Düsseldorf. Metropolis on the Rhine

JovisVerlag

ISBN 978-3-86859-629-8

ong>Düsseldorfong>.

ong>Metropolisong> on the Rhine


ong>Düsseldorfong>.

Urban development and city planning

ong>Metropolisong>

2015 | 2020 | 2025

on the Rhine

Thomas Geisel | Dieter Nellen | Cornelia Zuschke


Rheinkniebrücke

4


5


9 Introduction

THOMAS GEISEL

12 Editorial

The city in the twenty-first century

DIETER NELLEN | CORNELIA ZUSCHKE

18 Strategy and program

THOMAS GEISEL

Strategies, programs, and projects

1 Innovation through intervention: Blaugrüner Ring open space planning

25 International competition “Blaugrüner Ring” (Blue-green Ring)

31 Renaissance of the European city ANDREAS KIPAR

2 City and culture

40 Culture and urban development HANS-GEORG LOHE

44 Internationalization and profiling. Discussion with Professor

Karl-Heinz Petzinka about ong>Düsseldorfong> as a “city of the arts” DIETER NELLEN

3 In tandem: strategies for urban development and transport

51 Raumwerk D and Mobilitätsplan D: two development strands, one DNA

53 Raumwerk D

54 Mobilitätsplan D

Height with scale and quality: or why it is so

4 important to design the third dimension of the city

56 CHRISTA REICHER

5 The responsible city

70 CORNELIA ZUSCHKE

6 Communal infrastructure projects

77 Infrastructure and urban development

79 U81: faster connections in the region — easing the burden on the inner city

80 Wehrhahn line: transport project with artistic aspirations and added value for the inner city

82 The new face of the exhibition grounds

84 ong>Düsseldorfong> Airport City: globally networked and regionally connected


7 The city, the Rhine, and new quarters on the waterfront

96 KAI FISCHER

8 Urban upgrade

119 Kennedydamm as development axis: restructuring and new perspectives in the north

129 Völklinger Straße: the southern gateway to the city center

136 Reclaiming the inner city

142 Renaissance of the station district

9 Reurbanization in the middle of the city

152 CHRISTOPH INGENHOVEN

10 ong>Metropolisong> for living: strategies and operative avenues

158 KAI FISCHER

11 Pioneer for the school of the future

174 BURKHARD HINTZSCHE

184 Planning the city from the standpoint of the economy

ULRICH BIEDENDORF

186 A new highlight on the Rhine: House of History

North Rhine-Westphalia in the Mannesmann building

by Peter Behrens

DIETER NELLEN

190 ong>Metropolisong> on the Rhine: well-placed as a West German metropolis

Discussion with Mayor Thomas Geisel

DIETER SCHNEIDER-BICHEL

194 Editors

195 Authors

197 Copyrights

198 Sponsors


12

Editorial

The city in the twenty-first century

DIETER NELLEN

CORNELIA ZUSCHKE

URBAN GROWTH IN THE METROPOLIS BY THE RHINE

German agglomerations — the “Big Seven”: Berlin, ong>Düsseldorfong>, Frankfurt, Hamburg,

Cologne, Munich, Stuttgart — are currently enjoying high demand, growing demographically,

and reaching European metropolitan dimensions. ong>Düsseldorfong> is also

benefiting from investments and settlements. The political center of the federal state

of North Rhine-Westphalia stars as a top city in pertinent real estate rankings and, coupled

with the fields of business, tourism, and sports, is drawing increasing (inter-)

national attention.

Many buildings, spaces, residential districts, formats, and infrastructures are

being newly developed in the city. ong>Düsseldorfong> — undoubtedly not as the only German

municipal entity — is experiencing a significant urban and economic development

drive. The inner city is growing and increasing in density. Its appearance — we

like to speak of urban morphology — is becoming more distinct at prominent and

strategic places such as Gustaf-Gründgens-Platz, the main station and its surroundings,

the Media Harbor, as well as at the northern and southern gateways to the city.

In particular the city center, as the distinctive core of every European city, is to

be given new accents through the elements of water, greenery, and open space, along

with an upgraded transport infrastructure and an established cultural profile. The

renovation of the Schauspielhaus has been completed, with structural upgrading of

the opera, Kunstakademie (Art Academy), and Kunstpalast to follow. There are plans

for a national photography center.

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia is planning a museum on the banks of the

Rhine to document its now seventy-five-year history and is thinking about a stronger

architectural profile for the capital city of Germany’s most populous federal state.

The southern city center around the Landtag (state parliament), a government district

that is not just functional, has been upgraded with a special urban development

cluster.

As part of the urban restructuring of the area around the main railway station

and the former Derendorf freight yard, new urban districts are being developed (Le

Quartier Central, Grand Central), which enable economic growth, residential comfort,

central accessibility, and an urban way of life.

The railway-related infrastructure of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is being

developed concurrently: three stops (at the airport, main railway station, Benrath train

station) of the Rhine-Ruhr Express (RRX) are planned as a rapid rail connection

(every fifteen minutes). The journey times to and from ong>Düsseldorfong> will be shortened

and the frequency of connections doubled.

The structurally already completed Wehrhahn line, a masterpiece of engineering

and construction, is an orthogonal strip of mobility laid straight through the city

center and further into the south. The future U81 subway line, a major infrastructure

project for ecofriendly mobility in the next decade, will create the conditions for an


13

organic city extension. In a first construction phase, the line will link the airport and

the exhibition grounds, before crossing the Rhine with its north-western stretch. The

districts and neighboring communities that it serves will be brought closer to the

regional center.

METROPOLIS ON A EUROPEAN SCALE

The following applied up until now: “In the last thirty years, ong>Düsseldorfong>’s urban

development has been characterized by structural change from an industrial city to

a commercial, service, media, and communications city” (city of ong>Düsseldorfong> 2005).

