Maintworld 2/2018

The criticality spectrum // Align wind turbines safely // Pre-operational checklists reinvented // IoT brings maintenance rewards

The criticality spectrum // Align wind turbines safely // Pre-operational checklists reinvented // IoT brings maintenance rewards


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2/<strong>2018</strong> www.maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

The criticality<br />

spectrum p 6<br />


Why<br />

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BEST analysts<br />

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trained?<br />

Simply,<br />

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Learn more about MOBIUS INSTITUTE by visiting our website or by reaching us by email<br />

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Is it Time to Increase<br />

Collaboration?<br />

FOR MUCH of the industrial world,<br />

the old way of working isn’t working<br />

so well anymore. The traditional productivity<br />

and profitability levers that<br />

companies can pull have been pulled<br />

plenty. It is time to find new sources<br />

of value and become more nimble.<br />

But what does that mean and what is<br />

the solution?<br />

The increased rate of digitalization<br />

has led to the Fourth Industrial<br />

Revolution, which in turn is creating<br />

tremendous opportunities for<br />

businesses. Connected devices, data<br />

storage technologies and advanced<br />

analytics have empowered organizations<br />

with information that lead to<br />

profitable business decisions.<br />

Automation and centralization<br />

have improved productivity in past<br />

decades. However, in the digital era the next major improvement stems from<br />

collaborative operations. In an integrated industry, devices and systems are<br />

connected across domains and industries. Customers and suppliers now<br />

work together in a collaborative way.<br />

Most advanced companies have established collaboration centres as digital<br />

transformation incubators in order to help their customers to improve<br />

speed, yield and quality, turn their data into action and innovate with others<br />

seamlessly to become more productive. These centres provide customers<br />

with industrialized solutions in a form of Software as a Service (SaaS) and rely<br />

on a new collaborative operating model, which not only forms digital partnerships<br />

with customers but also improves customers' operations together<br />

by, for instance, utilizing the domain expertise of the global network of these<br />

connected remote centres.<br />

Those experts at collaboration centres monitor data remotely and connect<br />

with customers in real time to quickly identify and resolve issues. In various<br />

industries digital value-add solutions are already used to optimize process<br />

performance, combine, analyze and visualize large amounts of data for right<br />

decision making, ensure all aspects of cyber security are in place and deploy<br />

condition-based asset health programmes for electrical and mechanical<br />

equipment for instance. Similar collaborative solutions are available to other<br />

sectors too, making cities and transportation smarter and greener.<br />

The world is changing fast. This change is led by digital innovation and<br />

transformation that, if harnessed correctly, delivers productivity and profitability<br />

gains powered by collaboration. Only those companies that are able to<br />

combine both OT and IT expertise will turn these innovations into real benefits<br />

for all parties involved.<br />

Let’s build the future. Together.<br />

Timo Jatila,<br />

Vice President, Business Development, Service ABB Oy<br />

4 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

24<br />

New leadership<br />

is beginning to<br />

enter the mining<br />

industry and<br />

“daring” to rock<br />

the pillars of a slow<br />

to change culture.<br />

40<br />

Flexible<br />

cobots<br />

allow more Nordic<br />

companies to<br />

automate numerous<br />

tasks, from assembly<br />

to polishing and<br />

painting to testing.

IN THIS ISSUE 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

46<br />

Digitalisation and the improved use<br />

of forest asset data are bringing<br />

both considerable savings and<br />

efficiency improvement to the<br />

forest industry.<br />

6<br />

The criticality spectrum: a<br />

means to focus our attention<br />

where it is warranted<br />

12<br />

14<br />

16<br />

20<br />

How to Safely Align Wind<br />

Turbines<br />

Six Signs of a Successful<br />

Acoustic Lubrication Programme<br />

Intelligent Leak Handling with<br />

the LeakExpert app<br />

Best Practices for Ultrasonic<br />

Compressed Air Leak Detection<br />

24<br />

28<br />

30<br />

34<br />

36<br />

Pre-Operational Checklists<br />

Reinvented; Data Driven<br />

Reliability in Mining<br />

SMRP: A Leading Voice in<br />

Maintenance, Reliability and<br />

Physical Asset Management<br />

Stock It? Don’t Stock It?<br />

How IIoT improves operations:<br />

Impact of OPC UA<br />

New Ways in IGBT Control:<br />

Electrical Plugging – Optical<br />

Transmission<br />

38<br />

40<br />

42<br />

44<br />

46<br />

48<br />

L4MS - A one-stop shop for<br />

SMEs for lean and agile intrafactory<br />

logistics<br />

Cobots place Nordic countries in<br />

the global top five<br />

Why Your Service Techs Are<br />

Deciding Your Future<br />

IOT Brings Maintenance Rewards<br />

to Exmar Ship Management<br />

Digitalisation is Transforming<br />

the Finnish Forest Industry<br />


EFFECT; simple but effective<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland tel. +358 29 007 4570<br />

Publisher Omnipress Oy, Mäkelänkatu 56, 00510 Helsinki, tel. +358 20 6100, toimitus@omnipress.fi, www.omnipress.fi<br />

Editor-in-chief Nina Garlo-Melkas tel. +358 50 36 46 491, nina.garlo@omnipress.fi, Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales<br />

Director, tel. +358 358 44 763 2573, ads@maintworld.com Layout Menu Meedia, www.menuk.ee Subscriptions and<br />

Change of Address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members tilaajapalvelu@media.fi Printed by Painotalo Plus<br />

Digital Oy, www.ppd.fi Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 5


The criticality spectrum:<br />

a means to focus our attention<br />

where it is warranted<br />

Developing an asset criticality<br />

ranking (ACR) is an<br />

important part of any reliability<br />

and performance<br />

improvement initiative.<br />

The criticality ranking<br />

enables an organization<br />

to prioritize and justify a<br />

wide range of activities<br />

and investments.<br />


CMRP, Mobius Institute,<br />

jason@mobiusinstitute.com<br />

6 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

UNFORTUNATELY, it is all too common to<br />

perform a very basic criticality analysis<br />

that does not allow decisions to be made<br />

(and has very little buy-in). And in the<br />

author’s opinion, it is also too common<br />

for people to perform an analysis that is<br />

far too detailed, in the form of RCM or<br />

FMECA.<br />

The aim of this article is to propose a<br />

graduated approach to assessing criticality<br />

which makes best use of your time<br />

while providing the decision-making<br />

information you need.<br />

The criticality spectrum<br />

The basic idea of the criticality spectrum<br />

is that we perform more and more<br />

detailed analysis based on criticality. At<br />

one end we have very little information<br />

to go on, i.e., a system criticality analysis.<br />

At the other end we have a great deal of<br />

information to go on, i.e., a detailed (but<br />

expensive) reliability centered maintenance<br />

(RCM) or failure modes, effects,<br />

and criticality analysis (FMECA).<br />

We could start with the system criticality<br />

ranking and then perform more<br />

detailed analysis on the assets within a<br />

critical system. As you will soon read, we<br />

can perform a more and more detailed<br />

asset criticality analysis, and then a component<br />

criticality analysis on the critical<br />

assets, and finally the far more detailed<br />

RCM or FMECA analysis on the most<br />

critical assets or components. As we<br />

move from left to right on the spectrum<br />

we will determine which assets warrant<br />

a more detailed analysis, thus saving<br />

time and providing focus where it is necessary.<br />

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Basic system criticality<br />

ranking<br />

The easy place to start with criticality<br />

analysis is to assign a criticality ranking<br />

to each system. If the failure of the system<br />

would result in serious consequences,<br />

then we would give it a high system<br />

criticality ranking. The normal approach<br />

is to therefore assign every piece of<br />

equipment within that system the same<br />

high ranking. While it is an okay place<br />

to start, it simply does not provide the<br />

granularity we need. To begin with, we<br />

can examine the assets within the critical<br />

systems to achieve the desired level<br />

of detail.<br />

Basic asset criticality ranking<br />

Our minimum goal should be the asset<br />

criticality ranking: what do we really<br />

need?<br />

At one extreme, which is all too common<br />

in the author’s experience, is to<br />

assign either “critical,” “essential,” or<br />

“nonessential” to each asset. While better<br />

than the system criticality ranking,<br />

such a simple ranking again does not<br />

provide the granularity we need to make<br />

the key decisions that must be made. But<br />

rather than analyzing every asset, we can<br />

now dig deeper on the “critical” assets.<br />

Basic criticality ranking.<br />

Asset Criticality Ranking<br />

Instead of a crude system criticality<br />

ranking, we can define a scoring system<br />

that differentiates between different assets.<br />

The score can be defined as a combination<br />

of the consequence of failure<br />

and the likelihood of failure.<br />

ACR = Consequence x<br />

Likelihood<br />

In order to provide structure and accountability<br />

to the process, we need a<br />

scoring system:<br />

• The consequence could be scored<br />

from 1 to 5. If there is a chance of<br />

injury or death, the consequence<br />

would be scored ‘5.’<br />

• The likelihood of failure will be<br />

scored from 0 to 1. It is the opposite<br />

of reliability. If there is a very<br />

high likelihood of failure occurring,<br />

it would be given a score of ‘1.’<br />

The following chart illustrates how the<br />

likelihood of failure can be combined<br />

with the consequence of failure with a<br />

basic scoring system.<br />

Asset criticality + failure<br />

detectability ranking<br />

We should go one extra step. It is insufficient<br />

to just consider the likelihood<br />

of failure based purely on reliability. If<br />

we have a means to detect the onset of<br />

failure, then we are in a better position<br />

to avoid the consequences of failure. The<br />

score can be redefined as a combination<br />

of the consequence of failure and the likelihood<br />

of undetected failure.<br />

ACR = Consequence x<br />

Likelihood x Detectability<br />

The detectability can be scored from 1 to<br />

0. A score of ‘1’ would indicate that there<br />

is no chance of detecting the onset of<br />

failure; it would be a complete surprise.<br />

Note that this is not a ranking of whether<br />

such a failure mode was detectable; it is a<br />

ranking of the likelihood that the onset<br />

of failure would be detected.<br />

Asset criticality + consequence<br />

differentiation<br />

Scoring the consequences of failure is<br />

important. It is common to view a series<br />

of assets on a production line as having<br />

the same criticality because if any one<br />

of them failed, they would stop production.<br />

But we need to distinguish between<br />

those assets; they really do not have the<br />

same criticality—they do not pose the<br />

same risk. Therefore, we can develop a<br />

more sophisticated way of ranking the<br />

consequences of failure based on a range<br />

of factors including the likely maintenance<br />

cost, the cost of lost production,<br />

the impact on quality, the impact on the<br />

environment, and very importantly, the<br />

impact on the safety of employees or<br />

customers. We should therefore assess<br />

the risks and develop a scoring system in<br />

each area of risk identified. The following<br />

is an example of such a system.<br />


Will almost inevitably occur in the next 12 months > 90% Almost certain M 8 S 14 H 20 H 22 H 25<br />

Will probably occur in the next 12 months 51–90% Likely M 7 M 10 S 15<br />

H 21 H 24<br />

Could possibly occur occur in the next 12 months 10–50% Possible L 3 M 9 M 12<br />

S 17 S 23<br />

Possible but not expected to occur in the next 12 months 1–10% Unlikely L 2 L 5 M 11 S 16 S 19<br />

Will occur only in exceptional circmstances in the next 12 months < 1% Rare L 1 L 4 L 6 M 13 S 18<br />

CONSEQUENCE Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Extreme<br />

An example with the ‘consequence’ and the ‘likelihood’ of failure. Ranking = Consequence x Likelihood = 3 x 4 OR use a<br />

ranking score as illustrated.<br />

50% 4<br />


2<br />

18<br />


Almost certain M S H H H<br />

Likely M M S H H<br />

Possible L M M S S<br />

Unlikely L L M S S<br />

Rare L L L M S<br />

CONSEQUENCE Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Extreme<br />

3<br />

An example with the ‘consequence’ and ‘likelihood’ of failure, and the detectability of the onset of failure. Ranking = Consequence x<br />

(Detectability x Likelihood) = 3 x (50% x 4) = 3 x 2 = 6.<br />

8 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>


50%<br />

4<br />


2<br />

18<br />


Almost certain M S H H H<br />

Likely M M S H H<br />

Possible L M M S S<br />

Unlikely L L M S S<br />

Rare L L L M S<br />

CONSEQUENCE Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Extreme<br />

Equipment<br />

(EQR)<br />

Minimal damage<br />

to equipment. No<br />

effect on other<br />

equipment. Spare<br />

held on site.<br />

Moderate damage to<br />

equipment. Minimal<br />

damage to other<br />

equipment. Spare held<br />

in region.<br />

Major damage to<br />

equipment. Damage<br />

to other equipment.<br />

Spare available in<br />

1<br />

day.<br />

Destruction<br />

of equipment.<br />

Destruction of other<br />

equipment. Spare not<br />

available in state.<br />

3<br />

People (HSR)<br />

Minor first aid.<br />

No medical<br />

treatment. Low<br />

level short term<br />

inconvenience or<br />

symptoms.<br />

Restricted work injury<br />

(RWI), occupational<br />

illness (OI) or medical<br />

treatment injury<br />

(MTI). Objective but<br />

reversible disability/<br />

impairment.<br />

Loss time injury<br />

(LTI). Moderate<br />

irreversible<br />

disability or<br />

impairment to one<br />

or more persons.<br />

Single or multiple serious<br />

injury. Severe irreversible<br />

disability or impairment.<br />

Single or multiple<br />

fatality.<br />

1<br />

Environment<br />

(EVR)<br />

Negligible spillage<br />

or emissions<br />

(technical ENCR)<br />

Spillage or emission<br />

on site but contained<br />

(internal ENCR)<br />

Discharge to the<br />

environment<br />

outside of consent<br />

conditions (external<br />

ENCR rating Minor),<br />

prosecution not<br />

likely.<br />

Discharge to the<br />

environment outside<br />

of consent conditions<br />

(external ENCR rating<br />

Moderate). Infringement<br />

fine likely, prosecution<br />

possible.<br />

Major event,<br />

pollution of air or<br />

river, fish kill, public<br />

outcry, prosecution<br />

certain (external<br />

ENCR Major).<br />

2<br />

Production<br />

(PPR)<br />

Negligible plant<br />

downtime. Output<br />

targets affected<br />

but not missed.<br />

Net cost of issue<br />

$0.5m ≤ $2m USD<br />

Plant downtime ><br />

1 ≤ 2 days. Critical<br />

output target<br />

missed.<br />

Net cost of issue<br />

>$2m ≤ $5m USD<br />

Plant downtime > 2 ≤<br />

5 days. Several critical<br />

output targets missed.<br />

Net cost of issue<br />

> $5m ≤ $10m USD<br />

Plant downtime<br />

> 5 days. Several<br />

critical output targets<br />

missed by significant<br />

margin.<br />

Net cost of issue<br />

>$10m USD<br />

2<br />

Product<br />

Quality /<br />

Safety<br />

Minor product<br />

quality issue,<br />

negligible harmful<br />

food safety<br />

implications.<br />

Moderate product<br />

quality issue or mildly<br />

harmful food safety<br />

issue.<br />

Significant product<br />

quality issue or<br />

harmful food safety<br />

issue with potential<br />

consumer illness or<br />

discomfort.<br />

Highly harmful product<br />

safety issue with<br />

potential single consumer<br />

death or widespread<br />

illness.<br />

Highly harmful food<br />

safety issue with<br />

potential multiple<br />

consumer deaths or<br />

widespread serious<br />

illness.<br />

1<br />

An example with consequence categories. Ranking = (3+1+2+2+1) x (50% x 4) = 9 x 2 = 18.<br />


