Maintworld 1/2018

The Use and Misuse of Vibration Analysis // The Industrial Iot Maturity Model // Condition Monitoring in Maritime Applications // Effective Backlog Management

The Use and Misuse of Vibration Analysis // The Industrial Iot Maturity Model // Condition Monitoring in Maritime Applications // Effective Backlog Management


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1/<strong>2018</strong> www.maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

The Use and<br />

Misuse of<br />

Vibration<br />

Analysis p 16<br />


A New Dimension<br />

in HMI/SCADA<br />

Introducing the world’s first 3D Holographic<br />

Machine Interface. ICONICS has redefined “HMI”<br />

in this era of the Industrial Internet of Things by<br />

integrating its automation software with Microsoft’s<br />

HoloLens. This groundbreaking technology allows<br />

users to superimpose real-time information over a<br />

real world production environment or facility, reducing<br />

downtime and increasing operational efficiency.<br />

Experience it for yourself at Hannover Messe!<br />

Visit ICONICS in Hall 7, Stand C40<br />

Celebrating over 30 Years of Automation Software<br />



The True Challenge<br />

IT CAN BE ARGUED that maintenance within asset management is not a very<br />

complex domain when considering various tasks one at a time. But at asset-intensive<br />

companies, such as power plants and heavy industries, the complexity<br />

arises from the number of tasks carried out on numerous systems involving<br />

many employees (hopefully) striving for continuous improvement. Moreover,<br />

the wellbeing and the very existent of such companies depend on a proper asset<br />

and maintenance management.<br />

This is a challenge. The domain has been relatively stable for decades. Still,<br />

we have in recent years seen trends towards more outsourcing and condition-based<br />

actions, where possible. With smart sensors and more data processing<br />

capabilities we can assume that these trends will continue at a quicker<br />

pace. While this offers opportunities, the asset and maintenance management<br />

challenge will not become any less, it will even become more of a challenge with<br />

new technology to be mastered and<br />

new types of specialist to be trained.<br />

Our domain is not only asset-intensive,<br />

it is also people-intensive as<br />

we want all managers to appreciate<br />

the importance of maintenance and<br />

contribute to it; we want operators to<br />

participate in maintenance and our<br />

maintenance people need support,<br />

such as from safety specialists, ICT<br />

people and finance.<br />

When dealing with people-intensive domains, culture plays a big role. As<br />

we know, culture is a complex phenomenon. Still, it can be nurtured and directed<br />

towards improvements helping us as a group to advance our strengths<br />

while dealing with our weaknesses. In Iceland we do not have an army. Some<br />

claim that this explains a certain lack of discipline and sometimes more than a<br />

healthy appetite for doing whatever we personally find proper at the time, policies<br />

and rules being more “like a guideline”.<br />

There is some truth to this; our culture is somewhat low on discipline. On<br />

the plus side, living for centuries on a small island, our cultural DNA contains<br />

a strong sense of survivalism and an ownership towards the assets we have; we<br />

must “keep our vessels floating”, there is no one else doing that for us.<br />

New technology will help, as will more discipline, but our main challenge<br />

will be to maintain this sense of ownership and to empower people to seek continuous<br />

improvement, improving flow of actions and eliminating waste. This is<br />

a lean goal. Let us remember that lean is not about cutting costs, lean is about<br />

growing people making use of the tools we have. That is our true challenge.<br />

Guðmundur Jón Bjarnason,<br />

Managing Director at DMM Iceland and EFNMS delegate on behalf of<br />

the Icelandic National Maintenance Society<br />

4 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong><br />





26<br />

Detecting<br />

malfunctions<br />

before they bring a<br />

chemical plant to a halt not<br />

only makes sense for fire<br />

protection and security<br />

reasons, but also with<br />

regard to economic aspects.

IN THIS ISSUE 1/<strong>2018</strong><br />

20<br />

Buying<br />

high-quality oil and<br />

grease and investing in<br />

training is expensive, sure –<br />

but not nearly as expensive<br />

as not funding them.<br />

48<br />

THE SIZE of the Dutch<br />

maintenance market stands<br />

between 31 and 36 billion<br />

Euros, which is approximately<br />

4-5 percent of GDP.<br />

6<br />

10<br />

12<br />

14<br />

16<br />



to OPC UA<br />

Is Your HMI/SCADA Network as<br />

Secure as You Think It Is?<br />

The Industrial IoT Maturity<br />

Model<br />

Integrating Legacy Data into IoT<br />

Initiatives: Three Methodologies<br />

The Use and Misuse of Vibration<br />

Analysis<br />

20<br />

24<br />

26<br />

30<br />

32<br />

How Proper Lubrication Can<br />

Enhance a Plant’s Reliability<br />

“Move the Data, not the People”<br />

– Industry 4.0 and Condition<br />

Monitoring in Maritime<br />

Applications<br />

"The Infrared Solution is Simply<br />

Tremendous"<br />


COOPERATE to Find Transformer<br />

Failures<br />

Are you Spending More Time on<br />

Technology than on Processes<br />

and People?<br />

34<br />

38<br />

40<br />

44<br />

48<br />

Effective Backlog Management –<br />

Backlog Size Control<br />

Implementing Online Dissolved<br />

Gas Analysis<br />

Managing Hazardous Energy<br />

Safely<br />


First Step in Oil Analysis<br />

Attract the Right Knowledge and<br />

Skills<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland tel. +358 29 007 4570 Publisher<br />

Omnipress Oy, Mäkelänkatu 56, 00510 Helsinki, tel. +358 20 6100, toimitus@omnipress.fi, www.omnipress.fi Editor-in-chief<br />

Nina Garlo-Melkas tel. +358 50 36 46 491, nina.garlo@omnipress.fi, Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales Director, tel. +358 358<br />

44 763 2573, ads@maintworld.com Subscriptions and Change of Address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members<br />

tilaajapalvelu@media.fi Printed by Painotalo Plus Digital Oy, www.ppd.fi Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN<br />

1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

1/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 5

CMMS<br />




Now, more than ever, industrial firms need to make<br />

sense of vast quantities of data having a critical impact<br />

on their performance. To support the variety<br />

of applications necessary<br />

today, information must be<br />

delivered with context so<br />

it can be understood and<br />

used in various ways by a<br />

variety of people. Growing<br />

adoption of the Industrial<br />

Internet of Things (IIoT) and<br />

Industrie 4.0 is also driving<br />

requirements for open and<br />

secure connectivity between<br />

devices and edge-to-cloud<br />

solutions.<br />


Sr. Consulting Manager<br />

at Matrikon<br />

ORGANIZATIONS that deploy the OPC<br />

Unified Architecture (UA) will be able to<br />

better leverage plant floor-to-enterprise<br />

communications as a vehicle to participate<br />

in IIoT applications. OPC UA is a<br />

standard for moving information vertically<br />

through the enterprise of multi-vendor<br />

systems, as well as providing interoperability<br />

between devices on different industrial<br />

networks from different vendors.<br />

This article provides a brief overview<br />

of the key features of OPC UA and a<br />

comparison with the legacy OPC Classic<br />

standard, and outlines the motivation for<br />

upgrading to OPC UA based on a managed,<br />

secure and seamless migration path.<br />

6 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>

Why<br />

are the<br />

BEST analysts<br />

MOBIUS<br />

trained?<br />

Simply,<br />

Mobius Institute students have a<br />

DEEPER UNDERSTANDING of the skill of<br />

vibration analysis, allowing them to confidently identify a wider vartiety of machine fault conditions at their earliest stage.<br />

Mobius Institute‘s students learn from our advanced training methodology that uses hundreds of 3D animations and<br />

interactive software simulations making complex concepts more easy to understand.<br />

Mobius Institute analyst’s CERTIFICATION IS ACCREDITED according to ISO 18436-1 and<br />

ISO 18436-2, meaning that your certificate is traceable to the ISO standards for Category<br />

I-IV Vibration Analysts and is recognized worldwide.<br />

Mobius Institute analysts OFFER A GREATER VALUE to their employers because of their<br />

ability to identify the most difficult machine fault conditions and offer clear corrective<br />

action. Having a Mobius trained analyst on a plant’s CBM/reliability team ensures<br />

competence, insight and confidence that the program can rely and build upon.<br />

Learn more about MOBIUS INSTITUTE by visiting our website or by reaching us by email<br />

