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Active IQ Level 3 Diploma in Gym Instructing and Personal Training (sample manual)

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The neuromuscular system

Section 2

To summarise:

• Whole muscle is wrapped in epimysium.

• Bundles of fibres, or fasciculi, are wrapped in perimysium.

• Single muscle fibres are wrapped in endomysium.

• Myofibrils are located inside single fibres.

• Myofilaments – myosin and actin ‒ are located inside sarcomeres.

Sliding filament theory

The sliding filament theory was proposed by

Huxley in 1954 to explain the contraction of

skeletal muscle. The theory states that the

myofilaments, actin (a thin protein strand)

and myosin (a thick protein strand) slide

over each other, creating a shortening of

the sarcomere (the contractile units in the

muscle where myosin and actin are found),

which causes the shortening or lengthening

of the entire muscle. The myofilaments do

not decrease in length themselves.

This proposed action is accomplished by

the unique structure of the protein, myosin.

The myosin filaments are shaped like golf

clubs and form cross bridges with the actin

filaments. Each myosin molecule (there

are many) has two projecting heads. These

heads attach to the actin filaments and

pull them in closer.

Actin filament

Myosin filament

Muscle fibre

Myofibril

Principles of anatomy, physiology and fitness

Stimulus from the nervous system and the

release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

– the high-energy molecule stored on the

myosin head – provide the impetus for the

head to ‘nod’ in what is termed the ‘power

stroke’. It is this nodding action which

‘slides’ the thin actin filaments over the

thick myosin filaments. The myosin head

then binds with another ATP molecule,

causing it to detach from the actin-binding

site, which is known as the ‘recovery

stroke’. It is then able to attach to the next

binding site and perform the same routine.

SARCOMERE IS RELAXED

SARCOMERE IS CONTRACTED

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Nervous system anatomy

Every system depends on other

systems for optimal functioning.

The body is a living structure comprised of many

fi nely integrated and interconnected systems.

Each system can be described independently and

separately, but it is important to remember that they

are actually interdependent.

To give a very basic example of the interconnection: the skeletal system of bones and joints provides

the framework; the muscles generate movement of the skeletal framework; the heart and circulatory

system pump oxygen and nutrients to fuel the muscles; the respiratory system takes in oxygen

and removes waste products; the nervous system is the control centre responsible for overseeing

and responding to all demands and actions; and the digestive system breaks down and stores the

nutrients required for energy production.

Skeletal anatomy

Digestive anatomy

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KEY LEGAL AND REGULATORY

REQUIREMENTS

Health and Safety at Work Act, 1974

Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences

Regulations, 2013 (RIDDOR)

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, 2002 (COSHH)

Manual Handling Operations Regulations, 1992

Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations, 1981

DUTY OF CARE

FOR FITNESS

PROFESSIONALS:

Personal safety

Client safety

Environmental safety

Equipment safety

HOW A FITNESS

PROFESSIONAL

MAINTAINS SAFETY

OF THE GYM:

Supervision of the gym environment

Handover

Maintenance checks

Following Normal Operating Procedures

Following Emergency Action Plans

Reporting of incidents and accidents

HAZARDS

IN A FITNESS

ENVIRONMENT:

Facilities

Equipment

Working practices

Clients

Client behaviour

Security

Hygiene

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Healthy Eating and hydration

Eatwell Guide

Energy

1046kJ

250kcal

13%

Check the label on

packaged foods

Each serving (150g) contains

Fat Saturates Sugars Salt

3.0g 1.3g 34g 0.9g

LOW LOW HIGH MED

4%

7%

38%

15%

of an adult’s reference intake

Typical values (as sold) per 100g: 697kJ/ 167kcal

Choose foods lower

in fat, salt and sugars

Frozen

peas

Use the Eatwell Guide to help you get a balance of healthier and more sustainable food. It

shows how much of what you eat overall should come from each food group.

Fruit and vegetables

Chopped

tomatoes

Eat at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables every day

Raisins

Eatwell Guide

Lentils

Potatoes

Whole

grain

cereal

Choose wholegrain or higher fibre versions with less added fat, salt and sugar

Cous

Cous

Porridge

Potatoes, bread, rice, pasta and other starchy carbohydrates

Whole

wheat

pasta

Bagels

Rice

6-8

a day

Water, lower fat

milk, sugar-free

drinks including

tea and coffee all

count.