9<br />

Asset criticality +<br />

consequence weighting<br />

There is an extra step we need at this<br />

point. Thus far we have given equal<br />

weight to each consequence of failure.<br />

For example, we are assuming<br />

that the death of an employee has the<br />

same consequence as the loss of production<br />

for five days. We need to do<br />

better. Therefore, we need to weight<br />

each consequence against the other.<br />

If each consequence is scored from 1<br />

to 5, we should apply a weighting to<br />

each consequence category so that only<br />

safety-related consequences can score a<br />

maximum of ‘5.’ Depending upon your<br />

circumstances, the consequence score<br />

related to production loss may only<br />

achieve the maximum score of ‘3.’ It is<br />

up to you to make that determination.<br />

Asset criticality + consequence<br />

likelihood ranking<br />

We now have a much better idea of the<br />

consequence of failure on the assets<br />

that we have been analyzing. Unfortunately,<br />

the system is still flawed. While<br />

we are considering the different risks,<br />

we are assigning the same likelihood of<br />

occurrence to each of those risks. For<br />

example, it may be rare for the asset to<br />

fail resulting in injury or death, but more<br />

common for the asset to fail resulting in<br />

downtime. Therefore, we can assign the<br />

likelihood and detectability to each consequence<br />

of failure. This requires more<br />

detailed analysis, but initially we would<br />

only perform that analysis on the more<br />

critical assets.<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 9


Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Extreme Likelihood Detectability<br />

0.5<br />

Equipment<br />

(EQR)<br />

Minimal damage<br />

to equipment. No<br />

effect on other<br />

equipment. Spare<br />

held on site.<br />

Moderate damage to<br />

equipment. Minimal<br />

damage to other<br />

equipment. Spare held<br />

in region.<br />

Major damage to<br />

equipment. Damage<br />

to other equipment.<br />

Spare available in<br />

1 day.<br />

Destruction<br />

of equipment.<br />

Destruction of other<br />

equipment. Spare not<br />

available in state.<br />

Rare < 1%<br />

Will only occur<br />

in exceptional circumstances<br />

in the<br />

next 12 months<br />

Confident > 90%<br />

Frequent testing with<br />

Condition Monitoring<br />

and are confident that<br />

faults will be detected<br />

9<br />

1<br />

People (HSR)<br />

Minor first aid.<br />

No medical<br />

treatment. Low<br />

level short term<br />

inconvenience or<br />

symptoms.<br />

Restricted work injury<br />

(RWI), occupational<br />

illness (OI) or medical<br />

treatment injury<br />

(MTI). Objective but<br />

reversible disability/<br />

impairment.<br />

Loss time injury<br />

(LTI). Moderate<br />

irreversible<br />

disability or<br />

impairment to one<br />

or more persons.<br />

Single or multiple serious<br />

injury. Severe irreversible<br />

disability or impairment.<br />

Single or multiple<br />

fatality.<br />

Unlikely 1-10%<br />

Possible, but not<br />

expected to occur<br />

in the next 12<br />

months<br />

Likely 51-90%<br />

CM in place, but not<br />

extremely confident<br />

that fault will be<br />

detected<br />

1<br />

0.9<br />

0.8<br />

1<br />

Environment<br />

(EVR)<br />

Production<br />

(PPR)<br />

Product<br />

Quality /<br />

Safety<br />

Negligible spillage<br />

or emissions<br />

(technical ENCR)<br />

Negligible plant<br />

downtime. Output<br />

targets affected<br />

but not missed.<br />

Net cost of issue<br />

$0.5m ≤ $2m USD<br />

Moderate product<br />

quality issue or mildly<br />

harmful food safety<br />

issue.<br />

Discharge to the<br />

environment<br />

outside of consent<br />

conditions (external<br />

ENCR rating Minor),<br />

prosecution not<br />

likely.<br />

Plant downtime ><br />

1 ≤ 2 days. Critical<br />

output target<br />

missed.<br />

Net cost of issue<br />

>$2m ≤ $5m USD<br />

Significant product<br />

quality issue or<br />

harmful food safety<br />

issue with potential<br />

consumer illness or<br />

discomfort.<br />

Discharge to the<br />

environment outside<br />

of consent conditions<br />

(external ENCR rating<br />

Moderate). Infringement<br />

fine likely, prosecution<br />

possible.<br />

Plant downtime > 2 ≤<br />

5 days. Several critical<br />

output targets missed.<br />

Net cost of issue<br />

> $5m ≤ $10m USD<br />

Highly harmful product<br />

safety issue with<br />

potential single consumer<br />

death or widespread<br />

illness.<br />

Major event,<br />

pollution of air or<br />

river, fish kill, public<br />

outcry, prosecution<br />

certain (external<br />

ENCR Major).<br />

Plant downtime<br />

> 5 days. Several<br />

critical output targets<br />

missed by significant<br />

margin.<br />

Net cost of issue<br />

>$10m USD<br />

Highly harmful food<br />

safety issue with<br />

potential multiple<br />

consumer deaths or<br />

widespread serious<br />

illness.<br />

Possible 10-50%<br />

Could possibly<br />

occur in the next<br />

12 months<br />

Likely 51-90%<br />

Will probably<br />

occur in the next<br />

12 months<br />

Certain > 90%<br />

Will almost<br />

inevitably occur<br />

int he next 12<br />

months<br />

Possible 10-50%<br />

Some CM, but due to<br />

test frequency and/<br />

or technology, not<br />

confident<br />

Unlikely 1-10%<br />

No CM, but local<br />

operators and<br />

inspectors may detect<br />

signs of failure<br />

No Warning < 1%<br />

No condition<br />

monitoring and no<br />

local operators and<br />

therefore no warning<br />

6<br />

21<br />

1<br />

Criticality ranking incorporating the consequence weighting and the assessment of likelihood and<br />

detectability on each consequence of failure<br />


38<br />

Component criticality ranking<br />

Although it has not been clearly stated,<br />

thus far we have considered the asset as<br />

a combination of components: for example,<br />

a motor coupled to a gearbox which<br />

drives a pump. Now it is time to take the<br />

assets with the highest criticality ranking<br />

and split them up into individual components.<br />

It is quite likely that we will find<br />

that the motor has a much lower criticality<br />

ranking than the gearbox (assuming<br />

that it is expensive and will have a longer<br />

lead time), which may have a lower<br />

criticality ranking than the pump (if the<br />

failure of the pump could cause an explosion<br />

and harm to the environment).<br />

With this information we can better<br />

determine which spares to hold, how to<br />

prioritize maintenance, where to employ<br />

condition monitoring, and much more.<br />

RCM and FMECA<br />

Once we divide our analysis into individual<br />

components, we will identify<br />

the components that pose the greatest<br />

risk to the organization (and to the employees<br />

and customers). Now it is time<br />

to perform more detailed analysis of<br />

each individual failure mode, the consequence<br />

of each individual failure mode,<br />

10 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

and the likelihood of each failure mode.<br />

This is traditional reliability centered<br />

maintenance (or failure modes, effects,<br />

and criticality analysis), but at least we<br />

have performed that analysis only where<br />

it is warranted.<br />

Back to the criticality<br />

spectrum<br />

And thus, we have our criticality spectrum,<br />

with very basic system criticality<br />

analysis at one end, and RCM/FMECA at<br />

the other. Taking such an approach will<br />

ensure that the critical components are<br />

given the attention they require without<br />

having to perform detailed analysis on<br />

each and every component within the<br />

facility.<br />

Conclusion<br />

While the above sequence has described<br />

the transition process from a very basic<br />

criticality analysis to a highly detailed<br />

analysis based on criticality, when time is<br />

available, we can circle back and review<br />

the ranking provided to the least critical<br />

assets, just to make sure we did not miss<br />

anything. This is part of the continuous<br />

improvement process. We should review<br />

the criticality assigned to all assets as improvements<br />

are made to reliability, our<br />

ability to detect the onset of failure, and<br />

the perceived consequences of failure.<br />

The key is to determine the criticality<br />

with as much detail as possible and then<br />

use that information to prioritize and<br />

justify everything from the reliability improvement<br />

process to the maintenance<br />

work that is performed on a daily basis.<br />

The complete<br />

criticality spectrum.


Coupled shafts that may not be rotated by hand<br />

during the alignment measurement, such as in gear<br />

generator wind turbines, can be measured safely<br />

for alignment thanks to Pruftechnik’s unique laser<br />

sensor technology.<br />

How to Safely Align<br />

Wind Turbines<br />

Safety engineers around the world can breathe<br />


technology has made aligning machine shafts,<br />

especially gear shafts, much safer.<br />

COUPLED SHAFTS that may not be rotated<br />

by hand during the alignment<br />

measurement, such as in gear generator<br />

wind turbines, can be measured absolutely<br />

safely for alignment thanks to the<br />

unique laser sensor technology. By now,<br />

this process has advanced so much that<br />

manufacturers of wind turbines explicitly<br />

require this special technology from<br />

Bavaria because of the special HSE regulations<br />

(Health and Safety Execution)!<br />

The example gear generator wind<br />

turbine illustrates the importance of<br />

occupational safety. We all agree that<br />

an extremely heavy wind turbine rotor<br />

with a rotor blade diameter of well<br />

over one hundred or even two hundred<br />

meters generates tremendous forces on<br />

the generator shaft already at a low rotational<br />

speed – especially when a gear is<br />

interposed.<br />

The rotor blades transfer the energy<br />

into a rotational movement in order to<br />

generate pure energy from wind in the<br />

form of electricity. The rotational movement<br />

runs via the hub into a directly<br />

connected gearbox in order to optimize<br />

the running speed for the power generator.<br />

The simple laws of physics suggest<br />

that the extreme leverage effects of the<br />

rotor blade to the input shaft create a<br />

tremendously high torque at the coupling<br />

from the gearbox to the generator<br />

shaft. Therefore for safety reasons, the<br />

complete drive linkage must operate<br />

under a protective cover during normal<br />

operation.<br />

A special challenge is now the alignment<br />

of the gear shaft to the generator<br />

drive shaft. Both shafts are regularly<br />

connected to each other via a coupling.<br />

Text and photos: PRUFTECHNIK<br />

However, both shafts and the coupling<br />

run “invisibly” under the protective cover.<br />

In order to ensure a safe, trouble-free<br />

and low-maintenance operation, both<br />

shafts must be aligned precisely to each<br />

other within the specified tolerances.<br />

The only safe and precise way to align<br />

both shafts of the manufacturer’s specifications<br />

accordingly is the laser-optical<br />

alignment procedure. In the process, a<br />

laser and a sensor are mounted onto the<br />

coupled shaft, rotated around the shaft<br />

axis, thereby measuring the alignment.<br />

But this is exactly where the crux lies!<br />

The cover of the drive linkage may<br />

only be removed if the system is shut<br />

down. In other words, the rotor must<br />

be secured against strong gusts of wind<br />

with the service brake and at the same<br />

time also mechanically with a locking<br />

pin. This ensures that no torque can<br />

be transferred to the input shaft. Conversely,<br />

however, this also means that<br />

the shaft cannot be rotated for the alignment<br />

measurement. The process is thus<br />

virtually impossible: The cover has been<br />

opened to mount the laser-sensor unit<br />

and cannot be closed with the measurement<br />

device installed. According to HSE<br />

regulations, it is not permitted to tamper<br />

with the open drive linkage with a freely<br />

rotatable rotor! The brake and locking<br />

pin rule out a manual rotation.<br />

12 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>


Nevertheless, PRUFTECHNIK technology<br />

makes a simple, quick and above<br />

all safe alignment measurement possible<br />

while remaining within the bounds of<br />

occupational safety! Once the lasersensor<br />

unit has been securely mounted,<br />

the service brake and the locking pin are<br />

released. The rotor blades are turned<br />

by the wind so that a rolling operation<br />

is briefly set. The on-site maintenance<br />

workers move as far back from the shaft<br />

as possible or to a safe location, even in<br />

the narrow enclosure if possible, during<br />

the axial rotation. PRUFTECHNIK’s<br />

own SWEEP-Mode in the ROTALIGN®<br />

and OPTALIGN® alignment devices<br />

makes it possible to determine the quality<br />

of the alignment in any angle position.<br />

This is already possible from a minimum<br />

torque angle of just 60° degrees. During<br />

the shaft rotation, all readings are automatically<br />

and continuously recorded.<br />

However, in practice a wind turbine can<br />

never be stopped again so quickly. Several<br />

rotations at once are the reality and<br />

are absolutely no problem in SWEEP<br />

mode. On the contrary: the higher the<br />

torque angle, the more precise the measurement.<br />


computer calculates the alignment result<br />

in just a few seconds. The angular<br />

position at which the laser-sensor unit<br />

comes to a standstill does not matter<br />

here. The sophisticated sensors with two<br />

detector surfaces can calculate the alignment<br />

result from any position in which<br />

they are located. They do not have to be<br />

rotated to a certain work position for<br />

this purpose, which is almost impossible<br />

given the technical prerequisites in the<br />

wind turbine without endangering one’s<br />

own health by manually intervening in<br />

the input shaft. The PRUFTECHNIK<br />

technology is completely contact-free<br />

and does not require any additional<br />

manual controls. Of course, all brake<br />

and locking mechanisms must be active<br />

again for the subsequent mechanical<br />

alignment process: Rotor brake on, locking<br />

pin locked! The laser and sensor remain<br />

mounted to monitor the alignment<br />

process.<br />

Since all braking device are activated,<br />

the shaft cover can still remain<br />

opened. In PRUFTECHNIK’s own “Live<br />

Move” function of ROTALIGN® and<br />

OPTALIGN®, the alignment result can<br />

be tracked at any time in real time (i.e.<br />

‘live’) until the alignment targets are met<br />

at the end! HSE regulations must also be<br />

observed and implemented here. There<br />

is no conflict here with the PRUFTECH-<br />

NIK devices. The work steps can be carried<br />

out properly and with the necessary<br />

care.<br />

This safe alignment process means<br />

that operators of wind turbines have<br />

already become aware of it. The unique<br />

safe PRUFTECHNIK procedure has<br />

therefore already found its way into<br />

various installation instructions of wind<br />

turbine manufacturers. They explicitly<br />

refer to the obligatory use of only<br />

PRUFTECHNIK equipment. The world<br />

market leader for laser optical alignment<br />

equipment from Bavaria is therefore<br />

synonymous with perfect and safe alignment<br />

in the wind turbine industry. The<br />

PRUFTECHNIK devices from the RO-<br />

TALIGN® and OPTALIGN® series perfectly<br />

symbolize the two most important<br />

features of aligning wind turbines: Safety<br />

and Precision!<br />

Discover<br />

the hidden<br />

treasure in<br />

Maintenance<br />

Discover<br />

the hidden<br />

treasure in<br />

Maintenance<br />

There is value hidden in every maintenance organization. All companies have the potential to further improve, either by reducing<br />

costs, improve safety, work on the lifetime extension of machinery or by smart maintenance solutions that improves uptime. The<br />

question is where maintenance managers should be looking to fi nd these areas of improvement and where they need to start.<br />

You will fi nd the answer to this question at Mainnovation. With Value Driven Maintenance ® and the matching tools like the VDM<br />

Control Panel, the Process Map and our benchmark data base myVDM.com, we will help you to discover the hidden treasure in<br />

your company.<br />

Do you want to discover the hidden treasure in your maintenance organization?<br />