at learn@mobiusinstitute.com or by phone at (+1) 615-216-4811.<br />



CMMS<br />

Introduction<br />

The OPC standard, first issued by the<br />

OPC Foundation in 1996, allows for secure<br />

and reliable exchange of data across<br />

manufacturing and other enterprises.<br />

OPC Classic is the world’s leading technology<br />

for integrating different automation<br />

products. Countless OPC–based<br />

systems are in use around the globe,<br />

ensuring the safe and reliable exchange<br />

of data between industrial software components.<br />

The most widespread specifications<br />

of the classical OPC standard include:<br />

OPC DA for the transmission of realtime<br />

data, OPC HDA for the communication<br />

of run data (or historical data), and<br />

OPC A&E, with which alarms and events<br />

can be communicated. These OPC<br />

variations are based on communication<br />

protocols from Microsoft: Component<br />

Object Model (COM) and Distributed<br />

Component<br />

Object Model (DCOM). All control<br />

systems, machine interfaces, and automation<br />

applications that are based on<br />

the Windows platform can exchange data<br />

smoothly with OPC Classic. Programmers<br />

are able to quickly realize interface<br />

implementations thanks to these close<br />




connections with Microsoft’s objectoriented<br />

COM and DCOM technologies,<br />

but this comes at the expense of the flexibility<br />

and expandability of interfaces.<br />

In order to guarantee interoperability<br />

using OPC Classic, a separate OPC Server<br />

is needed for each device in a plant<br />

application. The use of multiple OPC<br />

Servers to connect all devices and applications<br />

may, however, lead to the internal<br />

communication structures becoming<br />

unclear and difficult to manage.<br />

With OPC UA, the next generation<br />

OPC technology, the vision of “global”<br />

interoperability will become a reality.<br />

OPC UA supports cloud integration to<br />

scale operations when necessary, protects<br />

against IT hardware obsolescence,<br />

and delivers global access to connected<br />

systems. When integrated with the IIoT,<br />

it helps automation users to visualize,<br />

analyze and mobilize critical data without<br />

the need for added IT infrastructure.<br />

The OPC UA standard was developed<br />

to break down communication barriers<br />

that have been limited by dependence on<br />

Microsoft’s underlying DCOM technology.<br />

Furthermore, the design of the new<br />

architecture works with any operating<br />

system (OS) without compromising the<br />

performance of the data exchange mechanism,<br />

making it the perfect solution for<br />

embedding OPC technology into devices.<br />

OPC UA is a platform-independent,<br />

scalable, service-oriented architecture<br />

(SOA) that integrates all the functionality<br />

of the original OPC specifications<br />

into a single, flexible framework. It extends<br />

the capabilities of the original OPC<br />

model by improving upon security and<br />

employing standard web technologies.<br />

OPC UA represents a major step<br />

forward for original equipment manufacturer<br />

(OEM) device manufacturers<br />

developing the latest breed of automation<br />

solutions. Developers can exchange<br />

rich data with even greater levels of interoperability,<br />

while enhancing security<br />

and providing new levels of value and<br />

performance.<br />

Those who deploy OPC UA will be<br />

able to better leverage plant floor-toenterprise<br />

communications as a vehicle<br />

to participate in IIoT and Industrie 4.0<br />

applications. This technology supports<br />

multi-vendor, multiplatform interoperability<br />

for moving data and information<br />

from the embedded world to the enterprise.<br />

The standard is built on an information<br />

model that provides structure<br />

and context to information at its source,<br />

which is critical to have responsive systems.<br />

By adopting OPC UA, automation<br />

vendors get the best in open data connectivity<br />

today and in the future.<br />

Key Drivers for Technology<br />

Upgrade<br />

Growing worldwide recognition of OPC<br />

UA’s benefits is pushing it into mainstream<br />

adoption. The technology is the<br />

industry’s most multi-faceted and promising<br />

specification for data exchange.<br />

OPC UA offers and expands the standard<br />

functionality of OPC Classic and, in doing<br />

so, resolves the difficulties associated<br />

with security, platform dependence, and<br />

DCOM problems.<br />

There are several important drivers for<br />

migration from OPC Classic to OPC UA:<br />

• By natively enabling OPC UA in<br />

devices and applications, users no<br />

longer have to rely on clumsy tools<br />

for protocol translation and information<br />

modeling. This solution<br />

reduces both operating expenses<br />

(OPEX) and capital expenses<br />

(CAPEX) by eliminating middleware<br />

on the shop floor as well as<br />

the need for hardware to install<br />

servers and clients.<br />

• The number of attempted cyberattacks<br />

on industrial facilities and<br />

critical infrastructure is on the<br />

rise. Unlike OPC Classic, OPC UA<br />

is inherently secure, and thus does<br />

away with the need to layer multiple<br />

security gateways or software.<br />

• OPC UA offers a rich set of functionality,<br />

including the ability to<br />

provide contextualized data that is<br />

valuable for advanced analytics to<br />

enable improved insights and better<br />

decision-making.<br />

With the ongoing shift to OPC UA,<br />

engineers, IT, and system Integrators<br />

alike need to properly integrate new<br />

UA-based data sources (i.e., devices and<br />

applications) into their existing OPC<br />

Classic-based architectures.<br />

It is clear that switching to OPC UA is<br />

worthwhile, and for those developing tomorrow’s<br />

intelligent devices, it’s a neces-<br />

8 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>

CMMS<br />

sity. OPC Classic simply cannot address<br />

the requirements of Industrie 4.0 or the<br />

latest IIoT initiatives.<br />

Strategy to Ensure Seamless<br />

Migration<br />

A growing number of OPC Classic users<br />

are starting to ask themselves how and<br />

when they should begin the implementation<br />

OPC UA. In many cases, however,<br />

the migration path to the new standard<br />

is not clear.<br />

It is safe to assume that OPC UA will<br />

one day replace OPC Classic. An immediate<br />

switch to OPC UA, however, is not<br />

necessarily required for every business.<br />

With the right tools and careful planning,<br />

the migration process becomes clear.<br />

Step 1: Be sure that all your<br />

legacy proprietary protocols<br />

are future ready.<br />

Complete migration refers to replacing<br />

OPC Classic via a comprehensive switch<br />

to OPC UA. To that end, users need to<br />

keep third-party data always accessible<br />

using an open standard that enables reliable<br />

communication between industrial<br />

human-machine interfaces (HMIs), applications<br />

and devices.<br />

Step 2: Start with partial<br />

migration.<br />

OPC UA has been designed to remain<br />

adaptable for the future and to support<br />

legacy implementations. In the intermediate<br />

phase, it will be possible to use<br />

DCOM-based OPC products together<br />

with UA products.<br />

Users can still run a variety of<br />

products from their current favorite<br />

manufacturers. This allows for a soft<br />

migration where they retain OPC Classic<br />

data sources and integrate OPC UA in<br />

future devices according to their needs<br />

and capabilities. Devices using OPC<br />

Classic cannot communicate with OPC<br />

UA on their own. For these instances,<br />

it is wise to use a wrapper to provide a<br />

partial solution for handling communication<br />

between existing OPC Classic<br />

Servers and OPC UA Clients. These UA<br />

Tunneller will establish a connection<br />

from OPC Classic to OPC UA and vice<br />

versa. The introduction of wrappers is<br />

only recommended in a few complex environments,<br />

as each OPC Server must be<br />

individually evaluated.<br />

Users are finding that a new breed of<br />

software tool provides a secure method<br />

of migrating OPC Classic data sources<br />

to OPC UA. The tool allows OPC UA-enabled<br />

client applications to communicate<br />

with OPC Classic Servers and<br />

Clients, as well as OPC UA Servers. The<br />

reverse is also true. It is designed to enable<br />

seamless OPC data transfer through<br />

multiple mediums across geographical<br />

locations, address problems with using<br />

OPC Classic components based on<br />

DCOM, and eliminate permission issues<br />

encountered across domains and work<br />

groups.<br />

Step 3: Enable OPC UA<br />

connectivity across products<br />

and platforms.<br />

The continued demand for open and<br />

secure connectivity between devices<br />

(machine-to-machine) and edge-tocloud<br />

solutions, along with growing<br />

adoption of the IIoT and Industrie 4.0,<br />

make it necessary to have a single, fully<br />

scalable toolkit to allow users to quickly<br />

and easily interconnect industrial software<br />

systems, regardless of platform,<br />

operating system, or size Today, automation<br />

OEMs can utilize an advanced<br />

software development kit (SDK), which<br />

provides high-performance capabilities<br />

(e.g., multi-threaded, load balancing,<br />

small memory footprint, etc.) and makes<br />

it easy to embed an OPC UA Server into<br />

a chip, device, and/or application. With<br />

this solution, developers can natively enable<br />

OPC UA Servers and Clients in controllers<br />

(e.g., PLCs, RTUs, DCSs, etc.), as<br />

well as devices, sensors and applications<br />

(e.g., historians, alarm management,<br />

SCADA, MES, ERP, etc.).<br />

1/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 9


Is Your HMI/<br />

SCADA Network<br />

as Secure as<br />

You Think It Is?<br />

Network security frequently makes the news, often when some<br />

new viral attack is discovered or, worse yet, is successful. HMI/<br />

SCADA networks can be as susceptible to these unlawful breakins<br />

as any others, unless the proper precautions are taken. Many<br />

software and hardware vendors have made their own attempts to<br />

stay ahead of online criminals, while others have combined forces<br />

to thwart such attacks.<br />


Senior Director of<br />

Global Marketing,<br />

ICONICS,<br />

melissa@iconics.com<br />

ICONICS (www.iconics.com), a Foxborough,<br />

Massachusetts headquartered<br />

global automation software provider and<br />

five-time winner of the Microsoft Partner<br />

of the Year award, has announced<br />

an authentication method of its GEN-<br />

ESIS64 HMI/SCADA and building<br />

automation software suite via a control<br />

system root of trust provided through<br />

Bedrock Automation, based in San Jose,<br />

California.<br />

With this new working relationship,<br />

ICONICS customers will be able to<br />

generate Certificate Signing Requests<br />

(CSRs) to be signed by the Bedrock Certificate<br />

Authority (CA). These electronic<br />

certificates provide users with signed<br />

and encrypted communication between<br />

their Bedrock control system and their<br />

HMI and SCADA applications.<br />

- Security is a top priority for most<br />

automation customers today, said Russ<br />

Agrusa, President and CEO of ICONICS.<br />

- ICONICS has partnered with Bedrock<br />

Automation to provide an end-toend<br />

connected solution for IoT and<br />

Industry 4.0 that ensures safe, secure<br />

information exchange between PLCs<br />

and a variety of enterprise information<br />

systems.<br />

ICONICS GENESIS64 is an application<br />

development platform for real-time<br />

enterprise information management. It<br />

provides a complete set of modules via a<br />

unified engineering user interface built<br />

on Microsoft .NET and sharable with<br />

other open applications via OPC UA.<br />

GENESIS64 users building control logic<br />

for critical infrastructure industries, such<br />

as water treatment, power & utilities, oil<br />

& gas, and more, can now incorporate<br />

the Bedrock encryption keys directly into<br />

their SCADA applications and enjoy<br />

end-to-end cyber secure protection.<br />

In a typical protected architecture, an<br />

end user might deploy a Bedrock Open<br />

Secure Automation (OSA®) control system,<br />

security firmware that delivers the<br />

benefits of open technology to control<br />

field devices such as pumps, valves and<br />

sensors. An ICONICS end user requiring<br />

secure data exchange with the controller<br />

would request a certificate from the<br />

Bedrock CA. After verifying identity, the<br />

Bedrock CA provides a certificate that allows<br />

the ICONICS application to access<br />

data from the Bedrock PLC. This also<br />

provides a root of trust against which the<br />

developer can secure communications<br />

between ICONICS servers, as well as<br />

with web and mobile communications.<br />

- Once this open, yet secure, relationship<br />

is established, said CEO and Founder<br />

of Bedrock Automation.<br />

- Developers can enable exchange of<br />

production data with the SCADA system<br />

for supervisory and management<br />

improvements, and can impact control<br />

functions based on management information.<br />

Penetrating it would require<br />

decrypting multiple codes across multiple<br />

layers, which could take many years.<br />

ICONICS can now offer this level of<br />

protection to their end users, at no cost<br />

above that of the control system itself.<br />

Bedrock enables cyber security by<br />

10 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>


starting with a secure supply chain, using<br />

verified electronic circuits it builds itself.<br />

It then draws on the power and flexibility<br />

of public key infrastructure (PKI) and<br />

Transport Layer Security (TLS) technologies<br />

that are similar to those that are<br />

used to secure online financial transactions<br />

and critical military and aerospace<br />

controls.<br />

Get Informed: Keep Your<br />

Automation Network Safe!<br />

Find out more about the possible cyber<br />

threats to your automation network and<br />

how to combat them in ICONICS’ Cyber<br />

Security Threats eBook.<br />

Visit www.iconics.com/cyberthreatbook.<br />

Visit ICONICS at<br />

Hannover/Messe <strong>2018</strong><br />

ICONICS will be an exhibiting partner at<br />

Microsoft’s booth (Hall 7, Stand C40) at<br />

Hannover Messe <strong>2018</strong> from April 23 – 27<br />

in Hannover, Germany. The company<br />

will be showing off multiple cuttingedge<br />

automation solutions including its<br />

holographic machine interface with Microsoft’s<br />

HoloLens holographic computing<br />

device, as well as its IoTWorX IoT<br />

gateway software suite. We look forward<br />

to seeing you there!<br />

About Bedrock Automation<br />

Bedrock Automation, based in San Jose,<br />

California, is the maker of Bedrock, the<br />

world’s most powerful and cyber secure<br />

automation platform. This Silicon Valley<br />

company has assembled the latest<br />

technologies and talents from both the<br />

automation and semiconductor industries<br />

to build an unprecedented automation<br />

solution for industrial control based<br />

on three prime directives: simplicity,<br />

scalability and security. The result<br />

is a system with a revolutionary<br />

electromagnetic backplane architecture<br />

and deeply embedded ICS<br />

cyber security, which delivers the<br />

highest levels of system performance,<br />

industrial cyber security<br />

and reliability at the lowest cost<br />

of ownership.<br />

About ICONICS<br />

ICONICS is headquartered in<br />

Foxborough, Massachusetts and<br />

is a global software developer of<br />

visualization, HMI, SCADA and energy<br />

solutions. With over 350,000<br />

installations in over 80 countries<br />

worldwide and running in over 70<br />

percent of Global 500 companies,<br />

ICONICS software is recommended<br />

for automating, monitoring and<br />

optimizing a customer’s most critical<br />

assets. ICONICS has recently<br />

been named the 2017 Microsoft<br />

Application Development Partner<br />

of the Year and is a five-time winner<br />

of the Microsoft Partner of the Year<br />

award.<br />

1/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 11


The Industrial IoT<br />

Maturity Model<br />

A new model<br />

is helping to<br />

guide decision<br />

makers along a<br />

successful path<br />

in the manufacturing<br />

space.<br />

Text: STEFAN HOPPE,<br />

Global Vice President of OPC Foundation<br />

MANY MANUFACTURING and industrial<br />

companies have realised that digital<br />

transformation will require changes in<br />

the way they do business. Experts will<br />

tell you that digital transformation is not<br />

about making energy discrete, and process<br />

manufacturing more efficient, but is<br />

about establishing new business models<br />

while continuing to make money from<br />

their old business models.<br />

These changes are so substantial that<br />

many talk about a revolution, namely the<br />

4th industrial revolution. The Industrial<br />

Internet of Things – abbreviated to IIoT<br />

and known in Germany as Industrie 4.0<br />

– is a technology trend that is the enabler<br />

of this revolution, and is bringing about<br />

a transformation in the way we do business.<br />

12 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong><br />

So, how do you know you are on the<br />

right path? It’s a question that many<br />

company executives are asking themselves<br />

these days. Experts have therefore<br />

established a ‘maturity model’ that aims<br />

to guide decision makers along a path<br />

that leads to success. We call it the Industrial<br />

IoT Maturity Model. Acatech<br />

in Germany has released a study on the<br />

subject, named the Industrie 4.0 Maturity<br />

Index.<br />

This is one of the most important<br />

insights. Many companies think that<br />

all they have to do is connect their<br />

machines to the internet and they are<br />

‘done’. But as always, this is just the beginning.<br />

In their study, Acatech built a<br />

great model, which is pictured alongside<br />

this article.<br />

When it comes to the Industrial IoT<br />

Maturity Model, the age of computerisation<br />

has helped make production processes<br />

more efficient. Many call this the<br />

‘mechatronic’ age or ‘Industrie 3.0’. This<br />

is the first stage of the Maturity Model.<br />

Connecting machines to one another<br />

and to the internet is then the second<br />

stage. For this connectivity to be efficient,<br />

a single data model for information<br />

exchange is required to format the<br />

data consistently. The protocol used for<br />

transporting the data on the other hand,<br />

is irrelevant, although many people tend<br />

to focus on this in error. This is where<br />

the power of open-source industrial interoperability<br />

standards like Open Platform<br />

Communication Unified Architecture<br />

(OPC UA) becomes critical. OPC UA<br />

has an extensible information model, allowing<br />

the easy mapping of many of the<br />

standards used in the industrial sector<br />

today, and allowing for the creation of a<br />

single data model.<br />

These two stages are the “table


stakes” – no more. Where the digital<br />

transformation journey really begins<br />

is in the next stage, namely the visibility<br />

stage. This stage requires the use<br />

of visualisations, either on-premise or<br />

on a website that can be accessed from<br />

anywhere in the world. This allows<br />

stakeholders to see what is happening at<br />

any given time by looking at the stream<br />

of telemetry data from the machines –<br />

usually referred to as time-series data.<br />

If a database is additionally connected,<br />

historic time-series data may also be<br />

viewed.<br />

The next stage in the maturity model<br />

is the transparency stage and analytics<br />

software can be used to understand what<br />

is happening or has happened. The analytics<br />

software usually comes with a set<br />

of rules created by experts – essentially<br />

people who understand the workings of<br />

the individual machines deeply. These<br />

can be applied to the time-series data,<br />

either as it is streamed through the analytics<br />

software (hot path analytics) or applied<br />

later to the time-series data in the<br />

database (cold path analytics). Once the<br />

data has been evaluated using the rules<br />

provided, conclusions about why something<br />

has happened can be deducted.<br />

It gets really interesting when predictive<br />

models are applied to the data stored<br />

in the database. This is the fifth stage.<br />

Machine learning algorithms are used in<br />

this stage to predict the future, given the<br />

historic data collected. Sometimes it is<br />




useful just to be able to predict a few seconds<br />

into the future to prevent damage<br />

or accidents. Other times, it is useful to<br />

predict days or weeks into the future to<br />

allow for the maintenance of a machine<br />

before it breaks down.<br />

The final stage is where the largest<br />

change within an organisation is<br />

required. Once the previous stages are<br />

implemented, a company can start making<br />

guarantees regarding the reliability<br />

of the machines it sells. This leads to new<br />

business models, where the cost of the<br />

machine can be offset with a guaranteed<br />

service instead. If done right, the cost<br />

of the machine may even be able to be<br />

waived and a ‘pay per use’ model introduced.<br />

For example, a barcode scanner<br />

manufacturer can slowly migrate from<br />

selling scanners to selling scans. In addition,<br />

maintenance of the machine can be<br />

fully automated, creating ‘self-healing’<br />

machines and processes.<br />

The tools used in stages three to six<br />

are readily available from internet of<br />

things (IoT) platform providers. To make<br />

these tools available worldwide and keep<br />

them scalable requires multi-billion dollar<br />

investments. Machine builders and<br />

factory owners should therefore not try<br />

to build these tools themselves, but focus<br />

on their machine and manufacturing<br />

process expertise and add value where<br />

they can differentiate.<br />

Author of this text Stefan Hoppe is Global<br />

Vice President of OPC Foundation<br />

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Integrating Legacy Data<br />

into IoT Initiatives:<br />

Three Methodologies<br />

Today’s factory floor is a melting pot of equipment, with the newest machines relying<br />

on technology that didn’t even exist when the oldest machines were built. Integrating<br />

data from different machine generations can be a huge challenge, but is vital when optimizing<br />

the plant floor and creating an effective Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem.<br />

