Dive Pacific 175 Dec2020 Jan 2021

Dive Pacific, New Zealand's Dive Magazine , captures the best of diving in New Zealand and the Pacific. with adventures, top photos and expert technical advice

Dive Pacific, New Zealand's Dive Magazine , captures the best of diving in New Zealand and the Pacific. with adventures, top photos and expert technical advice


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ISSUE <strong>175</strong> - $9.90 inc GST<br />

December / <strong>Jan</strong>uary <strong>2021</strong><br />



P A C I F I C<br />


P A C I F I C<br />

Kermadecs<br />

spectacular<br />

LOCKDOWN tales: How are<br />

our dive operators faring?<br />

How COVID can affect divers:<br />

THE definitive advice<br />

Cousteau on<br />

plankton, whales<br />

& trophic cascades<br />

www.<strong>Dive</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong>.com<br />


What counting fish in the PKI, Moks is telling us<br />

Top NZ dive destinations for the summer<br />

Spearfishing Nationals, UW Hockey wins, EMR & Freediving Updates<br />

PLUS World Wildlife Photo Winners & spectacular NIWA<br />

www.dive-pacific.com<br />

staff photos<br />

1<br />


2 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

ASB Showgrounds, Greenlane, Auckland<br />

13–16 MAY, <strong>2021</strong><br />

Put these dates in your diary now!<br />

The latest boats, motors, trailers & accessories.<br />

Amazing prizes that MUST BE WON!<br />

Free fishing tips & expert advice.<br />

NZ’s biggest fishing supermarket.<br />

Buy your tickets online now (they make great Xmas gifts!)<br />

and get even more chances to win!<br />

www.boatshow.co.nz www.dive-pacific.com 1

contents<br />

Photo: <strong>Jan</strong>in Alliston<br />

31<br />

48<br />

IN DEPTH<br />

5 EDITORIAL: NZUA President Tristan Reynard outlines the future being<br />

mapped out for their new acquisition, this magazine<br />

SOUNDINGS Local and international news & comment<br />

4 Winner of Kelly Tarlton Award presented<br />

9 Snapper research on North Island west coast; Bob Brown Foundation<br />

greets Antarctica fishing ship with NOT welcome.<br />

10 The future of diving is green<br />

Megladon’s hugeness off the scale<br />

Perfect balance by Andrés Luis Dominguez Blanco, Spain<br />

Winner 2020, 10 years and under<br />

17<br />

11 Our blue economy: Big prospect<br />

Marine biodiversity scholar awarded prestigious fellowship<br />

12 Massive great white shark Unama’ki spotted south of Miami<br />

Snake eel dangles from heron’s stomach midair<br />

Glacier melting threatens mega tsunami<br />

13 General Marine goes full circle<br />

14 Titiro kit e Moana - EMR will take you under<br />

16 William Trubridge to go for new deep diving record<br />

Tauranga U18’s win Underwater Hockey championship<br />

Proposed changes to CRA3 minimum legal size crays<br />

26 Marine heatwave conditions forming: NIWA<br />

Chance leads to first look at coral larvae<br />

62 DIAG highlights diver diversity<br />

Worksafe issues divers COVID 19 Safety Alert<br />

28<br />

73 CLOSE CALLS (underwater) and two other book titles to consider<br />



6 When <strong>Dive</strong> mag was free: a brief history,<br />

BACK IN THE DAY with Dave Moran<br />

19 Cousteau reports on: Tiny animals and their critical importance on<br />

entire oceanic food webs, with Holly Lohuis<br />

20 LOCKDOWN tales: How did COVID impact our dive industry?<br />

31 Every year NIWA holds a staff photo competition.<br />

Here’s a sample of the entries!<br />

55<br />

43 What counting fish at the Poor Knights, and Mokihinaus is telling us.<br />

Marine biologist Harry Allard has the update<br />

47 Paulo the fisherman makes an underwater museum<br />

48 Winners from the UK’s Natural History Museum WORLD WILDLIFE<br />


55 TecFest is on again next May! “At TecFest we don’t just talk about<br />

technical diving, we actually get you in the water to experience it!”<br />

63 Are you a good <strong>Dive</strong> Buddy? With dive Instructor Andy Stewart<br />

2 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>


P A C I F I C<br />

ISSUE <strong>175</strong> - $9.90 inc GST<br />

December / <strong>Jan</strong>uary <strong>2021</strong><br />


P A C I F I C<br />


P A C I F I C<br />

LOCKDOWN tales: How are<br />

our dive operators faring?<br />

How COVID can affect divers:<br />

THE definitive advice<br />

www.<strong>Dive</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong>.com<br />

Kermadecs<br />

spectacular<br />

Cousteau on<br />

plankton, whales<br />

& trophic cascades<br />


What counting fish in the PKI, Moks is telling us<br />

Top NZ dive destinations for the summer<br />

Spearfishing Nationals, UW Hockey wins, EMR & Freediving Updates<br />

PLUS World Wildlife Photo Winners & spectacular NIWA www.dive-pacific.com staff photos 1 (!)<br />

Once is not enough for the<br />

Kermadecs. A Blue Dragon, a<br />

pelagic nudibranch, (Glaucus Sp.)<br />

takes a close look at a By the<br />

Wind Sailor at the Kermadec<br />

Islands / Rangitā hua.<br />

Cover photo by Paul Caiger.<br />

The feature starts on pagee 34.<br />

40<br />

34<br />


25 New Zealand diving’s best kept secret - <strong>Dive</strong> Zone<br />

27 Fiordland Expedition anyone? It’s a great time to be doing it!<br />

34 Once is not enough for the Kermadecs: Paul Caiger gives us some<br />

geology, a brief history, and a great diving destination<br />

40 ‘MY BEST DIVE’ Sarah Ford zings with enthusiasm about her close<br />

encounters with whale sharks at West Papua<br />


8 Scallops are delicious LEGASEA UPDATE<br />

47<br />

27 The Spearfishing Nationals: Super weather, great event!<br />

Spearos Notebook with Jackson Shields<br />

56 The Clown Toado<br />

SPECIES FOCUS with Paul Caiger<br />

58 Skin bend cuts diving holiday short. Plus COVID Update<br />

INCIDENT INSIGHTS with DAN, the <strong>Dive</strong>rs Alert Network<br />

60 Why a diver should avoid Covid-19 and what happens if they don’t<br />

DIVE MEDICINE with Prof Simon Mitchell<br />

64 Automatic camera modes: When to use them<br />

BACK TO BASICS Underwater Photography,<br />

A Practical Guide for Beginners<br />

by Alexey Zaystev. Translated from Russian exclusively for DIVE PACIFIC<br />

GEAR BAG<br />

52 All the drama of the Hutchwilco Boat Show next May; C-MAP<br />

Reveal, Ocean Signal’s new SafeSea Pro EPIRB, the Olympus TG 6<br />

camera reviewed<br />

4<br />

68 Classifieds<br />

Check out our website www.divenewzealand.co.nz<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 3



Underwater Heritage Group 2020 Kelly Tarlton<br />

Recognition Award goes to Ewan Stevenson<br />

The 2020 recipient of the Kelly<br />

Tarlton Recognition Award for<br />

2020 was presented at the AGM<br />

of the New Zealand Underwater<br />

Heritage Group (NZUHG)<br />

on November 1st to Ewan<br />

Stevenson.<br />

Ewan is well known for his<br />

incredible knowledge locating<br />

and recording WWII ships and<br />

planes in the Solomon Islands.<br />

He was born in the Solomons<br />

and spent many hours as a<br />

child/teenager exploring the<br />

vast debris field that remained<br />

on land in Honiara. When his<br />

father introduced him to diving<br />

a whole new world to explore<br />

and record opened up.<br />

Organizations in the US that<br />

endeavour to return Missing in<br />

Action (MIAs) personnel home<br />

have used Ewan on several<br />

occasions to help locate downed<br />

fighter planes.<br />

Now living in New Zealand<br />

Ewan’s enthusiasm for research<br />

and planning expeditions to the<br />

Solomons and here in New Zealand<br />

has continued.<br />

Along with other NZUHG members<br />

he is trying to rediscover the third<br />


anchor lost in 1769 by French<br />

Kelly’s wife Rosemary and daughter Fiona<br />

congratulate Ewan Stevenson<br />

explorer de Surville which was<br />

located by the late Kelly Tarlton in<br />

the 1970’s.<br />

The first anchor recovered is<br />

displayed in the entrance hall of<br />

Te Papa museum, Wellington. The<br />

second is in the Kaitaia Museum.<br />

Ewan has also run several expeditions<br />

to locate anchors lost by<br />

another French explorer, Marion<br />

Dufresne, who was here in 1772.<br />

He is a partner in Sealark whose<br />

goal is to locate WWII wrecks<br />

(www.sealark.co.nz), and his own<br />

man cave contains a vast wealth of<br />

amazing research material.<br />

Ewan is the fourth recipient of<br />

this Award! Well deserved!<br />

Visit his website<br />


https://archaehistoria.org/<br />

The Award<br />

The Kelly Tarlton Recognition<br />

Award for Services to Underwater<br />

Heritage recognizes individuals<br />

or groups who have made significant<br />

and lasting contributions<br />

through research, practice,<br />

or advocacy to underwater<br />

heritage, maritime archaeology,<br />

or maritime history. The award<br />

recognizes members of the<br />

underwater heritage community<br />

for long-term accomplishments<br />

or those who have made a notable<br />

impact through a significant innovation,<br />

body of work or publication.<br />

A candidate’s contributions can<br />

include innovative ideas or maritime<br />

conservation projects, including<br />

services that have promoted underwater<br />

heritage in New Zealand or<br />

wider <strong>Pacific</strong> communities linked to<br />

New Zealand. The award includes<br />

a certificate of recognition, and an<br />

invitation for the recipient to present<br />

a keynote talk at the annual NZUHG<br />

Conference.<br />

www.underwaterheritage.co.nz<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

established 1990<br />


P A C I F I C<br />

December / <strong>Jan</strong>uary <strong>2021</strong> Issue <strong>175</strong><br />


Find us on facebook -<br />

follow the links on our website<br />

www.<strong>Dive</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong>.com<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

<strong>Dive</strong>r Emergency Number, New Zealand :<br />

0800 4 DES 11 1800 088 200 (toll free)<br />

Australia : +61-8-8212 9242<br />

Publisher<br />

NZUA Publishing Ltd<br />

New Zealand Underwater Association<br />

40 Mt Eden Rd. Auckland 1024<br />

+64 9 623 3252<br />

Editor<br />

Gilbert Peterson<br />

divenz@divenewzealand.co.nz<br />

+64 27 494 9629<br />

Advertising Sales Manager<br />

Colin Gestro +64 272 568 014<br />

colin@affinityads.com<br />

Art Director<br />

Mark Grogan +64 9 262 0303<br />

bytemarx@orcon.net.nz<br />

Printed by Crucial Colour Ltd<br />

Retail distribution<br />

NZ: Ovato NZ Ltd<br />

All rights reserved. Reprinting in whole<br />

or part is expressly forbidden except<br />

by written permission of the publisher.<br />

Opinions expressed in the publication are<br />

those of the authors and not necessarily<br />

the publishers. All material is accepted in<br />

good faith and the publisher accepts no<br />

responsibility whatsoever.<br />

www.<strong>Dive</strong>NewZealand.co.nz<br />

www.<strong>Dive</strong>-<strong>Pacific</strong>.com<br />

Registered Publication<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong> ISSN 2624-134X (print)<br />

ISSN 2324-3236 (online)<br />

4 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Big bright future mapped for <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>,<br />

