human socioeconomicactivities and environmentprotection,(2) That natural disaster reduction activities covera wide range of WMO programmes,(3) That there is a need to establish an effectiveframework for support to regional activities onnatural disaster prevention and mitigation,(4) That there is the need for adequate reflectionof issues relating to natural disasters ofhydrometeorological origin at the worldconference on disaster reduction, and followupevents thereafter,DECIDES:(1) To establish the Working Group on NaturalDisaster Prevention and Mitigation with thefollowing terms of reference:(a) To consider natural disaster preventionand mitigation problems within thecontext of the specific characteristics andneeds of the Region and then makerecommendations and contribute to thepreparation of appropriate and targetedregional plans of action;(b) To identify and evaluate best practices atregional level on policy and activitiesrelated to natural disaster prevention andmitigation;(c) To coordinate the exchange ofinformation on current best practices atregional and subregional level with therespective network of focal points innatural disasters;(d) To propose/review regional contingencyplans in case of emergencies anddisasters;(e) To contribute to the establishment ofmechanisms for regional discussion;(f)To evaluate the necessity and prioritieson capacity-building at regional level andpropose adequate actions;(g) To contribute actively to the project ondisaster risk management of hazards ofhydrometeorological origin proposingregional activities, namely case studies;(h) To propose mechanisms to coordinate itsactions with other regional teams workingin natural disaster prevention andmitigation, including tropical cyclonecommittees, networks of focal points,etc.;(i)To study the possible introduction ofRadio and Internet (RANET) into RegionII and implications on natural disasterprevention and mitigation;(2) To invite the following experts to serve asmembers of the Working Group:…. (Bangladesh)Mr Kenichi Takahashi (Japan)Mr S. Sridharan (India)Ms Aiisulu M. Darbekov (Kazakhstan)Mr San Hla Thaw (Myanmar)Mr Dilip Kumar Gautam (Nepal)Mr S. Borsh (Russian Federation)(3) To invite Mr M.C. Wong (Hong Kong, China)to act as chairperson;(4) To request the chairperson to allocateresponsibilities in consultation with the


RESOLUTIONS 101members of the Group for the various taskscontained in the terms of reference;(5) To request the chairperson to submit annualreports, as appropriate, to the president ofRegional Association II with a final report to bepresented no later than six months prior to thefourteenth session of the Association;REQUESTS the Secretary-General to take the relevantactions to support the activities of the Working Groupwithin the available budgetary resources.RESOLUTION 23 (XIII-RA II)RAPPORTEUR ON THE WMO SPACE PROGRAMMEREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (Asia),NOTING:(1) Resolution 5 (Cg-XIV) — WMO SpaceProgramme,(2) Resolution 6 (Cg-XIV) — WMO ConsultativeMeetings on High-level Policy on SatelliteMatters,RECOGNIZING the importance and great potentialavailable through exploitation of satellite data,products and services from the expanded spacebasedcomponent of the GOS as described in theWMO Space Programme Implementation Plan for2004 through 2007,FURTHER RECOGNIZING the necessity for involvementby Members in regional implementation activities forthe WMO Space Programme,DECIDES:(1) To appoint a Rapporteur on the WMO SpaceProgramme with the following terms ofreference:(a) To coordinate with the WMO SpaceProgramme Office on regional aspects ofthe WMO Space ProgrammeImplementation Plan;(b) To evaluate the WMO Space ProgrammeImplementation Plan and advise RegionMembers on regional activities that willcontribute fully to the exploitation ofsatellite data, products and services;(c) To coordinate with other Regional WMOSpace Programme rapporteurs onrelevant Space Programme activities;(d) To provide the president of theAssociation with appropriate information,advice and recommendations forpresentation under appropriate agendaitems in sessions of technicalcommissions, joint sessions of thepresidents of technical commissions andpresidents of regional associations, andthe Executive Council;(2) To invite Mr T. Kumara (Japan) to serve as theRapporteur on the WMO Space Programme;(3) To request the Rapporteur to submit annualreports, as appropriate, to the president of theAssociation and a final report six monthsbefore the next session of the Association.RESOLUTION 24 (XIII-RA II)RAPPORTEUR FOR THE GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM OF SYSTEMSREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) The Declaration from the first EarthObservation Summit, held in Washington D.C.on 31 July 2003, for improved coordination ofobserving systems towards a comprehensive,coordinated and sustained Earth observingsystem or systems,(2) The Communiqué from the second EarthObservation Summit, held in Tokyo, Japan, on25 April 2004, adopting the FrameworkDocument that describes the main benefits ofEarth observations to a broad range of usercommunities and the fundamental elements tobe included in the 10-year ImplementationPlan for what will henceforth be called theGlobal Earth Observation System of Systems(GEOSS); and the invitation to the governingbodies of international and regionalorganizations sponsoring existing Earthobserving systems to support the action of theSummit,(3) Resolution 9 (EC XLVI) — Global EarthObservation System of Systems (GEOSS),RECOGNIZING the significant opportunity for GEOSSto provide societal benefits, capacity-building andsustainable development through improvedobservations and a better understanding of the Earthsystem, its atmosphere, oceans, land surface andfresh water, geology, natural resources, ecosystemsand natural and human-induced hazards and thevast experience and considerable expertisethroughout the Region,