14 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>



Product Manager,<br />

PTC<br />

LEGACY EQUIPMENT contains valuable<br />

data, but most legacy tools were not built<br />

for seamless data access. In fact, some<br />

legacy equipment was specifically structured<br />

to prevent direct integration for<br />

security reasons.<br />

In 2016, an IDG Research Survey<br />

found that 64 percent of senior IT manufacturing<br />

executives said that integrating<br />

data from disparate sources in order to<br />

extract business value from that data is<br />

the single biggest challenge of the IoT.<br />

Data integration has been a challenge for<br />

IT and Operations teams for years, but<br />

IoT makes the need for integration more<br />

urgent—and more challenging.<br />

For more than 20 years, Kepware has<br />

been helping customers access their industrial<br />

data in order to extract meaning<br />

and value from that data. In that time,<br />

we have seen the benefits and drawbacks<br />

of different approaches to incorporating<br />

legacy equipment into IoT initiatives.<br />

These are the three main approaches—<br />

and their key benefits and potential<br />

trade-offs—that manufacturers have<br />

traditionally taken (and will continue to<br />

take) when integrating legacy tools with<br />

their IoT initiatives.<br />

Approach 1: Rip-and-Replace<br />

A “rip-and-replace” approach involves<br />

fully scrapping legacy equipment and<br />

replacing it with modern, IoT-enabled<br />

machinery. It is often attractive in theory<br />

(who wouldn’t want the best and most<br />

efficient equipment across the plant<br />

floor?), but in practice can be hampered<br />

by time sinks and budget restrictions.<br />

Sourcing activities (such as developing<br />

RFPs and vendor negotiations), uninstalling<br />

current equipment, installing<br />

new equipment, ensuring appropriate<br />

vendor support during the installation<br />

phase and re-training employees are just<br />

a few of the challenges inherent in this<br />

approach. Combined with the cost of<br />

new equipment, rip-and-replace is often<br />

unrealistic for most organizations. However,<br />

replacing outdated assets ensures<br />

an organization can reap the benefits of<br />

the most up-to-date technology, including<br />

improved performance, lower power<br />

consumption and readiness for next-gen<br />

features, such as augmented reality (AR).<br />

A large-scale rip-and-replace also has<br />

ramifications beyond the plant floor.<br />

Investing in this option may require an<br />

organization to forgo other lucrative<br />

investments. On the other hand, the benefits<br />

of enterprise-wide visibility into operational<br />

KPIs may be enough to make<br />

it worthwhile. So if the immediate cost<br />

and time concerns can be overcome, this<br />

approach can be lucrative over the longterm<br />

as it creates an efficient, futurefocused<br />

factory.<br />

Approach 2: Best-of-Breed<br />

Third-Party Solution<br />

Also referred to as a “retrofit” or “wrapand-extend”<br />

solution, this method<br />

involves using third-party, IoT-ready<br />

connectivity solutions—such as OPC<br />

servers, IoT platforms, IoT Gateways<br />

and sensors—that extend the capabilities<br />

of legacy equipment. A Best-of-Breed<br />

approach enables communication to the<br />

legacy protocols used by the equipment<br />

(or by the equipment’s components),<br />

such as PLCs, control applications and<br />

embedded sensors. It can also involve<br />

adding sensors that directly measure<br />

KPIs and make this data accessible to<br />

the IoT. Best-of-Breed solutions are IoTready<br />

and reach beyond the plant floor<br />

to provide visibility into operational data<br />

for the entire enterprise.<br />

The impact of a best-of-breed thirdparty<br />

solution on the enterprise as a<br />

whole depends on how the data is used. By<br />

gathering integrated data from both legacy<br />

and modern machines, this approach<br />

has the potential to enhance decisionmaking<br />

at all levels of an organization, and<br />

includes the added benefit of being extremely<br />

customizable to different needs.<br />

One drawback to this approach is that<br />

it often requires factories to upgrade<br />

their networks. Best-of-breed thirdparty<br />

solutions are capable of collecting<br />

huge amounts of data, and the bandwidth<br />

necessary to transmit that data<br />

can result in extra costs. Edge-based processing—which<br />

enables down-sampling<br />

or summary analytics before the information<br />

is sent to an IoT solution—can<br />

help mitigate this issue. A best-of-breed<br />

approach can be beneficial for organizations<br />

that need to integrate legacy equipment<br />

quickly and efficiently.<br />

Approach 3:<br />

In-House Solutions<br />

In-house solutions are typically created<br />

by internal personnel using internal<br />

technical resources, and are fully supported<br />

in-house. An in-house approach<br />

ensures that an organization’s specific,<br />

unique goals are met. And because the<br />

organization has direct control over its<br />

resources, technicians are more likely<br />

to be readily available to make changes.<br />

However, there may be more demands<br />

on the in-house IoT-support team than<br />

they can meet in a timely manner. They<br />

will be responsible for bug fixes, troubleshooting,<br />

training, product improvements<br />

and maintenance. This might not<br />

seem like much at first, but can add up<br />

over the lifespan of an IoT solution.<br />



In addition, after a legacy asset is connected,<br />

that data needs somewhere to<br />

go. Collecting data is one challenge, but<br />

displaying it, analyzing it, or otherwise<br />

turning the data into actionable intelligence<br />

in a timely and useful manner is<br />

a whole other issue. Technicians that are<br />

experts in both connectivity and IoT application<br />

development are hard to come<br />

by. And if your lead technician were to<br />

leave the company, could you find a suitable<br />

replacement?<br />

What Approach Works<br />

Best for You?<br />

Each of these approaches can serve to<br />

optimize data access for an organization.<br />

But, the best approach will almost<br />

certainly involve working with a myriad<br />

of IoT solutions and vendors, bringing<br />

some internal resources to bear and replacing<br />

some equipment. For example,<br />

instead of full rip-and-replace, you might<br />

replace just some outdated equipment<br />

while keeping other legacy equipment<br />

and incorporating plug-and-play sensors—taking<br />

the best of different approaches<br />

to fit your business needs.<br />

Striking the right balance will involve<br />

considering the specific goals of your<br />

organization and making strategic tradeoffs,<br />

with a focus on staying competitive<br />

and efficient into the future.<br />

1/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 15


The Use and Misuse<br />

of Vibration<br />

Analysis<br />

If you have any experience with vibration analysis, you will know that experienced,<br />

well-trained and certified vibration analysts have superhuman skills. With x-ray<br />

vision, they can look into a bearing and detect the tiniest spall on the inner race. They<br />

can see cracks in gear teeth, and broken rotor bars in induction motors. In medieval<br />

times, they would have been accused of practicing witchcraft. In modern times, they<br />