New Zealand’s <strong>Dive</strong> Magazine<br />

The New Zealand Underwater<br />

Association is delighted to<br />

announce the Association are<br />

now the proud new owners of<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>, New Zealand’s <strong>Dive</strong><br />

Magazine.<br />

For our magazine to meet its<br />

potential we will be engaging<br />

with sponsors and advertisers,<br />

so we will be calling on the<br />

wider dive and marine industries<br />

for their support.<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>, is an excellent<br />

platform to promote<br />

the techniques, expertise<br />

and experience that our<br />

dive communities have in<br />

abundance. The magazine<br />

will serve to help develop<br />

these forums; especially as<br />

we are called on to advise on<br />

the changes taking place in<br />

our oceans, and what may be<br />

done to ensure their health and<br />

sustainability.<br />

It’s important too for NZUA to<br />

record New Zealand’s fascinating<br />

dive heritage. We have<br />

some truly great founding<br />

figures, people like Kelly Tarlton,<br />

Roger Grace, Wade Doak and<br />

many others, who have shown<br />

the way. But the opportunities<br />

to explore underwater are really<br />

just beginning, with many more<br />

of our divers’ feats warranting<br />

Sharing.<br />

NZUA has been in the business<br />

of representing New Zealand’s<br />

divers and underwater sports<br />

enthusiasts for 67 years – this<br />

latest move is another step to<br />

advance our work.<br />


Early NZUA records show that<br />

the first New Zealand <strong>Dive</strong><br />

magazine began in Christchurch<br />

in 1959 with the enthusiasm of<br />

Canterbury Underwater Club<br />

divers, including Kelly Tarlton,<br />

Keith Gordon, Win Christie<br />

and Wade Doak. In 1962, at the<br />

NZUA AGM, it was motioned,<br />

and carried that each affiliated<br />

club appoint a <strong>Dive</strong> magazine<br />

correspondent to ensure local<br />

news and articles are provided.<br />

(See the history from NZUA life<br />

member Dave Moran on <strong>Dive</strong> New<br />

Zealand/<strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong> magazine,<br />

Back in the Day, on page 6 of this<br />

magazine).<br />

New Zealand Underwater’s<br />

acquisition of the magazine is a<br />

very direct way to:<br />

1) Promote participation in<br />

underwater activities.<br />

2) Support the many, mostly<br />

small businesses in the underwater<br />

industry; those geared<br />

towards recreational diving,<br />

through lobbying councils and<br />

government and promoting<br />

our cause in the media and to<br />

the public.<br />

3) Bring you more stories about<br />

the superb diving in our<br />

wonderful, big blue backyard:<br />

destinations, trips away,<br />

adventures!<br />

4) Develop as a forum to discuss<br />

the risks and threats our<br />

oceans face.<br />

We have set up a separate<br />

company for the magazine and<br />

under the guidance of NZUA’s<br />

board member Andrew Berry.<br />

Tristan Reynard<br />

The Association plans to retain<br />

the former owners to manage<br />

and publish the magazine in an<br />

arrangement we are confident<br />

will deliver an exciting win-win<br />

step ahead, both for our recreational<br />

divers and the wider<br />

industry alike.<br />

This initiative will help NZUA to<br />

engage more comprehensively<br />

with members and the wider<br />

community on our three ‘pillar’<br />

issues, which are:<br />

• Flying the flag for diver safety<br />

by managing services such as<br />

the <strong>Dive</strong>r Emergency Service<br />

(DES) and promoting best<br />

practice on and underwater<br />

with training and education;<br />

• Promoting underwater sports<br />

in particular spearfishing,<br />

underwater hockey and freediving.<br />

• Building awareness and<br />

lobbying for clean seas and<br />

stewardship of the marine (and<br />

freshwater) environment.<br />

We are keen for you to be<br />

directly involved. Our plans are<br />

not set in stone. We’re open to<br />

your ideas. We want your contribution.<br />

So please send in suggestions<br />

and ideas! (In the first<br />

instance to divenz@divenewzealand.co.nz<br />

Let’s together make the underwater<br />

world a top of mind<br />

activity for everyone.<br />

- Tristan Reynard<br />

President, NZUA<br />

Tristan@nzua.org.nz<br />

P A C I F I C<br />


P A C I F I C<br />


P A C I F I C<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 5


<strong>Dive</strong> mag through the years<br />

With Dave Moran<br />

With <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand/<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong> changing<br />

hands it’s timely to review<br />

how your dive magazine came<br />

into being, and what it was<br />

like in the early days.<br />

In the 1980s magazine<br />

founder Dave Moran recalls<br />

commercial dive work was<br />

often sporadic. He was also<br />

running his own registered<br />

electrician business then,<br />

Moran Electrical, when<br />

friend and colleague Kelly<br />

Tarlton called up one day in<br />

1983 and asked him to come<br />

and look down a manhole<br />

above the old sewage tanks<br />

on Tamaki Drive in Auckland.<br />

“Do you think we could get some<br />

lights down here so we can see<br />

what’s going on?” Kelly said. “I<br />

admit I thought it was bit crazy,”<br />

Dave recalled. “And it turned my<br />

life upside down.”<br />

Building Kelly Tarlton’s<br />

Underwater World was an 18<br />

month project. The electrical<br />

component was massive! “We<br />

had a big sign on Tamaki Drive<br />

‘The Sharks Are Coming”.<br />

Dave & Petal Moran<br />

The attraction was funded<br />

by the Development Finance<br />

Corporation, one of the few<br />

projects they funded that was<br />

repaid in full. It opened in<br />

February 1985.<br />

Then sadly Kelly Tarlton died<br />

suddenly. Dave, who knew<br />

‘every nut and bolt in the<br />

place’, was asked to become<br />

general manager which he<br />

was for three years.<br />

With the expertise<br />

from building such<br />

a unique aquarium<br />

experience they went<br />

onto to planning similar<br />

developments in San<br />

Francisco, Melbourne<br />

and the UK. Then came<br />

the 1986 stock market<br />

crash, and the whole<br />

offshore project team was<br />

The publishers Dave Moran &<br />

Gilbert Peterson<br />

made redundant.<br />

Dave had all this aquarium<br />

knowledge, plus commercial<br />

diving contacts. He specialized<br />

in explosives. One of his<br />

biggest jobs was blowing/<br />

cutting a well head off on an<br />

oil exploration rig off New<br />

Plymouth. But no job opportunities<br />

came up.<br />

6 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Then on a trip to Melbourne<br />