Go to www.mainnovation.com<br />



Six Signs of a Successful<br />

Acoustic Lubrication<br />

Programme<br />

Acoustic Lubrication is just one of the 8<br />

application pillars adopted by world-class<br />

ultrasound programmes. And what an<br />

important one it is.<br />


Director of Business<br />

Development for SDT<br />

POOR LUBRICATION practices account for as much as 40% of all<br />

premature bearing failures. When ultrasound is utilized to assess<br />

lubrication needs and schedule grease replenishment intervals<br />

that number drops below 10%. What would 30% fewer<br />

bearing-related failures mean for your organization?<br />

Keep up with the changes in on-condition bearing lubrication<br />

or risk falling behind. For example, technology advancements<br />

from ultrasonic innovator SDT are transforming the way<br />

we look at the grease replenishment task. SDT’s LUBExpert, an<br />

ultrasound solution that helps grease bearings correctly, simplifies<br />

a complex process into a simple, 2-step procedure.<br />

A successfully implemented world class, acoustic lubrication<br />

programme delivers many wins for your company. Reduced<br />

maintenance costs as well as other savings on grease consumption<br />

and less unplanned downtime are two big doors that open<br />

other possibilities for factory maintenance teams. Another<br />

win will be factory-wide efficiency. Properly maintained and<br />

lubricated bearings run more efficiently, using less energy and<br />

lowering their environmental impact.<br />

With so much innovation available, the question begs, is<br />

your lubrication programme world-class? Here are six signs to<br />

help you decide.<br />



1. A change in the quantity of grease consumed<br />

Maintenance departments should track grease consumption to<br />

monitor and control costs. Root Cause Analysis on failed bearings<br />

points to over-greasing as the leading contributor. Bad<br />

procedures lead to bearings routinely receiving more grease<br />

than they are designed to handle. The excess ends up being<br />

pushed into the motor casing or purged onto the floor. Reduction<br />

in grease consumption is a sure sign that your lubrication<br />

programme is on the right track.<br />

Over lubrication happens when grease replenishment intervals<br />

are scheduled based on time instead of condition. Control<br />

lubrication tasks with ultrasound to monitor condition and<br />

maintain optimal friction. The time between greasing intervals<br />

increases, resulting in less grease used per bearing.<br />

Over-greased machines are not only more susceptible to<br />

fail, but run less efficiently. Optimally greased bearings draw<br />

far less energy and contribute to a greener factory. That alone<br />

should be motivation enough to Grease Bearings Right.<br />

Acoustic<br />

lubrication is the<br />

proven method<br />

to ensure<br />

precise bearing<br />

lubrication.<br />

14 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>


Maintenance<br />

departments<br />

should<br />

track grease<br />

consumption<br />

to monitor and<br />

control costs.<br />

Machines that are<br />

properly lubricated<br />

require less energy<br />

to run.<br />

2. Fewer lube-related failures<br />

Your organization should track failures and perform root cause<br />

analysis to eliminate sources of defects.<br />

Optimized greasing programmes experience fewer luberelated<br />

failures. Less fixing and fire-fighting translates to more<br />

creative time for maintenance. Use that time to bring more machines<br />

into the greasing programme.<br />

Additionally, with ultrasound you find many non-trendable<br />

defects. For example, broken or blocked grease pipes and incorrectly<br />

fitted grease paths that prevent grease from reaching<br />

the bearing.<br />

3. Optimized MRO spares management<br />

Your new and improved lubrication programme is delivering<br />

wins; better control of grease consumption, fewer failures, and<br />

more productivity for maintenance. Use this time to study<br />

trends and better manage your storeroom.<br />

A decrease in bearing-related failures improves spares optimization.<br />

Share your ultrasonic lubrication data with your<br />

MRO Stores manager to create a plan to reduce the number of<br />

emergency parts on hand.<br />

Since you are taking stock, why not shift some burden to<br />

your suppliers? Ask them to confirm your emergency parts<br />

against their own stock. If it can be supplied on the same day<br />

then why keep it on your balance sheet?<br />

4. Increased number of machines monitored<br />

One benefit of an effective lubrication programme is time.<br />

• Time allotted to monitoring machines instead of fixing<br />

them.<br />

• Time allotted to correctly assessing the real needs for<br />

lubrication.<br />

• Time to look at the big picture.<br />

Take for instance, criticality assessment. Many lubrication programmes<br />

begin with small steps. All the “A” critical machines<br />

receive priority, rightly so. But what about the rest? With more<br />

time to plan, organize, and schedule, increase the number of<br />

machines acoustically monitored for optimal lubrication.<br />

5. Save time. Combine acoustic lubrication and<br />

condition monitoring<br />

You worked hard for these results. It is time to use your data<br />

for more than just lubrication.<br />

Acoustic lubrication is the proven method to ensure precise<br />

bearing lubrication. New technology from SDT, LUBExpert,<br />

combines the power of onboard lubrication guidance with<br />

Four Condition Indicators for bearing condition assessment.<br />

The time savings from assessing bearing condition during<br />

the lubrication process is beyond valuable and another sign<br />

your acoustic lubrication programme is on the right track.<br />

6. Inspector Confidence at an All-Time High<br />

Reliable machines are the product of an effective lubrication<br />

programme. You have:<br />

• Managed grease consumption<br />

• Fewer grease-related bearing failures<br />

• Optimized MRO spares<br />

• More machines under watch<br />

• Increased data collection intervals<br />

The power of adding ultrasound to your greasing programme<br />

delivers win after win for reliability. Reliability breeds confidence.<br />

More confident inspectors make better decisions and<br />

infect a positive culture throughout the organization.<br />

Ultrasound-assisted lubrication of plant assets offers significant<br />

benefits that calendar based lubrication cannot. Lubrication<br />

serves a primary purpose, which is to create a thin layer<br />

of lubricant between rolling and sliding elements that reduces<br />

friction. So, it makes sense that the best way to determine the<br />

lubrication requirement of a machine is to monitor friction<br />

levels, not time in service.<br />

Machines that are properly lubricated require less energy to<br />

run. Imagine that reducing grease consumption can lower your<br />

energy bills. Machines that consume less electricity run cooler<br />

and enjoy longer life cycles.<br />

Finally, by monitoring the condition of your machinery’s<br />

lubrication, you are at the same time collecting valuable<br />

condition data about the machine itself. Dynamic and static<br />

ultrasound data coupled with the 4 condition indicators (RMS,<br />

Max RMS, Peak, and Crest Factor) are all indicators of bearing<br />

health.<br />

Optimizing lubrication of plant machinery with ultrasound<br />

results in a significant reduction in grease consumption. Successful<br />

ultrasound programmes accelerate the velocity of positive<br />

culture change.<br />

Who knew so much good news could come from such a simple<br />

shift from calendar to condition-based maintenance?<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 15


Text and photos:<br />


Do you really want to save your company money?<br />

Then eliminating compressed air leaks would<br />

be an important step forward.<br />

The intuitive Sonaphone ultrasonic testing device with LeakExpert<br />

app locates, evaluates and classifies compressed air leaks.<br />

Intelligent Leak Handling<br />

with the LeakExpert app<br />

16 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

COMPRESSED AIR IS one of the most<br />

expensive energy sources and is responsible<br />

for 10% of industrial energy costs.<br />

30% of this expensive energy is lost<br />

simply due to leaks in compressed air<br />

systems. This makes detecting and eliminating<br />

leaks worthwhile.<br />

A digital ultrasonic testing device from<br />

SONOTEC makes it possible to detect<br />

leaks on compressed air and gas systems<br />

and on gas lines with pinpoint accuracy.<br />

Thanks to a new, intuitive app, leaks can<br />

also be evaluated automatically with the<br />

ultrasonic testing device. Additionally,<br />

the LeakExpert app makes it easier to<br />

generate a report as a decision-making<br />

tool for follow-up actions and as evidence<br />

of successful energy management in accordance<br />

with EN ISO 50001. This means<br />

that SONOTEC measuring technology<br />

helps pave the way for Maintenance 4.0.<br />

Do you really want to save your company<br />

money? Then eliminating compressed<br />

air leaks would be an important<br />

step forward. The SONAPHONE ultrasonic<br />

testing device with the LeakExpert<br />

app for locating and evaluating leaks on<br />

compressed air and vacuum systems and<br />

gas lines a device that can help with the<br />

process. It can be operated intuitively<br />

and includes numerous innovative functions<br />

for search, evaluation and documentation.<br />

This is how it works:<br />






The search for a leak begins<br />

Switch on SONAPHONE with LeakExpert<br />

app, put on the headphones, and<br />

start the search. Here too everything<br />

depends on the right method and equipment.<br />

First insert the large acoustic horn<br />

on the device’s airborne sound sensor.<br />

Through this horn, the SONAPHONE<br />

receives noises in the ultrasonic range<br />

caused by the escaping of compressed<br />

air or the sucking in of ambient air into<br />

vacuum systems, and then transforms<br />

them into audible or visible signals. In<br />

this way the leak can already be heard<br />

from a distance of approximately eight<br />

meters. As soon as you receive a signal<br />

through the headphones, orient the<br />

ultrasound sensor toward the noise and<br />

switch the integrated laser pointer on.<br />

This will already allow you to roughly<br />

locate the leak. The closer you get to the<br />

leak, the clearer the ultrasound signal


will become.<br />

In the immediate vicinity of the leak,<br />

immediately switch from the acoustic<br />

horn to the precise locator. Then check<br />

the lines and connections in the previously<br />

located area until you have precisely<br />

identified the damaged area.<br />

Evaluating the leak<br />

To correctly evaluate the leak, you only<br />

have to enter your system pressure and<br />

the type of gas in the device and start<br />

the specially developed leak evaluation.<br />

With just a touch of a button, the measurement<br />

and evaluation of the leak will<br />

begin, whereupon the loss in liters per<br />

minute will be displayed to you immediately.<br />

Additionally, the device will rank<br />

the leak in a class from 1 to 5 (1 = small<br />

leak, minor loss [green]; 5 = large leak,<br />

very high loss [red]). This evaluation<br />

process is based on a procedure patented<br />

by Sonotec.<br />

Documentation for<br />

management<br />

The LeakExpert app offers the option<br />

of structured and process-supporting<br />

documentation. This is easier than it<br />

sounds, since the app guides you through<br />

the testing process step by step. First you<br />

identify the exact location of the leak by<br />

entering the building, area, system and<br />

component. This information is saved in<br />

the app and is available to you again for<br />

the next search. However, the LeakExpert<br />

app not only allows you to specify<br />

the location and size of the leak, but<br />

also to note if and how urgently the leak<br />

needs to be repaired and how extensive<br />

the expected repair efforts will be. Even<br />

The integrated<br />

camera can be used<br />

to take pictures of<br />

the leak.<br />

the repair dates can be entered directly<br />

for each leak.<br />

Next, photograph the area of the leak,<br />

flag the damaged area with a marker in<br />

the photo and save the image in a folder.<br />

You can also record a voice memo with<br />

special details about the leak that has<br />

been found and save this memo. Finally,<br />

you can mark the leak to be repaired<br />

with our LeakTag and then move on to<br />

the next leak.<br />

After the testing procedure, with just<br />

a few clicks export a CSV or ZIP file into<br />


Leak Detection<br />

Condition Monitoring<br />

Electrical Inspection<br />

Steam Trap & Valve Inspection


your maintenance system for further processing<br />

of the measurement data, or generate a<br />

PDF report. You can then compile the report<br />

itself individually depending on the requirements,<br />

and, for example, sort the leaks according<br />

to size.<br />

All information on the leaks is saved in the<br />

device and can be called up again during the<br />

repairs. After the leak has been eliminated, the<br />

repaired location can be checked again with<br />

SONAPHONE and touched up if necessary.<br />

The successful repair is then also documented<br />

in the report – as evidence for management.<br />

Conclusion<br />

With the new SONAPHONE and the LeakExpert<br />

app, leaks on compressed air and vacuum<br />

systems and gas lines can be detected and<br />

A parabolic sensor can be used for leak detection up to 25 meters.<br />




evaluated with pinpoint accuracy. The multifunctional<br />

device with touchscreen processes<br />

the ultrasound signals directly. A report can be<br />

generated quickly and easily and used as a decision-making<br />

tool for follow-up actions and as<br />

proof of successful energy management. With<br />

a single click, the documentation of the results<br />

is available for management, with comprehensive<br />

information about the precise location of<br />

the leak, the energy loss, a photographic record<br />

and the priority level of the repair.<br />

Additionally, by systematizing the search<br />

for leaks and their evaluation, the device contributes<br />

to significant time and cost savings in<br />

maintenance. Error-prone paper records are a<br />

thing of the past, since all data can be evaluated<br />

and updated directly in the device. This also<br />

facilitates the verification of energy saving<br />

measures in the context of the documentation<br />

obligation for companies that are certified<br />

in accordance with EN ISO 50001. The new<br />

device technology also helps to realize a verifiable<br />

energy savings of 5% so companies can<br />

retain their certificate and uphold their claim<br />

to a reduction of their Renewable Energies Act<br />

(EEG) cost apportionment and of their electricity<br />

and energy taxes.<br />

Thus ultrasonic testing device not only is<br />

appropriate for leak detection and classification,<br />

but is also useful for tightness testing of<br />

unpressurized systems and condition monitoring<br />

through checking bearings. The new<br />

device is also used for electrical inspection by<br />

detecting partial discharges and for checking<br />

valves and steam traps.<br />

By integrating broadband sensors and advanced data processing, SONOTEC has<br />

successfully provided a completely new analysis of the ultrasonic signal. This makes<br />

new applications like automatic loss evaluation for leaks possible.<br />

SONAPHONE + LeakExpert<br />

app – The advantages at a<br />

glance<br />

• Everything in a single device: search –<br />

evaluation – documentation – report –<br />

repair status<br />

• Evaluating the leaks + displaying the<br />

loss<br />

• Easy and intuitive operation<br />

• Broadband analysis in the frequency<br />

range from 20 to 100 kHz<br />

• Optimized testing routines<br />

The LeakExpert app offers the option of structured,<br />

process-supporting documentation<br />

18 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>

Be a LUBExpert<br />

®<br />


Poor greasing practices are<br />

a leading cause of bearing failure.<br />

Many lube departments re-grease on a wasteful<br />

calendar-based schedule. This leads to over and<br />

under greased bearings that fail to deliver their<br />

engineered value.<br />

LUBExpert tells us when to grease...<br />

and when to stop.<br />

Grease reduces friction in bearings. Less friction<br />

means longer life. LUBExpert alerts you when<br />

friction levels increase, guides you during<br />

re-lubrication, and prevents over and under<br />

lubrication.<br />

Grease Bearings Right<br />

Right Lubricant<br />

Right Location<br />

Right Interval<br />

Right Quantity<br />

Right Indicators<br />

Ultrasound Soluons<br />



Best Practices<br />

for Ultrasonic<br />

Compressed Air<br />

Leak Detection<br />


CMRP<br />

adrianm@uesystems.com<br />

Contrary to what some might think, compressed air is<br />

not free. In fact, for what it takes to produce it, the<br />

compressed air that is generated is often considered<br />

the most expensive utility in a typical manufacturing<br />

facility. To further add to the problem, the US<br />

Department of Energy notes that more than 50% of<br />

all compressed air systems have energy efficiency<br />

problems. Air Compressor experts have also estimated<br />

that as much as 30% of the compressed air generated<br />

is lost via leaks in the compressed air system.<br />

OFTEN, WHEN a compressed air system<br />

struggles to meet the current demands<br />

on the system, spare compressors are<br />

rented and used as back-ups, or time and<br />

effort is placed in installing an additional<br />

compressor to the existing system. Both<br />

strategies are expensive, and depending<br />

on the size of the compressors needed,<br />

could cost hundreds of thousands of<br />

dollars.<br />

Since compressed air systems inherently<br />

have leaks, regardless of piping,<br />

use, and design, implementing<br />

a compressed air leak management<br />

20 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>




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programme can be an economical and<br />