are recognized as essential members of the reliability improvement team.<br />


CMRP, Mobius Institute,<br />

jason@mobiusinstitute.com<br />

THE TROUBLE IS, there are vibration<br />

analysts and there are vibration analysts.<br />

Vibration analysts are not all created<br />

equal. I have personally been involved<br />

with vibration analysis since 1984. My<br />

company has trained and certified vibration<br />

analysts (and other reliability<br />

practitioners) since 1999. In fact, since<br />

2005, we have trained over 25,000 vibration<br />

analysts in a classroom environment<br />

alone. Unfortunately, in addition to a lot<br />

of very positive feedback, I also receive<br />

negative feedback.<br />

I would love to share the positive<br />

feedback, but as an industry, we need to<br />

discuss the negative feedback.<br />

You see, while it is possible for vibration<br />

analysts to detect the onset of failure<br />

many months before a component will<br />

functionally fail, too frequently the fault<br />

is detected late. Or not at all…<br />

And while it is possible to detect a<br />

wide range of fault conditions and recognize<br />

the root causes that will lead to<br />

failure, too frequently the focus is on<br />

detecting rolling element bearing faults.<br />

And not much else.<br />

And while it is possible to generate a<br />

report that provides clear information<br />

about the required maintenance action,<br />

too often the reports are confusing,<br />

vague, noncommittal, and unavailable to<br />

the people who need them.<br />

Now, before anyone gets too upset with<br />

me, clearly there are a lot of vibration analysts<br />

providing tremendous value to their<br />

organizations or clients. But that doesn’t<br />

mean that they can’t improve, and it certainly<br />

doesn’t mean that everyone is delivering<br />

the service they should provide.<br />

16 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>


Where is it going wrong?<br />

Many, many years ago, the focus of vibration<br />

analysis was to collect “overall readings”<br />

which provided a single number<br />

related to the vibration amplitude. This<br />

value could be compared against alarms,<br />

including ISO standards, and could be<br />

trended.<br />

Since that time, all kinds of new technologies<br />

have been developed, made<br />

affordable, and made relatively easy to<br />

use. Those technologies include the use<br />

of spectrum analysis, time waveform<br />

analysis, phase analysis, high-frequency<br />

bearing detection, the ability to detect<br />

faults in very low-speed machinery,<br />

new graphical techniques that make the<br />

analysis easier, and more. However, in<br />

some of the feedback I have received in<br />

recent times, so-called “vibration analysis<br />

programs” (even those offered by<br />

consultants) are relying on overall level<br />

vibration readings. Or even if vibration<br />

spectra are collected, the high-frequency<br />

detection techniques are not being used.<br />

Or analysts are using default settings<br />

rather than selecting appropriate settings<br />

for “resolution” and “frequency<br />

range,” to name just two. Or zero focus is<br />

given to root causes of failure.<br />

In addition, the logic used to decide<br />

which machines are tested, how they<br />

are tested, and how frequently they<br />

are tested is very basic, to say the least.<br />

Criticality analysis should be performed<br />

to determine which machines should be<br />

tested. An understanding of the failure<br />

modes is required to determine how they<br />

should be tested. An understanding of<br />

the “PF interval” is required to understand<br />

how frequently machines should<br />

be tested. And an understanding of vibration<br />

analysis, signal processing (how<br />

the readings are transformed into useful<br />

data), the mechanical transmission path,<br />

and other factors are required to decide<br />

where the sensor should be mounted<br />

on the machine. But often, this form of<br />

analysis is not performed.<br />

And one more thing. A great deal of<br />

data can be collected, but the big question<br />

is: how is it transformed into “actionable<br />

information?” The most common<br />

approach is for the analyst to scroll<br />

through screen after screen after screen<br />

of data, hoping to notice when the vibration<br />

reading has changed. Establishing<br />

alarm limits is difficult, but it is incredibly<br />

valuable. Utilizing statistics to establish<br />

alarms is incredibly powerful, but<br />

rarely used.<br />

Oh, and one more thing. Sometimes<br />

they get the diagnosis wrong, or miss a<br />

fault altogether, and don’t acknowledge<br />

the error and investigate how it happened…<br />

Why is it going wrong?<br />

Hmm…that is the million dollar question.<br />

Literally so, because getting vibration<br />

analysis wrong presents a huge risk<br />

to the organization.<br />

I think there are a number of factors.<br />

Training and certification<br />

This is the place I need to start. It is<br />

essential that vibration analysts are<br />

properly trained. The training has to be<br />

seen as part of their professional development,<br />

not just as a means to become<br />

certified so that they can “tick that box.”<br />

It is essential that vibration analysts<br />

understand the machine, its failure<br />

modes, the measurement process, the<br />

reasons why vibration patterns change<br />

the way they do, and so very much more.<br />

They need to understand it, not just remember<br />

it so it can be regurgitated on an<br />

exam.<br />

It wouldn’t be appropriate to discuss<br />

all of the techniques we use in our training<br />

to help vibration analysts understand<br />

all these topics, but I will comment on<br />

one aspect of our training.<br />

Recognizing that there is a lot to<br />

learn, we provide video recordings of<br />

each part of the course, which can be<br />

viewed before and after the course. A<br />

person will learn far more if they have<br />

been through these videos. But does<br />

everyone watch these videos? No, they<br />

don’t. And does everyone watch the<br />

videos after the course to reinforce what<br />

they learned? No, they don’t.<br />

Not everyone has access to fast Internet,<br />

and not everyone understands<br />

English, but everyone should take this<br />

opportunity to master their craft.<br />

Thorough training—don’t stop<br />

at Category II<br />

The ISO 18436 standard defines four<br />

levels of training and certification. A<br />

person should start with Category I to<br />

build a foundation. Category II teaches<br />

them about the basics of vibration fault<br />

detection. Category III adds an important<br />

layer of detail, prepares the person<br />

to deal with a wider variety of more challenging<br />

fault conditions, and helps them<br />

to design an effective program. And Category<br />

IV is designed for the specialists in<br />

our industry. They learn about the most<br />

advanced topics.<br />

The first challenge is that too many<br />

people skip Category I and dive straight<br />

into Category II. Understanding the<br />

fundamentals is essential. Jumping in at<br />

Category II can be formidable, and could<br />

compromise their future potential.<br />

The second challenge is that too many<br />

people stop at Category II. The Category<br />

III vibration analyst is properly trained<br />

to deal with the variety of problems<br />

that they are likely to experience, with<br />

the depth of knowledge to be confident<br />

in their diagnosis. Category II is insufficient,<br />

unless they will be closely supervised<br />

by a Category III analyst.<br />

The third challenge is that anyone with<br />

any level of responsibility over critical<br />

flexible-rotor machines (turbines, for example)<br />

should be trained to Category IV.<br />

1/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 17


Ongoing education<br />

Regardless of how good the vibration<br />

training course may have been, not<br />

everyone can retain the knowledge<br />

necessary to function effectively on a<br />

long-term basis. Vibration analysis may<br />

not be rocket science, but it is complex.<br />

Most people would run the other way<br />

if they looked at a spectrum and time<br />

waveform.<br />

Whether a vibration analyst attends<br />

one, two, or even three courses, it is not<br />

enough. Vibration analysts need to reinforce<br />

their knowledge. They need to<br />

examine case studies to observe the vibration<br />

techniques being applied to situations<br />

they have previously experienced,<br />

or may experience in the future. They<br />

need to learn about new techniques and<br />

new products that can save them time or<br />

enable them to detect fault conditions<br />

they couldn’t detect previously.<br />

Conferences are a good way to continue<br />

the education, and so are knowledgebased<br />

websites. There are also courses<br />

in specialized areas; balancing, modal/<br />

ODS, etc. Every analyst should reinforce<br />

and expand their knowledge.<br />

Certification<br />

I see certification as an important part<br />

of this process, but then as a member<br />

of the ISO committee that develops the<br />

standards, and as the managing director<br />

of an organization that offers accredited<br />

certification, I am biased.<br />

Certification is more than just a test<br />

and a piece of paper.<br />

Accredited certification means much<br />

more. It is an internationally recognized<br />

statement of a person’s knowledge and,<br />

to a lesser extent, their experience. It is a<br />

way for organizations to have confidence<br />

in their condition monitoring team.<br />

And it is certainly a major source of<br />

pride for the majority of vibration analysts.<br />

And they should be proud. They<br />

have studied subjects that are beyond<br />

most people. They have met experience<br />

requirements and subjected themselves<br />

to a tough exam. Did you know that a<br />

Category IV exam is five hours long? I<br />

am pretty sure that the exam for rocket<br />

scientists is shorter. ;-)<br />

What does it mean to be<br />

accredited?<br />

And as a side note, I should briefly explain<br />

accreditation.<br />

There is a standard called ISO/IEC<br />

17024 that dictates how a personnel<br />

certification body should operate. Every<br />

country has an organization appointed<br />

by their government to audit organizations<br />

like ours against that standard.<br />

Boy, there is so much I could say, but let’s<br />

just say that the frequent audit process<br />

is twenty times more rigorous than our<br />

ISO 9000 audits. They ensure the certification<br />

process is independent and fair,<br />

with detailed psychometric analysis to<br />

prove it.<br />

The wrong people are<br />

becoming vibration analysts<br />

Now, I do not want to offend anyone here,<br />

but this is a real issue that needs to be addressed<br />

in industry. Good vibration analysts<br />

are not normal people. They have<br />

to be a cross between Sherlock Holmes<br />

and Einstein, with a Spock-like ability<br />

to mind-meld with the machine. Good<br />

vibration analysts investigate, challenge,<br />

and explore. They also need to be good<br />

communicators, with strong diplomatic<br />

skills do deal with non-believers (in the<br />

art and philosophy of vibration analysis).<br />

The question is: how are people selected<br />

to become vibration analysts?<br />

Some see it as a calling. Some learn<br />

about vibration analysis, one way or the<br />

other, and see it as a fantastic career<br />

path. It is challenging, it is important, you<br />

get to use your brain, and it can be tremendously<br />

rewarding.<br />

But others, for a variety of reasons, are<br />

assigned to the vibration group, either<br />

to collect the data or to also analyze the<br />

data, for the wrong reasons. Maybe it<br />

is so they can “get off the tools.” Maybe<br />

it is a matter of seniority. But they can<br />

simply go through the motions, without<br />

a true understanding of their analyzer<br />

or machine, with one eye on their “diagnostic”<br />

wall chart, and the other eye on<br />

the spectrum, hoping to find a match.<br />

We call them wall-chart analysts, and it is<br />

not flattering…<br />

It doesn’t matter whether you collect<br />

the data or analyze the data; you need to<br />

be doing it for the right reasons, otherwise<br />

there is every chance that the full<br />

spectrum of vibration analysis capabilities<br />

will not be utilized.<br />

18 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>


Fear of failure<br />

No one likes to be wrong. When we<br />

perform criticality analysis, we ask the<br />

question: what are the consequences of<br />

failure? I think vibration analysts ask<br />

themselves that question most days.<br />

What if I get the diagnosis wrong?<br />

This story is the same for practically<br />

all vibration analysts. They get diagnosis<br />

after diagnosis correct, and they get very<br />

little recognition. They get one diagnosis<br />

wrong, and they are dragged out into a<br />

public square and the townsfolk throw<br />

stones at them. If they recommend to<br />

pull a bearing too early, the skeptics will<br />

tell them they got it wrong and wasted<br />

everyone’s time and money. If they are<br />

too specific in their diagnosis and it<br />

turns out to be inaccurate, they will be<br />

chastised. So what incentive is there to<br />

stick their neck out and provide an early<br />

warning of failure?<br />

Therefore, it is important for management<br />

to establish the right environment:<br />

a kinship and a culture of reliability. (And<br />

it is important for analysts to recognize<br />

their error and learn from it.) If everyone<br />

understood the importance of conditionbased<br />

maintenance and reliability, the<br />

basics of vibration analysis, and the challenges<br />

associated with vibration analysis,<br />

then everyone would be in a better position<br />

to enjoy a more successful vibration<br />

program.<br />

Culture of reliability<br />

Let’s explore this question a little further.<br />

Which of the following two scenarios<br />

best describes your workplace?<br />

Workplace A: Breakdowns are common,<br />

maintenance and operating practices<br />

haven’t changed in years, and the<br />

vibration team is seen as the last line<br />

of defense. They are there to provide a<br />

warning about the next failure, because<br />

you know there will soon be another failure.<br />

Workplace B: The organization,<br />

from top to bottom, understands the<br />

importance of reliability. There is a clear<br />

understanding of criticality and a welldesigned<br />

asset strategy exists. The work<br />

management process functions smoothly,<br />

and they seek the recommendations<br />

from the condition monitoring group.<br />

If your workplace is something like<br />

“Workplace A,” then how do you expect<br />








the vibration analysts to function correctly?<br />

Will the vibration analyst feel<br />

well supported? How likely is it that they<br />

will stick their neck out with suggestions<br />

for improvement, early warnings of fault<br />

conditions, and so on? What is the likelihood,<br />

therefore, that they are able to<br />

provide the best possible service?<br />

Financial pressure on<br />

vibration consultants<br />

If you use vibration consultants to perform<br />

your vibration analysis, how did<br />

you choose those consultants? Did you<br />

check that they were trained and certified<br />

according to ISO standards? Did you<br />

check their past experience? Have you<br />

established clear lines of communications,<br />

and encourage them to perform<br />

additional tests as necessary to accurately<br />

diagnose faults.<br />

Or did you ruthlessly squeeze them<br />

on price so that you could afford to “tick<br />

the condition monitoring box”. Unfortunately,<br />

the saying “you get what you<br />

pay for” is true when selecting vibration<br />

consultants.<br />

If you put constant pressure on the<br />

consultant to reduce the cost per machine,<br />

they are possibly forced to use staff<br />

who are less trained/certified/skilled,<br />

and you are possibly sending a message<br />

to the analysts that there is no time to<br />

perform follow-up tests (which would<br />

either verify the diagnosis or establish<br />

the exact nature and severity of the fault<br />

condition). That’s not ideal.<br />

Now, I need to make something very<br />

clear. I am not making negative comments<br />

about all consultants, or people<br />

who ensure they are being fairly charged<br />

for the service. Consultants simply need<br />

to be seen as valued members of your<br />

reliability team, and you have to insist on<br />

the highest quality of service and be willing<br />

to pay for it.<br />

Fear of job-hopping<br />

One last quick comment I will make is<br />

that often people are not trained or certified<br />

for fear that they will leave the company<br />

and get a better-paid job elsewhere.<br />

I’ve never understood the logic of this.<br />

First, if they are worth more money to<br />

another company, why aren’t they worth<br />

more money to your company?<br />

Second, even though that risk may<br />

exist, what about the more important<br />

risk that the untrained vibration analyst<br />

may make an incorrect diagnosis or miss<br />

a critical fault condition altogether?<br />

I think you need to worry about your<br />

critical machinery failing more than the<br />

possibility that the trained analyst will<br />

leave.<br />

What’s the solution?<br />

Quality training, respected certification,<br />

ongoing education, and a culture of reliability<br />

will solve these problems. The<br />

first three are easy to solve. Developing a<br />

culture of reliability can also be achieved<br />

through training, certification, and ongoing<br />

education, but it takes a strategy,<br />

an investment, a commitment, and time.<br />

But that is for a separate article!<br />

1/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 19


How Proper Lubrication Can<br />

Enhance a Plant’s Reliability<br />

Everybody wants<br />

a reliable plant<br />

with a predictable<br />

maintenance<br />

schedule – and<br />

a key part of<br />

achieving that goal<br />

is to ensure that<br />

your lubrication<br />

programme<br />

is organized,<br />

well-funded and<br />

employs the best<br />

practices across the<br />

board. So, what are<br />

they, and how will they<br />

affect your plant's reliability?<br />


CMRP<br />

adrianm@uesystems.com<br />

Proper lubrication<br />

is fundamental for a<br />

successful maintenance<br />

program<br />

HERE ARE a couple of things to keep in mind when striving for a<br />

reliable plant with a predictable maintenance schedule.<br />

1.<br />

Lubrication can’t be the last priority<br />

It is sadly common for lubrication technicians or oilers to<br />

land on the low end of the seniority scale or come last in managerial<br />

assessments of what is important. Make no mistake – they are<br />

actually incredibly important. Without well-educated, motivated<br />

and trained lubrication technicians, your operation will literally<br />

grind to a halt. It is important to invest in education and certification<br />

for your people, so that they can excel in areas such as:<br />

• Storing and handling oil and lubricants<br />

• Learning the proper types and amounts of lubricant to<br />

use for various applications<br />

• Avoiding the pitfalls of over-lubrication<br />

• Regularly inspecting machines to ensure that proper<br />

protocols are being followed<br />

When your technicians feel valued and their work is considered<br />

a core component of overall operations, your uptime will increase<br />

and repairs will decrease.<br />

2.<br />

Improper lubrication gets expensive – fast<br />

Buying high-quality oil and grease and investing in training<br />

is expensive, sure – but not nearly as expensive as not funding<br />

them.<br />

Des-Case conducted a study on the True Cost of Poor Lubrication,<br />

and found figures from ExxonMobil which showed “less<br />

than 0.5 percent of the average plant’s maintenance budget is<br />

spent purchasing lubricants, but the downstream effects of poor<br />

lubrication can impact as much as 30 percent of a plant’s total<br />

maintenance cost each year.”<br />

The multiplier effect here is huge – just a small improvement<br />

in your lubrication programme can have a massive positive impact<br />

on your overall reliability.<br />

Overall, the study found that, given annual maintenance costs<br />

of $9 million, about $1.62 million of those can be attributed to<br />

issues arising from poor lubrication, and $567,000 of those could<br />

be addressed immediately.<br />

The study also found that simple time-based predictive maintenance<br />

strategies were bound to fail, because of wide variations<br />

in the life of different bearings. One subcomponent might be<br />

perfectly healthy while another is on the verge of failure. That<br />

is why testing for contamination, setting aggressive targets and<br />

taking action as issues arise will eventually prove more effective.<br />

3.<br />

Proper lubrication frees up technician time<br />

There are only so many hours in a day – and this feels especially<br />

true in the demanding environment of round-the-clock<br />

plant operations. Every minute spent dealing with inefficient<br />

lubrication protocols or the consequences of under- or overlubrication<br />

is time technicians are not spending on other issues.<br />

By ensuring that your programme is optimized to maintain<br />

oil health and to reduce downtime, you create space in your<br />

20 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>


maintenance staff’s schedules to deal with other issues proactively.<br />

This gets you ahead of the game across the plant, ultimately<br />

improving your overall reliability and in the long term,<br />

lowering your costs.<br />

4.<br />

The importance of oil analysis, proper<br />

storage & high-quality lubricants<br />

The most precise lubrication in the world will not help if the<br />

lubricants in question are poor quality, contaminated, or are<br />

breaking down under heat and pressure. Contracting with an<br />

oil analysis laboratory or investing in your own analytics kit<br />

will allow you to detect these kinds of issues before they result<br />

in machine failure.<br />

Many different factors can impact the quality of your lubricant.<br />

Improper storage or a blown seal on a component could<br />

allow dirt, water, or metal fragments to corrupt your supplies.<br />

Even new oil should be tested – while your lubrication programme<br />

might be top-notch, you have got little control over its<br />

handling before it is delivered to your facility.<br />

There are also many factors that can affect the storage of industrial<br />

lubricant, including using containers that already contain<br />

contaminants, storing them outside in harsh conditions,<br />

and not using colour-coded containers to prevent accidentally<br />

mixing two different oils. Any auxiliary equipment, lines, and<br />

vessels should also be thoroughly cleaned and certified before<br />

being used with fresh lubricants.<br />

Finally, all the maintenance, storage and analysis technology<br />

in the world will not serve you well if you are not using both<br />

high-quality and properly-selected lubricants. Most, if not all<br />

technicians are comfortable with selecting the right grade of<br />

oil for a given application, but there are more complex factors<br />

than that to weigh. Considerations such as additives, duration<br />

of use and ambient conditions can all make for a significantly<br />

more complicated decision process.<br />

5.<br />

Avoid over-lubrication by using Ultrasound<br />

Lubrication is far more complex than just buying oil or<br />

grease and throwing it into your equipment, of course. Selecting<br />

the right type or types of lubricant, storing and filtering<br />

them correctly, monitoring bearing noise, and ensuring that<br />

over-lubrication and under-lubrication do not occur all play an<br />

important role. Fortunately, there are more technologies than<br />

ever in the marketplace that allow you to manage your lubrication<br />

programme effectively.<br />

An ultrasonic instrument as the UE Systems Ultraprobe<br />

401 Digital Grease Caddy can bring your facilities management<br />

game to the next level. The Ultraprobe 401 uses ultrasound<br />

technology to provide critical data about baseline dB levels, dB<br />

levels before and after applying grease, cost analysis of lubricants<br />

and other vital information.<br />

Over-lubrication is often a problem as big as, or bigger than<br />

under-lubrication – in fact, 70 percent of lubrication professionals<br />

believe it is a problem at their plant. When excess<br />

grease gets into a bearing, it begins to churn and heat up. This<br />

churning causes the lubricant to solidify, blocking the entry of<br />

more fresh grease, and ultimately causing a bearing to fail.<br />

Another possible failure mode that can arise from over<br />

greasing is seal damage. Adding more than the necessary<br />

amount of lubricant to a bearing under the high psi of a grease<br />

gun can crack the seal, allowing outside pollutants to infiltrate.<br />

The Ultraprobe Grease Caddy uses ultrasonic technology,<br />

The Ultraprobe 401<br />

Grease Caddy from<br />

UE Systems will<br />

help reducing overlubrication<br />

issues.<br />

Sound spectrum of a bearing while lubricant is being applied.<br />

DMS software from UE Systems allows the creation of lubrication<br />

routes & alarms.<br />

so that lubrication technicians know when to stop adding<br />

grease, which can prolong the life of your equipment. Its digital<br />

display allows the user to gauge friction levels through the dB<br />

levels. Even in high-noise environments, the Ultraprobe 401<br />

is able to isolate the necessary ultrasonic waves and transmit<br />

them to the user.<br />

Conclusion<br />

In all, the field of precision lubrication and maintenance has<br />

grown more complex and diverse than ever before. It is easy to<br />

get lost in the finer points of these processes and products, and<br />

sometimes the measures you think are helping may actually<br />

lead to failures down the line.<br />

With the right techniques and technologies, however, it is<br />

possible to see real return on investment from your maintenance<br />

efforts.<br />

22 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>


Text: CHRISTIAN SILBERNAGEL, Vibration Analyst, Key Account Manager - Maritime Industry, PRÜFTECHNIK Condition Monitoring GmbH<br />

“Move the Data, not the People” –<br />

Industry 4.0 and Condition<br />

Monitoring in Maritime Applications<br />

Proactive and predictive maintenance have become common practices in many<br />

industry sectors. In maritime applications, maintenance strategies have also continuously<br />

advanced – evolved from a reactive to a predictive maintenance model<br />

mainly on the back of Condition Monitoring (CM) developments in the sector.<br />