102 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF R A IIURGES Members to become fully involved in theplanning and implementation of GEOSS;STRESSES the importance of assisting the NMHSs ofdeveloping countries in the Region to participate fullyin GEOSS through the strengthening of theirobserving networks and the enhancement of theirprovision of services in support of social andeconomic benefits of their national commitments;ENCOURAGES the Permanent Representatives ofMembers to work closely with other Earthobservation agencies at national level to ensure thedevelopment of well-coordinated national plans forGEOSS implementation;DECIDES:(1) To appoint a Rapporteur for the Global EarthObservation System of Systems with thefollowing terms of reference:(a) To evaluate the GEOSS ImplementationPlan and advise Region Members onregional activities that will contribute fullyto the development and implementationof GEOSS including enhanced operationof the World Weather Watch and otherWMO-sponsored and jointly sponsoredobserving systems and componentsrelevant to GEOSS;(b) To coordinate with other RegionalGEOSS rapporteurs on relevant GEOSSactivities;(c) To provide the president of theAssociation with appropriate information,advice and recommendations forpresentation under appropriate agendaitems in sessions of technicalcommissions, joint sessions of thepresidents of technical commissions andpresidents of regional associations, andthe Executive Council;(d) To inform the Secretary-General ofrelevant GEOSS activities in the Region;(2) To invite Ms F. Rastegar (Islamic Republic ofIran) to serve as the Rapporteur for the GlobalEarth Observation System of Systems;(3) To request the Rapporteur to submit annualreports, as appropriate, to the president of theAssociation and a final report six monthsbefore the next session of the Association.RESOLUTION 25 (XIII-RA II)STRATEGIC PLAN FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SERVICESIN REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA) (2005–2008)REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) The Abridged Final Report with Resolutions ofthe Twelfth Session of Regional Association II(Asia) (WMO-No. 924),(2) The Abridged Final Report with Resolutions ofthe Fourteenth World MeteorologicalCongress (WMO-No. 960), paragraph 3.8.1.5,NOTING WITH SATISFACTION:(1) The usefulness of the Strategic Plan for theEnhancement of NMSs in RA II (2001–2004)as guidance for Members in formulating theirown development plans to contribute to andsupport meteorological-related disciplines aswell as their applications,(2) The development of the updated StrategicPlan covering the period 2005–2008 reflectingcontributions from Members of RA II andtechnical departments of the WMOSecretariat,REITERATING the strong interest of Members of RA IIin participating in the cooperative activities that willemerge from the Strategic Plan and in contributing tothese activities,RECOGNIZING:(1) The purpose of NMSs and the essential role ofNMSs in meteorology, operational hydrologyand related disciplines as well as theirapplications in environmental and naturalresources management, food security,agricultural systems, capacity-building, naturaldisaster reduction and sustainabledevelopment planning towards improving thequality of life,(2) The inadequacy that exists in the networks ofobservations, in particular upper-air networks,telecommunications, data-processing facilitiesand information technology in several NMSs,(3) The wide gap between developed NMSs withvery advanced facilities and the capacity ofless developed NMSs with limited budgets,shortages of observation equipment, spareparts and consumables, a lack of datacollection and processing facilities and a lackof qualified staff,CONSIDERING the overall objectives of the StrategicPlan, which aims to strengthen the capabilities ofNMSs in RA II in providing appropriatemeteorological and related services in support ofnational needs for protection of life and property,safeguarding the environment, contributing tosustainable social and economic development, andto fulfil commitments and obligations under regionaland international agreements and conventions,ADOPTS the Strategic Plan for the Enhancement ofNational Meteorological Services in RegionalAssociation II (Asia) (2005–2008);


RESOLUTIONS 103URGES Members of RA II to participate actively in theimplementation of the Strategic Plan, includingthrough the initiation of implementation at nationallevel;FURTHER URGES Members of RA II to take theStrategic Plan into consideration in the advancementof their Services;INVITES the Members of Regional Association II tocontribute to the trust fund established by WMO forthe development and the implementation of theStrategic Plan;REQUESTS the Secretary-General:(1) To take the initiative to invite institutions andprogrammes concerned within the UnitedNations system, multilateral donors andinternational agencies to provide technical andfinancial support for the implementation of theStrategic Plan;(2) To accord due priority to the activitiesproposed in the Strategic Plan;(3) To mobilize resources for technicalcooperation activities in line with the StrategicPlan;(4) To report to Regional Association II at itsfourteenth session on the progress made onthe implementation of the Strategic Plan._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 17(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.RESOLUTION 26 (XIII-RA II)ADVISORY WORKING GROUP OF REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA) (RA II AWG)REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) The Abridged Final Report with Resolutions ofthe Fourteenth World MeteorologicalCongress (WMO-No. 960),(2) The Abridged Final Report with Resolutions ofthe Twelfth Session of Regional Association II(Asia) (WMO-No. 924),(3) The reports of the sessions of the RA II AWG,CONSIDERING the proposal of the Advisory WorkingGroup of the Association,RECOGNIZING the need to have a mechanism toaddress issues not handled by other working groupsor rapporteurs,DECIDES:(1) To re-establish an Advisory Working Group ofRegional Association II (Asia) (RA II AWG)with the following terms of reference:(a) To advise the president on mattersrelated to the work of the Association, inparticular on matters requiring actionswhich cannot await the next regularsession of the Association;(b) To advise the president in planning andcoordinating the work of the Associationand its subsidiary bodies;(c) To review the structure and working ofthe subsidiary bodies of the Association,including the implementation of theirrecommendations;(d) To address other issues not covered byworking groups or rapporteurs;(e) To coordinate and monitor theimplementation of the updated RegionalStrategic Plan for the Enhancement ofNMSs in Asia (2005–2008) and theRegional Strategic Plan for theEnhancement of NHSs in Asia;(f) To assess and evaluate theimplementation of the RegionalProgramme related to the activities of RAII as per the WMO Long-term Plan;(g) To advise the president on therequirements and priorities of events tobe organized in the Region;(h) To advise the president on ways andmeans of enhancing technical assistanceto Members in the Region for theimplementation of WMO Programmesand activities;(2) To invite the president to act as chairperson ofthe Advisory Working Group, which iscomposed of the president, the vice-presidentand five Directors of NMHSs to be invited bythe president for each session;(3) That the president may invite, as appropriate,other Directors of NMHSs, chairpersons ofRA II working groups or rapporteurs toparticipate in the meetings of RA II AWG,subject to availability of financial resources;REQUESTS the president to ensure that subregionsare represented, as appropriate, on the AdvisoryWorking Group;FURTHER REQUESTS the president to report to theAssociation at its regular sessions on the activities ofthe Advisory Working Group._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 18(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.