In the twenty-first century, the narrative for ong>Düsseldorfong> is being extended: the

structural change will continue and drive the city’s development — towards being a

metropolis in the most significant core region of North Rhine-Westphalia with an urban

character and amidst a European river landscape. Popular European metropolises are

preferably situated by major waterways.

Owing to the airport and exhibition grounds, the city is already assuming im portant

gateway functions for its regional catchment areas and for the transnational

economy. Overall, it boasts significant potential and the competences of a European

metropolis, especially together with its strong neighbors in the Rhine and Ruhr area.

According to the European spatial planning categories, ong>Düsseldorfong> is part of the

Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (together with Cologne-Bonn and the Ruhr metropolis

bordering to the north-east). 11.5 million people call it their home. In addition,

the regional capital created the strategic association Metropolregion Rhein land e. V.

(Metropolitan Region Rhineland) in 2015 as a contributing partner. This development

agency comprising significant institutional partners does not only want to ad -

mi nistrate but views itself as “an association of those willing to act, who feel a bond

with the Rhineland, and want to engage in projects for the Rhineland. Currently, the

ong>Düsseldorfong> planning region with the Wesel district and the city of Duisburg, as well

as the whole administrative region of Cologne, form the spatial framework for the

Rhineland metropolitan region.”

HISTORY AND FUTURE IN THE CITY OF DÜSSELDORF

The historical ground plan of the old city center, baroque architecture, court gardens

and green areas, Gründerzeit districts, architecture from the New Objectivity era

(1920s) as inner-city solitaires or ensembles, an elegant and quality-conscious postwar

modernity, the banks of the Rhine, and high-class office and business locations

continue to characterize the image of the city.

People love living and working here, like its modest urbanity and intimacy despite

its size. It is no coincidence that increasing numbers of tourists are coming to the city

for various reasons. ong>Düsseldorfong> does not need to reinvent itself as an attractive city.

Its history, topography, and morphology are all advantageous. ong>Düsseldorfong> is a city

with a favorable mix for working and living, whose urban cement has always been the

close bundling of all urban functions. Similar to its Rhineland sister city, the cathedral

city of Cologne, ong>Düsseldorfong>, together with the state of North Rhine-Westphalia,

already accomplished the return to the major river that shaped it decades ago. The

separating transport axes along the river shore have been rerouted through generous

tunnels to restore their original transit function.

At the same time, cities are constantly evolving. For this reason, those metropolitan

special features that have already endowed ong>Düsseldorfong> with global charisma


Strategy and program

THOMAS GEISEL

MAYOR OF DÜSSELDORF


19

The changing city: city planning as a mirror

of economic development

In ong>Düsseldorfong>, structural change has always been the starting point for innovation

and progress. Since the end of the nineteenth century, the city has succeeded in

holding a leading position in industrial and economic development, without needing

to resort to structural aid or subsidies for dying industries.

The economic rise of the city started with heavy industry and pipe production.

Soon ong>Düsseldorfong> became home to the headquarters of important corporations — the

metaphorical “desk of the Ruhr area” — and developed into the second most important

banking and finance center in Germany, which it still is today. With the second

industrial revolution, ong>Düsseldorfong> became an internationally significant cluster for the

information and communications industry. Nearly all the major players in this market

have established important branches in ong>Düsseldorfong>; in the meantime, this includes

the leading Chinese companies Huawei and ZTE, which in recent years have created

more than 1,000 highly qualified jobs in the North Rhine-Westphalian state capital.

ong>Düsseldorfong> is home to the headquarters of high-caliber service companies —

practically all law firms, business consultancies, and accounting firms of significance

reside in attractive locations in the city. Those working in the creative sector have

always had their place in ong>Düsseldorfong> — to which the city owes its reputation as the

fashion and advertising capital of Germany.

ENGINE OF GROWTH

Over the decades, a both modern and diverse — and therefore crisis-proof — economic

structure has therefore developed, to which the city owes a top position in trade tax

revenue. Of course, this does not mean that we can simply rest on our laurels. Instead,

the state capital regards economic strength and prosperity as breeding ground on

which innovation and progress can continue to grow and flourish. In recent years,

ong>Düsseldorfong> has therefore set about developing itself into an entrepreneurial city, or

in modern terms: a start-up hub, with considerable success!

In view of this, it is hardly surprising that the city is growing. In recent years, on

average around 5,000 — mostly highly qualified — jobs subject to social insurance

contributions have been created in ong>Düsseldorfong> per year, and this job growth naturally

also leads to a population increase. Since the beginning of the 1980s — at the time it

was the spirit of the times to turn one’s back on the cities — ong>Düsseldorfong> has already

grown from around 570,000 to around 640,000 inhabitants today. According to current

estimates, the 700,000-threshold will be exceeded by the middle of the century.

It goes without saying that the dynamic economic development and the resulting

population growth also have an impact on city planning.

Where in the past — such as in Oberbilk — the chimneys of steel and pipe factories

belched out their smoke, attractive housing and service centers have now been

built. On the former Rheinmetall site in Derendorf, tanks and cannons have not been

built for a long time. Instead, one can now find the Unternehmerstadt Derendorf, a


STRATEGIEN, PROGRAMME UND PROJEKTE_X

Innovation through intervention:

Blaugrüner Ring open space planning

JUDITH ARTMANN

DIRK BAACKMANN

THORBEN MEIER

RUTH ORZESSEK-KRUPPA

CORNELIA ZUSCHKE


International competition

“Blaugrüner Ring” (Blue-green Ring)

25

ong>Düsseldorfong> is a polycentric city in which highly dense areas are interwoven with loose village-like

developments and generous open spaces as an entity. The Rhine forms a central

distinctive feature that — largely in its wide riverbed — meanders through the city. Apart from

this natural river structure, the outdoor spaces of the city are also characterized by horticulture.