CONDITION-BASED MONITORING techniques have gained traction<br />

in recent years as scheduled overhauls are significantly<br />

more cost-effective than unscheduled repairs. An increasing<br />

number of fleet managers, chief engineers and crews trust<br />

in Condition Monitoring, where the machine condition is<br />

determined based on vibration monitoring and analysis. In<br />

addition, vibration monitoring has become an integral part of<br />

recognized programmes by many classification societies, such<br />

as Lloyd’s Register and DNV-GL (Det Norske Veritas & Germanischer<br />

Lloyd).<br />

Condition Monitoring includes techniques such as vibration<br />

monitoring, oil analysis, thermography, and electrical<br />

measurements. Compared to other CM techniques, vibration<br />

monitoring offers additional advantages: Experts can diagnose<br />

wear and damage, and identify the exact root cause.<br />

Vibration-based CM is the most suitable technique to diagnose<br />

rotating machinery, as the measurement results can be<br />

used to precisely identify where the malfunction is occurring,<br />

down to the component level. Based on this data, fleet managers,<br />

inspection specialists and engineers can take precise maintenance<br />

actions to avoid unnecessary downtime, dangerous<br />

situations, and secondary damage.<br />

Two paths, one goal<br />

In general, there are two ways of taking vibration measurements:<br />

offline measurement and online monitoring.<br />

Offline monitoring, on the one side, is based on handheld data<br />

collectors. With the use of such instrumentation, a crew member<br />

can manually take measurements on the machines at regular<br />

intervals. To reduce the error rate during data acquisition, a first<br />

level of automation has been introduced. Data collectors using a<br />

graphical measurement route function together with automatic<br />

identification of measurement locations, guide the user through<br />

the entire measurement procedure. The error rate is reduced<br />

noticeably. Even though we are still talking about manual data<br />

acquisition, a first step towards Industry 4.0 has been made.<br />

However, the networking of the individual components – as it<br />

is expected in a full-blown Industry 4.0 environment – is not<br />

provided. At this stage, a data upload is necessary for the measurement<br />

data to be analytically processed and transferred to a<br />

Computerized Maintenance Management System.<br />

Online monitoring systems, on the other side, act as an<br />

autonomous “black box”. It features permanently installed<br />

sensors and is usually installed on critical, safety-relevant, or<br />

difficult-to-access machines. Such a monitoring system acquires<br />

data 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It can generate large<br />

volumes of data – very much in the sense of Big Data. However,<br />

this data must be analyzed and sent to the onshore diagnostic<br />

specialists. In most cases, it is not possible to send several<br />

gigabytes of data via the ship’s VSAT system on a daily basis.<br />

Reasons for this include, for example, small bandwidths and<br />

high costs.This is where Industry 4.0 comes into play: Not only<br />

can an online system connect to the network of the ship, but it<br />

can also communicate with SCADA systems via different bus<br />

protocols. Data can be exchanged in both directions. Process<br />

parameters, such as output, speed, temperature, or start and<br />

stop variables can be transferred. In order to manage the large<br />

flow of data, the information can be used by an individual, or<br />

several networked online measurement systems. Based on the<br />

process parameters, online Condition Monitoring systems can<br />

independently relate the measured vibration signals to certain<br />

operating states and use variable alarm thresholds. After each<br />

measurement, online monitoring systems use the variables<br />

sent to decide whether there has been a significant change, and<br />

whether the data should be saved or discarded, or additional<br />

measurements initiated (Smart Data).<br />

As the vibration condition of a machine train strongly depends<br />

on the surrounding machines and the ship design, the<br />

analysis is particularly difficult on ships. Thanks to the networking<br />

of all the systems together with the SCADA system, it<br />

is possible to make reliable statements about the condition of<br />

the machines. Like a gold nugget, only “smart” data is saved. As<br />

a result, the much-praised big data lake can be filled with valuable<br />

content from the start.<br />

24 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>


Online Visualization 4.0<br />

Fig. 1: Online dashboard visualization of a vessel<br />

Thanks to Industry 4.0, data volumes have been reduced to<br />

such an extent that they can now easily be sent to onshore diagnostic<br />

specialists– compact, but smart!<br />

Now, what about the onboard engineers? How can they<br />

benefit from Condition Monitoring in alleged Industry 4.0 environments?<br />

Measurement results can be visualized in online dashboards<br />

such as the Online View 4.0 by the personnel of the<br />

control room, where they can follow up on live data trends.<br />

Global warning levels are displayed as traffic lights indicative<br />

of a change in the operating condition as opposed to the actual<br />

machine condition. Following an in-depth diagnosis, the cause<br />

of an increased vibration level as well as the suitable maintenance<br />

actions are determined together with the onboard personnel<br />

to avoid unnecessary repairs and downtimes.<br />

Fig. 2: Drill down to a specific machine train with live data<br />

So far, we have explained both ways of taking machine<br />

measurement data using offline and online techniques. Only<br />

the online monitoring technique seems suitable for the world<br />

of Industry 4.0. Can we accept stereotype thinking and just follow<br />

one path? The answer is quite clear: No!<br />

A combined implementation of offline and online systems<br />

is often the most economical approach to reliable Condition<br />

Monitoring. In this context, the machines to be monitored<br />

must be differentiated according to the following criteria:<br />

• Criticality of the machine to the overall operation<br />

• Accessibility of measurement locations<br />

• Measurement duration (equipment cycle time,<br />

frequency range)<br />

• Workload involved<br />

• Health, safety, and environmental aspects<br />

Fig. 3: Online dashboard with traffic light warning system<br />

Using this combined approach, critical machines are monitored<br />

around the clock using online systems. Less critical<br />

machines are monitored monthly using offline measurements.<br />

The result is a reliable and cost-efficient condition monitoring<br />

programme and a general reduction of the workload for the<br />

onboard crew.<br />

The last missing piece of the puzzle is the integration of<br />

the offline systems into the Industry 4.0 environment. The<br />

good news is that some solutions already exist. Data can be<br />

compressed and sent onshore via e-mail, where it finds its way<br />

into a common database. Data will be prepared and analyzed.<br />

This way, the networking of information is now happening at<br />

a global level, connecting the information to the entire fleet of<br />

vessels. The results generated can be made available jointly in<br />

a web-based dashboard.<br />

Fleet managers, chief engineers, and analysts communicate<br />

through the dashboard and gain access to performance indicators,<br />

machine conditions and measurement results of the entire<br />

fleet down to the individual machine trains.<br />

There is no doubt that industry 4.0 makes life easier in<br />

maritime environments, both at the local and global levels. The<br />

costs associated with the presence of specialists onboard are<br />

significantly reduced as monitoring data is sent back and forth<br />

– for faster and more precise measurement results – according<br />

to the claim: “Move the Data, not the People”.<br />

Fig. 3<br />

1/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 25



Flir Systems, Sales<br />

Director Central &<br />

East Central Europe –<br />

Instruments<br />

Experienced engineer<br />

Martin Adler has been<br />

providing highly qualified<br />

industrial thermal imaging<br />

services since 1996.<br />

"The Infrared<br />

Solution<br />

is Simply<br />

Tremendous"<br />

Engineering firm Adler run by experienced engineer<br />

Martin Adler has been providing highly qualified<br />

industrial thermal imaging services since 1996. The<br />

Germany-based company uses top-of-the-range<br />

FLIR T1020 handheld thermal imaging cameras for<br />

maintenance applications.<br />

IN ADDITION TO offering thermographic<br />

inspections of electrical switching<br />

and distribution systems in all voltage<br />

ranges, Martin Adler’s engineering<br />

services also include thermography of<br />

mechanical equipment and components<br />

as well as measurements in industrial<br />

settings for process analysis, diagnosis,<br />

process optimization, product development<br />

and research, and the inspection<br />

of machines, equipment and insulation.<br />

Moreover, Adler also advises clients in<br />

the planning of installed, user-specific<br />

infrared measurements and offers problem<br />

analysis and troubleshooting for<br />

already installed IR-measuring systems.<br />

There are hardly any industrial thermographers<br />

in Germany that have as<br />

much experience as Mr. Adler. Even<br />

during his studies at the University of<br />

Applied Sciences in Gelsenkirchen at<br />

the beginning of the nineties, he programmed<br />

his own evaluation software<br />

for infrared measurements at the laboratory<br />

for energy technology.<br />

- There were no standardized solutions<br />

at the time and therefore individual<br />

initiative was required, Adler recalls.<br />

From the passion he developed as<br />

a student, he then established his own<br />

company in 1996, which celebrated its<br />

20th anniversary in April 2016. Even<br />

back then, the focus was on electrothermography.<br />

- It became clear to me: there was a<br />

great interest in thermographic inspection<br />

in the industrial sector, but there<br />

was a fairly meagre selection of qualified<br />

services. In 1996, there was still no recognized<br />

qualification for thermographers<br />

in Germany and only two years later the<br />

first certifications were introduced here<br />

according to the American standard.<br />

Measurements conducted by inexperienced<br />

service providers were often not<br />

reproducible and some of his competitors<br />

offered little more than colourful<br />

pictures with their infrared cameras.<br />

Martin Adler recalls a particularly horrific<br />

scenario involving an energy provider.<br />

An inexperienced thermographer<br />

had inspected insulators on high voltage<br />

26 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>


lines on an extremely sunny day and<br />

thus found a high number of overheated<br />

units.<br />

- However, most of the insulators<br />

were perfectly in order, and the man<br />

simply did not have the necessary experience.<br />

Outdoor recordings often simply<br />

do not provide useful results in strong<br />

sunlight. Such faulty inspections at that<br />

time brought the whole industry into<br />

disrepute.<br />

Systematic approach pays off<br />

Based on his studies, Martin Adler took a<br />

very different and much more systematic<br />

approach, which he has remained faithful<br />

to. Regularly repeated inspection of<br />

critical components under reproducible<br />

conditions plays the decisive role here.<br />

- Back then, I first had to gain the confidence<br />

of my customers, Adler recalls.<br />

- Often a whole year passed between<br />

the first phone call, the first appointment,<br />

a demonstration of the technical<br />

measurement possibilities, internal coordination<br />

between the customer’s technicians<br />

and the purchasing department,<br />

and the actual order.<br />

The initial investment of 120,000<br />




Deutsche marks for a thermal imaging<br />

camera from FLIR’s predecessor<br />

company Agema didn’t make the start<br />

any easier for Martin Adler. He says it<br />

took several years to fully amortize this<br />

investment. He used this time to develop<br />

his excellent reputation. To this day,<br />

this reputation obliges him to use the<br />

best available thermal imaging camera<br />

model.<br />

The FLIR T1020<br />

With the T1020, Martin Adler is using<br />

the absolute top of the range of industrial<br />

thermography.<br />

- The detector’s IR resolution is huge,<br />

explains Adler enthusiastically.<br />

- This increases efficiency: On a significantly<br />

sharper and more detailed<br />

thermal image, you can discover problems<br />

much more easily and with much<br />

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more certainty. You can even discover<br />

small anomalies, which may not have<br />

been recognizable with the other camera<br />

or a lower resolution.<br />

Adler adds that camera operation has<br />

also become increasingly easy over the<br />

years.<br />

- This reduces the error rate, not only<br />

during camera usage, but also in the<br />

evaluation phase.<br />

Adler used to always have a notepad<br />

and pen ready to write down the errors<br />

found. Today, descriptions are stored in<br />

the camera in advance.<br />

- My T1020 “knows” exactly where it<br />

is, e.g. in property No. 1, building No. 10,<br />

switch room on the first floor. If, for example,<br />

I discover a problem in the 39 th<br />

object, then its position is automatically<br />

linked with the thermal image, thus<br />

avoiding confusion.<br />

Electrothermography<br />

Electrothermography is the most important<br />

area of use for Martin Adler. Detecting<br />

malfunctions before they bring a<br />

chemical plant to a halt, for example, not<br />

only makes sense for fire protection and<br />

security reasons, but also with regard to<br />

economic aspects.<br />

- In chemical plants, a half-hour<br />

standstill can incur 6-digit costs, and this<br />

is not only due to interrupted production.<br />

The plant must be commissioned<br />

again as stipulated and certain components<br />

inside the system may need to be<br />

removed so as not to cause negative effects.<br />

Fast procurement of spare parts for<br />

older components can also require great<br />

effort and thus be expensive.<br />

To make sure that none of this happens,<br />

Adler conducts regular inspections<br />

according to a clearly defined schedule.<br />

Electrothermography is<br />

the most important area of<br />

use for Martin Adler.<br />

28 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong><br />

Adler used to always<br />

have a notepad<br />

and pen ready to<br />

write down the<br />

errors found. Today,<br />

descriptions are<br />

stored in the camera<br />

in advance.<br />

Thermal imaging in areas at<br />

risk of explosion<br />

Inspections in areas at risk of explosion<br />

are also part of Adler’s everyday work,<br />

even though he finds far fewer errors in<br />

this setting.<br />

- Areas at risk of explosion are from<br />

the outset so critical that a high value is<br />

placed on safety. Of course this applies<br />

to the electrical and mechanical installations,<br />

so here we find errors significantly<br />

less often, he says.<br />

Nevertheless, the inspections here are<br />

anything but superfluous, because any<br />

abnormalities in such areas could pose<br />

very significant risks.<br />

Lining of furnaces<br />

Industrial furnaces consist of a furnace<br />

shell, which is protected by a fire-resistant<br />

inner lining against the extreme<br />

temperatures of the molten metal. Of<br />

course this lining is exposed to normal<br />

ageing processes: It is exposed to wear in<br />

operation and is eventually damaged to<br />

the extent that it requires replacing. The<br />

time between two linings is called the<br />

“travel time”, and the longer the journey,<br />

the more economic the operation can<br />

be. However, a furnace with a defective<br />

lining could also have disastrous<br />

consequences. The molten metal would<br />

destroy the shell and, in addition to high<br />

costs, in a worst-case scenario could even<br />

cause injury. Using a thermal imaging<br />

camera, it is possible to determine the<br />

condition of the lining from outside the<br />

furnace even during operation. Regular<br />

thermography inspections ensure safety<br />

and prevent economic losses.<br />

Qualification and certification<br />

Today, Martin Adler is one of the most<br />

sought after thermography specialists<br />

with certifications according to the European<br />

DIN EN ISO 9712 Level III, the<br />

ASNT, the CFPA and the VDS in addition<br />

to his many years of experience. This can<br />

be seen in his continually growing order<br />

volumes.<br />

Adler doesn’t worry about competition<br />

from inexpensive thermal imaging<br />

cameras.<br />

- Cheap devices hardly play a role<br />

in the area of professional industrial<br />

thermography. Plant operators may<br />

sometimes purchase them for the occasional<br />

inspection, but they can’t meet<br />

the insurance requirements with regard<br />

to systematics and accuracy with these<br />


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a leading cause of bearing failure.<br />