he caught up with his<br />

old diving friend Barry<br />

Andrewartha who was<br />

publishing <strong>Dive</strong> Log Australia.<br />

Barry suggested, ‘why<br />

not start your own dive<br />

magazine?” You already<br />

know all the right<br />

people.<br />

“So, I contacted all the dive<br />

wholesale people and asked<br />

would they support us if<br />

we started a magazine,<br />

and they said they would.”<br />

By then Wade and <strong>Jan</strong><br />

Doak had stopped their<br />

magazine, DIVE South<br />

<strong>Pacific</strong> and others had tried<br />

to make a magazine work<br />

without much success.<br />

At first we put <strong>Dive</strong> Log New<br />

Zealand free into dive shops<br />

– they all said they would<br />

take 50 to 100 copies. Those<br />

were the halcyon days<br />

when diving as a sport was<br />

growing rapidly. <strong>Dive</strong> clubs<br />

enjoyed huge memberships.<br />

“We went to a glossy format<br />

after a few years then changed<br />

the name simply to <strong>Dive</strong> New<br />

Zealand in 2002. We also began<br />

charging for it on the basis that<br />

people value something more if<br />

they pay a bit for it!<br />

At first, we printed only B&W<br />

in a tabloid size but colour soon<br />

overtook that”, Dave said.<br />

“Then in 2002 we moved to the<br />

glossy style magazine that it is<br />

today.”<br />

“The magazine opened a lot of<br />

doors for us as divers. We met<br />

people like Jacques Cousteau.<br />

Interviewed his son Jean-Michel,<br />

and others like Sir Peter Blake,<br />

and a lot of other wonderful<br />

people.<br />

For 27 years we did this,<br />

it’s been a helluver ride.”<br />

Three years ago Gilbert<br />

Peterson took the helm<br />

and now the magazine<br />

is being passed to New<br />

Zealand Underwater<br />

Association. “It’s a bit<br />

like a homecoming.”<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 7

LegaSea Update<br />

Scallops are delicious<br />

<strong>Dive</strong>rs, divers everywhere, not<br />

a scallop to be seen. We’ve<br />

had some grim reports recently<br />

about the lack of scallops in Opito<br />

Bay, on the eastern seaboard<br />

of the Coromandel Peninsula,<br />

and on the western side of the<br />

Peninsula too. Sadly, these are<br />

not isolated cases of depletion.<br />

They represent further examples<br />

of poor management of local<br />

fisheries resources on behalf of<br />

our coastal communities.<br />

Scallops are like no other shellfish.<br />

Abundance can be highly<br />

variable; there one year and<br />

gone the next. In Opito Bay the<br />

locals are concerned that years<br />

of concentrated dredging effort<br />

by commercial and recreational<br />

fishers has depleted the fishery<br />

and caused long-term damage.<br />

In the past few years they have<br />

been worried enough to approach<br />

Fisheries New Zealand for a<br />

solution and had no meaningful<br />

response.<br />

LegaSea and the New Zealand<br />

Sport Fishing Council’s Bay of<br />

Plenty clubs are now working<br />

with the local community to find<br />

a solution. Any resolution is likely<br />

to be at least two years away.<br />

Rahui?<br />

There is strong support for Ngati<br />

Hei, mana whenua of the area,<br />

to initiate a rahui, a customary<br />

area closure. Ngati Hei are keen<br />

to include all of the community in<br />

discussions to ensure widespread<br />

support for any outcome.<br />

Fisheries New Zealand will also<br />

need to get involved, and later on<br />

the Minister will need to give his<br />

approval before a customary tool<br />

can be applied.<br />

Back to the future?<br />

A law change in the early 1990s<br />

removed the ability of the general<br />

public to apply a regulatory<br />

tool to manage local fisheries<br />

resources. The burden of responsibility<br />

then has, by default,<br />

fallen on the shoulders of mana<br />

whenua, local Maori. There are<br />

several options available to Maori<br />

under the Customary Regulations<br />

or Fisheries Act; all take time<br />

to implement. Building trusting<br />

relationships between community<br />

groups also takes time.<br />

Change needs to happen because<br />

it is abundantly clear that current<br />

management and localised<br />

depletion is not serving anyone.<br />

It just doesn’t make sense to<br />

have such a scarce and fragile<br />

resource being targeted by fishers<br />

using dredges that do long term<br />

damage to the seabed.<br />

Mission lost?<br />

In the year 2000 the waters<br />

surrounding Coromandel were<br />

carved out as part of the Hauraki<br />

Gulf Marine Park. This is an area<br />

set aside so that the marine<br />

resources could be maintained<br />

for the enjoyment of the coastal<br />

communities around the Gulf.<br />

That mission card has clearly<br />

been lost over time.<br />

There is a ray of hope for these<br />

communities seeking a more<br />

abundant fishery in their local<br />

waters. While it may take<br />

some time to effect change,<br />

the outcome might be just<br />

as delicious as a plate full of<br />

scallops.<br />

Want to help?<br />

If you want to help this<br />

ongoing effort, please support<br />

us.<br />

https://legasea.co.nz/support-us<br />

8 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>



Snapper researched off North Island’s west coast<br />

People along the Kapiti and<br />

Wanganui coasts may have<br />

spotted NIWA’s research vessel<br />

Kaharoa in close recently as<br />

scientists carried out a survey of<br />

snapper, tarakihi, red gurnard and<br />

John Dory.<br />

The trawl survey was the third and<br />

final in a series to establish how<br />

many fish there are, their ages<br />

and where they are situated in the<br />

fishery known as SNA8, the second<br />

largest of New Zealand’s snapper<br />

fisheries.<br />

Voyage leader and NIWA fisheries<br />

scientist Dr Emma Jones said the<br />

survey was to provide independent<br />

data for comparing with similar<br />

historic surveys to see how the<br />

fishery may have changed.<br />

“The surveys provide data<br />

Hobart’s and Australia’s reputation<br />

as a bulwark for the<br />

environment of Antarctica is at<br />

stake after the controversial killing<br />

machine, the long liner Antarctic<br />

Aurora, docked in Hobart on<br />

November 6th. The view is of the<br />

Bob Brown Foundation.<br />

“Antarctica and sub-Antarctic<br />

oceans are complex ecosystems<br />

that need protection from longline<br />

fishing for toothfish - this ship is<br />

unashamedly on its way to plunder<br />

Antarctica’s marine ecosystem for<br />

private profit,” said Foundation<br />

Campaign Manager Jenny Weber.<br />

completely independent of that<br />

collected from the commercial<br />

fishery. Because we use the same<br />

vessel, same net design and same<br />

protocols, our results are comparable<br />

with results from surveys<br />

carried out 20 years ago.<br />

Dr Jones said the data feeds into<br />

stock assessments determining<br />

whether a fish stock is at a sustainable<br />

level. “The most important<br />

one for this survey is the stock<br />

assessment for snapper off the<br />

west coast of the North Island.<br />

Scientists collected otoliths, or ear<br />

bones, from the fish to determine<br />

their age. Stringent processes were<br />

adopted to minimise the risk of<br />

encountering any Maui dolphins.<br />

The survey was outside the West<br />

Coast Marine Mammal Sanctuary<br />

“We appealed through letters to<br />

the Prime Minister and Tasmanian<br />

Premier to urgently ban this<br />

Antarctic longline fishing ship<br />

from Hobart and all Australian<br />

ports.<br />

“They have failed to prioritise<br />

the protection of the Great White<br />

Continent and its oceans,” she said.<br />

“What happens in Antarctica<br />

has a critical impact on the<br />

global climate. The Bob Brown<br />

Foundation is on the road to launch<br />

a campaign to fight for Antarctica’s<br />

protection from marauding ships<br />

and is only sampling where the<br />

commercial fishing boats are<br />

allowed to fish. A marine mammal<br />

observer on board was to keep<br />

watch for dolphins before and<br />

during trawl activity.<br />

Fisheries New Zealand’s Team<br />

Manager Inshore Fisheries North,<br />

Jacob Hore says the snapper stock<br />

on the North Island’s west coast<br />

is an important shared fishery of<br />

high value to customary, recreational,<br />

and commercial fishers.<br />

Snapper in this fishery has been<br />

steadily rebuilding over the past<br />

15 years, and information from the<br />

survey is to support discussions<br />

on a management review of this<br />

fishery planned for <strong>2021</strong>.<br />

Giant Antarctic killing machine not welcome<br />

such as the Antarctic Aurora.<br />

“Its presence in Hobart will give<br />

us a good target to highlight<br />

the problems which continue to<br />

destroy the great southern Oceans<br />

wildness.<br />

“The Antarctica Aurora is<br />

part-owned by former Japanese<br />

whalers. This ship has no place<br />

in Australian waters or any global<br />

oceans.<br />

“Earth’s oceans are in urgent need<br />

of preservation of the remaining<br />

life left in them,” said Jenny Weber.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 9

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The future of diving is green<br />

recent survey by ZuBlu, a dive<br />

A travel agency, found that while<br />

divers want sustainable dive travel<br />

and to conserve the environment,<br />

they struggle to find sustainable<br />

options.<br />

ZuBlu thinks the pandemic could<br />

be an opportunity to refocus the<br />

travel industry to ensure the future<br />

of exploring the blue is very much<br />

green since:<br />

• 85% of scuba divers want to<br />

book eco-friendly options when<br />

traveling<br />

• 92% of scuba divers want to<br />

become more sustainable<br />

• 75% struggled to know what to<br />

look for when booking a sustainable<br />

holiday<br />

• For instance as vital ecosystems<br />

supporting 25% of all marine<br />

species coral reefs also capture<br />

carbon from the atmosphere<br />

and produce a lot of the oxygen<br />

we breathe while providing food<br />

and livelihoods for millions of<br />

Megalodon’s hugeness<br />

‘off-the-scale’<br />

Even among its extinct<br />

relatives, Megalodon<br />

was unequalled in length<br />

and mass.<br />

Megalodon was the most<br />

massive shark that ever lived, and<br />

its gargantuan girth was highly<br />

unusual even among sharks, scientists<br />

recently discovered.<br />

In fact, Megalodon’s gigantism,<br />

estimated to be reach up to 15<br />

metres in length was “off-thescale”<br />

researchers wrote in a new<br />

study.<br />

Evidence from extinct and living<br />

Join DAN’s COVID-19 study<br />

DAN is looking for divers and<br />

freedivers who have recovered<br />

from a suspected or confirmed<br />

COVID-19 infection, for a<br />

long-term study on the effects of<br />

COVID-19 on diver’s health and<br />

fitness to dive.<br />

In 15-20 minutes you can easily<br />

people. Yet 50% of the world’s<br />

coral reefs have gone in the past<br />

20 years with up to 90% at risk of<br />

being lost by 2050.<br />

Coral reef tourism represents a<br />

$36 billion a year sector of the<br />

travel industry with 70 countries<br />

benefiting, according to a recent<br />

study published in the Journal of<br />

Marine Policy. And sustainable<br />

dive travel helps local communities<br />

harness the reef’s potential<br />

and encourages conservation.<br />

The Misool Eco Resort of Raja<br />

Ampat in the 300,000 acre<br />

Misool Marine Reserve is an<br />

example. Village elder and<br />

Misool Foundation employee,<br />

Bapak Mohammed, said. “At first,<br />

fishermen did not welcome the<br />

idea of a no-take-zone, however,<br />

as they started to see the changes<br />

in the environment, they began<br />

to understand that the future for<br />

their children is brighter now that<br />

the reefs are protected.”<br />

www.zublu.com<br />

Gigantism was common in extinct<br />

lamniform sharks but Megalodon<br />

was the biggest by far. (Image: ©<br />

Getty Images/Corey Ford/Stocktrek<br />

Images)<br />

sharks in the order Lamniformes,<br />

the group that includes Megalodon,<br />

showed not only was the king of<br />

sharks an extreme outlier when<br />

compared with modern species, it<br />

was substantially bigger than the<br />

next-biggest extinct shark in the<br />

Lamniformes order by at least 7 m.<br />

complete the initial survey then<br />

over the next five years you will<br />

be contacted periodically by<br />

DAN to follow-up on your diving<br />

career and any possible medical<br />

issues:<br />

www.research.net/rDANcovidstudy<br />

10 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Our blue economy: Big prospect<br />

comprehensive project<br />

A researching how Aotearoa<br />

New Zealand can create<br />

economic value from our oceans<br />

while adding to social, cultural<br />

and ecological well-being, has<br />

reached Phase II: Creating value<br />

from a blue economy.<br />

The major study - The<br />

Sustainable Seas National<br />

Science Challenge - is led by<br />

Nick Lewis of the University of<br />

Auckland. He says that developing<br />

the economy is generally<br />

still seen as separate to, and<br />

often at odds with, social and<br />

environmental goals, the two are<br />

intrinsically linked.<br />

The Challenge objective is: “To<br />

enhance utilisation of our marine<br />

resources within environmental<br />

and biological constraints” and<br />

its Mission is: “To transform<br />

Aotearoa New Zealand’s ability<br />

to enhance our marine economy,<br />

and to improve decisionmaking<br />

and the health of our<br />

seas through ecosystem-based<br />

management”.<br />

Nick Lewis says the long-term<br />

economic use of marine<br />

resources depends on healthy<br />

marine ecosystems.<br />

He says the concept of the blue<br />

economy has become a cornerstone<br />

for debating marine futures<br />

around the world, and is built on<br />

four propositions:<br />

1. Societies must look to the<br />

oceans to secure their food,<br />

energy and wider economic<br />

futures;<br />

2. Oceans offer enormous opportunities<br />

for economic development;<br />



3. Realising these opportunities<br />

will require significant<br />

investment in science and<br />

technology; and<br />

4. Growth must involve a fundamental<br />

transition to ecologically,<br />

culturally and socially<br />

sustainable economic activities.<br />

Four projects in Phase II under<br />

development are:<br />

• Encouraging restorative economies<br />

in NZ marine spaces<br />

• Indigenising the blue economy<br />

in Aotearoa<br />

• Growing ecotourism in a blue<br />

economy<br />

• Building a sector for a blue<br />

economy viz. seaweed<br />

www.sustainableseaschallenge.co.nz<br />

Marine biodiversity scholar<br />

awarded prestigious fellowship<br />

One of New Zealand’s most prestigious<br />

fellowships, the Rutherford<br />

Discovery Fellowship which is<br />

awarded to 10 applicants annually,<br />

has this year gone to Dr Libby Liggins<br />

of Massey University.<br />

Her fellowship is to study the marine<br />

biodiversity response to climate<br />

change. It will allow her to focus<br />

solely on the issue for the next five<br />

years.<br />

Species on the move<br />

Dr Liggins says species are on the<br />

move, and the driving force for this<br />

global redistribution of biodiversity is<br />

climate change.<br />

“In many coastal marine environments,<br />

ocean climate change is<br />

causing species ranges to shift<br />

towards the poles of the Earth and is<br />

also driving native species to extinction.<br />

“These ecosystem changes have<br />

resulted in far reaching socio-economic<br />

challenges, crippling local<br />

fishing industries and livelihoods.<br />

“While the degree of oceanic change<br />

in New Zealand is so far less than<br />

that of many other countries, it<br />

remains one of our most pressing<br />

marine issues. Shifts in coastal<br />

currents, temperatures, and the<br />

frequency of marine heatwaves are<br />

now noticeable.<br />

Mosaic of change<br />

“However due to our complex coastal<br />

oceanography and regional weather<br />

patterns, poleward range shifts may<br />

not be the only response… there may<br />

be a mosaic of changes around our<br />

coastlines, with an uneven distribution<br />

of local species decline, growth,<br />

or relocation. Although difficult to<br />

detect, quantifying these biodiversity<br />

responses would give us forewarning<br />

of greater changes to come.”<br />

Dr Libby Liggins – to look for<br />

‘Tohu of change for Aotearoa New<br />

Zealand’s marine biodiversity’<br />

Dr Liggins will study this biodiversity<br />

response to ocean climate change in<br />

part by using tohu (signs) of future<br />

marine biodiversity change by<br />

modelling species biology with past<br />

and forecasted ocean conditions. The<br />

aim is to predict hotspots of significant<br />

coastal biodiversity change.<br />

Citizen science<br />

Dr Liggins plans to use her existing<br />

citizen science platform to establish<br />

observer networks for ongoing<br />

monitoring, and invite local communities,<br />

iwi, interested agencies and<br />

industry partners to hui to determine<br />

which species sightings may be tohu<br />

of change in different regions.<br />

Dr Liggins says the Rutherford<br />

Discovery Fellowships are unique<br />

in that they invest in the vision of<br />

individuals: “I am at the career stage<br />

where I have a clear view of what my<br />

research trajectory and contribution<br />

could be - concentrated research<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 11