effective way to improve the efficiency<br />

of any compressed air system. Such a<br />

programme is designed to identify and<br />

repair compressed air leaks before they<br />

become a large problem and it can save<br />

time, money, and energy.<br />

For airborne ultrasound, compressed<br />

air & compressed gas leak detection remains<br />

the most widely used application.<br />

Locating compressed air and gas leaks<br />

with ultrasound, and then making the<br />

necessary repairs, can have tremendous<br />

payback in the dollars lost due to these<br />

leaks.<br />

Recent advancements in compressed<br />

air leak detection and reporting allow<br />

for the quantification of the money lost<br />

from these compressed air leaks. An effective<br />

ultrasonic compressed air leak<br />

survey will focus on seven key factors:<br />

• Evaluation<br />

• Detection<br />

• Identification<br />

• Tracking<br />

• Repair<br />

• Verification<br />

• Re-Evaluation<br />

By implementing these steps, a typical<br />

manufacturing plant could reduce its energy<br />

waste by roughly 10 to 20 percent.<br />




1.<br />

Select an ultrasound<br />

instrument<br />

For ultrasonic leak detection, an ultrasound<br />

instrument that has frequency<br />

tuning capability is recommended,<br />

and the suggested frequency setting is<br />

40kHz. For ultrasound instruments<br />

that are on a fixed frequency, or where<br />

frequency tuning is not a feature, 38kHz<br />

is usually the frequency setting that the<br />

instrument is fixed at.<br />

There are different sources of high<br />

frequency sound that these ultrasound<br />

instruments detect. For compressed air<br />

and compressed gas leak detection, the<br />

source of the ultrasound is turbulence.<br />

Turbulence is created when a compressed<br />

gas inside of a pipe or vessel exits<br />

to low pressure or atmosphere through<br />

a tiny crack or orifice. Turbulence is also<br />

created when there is air in-leakage, or<br />

vacuum leaks. With vacuum leaks, since<br />

most of the turbulence is on the inside of<br />

the leak, there is not as much ultrasound<br />

present; therefore, vacuum leaks are<br />

more difficult to find with ultrasound,<br />

but can still be possible if enough turbulent<br />

ultrasonic noise is present.<br />

2.<br />

The “Gross to Fine”<br />

method<br />

Once an ultrasound instrument has been<br />

selected, the planning of the compressed<br />

air survey can begin. One thing to keep<br />

in mind while scanning for compressed<br />

air leaks out in the facility is the fact that<br />

high frequency sound is very low energy.<br />

Because it is low energy, the sound<br />

will not travel through solid surfaces, but<br />

rather bounce and reflect off of solid surfaces.<br />

That is why it is important to scan<br />

in all directions with the ultrasound instrument,<br />

while adjusting the sensitivity.<br />

This will help to pinpoint the location of<br />

the compressed air leak.<br />

Once the general area of the compressed<br />

air leak has been located, most<br />

ultrasound instruments will come with<br />

a focusing probe that can be slipped over<br />

the end of the airborne scanning module<br />

on the instrument to more finely narrow<br />

the field of view to more precisely identify<br />

the location of the leak. This method<br />

of compressed air leak detection using<br />

ultrasound is commonly referred to as<br />

the “Gross to Fine” method.<br />

3.<br />

Creating an inspection<br />

route<br />

The logistics of the leak detection route<br />

should now be considered. It is recommended<br />

to perform a walk through prior<br />

to the inspection. The inspector should<br />

use this as an opportunity to determine<br />

the specific zones or areas where the<br />

compressed air is being used. Blueprints<br />

of the compressed air piping are also a<br />

handy resource when conducting the<br />

initial walk through. Make note of any<br />

safety hazards and any areas where accessibility<br />

to the test area may difficult,<br />

or may require the use of ladders, extra<br />

PPE, or access to locked areas. Also<br />

make note of any obvious signs of compressed<br />

air misuse, potential areas of<br />

leakage, and improper piping installations.<br />

Making note of any areas of potential<br />

leakage or misuse of compressed air<br />

(such as using air to move parts/product,<br />

air knives, etc.) will help to take away any<br />

confusion of what the inspector is finding<br />

and becoming more aware of where<br />

competing ultrasonic noise is coming<br />

from. Part of the goal of the compressed<br />

air leak survey could be to identify areas<br />

where compressed air is being misused,<br />

and look for alternatives that could perform<br />

the same function without having<br />

to use costly compressed air.<br />

Considerations must also be made<br />

to determine the type of leaks that are<br />

to be detected with ultrasound such<br />

as pressure leaks in compressed air or<br />

compressed gas systems, vacuum leaks,<br />



or refrigerant leaks. After the initial walk<br />

through, select one area or zone to test<br />

at a time.<br />

For consistency, it is recommended to<br />

begin at the compressor, or supply side,<br />

and then move to the distribution lines,<br />

and then areas where the compressed<br />

air is being used. As the compressed<br />

air leaks are found with the ultrasound<br />

instrument, a tagging system should be<br />

in place to tag the leak at its site. The<br />

tag should have places to record the<br />

leak number, the pressure, type of compressed<br />

gas, a brief description of the<br />

leak location, and decibel level of the leak<br />

that was indicated on the ultrasound<br />

22 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>


savings of the compressed air leaks.<br />

When done correctly, an ultrasound<br />

compressed air leak survey can have<br />

tremendous payback in a short period<br />

of time. Once the leaks have been<br />

repaired of course.<br />

Conclusion<br />

Compressed air is an expensive<br />

utility whose maintenance and<br />

cost is generally taken for granted.<br />

A successful compressed air leak<br />

survey depends on having the right<br />

ultrasound instrument for the<br />

needs of the survey, proper training<br />

of personnel who will perform<br />

the survey, planning how the survey<br />

will be performed by doing an initial<br />

walk through, documenting the<br />

leaks and the associated costs, and<br />

initiating repairs once the leaks have<br />

been identified. Through proper<br />

documentation and reporting, an ultrasonic<br />

compressed air leak survey<br />

can show tremendous payback and<br />

energy savings without a significant<br />

capital expenditure.<br />




instrument once the leak location was<br />

confirmed. An estimated cost of the leak<br />

may also be helpful in creating awareness<br />

of the expense of compressed air or<br />

compressed gas leaks.<br />

4.<br />

Documentation and<br />

reporting<br />

Besides repairing the compressed air<br />

leaks, the success of the compressed air<br />

leak survey largely relies on the reporting<br />

and documentation of our findings.<br />

For documentation purposes, there<br />

is a Leak Survey App by UE Systems,<br />

available for iOS and Android. The app<br />

allows the inspector to easily document<br />

the compressed air and compressed gas<br />

leaks, along with the associated costs.<br />

When reporting the cost and CFM<br />

(cubic feet per minute) loss of compressed<br />

air or compressed gas leaks, it<br />

is important to remember that it is an<br />

estimated cost. The cost of a leak is based<br />

on the decibel level once the leak has<br />

been located, the cost per kilowatt hour<br />

of electricity, and the pressure at the leak<br />

site.<br />

Ideally, the pressure at the leak site is<br />

best. For example, the compressed air<br />

may start at the compressor at 120psi,<br />

but where the air is actually being used<br />

it may be regulated down to 75psi. Look<br />

for the nearest pressure gauge, or if<br />

someone from the plant is available<br />

when the leak survey is being conducted,<br />

have someone who is familiar with the<br />

compressed air system.<br />

For specialty gasses, such as helium,<br />

nitrogen, or argon, the cost of the leak is<br />

based on the decibel level reading at the<br />

confirmed leak location, pressure, and<br />

the cost of the gas as in a dollar amount<br />

per thousand cubic feet.<br />

Several independent studies have<br />

been done comparing an ultrasound leak<br />

survey report to actual energy savings,<br />

and it has been found that an ultrasound<br />

leak survey is within 20% of the actual<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 23


Pre-Operational<br />

Checklists Reinvented;<br />

Data Driven Reliability<br />

in Mining<br />

When was the last time you boarded an airplane and<br />

thought about what actually occurs in the cockpit prior<br />

to engine start and taxi?<br />


Senior Consultant,<br />

IDCON<br />

THE ACTIVITY that occurs before takeoff<br />

is meant to insure that all the steps necessary<br />

are accomplished to ensure a safe<br />

flight not only for all personnel but also<br />

the equipment. It’s not that the pilots<br />

haven’t done it a zillion times before. To<br />

the contrary, it is because they have and<br />

they also know that one missed step could<br />

lead to serious implications or tragedy.<br />

Prior to engine start, the crew has completed,<br />

without exception, what in mining<br />

is called a Pre-operational Checklist.<br />

In the 2011 seminal work on checklists,<br />

The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get<br />

Things Right, by Atul Gawande, the following<br />

observation by the author, even<br />

though he is a surgeon, could have be extracted<br />

directly from the mining world.<br />

“We don’t like checklists. They can<br />

be painstaking. They’re not much fun.<br />

But I don’t think the issue here is mere<br />

laziness. There’s something deeper, more<br />

visceral going on when people walk away<br />

not only from saving lives but from making<br />

money. It somehow feels beneath us<br />

to use a checklist, an embarrassment. It<br />

runs counter to deeply held beliefs about<br />

how the truly great among us—those we<br />

aspire to be—handle situations of high<br />

stakes and complexity. The truly great are<br />

daring. They improvise. They do not have<br />

protocols and checklists. Maybe our idea<br />

of heroism needs updating.”<br />

Pre-operational checklists<br />

commonly ignored<br />

For those of you with any exposure to<br />

mining and also heavy industry, you will<br />

be able to easily relate to Mr. Gawande’s<br />

previous statement. Pre-operational<br />

checklists are commonly “pencilwhipped”,<br />

completely ignored, or sloppily<br />

done. Of course, there is the exception<br />

that one is actually completed accurately<br />

and with useful notes. Why?<br />

There are two, and probably many<br />

more, fundamental reasons. The first<br />

one is historically, the equipment was<br />

quite basic and fundamental and didn’t<br />

require extensive pre-operation inspection/tests.<br />

Basically it was “kick the tires<br />

and light the fires”. Secondly, which was<br />

mentioned, human ego got in the way of<br />

sound judgment. Without a clear understanding<br />

of the value of doing a pre-operational<br />

checklist, operators subjugated<br />

the task to one of menial importance.<br />

The complete opposite is the reality.<br />

Well-designed and well-executed preoperational<br />

checklists are the vanguard<br />

of reliability and the first line of defense<br />

in fault identification.<br />

With history in mind, in many respects,<br />

mining has followed a similar<br />

path as aircraft, albeit slower. Instead<br />

of a B-17, in the following quote, we are<br />

concerned about a Jumbo Bolter, Remote<br />

operated Scoop, Scissor bolter etc.<br />

Other industries can easily substitute<br />

their equipment.<br />

Again, Mr. Gawande describes the<br />

mining industry at its current stage of<br />

technological renaissance. (feel free to<br />



substitute mining for aeronautics)<br />

“Instead, they came up with an ingeniously<br />

simple approach: they created a<br />

pilot’s checklist. Its mere existence indicated<br />

how far aeronautics had advanced.<br />

In the early years of flight, getting an aircraft<br />

into the air might have been nerveracking<br />

but it was hardly complex. Using<br />

a checklist for takeoff would no more have<br />

occurred to a pilot than to a driver backing<br />

a car out of the garage. But flying this<br />

24 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>


new plane was too complicated to be left<br />

to the memory of any one person, however<br />

expert. The test pilots made their list simple,<br />

brief, and to the point—short enough<br />

to fit on an index card, with step-by-step<br />

checks for takeoff, flight, landing, and<br />

taxiing. It had the kind of stuff that all pilots<br />

know to do. They check that the brakes<br />

are released, that the instruments are set,<br />

that the door and windows are closed,<br />

that the elevator controls are unlocked—<br />

dumb stuff. You wouldn’t think it would<br />

make that much difference. But with the<br />

checklist in hand, the pilots went on to fly<br />

the Model 299 a total of 1.8 million miles<br />

without one accident. The army ultimately<br />

ordered almost thirteen thousand<br />

of the aircraft, which it dubbed the B-17.<br />

And, because flying the behemoth was<br />

now possible, the army gained a decisive<br />

air advantage in the Second World War,<br />

enabling its devastating bombing”<br />

A similar scenario is rapidly unfolding<br />

in the world of mining and especially<br />

mobile equipment. The rate of<br />

technological advancement is rapidly<br />

outstripping the capacity of operations<br />

and maintenance to keep pace. The<br />

traditional generic five-minute walkaround,<br />

pencil whipped, checklist pre-op<br />

no longer valid and, to be honest, likely<br />

never was. Below is a classic generic preop<br />

checklist that came into existence in<br />

the 1950’s or earlier and is still used commonly<br />

in North America.<br />

Classic Traditional Generic Underground Mining Pre-Operational Checklist.<br />

It would be quite acceptable to say<br />

“Unfortunately, the equipment is becoming<br />

so complex ….” That is not the<br />

case. Instead, “Fortunately”, mining<br />

equipment is becoming increasingly<br />

complex today that traditional preop<br />

checklists are truly obsolete. It is<br />

important to note that manual hand<br />

written checklists are typically turned<br />

in at the END of shift. In modern underground<br />

mining operations, most shifts<br />

are 12 hours and even a small equipment<br />

fault that is unreported and potentially<br />

uncorrected can develop into a major<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 25


breakdown over a span of a single shift.<br />

However, all is not lost in the wonderful world of mining.<br />

New leadership is beginning to enter the industry and “daring”<br />

to rock the pillars of a slow to change culture. One of those<br />

mines is Goldcorp’s new underground gold mine in Chapleau,<br />

Ontario, the Borden Mine. The team at Borden, and Goldcorp,<br />

is truly “Disrupting Mining” in a myriad of ways. As Canada’s<br />

first totally electric underground mine, it is on the cutting edge<br />

of both technology and management operating systems (MOS)<br />

for the mining industry. The all electric mobile mining fleet<br />

(trucks will be arriving in the future), in many cases, is just out<br />

of the prototype phase and represents not only first of a kind<br />

application in production but also represent a quantum technological<br />

leap from traditional diesel powered manual operated<br />

equipment.<br />

A revolution in maintenance management<br />

It is not just the mobile mining equipment that has advanced.<br />

The advent of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is now enabling<br />

an enhanced underground asset health and maintenance<br />

management revolution. The Borden underground mine, like<br />

others, is now completely connected to the surface via high<br />

speed Wi-Fi to the “cloud”.<br />

Luc Poulin, the maintenance manager at Borden, astutely<br />

recognized the opportunity and his vision is to completely<br />

automate and convert operator pre-operational inspections<br />

from generic paper based pencil-whipping exercises, with a<br />

time latency of over 12 hours, to real-time data-driven tabletbased<br />

checklists to drive uptime through early fault detection.<br />

Defects will be noted, prioritized and a SAP notification will<br />

be automatically or manually generated for the supervisor/<br />

planner to be able to properly plan and schedule the work directly<br />

real time, if necessary, directly from underground to the<br />

surface.<br />

“Here at GoldCorp’s Borden mine we are pushing the envelope<br />

of technology; we are ‘Disrupting Mining’. We are Canada’s<br />

first completely electric underground mine and are extremely<br />

dependent on early detection of defects of our advanced underground<br />

mobile fleet, to properly plan, schedule and execute our<br />

maintenance to safely and reliably achieve our production goals.<br />

Our first line of identification is from our operators during their<br />

pre-operational checklists. Together with IDCON, we are creating<br />

the next generation of digitally driven, real-time, operational<br />

pre-op checklists to drive reliability”<br />

Luc Poulin, Maintenance Manager, GoldCorp Borden Mine<br />

Stepping back to basic reliability, the classic P-F Curve, clearly<br />

illustrates the value of early fault detection.<br />

MacLean Omnia 975<br />

Electric Scissor Bolter<br />





Early fault detection bears fruit<br />

Early detection, as close to the fault starting point, allows<br />

for proactive monitoring, proper planning & scheduling<br />

and ultimately effective cost effective maintenance which<br />

maximizes uptime. The new tablet-based “Borden” underground,<br />

pre-operational checks harness not only the value<br />

of data driven inspections but also the real time capability of<br />

the internet, which not too long ago was not possible underground.<br />

With the increasingly complex equipment, real time<br />

monitoring of assets and assessing the operator inspections/<br />

machine generated data is paramount to early detection of<br />

problems for corrective maintenance prior to catastrophic<br />

failures.<br />

Together with IDCON, inc., of Raleigh, North Carolina, the<br />

Goldcorp, Borden Mine reliability journey commenced in early<br />

<strong>2018</strong>. Recognizing that in order to capitalize on the opportunity,<br />

not only must pre-operational checklists become datadriven,<br />

operators also need to be extensively trained to understand<br />

what a pre-operational check is and actually why they<br />

26 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>


are doing it. Recognizing that reliability is a shared responsibility<br />

between maintenance and operations, the approach undertaken<br />

included creating an operator reference guide called<br />

“Pre-operational Condition Monitoring Standards” (CMS).<br />

This is a concise operational reference document that doesn’t<br />

supersede OEM manuals, but compliments them.<br />

The Condition Monitoring Standard is then converted to<br />

the new data driven pre-operational checklists that capitalizes<br />

on the concept of Operation’s led reliability.<br />

In an industry that not too long ago was unfairly labeled as,<br />

“Dark, Dirty and Dangerous” and where Maintenance and Operations<br />

were “opposing” forces, the leadership of GoldCorp,<br />

Borden Mine has recognized that the vision of Safe Reliable<br />

and Profitable Operations is actually a powerful shared vision<br />

of excellence for the entire organization. The high tech<br />

revolution has taken it by storm and not only will it enable<br />

dramatically improved reliabilities and cost efficiencies but the<br />

collateral benefit is a safe operation. This all begins with leadership<br />

and the daily commitment to a thorough and accurately<br />

completed pre-operations inspection.<br />

Checklists are not “new”, “sexy” or exciting. Checklist discipline<br />

is difficult. However Goldcorp’s Borden mine has taken<br />

the age-old concept and transformed it into a 21st Century<br />

real-time Reliability tool. Effective pre-operational checklists<br />

are the very foundation of a safe, highly efficient, reliable and<br />

cost effective mining operation!<br />

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SMRP: A Leading Voice in<br />