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Director of Business<br />

Development for SDT<br />



Faults Found with Ultrasound<br />

Figure 1 displays an example of an electo<br />

Find Transformer Failures<br />

Processing steel requires heavy-duty electrical systems that consume massive<br />

amounts of energy. A single electrical component failure can be all it takes to completely<br />

stop production, resulting in the loss of crucial time and money. Maintenance<br />

crews rely on condition monitoring technologies like ultrasound and infrared imaging<br />

to help them predict electrical component failures.<br />

MOST ELECTRICAL FAULTS are the result<br />

of partial discharge, which is defined as<br />

“a localized electrical discharge in an insulation<br />

system that does not completely<br />

bridge the electrodes.” A discharge is<br />

described as either an “arc” or a “spark”<br />

and can be phase-to-phase, or phase-toground.<br />

Partial discharge is destructive<br />

to the conductor or insulator and, over<br />

time, will cause the component to fail.<br />

The integrity of insulators can be further<br />

damaged by corrosive gases like nitrous<br />

oxide. The time it takes for a system<br />

component to fail can be affected by system<br />

voltage, the shape of the void from<br />

phase-to-phase, ambient temperature,<br />

the condition of the insulation material,<br />

and environmental conditions such as<br />

pollution and humidity. The higher the<br />

voltage, the more destructive the partial<br />

discharge becomes.<br />

One stage of partial discharge is<br />

termed “tracking.” Tracking is difficult<br />

to detect since it doesn’t demonstrate<br />

any heat build-up. Like corona discharge<br />

and arcing, tracking exists only to seek a<br />

path to ground. Dirt, dust and moisture<br />

help tracking follow this path, which is<br />

why simple maintenance like cleaning<br />

is effective in prolonging the service life<br />

of electrical systems. Cleaning should<br />

be done on a planned schedule, but not a<br />

planned calendar schedule. Since hiring<br />

a cleaning crew represents a cost, it is<br />

more efficient to first detect the need<br />

for cleaning with ultrasound, and only<br />

schedule the crew based on the condition<br />

of the electrical system.<br />

Tracking begins with a low buzzing<br />

and crackling and builds in intensity until<br />

it reaches the point of flashover. After<br />

flashover occurs it becomes quiet again.<br />

It is this constant build up in intensity<br />

and discharge that leads to insulator<br />

breakdown and eventually, the progression<br />

to more destructive arcing.<br />

The Combination of Two<br />

Technologies for Electrical<br />

Applications with Gerdau<br />

Ameristeel<br />

The earlier an electrical fault is detected,<br />

the easier, and less expensive it is for the<br />

electrical repair crew to schedule and<br />

perform maintenance. Early detection of<br />

an electrical fault could be the difference<br />

between a simple dusting and cleaning,<br />

or minor parts replacement and a costly<br />

overhaul and total repair/replacement<br />

of the machine. Skip Young, a certified<br />

infrared thermographer (IR) and ultrasound<br />

inspector (UT) works for Gerdau<br />

Ameristeel in Calvert City, KY. Mr.<br />

Young provides us with a good example<br />

of how combined predictive inspections<br />

can prevent transformer outages and<br />

help schedule simple PMs.<br />

Typically, electrical faults only generate<br />

heat once they have reached an<br />

advanced stage. Relying solely on IR<br />

may result in a missed diagnosis but not<br />

for Skip Young. While conducting all<br />

scheduled IR scans, Young includes ultrasound<br />

measurements. He knows that<br />

acoustic energy is generated at all stages<br />

of discharge and that by combining ultrasound<br />

and infrared scans he finds all<br />

faults.<br />

30 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>


Figure 1: This insulator was damaged<br />

by tracking and eventually arcing.<br />

The problem was detected early with<br />

ultrasound inspection.<br />

Figure 2: Thermal Images of A-phase<br />

bushing on this 161Kv to 13.8Kv step<br />

down transformer showed no apparent hot<br />

spots.<br />

Figure 3: The sound file can be viewed in<br />

both the time (top image) and spectrum<br />

(bottom image) domain. The top shows<br />

tracking picked up in the ultrasound<br />

range from the A-Phase bushing of the<br />

transformer.<br />

trical problem detected in its early stages<br />

with Ultrasound. The insulator was<br />

damaged with tracking which indicates<br />

the presence of an equipment fault.<br />

When caught at an early stage, it can<br />

often be fixed with simple maintenance<br />

procedures.<br />

Thermal images from several 161kV<br />

to 13.8kV step down transformers were<br />

provided to us by Young. While using<br />

infrared imaging there was no visible<br />

hot spots on the A, B and C phase bushings<br />

as shown in Figure 2, but an ultrasound<br />

measurement taken produced a<br />

sound file with obvious indications of<br />

early tracking shown in Figure 3.<br />

The top image illustrates the time<br />

domain showing the build-up and release<br />

of the ionization discharge as it<br />

finds a path to ground. Ultrasonically,<br />

we hear the build-up and then a neutralization<br />

of the air surrounding the<br />

problem. Heat does not build up here<br />

until the situation progresses and there<br />

is sufficient flow or current to produce<br />

heat along the discharge path.<br />

The bottom image illustrates the<br />

spectrum domain from Young’s ultrasonic<br />

data. There are two things to<br />

note here. First, the obvious repetition<br />

of 60 Hz events clearly tells us that, in<br />

addition to tracking, there is a presence<br />

of nuisance corona. Secondly, the noise<br />

level between the 60 Hz peaks confirms<br />

there is tracking activity.<br />

Similar tracking activity was discovered<br />

from the B and C phase bushings,<br />

while neither showed any signs of heat<br />

when scanned with an infrared camera.<br />

After the Successful<br />

Diagnosis with Ultrasound<br />

Once the diagnosis was made on the<br />

suspect transformers, the decision to<br />

perform simple maintenance during<br />

the next planned outage was made.<br />

Since the problem was discovered at<br />

an early stage the simple maintenance<br />

could be done on the terms of the maintenance<br />

crew rather than dictated by<br />

asset failure.<br />

According to Young, the simple<br />

maintenance merely included a cleaning<br />

and tightening of all connections<br />

on A, B, and C phase bushings. Looking<br />

at the time signal in Figure 4 and the<br />

frequency signal in figure 5, we can see<br />

that simple maintenance definitely<br />

improved the condition of the electrical<br />

assets. Since tracking is a stage of<br />

partial discharge that causes damage<br />

to connectors and insulators, it will be<br />

necessary for Young to continue vigilant<br />

ultrasound scans on the transformers.<br />

The combination of two predictive<br />

technologies while monitoring for<br />

electrical faults ensures that imminent<br />

problems are detected at the earliest<br />

possible stage of failure. Young’s detection<br />

of early tracking with ultrasound<br />

led to maintenance crews at Gerdau<br />

scheduling planned maintenance to<br />

fix their problems on their terms. Most<br />

significantly, the only maintenance<br />

required was a simple cleaning and<br />

re-tightening of connections. No costly<br />

purchase of parts was required and the<br />

effects of the maintenance performed<br />

was instantly seen. They are depicted in<br />

figures 4 and 5.<br />

Ultrasound and infrared technologies<br />

performed well together on Gerdau’s<br />

transformer issue, and there is<br />

no reason why the pairing should not<br />

be considered a winner for observing<br />

partial discharge on insulators, MCC<br />

panels and high voltage transmission<br />

and distribution lines.<br />

Figure 4: Time signal of ultrasonically<br />

detected tracking on A-Phase bushing<br />

before (left) and after (right) the simple<br />

maintenance of cleaning and tightening of<br />

connections.<br />

Figure 5: Frequency signal of ultrasonically<br />

detected tracking on A-Phase bushing<br />

before (left) and after (right) the simple<br />

maintenance of cleaning and tightening<br />

of connections. Dominant 60hz peaks are<br />

gone, as is the tracking noise between<br />

peaks.<br />

1/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 31


Are you Spending More<br />

Time on Technology than<br />

on Processes and People?<br />

A common reason why reliability and maintenance improvement initiatives often do<br />

not generate the expected achievable results is competing priorities and focusing on<br />

the wrong things.<br />



Founder & CEO<br />

IDCON INC,<br />

info@idcon.com.<br />

A GREAT EXAMPLE of this is technology.<br />

Technology is good and necessary and<br />

maintenance people like technology. It<br />

is common that the improvement effort<br />

will focus on technology instead of<br />

processes and people. There are many<br />

stories about engineers and these stories<br />

almost always make fun of our personalities.<br />

For example: “How do you<br />

know an engineer is extrovert?” “The<br />

engineer looks at your shoes, instead of<br />

their own shoes when they talk to you”.<br />

Many engineers are used to working<br />

with facts in designs and specifications.<br />

In a maintenance organization, you will<br />

have to manage people with different<br />

opinions and all that come with that.<br />

A new vibration analyzer, a handheld<br />

data collector for inspections or an online<br />

condition monitoring system are all<br />

good and valid technologies, but if they<br />

are not used by qualified people, in a<br />

well-defined and executed process, the<br />

possible improvement from the use of<br />

these technologies will be absent.<br />

For the example above there would<br />

be processes to do vibration analyses<br />

and inspections, with the right methods<br />

and frequencies, and a work management<br />

process to prioritize, plan and<br />

schedule the corrective action from failures<br />

found using these technologies.<br />

As mentioned before it is relatively<br />

easy to develop, document and communicate<br />

the processes. To instill a culture<br />

32 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong><br />

to execute work in these processes takes<br />

much more effort and time.<br />

This will include the education and<br />

training of people to achieve awareness,<br />

understanding and skills.<br />

To sustain craft skills to perform precision<br />

maintenance repairs, it is important<br />

to first implement the basic processes<br />

of inspections and work management<br />

in order to reduce reactive work. When<br />

that is done, people should be trained in<br />

precision maintenance repairs.<br />

If not done in this order, the people<br />

trained will fall back into reactive maintenance.<br />

In a reactive mode, too much<br />

work is urgent so there will not be time<br />

to do for example precision alignment.<br />

The skills acquired during training<br />

will be lost and people will be disappointed.<br />

In summary: Most people know<br />

what to do, but cannot find the time to<br />

do it. As Illustration1 describes. Too<br />

many conflicting priorities are common<br />

reason for this. If you implement and<br />

execute the basic reliability and maintenance<br />

processes and execute them well,<br />

you will free up time to do what you do<br />

not have time to do today.<br />

Christer Idhammar, is Founder and CEO<br />

of IDCON INC a reliability and maintenance<br />

consulting firm headquartered in<br />

the United States with partners in Norway,<br />

Finland, Italy, Germany, Australia,<br />

and South America.<br />



Illustration 1: I don’t have<br />

time to fix the fence. I have<br />

too many chickens to catch.<br />



Effective Backlog<br />

Management –<br />

Backlog Size Control<br />

Backlog management has a number of different but, interdependent focuses: Backlog<br />

Work Order Quality, Age of Backlog and Backlog Size Management. This article<br />

will focus on Backlog Size Management. In parts 2 and 3, the Age of the Backlog<br />