Massive great white<br />

shark Unama’ki<br />

spotted south of Miami<br />

One of the largest great white sharks ever tagged<br />

was recently spotted swimming south of Miami,<br />

Florida, according to NBC Miami.<br />

Unama’ki “pinged” at 5:46 a.m. ET off of Key Largo,<br />

south of Miami on Thursday (Nov 5), which means that<br />

its dorsal fin broke the surface of the water, sending a<br />

signal to a satellite, alerting researchers of its whereabouts,<br />

according to a previous article from Florida<br />

Today.<br />

Unama’ki was first tagged in Nova Scotia in<br />

September; in the indigenous language of the Mi’kmaq<br />

people, her name means “land of the fog.”<br />

Unama’ki seen just below the surface here. (Image: © Robert Snow/Ocearch)<br />

With a length of 4.7 metre and weighing 942 kilograms<br />

she is the second largest white shark ever tagged by<br />

Ocearch, a nonprofit organization that tags and tracks<br />

large marine animals.<br />

Snake eel dangles from heron’s stomach midair<br />

snake eel fighting for its life burst from the<br />

A stomach of a heron that had just swallowed it<br />

whole, according to photos snapped by an amateur<br />

photographer in Delaware.<br />

The photos show the snake eel, its head dangling in<br />

midair, as the heron looking unbothered flies onward.<br />

A heron likely regretted eating a snake eel after the eel burst out of its stomach in<br />

midair. (Image: © Sam Davis)<br />

The unusual event attracted a lot of attention among<br />

the local predators, said Sam Davis, an engineer from<br />

Maryland who took the photos on the Delaware shore.<br />

Several juvenile eagles and a fox were following the<br />

heron, possibly hoping to scavenge a meal in case the<br />

heron or the snake eel didn’t make it.<br />

Glacier melting threatens mega tsunami<br />

giant tsunami in Alaska triggered by a landslide<br />

A of rock left unstable after glacier melting is likely<br />

to occur in the next two decades, scientists fear. Or it<br />

could happen within the next 12 months.<br />

A group of scientists warned about the impending<br />

disaster in Prince William Sound in May.<br />

Analysis of satellite imagery suggests the Barry Glacier<br />

is retreating from Barry Arm due to ongoing melting<br />

and a large rocky scarp is emerging on the face of<br />

the mountain above it indicating an incremental,<br />

slow-moving landslide is taking place above the fjord.<br />

Geophysicist Chunli Dai from the Ohio State University<br />

told NASA’s Earth Observatory:<br />

“Based on the elevation of the deposit above the water,<br />

the volume of land slipping, and the angle of the slope,<br />

we calculated a collapse would release 16 times more<br />

debris and 11 times more energy than Alaska’s 1958<br />

Cascade, Barry and Coxe glaciers in Prince William Sound, Alaska.<br />

(Image: © Shutterstock)<br />

Lituya Bay landslide and mega-tsunami.”<br />

The 1958 event is though to be the tallest tsunami<br />

wave in modern times, reaching a maximum elevation<br />

of 524 metres.<br />

12 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

General Marine comes full circle as it establishes<br />

a new shop and workshop<br />

“When we first started the company we were<br />

based here then moved many times over the<br />

years as General Marine changed and developed.<br />

So now it feels like coming home,” says General<br />

Marine director Roy Chalton.<br />

The company has evolved over the years into<br />

a specialist marine engineering company with<br />

expertise in engines, generators, compressors<br />

and propulsion offering customers a complete<br />

service. Services include fabrication, installation,<br />

machining, repairs and maintenance.<br />

He says that General Marine’s staff and company<br />

culture have been a key aspect of its success. The<br />

company employs a team of around 30.<br />

Their systems experience enables them to work<br />

on, repair, service and diagnose fuel, exhaust,<br />

bilge, sanitation, generation, water-making,<br />

ballast, HP compressors, stabilisers, hydraulics,<br />

HVAC and propulsion systems. They all take real<br />

pride in their workmanship and delivering top<br />

customer service,” he says.<br />

A number of our staff are certified Bauer technicians<br />

and we are one of a number of Bauer<br />

breathing air compressor approved distributors<br />

so we carry all consumables and a large range of<br />

spare parts for Bauer compressors.<br />

General Marine also offers a retail arm, which<br />

sells a large range of highly respected plant and<br />

equipment. Brands include Scania, Cummins<br />

Onan, Bauer compressors, Hamilton Jet and<br />

Gianneschi. Roy says that all products are fully<br />

backed by the General Marine service department.<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> compressor supply and service<br />

• New BAUER compressors<br />

We can advise the best model to suit your needs.<br />

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65 Gaunt St · Westhaven · Auckland · Ph 09 309 6317 · service@generalmarine.co.nz<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 13

Titiro kit e Moana - EMR will take you under<br />

Celebrating 20 years!<br />

The Experiencing Marine<br />

Reserves (EMR) programme<br />

started in Taitokerau/Northland<br />

in 2001 with the idea of taking<br />

students from local schools to<br />

see unprotected marine areas<br />

and comparing them to a fully<br />

protected marine reserve. Since<br />

then seeing huge Tamure/snapper<br />

swimming by in a marine reserve<br />

has inspired thousands of kids<br />

to take action for the marine<br />

environment and exercise kaitiakitanga.<br />

Over the past 20 years EMR has<br />

guided 70,928 people through<br />

marine reserves with a total<br />

of 132,478 snorkelling with<br />

us all over Aotearoa. We offer<br />

community guided, snorkel day<br />

events and school programmes<br />

throughout our nine New Zealand<br />

regions.<br />

Latest goings on<br />

The 2020/21 season is already<br />

underway with our first ever<br />

Ma – ngere Kayak Day in Auckland.<br />

Participants got to explore the<br />

meandering mangroves of the<br />

Manukau Harbour, and learn about<br />

the history and biodiversity of the<br />

area. We partnered with Friends of<br />

the Farm to make sure locals could<br />

explore their own backyard from<br />

a different perspective, and due<br />

to a great success we plan to do<br />

many more kayak days around the<br />

Manukau to highlight the importance<br />

of protecting this unique<br />

part of Ta – maki Makaurau’s marine<br />

environment.<br />

In mid October 35 lucky participants<br />

also joined us to explore Te<br />

Whiti Rahi, Poor Knights Island<br />

with <strong>Dive</strong>! Tutukaka. We were<br />

treated to incredibly clear water<br />

and a beautifully sunny day,<br />

discovered large schools of blue<br />

mao mao, trevally, haku, and even<br />

a sunfish! A rare treat!<br />

We try to make all our events as<br />

accessible as possible so people<br />

from all backgrounds can get to<br />

enjoy our wondrous moana. For<br />

this trip we were able to offer four<br />

fully sponsored spots to deserving<br />

rangatahi so we could get them<br />

out experiencing this very special<br />

marine reserve first hand. Freshly<br />

inspired these rangatahi are now<br />

determined to take action for our<br />

oceans, and they will be working<br />

on marine conservation projects<br />

over the next couple of months as<br />

well as volunteering at upcoming<br />

events.<br />

EMR over the past four years<br />

has also been involved with the<br />

Matai Bay rahui helping the iwi,<br />

hapu and community monitor it’s<br />

success, and recently we had a<br />

wonderful day visiting the rahui<br />

with Kaingaroa school.<br />

The kids were super excited to see<br />

lots of snapper, large red moki,<br />

crayfish, sandagers wrasse and a<br />

diverse range of other colourful<br />

invertebrates and seaweed. Over<br />

50 people came to experience and<br />

be inspired by the Maitai Bay rahui<br />

through this event.<br />

In <strong>Jan</strong>uary next year EMR will be<br />

hosting a larger community guided<br />

snorkel day at Matai Bay, which is<br />

always super popular and a great way<br />

for locals to celebrate the ongoing<br />

protection of their watery backyard.<br />

Upcoming events<br />

& plans<br />

EMR has big plans for the rest<br />

of our 2020/21 season - over 40<br />

events are coming up around the<br />

country from Northland all the<br />

way to Stewart Island. One of the<br />

Auckland events in late November<br />

is our annual Rotoroa Island<br />

Snorkel Day.<br />

For this event participants will<br />

be exploring the rocky reef<br />

surrounding the pest free island<br />

sanctuary that is Rotoroa. With<br />

support from the Rotoroa Island<br />

Trust participants will get to<br />

discover what lives on the land as<br />

well as under the sea. Due to the<br />

hard conservation work done on<br />

this island, land based rare and<br />

endangered wildlife have flourished.<br />

Whilst Rotoroa is fully protected<br />

on the land unfortunately the<br />

same cannot be said for the water<br />

around it. We have noticed over<br />

the last three years of running this<br />

event the decline in biodiversity on<br />

the reef as well as an increase in<br />

marine pests like Mediterranean<br />

fan worm. These observations<br />

highlight the need to protect more<br />

of Ti Kapa Moana’s offshore islands<br />

under the waves as well as on the<br />

land.<br />

14 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Participants spotting sanders wrasse and schools of sweep during EMRs<br />

Poor Knights Adventure Snorkel<br />

Photograph: Sophie Journee – EMR<br />

Reotahi snorkelling<br />

Up in Northland we also have<br />

our annual Reotahi Snorkel<br />

series kicking off this month. The<br />

creation of the Reotahi marine<br />

reserve was the catalyst for EMR’s<br />

founder, Samara Nicholas, to start<br />

on her journey getting kiwi kids<br />

and whanau experiencing our<br />

moana first hand. Since then the<br />

Reotahi snorkel series has helped<br />

locals to explore the colourful<br />

sponge gardens, octopus hideouts<br />

and seaweed palaces that make up<br />

this unique marine reserve.<br />

Now more than ever we feel it’s<br />

important for kiwi kids and their<br />

whanau to get out and experience<br />

what’s under the sea in their own<br />

local backyard. By making ways<br />

for them to do this our aim is to<br />

inspire new marine conservation<br />

projects and underwater observations,<br />

but most of all we hope<br />

that people will fall in love with ‘te<br />

moana’ the sea!<br />

Kaingaora students and parents exploring the Matai Bay rahui<br />

Photograph: Oliver Bone – EMR<br />

DNZ163<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 15



William Trubridge to go for new deep diving record<br />

William Trubridge has<br />

announced he will again<br />

attempt to break his own world<br />

record for freediving in constant<br />

weight, free immersion, no fins.<br />

( williamtrubridge.com )<br />

The record attempt will take<br />

place at Dean’s Blue Hole<br />

during a time window between<br />

December 6th - 14th.<br />

Freediving strong<br />

Participation in Freediving is growing apace, Joy<br />

Keene reported at NZUA’s AGM earlier this year.<br />

She presented two charts shown here, the second<br />

of which shows the breath holding records in New<br />

Zealand.<br />

William first began serious<br />

training for the sport in 2003. In<br />

2005 he was the first freediver<br />

to dive at Dean’s Blue Hole, now<br />

recognised as the world’s premier<br />

freediving venue, and site of the<br />

annual Vertical Blue event. There<br />

he broke his first world record in<br />

the discipline of CNF (Constant<br />

Weight No Fins) in April 2007,<br />

reaching 81m.<br />

Since then he has broken this<br />

record multiple times. In 2010<br />

he was first to descend to 100m<br />

during Project Hector, an event<br />

to highlight the plight of New<br />

Zealand’s critically endangered<br />

Hector’s and Maui’s Dolphins.<br />

William also holds the world record<br />

in Free Immersion, with 124m set<br />

at Vertical Blue in May 2016.<br />

Looking Ahead: National Champs Series - Pool.<br />

• Queenstown 27-28 August • Wellington 17-18<br />

October • Auckland/ Northland TBA<br />

National Champs - Deoth • March <strong>2021</strong> Pan <strong>Pacific</strong>s<br />