104 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF R A IIRESOLUTION 27 (XIII-RA II)REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE ASSOCIATIONREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING paragraph 3.7.1 of the general summary ofthe ninth session of the Executive Committee,CONSIDERING:(1) That a number of its resolutions adoptedbefore its thirteenth session have been revisedand incorporated in resolutions of thethirteenth session,(2) That others of its previous resolutions havebeen incorporated in appropriate WMOpublications or have become obsolete,(3) That some of the previous resolutions are stillto be implemented,DECIDES:(1) To keep in force Resolutions 1 (III-RA II), 9(V-RA II), 9 (VII-RA II), 11 (VII-RA II),12 (X-RA II) and 14 (XII-RA II);(2) Not to keep in force the other resolutionsadopted before its thirteenth session;(3) To publish the text of the resolutions kept inforce in the annex to this resolution._____NOTE: This resolution replaces Resolution 19(XII-RA II), which is no longer in force.ANNEX TO RESOLUTION 27 (XIII-RA II)RESOLUTIONS OF RA II ADOPTED PRIOR TO ITS THIRTEENTH SESSION AND MAINTAINED IN FORCEResolution 1 (III-RA II)REGIONAL STANDARD BAROMETERTHE REGIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR ASIA,NOTING:(1) That there exists in India a standard barometer at Calcutta,(2) That comparisons with this barometer have already been carried out by a number of Members of theAssociation,DECIDES to designate this Indian barometer at Calcutta as a reference standard barometer for the Region.Resolution 9 (V -RA II)INTERCHANGE VISITS OF PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN DATA-PROCESSING ACTIVITIESTHE REGIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR ASIA,NOTING Resolution 16 (Cg-V) — World Weather Watch,Considering that there is a necessity for exchange of information on the methods of preparation of analysisand prognosis of interest to the Region,URGES Members of Regional Association II to encourage interchange visits of meteorological personnelbetween the NMCs/RMCs and the associated RMCs/WMCs to study and evaluate the analysis and forecastmethods in use in order to achieve efficient preparation and use of the output products of these centres;REQUESTS the Secretary-General to assist in promoting this form of cooperation.Resolution 9 (VII-RA II)INCLUSION OF INFORMATION ON WAVES AND PRESSURE SYSTEMS IN WEATHER AND SEABULLETINSTHE REGIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR ASIA,NOTING WMO Technical Regulations (C.1)2.3.2, (C.1)2.4.1 and (C.1)2.4.2,CONSIDERING:(1) That in response to a recent inquiry shipmasters have stated that wind data alone do not always sufficein providing the necessary information for safe navigation,(2) That a specific requirement has been expressed for information on sea conditions, particularly swellwaves, and on movements of significant pressure systems,URGES Members:(1) To follow strictly the provisions of WMO Technical Regulations Chapter C.1, in respect of the format andcontents of weather and sea bulletins issued for the high seas;(2) To include in weather and sea bulletins, as appropriate, information on height and direction of wavesabove a particular threshold value (say two metres), along with an indication of areas where such waves