and Backlog Size Management were discussed in detail.<br />


Marshall Institute,<br />

sgiles@<br />

marshallinstitute.com<br />

DURING the 1960s many major companies<br />

reduced crew size by laying off<br />

junior workers, rolling maintenance employees<br />

to operations roles or temoprarilly<br />

laying them off. It was understood<br />

during that period, that a newly hired<br />

employee could expect several temporary<br />

layoffs until they gained enough<br />

seniority to be above the layoff threshold.<br />

Major companies realized the shortsightedness<br />

of this practice in the mid<br />

34 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong><br />

seventies, and began using other means<br />

of adjusting the crew size when business<br />

was slow.<br />

A common approach during the mid-<br />

1970s was to staff at a 60-80% level and<br />

maintain a supplement contract work<br />

force to meet the requirements during<br />

high demand periods.<br />

I experienced this new approach in<br />

the early eighties when the plant where<br />

I was assigned encountered an extended<br />

slow business period. The company reacted<br />

first by displacing all contractors<br />

with their employees – security, janitorial,<br />

and supplemental maintenance.<br />

As the slow period became extended,<br />

mechanics and operators were loaned to<br />

local community service programmes,<br />

such as Habitat for Humanity. For several<br />

months, I had mechanics building<br />

affordable housing while being fully paid<br />

by the company. Needless to say, the morale<br />

and loyalty of the employees grew<br />

tremendously. The company also gained<br />

from reducing turnover and training<br />

costs.<br />

Reactive organizations will have<br />

very large backlogs (documented and/<br />

or undocumented). This may be interpreted<br />

as an indicator of understaffing.<br />

In reality, adding resources will not have<br />

a substantial impact on the backlog size<br />

without fundamental changes in how<br />

maintenance tasks are addressed and<br />

the quality of the overall maintenance<br />

programme.<br />

The nature of a reactive maintenance<br />

programme will keep the focus on the


emergencies of the day, causing less urgent<br />

work to be ignored until it becomes<br />

one of the next day’s emergencies. With<br />

this firefighting mentality, short cuts<br />

and Band-Aid maintenance techniques<br />

become the norm, guaranteeing more<br />

emergencies and shorter life cycles. This<br />

cycle will continue until a strong effort<br />

to implement a proactive work management<br />

process is taken.<br />

High level metric<br />

of staffing levels<br />

Organizations with a proactive programme<br />

and a well-implemented work<br />

management process can use backlog<br />

size as a high level metric of its staffing<br />

levels (overall and individual craft<br />

mix) and the quality of its Planning and<br />

Scheduling process.<br />

This is not a metric that triggers rapid<br />

action, but should cause a thorough investigation<br />

to determine the root cause.<br />

World Class maintenance programmes<br />

have a 5-week backlog target by craft and<br />

crew with a 3 to 7 week upper and lower<br />

control limit. This should be monitored<br />









on a monthly basis, but only trigger an<br />

investigation if a trend is established<br />

over a number of months. Once a trend<br />

is recognized, an objective investigation<br />

should be undertaken to determine why<br />

the trend is occurring. There are normal<br />

activities that could cause a temporary<br />

trend in the backlog level. For example<br />

a major plant outage or turnaround can<br />

push the backlog higher when many routine<br />

tasks have to be delayed.<br />

Reaction to the trends can result in<br />

cleaning the backlog (see Part 1 of this<br />

article in <strong>Maintworld</strong> 3/2017) or reducing/increasing<br />

the contract crew size<br />

to bring the backlog within the control<br />

limits. Today, many companies use supplemental<br />

maintenance as a relief valve<br />

during difficult business periods.<br />

Some companies take a long term<br />

view, allowing reduced replacement of<br />

attrition to lower the crew size to match<br />

the workload. In cases of a high backlog,<br />

both increasing overtime and bringing<br />

on more contractors are commonly used<br />

tools.<br />

A note of caution if you allow your<br />

supplemental contractors to maintain<br />

their own backlog: any decisions to reduce<br />

or increase crew size must be done<br />

only after a thorough review of the quality<br />

of the work orders in backlog.<br />

I experienced the need to take this<br />

step a number of years ago. The supplemental<br />

maintenance contractor manager<br />

requested increasing the number<br />

of his staff due to a high backlog. His<br />

request was at first considered and he


started the process of hiring more supplemental<br />

mechanics. When knowledge<br />

of this increase reached the maintenance<br />

planners, a number of questions<br />

were raised. A thorough review of each<br />

work order revealed many with unreliable<br />

estimates, work orders that had<br />

already been completed or work orders<br />

for tasks that had no business benefits.<br />

The contractor’s backlog was reduced<br />

to normal levels and the hiring of additional<br />

supplemental mechanics avoided.<br />

To ensure this didn’t reoccur, a regular<br />

backlog review meeting was established.<br />

Contract firms do use backlog metrics<br />

as a means to control job security<br />

and profitability for the firm by moving<br />

personnel between jobs, if possible, or<br />

reducing crew size (layoffs) to match<br />

the available work. They will set the<br />

backlog targets at an appropriate level<br />

for the industry they are serving, normally<br />

much higher than the 5-week<br />

target of world class companies. Specialty<br />

contractors can have much higher<br />

backlog targets, especially if there is a<br />

limited number of firms specializing in<br />

their field.<br />

Establishing a Backlog Metric<br />

A clear definition of when a work order<br />

is placed in backlog should be developed<br />

first to ensure an accurate backlog.<br />

Some organizations include all work orders,<br />

even those without accurate estimates.<br />

This adding of work orders with<br />

“guesstimates” will make the backlog<br />

greatly exaggerated.<br />

To ensure an accurate backlog, only<br />

those work orders that have been fully<br />

estimated should be included. Work<br />

orders that are awaiting planning or being<br />

planned should not be added to the<br />

backlog.<br />

Any backlog size metric will only be<br />

as accurate as the planner's estimates.<br />

World class metrics for work order<br />

estimate accuracy is =/- 10%. Reactive<br />

maintenance organization’s work order<br />

estimates will be +/- 50% to many times<br />

more.<br />

A separate backlog metric should be<br />

kept for each craft and crew (multi shop<br />

sites) with control limits to trigger any<br />

possible actions.<br />

While the man-hours per craft and<br />

crew are what are pulled from the work<br />

orders, converting the metric to manweeks<br />

helps make the metric easier to<br />

use.<br />

Typical Backlog metric<br />

This metric should be reviewed on a<br />

monthly basis and investigated when<br />

a trend of several months is seen. The<br />

first step should be a quality review by<br />

those personnel who are familiar with<br />

the operations needs and maintenances<br />

resources (Operations and Maintenance<br />

supervision or managers). This<br />

review will need to look at all the work<br />

orders in backlog, not just those that are<br />

overdue. If the quality review doesn’t<br />

bring the backlog into control limits,<br />

a continuous improvement tool such<br />

as a 5 Why analysis can be applied to<br />

Typical Backlog metric<br />

discover the cause of the out of control<br />

backlog.<br />

Possible causes of an out of control<br />

backlog are:<br />

• Work order quality – inaccurate<br />

estimates – invalid work orders –<br />

completed work<br />

• Major turnaround being done<br />

with plant maintenance or supplemental<br />

maintenance personnel<br />

• A time-driven capital project being<br />

completed with plant maintenance<br />

or supplemental maintenance<br />

personnel<br />

• Business slow period – short or<br />

long term<br />

• Crews not correctly sized to the<br />

workload<br />

• Crafts not sized correctly – too<br />

few or too many of one craft<br />

• Inexperienced mechanics<br />

Corrective steps that could be taken:<br />

• Clean the backlog<br />

• Be patient and let time correct<br />

the cause (turnaround, project, or<br />

a temporary business slowdown)<br />

• Balance crews across all shops<br />

• Identify areas of inexperience<br />

and provide training<br />

• Reduce or increase the supplemental<br />

maintenance personnel<br />

Regardless of what the cause is determined<br />

to be, any corrective steps should<br />

be carefully considered for their longterm<br />

effect. Any corrective effort should<br />

be discussed with all stakeholders and a<br />

consensus reached.<br />

Typical Backlog metric<br />

8<br />

6<br />

4<br />

2<br />

Mech<br />

E&I<br />

Upper Control limit<br />

Lower Control limit<br />

0<br />

1<br />

Jan-16 Mar-16 May-16 Jul-16 Sept-16 Nov-16<br />

36 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>

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SmartDGA by LumaSense<br />

with single valve transformer<br />

installation.<br />

Text: LumaSense Technologies GmbH,<br />

info@lumasenseinc.com<br />

Implementing Online<br />

Dissolved Gas Analysis<br />

Transformer and Load Tap Changer<br />

(LTC) assets are among the most<br />

expensive pieces of equipment for<br />

electric utilities. Preserve these<br />

assets by using an appropriate DGA<br />

(Dissolved Gas Analysis) diagnostic<br />

method to improve service reliability,<br />

avoid transformer failure, and<br />

defer capital expenditures for new<br />

transformer assets.<br />

MONITORING AND ASSESSING transformer and LTC health<br />

(especially with ageing and overloaded equipment) is essential<br />

for maintaining optimal operation and avoiding downtime. All<br />

transformers experience electrical and thermal stress on the<br />

insulating materials over time. As the stresses increase, the insulating<br />

oils breakdown and can result in transformer faults.<br />

Monitoring the dissolved gas levels in transformer oil samples<br />

is a useful, trusted maintenance tool for assuring optimal<br />

asset health. However, conventional manual methods are periodic<br />

and expensive, while real-time monitoring solutions are<br />

more proactive and lower cost in the long-term.<br />

Transformer insulating oils are made up of different types of<br />

hydrocarbon molecules. During decomposition (breakdown),<br />

there are chemical reactions between these molecules, which<br />

result in various gas formations.<br />

In order to measure asset health on a daily basis, utilities<br />

need an online 24-hour, 7 days-a-week solution for monitoring<br />

and assessing the gas samples.<br />

As experienced leaders in NDIR technology through our Andros<br />

brand, LumaSense chose industry-proven Non-Dispersive<br />

Infrared (NDIR) for our online SmartDGA® solution. The NDIRbased<br />

SmartDGA instrument works in cycles to obtain a sample<br />

of oil, detect concentrations (in PPM) of key gases, and record<br />

the values, making them available for review in the SmartDGA<br />

Viewer software or other optional communications. Operators<br />

can set up alerts when gases reach certain thresholds, allowing<br />

for true condition-based maintenance (CBM).<br />

With the lowest Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) in the industry,<br />

SmartDGA makes DGA available online 24 hours-a-day, 7<br />

days-a-week to help utilities lower costs while improving safety,<br />

reliability, and efficiency. Installation can be completed in as few<br />

as 4 hours and our ultra-low maintenance solution does not re-<br />

38 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>

quire consumables, carrier gas, or scheduled calibrations.<br />

Each SmartDGA packing unit includes the instrument,<br />

mounting hardware, connection cable, the SmartDGA<br />

EZHub unit (for power and communications), and<br />

SmartDGA Viewer Software (for reviewing collected data).<br />

With continuous DGA values, this solution develops<br />

a comprehensive analysis of potential fault conditions<br />

through the monitoring of key gas levels, rates, and ratios.<br />

LumaSense has setup a dedicated website with useful<br />

information about implementing online dissolved gas<br />

analysis on www.smartdga.com.<br />

Besides a detailed description of the unit with accessories<br />

and installation options is also contains a link to the<br />

product video explaining the main benefits and features<br />

of LumaSense’s SmartDGA instruments, specifically why<br />

the exclusively-used composite membrane technology is<br />

a robust method for online DGA.<br />

Moreover, there is a platform enabling registrants to<br />

view a technical webinar entitled “Understanding DGA<br />

techniques and interpretations”, which aims to provide<br />

with the necessary foundation to understand and analyze<br />

dissolved gas analysis reports.<br />

This webinar is set up especially for industry professionals<br />

who want to learn how to use some of the best<br />

diagnostic tools available for assessing the condition of<br />

their equipment. In addition, it will help understand how<br />

gases form, and their relationship to faults.<br />

11 – 15 June <strong>2018</strong><br />

Frankfurt am Main<br />

CONTACT:<br />

LumaSene Technologies GmbH<br />

www.lumasenseinc.com<br />

www.smartdga.com<br />

info@lumasenseinc.com<br />


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HSE<br />




Electricity, hydraulics, pneumatics, kinetics, chemistry and<br />

thermodynamics – energy can be dangerous in every form if it is<br />

released unintentionally or in an uncontrolled manner. To be able to<br />

classify a machine as safe in all operating conditions, it must not only<br />

be able to be disconnected from all energy sources; it must also be<br />

guaranteed that the machine will not start up unexpectedly or that<br />

machine parts will not move unexpectedly due to stored energy. For<br />

this reason, Lock Out Tag Out programmes - as required in the USA -<br />

are increasingly being used in Europe.<br />


Customer Support<br />

Pilz GmbH & Co. KG<br />

40 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong><br />


power supply can be sufficient from a<br />

safety point of view if the isolation device<br />

is in the line of sight of the person working<br />

on the machine. It must however not<br />

be possible for another person to reconnect<br />

the machine to the electrical grid<br />

during the work. The safety issues of servicing<br />

and maintenance are of particular<br />

concern, as considerably more fatal work<br />

accidents occur during these processes<br />

than in production. According to statements<br />

by the German Trade Association<br />

for Wood and Metal (BGHM), 21% of fatal<br />

work accidents occur during servicing.<br />

The Occupational Safety and Health<br />

Administration (OSHA), a division of the<br />

US Department of Labour, defines hazardous<br />

energies and describes how they<br />

are to be handled. The US Regulation 29<br />

CFR 1910.147 clearly states that machinery<br />

and other work equipment in special<br />

operating modes such as cleaning, servicing<br />

and maintenance is isolated from<br />

the energy supply and secured in such<br />

a way that an unexpected switching on<br />

or an unexpected start-up of machinery<br />

and equipment, or the release of hazardous<br />

energy, is ruled out. The specifications<br />

are summarised under the term<br />

LoTo (Lock Out Tag Out).<br />

Photo: Pilz GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Taking a closer look<br />

at energy sources<br />

Traditionally, LoTo is associated with<br />

the isolation from electrical energy. All<br />

types of energy can be hazardous, however,<br />

which is why it is necessary to check<br />

whether LoTo can be used for all energy<br />

sources. For example, energy can be<br />

stored in mechanical parts that continue<br />

to move due to inertia (such as on vertical<br />

axes), capacitors, accumulators, pressurised<br />

fluids and gases as well as in springs.<br />

If stored energy can cause hazards,<br />

facilities for dissipating or retaining<br />

stored energy must be integrated into<br />

the machinery. Examples of this type of<br />

facilities are: Resistors (for discharging<br />

electrical capacitors) or valves with corresponding<br />

line ventilation.

HSE<br />

Photo: Pilz GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Components of LoTo:<br />