Especially Maximilian Friedrich Weyhe (1775–1846) left his mark and created a belt of

historical cultural parks and green areas, which previously wrapped like a closed semicircle

around ong>Düsseldorfong>’s inner-city area to the east. Distinctive elements of this green ring have

been preserved up until today and lend the old city and city center their special atmosphere.

At the same time, the city’s important art and culture institutions are spread across this

green carpet: the Schauspielhaus, opera house, Kunstakademie, or the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen

(art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia), to name but a few. However, up

until now people have perceived them more as solitaires and less as a coherent cultural landscape

with intensive relationships among each other and with the green areas that surround

them. This may seem surprising, because the cultural icons, in some cases housed in historical,

listed buildings, are linked with the green areas to form a unique strolling promenade around four

kilometers long.

The particular potential of the open space, combined with the networking and development

potential surrounding ong>Düsseldorfong>’s culture scene, forms the core of the competition

“Blaugrüner Ring” that was held from July 2018 to December 2019. The competition required

the establishment of a relationship between the city and the river, whilst embracing the great

art and culture institutions built alongside each other within a small area in the old city and the

center of ong>Düsseldorfong>. Dormant potential was to be awakened, filled with life, and brought into

the future.

The Blue-green Ring is delineated by the landscape areas of the inner-city fabric: the

Rhine, the “blue,” was to be brought together with the “green,” i.e. the ring fragments of the

Hofgarten park, Königsallee, and Haroldstraße. Short connecting paths were to be created,

The Kaiserteich pond at the southern end of the Blaugrüner Ring


BLAUGRÜNER RING

1 RHEINTERRASSEN

2 KUNSTPALAST

3 NRW-FORUM

4 TONHALLE

5, 6 KUNSTAKADEMIE

7 THEATERMUSEUM

8 GOETHE-MUSEUM

9 MUSIKPAVILLON HOFGARTEN

10 KUNSTVEREIN MALKASTEN

11 KUNSTSAMMLUNG NRW, K20 GRABBEPLATZ

12 D’HAUS DÜSSELDORFER SCHAUSPIELHAUS

13 SCHIFFFAHRTMUSEUM

14 MAHN- UND GEDENKSTÄTTE

15 KUNSTHALLE

16 DEUTSCHE OPER AM RHEIN

17 AKADEMIE-GALERIE

18 FILMMUSEUM BLACK BOX,

HETJENS – DEUTSCHES KERAMIKMUSEUM DÜSSELDORF

19 MAXHAUS

20 STADTMUSEUM

21 HOUSE OF HISTORY NORTH RHINE-WESTFALIA

22 KIT – KUNST IM TUNNEL

23 APOLLO VARIETÉ THEATER

24 KUNSTSAMMLUNG NRW, K21 STÄNDEHAUS

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The Blue-green Ring:

a unique artistic and cultural landscape lies dormant in a prime location

a museum and strolling mile along ong>Düsseldorfong>'s most beautiful squares,

sceneries, and cultural locations.


1

2

3

4

5 6

8

7 9 10

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18

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20

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CITY AND CULTURE

42

Culture can be an important partner for solving problems: cooperation with art and culture,

cultural creators and artists, as well as cultural institutions with all their creative potential and

competences, is constructive and effective in light of the current challenges that cities face.

Positive experiences have already been made in many European cities where this cooperation

is consciously integrated into the conception of new urban development approaches and concepts.

It is about a joint interdisciplinary and interdepartmental, open-minded learning process

— a classical win-win situation. The cultural actors in ong>Düsseldorfong> offer every opportunity

for this.

1 State capital ong>Düsseldorfong> (ed.), Abschlussbericht zur Kulturentwicklungsplanung:

Ergebnisse und Maßnahmen, 2017, www.kep-duesseldorf.de

Restaurant at the Belvedere


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

43

THE NEW KUNSTPALAST, EHRENHOF 4–5

Kunstpalast outdoor area: Ehrenhof with gastronomy at the Belvedere, planting of green areas

ARCHITECT

Sieber Architekten

OWNER/INVESTOR

State capital ong>Düsseldorfong>

GFA

Total approx. 9,000 m2

COMPLETION

2022


IN TANDEM: STRATEGIES FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSPORT

52

the most important transport questions. These questions were condensed into virulent and

direct issues and developed into fields of action. On this basis, the Mobilitätsplan D is conceived

as a comprehensive transport development plan. However, as a lot more content was

input than just the questions to be worked on, which should not be neglected as a contextual

perspective, additional issues are included in topic pools or expert groups and processed in

various forms.

Overall, in the different joint events of the two synchronized but nevertheless individually

developed processes, it repeatedly became clear: urban development must not take place without

smart mobility and, vice versa, mobility development must not take place without smart city

planning.

The works, their results, and the participatory structures are set up so that the concepts

provide a viable basis for discussion and decision-making but are not conclusively complete.

They can be adjusted or adapted to current issues and questions. At the same time, however,

both works are to show that it is important to take a well-founded approach and to find, rolespecific

but jointly, a processing structure so that all the powers of society contribute adequately

to the work.

The works of Mobilitätsplan D and Raumwerk D are described individually in the following,

as each process follows its own structure and method.

1 Raumwerk D will be ong>Düsseldorfong>’s urban development concept and thus a new framework for future city planning.

Mobilitätsplan D will be a mobility-related development concept. The titles of these city-wide concepts are a kind

of proper names and will not be translated in the following.

