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The Consequences of Insufficient Household Income

This new Consequences of Insufficient Household Income report provides a deeper level of understanding of the choices that ALICE and poverty-level families across the country make when they do not have enough income or assistance to afford basic necessities, and the consequences of those choices.

THE UNITED WAY ALICE

THE UNITED WAY ALICE PROJECT The United Way ALICE Project provides a framework, language, and tools to measure and understand the struggles of the growing number of households in our communities that do not earn enough to afford basic necessities, a population called ALICE (Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed). This research initiative partners with more than 450 United Way organizations across the country to present data that can stimulate meaningful discussion, attract new partners, and ultimately inform strategies that create positive change. Based on the overwhelming success of this research in identifying and articulating the needs of this vulnerable population, the United Way ALICE Project has grown from a pilot in Morris County, New Jersey in 2009, to the entire state of New Jersey in 2012, to the national level with 15 states now participating. This new Consequences of Insufficient Household Income report provides a deeper level of understanding of the choices that ALICE and poverty-level families across the country make when they do not have enough income or assistance to afford basic necessities, and the consequences of those choices. This report is meant to inform a variety of policy solutions that can improve the lives of ALICE families in every state. United Ways along with policymakers, government employees, nonprofits, academics, and community organizations are using the ALICE data to better understand the struggles and needs of their employees, customers, and communities, and to discover innovative approaches that improve life for ALICE and the wider community. To access reports from all states, visit UnitedWayALICE.org States With United Way ALICE Reports Washington Oregon Idaho Nevada California Montana Wyoming Utah Colorado Arizona New Mexico North Dakota South Dakota Nebraska Kansas Oklahoma Minnesota Iowa Wisconsin Michigan New York New Hampshire Vermont Maine Massachusetts Pennsylvania Rhode Island Illinois Indiana Ohio Connecticut New Jersey West Delaware Missouri Virginia Kentucky Virginia Maryland District of Arkansas Tennessee North Columbia Carolina Texas Georgia South Carolina Louisiana Alabama Mississippi Florida Alaska Hawaii i UNITED WAY ALICE REPORT – THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSUFFICIENT HOUSEHOLD INCOME

THE ALICE RESEARCH TEAM The United Way ALICE Project provides high-quality, research-based information to foster a better understanding of who is struggling in our communities. To produce this Consequences of Insufficient Household Income report, a team of researchers collaborated with a National Research Advisory Committee, composed of 15 representatives from many of the states participating in the Project. This collaborative model ensures that the Report represents the issues and consequences in all of the states included. Lead Researcher Stephanie Hoopes, Ph.D., is the lead researcher and director of the United Way ALICE Project. Dr. Hoopes’ research focuses on the circumstances of low-income households, and has garnered both state and national media attention. She has overseen the expansion of the Project from a pilot study of one county to a broadbased initiative that covers 16 states. Before joining the staff of United Way of Northern New Jersey in 2015, Dr. Hoopes was an assistant professor at the School of Public Affairs and Administration (SPAA), Rutgers University-Newark, from 2011 to 2015. SPAA continues to support the United Way ALICE Project with access to research resources. Dr. Hoopes has a doctorate from the London School of Economics. Research Support and Production Team Andrew Abrahamson • Aliyah Baruchin • Andrea Conway • Helen McGinnis Tracy Sica • Dan Treglia, Ph.D. National ALICE Research Advisory Committee Stuart Anderson, Ph.D. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Florida Andrew Bradley Indiana Institute for Working Families, Indiana Glennda M. Bivens, M.Ed. Iowa State University, Iowa David Callejo Pérez, Ed.D. Saginaw Valley State University, Michigan Jill Hoiting Supporting Families Together Association, Wisconsin Matthew Krzyzek Connecticut Department of Labor, Connecticut David Lee Feeding Wisconsin, Wisconsin Ali Modarres, Ph.D. University of Washington, Tacoma, Washington Jan Moller Louisiana Budget Project, Louisiana Guillermo Montes, Ph.D. Children’s Institute, New York Robin Perry, Ph.D. Florida A&M University, Florida Brian Pittelko, M.P.A. W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, Michigan Luke Shaefer, Ph.D. University of Michigan, Michigan Joshua Simons, M.P.A. State University of New York at New Paltz, New York Adrienne C. Slack Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta – New Orleans Branch, Louisiana NATIONAL ALICE ADVISORY COUNCIL The following companies are major funders and supporters of the United Way ALICE Project. Aetna Foundation • AT&T • Atlantic Health System • Deloitte • Entergy Johnson & Johnson • KeyBank • Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation • OneMain Financial RWJBarnabas Health • Thrivent Financial Foundation • Union Bank & Trust • UPS • U.S. Venture UNITED WAY ALICE REPORT – THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSUFFICIENT HOUSEHOLD INCOME ii

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