Limit fruit juice

and/or smoothies

to a total of

150ml a day.

Tuna

Beans

lower

salt

and

sugar

s Low fat

oft cheese

Spaghetti

Crisps

Plain

nut

nuts

Chick

peas

Lean

mince

Semi

skimmed

milk

Soya

drink

Plain

Low fat

yoghurt

Veg

Oil

Lower fat

spread

Sauce

Eat less often and

in small amounts

Beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and other proteins

Eat more beans and pulses, 2 portions of sustainably

sourced fish per week, one of which is oily. Eat less

red and processed meat

Dairy and alternatives

Choose lower fat and

lower sugar options

Per day 2000kcal

Oil & spreads

Choose unsaturated oils

and use in small amounts

2500kcal = ALL FOOD + ALL DRINKS

Source: Public Health England in association with the Welsh Government, Food Standards Scotland and the Food Standards Agency in Northern Ireland © Crown copyright 2016

CARBOHYDRATE

ENERGY

PROTEIN

GROWTH AND REPAIR

FAT

ENERGY AND INSULATION

FATS

Oily fi sh

Avocado

Olive oil

Healthy eating guidelines

Calorie intake

MEN:

2,500

calories / day

WOMEN:

2,000

calories / day

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GOOD Base your meals on starchy carbohydrates


Eat lots of fruit and veg (at least 5

portions per day)


Eat more fi sh – two portions, including

1 portion of oily fi sh

Cut down on saturated fat and sugar


Eat less salt – no more than 6g a day for

adults

Get active and be a healthy weight


Maintain healthy hydration levels

(drink 6–8 glasses o f water every day)


Don’t skip breakfast

BAD FATS

Pumpkin seeds

Red meat

Cheese

Cream

Crisps


Section 1

Understanding how to plan gym-based exercise

Body weight exercises

PRESS-UP

Start

Finish

Muscles worked

• Pectoralis.

• Triceps brachii.

• Deltoids (anterior).

Teaching points

• Prone position with arms extended and

feet in contact with floor.

• Body aligned; head, shoulder, hip, knee

and ankle.

• Neutral spine and abdominals

engaged.

• Bend the elbows to lower chest

towards floor.

• Extend elbows to return to start

position.

• Elbows unlocked.

• Repeat for desired repetitions.

Options

• Box position with knees under hips.

• Three-quarter position on thighs.

• Perform against a wall (across gravity).

CHIN-UP – PRONATED GRIP, JUST WIDER THAN SHOULDER WIDTH.

PULL-UP – SUPINATED GRIP, SHOULDER WIDTH.

Start Start Teaching points

Finish

Finish

• Grip bar using relevant hand

position.

• Feet crossed.

• Spine neutral, abdominals

braced, arms extended but

unlocked, shoulders away

from ears.

• Pull body upwards towards

bar.

• Lower body under control to

start position.

• Repeat for desired

repetitions.

Muscles worked

Options

• Latissimus dorsi and posterior deltoid (shoulder extension).

• Middle trapezius and rhomboids (shoulder girdle retraction).

• Lower trapezius (shoulder girdle depression).

• Biceps brachii (elbow flexion).

• Lat pull-down.

• Assisted chin-up or pull-up

machine.

22

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Unit 1

Section 1: The cardiovascular system

Heart valves

Heart valves are formed from tough connective tissue and are made up of cusps, or flaps, that cover the entrance

or exit to a vessel or chamber. They open and close passively, either sucked into place or blown open depending on

the differential pressure in each chamber or vessel.

• Semilunar valves lie between the ventricles and arteries and prevent backflow of blood from the chamber

to the vessel. The aortic semilunar valve separates the left ventricle and the aorta, and the pulmonary

semilunar valve separates the right ventricle and pulmonary artery.

• Atrioventricular (AV) valves lie between the atria and ventricles and prevent backflow of blood from the

upper to lower chambers. The left AV valve is also known as the bicuspid valve (two cusps) or the mitral valve.

The right AV valve is also known as the tricuspid valve (three cusps).

Figure 1.1 The valves of the heart

Contraction of the heart

SA node

The stimulation starts in the sinoatrial

(SA) node.