Maintenance, Reliability and<br />

Physical Asset Management<br />

The maintenance, reliability and physical asset management profession is one that<br />

spans almost every industry around the world. From manufacturing plants to food<br />

processing facilities and oil rigs, practitioners and professionals are responsible for<br />

the maintenance and upkeep of expensive, complex assets that are the lifeblood<br />

of small to large organizations and companies. This requires a dedicated workforce<br />

that has the skills and knowledge to deal with equipment issues that can have severe<br />

implications on a business’s bottom line.<br />



SMRP Vice Chair,<br />

VP, Strategic and<br />

Technical Solutions at<br />

AECOM<br />

THE SOCIETY for Maintenance & Reliability<br />

Professionals (SMRP) is a global,<br />

nonprofit professional society created<br />

in 1992 with a mission to develop and<br />

promote excellence in maintenance and<br />

reliability. Over time, this phrase evolved<br />

to include physical asset management<br />

as our members have seen increased responsibilities<br />

in managing assets across<br />

their entire lifecycles. Our society now<br />

boasts more than 6,000 members around<br />

the world that work in vital industries.<br />

SMRP is committed to providing education,<br />

networking and opportunities for<br />

skills validation through certification to<br />

benefit our members and those seeking<br />

to positively impact their careers and<br />

their companies. We offer educational<br />

events, professional development webinars,<br />

best practice guides and various<br />

other resources that follow the SMRP<br />

Body of Knowledge (BoK), a roadmap<br />

to world-class performance in maintenance,<br />

reliability and physical asset<br />

management. Our Annual Conference<br />

attracts more than 1,000 attendees while<br />

28 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

our SMRP Symposium events allow us<br />

to reach individuals in key areas of need.<br />

We currently have two Symposium<br />

events scheduled for 2019 in Peru and<br />

the United States on top of the Annual<br />

Conference.<br />

We also recognize the need for collaboration<br />

among leading organizations<br />

and societies around the world. Many of<br />

the issues affecting our members, such<br />

as the increased need for skilled workers,<br />

the advent of technologies like internet<br />

of things (IoT), and the need for data analytics,<br />

are global in nature.” We have recently<br />

entered into agreements with the<br />

Institute of Asset Management (IAM)<br />

and the Gulf Society for Maintenance &<br />

Reliability (GSMR) to increase the availability<br />

of resources to individuals and<br />

share best practices. It is important for<br />

everyone in this profession to think outside<br />

of their facilities in order to uncover<br />

solutions that others have experienced.<br />

Not only do we provide opportunities<br />

and resources for individuals within<br />

our profession, but we also advocate on<br />

behalf of the maintenance, reliability<br />

and physical asset management profession<br />

to ensure the public at large is aware<br />

of the importance of what we do. There<br />

are many issues currently affecting our<br />

profession that require a reputable,<br />

expert voice. Our government relations<br />

program works with U.S. policymakers<br />

on critical issues impacting the U.S.<br />

economy such as workplace safety, cybersecurity<br />

and critical infrastructure,<br />

smart grid and workforce development.<br />

Our members are leading these discussions<br />

at the highest level by sharing their<br />

unique experiences and perspectives.<br />

The remainder of <strong>2018</strong> will be an<br />

exciting time for SMRP as we host the<br />

SMRP Symposium in June, our 26th<br />







Annual Conference in October, as well<br />

as attend and present at a number of<br />

other key industry events. We invite all<br />

individuals working in maintenance,<br />

reliability and physical asset management<br />

to join us at these events to learn<br />

from others and find out how SMRP may<br />

benefit them.<br />

To learn more about the organization,<br />

visit: www.smrp.org

ORLANDO, FL | OCTOBER 22-25, <strong>2018</strong><br />

26TH ANNUAL<br />


Join over 1,000 attendees<br />

for the premier event for maintenance, reliability and physical<br />

asset management practitioners and professionals.<br />

Register now at smrp.org/conference



Marshall Institute,<br />

jross@<br />

marshallinstitute.com<br />

Stock It?<br />

Don’t Stock It?<br />

I live in Kansas City, Kansas; the Westport District.<br />

If you are not from that area, you most likely are<br />

not familiar with the districts of KC. But, like most<br />

cities, Kansas City (Kansas and Missouri) are divided<br />

into areas or districts, ostensibly a by-product of<br />

the communities that came together to form the<br />

metropolis.<br />

WESTPORT IS FAMOUS, at least it is for<br />

history buffs. This is the area where the<br />

Santa Fe and Oregon Trail wagon trains<br />

provisioned-up for their journeys west.<br />

One last stop in civilization to get those<br />

critical, often life-preserving supplies,<br />

before heading out into the great unknown.<br />

Imagine those times, those hopeful<br />

events, and all the planning and preparation<br />

that went into a logistic execution<br />

that quite honestly, your life depended<br />

on. Things really have not changed that<br />

much in 150 years.<br />

What do you take, what can you take,<br />

what is your limit? How do you preserve<br />

perishables while you are travelling?<br />

Are there other provision points along<br />

the way? What do I have or need that is<br />

repairable, how do I repair it, and what<br />

do I need in order to repair it? How<br />

about defensive equipment and supplies?<br />

Face it, you were limited by what<br />

your team of horses could pull. Each<br />

wagon, or grouping of wagons had to be<br />

a bit self-sufficient, but the enterprise,<br />

as a whole, had to be creative in sharing<br />

and resourcing amongst themselves to<br />

get everyone safely to their destination.<br />

You did not want to be a burden on the<br />

wagon train, but then again you could<br />

30 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

not take everything. Did you need it, or<br />

just want it?<br />

Fast-forward 150 years and, in many<br />

ways, we are still having the same discussions.<br />

Wagon trains, and indeed the<br />

development of the West were successful<br />

in part because people learned and<br />

improved the process as they repeated<br />

the journey. For certain, the steam locomotive<br />

really opened the West for everyone,<br />

but before then it was as described<br />

above, a group of hopefuls heading west<br />

for a better tomorrow.<br />

The discussion we need to have today<br />

is one that has been perplexing us since<br />

those days, and quite honestly for much<br />

longer in our history. How do we know<br />

what to take, or more for our discussion,<br />

how can we be sure what to stock or not<br />

stock. In some small way, each of us is<br />

a small collection of people trying to<br />

survive and thrive in our environment.<br />

Some operate in larger cities, with many<br />

resources. Others in smaller communities,<br />

where resources are light.<br />

Focus on budget<br />

In an attempt to answer this question,<br />

I hope to generate a frank discussion<br />

and some robust dialog by sharing what<br />

we consider to be an effective decision<br />

tree that will answer this stocking question.<br />

My colleagues and I have, over<br />

time, come to assemble what we feel<br />

to be a very effective tool to arrive at a<br />

measured and well-vetted decision. It<br />

is critical at this point that the reader<br />

understands that the decision to stock<br />

or not to stock an item should not be an<br />

emotional, or biased decision (or worse,<br />

made on a whim); it is one that should<br />

be measured, pragmatic, and apply a<br />

standard and repeatable logic. Imagine a<br />

team of four horses pulling the weight of<br />

your storeroom along the entirety of the<br />

Santa Fe Trail. You simply do not have<br />

the capacity.<br />

Most storerooms we visit and work<br />

with today have exhausted the square<br />

footage of their available space and are<br />

now working at occupying all the cubic<br />

footage. This is the result of a detached<br />

and feckless approach to determining<br />

what to stock and what not to stock.<br />

We should begin by agreeing on a few<br />

fundamental aspects of a storeroom. We<br />

do not expect a chorus of agreements,<br />

but foundationally, we should start from<br />

the same general position.<br />

Before we determine if an item<br />

should be stocked or not, let us first<br />

discuss a storeroom budget. In this


instance, we are only talking about<br />

repair parts for our production or facility<br />

assets (production equipment for<br />

manufacturing and assembly plants;<br />

facility component for service companies,<br />

hospitals, universities, etc.). It<br />

costs something to keep an operation<br />

going, what is that value relative to spare<br />

parts? Our model is based on 1% of Estimated<br />

Replacement Value, or 1% of ERV.<br />

If your facility had an ERV of $100MM,<br />

we would expect an MRO value limit of<br />

$1MM.<br />

I feel it necessary to tie in the Santa<br />

Fe Trail story again and mention that<br />

the $1MM load is the maximum that our<br />

horses can pull over the terrain and the<br />

distance. That is our limit.<br />

We should next agree that whatever<br />

parts we do intend to stock (or not<br />

stock), are only those parts or items<br />

that appear on an asset’s Bill of Material<br />

(BOM). We are not going to stock everything<br />

on a BOM, but will only stock an<br />

item that does appear on a BOM.<br />

Where do BOMs come from and who<br />

is responsible for obtaining the BOM?<br />

Much has been written on this, but to be<br />

concise, the BOM is the responsibility<br />

of the project engineer; maintaining the<br />

integrity of the BOM is the role of the<br />

maintenance planner.<br />

Again, with our wagon train; we are<br />

only going to take items that are in support<br />

of the wagon itself, the horses, tack<br />

and rigging, and the necessities for human<br />

survival (food, water, shelter, clothing,<br />

defensive weapons, and tools). We<br />

are only taking items on our trek westward<br />

that support our mission and are<br />

associated with the wagon, horses, and<br />

the people.<br />





Reliability Centred<br />

Maintenance<br />

And, our last point of fundamental<br />

understanding is to consider an aspect<br />

of Reliability Centred Maintenance in<br />

understanding the function of an asset,<br />

and of a component. This is an essential<br />

nuance in determining if an item should<br />

be stocked or not stocked. Does it have<br />

a function that is necessary? If we do<br />

not know, understand, or appreciate the<br />

function, how do we know if the asset or<br />

component is important enough to put<br />

on our wagon?<br />

Just to recap, for the sake of this discussion<br />

on what to stock, or not stock we<br />

will:<br />

• Limit our MRO inventory value to<br />

1% of ERV<br />

• Only consider items (for stock or<br />

non-stock) that appear on an asset’s<br />

BOM<br />

• First understand the asset’s function<br />

and then the component’s<br />

function<br />

Warning…disclaimer ahead. What we<br />

are presenting in the presented diagram<br />

is a decision tree, built over the years,<br />

and vetted by learned individuals, just<br />

like yourselves. This is not necessarily<br />

meant to be the absolute final word in<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 31


Consider one component at a time<br />

Are function(s) of<br />

component known?<br />

Yes<br />

No<br />

Determine<br />

function(s) of<br />

the Component<br />

The decision tree is a<br />

standard workflow.<br />

Each organization will<br />

need to create their<br />

own definition for the<br />

blocks associated with<br />

this decision tree.<br />

what you should stock or not stock, and<br />

its general in nature to cover a wide swath<br />

of industries. Rather, the point that we<br />

hope to make, and the message we hope<br />

to drive home is that you too should have<br />

a decision tree to guide you. A tree that is<br />

rooted in the fundamental nutrients we<br />

established in the paragraphs above. Solid<br />

thought guidance should be our legacy.<br />

No<br />

Determine<br />

function(s)<br />

of the asset<br />

Is component listed on<br />

an assets BOM?<br />

Yes<br />

Are Functions of the<br />

asset known?<br />

Yes<br />

Are component<br />

s function(s) critical to<br />

assets function?<br />

No<br />

Is component<br />

electronic?<br />

e.g. computer card,<br />

4-20mA control<br />

device?<br />

No<br />

Is<br />

component<br />

a safety, health, or<br />

environmentally<br />

criticall item?<br />

No<br />

Is a PM/PdM<br />

conducted on the<br />

component?<br />

No<br />

Does component<br />

rotate and/or get<br />

greased?<br />

No<br />

Does an<br />

operator touch the<br />

component as part of<br />

their job?<br />

No<br />

Is component<br />

used more<br />

than once on an asset or<br />

on more than one<br />

asset?<br />

No<br />

No<br />

Yes<br />

Yes<br />

Yes<br />

Yes<br />

Does<br />

component<br />

belong on assets<br />

BOM?<br />

Yes<br />

Add component<br />

to the assets<br />

BOM<br />

Is component<br />

a candidate<br />

for Critical Spare<br />

Part consideration?<br />

Yes<br />

No<br />

Is lead time<br />

for component<br />

acceptable?<br />

Yes<br />

No<br />

Don't stock it<br />

Conduct<br />

Critical<br />

Spare Part<br />

review<br />

Does PM/PdM<br />

provide a warning<br />

greater than the components<br />

lead time?<br />

No<br />

Yes<br />

Yes<br />

Is<br />

loss of<br />

component s<br />

function(s) an<br />

acceptable<br />

risk<br />

Yes<br />

Is stocking<br />

the item fiscally<br />

sensible?<br />

Yes<br />

No<br />

No<br />

Critical Spare<br />

Part?<br />

Stock it<br />

Is<br />

there<br />

a stocked<br />

suitable substitute<br />

component for<br />

a temporary<br />

repair?<br />

No<br />

No<br />

No<br />

Yes<br />

Yes<br />

Don't<br />

stock it<br />

Critical or not critical<br />

A few pull-out conversations before you<br />

review the Stock, Don’t Stock Decision<br />

Tree. First, your organization must also<br />

have an unbiased method to determine if a<br />

part is critical or not critical. Some wrongly<br />

label items as critical to ‘ensure’ the<br />

item is stocked. There are many schools of<br />

thought on the meaning of a ‘critical spare<br />

part’, only one element is to provide insurance<br />

against the need for the part. For this<br />

particular discussion, it is only important<br />

that the reader have some calculus that<br />

helps to arrive at this determinant.<br />

The decision tree is a standard workflow.<br />

Each organization will need to create<br />

their own definition for the blocks<br />

associated with this decision tree.<br />

For example: Is lead-time for component<br />

acceptable? You will have to determine<br />

the availability of each item being<br />

considered. Information on lead-time<br />

usually resides in the Item Master Data<br />

for each component in the CMMS. It<br />

is very important that this information<br />

remain current and examined at least annually.<br />

Another example: Is stocking the item<br />

fiscally sensible? For this block, determine<br />

what your MRO storeroom inventory<br />

level should be. It was suggested<br />

earlier, that a target should be 1% of ERV.<br />

Whatever the value, in this particular<br />

block, the question is, “do we have capacity<br />

on our wagon for this item?”<br />

Finally, when it is determined that an<br />

item will not be stocked, one other consideration<br />

should be addressed. “Is this an<br />

item that should be established as an Order<br />

On Request (OOR) item?” Some items<br />

that do not meet the criteria to stock,<br />

might otherwise be set up as catalogued<br />

items. These are items whose information<br />

on the component is known, and the part<br />

has a part number, but the collective reasoning<br />

is that the item should not be physically<br />

stocked. Caution should be taken to<br />

ensure that only items that appear on an<br />

asset’s BOM are set up as OOR.<br />

Our Stock It, Don’t Stock It Decision<br />

Tree follows. Let’s have this discussion.<br />

32 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>

The Uptimization Experts.<br />

The Uptimization Experts.<br />

What does<br />


mean to you?<br />

mean to you?<br />

marshallinstitute.com<br />

marshallinstitute.com<br />



34 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>


How IIoT improves<br />

operations:<br />

Impact of OPC UA<br />

Text: Darek Kominek is product<br />

director at Matrikon, part of<br />

Honeywell Process Solutions<br />

The Industrial Internet of things (IIoT) will change many aspects in manufacturing<br />

