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NOTES TO THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS With regard to the measurement of financial liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss, IFRS 9 requires that the amount of change in the fair value of the financial liability that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of the liability is presented in other comprehensive income, unless the recognition of the effect of the changes of the liability’s credit risk in other comprehensive income would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss. Under IAS 39, the entire amount of the change in fair value of a financial liability designated as at fair value through profit or loss is presented in profit or loss. In relation to the impairment of financial assets, IFRS 9 requires an expected credit loss model, as opposed to an incurred credit loss model under IAS 39. The expected credit loss model requires an entity to account for expected credit losses and changes in those expected credit losses at each reporting date to reflect changes in credit risk since initial recognition. It is therefore no longer necessary for a credit event to have occurred before credit losses are recognised. The new general hedge accounting requirements retain the three types of hedge accounting mechanisms currently available in IAS 39. Under IFRS 9, greater flexibility has been introduced to the types of transactions eligible for hedge accounting, specifically broadening the types of instruments that qualify for hedging instruments and the types of risk components of nonfinancial items that are eligible for hedge accounting. In addition, the effectiveness test has been replaced with the principal of an “economic relationship”. Retrospective assessment of hedge effectiveness is also no longer required. Enhanced disclosure requirements about an entity’s risk management activities have also been introduced. The effective date of the standard is for years beginning on or after January 01, 2018. The bank does not envisage the adoption of the standard until such time as it becomes applicable to the bank’s operations. The impact of this standard is currently being assessed. IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers IFRS 15 supersedes IAS 11 Construction contracts; IAS 18 Revenue; IFRIC 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes; IFRIC 15 Agreements for the construction of Real Estate; IFRIC 18 Transfers of Assets from Customers and SIC 31 Revenue - Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services. The core principle of IFRS 15 is that an entity recognises revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. An entity recognises revenue in accordance with that core principle by applying the following steps: • Identify the contract(s) with a customer • Identify the performance obligations in the contract • Determine the transaction price • Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract • Recognise revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. IFRS 15 also includes extensive new disclosure requirements. The effective date of the standard is for years beginning on or after January 01, 2018. The bank does not envisage the adoption of the standard until such time as it becomes applicable to the bank’s operations. The impact of this standard is currently being assessed. 32

NOTES TO THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANNUAL REPORT AND FINANCIAL STATMENTS 2017 3. Financial risk management Financial risk management The bank’s activities exposes it to a variety of financial risks and those activities involve analysis, evaluation, acceptance and management of some degree of risk or combination of risks. Taking risk is core to the financial business, and the operational risks are an inevitable consequence of being in business. The bank’s aim is therefore to achieve an appropriate balance between risk and return and minimise potential adverse effects on the bank’s financial performance. The bank’s risk management policies are designed to identify and analyse these risks, to set risk limits and controls, and to monitor the risks and adherence to limits by means of reliable and up-to-date management information systems. The bank regularly reviews its risk management policies and systems to reflect changes in markets, products and emerging best practice. Risk management function is carried out by the bank’s risk management department under policies approved by the Board of Directors. The bank’s risk management department identifies, measures, monitors and controls financial risks in close coordination with various other departmental heads. The bank has Board approved policies covering specific areas, such as credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk and operational risk. The most important types of risk are credit risk, liquidity risk, market risk and operational risk. Market risk includes currency risk, interest rate risk and price risk. Capital management The bank’s objectives when managing capital, which is a broader concept than the equity on the face of the statement of financial position are: • To comply with the capital requirements set by the regulator, Central Bank of Kenya. • To safeguard the bank’s ability to continue as a going concern so that it can continue to provide returns for shareholders and benefits for other stakeholders • To maintain a strong capital base to support the development of its business. The bank monitors the adequacy of its capital using ratios established by Central Bank of Kenya. These ratios measure capital adequacy by comparing the bank’s core capital with total risk-weighted assets plus risk weighed off-balance sheet items, total deposit liabilities and total risk-weighted off balance sheet items. Credit risk weighted assets Assets are weighted according to broad categories of notional credit risk, being assigned a risk weighting according to the amount of capital deemed to be necessary to support them. Four categories of risk weights (0%, 20%, 50% and 100%) are applied e.g. cash in hand (domestic and foreign), balances held with Central Bank of Kenya including securities issued by the Government of Kenya have a zero risk weighting, which means that no capital is required to support the holding of these assets. Property, plant and equipment carries a 100% risk weighting. Based on these guidelines it means that they must be supported by capital equal to 100% of the carrying amount. Other asset categories have intermediate weightings. Off-balance sheet credit related commitments such as guarantees and acceptances, performance bonds, documentary credit e.t.c. are taken into account by applying different categories of credit risk conversion factors, designed to convert these items into balance sheet equivalents. The resulting credit equivalent amounts are then weighted for credit risk using the same percentages as for statement of financial position assets. Core capital (Tier 1) consists of paid-up share capital, retained profits less nondealing investments. Supplementary capital (Tier 2) includes statutory loan loss provisions and non-dealing investments. Market risk weighted assets This is the risk of loss in on and off balance sheet position arising from movement in market prices. These risks pertain to inherent risk related instruments in the trading book, commodities risk throughout the bank, equities risk and foreign exchange risk in the trading and banking books of the bank. Different risk weights are applied as per the Prudential Regulation. 33