The heart is stimulated to contract by a complex series of integrated

systems. The heart’s pacemaker – the sinoatrial (SA) node – initiates the

cardiac muscle contraction. The SA node is located in the wall of the right

atrium (see Figure 1.2). The heart muscle is stimulated to contract about

72 times per minute.

Atria contract

The interconnected cardiac muscle

fibres pass the impulse across the atria.

AV node

The atrioventricular (AV) node

is stimulated and allows the full

contraction of the atria before

stimulating the ventricular muscle to

contract.

Ventricles contract

The AV node stimulates the ventricular

muscles to contract.

Figure 1.2 The contraction of the heart

8

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Unit 5

Section 2: Periodisation

Section 2: Periodisation

Programme periodisation is defined as: ‘The logical and systematic sequencing of training factors in an integrative

fashion in order to optimise specific training outcomes at pre-determined time points’ (Bompa and Haff, 2009).

Principles of periodisation

The basic principle of periodisation is to break long-term programming into separate blocks of training. Each block

is designed to progress a client towards a specific goal and elicit a specific adaptive response. These blocks are

called phases or cycles.

A periodised programme can be a strictly controlled structure that aims to improve elite competitive sporting

performance. In this form, the periodised plan could last a year or more. For example, an athlete who is working

towards peak performance at a World Cup or at the Olympics could follow a periodised plan which lasts four years.

Periodised plans can also be useful tools when working with general fitness and health-related clients as they

can help to minimise the risk of plateau or exhaustion whilst maximising progression, as well as add variety into a

programme to encourage adherence and enjoyment.

General adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Selye’s general adaptation syndrome theory (1984) was initially developed to explain how we cope with life in

general, however it has since been used to explain how we respond to and cope with the stresses placed on the

body during exercise (Baechle et al., 2000; Bompa and Haff, 2009). This theory also explains why periodisation and

variation are necessary within progressive programmes.

GAS – Adaptive responses to a new stimulus/stressor

Stressor Phase 1 Phase 2

Alarm phase

Resistance phase

2a - Adaptation

2b - Plateau

Phase 3

Exhaustion

Figure 2.1 General adaptation systems

When a new training stimulus is introduced, the body initially goes into a type of shock (phase 1 – alarm phase)

which leads to a decrease in performance. The alarm phase can last from several days to several weeks. During

this phase the client may experience increased fatigue, muscle soreness and stiffness, and reduced coordination

and performance.

The body will then begin to adapt to the new stimuli and enter the resistance phase. The first part of this phase

(phase 2a – adaptation phase) involves significant change as the body makes a range of physiological adaptations

in response to the demands being placed upon it (e.g. cardiovascular, respiratory and neuromuscular adaptations).

238

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Toolkit

Section 1: Risk stratification models

Section 1: Risk stratification

models

The risk stratification pyramid

High risk

Clinical exercise

Specialist sessions

Moderate/Medium risk

Advanced Instructor (2)

Referral scheme

Low risk

Advanced Instructor (1)

Referral scheme

Apparently healthy

Level 2 instructor

General exercise programmes

Logic model for risk stratification

1

YES

KNOWN CONDITIONS

(CV, pulmonary or metabolic)

CVD/PVD/Stroke/COPD/Asthma/Cystic fibrosis/Diabetes/Thyroid disorders.

NO

HIGH RISK

CLINICALLY

SUPERVISED

PROGRAMME

2

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Angina pain or discomfort/shortness of breath at rest or mild

exertion/dizziness or syncope/ankle oedema/palpitations or

tachycardia/intermittent claudication/known heart murmur/

unusual fatigue or shortness of breath with usual activities.

YES

NO

HIGH RISK

CLINICALLY

SUPERVISED

PROGRAMME

3

CVD RISK FACTORS

Age, family history,

smoking, sedentary,

obesity, hypertension,

dyslipidaemia, pre-diabetes.

MORE THAN 2 OF

THE ABOVE

MODERATE RISK

SUPERVISED

PROGRAMME-

LEVEL 3

EXERCISE

REFERRAL

LESS THAN 2 OF

THE ABOVE

LOW RISK

UNSUPERVISED

PROGRAMME

312

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