RESOLUTIONS 105occur or are expected to occur, as well as on direction and speed of movement of significant pressuresystems;(3) To maintain close contact with users with a view to ensuring that the information issued keeps up withtheir requirements.Resolution 11 (VII-RA II)PROVISION OF MARINE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES FOR COASTAL AND OFF-SHOREACTIVITIESTHE REGIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR ASIA,NOTING that coastal and off-shore activities such as coastal fisheries, shore mining operations, harbourdevelopment, coastal development and engineering works have been on the increase in recent years,CONSIDERING:(1) That the increasing coastal and off-shore activities call for corresponding expansion of marinemeteorological services for the safety and economy of these activities,(2) That the services should include, where necessary, information on storm surges, in addition to gale andstorm warnings and warnings on high waves,(3) That an adequate forecast service to coastal and off-shore areas would need the backing ofobservational data from these areas and that, in addition, these data would be helpful in building up thestatistics for studies on coastal climatology,(4) That application of satellite products to coastal and off-shore services has proved highly useful,URGES Members:(1) To provide marine meteorological services for coastal and off-shore areas, if such services do notalready exist and to develop the services to meet the specific requirements of the users, takingadvantage, where possible, of satellite products available;(2) To issue, where necessary, warnings on storm surges;(3) To give full consideration to increasing by all possible means the observations from coastal and offshoreareas by including in the observing programmes of coastal stations and off-shore platforms suchsea parameters as waves, sea-surface temperature, sea ice, ice accretion, etc. and by establishing databuoy stations.Resolution 12 (X-RA II)USE OF INMARSAT FOR THE COLLECTION OF SHIPS’ METEOROLOGICAL AND OCEANOGRAPHICREPORTSREGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 19 (Cg-XI) — The collection and dissemination of marine meteorological and oceanographicinformation using INMARSAT,(2) The operation of Coast Earth Stations (CES) of INMARSAT in Region II,(3) The equipping of an increased number of ships participating in the WMO Voluntary Observing Ships(VOS) scheme with Ship Earth Stations (SES) of INMARSAT, in particular with the INMARSAT-Cfacility,CONSIDERING:(1) The need to increase the number of ships’ meteorological and oceanographic reports from most of thesea areas of Region II,(2) The considerable improvements to be expected in the receipt of marine meteorological andoceanographic observations from ships at sea through the enhanced use of the INMARSAT system,(3) The cost-savings which will accrue to those Members collecting such reports through INMARSAT by theincreased use of the new INMARSAT-C facility for this purpose,RECOGNIZING WITH APPRECIATION that certain Members operating INMARSAT CES have already arrangedthrough their CES to accept ships’ meteorological and oceanographic reports that are of general value to allMembers of WMO,BEING CONCERNED, however, that these reports are at present concentrated on a limited subset of the CESalready in operation, and that problems continue to be related to the timely redistribution to the countriesclosest to the geographical origin of reports collected through INMARSAT,URGES:(1) Those Members in the Region operating CES to accept ships’ meteorological and oceanographicreports transmitted through their CES free of charge to ships;(2) All Members concerned to make every effort to ensure the timely redistribution of reports collectedthrough INMARSAT to countries in the areas of the geographical origins of those reports;


106 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF R A II(3) All Members in the Region operating VOS equipped with INMARSAT-C to make every effort for theseships to be supplied with the new software package for the compilation and transmission ofmeteorological reports through INMARSAT-C, to ensure the maximum efficiency and cost-effectivenessof such an operation;REQUESTS the Secretary-General to assist Members in the implementation of this resolution.Resolution 14 (XII-RA II)SUPPORT FOR JOINT WMO/IOC TECHNICAL COMMISSION FOR OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINEMETEOROLOGY (JCOMM)REGIONAL ASSOCIATION II (ASIA),NOTING:(1) Resolution 14 (Cg-XIII) — Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and MarineMeteorology (JCOMM),(2) IOC Assembly Resolution XX-12 — The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission for Oceanographyand Marine Meteorology (JCOMM),CONSIDERING that oceanographic and marine meteorological observations not only make a significantcontribution to operational meteorology and the provision of marine services, but also are essential to globalclimate studies generally,RECOGNIZING:(1) That JCOMM is now the main body within WMO for the international coordination and regulation of aglobal operational ocean observing, data management and services system,(2) That some Members of the Association are actively involved in the deployment and maintenance of avariety of ocean observation facilities, for both operational and research purposes,(3) That Members of the Association are also increasingly being required to provide coordinatedmeteorological and oceanographic services for a large variety of marine user groups,(4) That the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) will continue to be essential for the operationalcollection and exchange of many types of ocean data,RECOGNIZING FURTHER that a substantial increase in the amount of ocean data available operationally isneeded to satisfy the requirements of operational meteorology, oceanographic services and research andglobal climate studies for such data,URGES Members:(1) To continue and, where possible, expand their existing operational ocean observing system facilitiesand activities, as contributions to the WWW, GCOS and GOOS and with international coordinationeffected through JCOMM;(2) To participate actively in the planning and implementation of these systems and in the work ofJCOMM;(3) To coordinate with appropriate national oceanographic agencies and institutions to ensure the longtermoperational maintenance of oceanographic observing systems;(4) To coordinate with appropriate national oceanographic agencies and institutions in developingoceanographic data management capabilities and oceanographic services;(5) To enhance two-way ship-shore telecommunication arrangements for oceanographic data andproducts, in particular through the greater use of satellite-based telecommunications facilities such asthe INMARSAT and Argos systems;REQUESTS the Secretary-General to take any action considered necessary, and within the available budgetaryresources, to assist Members to participate in the development and maintenance of JCOMM.


