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113992242-Dravidian-Settlements-in-Ceylon-and-the-Beginnings-of-the-Kingdom-of-Jaffna-By-Karthigesu-Indrapala-Complete-Phd-Thesis-University-of-London-1965

MAP SHOWING SITES c_ ( •M• . N 4HE E?tQp.p PIC)ACHAEOLOGcL \ I)ECE tNDCTfN SETTLEMENTS WERE I /••L E \ A c;ns \ : f+Ih . . \ d,— \- a ' . 4 . - - \ \ . .*.. .+ ' ; --.. \ ' \ JI ,x ' ' , ' ' , N I: - - b — ( I \ 1 t 4 -- --v-v] ;___ " , - "\' - , \\ w k '\ \ \ I - , ®_ ' I \ + k \ \\ k \ \ TH - cNTT T R V N1 - - A I \ \ b A 0 ?tCQ —S A \ * :'I \' - a' ® 4 : — ?_ I -- I - .t_ I -- p - 1 1 + ' I '% k ' + a a N, — , 7 -, I- * a I + I I )4 4; * + 4 4' ' A 1

  • Page 2 and 3: 1 DRAVID IAN ZETTLENEITS IN CETI)N
  • Page 4 and 5: 3 ACKNOWLEDGENENS I wish to express
  • Page 6 and 7: 5 ABBREVLMIONS A.B.I.A. - Annual Bi
  • Page 8 and 9: 7 under their direct rule. Like the
  • Page 10 and 11: 9 contemporary accounts. In this re
  • Page 12 and 13: 11 in l952 It may be reckoned as th
  • Page 14 and 15: 13 to the rise of the Tamil kingdom
  • Page 16 and 17: works has been rendered difficult.
  • Page 18 and 19: 1? form when this work was written.
  • Page 20 and 21: 19 also been useful in this respect
  • Page 22 and 23: 21 Excavation work is still an unde
  • Page 24 and 25: 23 complete and the results are not
  • Page 26 and 27: 25 CHAPTER I TEE BEG INNIS OF DRAVI
  • Page 28 and 29: 27 inscriptions, from Tirupparafkua
  • Page 30 and 31: 29 of !2am from Siñhaa is accepted
  • Page 32 and 33: chronology, for phonological princi
  • Page 34 and 35: 33 other I1a..kais. The Cilappatikr
  • Page 36 and 37: and Kutiraimalai may be a Tamil ren
  • Page 38 and 39: 37 and Dhika, who ruled at ânurdha
  • Page 40 and 41: mentioned person seems to have occu
  • Page 42 and 43: 41 It is clear from the evidence th
  • Page 44 and 45: may form part of the later details
  • Page 46 and 47: 45 by no means extensive, excavatio
  • Page 48 and 49: 47 the seventh century B.C. to the
  • Page 50 and 51: 49 surmised that these could be 'co
  • Page 52 and 53:

    51 anything definite on this matter

  • Page 54 and 55:

    we are told, were in consequence ba

  • Page 56 and 57:

    55 South India in early times. In C

  • Page 58 and 59:

    57 and established permanent settle

  • Page 60 and 61:

    Not long after this, in the tenth y

  • Page 62 and 63:

    61 for, it is unlikely that Nahinda

  • Page 64 and 65:

    63 that Sin S4ghabodhi and Sil.megh

  • Page 66 and 67:

    the grant of money, amounting to th

  • Page 68 and 69:

    associates and belong to about the

  • Page 70 and 71:

    69 a small Hindu temple similar to

  • Page 72 and 73:

    71 It is, therefore, clear that a D

  • Page 74 and 75:

    73 inscriptions of that time. This

  • Page 76 and 77:

    75 of Kassapa IV (898-9lk) The Ku u

  • Page 78 and 79:

    77 niking mention of the fact that

  • Page 80 and 81:

    79 century. As we shall see later,

  • Page 82 and 83:

    81 Council Chamber inscription is i

  • Page 84 and 85:

    83 It appears that the Tainil settl

  • Page 86 and 87:

    85 The history of the Ca occupation

  • Page 88 and 89:

    87 rule. Four of its chapters have

  • Page 90 and 91:

    89 and Buddhag.ma (I nikdea) Of th

  • Page 92 and 93:

    91 notices of this period. The form

  • Page 94 and 95:

    93 Most of these are from the Siva

  • Page 96 and 97:

    95 the king are missing All the oth

  • Page 98 and 99:

    97 A few other short epigraphe of l

  • Page 100 and 101:

    99 The fragmentary nature of moat o

  • Page 102 and 103:

    101 amounts of money The occurrence

  • Page 104 and 105:

    a place of that name ia mentioned i

  • Page 106 and 107:

    105 The above Ca inscriptions of Ma

  • Page 108 and 109:

    of the RuvanvJ.isya gives the name

  • Page 110 and 111:

    109 This inscription found in Diyav

  • Page 112 and 113:

    111 -araiya, as, for instance, Pall

  • Page 114 and 115:

    1 were always derived from the name

  • Page 116 and 117:

    115 Moreover, it is not difficult t

  • Page 118 and 119:

    117 Some remains of Ca temples have

  • Page 120 and 121:

    119 responsible for its erection. I

  • Page 122 and 123:

    121 practice of later times we see

  • Page 124 and 125:

    123 of sculpture. In the case of th

  • Page 126 and 127:

    125 putu-ci$i But it is not possibl

  • Page 128 and 129:

    The present name of this lace is a

  • Page 130 and 131:

    1) .1. discovered. in the Eurulu di

  • Page 132 and 133:

    1 inscriptions. All these famines o

  • Page 134 and 135:

    133 CHAPTER Ill STLE1'TS IN THE LAT

  • Page 136 and 137:

    135 The most important feature of t

  • Page 138 and 139:

    137 in South India. The moat promin

  • Page 140 and 141:

    139 (Five Hundred of the Thousand D

  • Page 142 and 143:

    141 not necessary to assume that th

  • Page 144 and 145:

    143 that out of over seventy record

  • Page 146 and 147:

    145 by all the professional bodies

  • Page 148 and 149:

    many as forty-six such bodies assoc

  • Page 150 and 151:

    149 a share in the collection of to

  • Page 152 and 153:

    151 century. The source of our info

  • Page 154 and 155:

    possible to take the first two mean

  • Page 156 and 157:

    155 It seems, therefore, reasonable

  • Page 158 and 159:

    151 named in the8e inscriptions. In

  • Page 160 and 161:

    159 As in South India, these mercan

  • Page 162 and 163:

    161 who accompanied the mercantile

  • Page 164 and 165:

    163 interpretation that 'their desi

  • Page 166 and 167:

    165 Va1Aki VjaUdcrar The epithet Va

  • Page 168 and 169:

    167 the reasons why we do not hear

  • Page 170 and 171:

    The meanings of the terms CiEu-taar

  • Page 172 and 173:

    perun-taxi were the 'minor' and 'ma

  • Page 174 and 175:

    for the term perun-taram in such in

  • Page 176 and 177:

    175 body-guards known as parivra-me

  • Page 178 and 179:

    177 u-kai has some other significan

  • Page 180 and 181:

    of thths community (apai-peuk4) fou

  • Page 182 and 183:

    181 in a Ca record from Tirumuicka1

  • Page 184 and 185:

    183 that Lafikpura actually won man

  • Page 186 and 187:

    185 of architecture would have also

  • Page 188 and 189:

    187 from 1Cantay associates Gajabhu

  • Page 190 and 191:

    189 As we have seen, our literary a

  • Page 192 and 193:

    191 taxation or inability to pay ta

  • Page 194 and 195:

    193 The whole account seems to be o

  • Page 196 and 197:

    195 thirteenth century. There is ro

  • Page 198 and 199:

    Kvaram at Trincomalee, contain trad

  • Page 200 and 201:

    199 of the time of Vijayabhu I (A.D

  • Page 202 and 203:

    201 The Kanta].y Stone Seat inscrip

  • Page 204 and 205:

    203 About four miles north of Trinc

  • Page 206 and 207:

    205 and door-jambs or on fragments

  • Page 208 and 209:

    of Saivaa in the region of Trincoma

  • Page 210 and 211:

    importance for a number of inscript

  • Page 212 and 213:

    211 Padaviya is Buddhanaghe1a where

  • Page 214 and 215:

    213 We have already noticed in the

  • Page 216 and 217:

    215 inscribed on one of the pillars

  • Page 218 and 219:

    211 bull jug of a Buddhist pirivena

  • Page 220 and 221:

    Tamil country in the Kali year 512

  • Page 222 and 223:

    a Ca stronghold. The bulk of the Ta

  • Page 224 and 225:

    223 From Moragahavela comes a Tamil

  • Page 226 and 227:

    the Valafijiyar and the Nakarattr c

  • Page 228 and 229:

    227 clerks to be maintained separat

  • Page 230 and 231:

    229 there were a Dem4-veher at Vva1

  • Page 232 and 233:

    earliest Tainil inscription so far

  • Page 234 and 235:

    233 proceeded slowly after the Ca c

  • Page 236 and 237:

    235 than. possibly any other area.

  • Page 238 and 239:

    237 For nearly seven decades this p

  • Page 240 and 241:

    239 statement in the Galpota inscri

  • Page 242 and 243:

    ased on one of these invasions, Nil

  • Page 244 and 245:

    eigned, dwelling in Pulatthinagara,

  • Page 246 and 247:

    It is the accounts in the Sinhalese

  • Page 248 and 249:

    247 This is t0t the only instance o

  • Page 250 and 251:

    249 contemporaneous with the occupa

  • Page 252 and 253:

    251 includes Karas and. Choas among

  • Page 254 and 255:

    they may have enlisted further merc

  • Page 256 and 257:

    25 wholly. These allegations are ma

  • Page 258 and 259:

    257 quite safe for re-occupation. T

  • Page 260 and 261:

    259 littoral This process was, ther

  • Page 262 and 263:

    1 tribute from the Ceylonese ruler.

  • Page 264 and 265:

    263 As for monuments, only one Drav

  • Page 266 and 267:

    26 Perhaps such conditions led to t

  • Page 268 and 269:

    legendary material, some of which a

  • Page 270 and 271:

    inscriptions of the time in other p

  • Page 272 and 273:

    271 in the aiva temple at Nahiyappi

  • Page 274 and 275:

    273 The foregoing evidence points t

  • Page 276 and 277:

    275 a thousand Tamilised Sinhalese

  • Page 278 and 279:

    277 old territorial divisions and t

  • Page 280 and 281:

    279 While it i8 possible to show to

  • Page 282 and 283:

    281 turbulent conditions that obtai

  • Page 284 and 285:

    283 We may not be wrong in placing

  • Page 286 and 287:

    285 as well as some of the importan

  • Page 288 and 289:

    287 of Tamil settlers from South In

  • Page 290 and 291:

    289 dynasty in the Jaffna kingdom.

  • Page 292 and 293:

    291 in the town called Pajai; the c

  • Page 294 and 295:

    2 J1 'Attimpp4a, and Na1uvariya bec

  • Page 296 and 297:

    295 including the Vanni chiefs, who

  • Page 298 and 299:

    297 in the latter hail of the thirt

  • Page 300 and 301:

    299 in Jaffna they were divided int

  • Page 302 and 303:

    301 to only the settlements of cert

  • Page 304 and 305:

    one or other of these early colonis

  • Page 306 and 307:

    3O many outside the pmninaula, show

  • Page 308 and 309:

    3O CHAPTER V SEiTLE!4ENTS IN THE TH

  • Page 310 and 311:

    The word vanni is generally derived

  • Page 312 and 313:

    The derivation from vana appears to

  • Page 314 and 315:

    with the Agni-kula as plausible, it

  • Page 316 and 317:

    314 sources. It is, therefore, diff

  • Page 318 and 319:

    31 Kulaekhara P4ya as well as in th

  • Page 320 and 321:

    318 signifying 'jungle settlers' (W

  • Page 322 and 323:

    320 class of chieftains is right in

  • Page 324 and 325:

    322 of South Indian Tamila whose le

  • Page 326 and 327:

    324 Many of their names, too, are T

  • Page 328 and 329:

    32 reasonable to assume that the la

  • Page 330 and 331:

    323 rather unreliable. Even the nam

  • Page 332 and 333:

    330 The evidence of the Tamil chron

  • Page 334 and 335:

    332 for it is only from the thirtee

  • Page 336 and 337:

    Pli sources • The Ya-vaipava-mlai

  • Page 338 and 339:

    33t and the Vannis. Vaniyars were p

  • Page 340 and 341:

    33: these traditions are due to a c

  • Page 342 and 343:

    of the Tamil regions remained Tamil

  • Page 344 and 345:

    inscriptions and temples have not b

  • Page 346 and 347:

    In the La-vaipava-nilai this accoun

  • Page 348 and 349:

    The name of the Vanni chief appoint

  • Page 350 and 351:

    called Na1aTh, that he is said to h

  • Page 352 and 353:

    350 character Siha and SihabThu of

  • Page 354 and 355:

    352 1 was replaced by ma in course

  • Page 356 and 357:

    351 set up fortifications in severa

  • Page 358 and 359:

    Ker4a and Tamil soldiers had establ

  • Page 360 and 361:

    358 Sinhalese names is very small.

  • Page 362 and 363:

    3G0 chronicles, too, mention Nalaiy

  • Page 364 and 365:

    U')", reiriains of a different type

  • Page 366 and 367:

    of the inscriptions found on the pi

  • Page 368 and 369:

    36 coast. Vaniy rs and Mukkuvas a e

  • Page 370 and 371:

    area are of a later date. The place

  • Page 372 and 373:

    kukar (equated with Kuka = Skt. Kug

  • Page 374 and 375:

    372 who , with his chief N4a Nuda].

  • Page 376 and 377:

    374 Cnta-k4am Furtherri the pa-v ip

  • Page 378 and 379:

    and fifteenth centuries, when for t

  • Page 380 and 381:

    373 (Jaffnapatam, now Jaffria) In t

  • Page 382 and 383:

    330 When the coast of Na].abar was

  • Page 384 and 385:

    pleased in sin le villages in Iyrat

  • Page 386 and 387:

    381 Kuyavar (potters), I4aavar (Maa

  • Page 388 and 389:

    38 (Sembukattiya); r)the Paaiyar we

  • Page 390 and 391:

    Kurukulas and other South Indians w

  • Page 392 and 393:

    390 as the mercenaries of the later

  • Page 394 and 395:

    392 Cava.aikkrar, a caste of weaver

  • Page 396 and 397:

    394 c) S.Paranavitana, Upulvan Tem1

  • Page 398 and 399:

    393 Ceylon, the confiscation by Tam

  • Page 400 and 401:

    398 were also areas bwere la8tiflg

  • Page 402 and 403:

    400 works testify to the existence

  • Page 404 and 405:

    - 402 When did this independent kin

  • Page 406 and 407:

    of place names without regard to ch

  • Page 408 and 409:

    dOG There is, however, not the slig

  • Page 410 and 411:

    other having a leonine face and a h

  • Page 412 and 413:

    This also indicates the m i nner in

  • Page 414 and 415:

    the element ei*ha (lion) is preserv

  • Page 416 and 417:

    414 Ca prince, in some of the versi

  • Page 418 and 419:

    416 a) Ypia-tcam (173k) 1and g) !pa

  • Page 420 and 421:

    ulers of the Tanill kingdom had the

  • Page 422 and 423:

    Although we are inclined to believe

  • Page 424 and 425:

    422 of the Ukkiracika story. One of

  • Page 426 and 427:

    424 in the Tamil-n!valar-caritai an

  • Page 428 and 429:

    some of them are not mentioned in t

  • Page 430 and 431:

    a provincial governor who seems to

  • Page 432 and 433:

    430 prince of Anuridhapura, who had

  • Page 434 and 435:

    432 kindoin in 13kk It must have be

  • Page 436 and 437:

    It is, therefore, explained that th

  • Page 438 and 439:

    43i of Ngha's forces before the inv

  • Page 440 and 441:

    438 rid of the foreign enemy from n

  • Page 442 and 443:

    are given except for the fact that

  • Page 444 and 445:

    442 expressly mentions that the Par

  • Page 446 and 447:

    this instance, stands undoubtedly f

  • Page 448 and 449:

    44'i The campaign of Sundara Pçtya

  • Page 450 and 451:

    443 the Pya inscriptions refer to t

  • Page 452 and 453:

    Re could very well have been mfnist

  • Page 454 and 455:

    Pad! and Kurund, as we have noted e

  • Page 456 and 457:

    Svii would denote a person of Thvak

  • Page 458 and 459:

    In the light of the meagre evidence

  • Page 460 and 461:

    the north. 1gha presumably 5et up a

  • Page 462 and 463:

    4Bi In the Tamil chronicles , as we

  • Page 464 and 465:

    462 of IC 1aô.kai after Vicaya sug

  • Page 466 and 467:

    461 dynastic name. He is just calle

  • Page 468 and 469:

    IA. the couchant bull but also the

  • Page 470 and 471:

    463 occurs in the Tantil inscriptio

  • Page 472 and 473:

    470 These ICZiI l-ga origins of the

  • Page 474 and 475:

    We may now sumniiriae the main conc

  • Page 476 and 477:

    474 the new kingdom in the north to

  • Page 478 and 479:

    leaders who established petty chief

  • Page 480 and 481:

    473 tluk of the Rmnd district The a

  • Page 482 and 483:

    48 inscription, which is from Puduk

  • Page 484 and 485:

    482 about one of them. As Paranavit

  • Page 486 and 487:

    484 is in the reign of Iavarma Ku1a

  • Page 488 and 489:

    A C) had this word inscribed on the

  • Page 490 and 491:

    483 that they were scions of the PI

  • Page 492 and 493:

    49k) battle of the time of Kulaflha

  • Page 494 and 495:

    492 two independent references to I

  • Page 496 and 497:

    491 riyar, Lakkum4a DvanIya)cn, and

  • Page 498 and 499:

    496 A I When the words are separate

  • Page 500 and 501:

    emend the epithet of 4rirar k5a in

  • Page 502 and 503:

    500 need not be questioned. Codring

  • Page 504 and 505:

    502 We have seen .arli.r that the h

  • Page 506 and 507:

    504 £riya-nu division The occurren

  • Page 508 and 509:

    506 as Iriyaa and 1 ngs of the riya

  • Page 510 and 511:

    508 If the Iryacakravartins were Ea

  • Page 512 and 513:

    if an Iriya from Rn&varain became m

  • Page 514 and 515:

    512 about by these event4ay have le

  • Page 516 and 517:

    514 The titles of the Iryacakravart

  • Page 518 and 519:

    516 CekarIca-ckara wielded authorit

  • Page 520 and 521:

    is not difficu].t to explain. The T

  • Page 522 and 523:

    520 often referred to as Jafanapata

  • Page 524 and 525:

    522 Jaffna kingdom in the early per

  • Page 526 and 527:

    524 maintained that NallUr was foun

  • Page 528 and 529:

    n the royal palace was also in the

  • Page 530 and 531:

    52d from some other place to Jaffna

  • Page 532 and 533:

    53t that C1rai was another name for

  • Page 534 and 535:

    532 of Jaffna used the lute emblem

  • Page 536 and 537:

    534 clearly inform us that the couc

  • Page 538 and 539:

    53 Whenever these revolted ag{Tist

  • Page 540 and 541:

    538 district. Thus, the five main d

  • Page 542 and 543:

    540 Ctn-Ivalar, meaning 'Protectors

  • Page 544 and 545:

    CORLUS ION 542 We have seen in the

  • Page 546 and 547:

    544 been reached in the twelfth cen

  • Page 548 and 549:

    546 and chieftains. This led to a m

  • Page 550 and 551:

    43 kingdom and unifying the whole c

  • Page 552 and 553:

    550 20 • Tiru-fia-c amp ant ar Tv

  • Page 554 and 555:

    552 II. Manuscriptss (in the Nation

  • Page 556 and 557:

    554 13. Collingwood, R.G. and Myree

  • Page 558 and 559:

    556 39. Muttuttampi-piilai, A, pa-c

  • Page 560 and 561:

    a 558 If 9. Parker, Henry 'Irrigati

  • Page 562:

    56 V. Unpublished MoflOr'i1s 1. Kan

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