Lock and…<br />

On the one hand, LoTo comprises<br />

a physical lock. This can be a main<br />

switch or an isolation device with<br />

which the transmission or release of<br />

energy is physically prevented, e.g. isolating<br />

switches, slide switches, valves,<br />

blocks and blank flanges. There is also<br />

a “personal” security lock. Meaning<br />

a lock that is handed over to a person<br />

so that they can lock a main switch<br />

in the “OFF” position or a valve in a<br />

fixed closed position. Depending on<br />

the company rules, all keys for a “personal”<br />

security lock must, for example,<br />

be kept by the person to whom the<br />

security lock was issued or stored in a<br />

suitable place. The company must determine<br />

whether there are additional<br />

keys and who has them.<br />

The lock ensures that the machine<br />

can only be operated after this has<br />

been properly removed again. Furthermore,<br />

the operator is prevented<br />

from being able to inadvertently start<br />

the machinery. E-STOP pushbuttons<br />

are not categorised as isolation<br />

devices.<br />

FREE<br />

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... tag<br />

LoTo also includes the corresponding<br />

labelling of the isolation device by means<br />

of a sign or a tag on the lock: Why is the<br />

equipment secured against restarting<br />

and labelled accordingly? Who approved<br />

LoTo? Who carried out LoTo? How long<br />

does the lockout last? Who can provide<br />

additional information?<br />

LoTo is not just about attaching a<br />

lock and a label. It is a comprehensive<br />

programme that has far-reaching consequences<br />

in the company and the handling<br />

of machinery. The goal is a process<br />

with which safe handling of hazardous<br />

energy sources is guaranteed under<br />

normal operating conditions and other<br />

foreseeable conditions.<br />

As is always the case in the field of<br />

Photo: Pilz GmbH & Co. KG<br />

machinery safety, the first step is an assessment<br />

of the existing machines and<br />

energies. Specifically, this includes the<br />

determination and assessment of risks<br />

and hazards, the determination of sources<br />

of hazardous energy, the determination<br />

of cut-off points and the definition<br />

of additional required measures (e.g.<br />

vents, brakes).<br />

Step by Step<br />

At the beginning of the LoTo process, it is<br />

necessary to determine which people are<br />

responsible for LoTo and which people<br />

are participating in LoTo. It is also necessary<br />

to clarify which permissions and approvals<br />

are necessary for the work. Then<br />

a LoTo process tailored to the individual<br />

needs of the company must be created.<br />

The individual steps and responsibilities<br />

etc. are described below.<br />

Generally, a LoTo procedure comprises<br />

the following steps:<br />

1. Assessment and preparation of<br />

the task/work to be performed<br />

on the machinery<br />

2. Handover of the equipment: The<br />

equipment (lock & tag) can be<br />

managed centrally (foreman) or<br />

locally (maintenance engineer)<br />

3. De-energise and lockout plus apply<br />

tag<br />

4. Check point 3<br />

5. Performance of the task, such as<br />

maintenance<br />

6. Approval for release and cancellation<br />

of the disconnection<br />

7. Cancellation of the disconnection<br />

by removing the lockout and<br />

the tag<br />

Lock Out Tag Out<br />

is the systematic<br />

disconnection of<br />

machinery as well as<br />

securing it against<br />

restart. The LoTo<br />

system also includes<br />

the development<br />

of procedures for<br />

machinery isolation<br />

as part of specific<br />

tasks, as well as the<br />

training of machine<br />

operators.<br />

8. Examination<br />

9. Return of the equipment<br />

Who releases the machinery again<br />

depends on the specific process in the<br />

company. Additional components of the<br />

process include the determination of<br />

the purpose, scope and rules of the LoTo<br />

procedure, the description and determination<br />

of the energy control process<br />

to be applied and the description of the<br />

means for the implementation of and<br />

compliance with the LoTo programme.<br />

The disconnection from an energy<br />

supply must be visible (visible interruption<br />

of the energy supply circuits)<br />

or indicated by the clear position of the<br />

manual control (actuator) of the isolation<br />

device. Installation devices such<br />

as manometers or test points are to be<br />

provided to check whether the parts<br />

of the machinery in or on which the<br />

interventions are to be performed are<br />

de-energised.<br />

Assemblies that contain hazardous<br />

stored energy and that can be removed<br />

or disassembled are to be permanently<br />

labelled to warn about the hazards<br />

caused by the stored energy.<br />

Software-supported<br />

documentation<br />

When documenting Lock Out Tag Out<br />

processes, software tools can provide<br />

support to ensure machinery can be<br />

safely de-energised: Job specifications<br />

for dealing with hazardous energy sources<br />

can be produced and documented<br />

simply. Using the PASloto software, it<br />

is possible to produce LoTo reports and<br />

check the company’s own LoTo guidelines.<br />

PASloto produces a poster that<br />

documents a plant’s entire LoTo procedure<br />

and enables images of the machinery<br />

and energy sources to be added to<br />

the Lock Out Tag Out poster.<br />

Employee training is essential<br />

It is critical for success: The personnel<br />

must be trained in this procedure.<br />

This is true for all personnel, irrespective<br />

of their role in the company, as<br />

all employees must understand what<br />

LoTo stands for. Authorised employees<br />

require intensive training and any other<br />

employees involved must be informed<br />

of LoTo and must not undertake any<br />

attempts to restart the machinery. All<br />

employees must understand the significance<br />

of a lock and even employees from<br />

external contractors must be involved<br />

in the training courses. The procedure<br />

is to be implemented across the entire<br />

company.<br />

Finally, the system must be constantly<br />

monitored and checked to ensure that<br />

it functions properly and all elements<br />

are covered. In addition, a predictive detection<br />

of defects and weaknesses of isolating<br />

systems and the implementation<br />

of corrective actions can be enabled. The<br />

ability to react in the event of incidents<br />

should also be determined, as should the<br />

relationship between these incidents<br />

and organisational changes.<br />

The feedback from all participants on<br />

the effectiveness and usefulness of the<br />

(LoTo) process should be continuously<br />

assessed. This is then incorporated into<br />

any continuous process improvement.<br />

There will always be changes, as new<br />

machinery will be added and existing<br />

machinery changed.<br />

42 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>




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The First Step<br />

in Oil Analysis<br />

For years companies<br />

have used oil analysis<br />

to determine the<br />

health and condition<br />

of their equipment.<br />

However, most<br />

companies are not<br />

getting the most out<br />

of their oil analysis<br />

program because they<br />

do not understand the<br />

importance of proper<br />

oil sampling.<br />

MIKE HALL,<br />

President, Checkfluid<br />

Inc.,<br />

mhall@checkfluid.com<br />

OIL ANALYSIS is a highly effective method<br />

of determining the health of your equipment’s<br />

lubricant and discovering wear<br />

modes in your machine. With oil analysis<br />

you can: decide on when the oil needs to<br />

be changed, and prevent failures. However,<br />

most companies are not getting the<br />

most out of their oil analysis programs<br />

due to inconsistent oil samples.<br />

The importance of taking a proper<br />

sample for oil analysis cannot be overlooked.<br />

A proper sample represents the<br />

true condition of the equipment, it is taken<br />

when the machine is running, and it<br />

is taken from the same spot in the active<br />

zone every time. A proper sample is then<br />

compared to the baseline sample and<br />

trended against past and future samples.<br />

With oil sampling, there are two main<br />

objectives: safe sampling and reliable<br />

sampling.<br />

Safe Sampling<br />

Safety is the first objective. This means<br />

safety for both personnel sampling and<br />

the machine. Technicians need to understand<br />

the equipment and hazards. They<br />

should follow all safety procedures and<br />

use proper personal protective equipment<br />

while sampling. But even when<br />

following safety procedures, typical<br />

sampling methods can be dangerous.<br />

Oftentimes sampling from the drain has<br />

caused burns and opening up a system<br />

for sampling can expose the workers<br />

to dangerous hazards. With drain port<br />

sampling, it is also difficult to control<br />

the flow of oil out of the machine and too<br />

much oil loss can result in starvation.<br />

Furthermore, opening the equipment up<br />

to external particulate, moisture and water<br />

contamination can often defeat the<br />

purpose of getting a representative sample.<br />

It can even damage the equipment.<br />

Drop tube sampling is another traditional<br />

method that is hazardous. It is<br />

extremely dangerous to insert a plastic<br />

sampling tube into the live zone while<br />

the equipment is running. Without extreme<br />

precision there is a strong likely<br />

hood of the plastic tube getting caught in<br />

the gears. Thus in order to get a safe oil<br />

sample the equipment must be turned<br />

off. Even when turning the equipment<br />

off the system is still being opened up<br />

to external contamination. Properly installed<br />

oil sampling valves can help keep<br />

your people and equipment safe. For<br />





44 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>


FIGURE 1: Example of remote<br />

access installation setup on a<br />

pressurized system.<br />

starters, burns can be avoided as sampling<br />

valves allow oil to be directed safely<br />

and cleanly to the bottle. Additionally<br />

there are many remote access options<br />

available so that sampling can take place<br />

away from any and all of the equipment<br />

hazards (Figure 1). Sampling valves<br />

also allow you to sample from a closed<br />

system, preventing contamination from<br />

entering the system. Also, costly downtime<br />

can be avoided by sampling while<br />

the equipment is running.<br />

Reliable Sampling<br />

While safe sampling is the first objective,<br />

getting a reliable sample is also important.<br />

Successful oil analysis is about accurate<br />

trending. Oil samples need to be<br />

taken the same way every time and from<br />

the same location every time. It is important<br />

that the trends in the oil analysis<br />

reports are because of changes in the oil<br />

and equipment and not because of who<br />

took the sample, or how and when the<br />

sample was taken.<br />




Drain valve sampling and drop tube<br />

sampling do not produce representative<br />

samples. For starters, taking an oil<br />

drain sample can lead to the oil analysis<br />

results showing false positives. Since<br />

wear particles, contaminants and water<br />

settle at the bottom, the oil samples can<br />

show elevated amounts of wear metals<br />

or contamination. This can lead to<br />

unnecessary repairs, resulting in lost<br />

productivity and elevated maintenance<br />

costs to fix a problem that never existed<br />

in the first place. Additionally both sampling<br />

methods require machine shut off.<br />

The samples will not be representative<br />

of the equipment during operation. Additionally,<br />

shutting off the machine and<br />

waiting for the oil to cool down enough<br />

to safely take a sample allows for more<br />

wear particles settling in the drain. Thus<br />

the sample can show elevated amounts<br />

of wear particles.<br />

Sampling valves are needed for obtaining<br />

consistent and reliable samples.<br />

They allow for oil to be taken directly<br />

from the active zone, safely, while the<br />

equipment is running. This means that<br />

oil samples can be taken at any time<br />

since shutdowns are no longer necessary.<br />

Technicians also no longer have to<br />

open the system, reducing the chance<br />

of moisture or contamination. Furthermore,<br />

sampling while the equipment is<br />

running ensures that the samples are a<br />

direct representation of the machine’s<br />

condition. The oil samples are reliable<br />

because they are coming from the same<br />

spot in the active zone every time. Each<br />

sample pulled will contain hot, information-rich<br />

oil that can be trended against<br />

previous samples to show the condition<br />

of your equipment.<br />

1/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 45


FIGURE 2: Direct installation example of a<br />

pushbutton valve on a pressurized system.<br />

FIGURE 3: An<br />

installation example<br />

of a sampling tube in<br />

a drain port. In this<br />

example the sampling<br />

tube is combined<br />

with a sight glass and<br />

portable filtration<br />

quick couplings.<br />

Installing Oil Sampling Valves<br />

Pressurized systems (such as<br />

engines, transmissions,<br />

compressors and hydraulics)<br />

When installing a sampling valve on<br />

pressurized equipment, like hydraulics,<br />

look for a port that will provide the best<br />

representative oil sample. The ideal<br />

port will be located downstream of<br />

the components to be monitored (i.e.<br />

pumps, bearings) but before the filter<br />

(unless the filter is being monitored).<br />

Many times a simple pushbutton valve<br />

can be installed directly in a port on a<br />

pressurized system (Figure 2). However,<br />

if the port is not easily accessible<br />

many sampling valve manufacturers<br />

have remote access solutions to allow<br />

samples to be taken from a distance<br />

(Figure 1).<br />

Low or Non-Pressurized<br />

Systems (Gearboxes)<br />

Many times gearboxes only have a small<br />

number of ports to choose from. The<br />

drain port allows an ideal location to<br />

insert a sampling valve with an attached<br />

permanent sampling tube (Figure 3).<br />

The permanent metal tube should be<br />

bent and positioned close to gears to<br />

get the most representative oil. The<br />

sampling valve with tube will reach oil<br />

directly in the active zone and avoid getting<br />

sediment from the bottom of the<br />

gearbox, thus producing representative,<br />

and reliable oil samples. The breather<br />

port is also another option for sampling<br />

tube installation.<br />




SAMPLES.<br />

Get the Right Sampling Valve<br />

Once a location and available port is<br />

determined, it is necessary to determine<br />

the oil viscosity range, pressure range<br />

(for pressurized systems), thread size<br />

and thread type of the port. Sometimes,<br />

this is available from the manufacturer.<br />

Often times, it is necessary to use a pressure<br />

gauge, micrometers, thread pitch<br />

gauge and a thread identification table.<br />

Once the information is gathered,<br />

contact your oil sampling valve partner<br />

to get help in choosing the best valve,<br />

fittings and sampling accessories for<br />

your application.<br />

Get the Right Procedure<br />

After the valves are installed, take the<br />

time to create proper oil sampling<br />

and handling procedures. Use these<br />

procedures to help with training and<br />

minimizing data disturbances within<br />

the samples. Additionally, all involved in<br />

oil sampling should make sure that the<br />

fluid pathways are purged, the sampling<br />

bottles and tubes are clean, and the<br />

sample goes directly to the lab for analysis.<br />

Even these “little” factors can make<br />

a huge difference in the quality of your<br />

oil analysis results.<br />

Oil analysis has a wealth of benefits<br />

for those who utilize it. A world-class oil<br />

analysis program starts with a good oil<br />

sample. The resulting data from a good<br />

oil sample will hold more useful information<br />

on the health of the machine.<br />

These results will give teams the information<br />

needed to maximize reliability<br />

and reduce unplanned downtime.<br />

46 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>

BETTER<br />

OIL<br />




Attract<br />

the Right<br />

Knowledge<br />

and Skills<br />

The NVDO Maintenance Compass gives an overview of the trends and current<br />

state of the Dutch maintenance market. For the NVDO (Dutch Maintenance<br />

Society), the goal of the Maintenance Compass is to facilitate its members<br />

concerning their developments and challenges related to maintenance within<br />

the asset management chain.<br />

THE SIZE of the Dutch maintenance<br />

market stands between 31 and 36 billion<br />

Euros, which is approximately 4-5 percent<br />

of GDP. Moreover, almost 3.5 percent<br />

of the Dutch labour force is active<br />

in the maintenance sector. The Dutch<br />

maintenance market is expected to grow<br />

in the coming five years, according to 86<br />

percent of the participants. A possible<br />


BROEDER-<br />


NVDO<br />

reason behind this expectation is the growing economy. Companies<br />

have seen a rise in their investment budgets and are<br />

grabbing the opportunity to invest in deferred maintenance<br />

and replacements. Furthermore, high availability and reliability<br />

of assets has become increasingly important for companies,<br />

causing the demand for maintenance to rise as well.<br />

From the NVDO-survey several important developments<br />

can be distinguished. These developments,<br />

briefly explained below, will<br />

undoubtedly play a major role in<br />

determining the current and future<br />

position of maintenance.<br />

• Scarcity of technical work<br />

force – Above 40% of the participants<br />

expect technological employees.<br />

The scarcity could be caused by an increase of complexity<br />

regarding maintenance activities. Additionally,<br />

we see that supply of new employees cannot keep up with<br />

the booming demand. However, a positive prospect is that<br />

companies seem open to collaborate with educational<br />

institutions to improve the connection between education<br />

and the business world<br />

48 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>

The Uptimization Experts.<br />

What does<br />

What does<br />



mean to you?<br />

mean to you?<br />

marshallinstitute.com<br />



• Ageing asset base – Companies<br />

increasingly focus on solutions to<br />

cope with problems and challenges<br />

faced by ageing assets. 30 percent<br />

of the asset base is considered either<br />

at end of life or the lifetime of<br />

the assets is already extended. To<br />

deal with this situation companies<br />

could roughly consider two options.<br />

On the one hand, companies<br />

have the option to simply replace<br />

their ageing assets, which has become<br />

easier due to the recent economic<br />

growth. On the other hand,<br />

maintenance organizations could<br />

invest in innovative/technological<br />

solutions to optimize the ageing<br />

asset base. This year, the NVDO<br />

Section Suto have done further research<br />

on this topic in the benchmark<br />

PrestatieManagement with<br />

the Technical University Twente.<br />

• The increasing role of technology<br />

and data within maintenance<br />

– Several of the most<br />

important are linked to technological<br />

developments. In particular,<br />

the combination of the need<br />

for ICT-systems and processing<br />

large amounts of data lead to<br />

higher demand for technological<br />

knowledge. As stated in the Facts<br />

& Figures, companies are looking<br />

for innovative and technological<br />

knowledge<br />

Generally, we see that the maintenance<br />

market is facing some problems<br />

due to the lack of technically-educated<br />

personnel and the ageing asset base.<br />

But, due to the improving economic<br />

climate in combination with technological<br />

innovations, the prospects are<br />

promising. Still, to reach sustainable<br />

growth, maintenance companies<br />

should dare to invest in innovation,<br />

data and technology in order to develop<br />

and attract the right knowledge<br />

and skills.<br />

Shortage of technically-trained personnel<br />

The trend of a shortage of technically-trained personnel is the development with the<br />

most impact for the Dutch maintenance sector in 2017/<strong>2018</strong>. This problem has been<br />

recognised for several years, and has been paid a great deal of attention by the business<br />

community, the government and the media. The current tightness of the labour<br />

market is due to a quantitative and qualitative shortage of personnel.<br />

The quantitative personnel shortage is increasing because of the ageing of the population<br />

on the one hand and the resurgent economy on the other. The qualitative shortage<br />

is caused by an insufficient supply of technical personnel with the necessary competencies.<br />

The qualitative shortage in particular has brought about tight labour market<br />

conditions.<br />

All-rounders needed<br />

Besides problems with the growing demand for technically-trained employees, maintenance<br />

companies have an increasing need for all-rounders, that is to say employees<br />

with an understanding of both technology, ICT and data: we can see a lack of experience<br />

in dealing with data in maintenance organisations. Now and in the future, a maintenance<br />

professional does not only have to be able to carry out maintenance work, but<br />

must also be familiar with the analysis and storage of data so that this can be effectively<br />

converted into useful information.<br />

It is vital that the educational sector and the business community come together<br />

more closely to alleviate the tightness in the labour market. This can be achieved by<br />

closer liaison on the curriculum and the competencies and knowledge that are expected<br />

to be needed in the future, and by partly replacing teaching in the classroom with<br />

learning in practice. After all, the need for technical knowledge is declining. Technicians<br />

want to gain practical knowledge and skills that they can put into immediate use in the<br />

workplace. A number of in-company training centres have already made a start on this.<br />

Governmental responsibility<br />

We can also see that a large number of companies are prepared to enter into partnerships<br />

with each other and with the educational sector to ease the tightness in the<br />

labour market. A key aspect of this is to improve the image of maintenance among<br />

young people. For this to truly succeed, the government also has a role to play. Encouraging<br />

young people to go into technology and innovation, instead of introducing fixed<br />

quotas for these types of courses, would help.<br />

Level Proportion in 2013-2014 Proportion in 2016-2017 Difference (in%)<br />

Pre-vocational secondary<br />

Education (VMBO) 20% 19% -1%<br />

Secondary vocational 29% 32% +3%<br />

Higher professional education 21% 25% +4%<br />

University education (WO) 34% 36% +2%<br />

The proportion of students, per level, that enters a technical education<br />

50 maintworld 1/<strong>2018</strong>

On the pulse<br />

VIBSCANNER ® 2<br />

The High-Speed-Data Collector<br />


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