Raumwerk D—at the professional event on July 10, 2018, experts discussed key issues.


Raumwerk D

53

Raumwerk D: Collecting feedback! Intermediate presentation of the spatial design concepts in October 2019

Perceiving the city as an objective whole and becoming aware of the various connections and

interrelations of the system often proves to be difficult for the daily user. What places in our

city do we appreciate and why? Which global developments will probably affect our life in a city

like ong>Düsseldorfong>? Which venues and urban spaces does our increasingly varied urban society

need? How do we further develop a city with a great diversity?

The early and intensive public participation in Raumwerk D started with these and similar

questions in order to raise awareness of the many and wide-ranging challenges that a growing

city must rise to today and in the future. Apart from the increasing pressure on the housing

market, it is also about matters such as climate change, competition for use-specific sites, and

advancing digitization.

Raumwerk D will make general urban statements and formulate guidelines for the urban

development of ong>Düsseldorfong>. These are intended to enable the perception of the dynamics as an

opportunity and to shape it with the help of an established common sense. The focus is on

statements with a spatial influence. At the forefront of the Raumwerk D development process,

which is divided into five phases, is the dialog with the various involved parties in the city.

After the preparatory and process-structuring phase and the early participatory phase had

been completed, both the road map and the conceptual formulation of the urban development

concept could be defined and specified with the help of the submitted contributions. In order

to obtain a wide set of ideas as the basis for developing Raumwerk D, four appointed interdisciplinary

planning teams designed four independent city-wide visions for urban development, the

so-called “Raumbilder” for ong>Düsseldorfong>. The work is based on the collective results of the preparatory

project stages, enriched by current developments, existing concepts, and global trends.

All the teams were set an identical task, which was nevertheless developed with a respective

specific focus, thus enabling a multifaceted discussion platform for all urban development

issues in ong>Düsseldorfong> today and tomorrow.

To also include as many involved parties, stakeholders, and residents as possible, a

workshop and online participation forum were held prior to the finalization of the city-wide

urban development visions of the four planning teams (Raumbilder) to gather the opinion of

the urban community about the designs and to obtain an initial estimation and evaluation of

the ideas. Based on these participation results, the spatial design drafts were reviewed and

finalized by the planning teams.

The inherent planning approaches were then refined to allow the extraction of an overriding

target concept. The ideas were therefore layered, selected, and enhanced further. This synthesis

results in the strategic target design as the centerpiece of Raumwerk D, which shows perspectives

for the urban development of the city.


HEIGHT WITH SCALE AND QUALITY

64

TADAO ANDO CAMPUS & TOWER, MERCEDESSTRASSE/GRASHOFFSTRASSE

Conference center with hotel, art and technology campus with integrated data center, smart offices with coworking

spaces, museum for digital art, artists’ lofts with studios and galleries

ARCHITECT

Tadao Ando Architects

OWNER/INVESTOR

EuroAtlantic AG

GFA

90,000 m2

COMPLETION

2023


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

65

YRDS, MERCEDESSTRASSE

Office

ARCHITECT

slapa oberholz pszczulny | sop architekten

OWNER/INVESTOR

Art-Invest Real Estate

GFA

Approx. 37,000 m2

COMPLETION

Scheduled for 2023


The responsible city

CORNELIA ZUSCHKE

COUNCILOR FOR PLANNING, BUILDING, MOBILITY, AND

REAL ESTATE OF THE STATE CAPITAL DÜSSELDORF


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

71

Urban development dynamics require planning, and it is planning that makes a city

responsible. It is therefore about engaging with the location cognitively. In addition,

it is about making prognoses in a planned manner, so that the dynamics are localized

and, through quality, become a future significant element in the existing urban

organism in the interests of sustainability, resilience, and good living conditions. The

responsible city maintains an overview and must define quality as a prerequisite for

individual parts and the whole.

People in cities react with reserve to the major changes of our time. It is therefore

our task to bring together the topics of density and good living conditions, fair public

welfare aspects in society as a whole, good life, as well as ensured achievability scenarios.

Urban development today means entrusting oneself to the future but considering

it in advance in the present — through participation — and negotiating it in processes

between experts, society, and politics on an equal footing.

BEAUTY OF THE CITY

Under no circumstances should we lose sight of one thing: the beauty of the city.

For ong>Düsseldorfong>, this means understanding the quite particular esthetic of the settlement

by the mighty river Rhine so that we can develop it further — in its diversity, its

significant individual components, and its entirety.

ong>Düsseldorfong> is a responsible city that can face its third dimension of twenty-first

century urban development optimistically — being capable of development and having

an eye both on itself and on the region. Moreover, it is a brave city, bringing together

demands placed by climate change, economics, and ecology in its urban development.

TYPOLOGIES, METHODS, AND FORMATS FOR THE EUROPEAN CITY

Digitalization, automation, mobility — we are caught up in dynamic processes with an

open ending. The city of recent decades has been segregated. Functions and uses

have been divided up into highly competent working, residential, or leisure quarters.

At the same time, there has been alienation from the traditional city of short distances

that is currently more necessary than ever before. Today these apparent contradictions

and historical patterns are no longer antagonistic but constitute the diversity of

an urban, dense, vibrant, and versatile city.

The responsible city brings these components together and bravely chooses

inherently logical scenarios to drive the development strand forward appropriately.

Settlement development has never been more closely linked to mobility. Mobility

and transport have never been closer to public space, urban living environments, and

spatial qualities that in the past took second place behind functionality. We have

indeed arrived in a new era of urban development and responsibility, an era that is,

however, not so far from the good European city of past centuries. We need methods,

models, and solutions for the complex demands of the present and future. We need

updated typologies as well as answers for urban and spatial development. Furthermore,

we need formats in which every competence that wants to make a contribution

also has its place and role.