• Auckland 23-31 October <strong>2021</strong><br />

Tauranga U18’s win Underwater Hockey championship<br />

October was a big month for New Zealand<br />

underwater hockey, with the U18 Interzone<br />

Championship and the 2020 New Zealand<br />

Interclub Championships.<br />

For the first time in 20 years, Tauranga players<br />

won the U18’s – the trophy has always been won<br />

previously by teams from Auckland or Wellington.<br />

The Interclub Championships also saw fierce<br />

competition with 33 teams and 350 athletes<br />

taking part in 120 matches.<br />

The National Rock Lobster<br />

Management Group (NRLMG)<br />

is seeking feedback on proposed<br />

changes to minimum legal size<br />

(MLS) of crayfish in the area<br />

CRA3 which extends from the<br />

North Island’s East Cape, south to<br />

the Wairoa River.<br />

Currently, commercial fishers<br />

there are allowed to catch 52mm<br />

male crayfish over the springsummer<br />

period whereas recreational<br />

fishers have a minimum<br />

legal size of 54mm for males<br />

year-round. This has long been<br />

viewed as inequitable by local<br />

recreational fisherman.<br />

The NRLMG are currently seeking<br />

U18 Interzone Championship<br />

Results:<br />

1st Premier Grade – Team Sobek from Crocodylus<br />

Underwater Hockey Club (Wellington)<br />

2nd Premier Grade – Team Supernova from Nova<br />

Underwater Hockey Club (Auckland)<br />

3rd Premier Grade – Team Furno from Phoenix<br />

Underwater Hockey Club (Wellington)<br />

Proposed changes to CRA3 minimum legal size crays<br />

public support and consultation<br />

to put forward to the ministry.<br />

NZUA has representation on the<br />

NRLMG to provide the recreational<br />

interest perspective.<br />

If you have a view on this issue<br />

contact Andy Stewart at<br />

andy@nzua.org.nz<br />

16 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Tiny animals and their<br />

critical importance on<br />

entire oceanic food webs<br />

By Jean-Michel Cousteau and Holly Lohuis<br />

Ocean Futures Society www.oceanfutures.org<br />

There is an inner galaxy of alien looking organisms on our own planet. Just night dive in open water<br />

with a bright light and witness for yourself the water column coming alive with all different forms of<br />

gelatinous plants and animals, referred to as plankton. It is indeed an unknown world to most of us,<br />

a world of wandering, drifting plants and animals, which provide the base of the very complex and<br />

extremely productive oceanic food web on which we all depend in so many important ways.<br />

The word plankton comes from<br />

the Greek, planktos, means to<br />

wander, or drift. These plants and<br />

animals make up a tremendous<br />

amount of the biomass in our oceans,<br />

yet the significance of how they<br />

influence key planetary functions is<br />

only being appreciated today as we<br />

are documenting major changes in<br />

our oceans.<br />

While many of these mysterious<br />

gelatinous organisms provide<br />

important opportunities to study the<br />

link between their abundance and<br />

the health of our oceans, there are<br />

many things we do know about their<br />

importance.<br />

…Every other breath we take is a gift from the sea…<br />

Phyto (plant) plankton<br />

Phytoplankton, plant plankton<br />

thrive in nutrient rich waters and<br />

are generally found in the sunlit<br />

waters of aquatic environments. Like<br />

terrestrial plants, phytoplankton<br />

contain chlorophyll and require<br />

sunlight in order to live and grow.<br />

Through the process of photosynthesis,<br />

phytoplankton take in CO 2<br />

and release oxygen. In fact, as much<br />

as 50% of our oxygen comes from<br />

phytoplankton. We can think of them<br />

as every other breath we take as a<br />

gift from the sea. They are one of the<br />

world’s most important producers of<br />

oxygen and they provide important<br />

food for the first order of consumers<br />

in the aquatic trophic food web,<br />

zooplankton.<br />

Plankton participate in the largest migration on the planet which<br />

happens under the cover of darkness every single night<br />

Zoo (animal) plankton<br />

Many zooplankton, or animal<br />

plankton, are grazers, filtering the<br />

planktonic soup of phytoplankton<br />

and other floating organic material.<br />

These animals participate in the<br />

largest migration on the planet which<br />

happens under the cover of darkness<br />

every single day. At night trillions of<br />

tiny plankton move from the deep<br />

scattered layer well over 300m deep<br />

towards the surface to feed. Come<br />

early morning hours, they then dive<br />

down to escape hungry mouths from<br />

above. So even though plankton<br />

are considered wanders, living a<br />

life adrift in the open ocean, they<br />

actually make an amazing vertical<br />

movement every single day.<br />

The richness of our seas is directly<br />

related to abundance and diversity<br />

of these drifting plants and animals.<br />

They not only provide the base of a<br />

rich web of life in the oceans, they<br />

are even preyed upon by the largest<br />

Inset Photo credit: Richard Murphy, PhD @Ocean Futures Society<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 17

animals ever to exist, blue whales.<br />

Blue whales filter their favorite food,<br />

krill (euphausiids) and copepods<br />

through their large baleen plates.<br />

During the peak of their feeding<br />

summer months, one blue whale can<br />

eat over 3,000 kg of krill per day.<br />

Whales not only eat these small prey<br />

animals, they also keep them alive…<br />

Trophic cascades<br />

Here is where it gets really interesting.<br />

One of the more exciting<br />

scientific findings in the past<br />

half century is the discovery of<br />

wide-spread trophic cascades. A<br />

trophic cascade is an ecological<br />

process starting at the top at the food<br />

chain and tumbling all the way to the<br />

bottom and it can involve powerful,<br />

indirect interactions that actually<br />

change entire ecosystems for the<br />

good or bad, depending on what is<br />

removed or brought back into the<br />

system.<br />

Wolves, for example<br />

A famous example of a trophic<br />

cascade is what has been<br />

documented in Yellowstone when<br />

wolves were reintroduced in 1995<br />

after being locally extinct for over<br />

70 years. Wolves not only helped<br />

control their prey population, deer<br />

and elk, from over populating and<br />

overgrazing, but by keeping their<br />

prey populations in check, the<br />

presence helped benefit all levels of<br />

the complex web of<br />

life in Yellowstone.<br />

Since wild wolves<br />

have returned to<br />

Yellowstone, the elk<br />

and deer are stronger, the aspens and<br />

willows are healthier, the grasses<br />

taller and the beaver population is<br />

thriving.<br />

The same trophic cascade effects<br />

have also been well documented in<br />

the ocean with the comeback of the<br />

great whales, including humpback<br />

…Some of the large baleen whales.. release vast plumes…<br />

rich in iron and nitrogen, nutrients that fertilize the plant<br />

plankton at the sunlit surface…<br />

whales, fin whales and blue whales.<br />

Some countries have argued that<br />

killing whales is good for us; fewer<br />

whales mean more seafood for us to<br />

eat. But what scientists have actually<br />

documented was, as whale populations<br />

declined around the world,<br />

so did their favorite prey, small<br />

schooling fish and krill. What was<br />

discovered is that whales not only eat<br />

these small prey animals, they also<br />

keep them alive! In fact, whales help<br />

sustain the entire living system of<br />

the ocean.<br />

Spreading fertilizer<br />

When some of the large baleen<br />

whales, such as blue whales which<br />

feed on krill at the darker depths,<br />

rise to the surface, they release<br />

vast amounts of fecal matter. These<br />

plumes are rich in iron and nitrogen,<br />

distributing nutrients that are generally<br />

scarce in surface waters. These<br />

nutrients fertilize the plant plankton<br />

in the only place where plant<br />

plankton can survive; in the sunlit<br />

waters at the surface.<br />

Fertilizing the surface waters is not<br />

the only thing these whales do. By<br />

Main Photo credit: Chuck Graham, @chuckgrahamphoto<br />

18 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

plunging up and down through the<br />

water column, they keep kicking<br />

phytoplankton back up to the<br />

surface, giving it more time to reproduce<br />

before it sinks into the abyss.<br />

Taking the eco system<br />

approach<br />

Today most of the large baleen<br />

whale populations are still greatly<br />

reduced in numbers compared to<br />

just 150 years ago. With less than<br />

7% of ocean wilderness protected,<br />

marine scientists are recognizing the<br />

importance of protecting complete<br />

marine ecosystems for keeping all of<br />

us healthy and our oceans thriving.<br />

With the new knowledge of trophic<br />

cascades, we can now begin to focus<br />

on ocean conservation and recovery<br />

efforts on an ecosystem-wide<br />

approach. We now know this is<br />

essential in maintaining the structure,<br />

function, and biodiversity of<br />

most natural oceanic ecosystems.<br />

We owe so much to the ocean. My<br />

own personal connection to the<br />

ocean started at a young age when<br />

…With the new knowledge of trophic cascades, we can now<br />

begin to focus on ocean conservation and recovery efforts on<br />

an ecosystem-wide approach… essential in maintaining the<br />

structure, function, and biodiversity of most natural oceanic<br />

ecosystems…<br />

my father strapped on my back his<br />

newly invented SCUBA equipment<br />

and allowed me to breathe underwater<br />

for the very first time. That<br />

was back in 1945, 75 years ago. Back<br />

then, the understanding of ecosystems,<br />

interconnection and trophic<br />

cascades was not well documented<br />

in the scientific literature. But since<br />

then, we have learned a tremendous<br />

amount about our interconnection<br />

and dependence on healthy, productive<br />

oceans. And there is no doubt,<br />

we still have much to learn, appreciate<br />

and protect.<br />

Our water planet,<br />

our only home<br />

This water planet is our only home,<br />

and we must do everything in<br />

our power to protect it, from the<br />

microscopic plankton to the giant<br />

whales whose numbers we hope will<br />

continue to recover and increase.<br />

When you protect the ocean, you<br />

protect yourself.<br />

Reaching lengths of close to 30.5 metres and weighting over<br />

150 tonnes, blue whales are the largest animal to have ever<br />

lived; larger than the largest dinosaur. They number over<br />

25,000 individuals today, making a slow and steady comeback<br />

after being hunted to near extinction less than 50 years ago.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 19


from around the country<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong> asked several dive operators seven questions how they fared this<br />

tumultuous year, and from their responses we’ve compiled an account of how its<br />

been, what’s been good, not so good, and where to from here.<br />

1) Over the last nine months Covid<br />

19 has disrupted everyone but<br />

especially your business as a<br />

dive/tourism operator. How did<br />

it hit you?<br />

“Where do I start!” said Craig<br />

Johnson of Paihia <strong>Dive</strong> in the<br />

Bay of Islands. He may well<br />

have been speaking on behalf<br />

of all dive operators. “We run<br />

dive charters with over 80% of<br />

international visitors so having<br />

the border closed had a massive<br />

effect.”<br />

Then, when Auckland shut down<br />

the second time, Northland<br />

was cut off from the rest of<br />

the country. “That was tough,<br />

especially as kiwi divers had<br />

started to travel and book trips.”<br />

For Waiheke <strong>Dive</strong> Adam’s short<br />

answer is “Dramatically. Our<br />

business had a pretty even split<br />

between domestic and international<br />

pre-Covid, so that meant<br />

that a large amount of our<br />

market didn’t exist anymore.”<br />

Brent McFadden of Go <strong>Dive</strong><br />

<strong>Pacific</strong> in Picton reports that<br />

“Due to the lockdown cutting<br />

the summer season short by<br />

twomonths, we lost a number of<br />

charters, especially as Easter and<br />

ANZAC fell within the Alert Level<br />

4 lockdown. We were able to run<br />

the usual trips over the winter<br />

months but lost all our advanced<br />

“start of season” overseas<br />

bookings with planned group<br />

trips heading overseas cancelled.<br />

Kevin Halverson of Gisborne’s<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> & Gas says it decimated the<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> shop, but the other side of<br />