ANNEX IAnnex to general summary paragraph 4.3.5 — Part IRTH in Region II50NIOffenbachIMTN-MDCNFrame RelayCIRInternetAlgiersWashingtonJeddah64KCairoNMC in Region IICentre in other regionMTN circuitRegional circuitInterregional circuitAdditional circuitNo implementationNon-IP linkIP linkNI64KBaghdad2.4K64K64K64KInternetKuwaitBahrainDohaNI64K200Abu DhabiInternetMuscatSanaaMoscowNI20019.2-33.6K (V.34)AshgabadTehranNI50NIKarachi64K19.2-33.6K (V.34)Cairo19.2-33.6K V.34Id V.34NIInternetMale100TashkentKabul64KColombo75NIAlmatyDushanbe5064KMelbourneRegional Meteorological Telecommunication Network for Region II (Asia)Current status as of December 2004NIInternetBishkekId V.34NINew DelhiInternet2.4KOffenbach50Novosibirsk19.2-33.6K (V.34)IMTN-MDCNFrame RelayCIRThimpuKathmanduDhaka5020064K19.2-33.6K (V.34)UlaanbaatarCMA-VSATIMTN-MDCNFrame RelayCIRYangon9.6KMoscow2.4KSingapore75IMTN-MDCNFrame RelayCIR5019.2-33.6K (V.34)19.2-33.6K (V.34)10075Vientiane64KBangkokBeijingHanoi1200Frame RelayCIR19.2-33.6K (V.34)Via MoscowCMA-VSATCMA-VSATNI75128K9.6KKhabarovskPyongYangFrame RelayCIR64KMacao9.6KPhnom PenhKuala LumpurIMTN-MDCNFrame RelayCIRFrame RelayCIRSeoulHong KongISDN 128KFrame RelayCIR19.2-33.6K (V.34)Frame RelayCIRWashingtonIMTN-MDCN CIRManilaTokyoFrame RelayCIRIMTN-MDCNCIRMelbourneANNEX I 107


ANNEX IAnnex to general summary paragraph 4.3.5 — Part II108TV-Inform-Meteo via satelliteJeddahRTHBracknellRomeToulouseFax, RTTMDDMoscowTehranFax, RTTFaxTashkentDAB datacast via satelliteNew DelhiNovosibirskVSATBeijingFaxBangkokKhabarovskFaxTokyoMembers equipped with METEOSAT-MDD receivers: Bahrain, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar,Republic of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan.Members equipped with CMA/VSAT receivers: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam.Member equipped with TV-Inform-Meteo receivers: TajikistanGMS DCPsABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIMultipoint multipoint system via via satelliteComplementary systems: Members equipped with INSAT-MDD/VSAT receivers: Bangladesh, Maldives and Sri Lanka .Radio radio broadcastAnnex I:mu M ltipoint telecommunication systems


InternetOffenbachIMTN-MDCN50AlgiersWashingtonCairoRTH in Region IINMC in Region IICentre in other regionMTN circuitRegional circuitInterregional circuitAdditional circuitNI No implementationJeddah64KNon-IP linkIP linkNI64K64K64K64KBaghdadInternet64KInternetKuwaitBahrainDohaNIInternet64K200Abu DhabiInternetMuscatSanaaInternetMoscowAshgabadTehran64KANNEX IAnnex to general summary paragraph 4.3.5 — Part IIIKarachiKabulColomboRegional Meteorological Telecommunication Network for Region II (Asia)Plans for 2005–200750Internet64K19.2-33.6K (V.34)64KV.34NIInternetCairoMale64K6475V.34TashkentNI64KAlmatyDushanbeNIInternetBishkekV.3464K2.4KKathmanduDhaka64KYangonUlaanbaatar7.2-9.6K IMTN-MDCN 75CIRNew DelhiInternetInternetMelbourneNovosibirsk64KIMTN-MDCNCIROffenbachThimpuInternetInternet64K9.6KV.34Frame RelayCIRSingaporeIMTN-MDCNCIRMoscow50100V.34Vientiane64KBangkok64KBeijing75Hanoi1200Frame RelayCIR(V.34)via Moscow75128K9.6K9.6KPyongYang64KMacaoKuala LumpurKhabarovskFrame RelayCIR9.6KIMTN-MDCNCIRPhnom PenhFrame RelayCIRSeoulHong KongISDNFrame RelayCIRFrame RelayCIRManilaWashingtonIMTN-MDCNCIR(V.34)Frame RelayCIRTokyoIMTN-MDCNCIRMelbourneANNEX I 109