This is the only way to understand each other and for competent collaboration

to succeed. The current dynamic is a great opportunity for us to demand quality

standards and benchmarks for good city planning, because willingness to invest

has never been greater, nor has willingness to accept the necessary “return to public”


Wehrhahn line: transport project with artistic aspirations

and added value for the inner city

80

Wehrhahn line, subway station Benrather Straße, artist: Thomas Stricker

The Wehrhahn line provides an array of positive impulses for the urban development in ong>Düsseldorfong>:

it brings together the objectives of the planners and the municipality, namely to create a functioning

transport structure, to establish open spaces for an architecturally appealing new urban

area, and to make the subway stations themselves attractive places to linger. Furthermore, the

construction itself was special: from November 2007 to February 2016, a new subway tunnel

was excavated during ongoing operation, underneath ong>Düsseldorfong>’s busy, dense inner city. Apart

from the use of a tunnel boring machine, the underpinning of the listed building of the department

store on Königsallee was a noteworthy constructional undertaking. The Heinrich-Heine-

Allee train station below the department store was built using a mining construction method,

protected by a freezing unit which had sealing elements against in-situ groundwater.

Opened on February 20, 2016, the Wehrhahn line today provides new local public transport

qualities as a central inner-city connection. At the same time, it is the main reason why the former

Jan-Wellem-Platz lost its importance as a central transport hub, thereby creating an important

basis for the restructuring of the “heart of the city.”

When planning the six new subway stations of the Wehrhahn line, the city of ong>Düsseldorfong>

ventured down a completely new avenue. The artistic design of the stations was not based on

previously established construction guidelines. Instead, the architects and artists drafted the

concept of the stations, starting with an international architectural competition in 2000, together

with subway planners and engineers. The Darmstadt-based architecture firm netzwerkarchitekten

emerged as the winners of the competition—with the idea of an “underground continuum,”

meandering through the city as a type of independent parallel underground world. The stations

are widenings of the tunnel and connected with the city by means of above-ground openings:

each designed as a large, funnel-shaped space resembling a magnifying glass casting its cone

of light into the darkness. Other characteristic features are the design of the concrete surfaces,

evoking the security pattern of a passport, and lighting with asymmetrical wall and ceiling

floodlights that make the stations shimmer in a uniform light. In addition, it is easy to see into

the stations, thus ensuring good orientation. The netzwerkarchitekten team supported the

selected artists from ong>Düsseldorfong> (Ralf Brög, Ursula Damm, Manuel Franke, Enne Haehnle, Heike

Klussmann, and Thomas Stricker) in the implementation of their design concepts for the subway

stations.


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

81

PRIZES AND NOMINATIONS FOR THE WEHRHAHN LINE

All the stations of the Wehrhahn line were built according to a clear basic concept.

This included distinctive light shafts that allow natural daylight to penetrate as far

as the platforms. This resulted in a sophisticated architecture that has won multiple

awards in the meantime.

→ BDA Architecture Award, Nike for Atmosphere, 2019

→ Halstenberg commendation, prize of the German Academy for Urban

Development and Regional Planning (DASL), 2018

→ BDA Architecture Award NRW, distinction, 2018

→ Good Building Award BDA ong>Düsseldorfong>, distinction, 2017

→ CODAawards, distinction, 2017

→ Mies van der Rohe Award, nomination, 2017

→ Award of Deutsches Architekturmuseum in Frankfurt, shortlist, 2017

→ Tunneling Award, finalist, 2016

→ World Architecture Festival, finalist, 2016

→ iconic awards, German Design Council, winner, 2016

→ STUVA Prize, winner, 2015

→ Building of the Year (underpinning of department store

on the Kö), AIV ong>Düsseldorfong>, 2014

Wehrhahn line, subway station Graf-Adolf-Platz, artitst: Manuel Franke


STRATEGIEN, PROGRAMME UND PROJEKTE_X

The city, the Rhine, and new quarters

on the waterfront

96

KAI FISCHER


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

97

Tip of the harbor with Hyatt Hotel

CONTINUITY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITY

Two projects in the 1980s/90s decisively shaped the city development of ong>Düsseldorfong>: the Rhine

embankment tunnel and the Rhine embankment promenade celebrated their twenty-fifth

anniversary in the summer of 2019. The incorporation of the Rhine into the city was no doubt

the biggest urban development leap in the more recent history of the city. In the context of the

“Blaugrüner Ring” (Blue-green Ring) project, there are currently discussions about an extension

of the promenade towards the north.

The development of the Media Harbor, on the other hand, is a continuous process that

started at the beginning of the 1980s and has been regaining significant momentum in recent

years. It started with the construction of the Rhine Tower (1982), the new building of the Landtag

of North Rhine-Westphalia (1988), the building of the WDR studio ong>Düsseldorfong>, and the Rhine

Park Bilk, the latter in the neighboring district of Unterbilk. From 1989, the second phase was

realized. The goal was a modern office and service quarter that incorporated existing buildings

worth preserving. The creative mix of old buildings and modern architecture was to provide

space for the settlement of companies, especially from the media sector.

With the construction of the “Dancing Houses,” the Gehry buildings at Neuer Zollhof,

the Media Harbor was endowed with its own architectural landmark in 1999. International star

architecture now characterizes the cityscape at the waterfront.

City planning and urban development in the twenty-first century should now place a

greater focus on public space and the mix of uses, in other words on the vitality of the urban

quarter.

EXTENSION OF THE RHINE EMBANKMENT PROMENADE TO THE SOUTH

Despite the short distance between Burgplatz and the Media Harbor, there is a break to the

southwest of the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia, a missing link between the Rhine

embankment promenade and the harbor. Closing this and at the same time adding a further

building block to the parliament and government quarter is the aim of the Landtag extension

on an area currently used as a car park right by the Rhine Tower.