as well as the rest of the industries of the world, including how we conduct day-today<br />

life. Managing asset models is one of the parts of the industry that is already<br />

adopting the change the IIoT brings with it.<br />

INITIATIVES for harnessing the power<br />

of data associated with the Industrial<br />

Internet of Things (IIoT), Industrie 4.0<br />

(Europe), and Internet Plus (China)<br />

are expected to transform not only the<br />

manufacturing industry but the global<br />

economy, as well. One estimate, based<br />

on a report by Accenture written earlier<br />

this year, estimated the technology<br />

could add $14.2 trillion to the world<br />

economy over the next 15 years.<br />

Impact on industry will be profound,<br />

but only those who take a holistic view of<br />

its potential will benefit the most. IIoT is<br />

not just a new technology; it is a catalyst<br />

for fundamental change in the way companies<br />

operate and individuals work.<br />

Take, for example, traditional asset<br />

models, where businesses buy equipment<br />

with a warranty insuring against<br />

failure within a particular period, which<br />

is supported by scheduled maintenance.<br />

The ability to share and analyze more<br />

data from deeper in the shop floor, such<br />

as detecting rising lubricant temperature<br />

as a sign of increased friction on<br />

bearings in real time, can facilitate businesses<br />

towards condition-based maintenance,<br />

helping the company avoid costly<br />

unscheduled downtime.<br />

Likewise, IIoT has the potential to<br />

radically decentralize decision-making<br />

within plants, with high levels of information<br />

and context no longer restricted<br />

to the central control room. It argues for<br />

a shift from task-based workers to valuefinding<br />

workers, with technology augmenting<br />

rather than replacing workers’<br />

thinking by simultaneously giving them<br />

deeper insight and broader context into<br />

the plant and process.<br />

The connectivity challenge<br />

Reliable, secure connectivity is central<br />

to these efforts and is the function of the<br />

OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA)<br />

protocol.<br />

A key part of the Industrie 4.0 foundation,<br />

OPC UA runs on most anything<br />

such as: servers; networked sensors;<br />




mainstream operating systems (OSs)<br />

such as Linux and Microsoft Windows;<br />

real-time operating systems (RTOSs); or<br />

devices without any OS. OPC UA enables<br />

the connectivity and data sharing<br />

between the devices and systems that<br />

provide the deep-shop-floor visibility<br />

required by digital enterprises.<br />

As expected, manufacturers are embedding<br />

OPC UA in all types of devices<br />

ranging from small networked sensors<br />

to controllers, helping accelerate the<br />

IIoT revolution by expanding the data<br />

sharing space. However, the scale of<br />

transformation necessarily suggests that<br />

the adoption of OPC UA (and the move<br />

to an effective IIoT architecture) will<br />

take time, as businesses have large existing<br />

investments in legacy architectures<br />

which, cannot simply be replaced wholesale.<br />

An easy, coordinated migration<br />

path to IIoT technologies such as OPC<br />

UA is a key factor for device vendors and<br />

end users alike.<br />

Users need to be able to tie in existing<br />

infrastructure (often based on classic<br />

OPC) and manage their existing assets<br />

while being able to feed that information<br />

into the IIoT space.<br />

The answer for systems using classic<br />

OPC is the use of OPC UA proxies or UA<br />

wrappers: technologies enabling new<br />

OPC UA enabled client applications to<br />

communicate with classic OPC servers,<br />

and classic OPC clients to communicate<br />

with new OPC UA servers. For example,<br />

a human-machine interface (HMI)<br />

that is still using classic OPC could be<br />

adapted to interface with UA devices.<br />

As a result, operators can continue to<br />

use their current systems, while gaining<br />

the additional insights and connectivity<br />

with UA-enabled devices as they are<br />

added.<br />

Bridging technologies between legacy<br />

OPC and OPC UA systems will facilitate<br />

rather than limit the scale and rate of<br />

change IIoT technologies bring to industry<br />

by helping companies balance the<br />

added value that new technologies bring<br />

while extending return on investment<br />

(ROI) on existing investments. Over<br />

time, traditional systems will steadily be<br />

phased out, but right now the UA Proxy<br />

and UA Wrapper technologies give businesses<br />

valuable time to form their responses<br />

to the IIoT revolution.<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 35


New Ways in IGBT Control:<br />

Electrical Plugging – Optical<br />

Transmission<br />


Senior Product Manager,<br />

Interface Connectors<br />

Fibre Optic / Medical<br />

/ har-link, HARTING<br />

Electronics<br />


Special Editor, HARTING<br />

Electronics<br />

Industrial drive engineering<br />

with its automated manufacturing<br />

processes would be hardly conceivable<br />

without electric motors. IGBT semiconductor<br />

elements control powerful electrical drives<br />

whose connection is realized by way of polymer<br />

optical fibres for the required isolation. This<br />

solution however, is space-intensive and sensitive.<br />

36 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

THE POWER CONSUMPTION of the electric<br />

motors used as a drive technology<br />

can reach several kW or even MW. At<br />

constant speeds, their control technology<br />

is relatively simple. But the motor<br />

speed often needs to be adjustable,<br />

which makes the whole thing more complicated<br />

immediately.<br />

In the higher power classes such as<br />

traction control in trains or ship propulsion<br />

systems, the speed is controlled by<br />

way of IGBT semiconductors. These are<br />

able to switch great loads with very little<br />

driving power. The signals required for<br />

IGBT control are transmitted by means<br />

of polymer optical fibres (POF) because<br />

the isolation and voltage requirements<br />

to be met are very high. Six IGBT driver<br />

boards are currently required per phase<br />

2 to control a three-phase motor. The PO<br />

fibres meanwhile realize interferencefree<br />

and electrically isolated signal<br />

transmission.<br />

Especially where locomotives are<br />

concerned, IGBTs are provided redundantly<br />

so that the controller board can<br />

transfer the function to the redundant<br />

component and ensure the functionality<br />

of the system if an IGBT fails. This<br />

is attended by a doubling of the optical<br />

transmission distances. The connection<br />

between the controller and driver board<br />

meanwhile used to be provided by individual<br />

fibres in the past. The electro-optical<br />

signal conversion takes place in the<br />

transceivers of the circuit board, with<br />

optical contacts establishing the connection<br />

to the fibres. Every optical fibre has<br />

an individual port with the transceiver<br />

in it on the driver board as well as the<br />

controller board. This previous solution<br />

meant that all the sending and receiving<br />

elements took up a lot of space on the<br />

controller board, which made the board<br />

unnecessarily large.<br />

Another disadvantage is the fact that<br />

the various PO-fibres need to be plugged<br />

in at the right places in service calls and<br />

in their installation, as every fibre needs<br />

to be connected to the driver board and<br />

controller board individually. This alignment<br />

needs to be done attentively and<br />

takes some time and care. The sender<br />

and receiver must not be mixed up for<br />

correct operation.<br />

Optical elements developed<br />

for industrial applications<br />

To guarantee the quality of the fibre end<br />

surface, the cables used are prefabricated,<br />

and can also be individually installed<br />

by the user on site.<br />

The customarily used optical elements<br />

were basically developed for<br />

industrial applications with expanded<br />

temperature ranges and increased vibrations,<br />

but only offer the fibres a simple<br />

strain relief. What is also important is<br />

that the optical interface needs to be<br />

consistently protected from soiling. This<br />

even makes protective covers necessary<br />

in an unplugged state.<br />

Post-hoc equipment of the controller<br />

board with optical elements is also impossible<br />

as they are not reflow-capable


at this point in time. So if a transceiver<br />

breaks, one had to disconnect, replace<br />

and reconnect the entire board with all<br />

its contacts in the past, which was in turn<br />

attended by additional costs and labour.<br />

In cooperation with established rail<br />

vehicle manufacturers, HARTING has<br />

developed the solution of a transmission<br />

principle that involves relocating<br />

the controller board’s transceivers to a<br />

pluggable module and thus integrates<br />

the optical interface true to the motto<br />

“electrical plugging and optical transmission”.<br />

For the electrical plugging and system<br />

housing, HARTING relies on solutions<br />

from the DIN 41612 range. The<br />

DIN housing is made from die-cast<br />

zinc and meets the railway market’s<br />

increased requirements for robustness<br />

and EMC. It offers the possibility to run<br />

the cables straight or angled, and thus<br />

integrates an optimal kink-protection<br />

and strain relief for the fibres. In addition,<br />

the circuit board in the DIN<br />

housing is able to accommodate series<br />

resistors and decoupling capacitors as<br />

required for error-free control of the<br />

optical elements and for excluding interferences.<br />

The electrical contacts in<br />

the DIN 41612 range are also resistant<br />

to micro-vibration wear and thus even<br />

tested and were approved for railway<br />

applications.<br />

Data rates of up to 50 Mbit/s<br />

The active-optical POF module enables<br />

the client to connect up to 16 optical<br />

channels at the same time on the smallest<br />

assembly space. Installation and<br />

service can be simplified and abridged as<br />

a consequence. HARTING furthermore<br />

offers its clients customized systems<br />

that are designed and tested in keeping<br />

with their requirements. The integration<br />

of the optical interfaces in a quickly replaceable<br />

plug-in connector additionally<br />

makes servicing the controller boards<br />

used faster, easier and cheaper.<br />

The system furthermore supports<br />

data rates of up to 50 Mbit/s, which<br />

will normally not be required, however,<br />

thanks to the high edge steepness of the<br />

sender elements used. 3.3 and 5 volts are<br />

both available as supply voltages here.<br />

In the first step, the new DIN connections<br />

will only be installed in the<br />

controller boards. The IGBT driver<br />

boards will remain unchanged for now<br />

to enable an easy transition to the new<br />

system. Thanks to this incremental approach,<br />

not all the required components<br />

will need to be adapted immediately. But<br />

the applied principle can be transferred<br />

from the controller board to the IGBT<br />

driver board in future, also enabling the<br />

realization of bi-directional optical plugging<br />

and electric transmission there by<br />

way of a compact D-sub housing. The<br />

result would be the creation of a bilateral<br />

active-optical cable for IGBT control.<br />

This way, a robust and service-friendly<br />

solution from the railway sector can also<br />

be adapted in industrial applications in<br />

the future.<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 37


Figure 2:<br />

Automation<br />

through<br />

virtualization<br />

L4MS -<br />


Principal Investigator<br />

in Robotics Systems,<br />

VTT Technical<br />

Research Centre of<br />

Finland,<br />

ali.muhammad@vtt.fi<br />

A one-stop shop for SMEs for lean<br />

and agile intra-factory logistics<br />

Smooth material flow is the backbone of any production facility. Logistics for<br />