APPENDIX ALIST OF PERSONS ATTENDING THE SESSION1. OFFICERS OF THE SESSIONA. Majeed H. Isa Acting presidentChiu-Ying LamVice-president2. REPRESENTATIVES OF WMO MEMBERS WITHINTHE REGIONMember Name CapacityAfghanistan A.Q. Qadeer Principal delegateBahrain A.M.H. Isa Principal delegateA.T. Mohammed DelegateD.A. Al-Alawi DelegateN.A. Abdulla DelegateBangladeshM. Akram Hossain Principal delegateCambodia V. Seth (Ms) DelegateChina D. Qin Principal delegateG. Zheng AlternateX. Zhang DelegateG. Zhang DelegateH. Zhou DelegateJ. Yu DelegateM. Jiao (Ms) DelegateP. Shi DelegateW. Dong DelegateX. Tang DelegateZ. Chen DelegateZ. Liu DelegateZ. Zhang DelegateDemocratic S.B. Ko Principal delegatePeople’s C. Nam DelegateRepublic ofKoreaHong Kong, C.Y. Lam Principal delegateChina K.H. Yeung AlternateB.Y. Lee DelegateC.C. Chan DelegateC.M. Cheng DelegateC.M. Shun DelegateC.M. Tam DelegateS.T. LaiDelegateH. Lam (Ms) DelegateH.G. Wai DelegateH.T. Poon DelegateH.Y. Mok DelegateMember Name CapacityHong Kong, K.C. Tsui DelegateChina (Cont.) K.K. Yeung DelegateM.C. Wong DelegateS.Y. Lau (Ms) DelegateW.L. GinnDelegateW.M. Leung DelegateW.M. MaDelegateW.T. Wong DelegateIndia A.K. Bhatnagar DelegateIran, A.M. Noorian Principal delegateIslamic G.A. Kamali AlternateRepublic of L.P. Salimabadi (Ms) DelegateM. Jabbari (Ms) DelegateM. Pedram (Ms) DelegateIraq D.S. Mahmood Principal delegateH.S. Ismail DelegateT.H. Hantoosh DelegateJapan K. Nagasaka Principal delegateS. Nakagawa DelegateK. Kuroiwa DelegateKazakhstan T. Kudekov Principal delegateKuwait A. Al-Taho DelegateKyrgyzstan M. Bakanov Principal delegateLao People’s S. Pathoummady Principal delegateDemocraticRepublicMacao, China Fong Soi Kun Principal delegateA. Viseu AlternateHao I. PanDelegateMaldives A. Majeed Principal delegateMongolia G. Enkhbat Principal delegateD. Dagvadorj DelegateMyanmar S.H. Thaw Principal delegateNepal M.L. Shrestha Principal delegateK.P. Sharma DelegateOman A.H. Al-Harthy Principal delegateM.S. Al-Ma’shani DelegateS.A. Al-Harthy Delegate


APPENDIX BLIST OF ABBREVIATIONSAAMPABCACSYSADMAeMPAgMPAMDARAMPAOPCAPCCAPCNAPECAPFMAPPAPTAREPASAPASEANASECNAAUPISGAWGBoMCAeMCAgMCAMPCASCBSCClCDMSsCEOPCHyCIMOCISCLiCCLICOMCLIPSCLIVARCMACMCCO-COMCOMSCOPDABDAREDBCPDPMDVBDWDAsian/Australian Monsoon Panel (CLIVAR)Atmospheric Brown CloudArctic Climate System StudyAdvanced Dissemination MethodsAeronautical Meteorology ProgrammeAgricultural Meteorology ProgrammeAircraft Meteorological Data RelayApplications of Meteorology ProgrammeAtmospheric Observation Panel for ClimateAPEC Climate CentreAPEC Climate NetworkAsia-Pacific Economic CooperationAssociated Programme on Flood ManagementApplications ProgrammeAsia-Pacific TelecommunityAtmospheric Research and Environment ProgrammeAutomated Shipboard Aerological ProgrammeAssociation of South-East Asian NationsAgency for Air Navigation Safety in Africa and MadagascarAviation Use of the Public Internet Study Group (ICAO)Advisory Working GroupAustralian Bureau of MeteorologyCommission for Aeronautical MeteorologyCommission for Agricultural MeteorologyCEOP Asian-Australian Monsoon ProjectCommission for Atmospheric SciencesCommission for Basic SystemsCommission for ClimatologyClimate Database Management SystemsCoordinated Enhanced Observing Period (GEWEX)Commission for HydrologyCommission for Instruments and Methods of ObservationCommonwealth of Independent StatesClimate and Cryosphere ProgrammeClimate ComputingClimate Information and Prediction ServicesClimate Variability and PredictabilityChina Meteorological AgencyCanadian Meteorological CentreCoordinating Committee (SCHOTI)Communications, Oceanographic and Meteorological SatellitesConference of the PartiesDigital Audio BroadcastingData RescueData Buoy Cooperation PanelNatural Disaster Prevention and MitigationDigital Video BroadcastDeutscher Wetterdienst