THE CITY, THE RHINE, AND NEW QUARTERS ON THE WATERFRONT

98

Bridges provide access to the ong>Düsseldorfong> harbor for pedestrians and cyclists.


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

99


OBERKASSEL

Media Harbor

THE BEACH

BREMER STRASSE 67

Auf der Lausward

WIN WIN – THE ONE AND ONLY

SPEDITIONSTRASSE

HAFEN

HIGH POINT QUAY PROMENADE

KESSELSTRASSE

Hamburger Straße

THE CRADLE

SPEDITIONSTRASSE 2

Bremer Straße

PIER ONE

KESSELSTRASSE

Weizenmühlenstraße

Holzstraße

Kesselstraße

Speditionstraße

Holzstraße

KAISTRASSE 1

KAISTRASSE 1

Kaistraße

Hammerstraße

Am Handelshafen

HIGH POINT HEAD OF HARBOR

KESSELSTRASSE

H 27

HAMMER STRASSE 27

FLOAT

FRANZIUSSTRASSE 6

C-VIEW OFFICES

FRINGSSTRASSE 15

MYHIVE MEDIENHAFEN

KESSELSTRASSE 7

TRIVAGO HEADQUARTERS

KESSELSTRASSE 5

HAMM


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

103

PIER ONE, KESSELSTRASSE

Office, commerce, gastronomy, parking

ARCHITECT

ingenhoven architects

OWNER/INVESTOR

Harbour Properties

GFA

20,000 m2

COMPLETION

2022/23


Urban upgrade

STRATEGIEN, PROGRAMME UND PROJEKTE_X

118

JUDITH ARTMANN

PETRA BRANDNER

ANETTE GRIESSER

JENNIFER HAHN

HANS-DIETER JANSEN

BARBARA REKOWSKI

JAN STÖFER

CORNELIA ZUSCHKE

ong>Düsseldorfong> is a city with international relevance — however, the city does

not have that one striking landmark or building that makes it distinctive

in the way it is perceived from the outside. Instead, the facets undoubtedly

attributed to ong>Düsseldorfong> — state capital, trade fair city, fashion city,

home to international companies etc. — do not have a direct spatial

dimension. However, if one immerses oneself in the city, one notices its

convincing individuality in the interplay of elements and structures.

ong>Düsseldorfong> focuses less on one spectacular feature and more on the

special distinctiveness of each individual area as a basis for a quality of

life across the board. The focus is therefore not on glitzy but on solid,

high-quality projects that strengthen the city and its manifold functions.

Those that are currently being implemented or planned in various

locations, which represent special showpieces for the city, will be presented

in the following. The focus is, on the one hand, on two im portant

entrance gateways. Here, new developments — especially the construction

of high points — will provide further positive impulses and noticeably

upgrade the entrances to the city in future, which are today largely

characterized by difficult structures within the cityscape.

In addition, the chapter takes a more in-depth look at the developments

in the central inner-city area, where important infrastructure

projects have opened up the possibility of creating new urban structures

of high quality. Last but not least, the new urban developments at and

around the main railway station are presented.


Kennedydamm as development axis:

restructuring and new perspectives in the north

119

View of Kennedydamm

The Kennedydamm in ong>Düsseldorfong>’s Golzheim district forms one of the central entrance situations

to the city center — consequently, the urban development and spatial design of the whole

quarter is of special importance to ong>Düsseldorfong>. Many building projects along the important

transport axis are currently planned or are about to be realized. These include several high

points, which will make this major restructuring process particularly noticeable both for the

citizens and for visitors to the city. The individual construction concepts and ideas are not only

architecturally appealing and innovative in their design language and use of materials, they also

embark on new and exciting avenues in the context of the urban space and thereby enable new

perspectives. For example, they not only open up towards the public space on the ground floor

but reinterpret verticality with new access levels or fit carefully around existing buildings.

However, this is not the only reason why the development of this central city gateway in

Golzheim is of elementary importance for the state capital ong>Düsseldorfong>. After all, apart from this

spatial and developmental transformation of the area that is shaping the cityscape, current

topics and various building blocks determine its development: the mobility shift has been

heralded and is gaining momentum. The use requirements are in a process of constant change.

High-rise projects primarily with office use must therefore be taken into consideration, as well as

the conversion of the former Golzheim Campus, whose transformation will redefine the northern

area of Kennedydamm. City climate and microclimatic considerations are increasingly gaining in

public awareness.

To prevent the danger of an autonomous development of the respective individual projects,

all the framework conditions, as well as potential synergies, were considered as a whole

and discussed with affected project developers, investors, architects, incorporating experts

and the public. How can the area be integrated into the urban space? What does a municipally

and socially acceptable development of high-rises look like? How can open spaces be given a

high-quality and functional design and be linked? What intelligent transport strategies do exist

that meet the increasing demands regarding mobility and at the same time raise the attractiveness

of the location? These and other questions were the focus of a process that ultimately

brought forth fundamental principles that will shape the further development of the city.


URBAN UPGRADE

130

NEUSSER STRASSE/LAHNWEG:

URBAN QUARTER AT THE SOUTHERN ENTRANCE TO THE RHINE EMBANKMENT TUNNEL

There is also something happening where Völklinger Straße enters the Rhine embankment tunnel.

In February 2019, a new development plan came into effect for the former Siemens Campus in

the area between Neusser Straße and Lahnweg, which had been abandoned for years.