Manufacturing SMEs (L4MS) is an acceleration program for SMEs to boost the<br />

automation of intra-factory logistics<br />

IN A TYPICAL factory, the transport of<br />

parts and components accounts for<br />

25% of the employees, 55% of all factory<br />

space, and 87% of the production time.<br />

This movement of components, tools,<br />

products, machines and people is an essential<br />

but non-value adding part of the<br />

manufacturing. The estimates show that<br />

this can add up to 50% of the manufacturing<br />

cost of a product.<br />

While efficient material flow can<br />

boost the productivity, flexible material<br />

flow can provide the agility required for<br />

more individualization and customization<br />

of products. To minimize cost and<br />

to maximize agility, large manufacturers<br />

are heavily investing in advance<br />

mobile robots and other ICT solutions<br />

to continuously analyze, optimize and<br />

automate intra-factory logistics. In<br />

fact, today technology can deliver fully<br />

automated and modular equipment for<br />

intra-factory logistics to achieve consistently<br />

both high throughput and high<br />

quality, with a great degree of decisional<br />

autonomy to self-organize the production.<br />

However, SMEs and Mid-Caps<br />

have struggled to benefit from these new<br />

38 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

advanced technologies due to the lack<br />

of in-house knowledge, inflexibility of<br />

available solutions, un-availability of low<br />

cost equipment and need of large initial<br />

investment.<br />

The L4MS (Logistics for Manufacturing<br />

SMEs) aims to accelerate the<br />

automation of intra-factory logistics<br />

for SMEs and Mid-Caps. It will deliver<br />

OPIL (Open Platform for Innovations in<br />

Logistics) as an integration platform together<br />

with a 3D simulator to completely<br />

virtualize the automation of intra-factory<br />

logistics. The concept is depicted in<br />

Figure 1 below.<br />

Making it easy<br />

Availability of OPIL+3D simulator will<br />

allow easy entry of the system integrators<br />

into logistics automation value-chain.<br />

Today, only 5-10% of mobile robots are<br />

sold via system integrators or directly<br />

to large manufacturers. In the current<br />

business model, robot manufacturers directly<br />

supply complete logistics solutions<br />

to end-users with their own mobile robots.<br />

They provide their own proprietary<br />

applications, maps, interfaces and fleet<br />

management system with mobile robots<br />

as a package. The process is extremely<br />

heavy and needs to be repeated in each<br />

sale. On average they supply around 20-<br />

30 systems per year depending on the<br />

size of the system. The end user is then<br />

locked-into one vendor and increasing<br />

the system capabilities happens only<br />

through that vendor. This limits competition<br />

and is a significant barrier for<br />

mobile robot manufacturers to reach the<br />

manufacturing SME market where the<br />

number of robots per system is small and<br />

each solution requires customization.<br />








OPIL will be available as a ready integration<br />

platform for mobile robots and<br />

other logistics automation equipment,<br />

allowing the full utilization of system<br />

integrators in the sales and implementation<br />

of logistics systems. There are<br />

thousands of system integrators globally<br />

ranging from large multinationals<br />

to SMEs and start-ups. With thousands<br />

of system integrators and the mobile<br />

robots with less than 1% of the 1 million<br />

global forklift market, robot manufactures<br />

can be flooded with orders and<br />

system integrators can take the role of<br />

developing small logistics systems for<br />

SMEs which fits perfectly in their business<br />

model.<br />

Figure 1: Concept of L4MS<br />

Making it cheap<br />

The industrial robotics has made extensive<br />

use of 3D CAD and other virtualization<br />

tools to reduce the cost and time<br />

for the conceptualizing, commissioning,<br />

planning and programming of robotics<br />

solutions. Virtualization is one of the<br />

nine pillars of Industry 4.0 and the use<br />

of 3D simulations has shown to improve<br />

communication between suppliers and<br />

the end-user making development 60%<br />

faster, avoiding design errors and reducing<br />

the effort by 75%. System integrators<br />

can increase their capacity by 5 times<br />

to create factory layouts and develop an<br />

alternative automation solution before<br />

choosing the final one.<br />

L4MS will bring these advances to<br />

facilitate the adoption of logistics automation<br />

for SMEs, thus removing the<br />

requirement of interrupting the production<br />

process, improving flexibility and<br />

long term productivity. For a logistics<br />

automation project, the mobile robots<br />

represent only one third of the required<br />

investment. Programming and integration<br />

actually represents 70% of the<br />

total cost of the system. This cost arises<br />

from additional technical requirements<br />

around the installation of mobile robots,<br />

such as mapping, map calibration to<br />

match the real factory, adding markers,<br />

navigation planning, route planning, etc.<br />

The OPIL+3D simulator will automate<br />

many of these tasks resulting in a 75%<br />

reduction in the installation cost. This<br />

will represent a significant saving for a<br />

manufacturing SME reducing the ownership<br />

cost and increasing the return on<br />

investment.<br />

During the course of the next 3 years,<br />

Calls will be open at<br />

www.L4MS.eu on:<br />

1st September, <strong>2018</strong><br />

1st September, 2019<br />

Figure 3: L4MS<br />

Acceleration<br />

program for<br />

SMEs and<br />

Mid-Caps<br />

the aim of L4MS is to reduce the installation<br />

cost and time of mobile robots<br />

by a factor of 10. This will enable the<br />

inexpensive deployment of small and<br />

flexible logistics solutions requiring no<br />

infrastructure change, no production<br />

downtime and no in-house expertise,<br />

making the investment in logistics automation<br />

more attractive for SME’s and<br />

Mid-Caps in Europe. The use of mobile<br />

robots will not only automate the logistics<br />

(50% of the production cost) but will<br />

also provide unprecedented flexibility<br />

on the factory floor.<br />

Make it everywhere<br />

To ensure the full geographical coverage,<br />

L4MS provides an integral<br />

pan-European network of Digital<br />

Innovation Hubs (DIHs) connected<br />

to a central marketplace. The L4MS<br />

Marketplace will be a one-stop-shop,<br />

where European Manufacturing SMEs<br />

& Mid-Caps can access Digitalization<br />

services, including technical support,<br />

business mentoring and finance. The<br />

L4MS will conceive 23 cross-border Application<br />

Experiments to demonstrate<br />

highly autonomous, configurable and<br />

hybrid (human-robot) logistics solutions<br />

driven by the business needs of the<br />

manufacturing SMEs and Mid-Caps.<br />

This portfolio of 23 cross-border Application<br />

Experiments by 50 SMEs<br />

selected through 2 competitive Open<br />

Calls, will demonstrate the leveraging of<br />

European Structural Funds and private<br />

investment in established and emerging<br />

DIHs across Europe. The L4MS Marketplace<br />

connected with a network of DIHs<br />

will ensure a ‘working distance’ access<br />

to latest logistics automation technologies,<br />

along with non-technical services<br />

for every Manufacturing SME in Europe<br />

- whichever the sector, wherever the location,<br />

whatever the size.<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 39


Cobots place Nordic<br />

countries in the global top five<br />

The Nordic countries<br />

have up to three times<br />

as many industrial robots<br />

as the world average.<br />

Sweden, Denmark<br />

and Finland are ranked<br />

5, 6 and 15 on the list of<br />

countries with the most<br />

automated production.<br />

New robotics technology<br />

optimizes businesses<br />

operations, maintenance<br />

and production.<br />

Text: Malene Grouleff<br />

40 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

ONE OF THE REASONS why the Nordic<br />

countries are now a world leader in<br />

robotics is the emergence of cobots, collaborating<br />

robots. Before the invention<br />

of cobots, robots were not user-friendly<br />

or cheap enough for the Nordic region’s<br />

small and medium-sized companies.<br />

Flexible cobots allow more Nordic companies<br />

to automate numerous tasks,<br />

from assembly to polishing and painting<br />

to testing. One of the latest examples is<br />

wind turbine wings, where a ‘climbing’<br />

robot with a cobot arm soon will replace<br />

technicians who now have to dangle in<br />

the air while replacing and cleaning the<br />

wings.<br />

The robot mammoth age<br />

When the automobile industry first<br />

implemented robots in their production,<br />

to be a profitable investment,<br />

they used huge industrial robots for<br />

large-scale production with singular,<br />

repetitive movements. The robots were<br />

so heavy, they had to be lifted in with<br />

a crane, mounted, fenced off and only<br />

programmed to one specific task. The<br />

big industrial robots are still used but are<br />

generally too costly and inflexible in a<br />

modern production facility with product<br />

variations and low volumes, in other<br />

words, a ‘high-mix/low-volume production.’<br />

Cobots’ triumphant march<br />

In recent decades, robotics has taken<br />

some giant technological leaps, creating<br />

a new generation of robots; small, and far<br />

more flexible and user-friendly cobots.<br />

Cobots are more versatile and, perhaps<br />

more importantly, more affordable. The<br />

evolved robots now offer flexible produc-


tion environments where robots and<br />

people can safely work together. Cobots<br />

can easily change between 20 different<br />

tasks as needed. This not only improves<br />

productivity and competitiveness in<br />

countries with high labor costs like the<br />

Nordic countries, but also creates opportunities<br />

for producing customized<br />

products in a resource efficient and<br />

environmentally-friendly way.<br />

What do we get out of robots?<br />

Robots help employees become more<br />

productive and efficient, leading to<br />

better job security. They allow us to<br />

eliminate dangerous, burdensome tasks,<br />

where people work mechanically like<br />

machines. At the same time, companies<br />

can improve competitiveness and keep<br />

production in the country, decrease<br />

delivery time, increase quality and<br />

precision in products, as well as document<br />

and refine production by using<br />

collected data. In addition, robots allow<br />

for responding to large fluctuations in<br />

production without additional overtimeexpenses.<br />

Robots give employees more interesting<br />

tasks, a healthier and safer workenvironment<br />

with less physical labor and<br />

better work hours, because robots can<br />

catch up on automated work orders at<br />

night.<br />

China buys every third robot<br />

In Asia, robots are even more important<br />

in competing in the market. In China,<br />

they automate to an extremely high degree.<br />

About every third of the 300,000<br />

industrial robots installed globally in<br />

2016 was delivered to China, according<br />

to International Federation of Robotics.<br />

In order to maintain and strengthen<br />

competitiveness in the global market,<br />

industries in the Nordic region must be<br />

at least as good at utilizing these technologies.<br />

In turn, the Nordic region can<br />

reclaim tasks and production that were<br />

previously outsourced to countries with<br />

low wages. Robots cost the same no<br />

matter where in the world they are implemented.<br />

Therefore, the automation<br />

wave enables you to produce locally and<br />

ensure a short delivery time and high<br />

quality.<br />

The author of the article, Malene Grouleff,<br />

CEO, Grouleff Communications, heads the<br />

Nordic region’s only PR agency specialized<br />

in robots. Grouleff is seen here with the<br />

robot, Norma Pepper, ‘employed’ by the<br />

library Dokk1, which was voted as the best<br />

in the world in 2016.<br />

Robots many faces<br />

Today, robots are available in many different<br />

versions, including:<br />

• Large industrial robots: the big<br />

classic robots are becoming increasingly<br />

more sophisticated with accessories<br />

such as ‘touch and sight senses,’<br />

new types of sensors and camera<br />

solutions. They help the robots<br />

master tasks that previously required<br />

human agility, such as grinding and<br />

painting. This saves employees from<br />

being exposed to dust, noise and vapors.<br />

Robotics sensor manufacturer<br />

OptoForce develops this type of robot,<br />

among others.<br />

• Cobots – collaborating robots:<br />

cobots are small robots that can be<br />

trained to work side by side with<br />

humans as a flexible tool for handling<br />

tasks. Since the first cobot was<br />

invented by the Danish company,<br />

Universal Robots in 2008, nearly<br />

25,000 have been delivered globally.<br />

In the wake of this invention, there is<br />

a lot of innovation in cobot accessories,<br />

such as the flexible robot hands<br />

from On Robot. With such a solution,<br />

you can automate monotonous work<br />

such as packing. (See case study.)<br />

• Transport robots: Self-driving cars,<br />

trains and busses. Also in this category<br />

are small self-driving robots,<br />

including one from Mobile Industrial<br />

Robots, which brings clean bedding<br />

from the assembly line to be packed<br />

and distributed in hospitals. The<br />

use of mobile robots is expected to<br />

explode globally over the next few<br />

years.<br />

• Servicing robots such as robotic<br />

vacuum cleaners and lawn mowers,<br />

or for instance the robots from Intelligent<br />

Marking, which draw chalk<br />

stripes in sports arenas.<br />

• Packing and warehouse robots:<br />

when finished products have to be<br />

packed and retrieved from a warehouse,<br />

robots can carry out those<br />

tasks with high precision and speed.<br />

In the Nordic region, innovation<br />

within this field can be seen by EffiMat<br />

Storage Technology, EGATEC,<br />

Tentoma and Nordbo Systems.<br />

• Software robots and digital assistants:<br />

support, among other things,<br />

customer service, meeting bookings,<br />

product support, administrative<br />

processes thanks to speech recognition,<br />

artificial intelligence, machine<br />

learning, etc. For instance, Automation<br />

Lab makes advanced decisionsupport<br />

systems. The robot, X.ai can<br />

arrange meetings.<br />

• Care robots: handicap aids such as<br />

exoskeletons, intelligent prostheses<br />

or the therapeutic robot, Paro the<br />

seal.<br />

• Agriculture and food production:<br />

a lot of exciting development is<br />

happening within vertical farming,<br />

a high-tech cultivation technique<br />

without soil using natural light in<br />

high-rise buildings.<br />

The plant nursery Rosborg use cobots for<br />

a task that employees prefer not to do<br />

- packing some of the 28 million pots of<br />

fresh mint, dill, estragon and basil.<br />

• Hospital robots are implemented<br />

in surgery, medicine packing, blood<br />

sample sorting and much more, for<br />

instance as seen at Gentofte Hospital.<br />

• Disaster relief robots: used in case<br />

of accidents, natural disasters, etc.<br />

• Humanoid robots: human-like<br />

robots<br />

• Military robots<br />

2/<strong>2018</strong> maintworld 41


Why Your<br />

Service Techs<br />

Are Deciding<br />

Your Future<br />

Text: Dave Hart, Senior Vice<br />

President of Global Customer<br />

Success at ServiceMax from<br />

GE Digital<br />

Understanding customers,<br />

their history, their<br />

products and their<br />

current needs is the<br />

realm of the field<br />

service engineer<br />

The late Steve Jobs once said:<br />

“Get closer than ever to your<br />

customers.So close that you tell<br />

them what they need well before<br />

they realise it themselves.”<br />

THERE WAS A TIME when the idea of<br />

investing in customer experience was an<br />

act of bravery. In fact customer service<br />

futurist Blake Morgan recently said as<br />

much on Forbes. That’s odd. The idea<br />

seems dated now. Customer experience<br />

and subsequently customer satisfaction<br />

should be at the heart of all businesses.<br />

You don’t need to be brave you need to<br />

be smart.<br />

Perhaps the problem for most businesses<br />

is that they don’t know how to<br />

get close to customers? While they have<br />

sales teams and customer support teams<br />

and marketing teams, who really gets<br />

close and truly understands the customer?<br />

Who can get close enough without an<br />

ulterior motive? Who can be trusted?<br />

What businesses have to consider<br />

is the changing culture of business.<br />

KPMG Nunwood calls it the “expectation<br />

economy” and although this sounds<br />

a bit, well, consultancy speak, there are<br />

elements of truth to it.<br />

- Despite multi-billions of investment<br />

in 2017, only a small number of UK firms<br />

succeed in making customer experience<br />

a source of value, says the report.<br />

- The good news is that top-ranking<br />

firms are achieving sustained improvements<br />

in CX that flow to their bottom<br />

line.<br />

This fits with the idea that higher<br />

quality customer experience will be<br />

recognised as a primary driver of B2B<br />

investment strategies and decision making<br />

in <strong>2018</strong>. As we have already said – you<br />

don’t need to be brave, you need to be<br />

smart and there is no greater justification<br />

than revenue.<br />

Then there is competition. Given the<br />

saturation of cutting-edge technology<br />

across industries and markets, combined<br />

with the accessibility of cheap products<br />

made overseas, companies will struggle<br />

to maintain competitive differentiation.<br />

Higher quality customer experience will<br />

become a critical avenue of this differentiation,<br />

taking a page from B2C company<br />

handbooks which value elegance, ease of<br />

use, and customer experience above all<br />

else in order to retain customer loyalty.<br />

Think Disney and Apple here.<br />

So who has most in common with<br />

the likes of Mickey Mouse and Pluto?<br />

Field service technicians. Bet that was<br />

not your first thought, was it? But think<br />

about it. B2B companies have found<br />

their customers interact more with the<br />

service arm of their organisation than<br />

both the sales department or marketing<br />

42 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>









department. Understanding customers,<br />

their history, their products and their<br />

current needs is the realm of the field<br />

service engineer. The engineer now has<br />

access to mobile technology and cloudbased<br />

tools that can upgrade customers<br />

immediately. It is about offering an informed<br />

product sale based on customer<br />

intelligence.<br />

Fixing customer products on site<br />

quickly and easily is one thing, but<br />

improving their products and services,<br />

saving them money and making their<br />

working lives easier is what leads to<br />

happy customers. Bill Gates once said:<br />

“your most unhappy customers are<br />

your greatest source of learning.” To a<br />

certain extent he is right, but surely you<br />

can also learn a lot from happy customers<br />

and what you are doing right as a<br />

business?<br />

If you can unlock the door to happiness<br />

you can differentiate and invest<br />

resources intelligently and not based on<br />

old traditional thinking. As businesses<br />

look to their Net Promoter Score (NPS)<br />

in the coming year, perhaps they would<br />

be wise to think of Mickey and how<br />

service engineers are not just mice on a<br />

wheel but valuable resources that could<br />

ultimately make the difference for businesses<br />

in fast changing, tech-driven<br />

economies.<br />



AUGUST 6 - 9, <strong>2018</strong><br />


Vibration<br />

Thermography<br />

Oil Analysis<br />

Wear Particle<br />

Motor Testing<br />

Ultrasound<br />

Lubrication<br />

Alignment<br />

Balancing<br />

The International Machine Vibration Analysis and Condition Monitoring (IMVAC)<br />

Conference provides practical learning in the important aspects of industrial<br />

vibration analysis, complementary condition monitoring technologies, and the<br />

reliability improvement fields of precision alignment, balancing, and lubrication<br />

designed for vibration analysts and condition monitoring professionals.<br />

We hope to see you in Gold Coast! Visit our website to learn more about IMVAC.<br />



IOT Brings Maintenance<br />

Rewards to Exmar Ship<br />

Management<br />

Text: BEMAS - Belgian Maintenance Association<br />

Using the Internet of Things (IOT) in machinery maintenance will yield significant cost<br />

and efficiency benefits for Exmar Ship Management (ESM), says Danielle Lammens,<br />

the company’s maintenance manager.<br />

ESM is a Belgian provider of ships for<br />

the operation, transportation and transformation<br />

of gas, with fleets of ships in<br />

liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied<br />

petroleum gas (LPG), along with a<br />

number of other vessels. It plans to use<br />

IOT to enable early maintenance work<br />

on machinery. According to Danielle<br />

Lammens, it will be used in monitoring<br />

the equipment for “machinery data” using<br />

vibration measurement, ultrasound<br />

measurement, infrared cameras and<br />

other systems to determine when exactly<br />

any repairs need to be carried out.<br />

This approach brings several major<br />

advantages. Most importantly, it means<br />

that ESM will only need to dismantle a<br />

piece of equipment for repairs when absolutely<br />

necessary. Ship-based machinery<br />

must currently be dismantled after<br />

a certain time period. However, by using<br />

IOT techniques, ESM can determine if<br />

the item actually needs to be fixed; if not,<br />

there is no need to dismantle it.<br />

– This would allow us to postpone<br />

the overhaul if there is no risk and if approved<br />

by the appropriate classification<br />

society, says Lammens.<br />

This brings major cost advantages,<br />

according to Lammens. For example, it<br />

costs about $150,000 for each overhaul of<br />

a high-pressure send-out pump, even if<br />

the equipment does not need to be fixed.<br />

If this could be done once every 60,000<br />

running hours, rather than once every<br />

20,000 running hours, ‘you can save a lot<br />

of money’.<br />

Additionally, dismantling a piece of<br />

equipment can increase the risk of failures<br />

with the machinery.<br />

– The biggest problems are often after<br />

dismantling, not before it. The aim is to<br />

only open things when it is necessary, she<br />

said.<br />

Finally, gathering machinery data will<br />

allow ESM to better plan and schedule its<br />

activities, improving the safety of workers<br />

and the quality of the work.<br />

– If you wait for a failure or a breakdown<br />

then it’s completely different.<br />

ESM’s major focus is currently its LPG<br />

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(*first select the Euromaintenance 4.0 welcome gift as optional item and use the discount<br />