the business got them through,<br />

and now seems to be growing<br />

again, with solid local support.<br />

…Our business had a pretty even split between domestic and<br />

international pre-Covid, so that meant that a large amount of<br />

our market didn’t exist anymore…<br />

Richard Abernethy of Fiordland<br />

Expeditions reported: “We lost<br />

70% of our customers overnight.<br />

Fortunately we were already<br />

strong in the domestic market<br />

for dive charters and have<br />

experienced an uptake as people<br />

can’t travel overseas.”<br />

Photo Credit: Fiordland Expeditions<br />

Fiordland Expeditions offers spectacular crayfish...<br />

Kate Malcolm of <strong>Dive</strong> Tutukaka<br />

says they were fully shut for<br />

56 days in total. But the Wage<br />

Subsidy allowed us to keep our<br />

talented staff, and the place has<br />

never looked so clean!<br />

“Our base is a 50/50 split with<br />

domestic and international<br />

tourists, so we have missed our<br />

overseas friends. Our fingers are<br />

crossed for a Niue Travel Bubble<br />

where we have our sister centre<br />

Niue Blue ready to welcome<br />

Kiwis for diving and humpback<br />

20 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

whale swimming in the <strong>2021</strong> NZ<br />

winter.<br />

2) Will business pick up this<br />

summer? How are bookings<br />

compared with last year?<br />

Photo Credit: Cole Johnston and Sole Ventures<br />

Craig notes summer is our<br />

season in the Bay of Islands and<br />

we will have a good one. It won’t<br />

be as long as normal, and our<br />

dive charters will be down on<br />

normal, but “I can see our retail<br />

side will be busier than previous<br />

summers.”<br />

Adam at Waiheke <strong>Dive</strong> agrees<br />

this summer will be solid.<br />

“Bookings are coming in from<br />

Kiwis looking to explore their<br />

homeland more this year, and we<br />

are fortunate to be in an exceptional<br />

location.”<br />

Brent said “Traditionally our core<br />

business in Picton was international,<br />

however we were able<br />

to change our business model<br />

quickly to focus more on the<br />

domestic market. This has led<br />

to an earlier than usual start<br />

to the season due to our large<br />

base of loyal clients, rather than<br />

seeing them head overseas. Also<br />

both recreational and technical<br />

training bookings are up.<br />

Kevin emphasises again their<br />

strong local support which is<br />

“helping heaps. And they in turn<br />

support many local causes which<br />

give back too.”<br />

Kate says they their Tutukaka<br />

team are confident the summer<br />

will be busy. “We have spent 20<br />

years focusing on the incredible<br />

Poor Knights Islands as a<br />

Must-Do destination, so that<br />

…the international market decreased by 74% while our<br />

domestic market increased by 63%.”…<br />

Poor Knights<br />

The jewel anemone spawn was epic on the Canterbury at the BOI<br />

when people choose to visit<br />

our awesome coastline they<br />

recognise our name, and reputation.”<br />

However a concern is<br />

what happens when domestic<br />

disposable income decreases.<br />

Their “international market<br />

has decreased by 74% while our<br />

domestic market increased by<br />

63%.”<br />

3) What’s been the low points?<br />

High points?<br />

“Seeing my business that I have<br />

put my life into shut down, not<br />

knowing if it would survive. That<br />

was tough,” Craig’s Paihia <strong>Dive</strong><br />

said. But “Covid has<br />

given me time to<br />

focus on running my<br />

business, refining<br />

what we do. On the<br />

up side too it was<br />

nice to spend more<br />

time with my wife<br />

Lisa and my boys.<br />

I’ve been spearfishing<br />

much more<br />

than other years<br />

- that’s a definite<br />

upside! The diving was soo good<br />

when it opened up again in June,<br />

July and the start of August. The<br />

Jewel Anemone Spawn in July<br />

was epic!”<br />

For Richard the low points were<br />

having to let good people go and<br />

the sudden loss of income. On<br />

the upside they are one of the<br />

dnz164<br />

Photo Credit: Paihia <strong>Dive</strong><br />

www.dive-pacific.com 21

Photo Credit: NZ Sea Adventures<br />

The team at Sea Adventures at Mana<br />

lucky ones that already had a<br />

supportive, domestic market.<br />

“The future doesn’t look quite so<br />

bleak, at present anyway.”<br />

Adam said keeping his Waiheke<br />

team employed as much as<br />

possible, while making sure<br />

we can pay the bills, was a<br />

real challenge. A high point<br />

was “seeing key elements of<br />

the tourism industry and the<br />

dive industry come together,<br />

share ideas and resources to<br />

ensure we all survive. Its been<br />

a true ‘warms the heart’ kinda<br />

moment!”<br />

Low points for Brent were not<br />

being able to travel overseas<br />

with their dive groups while<br />

high points were having time to<br />

complete some projects being<br />

planned for some time, including<br />

a comprehensive guide to wreck<br />

diving.<br />

“This has allowed<br />

me to re-realise<br />

that customer focus<br />

is key,” Craig said.<br />

“The experience<br />

that they have in all<br />

interactions with<br />

me and my staff<br />

is critical. Good<br />

budgeting is pretty<br />

important too.”<br />

Adam notes three<br />

things: accept this<br />

is how it is, recognise the market<br />

has changed, and collaborate<br />

with the community, businesses<br />

and organisations that align with<br />

your values.<br />

Brent suggests more locals<br />

should be encouraged to get into<br />

diving. We have a massive coastline<br />

with very diverse diving<br />

environments, and dive operators<br />

need to find ways to retain their<br />

clients as active divers. He agrees<br />

with Adam that networking and<br />

collaborating with other dive<br />

operators is important to ensure<br />

clients have a greater menu of<br />

diving opportunities.<br />

Kevin in Gisborne agrees<br />

with Brent and Adam that its<br />

important not to have all your<br />

eggs in one basket. As Kevin<br />

says: “What helps us is not<br />

relying on one thing and keeping<br />

an open mind to what our area<br />

needs.”<br />

Kate points out everyone has<br />

been in the same storm, just in<br />

different boats. “Being nimble,<br />

and quick to recognise opportunities<br />

for change, having the<br />

ability to adapt fast, and being<br />

open and honest in all dealings,<br />

is her motto. “Covid is happening<br />

to everyone, so the ‘be kind’<br />

mantra is a fair one,” she says.<br />

Richard advises: “Do what you<br />

do well, keep your costs low and<br />

don’t discount too heavily. The<br />

yields are already lower in the<br />

domestic market so compete on<br />

service, not price.”<br />

…a big feature of the year has been the general vibe of our<br />

community intent on looking out for each other -heaps of<br />

causes helping out those in need in the East Coast…<br />

5) What do you think the government<br />

might do to help your<br />

business recovery from now on?<br />

Kate and Craig speak as one<br />

when they express their grati-<br />

Kate says their Poor Knights<br />

snorkel market has grown!<br />

“People are still keen to visit a<br />

tropical destination with loads<br />

of fish! The Tourism NZ drive<br />

to ‘Do Something New NZ”<br />

has worked well, with a bonus<br />

being the opportunity to do<br />

some work on your business<br />

you seldom find time for.” A<br />

low point? Not heading out to<br />

the Knights a lot and not being<br />

able to dive for that long.<br />

4) Is there an experience from<br />

this you would recommend<br />

other businesses consider?<br />

A typical ‘perfect day’ at the Poor Knights with Tutukaka <strong>Dive</strong><br />

Photo Credit: Cole Johnston and Sole Ventures<br />

22 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Photo Credit: Cole Johnston and Sole Ventures<br />