This lays the foundations for the revitalization of the area and the development of a housing

and commercial quarter that is integrated into the heterogenous urban neighborhood and

generates high-quality architecture and open spaces. Office and other commercial uses are to

be created on around 40,000 square meters. In addition, more than one hundred new housing

units and a daycare center are planned on the site. The structural basis is a design by the firm

caspar. (formerly meyerschmitzmorkramer) (ong>Düsseldorfong>). The concept envisages two new urban

perimeter developments derived from the historical ground plan of the city. A seventeen-story

office tower as an eye-catching feature on Völklinger Straße gives the western building structure

a special touch. By taking up the surrounding contours and the historical roads, a central

boulevard emerges that is to be reserved for pedestrians and cyclists.

Urban planning concept by the office caspar. (formerly meyerschmitzmorkramer), winning design in the 2016 competition


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

131

PANDION VÖLKLINGER STRASSE, VÖLKLINGER STRASSE 2

Housing, commerce

ARCHITECT

caspar. (formerly meyerschmitzmorkramer)

OWNER/INVESTOR

PANDION AG

GFA

55,000 m2 (whole site)

COMPLETION

2023


URBAN UPGRADE

132

MIZAL – VISIONS ON CAMPUS, VÖLKLINGER STRASSE/CORNER OF PLOCKSTRASSE

Campus, office

ARCHITECT

Eller + Eller Architekten GmbH

OWNER/INVESTOR

Codic Development GmbH

GFA

36,800 m2

COMPLETION

2021


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

133


URBAN UPGRADE

144

NEW QUARTER ON HARKORTSTRASSE

Bordering the ong>Düsseldorfong> main station to the south, between Harkortstraße, Graf-Adolf-Straße,

Konrad-Adenauer-Platz, and the railway lines, is the site of the former car shuttle station. The

cessation of this use led to the task of finding a new purpose for the approximately four-acre

site in a prominent inner-city location.

As part of a quality-control procedure, the utilization concept — hotel, gastronomy, smallscale

retail units — was conceptualized as regards urban development. A revitalization of the

main station area as far as Mintropplatz was to be initiated by means of an urban development

plan adapted to the surroundings. The design by the firm greeen! architects was selected, followed

by a formal procedure. It proposes, amongst other things, the creation of a new pathway connection

between Konrad-Adenauer-Platz and Mintropplatz, which makes the new area accessible

to the public. Along the new pathway, there is a row of three building volumes that are structurally

connected at ground-floor level. They will house hotels, while gastronomic uses are

planned for the (partially) public ground-floor zones. The proposed vitalization will radiate a

positive charisma on the surrounding train station area and its quarters. Completion of the

building measures is planned for early 2022.

GRAND CENTRAL: “THE THREE SIBLINGS”

Right behind the main station, between Kölner Straße, Erkrather Straße, and Moskauer Straße,

the Grand Central project is being developed on the site of the former post distribution center. On

an area of 11 acres, around 1,000 new housing units and a hotel will be built above an underground

garage. New shops will supply the quarter, and two daycare centers are planned.

The urban planning concept consists of three high-rises, each with a height of around sixty

meters. The so-called “three siblings” are integrated into four urban blocks with green interior

courtyards. The district provides the link between the main train station (south side) and the

cultural uses of the tanzhaus nrw (dance house) and the Capitol theatre. The architecture firms

Delugan Meissl, J. MAYER H., and Eller + Eller are involved in the project. Each firm is commissioned

with realizing one of the three high-rises in their own architectural language.

IMPULSES FOR THE RAILWAY STATION AREA

The revitalization of public space and the integration of all user groups and types of mobility

are the greatest challenge for long-term urban development. In the wake of impulse-giving

development, adjoining quarters experience more intensive attention and thus also become

the focus of planning. The railway station district occupies a key position in this. Since 2013,

the area around the railway station has been granted district development funds under the

name “Development concept inner city south-east (EKISO),” with the generous support of the

state of North Rhine- Westphalia. Selected building measures provided impulses for a positive

perception of the quarter.

Professional initiatives are also working on this in parallel, taking up the social matters in

the area around the railway station. For example, there is the “City Center” district project by the

ong>Düsseldorfong> deaconry (www.diakonie-duesseldorf.de), which is trying to promote the “wellbeing

factors” of the district and thereby generate a positive internal attitude in this area. At the same

time, the artist and curator Markus Ambach is working on the long-term project “About foreign

countries in our own cities,” which through many events and installations “wants to place the

focus on the thoughts and actions of those who are jointly seeking the open future of one of

the last exceptional urban spaces” (www.markusambachprojekte.de).

The initiatives show that interest in positive development, particularly in the railway station

area, is especially wide and that it is clear to those involved that a great challenge lies in the

limitation caused by social and design deficits.


PEMPELFORT

DÜSSELTAL

Railway station area

FLINGERN NORD

KAP1 DÜSSELDORF

KONRAD-ADENAUER-PLATZ 1

GRAND CENTRAL

ERKRATHER STRASSE 33

STATION FORECOURT + HIGH POINT

KONRAD-ADENAUER-PLATZ

THREE INTERNATIONAL HOTELS

HARKORTSTRASSE 14

FRIEDRICHSTADT

OBERBILK


ong>Metropolisong> for living:

strategies and operative avenues

KAI FISCHER

HOUSING

Number of new apartments more than doubled*

4000

3500

3753

forecast

3500

3000

2911

3056 3056

3028

2500

2267

2000

1500

1000

1084 1136 1129 1129

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

* Five-year comparison

Number of approved apartements, source: IT NRW/Office for Statistics and Elections of the state capital ong>Düsseldorfong>;

2011/12 and 2015/16 Average values due to statistical deviation


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

159

Project by ong>Düsseldorfong>er Wohnungsgenossenschaft eG (DWG) on Kalkumer Schloßallee

GROWTH THROUGH DEMAND

The state capital ong>Düsseldorfong> faces the same challenge as Münster, Cologne, and Bonn, or — on

a wider geographical scale — Berlin, Munich, and Frankfurt. The massive influx into attractive

cities that started some years ago continues unabated. Who would have predicted such a

development around the turn of the millennium?