APPENDIX B 113EANETEARTECECMWFEDRGEMWINENSOEOSEPSERAESCAPESCWAESSPETRPEUMETSAT5LTPFWISGAMEGAWGAWSISGCMGCOSGDPFSGDSIDBGEFGEOGEOSSGEWEXGLOSSGMDSSGOOSGOSGRDCGSNGTN-HGTOSGTSGTSPPGUANGURMEGWPHFHHWSsHKHHMEIHNRCHOMSHRFPHRMHWRPHYCOSIABMIAEAIAMASIATAIBPOIBRDAcid Deposition Monitoring Network in East AsiaEmergency Assistance Response TeamExecutive CouncilEuropean Centre for Medium-Range Weather ForecastsEmergency and Disaster Response GroupEmergency Managers Weather Information NetworkEl Niño/Southern OscillationEarth Observation SummitEnsemble Prediction SystemEmergency Response ActivitiesEconomic and Social Commission for Asia and the PacificEconomic and Social Commission for Western AsiaEarth System Science PartnershipEducation and Training ProgrammeEuropean Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological SatellitesFifth WMO Long-term PlanFramework for the WMO Information SystemGEWEX Asian Monsoon ExperimentGlobal Atmosphere WatchGAW Station Information SystemGCOS Cooperation MechanismGlobal Climate Observing SystemGlobal Data-processing and Forecasting SystemGlobal Digital Sea-Ice Data BankGlobal Environment FacilityGroup on Earth ObservationsGlobal Earth Observation System of SystemsGlobal Energy and Water Cycle ExperimentGlobal Sea-Level Observing SystemGlobal Maritime Distress and Safety SystemGlobal Ocean Observing SystemGlobal Observing SystemGlobal Runoff Data CentreGCOS Surface NetworkGlobal Terrestrial Network-HydrologyGlobal Terrestrial Observing SystemGlobal Telecommunication SystemGlobal Temperature Salinity Profile ProgrammeGCOS Upper-Air NetworkGAW Urban Research Meteorology and EnvironmentGlobal Water PartnershipHigh FrequencyHeat/Health Warning SystemsHindu-Kush HimalayaAssociation of Hydrometeorological Equipment IndustryHOMS National Reference CentreHydrological Operational Multipurpose SystemHOMS Regional Focal PointsHOMS Reference ManualHydrology and Water Resources ProgrammeHydrological Cycle Observing SystemInternational Association of Broadcast MeteorologyInternational Atomic Energy AgencyInternational Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric SciencesInternational Air Transport AssociationInternational Buoy Programme for the Indian OceanInternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development


114 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIICAOICIMODICSCICSUICTIDCsIFALPAIGACIGBPIGDDSIGOSIGOS-PIGRACIHDPIMDIMOPIOCIPAIPYISCSISDRISOISSCITUIWTCJCOMMJCOMMOPSJMAJUWFIKMALDCsLTPMCSSMDDMDGMMOPMoUMPERSSMPLSMRCMSGMTNMTSATNCDCNGOsNHSsNIMETNMCNMHSsNMSsNOAANRCsNWPInternational Civil Aviation OrganizationInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain DevelopmentInternational Core Steering Committee (THORPEX)International Council for ScienceInformation and Communication TechnologyInternational Data CentresInternational Federation of Airline Pilots’ AssociationsInternational Global Atmospheric Chemistry ProgrammeInternational Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)Integrated Global Data Dissemination ServiceIntegrated Global Observing StrategyIGOS PartnershipInternational Groundwater Resources Assessment CentreInternational Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental ChangeIndia Meteorological DepartmentInstruments and Methods of Observation ProgrammeIntergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO)Information and Public AffairsInternational Polar YearInternational Satellite Communication SystemsInternational Strategy for Disaster ReductionInternational Organization for StandardizationInternational Science Steering Committee (THORPEX)International Telecommunication UnionInternational Workshops on Tropical CyclonesJoint WMO/IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine MeteorologyJCOMM In Situ Observing Platform Support CentreJapan Meteorological AgencyJoint UNESCO/WMO Flood InitiativeKorea Meteorological AdministrationLeast Developed CountriesLong-term PlanMarine Climatological Summaries SchemeMeteorological Data DistributionMillennium Development GoalsMarine Meteorology and Oceanography ProgrammeMemorandum of UnderstandingMarine Pollution Emergency Response Support SystemMulti-Protocol Label SwitchingMekong River CommissionMeteosat Second GenerationMain Telecommunication NetworkMulti-functional Transport SatelliteNational Climatic Data Centre (NOAA)Non-Governmental OrganizationsNational Hydrological ServicesNigerian Meteorological AgencyNational Meteorological CentreNational Meteorological and Hydrological ServicesNational Meteorological or Hydrometeorological ServicesNational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNational Radiation CentresNumerical Weather Prediction


APPENDIX B 115OFDAOISOPAGPCCWMRPMOPROMETPWSPWSPQMQMFQMSR&DRARANETRARSRBCNRBSNRCCRCDRICsRMTCRMTNROSHYDROMETRPRRCsRSMCsRTH6LTP7LTPSADISSATAIDSCHOTISDSSEACAMPSIDSSOLASSOOPSPARCSWICTCACTCDCTCOPTCPTCP/IPTDCFTHORPEXTMRPUKMOUKSFUNCCDUN-DESAUNDPUNEPUNESCOOffice of Foreign Disaster Assistance (United States)Operational Information ServiceOpen Programme Area GroupPhysics and Chemistry of Clouds and Weather Modification ResearchPort Meteorological OfficerProvision of Meteorological Information Required by Civil AviationPublic Weather ServicesPublic Weather Services ProgrammeQuality ManagementQM FrameworkQM SystemResearch and DevelopmentRegional AssociationRadio and InternetRegional ATOVS Retransmission ServiceRegional Basic Climatological NetworkRegional Basic Synoptic NetworkRegional Climate CentreRegional and Technical Cooperation Activities for Development DepartmentRegional Instrument CentresRegional Meteorological Training CentreRegional Meteorological Telecommunication NetworkRussian Federation Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental MonitoringRegional ProgrammeRegional Radiation CentresRegional Specialized Meteorological CentresRegional Telecommunication HubSixth WMO Long-term PlanSeventh WMO Long-term PlanSatellite Distribution System for Information Relating to Air NavigationSatellite Animation and Interactive DiagnosisStanding Conference of Heads of Training Institutions of National MeteorologicalServicesSand and Dust StormsSouth East Asian Centre for Atmospheric and Marine PredictionSmall Island Developing StatesInternational Convention for the Safety of Life at SeaShip-of-Opportunity ProgrammeStratosphere Processes and their Role in ClimateSevere Weather Information CentreTropical Cyclone Advisory CentresTechnical Cooperation among Developing CountriesTechnical Cooperation ProgrammeTropical Cyclone ProgrammeTransmission Control Protocol/Internet ProtocolTable-driven Code FormsObserving System Research and Predictability ExperimentTropical Meteorology Research ProgrammeUnited Kingdom Met OfficeUnited Kingdom Satellite FacilitiesUnited Nations Convention to Combat DesertificationUnited Nations Department of Economic and Social AffairsUnited Nations Development ProgrammeUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization


116 ABRIDGED FINAL REPORT OF THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF RA IIUNFCCCUSAIDUN-WaterVCPVOSVPNWAFCsWAFSWAFSOPSGWCASPWCDMPWCDRWCIRPWCPWCRPWDCWGCRMWGHWG-PIWWHOWHYCOSWMCsWMDWMOWRCWWDWWDRWWF3WWISWWRPWWSDWWWUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeUnited States Agency for International DevelopmentUnited Nations Interagency Committee on FreshwaterVoluntary Cooperation ProgrammeVoluntary Observing ShipsVirtual Private NetworksWorld Area Forecast CentresWorld Area Forecast SystemWAFS Operations GroupWorld Climate Applications and Services ProgrammeWorld Climate Data and Monitoring ProgrammeWorld Conference on Disaster ReductionWorld Climate Impact Assessment and Response Strategies ProgrammeWorld Climate ProgrammeWorld Climate Research ProgrammeWorld Data CentreWorking Group on Climate-Related MattersWorking Group on HydrologyWorking Group on Planning and Implementation of the WWWWorld Health OrganizationWorld Hydrological Cycle Observing SystemWorld Meteorological CentresWorld Meteorological DayWorld Meteorological OrganizationWorld Radiocommunication ConferenceWorld Water DayWorld Water Development ReportThird World Water ForumWorld Weather Information ServiceWorld Weather Research ProgrammeWorld Summit on Sustainable DevelopmentWorld Weather Watch


APPENDIX A 111Member Name CapacityPakistan Q.Z. Chaudhry Principal delegateQatar A.A. Ali Principal delegateJ.A. Radi DelegateRepublic K.-S. Shin Principal delegateof Korea K.-J. Park AlternateA.-S. Suh (Ms) DelegateD.-I. Lee DelegateJ.-C. Nam DelegateJ.-G. Park DelegateW.-J. Lee DelegateRepublic A.A. Almakaleh Principal delegateof YemenRussian A.I. Bedritsky Principal delegateFederation V.O. Bakumov AlternateA.I. Gusev DelegateP.M. Lurie DelegateV.A. Trenin DelegateZ.D. Kopaliani DelegateSaudi Arabia S.A.I. Bukhari Principal delegateJ.A. Bantan DelegateM.M. Sakkal DelegateMember Name CapacityTurkey B. Yagci ObserverM. Ulubay ObserverUnited Kingdom M. Yerg Observerof Great Britainand NorthernIrelandUnited States J.E. Jones Observerof America W.C. Bolhofer Observer4. REPRESENTATIVES OF INTERNATIONALORGANIZATIONSOrganizationInternational Civil AviationOrganization (ICAO)International Air TransportAssociation (IATA)5. WMO SECRETARIATNameD.H. IvanovN. TodoSri Lanka G.H.P. Dharmaratna Principal delegateTajikistan B. Makhmadaliev Principal delegateSecretary-GeneralDeputy Secretary-GeneralM. JarraudH. YanThailandA. Chantanavivate Principal delegateS. Thaikruawan AlternateDirector, World Weather WatchDepartmentD. SchiesslUnited Arab S.H.M. Al Mualla (Ms) Principal delegateEmirates F. Almehairi AlternateH. Al Ameri DelegateH.R. Sayed DelegateUzbekistan K. Imamdjanov Principal delegateViet Nam C.T. Nguyen Principal delegateC.T. LeDelegateM.H. Hoang DelegateDirector, Applications ProgrammeDepartmentDirector, Atmospheric Research andEnvironment Programme DepartmentDirector, Education and TrainingDepartmentRegional Director for Asia and theSouth-West PacificG. KorchevE. Manaenkova(Mrs)K. KonaréE.H. Al-Majed3. REPRESENTATIVES OF WMO MEMBERSOUTSIDE REGION IIAustralia D. Gunasekera ObserverV.K. TsuiObserverNigeria H.E. Mr I. Yuguda ObserverB. Mohammed ObserverI.D. Nnodu ObserverL. Akeh ObserverS. Abubakar ObserverS.S. Al-Alawi ObserverV.A. ZafiObserverChief, Water Resources Division,Hydrology and Water ResourcesDepartmentW. GrabsConference Unit, Conferences, Printing M. Peetersand Distribution DepartmentExternal Relations Officer, Cabinetand External RelationsSeconded Expert, Regional Office forAsia and the South-West PacificC. WangS.-W. Kim

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