tude for the wage subsidy.<br />

Craig says without it we<br />

wouldn’t have survived<br />

“so fairly thankful for that<br />

already.”<br />

Kate affirms the focus for her<br />

team is making (the grant)<br />

work, being accountable, and<br />

taking on the responsibility of<br />

the high-trust model that was<br />

presented. “The Government<br />

has looked after us, and we<br />

have faith they will continue<br />

to do so if necessary.”<br />

But Richard is adamant<br />

Immigration could do better!<br />

“NZ has overseas workers stuck<br />

in the country and Immigration<br />

takes too long to process applications.<br />

Leave the politics out of it.<br />

We need these workers now!”<br />

Craig thinks strategic funding<br />

should have been spread around<br />

more operators within the<br />

tourism sector, and now the<br />

government needs to find a way<br />

to open New Zealand borders<br />

to countries that don’t have<br />

community transmission of<br />

Covid. “Without international<br />

tourism we will start to see<br />

businesses folding fairly soon.”<br />

But Adam comes at it differently.<br />

He’d like to see additional funding<br />

for upskilling. And he says he’s<br />

not a fan of a ‘cash in the hand’<br />

approach from government.<br />

At the Poor Knights with Tutukaka <strong>Dive</strong><br />

Brent gives a specific example of<br />

the skills in demand. The government<br />

could look at changing the<br />

medical requirements for staff<br />

CoC’s, he said. The current cost<br />

and time that it takes to get a<br />

commercial medical check is<br />

restricting younger kiwis from<br />

entering the industry. A more<br />

practical option would be to have<br />

an annual recreational medical<br />

rather than the current three<br />

year term for a commercial<br />

medical.<br />

Kevin wants to see Kiwis encouraged<br />

more to keep their tourism<br />

and fun spend local as much as<br />

possible, and to support local/<br />

small businesses.<br />

6) How long do you think it will be<br />

until your business gets back to<br />

the sort of revenues as before<br />

Covid-19?<br />

I’m not sure it will, Craig said.<br />

Adam added, “It’s no longer<br />

‘business as usual’<br />

because there is no<br />

usual anymore.” Craig<br />

thinks people will no<br />

longer be able be able<br />

to travel internationally<br />

like they used<br />

to. “But that’s ok. We<br />

will adapt to our new<br />

market/client base and<br />

cater to that.”<br />

Waiheke <strong>Dive</strong> is now<br />

totally focused helping<br />

grow their domestic<br />

industry and demand,<br />

A group outing with Waiheke <strong>Dive</strong><br />

and widening product offerings,<br />

Adam says.<br />

Sales and Service of<br />

Breathing Air Compressors for<br />

Diving and Fire Fighting<br />

Supplier of<br />

-Genuine Bauer Spare Parts and<br />

Consumables<br />

-High Pressure Regulators<br />

-High Pressure Pumps<br />

-Customised Filling Panels<br />

-Nitrox Systems<br />

-Servicing and repair of all<br />

compressor brands – Bauer,<br />

Poseidon, Coltri, Brownie<br />

Bauer Kompressoren Agents for<br />

over 34 years<br />

High Pressure Equipment<br />

32 Parkway Drive, Mairangi Bay,<br />

Auckland, New Zealand<br />

PH 64 09 4440804<br />

info@highpressure.co.nz<br />

Photo Credit: Waiheke <strong>Dive</strong><br />

www.dive-pacific.com 23

Richard is optimistic New<br />

Zealand will be seen as a cleaner,<br />

safer destination as a result of<br />

our Covid experience, and reap<br />

the rewards of our reputation.<br />

But my expectations are it will be<br />

a long hard rebuild, he said.<br />

Brent points out it really depends<br />

on how long the border restrictions<br />

are in place. “I think they<br />

need to be lifted by mid <strong>2021</strong> if<br />

we expect international tourism<br />

to get back to pre Covid levels<br />

for the <strong>2021</strong>/22 season. In the<br />

meantime we are working on<br />

building our domestic client<br />

base.”<br />

Kevin accentuates the positive<br />

for his local community: “We<br />

appreciate still being here for our<br />

area.”<br />

Kate’s longer term view aims to<br />

climb to “80% of previous levels<br />

of international visitors by the<br />

2024 summer but a long time<br />

before getting back to pre-Covid<br />

revenues. 2020 has put us back a<br />

decade. We may never get back to<br />

the numbers we once had, but we<br />

still deliver a world class experience.”<br />

7) Any interesting stories to tell<br />

about what happened during<br />

the last 6 months?<br />

A big feature of the year for Kevin<br />

has been the general vibe of our<br />

community intent on looking out<br />

for each other. He said there has<br />

been “heaps of causes helping out<br />

those in need in the East Coast.”<br />

Craig is grateful for his locality:<br />

“How lucky we are to have such<br />

amazing winter diving in the Bay<br />

of Islands with vis ranging from<br />

20 to 30m and the water temp<br />

isn’t bad, normally down to 16c.”<br />

Adam found the drama of it all<br />

an eye opener too: “When we<br />

first went to Level 4 I set up my<br />

spare room like a ‘war room’.<br />

Charts and graphs on the walls,<br />

scenario planning, the works.<br />

After about four days of that I<br />

realised it was a complete waste<br />

Bright corals in the Southern Fiords<br />

of time - we didn’t know what<br />

the next 12 days would bring! We<br />

changed tack, focusing purely on<br />

survival.”<br />

Brent found the lockdown a good<br />

time to reflect, a bit like a trial<br />

retirement…. “Not bad really, I<br />

could quite enjoy being retired,<br />

as long as I can still get out for a<br />

dive or two, and the government<br />

has enough revenue to cover my<br />

super.”<br />

Richard highlights the upside<br />

of local support: “I guess the<br />

most positive thing is we have<br />

experienced quite some growth<br />

from the dive sector domestically<br />

as overseas trips are not on<br />

offer currently. And we’ve seen<br />

an increase in returning clients<br />

as they look to rediscover what<br />

Fiordland has to offer,” he said.<br />

Kate expounds the attractions<br />

of the Poor Knights, protected,<br />

and isolated, but still open to<br />

some travellers!<br />

“We have had<br />

humpback whales,<br />

Brydes, minke, and<br />

orca, dolphins, mola<br />

mola and seals, a<br />

resident turtle, and<br />

schooling trevally<br />

and snapper in huge<br />

numbers.<br />

“The Buller shearwater’s<br />

have<br />

returned from<br />

North America and are nesting<br />

and feeding, and from early<br />

November the pohutukawa are<br />

already in strong flower, with the<br />

Poor Knights Lily in full bloom<br />

through October.”<br />

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Go<strong>Dive</strong><strong>Pacific</strong>, Picton<br />

0274 344 874<br />

www.Godivepacific.co.nz<br />

Fiordland Expeditions<br />

0508 888 656<br />

www.fiordlandexpeditions.co.nz<br />

Taking notes with Sea Adventures<br />

Photo Credit: Fiordland Expeditions<br />

24 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Product Number 50120UK<br />

© PADI 2006 All rights reserved.<br />

New Zealand diving’s best kept secret<br />

The Bay of Plenty coastline is home to many<br />

untapped and unexplored dives sites and offers<br />

a diving wonderland catering for hunter gathers,<br />

wreck enthusiasts and beautiful scenic dives.<br />

It is home to New Zealand’s most recent ship<br />

wreck; the cargo ship MV Rena ran aground on the<br />

Astroblabe reef on 5 October 2011. The remains of<br />

the wreck now make a great dive site with an interesting<br />

back story.<br />

North West of Motiti island is a <strong>Dive</strong> Zone favourite,<br />

Okaparu reef, which is home to an impressive<br />

5 acres of rocky gardens, swim throughs, schools<br />

of snapper and kingfish and many crayfish can be<br />

spotted amongst the crevices. We are pretty sure<br />

if Jaques Costeau had made it as far as the Bay of<br />

Plenty he would of named this site in his list of the<br />

worlds top sites!<br />

The Jewel in our crown is Mayor Island ( Tuhua )<br />

sitting 20 nautical miles of the coast, Mayor island<br />

is home to the Bay of Plenty’s only Marine reserve,<br />

with clear water, kelp forests, resident eels, and<br />

plenty of sheltered bays a dive trip out to Mayor<br />

Island will not disappoint.<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> Zone Tauranga run mid week and weekend<br />

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To book visit www.divezonetauranga.co.nz<br />

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www.dive-pacific.com 25



Marine heatwave conditions forming: NIWA<br />

NIWA forecasters say a marine<br />

heatwave is forming around<br />

parts of New Zealand after sea<br />

surface temperatures (SSTs)<br />

warmed considerably last month.<br />

Meteorologist Ben Noll says the<br />

warmest region is the north of<br />

the North Island where ocean<br />

temperatures are 1.6°C above<br />

the November monthly average.<br />

In this region, marine heatwave<br />

conditions are affecting<br />

Northland and northern<br />

Auckland’s coastal waters and<br />

extend west into the Tasman<br />

Sea.<br />

In other areas around the<br />

country, sea surface temperatures<br />

are between 0.7 to 1.1°C<br />

above average.<br />

“High pressure systems in<br />

October led to warming of the<br />

sea surface and prevented cooler<br />

water underneath from mixing to<br />

the top.<br />

The east and west of the South<br />

Island is 1.1˚C above average as<br />

is the east of the North Island.<br />

West of the North Island is +0.8˚C<br />

above average, and north of the<br />

South Island +0.7˚C.<br />

New Zealand is now in a La Niña<br />

climate regime which tends to<br />

bring more northerly winds and<br />

has historically been associated<br />

with warm Tasman Sea temperatures.<br />

NIWA subscribes to the definition<br />

of a marine heatwave as<br />

being an extended period of<br />

extremely warm ocean temperatures<br />

that can extend up to<br />

thousands of kilometres. These<br />

temperatures must be above<br />

the 90th percentile – or the<br />

value above which 90 per cent of<br />

historical observations occur.<br />

Chance leads to first look at coral larvae<br />

Small orange flecks spotted<br />

floating in a respiration<br />

chamber at a NIWA laboratory<br />

have led to a discovery about the<br />

spawning habits of a deep-sea<br />

stony coral in New Zealand<br />

waters.<br />

NIWA scientists collected<br />

colonies of the deep-sea stony<br />

coral, Goniocorella dumosa, from<br />

the Chatham Rise in June to<br />

help assess the resilience of<br />

corals to sedimentation.<br />

The small orange flecks turned<br />

out to be larvae that had<br />

been released from the<br />

mature coral polyps. This<br />

coral species is prevalent<br />

throughout the southern<br />

hemisphere but its larvae have<br />

never been seen before. They<br />

measure about 1.1mm x 0.8<br />

mm and were covered in small<br />

hair-like filaments called cilia.<br />

Deep sea stony coral<br />

months to reach this stage. It’s<br />

fascinating to watch and record<br />

their development as they form<br />

feeding tentacles and a calcified<br />

base.”<br />

Coral lavae<br />

NIWA scientist Dr Jenny<br />

Beaumont says they settled<br />

“within a few days, which is<br />

a contrast to other deep-sea<br />

corals, some of which can take<br />

NIWA’s coral expert, Di Tracey,<br />

says being able to observe the<br />

larvae has changed the understanding<br />

of the reproductive<br />

process of this species.<br />





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26 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Diving Fiordland!<br />

The great Jacques Cousteau placed Fiordland in his<br />

Top 10 destinations for diving! We’ve had dive photo<br />

journalists rate it much higher than that with one<br />

recently placing it ‘if not the best, then in his top<br />

three’.<br />

Scenic diving can be amazing. Though the waters are<br />

cool the visibility can be extreme - over 40m visibility<br />

occurs regularly.<br />

The internal waters of Fiordland with their micro-habitats<br />

are interestingly different to the waters of the<br />

coast, or entrances where fish life abounds; and the<br />

colours are diverse so even an inexpensive camera can<br />

get awesome photos when you dive in Fiordland.<br />

There’s the odd wreck to be explored too, and wall<br />

dives that trigger vertigo.<br />

And there’s always plenty of kai Moana to gratify the<br />

appetite at the end of a busy day.<br />

Fiordland Expeditions have been operating throughout<br />

Fiordland for 15 years and are well versed on a range<br />

of sites to be explored. If you are keen to tick this one<br />

off your bucket list, then contact us today. We’d love<br />

to discuss how we can tailor a trip to meet your own<br />

specific desires.<br />

Call us on 0508 888 656 or check out:<br />

FiordlandExpeditions.co.nz<br />

Fiordland – – a a diver’s paradise<br />

A bucket A bucket list list destination<br />

Your multi-day live-aboard<br />

Charter a multi-day<br />

charters can comprise:<br />

live-aboard dive vessel<br />

• Live-aboard charters all year round<br />

• Two • Fully vessels, catered, both with multi-day own compressors,<br />

options<br />

tanks, • Two weights dive-equipped and beltsvessels<br />

• Fully • Available catered (except all year alcohol) round<br />

• Experienced dive crew<br />

Get a group together!<br />

Photography by Darryl Torckler<br />

Phone Phone 0508 0508 888 656 888 or 656 +64 or +64 3 2493 9005 249 9005<br />

Email Email charters@fiordlandexpeditions.co.nz<br />

fiordlandexpeditions.co.nz<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 11 27

S pearos notebook<br />

Spearfishing Nationals Perfect!<br />

with Jackson Shields<br />

Every sport has found 2020 tricky to navigate and for the New Zealand Spearfishing<br />

Nationals it was no different. This year the event was planned for Easter to be based<br />

out of Omaha for the first time ever. Easter often offers great diving with clear water,<br />

high fish numbers and nice weather, so it was an exciting prospect. Of course COVID<br />

put an end to that. 2020 looked written off until an AGM of Spearfishing NZ voted a<br />