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44 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>

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fleet. It plans to implement vibration<br />

monitoring on one of its LPG vessels in<br />

June, with the aim to gradually expand<br />

this across the remainder of the fleet of<br />

more than 30 vessels. The company has<br />

already installed vibration modelling<br />

and other measuring techniques on its<br />

LNG fleet, though there is a different<br />

maintenance strategy for these vessels,<br />

with varying priorities around cost and<br />

so on.<br />

The company is currently concentrating<br />

on machinery data: vibration monitoring<br />

and other parameters that can be<br />

measured on the machinery itself. However,<br />

it also aims to increase its focus on<br />

operational data: information on areas<br />

such as flow pressure and temperature.<br />

The goal is to eventually combine<br />

the machinery and operational data to<br />

create a more predictive maintenance<br />

model, Lammens notes.<br />

– While ESM uses the data it already<br />

collects to provide a limited form of<br />

predictive maintenance, it still needs to<br />

be optimised, she said. This will only be<br />

possible when the two types of data are<br />

combined and may take a few years.<br />

Danielle Lammens will speak at Euromaintenance 4.0,<br />

where she will present on ESM’s journey to failure-mode<br />

driven maintenance using IOT. Euromaintenance 4.0 will<br />

take place in Antwerp, Belgium from<br />

September 24-27.<br />


for maintenance and asset reliability. More diverse and affordable solutions to monitor<br />

the condition of equipment enter the market and make asset condition data accessible<br />

through 'the cloud'. Gartner Inc. anticipates that globally 8.4 billion connected things<br />

will be in use by the end of this year, an increase of 31 percent compared to 2016. The<br />

forecasts go up to 20 billion in 2020 and 70 billion in 2025. About 60% of these are<br />

industry-related!<br />

The Euromaintenance 4.0 conference offers a unique opportunity to learn how new<br />

4.0 technologies and fundamentals in maintenance and asset management reinforce<br />

each other in order to achieve higher equipment reliability and cost performance in<br />

asset intensive industries. Euromaintenance hosts 23 workshops, various company visits<br />

and 104 presentations in 7 parallel tracks with 50+ cases presented by asset owners.<br />

Participants will gain profound insights on how companies apply maintenance<br />

4.0 already today. 60+ exhibitors showcase technological innovations in maintenance<br />

and reliability 4.0 that currently available on the market. The international Euromaintenance<br />

4.0 conference and exhibition takes place from September 24 to 27, <strong>2018</strong> in<br />

Antwerp, the industrial heart of Belgium. More info at www.euromaintenance.org.<br />

Co-produced by<br />

An initiative of<br />

Supported by<br />

September 24 –27, <strong>2018</strong> | Antwerp, Belgium<br />





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Gold Sponsors


Text: Nina Garlo-Melkas<br />

Digitalisation<br />

is Transforming<br />

the Finnish Forest Industry<br />

Digitalisation is transforming the Finnish forest industry, providing unique<br />

solutions that make forests more intelligent. Data can be collected from forests<br />

using innovative methods, and modern data can be used to optimise<br />

forest use and management. Virtual forests are also emerging.<br />

FINLAND IS THE MOST forested country<br />

in Europe: forests cover more than 75<br />

per cent of the country’s area. As a result<br />

of sustainable forest use and management<br />

over the decades, the amount of<br />

wood that grows every year exceeds<br />

clearly the amount used.<br />

Digitalisation and the improved use<br />

of forest asset data are bringing both<br />

considerable savings and efficiency improvement<br />

to the forest industry. When<br />

we know the wood raw material and we<br />

management. They help us to utilise our<br />

wonderful forest reserves even more<br />

effectively, says Jarmo Hämäläinen,<br />

Research Director, at Metsäteho.<br />

According to Hämäläinen, technologies<br />

are being used in northern forests<br />

in data collection and wood supply that<br />

cannot be found elsewhere.<br />

- Data on its own is not enough: it has<br />

to be processed into a form that serves<br />

its recipients – be they forest owners,<br />

wood buyers, forest machine operators<br />

both in costs and for the environment,<br />

adds Hämäläinen.<br />

According to Hämäläinen, it has been<br />

estimated that the forest industry could<br />

save over EUR 100 million per year in<br />

the coming years when it is possible to<br />

utilise all the data from forests. These<br />

savings make up almost ten per cent of<br />

the EUR 1.2 billion annual cost of harvesting<br />

and transporting trees. The potential<br />

benefits of the digital leap in our<br />

forests mean considerable cost savings.<br />




can identify the upgrade value of different<br />

felling sites as well as the terrain and<br />

road features of forests, we can plan the<br />

stages of wood supply more efficiently.<br />

Precision-guided wood supply improves<br />

the productivity of the forest<br />

industry. When we know what kind of<br />

trees there are in each location using e.g.<br />

remote sensing, we can plan in advance<br />

which raw material it is worthwhile producing<br />

from which tree trunk.<br />

- We can take great development<br />

leaps with the new technology and data<br />

or wood supply planners. In the forest<br />

industry, systems are continuously being<br />

developed to make maximal use of data<br />

so that better decisions can be made.<br />

The point clouds from laser scanning<br />

alone do not make us any wiser. It’s only<br />

when they have been processed into<br />

systems supporting decisions that they<br />

produce benefits, says Hämäläinen.<br />

- With technology, we can direct<br />

wood supply work more precisely, and<br />

work phases and visits to the forest can<br />

be reduced. It always means savings,<br />

Finland as a forerunner<br />

Digitalisation of the Finnish forest industry<br />

involves expertise, technologies<br />

and solutions that are unique in the<br />

world. In the future, forest management<br />

will increasingly be independent of time<br />

and place. More than half of the country’s<br />

forests are owned today by private<br />

individuals, and forest owners will soon<br />

be able to visit their forests in their living<br />

room, using a virtual reality headset.<br />

Metsä Group – a Finnish forest industry<br />

company owned by 104,000 forest<br />

owners – is a Finnish industry player<br />

that is actively developing new technologies<br />

for forest owners.<br />

- I believe that in the future every tree<br />

growing in Finland will be modelled, and<br />

we will know the exact location, length,<br />

diameter, species and other key data,<br />

46 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>


says Juha Jumppanen, SVP, Member<br />

Services, Metsä Group.<br />

- We have developed a virtual forest<br />

demo with our partners, and the goal is<br />

for us to be able to cost-efficiently create<br />

a virtual twin based on any forest.<br />

Metsä Group has also tested drones<br />

with cameras – with good results.<br />

- Drones will help us obtain significantly<br />

more accurate and varied information<br />

from forests than is possible now.<br />

For example, damage caused by beetles<br />

can be detected before it’s visible to the<br />

human eye, says Jumppanen.<br />

- These modern methods will bring<br />

forest use and management into a new<br />

era. They will enable us to reduce the<br />

cost of forest planning and obtain more<br />

detailed information about forests.<br />

Towards a fossil-free world<br />

Digitalisation and groundbreaking data<br />

are taking the forest industry swiftly towards<br />

the bioeconomy and a fossil-free<br />

future. Fighting climate change is key, in<br />

addition to the circular economy, where<br />

renewable natural resources are used in<br />

a manner that enables them to stay in<br />

circulation for as long as possible.<br />

The forest industry plays an extremely<br />

important role in the circular<br />

economy, as wood-based products are a<br />

sustainable alternative to products made<br />

from fossil-based, non-renewable natural<br />

resources.<br />

- The world’s population is estimated<br />

to increase by more than a billion people<br />

over the next ten years, and there’s an<br />

increasing need for materials. The need<br />

for textile fibres will grow, for example,<br />

but we are facing the ecological limits<br />

of cotton production. New wood-based<br />

fibres that are less burdensome on the<br />

environment are also needed to replace<br />

oil-based synthetic fibres, says Riikka<br />

Joukio, SVP, Sustainability and Corporate<br />

Affairs, Metsä Group.<br />

New and renewable products made<br />

from wood-based raw materials are being<br />

developed actively. In the future,<br />

almost anything can be made from wood<br />

fibre – even clothing.<br />

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simple but effective.<br />

The most applied asset management methodologies by<br />

Infrastructure Managing Companies are usually those that<br />

have the deepest impact into the profit & loss account.<br />


PARAJES,<br />





TECHNIQUES SUCH AS critical nature<br />

analysis or RCM that lead both to an<br />

almost immediate costs reduction, used<br />

to be the first selected when reliability<br />

strategies had to be implemented. Nevertheless,<br />

analysis of troubles and failures<br />

carried out in main-impact equipment,<br />

could point to more significant longterm<br />

savings effects. Such analyses are<br />

more applied when incidents involve<br />

safety problems. Unfortunately when<br />

failures hit equipment availability,<br />

analysis reaches lower standards: e.g. - no<br />

working team, no procedure and essentially<br />

based on technicians’ experience.<br />

Therefore, establishing tools as<br />

root-cause effect analysis in the asset<br />

management operating strategy are critical<br />

aspects for getting an integral asset<br />

management model running to its right<br />

development.<br />

Methodology of the<br />

root-cause effect analysis<br />

Techniques applied to the root-cause<br />

effect analysis are tools that allow, by<br />

means of logic procedures and systematic<br />

causes, the identification of the<br />

background or the root of troubles and<br />

failures leading therefore to improve<br />

equipment reliability and productive<br />

procedures. The identified causes that<br />

48 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong><br />

are in the origin of failures or troubles<br />

are actually logical causes and are related<br />

to the failure effects. These sources<br />

of failure are obtained using a deductive<br />

procedure that identifies the specific<br />

relationship cause-effect that points the<br />

system, the equipment or the part that<br />

cause a particular failure.<br />

There is a bibliography about different<br />

techniques dealing with such questions,<br />

making recommendations about<br />

the method to follow, step by step, and<br />

which points can be made in order to get<br />

effective solutions. A large scope of technical<br />

tools can be applied and their selection<br />

depends on the kind of trouble, data<br />

available and knowledge of technicians<br />

as: Root-cause effect analysis, fault-tree,<br />

gates and events analysis, causal factors<br />

analysis, etc.<br />

Regarding RCEA (Root-Cause Effect<br />

Analysis), the identification of common<br />

causes can be gathered together into<br />

Fig. 1. Diagram E-P-S<br />

(according ISO 14224).<br />

levels that are logical and intuitive when<br />

monitoring them, what simplifies their<br />

subsequent spreading.<br />

• Physical root cause:<br />

Where all situations or signs of physical<br />

origin that could directly affect<br />

the equipment operative continuity<br />

are identified. i.e.: the failure mechanism<br />

of the element.<br />

• Human root cause:<br />

Where the mistakes made due to “human<br />

factors” may affect directly or<br />

indirectly a failure to occur.<br />

• Latent root cause:<br />

Where all kind of problems which,<br />

even having never happened before,<br />

have a possibility to occur are identified.<br />

Essentially they derive from<br />

troubles in the company organization<br />

that led to the appearance of<br />

human root causes, placed mainly in<br />

deficiencies: training, information,<br />

resources adaptation, etc.


Key aspects of practical<br />

applications<br />

One of the main troubles in methodology<br />

applications in industrial environments<br />

is usually the trend of the<br />

technical staff to face the solution of the<br />

problems under an intuitive way, based<br />

on experience and technical knowledge.<br />

Nevertheless, applying methodology<br />

not only drives us to establish a defined<br />

process and therefore getting it known<br />

all over the company organization, but<br />

makes possible too documenting the<br />

problem so it can be traceable and the<br />

information comparable and useful<br />

to similar cases. This is the reason for<br />

emphasizing in methodologies application.<br />

If the amount of analyses mean<br />

an excessive workload, it will be better<br />

to decrease the quantity of analyses<br />

instead of keeping all of them but with<br />

a poor quality. The target should be to<br />

guarantee the sustainable improvement<br />

of a management model, instead of the<br />

urgent solving on a trouble.<br />

The key aspects for a correct application<br />

are:<br />

Definition of the problem<br />

In the definition of the problem all information<br />

needed to begin the analysis has<br />

to be specified. In this kind of research<br />

however, it is common to interlace<br />

Fig. 2.<br />

Cause Effect<br />

Logical Tree.<br />

hypothesis with suppositions, going<br />

sometimes too far away from the original<br />

problem. Therefore in this definition<br />

very specific answers to three very specific<br />

questions are also needed: What?<br />

When? Where?<br />

Working crew<br />

All professional profiles that can aid the<br />

analysis have to be completed (including<br />

Maintenance & Operation), with a<br />

special leading role given to the methodology<br />

expert, who leads and documents<br />

the analysis work.<br />

Studying system and process<br />

In order to get a complete previous<br />

analysis basis, a good acknowledge and a<br />

detailed display of the system to be analyzed<br />

is required and its implication in<br />

the regular Plant process understood. To<br />

be as specific as possible and to obtain a<br />

definition that fulfils an understandable<br />

standard, apply process diagrams based<br />

in current standards. Standard ISO<br />

14224 suggests determinate diagrams, as<br />

do OREDA, for instance, with diagrams<br />

of common application.<br />

Drawing up the logical tree<br />

A Logical tree has to be as complete and<br />

illustrative as possible. It has to show a<br />

visual summary of the analysis carried<br />



out, following the methodology:<br />

• Definition and priority of the<br />

failure forms.<br />

• Definition and validation of the<br />

hypothesis: particularly rejecting the<br />

weak ones.<br />

• Definition and validation of root<br />

causes. Then establish the root<br />

causes of each one of the validated<br />

hypothesis.<br />

The complexity lays not so far in the<br />

consideration of hypotheses, but in the<br />

different validation of them. Sometimes<br />

it could take weeks or even months, due<br />

the need for the study of operation parameters,<br />

equipment, laboratory tests …<br />

Corrective actions<br />

One of the main weaknesses of this<br />

kind of methodology results when an<br />

expected answer is obtained and the<br />

remaining hypotheses are automatically<br />

refused. Any way it is important to keep<br />

going until closing all raised hypotheses<br />

to ensure the reliability of the results. On<br />

the other hand, the proposed corrective<br />

actions have to be periodically checked<br />

to get rid of the risk of repeating the analyzed<br />

trouble.<br />


The application of trouble analysis<br />

methodologies is a simple and very effective<br />

procedure, carried out in a rigorous<br />

and procedural way. The key aspects<br />

are:<br />

• To limit and restrict such research to<br />

the events worthy of the needed investment<br />

in time and resources.<br />

• To be strict in the fulfilment of the<br />

methodology, so bear in mind that<br />

the research itself and getting answers<br />

is just as important as obtaining<br />

the information and records that<br />

will treasure the technical knowhow.<br />

• To integrate all these procedures and<br />

methodologies into the Company<br />

processes in a logical and well-organized<br />

way, obtaining enough guarantees<br />

so these “working procedures”<br />

can be applied in other situations,<br />

filed and kept in the proper medium,<br />

and so avoiding that they are considered<br />

as a “fashion idea” or “pilot<br />

study” as happens sometimes to certain<br />

established technicians.<br />

This article was published in the technical<br />

magazine MANTENIMIENTO, issued<br />

on January-February <strong>2018</strong>, nº 311<br />

50 maintworld 2/<strong>2018</strong>

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