For years, too little housing — especially publicly subsidized — was built to keep up with the

resulting demand. There is no alternative but to catch up with this, despite all the difficulties.

The attractiveness of the state capital ong>Düsseldorfong>, the economic prosperity with many well-paid

jobs, the high quality of life, and the high recreational value bring a continual population

increase. According to prognoses, the 700,000-inhabitant mark will already be exceeded by

the middle of the century. This figure was last achieved at the beginning of the 1960s — but

with significantly fewer square meters of living space per inhabitant.

Consistently high demand coupled with a stagnating supply means higher rents and

property prices. To halt the rent increase or to keep it to an affordable limit, purely regulatory

political measures alone will scarcely suffice. The Misappropriation Statute issued in September

2019 by the council of the state capital — the prohibition of converting housing for commercial

use, especially commercial renting to tourists via Airbnb — is an important step. However, there

is no other option but to create additional living space in the long term. Building land development

in conjunction with private property owners and on the basis of clear, reliable rules provides a

set of tools for this. It is also important to strengthen cooperatives, housing associations,

especially the municipal housing association, and to operate a municipal property policy oriented

towards affordable housing.

OBJECTIVES AND METHODS OF THE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION POLICY

The goal of completing of 3,000 housing units per year over the long term is the core of the

municipal housing construction policy. In recent years, the number of building permits has

already reached this target. One can therefore be optimistic that the completion figures will

follow suit in future. Long-term means that the identification of suitable plots and the carrying

out of planning processes up to the issuing of building permits is and remains a continuous

process. As part of the Housing Action Plan, further housing potentials in the urban area are

continuously being examined. The basis for this is the ong>Düsseldorfong> planning principles: inner

densification before outward urban sprawl, protection of existing green areas, fresh air corridors

and parks, as well as a prioritization of the conversion of wasteland and formerly commercially

or industrially used sites.


METROPOLIS FOR LIVING: STRATEGIES AND OPERATIVE AVENUES

166

BENRATHER GÄRTEN, HILDENER STRASSE 80

Mainly housing, commerce, office

ARCHITECT OF THE URBAN DESIGN

Schellenberg + Bäumler Architekten GmbH

OWNER/INVESTOR

CG Gruppe AG

GFA

280,000 m2 (above-ground)

COMPLETION

2028


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

167

GRAFENTAL, HOHENZOLLERNALLEE

Housing

ARCHITECT

Konrath & Wennemar Architekten

OWNER/INVESTOR

Grafental GmbH & Co. KG

GFA

238,200 m2

COMPLETION

Approx. 2024


PIONEER FOR THE SCHOOL OF THE FUTURE

180

Feasibility study by RKW Architektur +: After having been located in the immediate vicinity of the Kö for more than 110 years, the municipal Luisen

Gymnasium is to be relocated to a large site on Völkinger Straße. The new school is scheduled to start operations in 2024 with four parallel classes

per grade and a sports hall.


STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS

181


A new highlight on the Rhine:

House of History North Rhine-Westphalia in

the Mannesmann building by Peter Behrens

DIETER NELLEN


187

The Behrens building on the Mannesmannufer will be the home of the new state museum House of History North Rhine-Westphalia.

DISCOVERING THE HISTORY OF NORTH RHINE-WESTPHALIA

North Rhine-Westphalia was founded in 1946 by the British military administration

as the most populous state in its occupation zone as well as in the subsequent federal

republic. The territorial-conceptual basis was formed by the Prussian provinces in

the west, existing since 1815, and the spatial development plans for a merger of the

Rhineland and Westphalia, already drawn up at the time of the Weimar Republic.

In 2021, North Rhine-Westphalia will celebrate its seventy-fifth anniversary. Up

until now, the federal state has been defined historically and politically primarily

through its high-profile regions, in other words the Rhineland, Westphalia, and the

Ruhr area, with only secondary importance accorded to its state identity that has

matured since its foundation. In public consciousness, North Rhine-Westphalia has

therefore primarily been the sum of its regions.

In view of this background, a rich historical-political landscape developed right

across North Rhine-Westphalia — with a dense network of impressive regional museums

and institutions. In terms of urban planning, the respective state governments

restricted themselves to a rather functional and purposeful cityscape in the state

capital ong>Düsseldorfong>. Only the Landtag building designed by architect Fritz Eller has

represented a distinctive reference point since 1988 and has driven a redevelopment

along the southern Rhine embankment that is taking effect to this day.

The differentiated variety of the North Rhine-Westphalian history should not be

fundamentally altered but experience an extension and be given a framework through

a House of History North Rhine-Westphalia in the state capital. The initiative has met

with general approval. At the end of 2019, the North Rhine-Westphalian state government

therefore unanimously agreed on an independent foundation for a House of


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The copyright for the texts is held by the authors.

The copyright for the images is held by the photographers/owners of the image rights.

All rights reserved.

Editors for the city of ong>Düsseldorfong>:

Thomas Geisel, Dieter Nellen, and Cornelia Zuschke

Coordination: Dieter Schneider-Bichel

Concept and chief editor: Dieter Nellen

Editorial and organization team: Judith Artmann, Linda vom Bauer, Andreas Eberhöfer, Kai Fischer,

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Project management publisher: Theresa Hartherz, jovis, Berlin

Translation: Lynne Kolar-Thompson, Feld am See

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Design: Anna Węsek, buchtypo, ong>Düsseldorfong>

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