national competition was still wanted.<br />

The revised date was Labour<br />

weekend in October, not<br />

known as a good time for<br />

weather or conditions. With<br />

preparation rushed and a shortened<br />

event, participant numbers<br />

were lower than normal but still<br />

more than enough with the best<br />

spear fishers congregating from<br />

around New Zealand.<br />

Unbelievably the weather for the<br />

event was absolutely perfect with<br />

flat seas and clear conditions.<br />

With such great weather and<br />

access to lots of big boats, the<br />

whole of the Hauraki Gulf was<br />

available for the competition.<br />

Miraculously the forecast was<br />

again for two incredible days, so<br />

the Mokohinaus were selected for<br />

the competition area. This was<br />

thought inconceivable prior to<br />

the competition as it is a fair way<br />

offshore and the weather doesn’t<br />

always play ball.<br />

Reduced fish list<br />

Competitions in New Zealand<br />

have changed with the times,<br />

and for these nationals the fish<br />

waste, minimum shark attention<br />

and virtually no bycatch.<br />

Spearfishing is arguably one of<br />

the best ways to harvest fish as<br />

we are can be so selective; we<br />

take only what we want. Without<br />

the use of burley and every pair<br />

having to dive and swim in the<br />

same stretch of coastline, it can<br />

be challenging for divers to get<br />

certain species, especially if they<br />

are spooked.<br />

…We struggled throughout the day seeing other species like<br />

snapper in abundance though they were moving around<br />

midwater making them difficult to approach…<br />

Little Barrier<br />

The Junior’s and Women’s was<br />

held on the Saturday. With light<br />

winds forecast Little Barrier was<br />

chosen. Each junior and woman<br />

competing has a safety diver<br />

swimming along throughout the<br />

competition and I was asked to<br />

swim with one of the women.<br />

The water was beautifully clear<br />

and flat calm, with good scope<br />

along the weed-edges and<br />

shallows to hunt for butterfish<br />

and snapper. Some great fish<br />

were speared with the biggest<br />

snapper coming in at 6.8kg<br />

gutted and gilled! A very nice<br />

fish!<br />

The Open competition was<br />

scheduled for the Monday and<br />

Tuesday - everyone was given<br />

a day’s rest after the Junior’s<br />

and Women’s – and some of<br />

the juniors and women were to<br />

compete as well in the two day<br />

event.<br />

list was reduced to the most<br />

sought after eating species. Plus,<br />

you were not allowed to use<br />

burley or gut your fish during<br />

competition to ensure minimal<br />

Plenty of fish leading up<br />

Starting gun fires<br />

Day One was held on the inside<br />

of Burgess Island group in an<br />

area about 2 km long marked out<br />

with large buoys and dive flags.<br />

All the boats park up together<br />

and once the starting gun fires<br />

all the pairs swim off for six<br />

hours to try and collect the fish<br />

species on the list.<br />

Conditions were fantastic -<br />

12-15m visibility and lots of fish.<br />

Me and dive buddy Paul picked<br />

up some nice fish early on. The<br />

difficulty of the reduced fish list<br />

was that we were encountering<br />

a lot of the same species; lots of<br />

pink mao mao, koheru, kingfish,<br />

but we already had our quota of<br />

these. (One only kingfish, or two<br />

koheru, and pink mao mao).<br />

Disqualified…<br />

So we struggled throughout<br />

the day seeing other species<br />

28 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Start of Day 1<br />

tions: you have no one to blame<br />

but yourself… plus there’s still<br />

another day of competition to<br />

try again. One pair was caught<br />

burleying so they were disqualified…if<br />

you break any rules,<br />

especially safety rules, your day<br />

gets disqualified.<br />

Dwane Herbert and John<br />

Anderson cleaned up on the day<br />

and did extremely well for fish<br />

diversity, 11, well ahead of the<br />

competition and very difficult<br />

to catch. Dwane had flown up<br />

Jackie Edwards - Women’s<br />

biggest snapper<br />

…Dwane Herbert and John Anderson cleaned up on the day<br />

and did extremely well for fish diversity, 11, …Dwane had<br />

flown up from Bluff to compete and is New Zealand’s top<br />

rated spearo…<br />

like snapper in abundance<br />

though they were moving<br />

around midwater making them<br />

difficult to approach. Without<br />

burley, apart from kina, which<br />

the snapper were not feeding<br />

on, we were not good enough<br />

that day. It was hard not to<br />

be disappointed but that’s the<br />

great thing about these competi-<br />

from Bluff to compete and is New<br />

Zealand’s top rated spearo.<br />

Second for the day with nine<br />

fish were Dave Mullins and<br />

Chris Marshall. Dave was 2019<br />

New Zealand champion, one of<br />

New Zealand’s top free divers;<br />

they had both come up from<br />

Wellington. Then Paul and I were<br />

trailing too far back with seven<br />

fish.<br />

Swimming race, with<br />

dolphins<br />

The last thing you want to do is<br />

be caught in a big swim race after<br />

six hours diving the previous day.<br />

Then half way to the desired spot<br />

a pod of big dolphins swam right<br />

up amongst us all - very cool!<br />

They made appearances all day<br />

too, and I even witnessed them<br />

chasing kingfish and school fish.<br />

After my poor effort not spearing<br />

a snapper the day before I<br />

Sophie Hamilton - 1st Women’s<br />

Day Two<br />

With everyone enjoying their<br />

day at the Mokohinaus it was<br />

established Day Two should<br />

also be there with great weather<br />

forecast once again, but this time<br />

on the South side of Fanal Island<br />

including Navire rock.<br />

Conditions were again fantastic<br />

with clear water and flat seas.<br />

All three top pairs headed off in<br />

the same direction, not ideal as<br />

we were likely to be targeting the<br />

same fish as all are very capable<br />

divers. A 1.3km straight swim<br />

race was on. Some chose to put<br />

their spear guns on their float<br />

boat and over arm. Others kept<br />

up though, keeping guns in hand<br />

ready to spear fish.<br />

Tyler Maugham - 1st Junior’s<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 29

Dwane and John’s Day 1 catch<br />

Paul and Jackson’s Day 2 catch<br />

managed to get very lucky<br />

straight off the bat spearing two<br />

nice snapper milling high in the<br />

water column in deep water.<br />

…Half way to the desired spot a pod of big dolphins swam<br />

right up amongst us all - very cool! …<br />

Big snapper<br />

Soon after we were amongst<br />

plenty of school fish, nailing our<br />

trevally, koheru and kingfish. We<br />

had made the call to try and get<br />

our snapper early before they got<br />

spooked, but we still needed two<br />

more to fill our quota. Hunting<br />

along a nice ledge I tucked myself<br />

in the kelp and lay still in hope<br />

of spotting a snapper resting<br />

deep down. To my surprise a big<br />

snapper glided in to inspect me,<br />

I waited very still until in range<br />

then made my lunge from the<br />

kelp cover. But it spooked just<br />

as I pulled the trigger and I hit<br />

it very high. The terrible sight of<br />

it spinning and tearing off was a<br />

hard pill to swallow on the way<br />

to the surface. Fortunately for the<br />

fish it had more of a fright than<br />

any real damage.<br />

But I was disappointed in myself<br />

letting such a good opportunity<br />

get away.<br />

While reloading I looked down<br />

deep at another big snapper<br />

cruising along the bottom, I was<br />

still on the long line so made a<br />

quick dive in the hope of getting<br />

close. By trying to anticipate its<br />

movements I took a long shot<br />

that connected well. Then, not<br />

long after hiding in the kelp<br />

again, I picked up another good<br />

size snapper, and with that we<br />

were done with snapper early in<br />

the competition.<br />

Tiring out at 30m<br />

We picked up the odd other small<br />

species and after two and half<br />

hours had most of our species.<br />

We then spent the time diving<br />

deep hoping for a lucky blue<br />

moki, boarfish or tarakihi. But<br />

as the day goes by making dives<br />

between 30-35m becomes just<br />

too taxing.<br />

Weighing in<br />

Back at the weigh in were lucky<br />

to have all the basic species in<br />

the area and at good weight.<br />

We weighed in 14 fish, Dwane<br />

and John 12, Dave and Chris 11.<br />

It was enough for us to sneak<br />

above Dave and Chris, but Dwane<br />

and John were too good and too<br />

consistent, taking out a well-deserved<br />

win!<br />

A big thank you to Spearfishing<br />

New Zealand for organizing the<br />

competition and all the competitors!<br />

Anyone interested in<br />

competing in the Nationals, I<br />

would highly recommend as<br />

it’s a great way to meet other<br />

spearos, sharpen your skills<br />

and get to dive areas that you<br />

may not normally dive. The<br />

next one is to be based out of<br />

Whitianga in Easter. Look out<br />

for upcoming competitions on<br />

www.spearfishingnz.co.nz<br />

30 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Rare underwater find for<br />

NIWA photographer<br />

NIWA’s Annual Staff photo competition<br />

LIDAR with Milky Way, Arrival Heights, Antarctica. Photo: Mark Murphy<br />

A NIWA marine ecologist is one<br />

of very few worldwide who have<br />

seen and photographed the<br />

elusive football octopus (Ocythoe<br />

tuberculate).<br />

NIWA’s Crispin Middleton was diving<br />

in November 2019 in the Poor Knights<br />

Marine Reserve when he spotted the<br />

football octopus inside a salp. He has<br />

dived there more than 1000 times<br />

but this was a first, and he hasn’t seen<br />

them since. He suspects the 50 he saw<br />

that day might have been a breeding<br />

aggregation.<br />

Salps are barrel-shaped invertebrate<br />

that resemble jellyfish. Crispin says<br />

that there aren’t many things that eat<br />

salps and the football octopus may<br />

have been hiding in them to avoid<br />

predation from larger fish.<br />

The photograph was judged the<br />

winner of the special award category<br />

in NIWA’s annual staff photographic<br />

competition. The NIWA competition<br />

attracted a large range of entries<br />

featuring some of New Zealand’s<br />

most awe-inspiring locations in which<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 31

Octopus in a salp. Photo: Crispin Middleton<br />

Pelagic octopus (Amphitretis) Photo: Darren Stevens<br />

staff undertake their environmental science.<br />

Coincidentally, the winning photograph in<br />

the People’s Choice section was also taken in<br />

the Poor Knights.<br />

Marine ecology technician Richie Hughes’<br />

image was taken at Long Cave when the<br />

sun was low in the sky sending beams of<br />

light through the water into the cave which<br />

was full of blue mao mao and two-spot<br />

demoiselle.<br />

“Framing an image like this requires the use<br />

of natural ambient light and light added from<br />

your camera’s flash guns. It’s the balance<br />

between these two, along with perfect<br />

composition, that may create the perfect<br />

exposure,” he says.<br />

Other winning shots included Lake Matheson,<br />

Lake Mangamahoe and Mt Taranaki, and<br />

koura resting on a fallen nikau palm frond.<br />

The judges this year were Ross Giblin of Stuff<br />

and Gerry le Roux from Science Lens.<br />

32 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Koura resting on a fallen nikau palm frond.<br />

Photo: Crispin Middleton<br />

Gaming Southern Royal albatross, Campbell<br />

Island. Photo: Rob Murdoch<br />

The longest cave, Poor Knights Marine Reserve.<br />

Photo: Richie Hughes<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 33

Once is never enough for the<br />

Kermadec Islands<br />

Story and photos by Paul Caiger<br />

As far as remote and rugged outposts go, the Kermadec Islands/Rangitāhua certainly fit the<br />

bill. Midway between mainland New Zealand and Tonga, these fragments of rock rise up in<br />

an otherwise vast ocean environment. Their remoteness makes them a hard place to visit;<br />

rare scientific expeditions, government resupply vessels, and a few intrepid yachties and<br />

divers.<br />

As for us, we were a collection of mostly marine science folk who wished to explore the<br />

Kermadecs on our own time. Four days of favourable winds blew us there north from the<br />

Bay of Islands on a 60-foot steel ketch, the Dona Catharina.<br />

34 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Kermadec Islands<br />

The reason the Kermadecs exist<br />

at all is due to their being on<br />

the collision zone of two of the<br />

Earth’s tectonic plates, the <strong>Pacific</strong><br />

and Australian. With a trench<br />

some 10 km deep adjacent to a<br />

highly active ridge, this is the most<br />

linear, fastest converging, and<br />

most seismically active subduction<br />

boundary on Earth. Consequently,<br />

it also has the highest density of<br />

volcanoes: around 600 submarine<br />

volcanoes, and of course islands<br />

along the chain. The Kermadecs<br />

themselves consist of four groups<br />

of islands stretching across 240 km<br />

of ocean.<br />

Active volcanoes<br />

This active volcanic region has<br />

had its influence on attempts at<br />

human habitation here too, in<br />

particular on the largest island,<br />

Raoul. The threat of a wanton<br />

earthquake or eruption is never far<br />

away, and it has given would be<br />

settlers desperate, sometimes fatal,<br />

challenges to living here. Still,<br />

the allure of a Robison Crusoetype<br />

existence has enticed several<br />

people to try and settle over recent<br />

history, usually though not for<br />

long. The ‘King of the Kermadecs,’<br />

Thomas Bell, with his family of<br />

nine, managed a 30-year residence<br />

on Raoul, working sheep and<br />

crops, both to subsist and to sell<br />

back to the mainland. Prior to<br />

that, evidence suggests Polynesian<br />

navigators visited and possibly<br />

settled on the islands for a time<br />

about 700 years ago.<br />

Reserved<br />

By the 20th century, the natural<br />

significance of the islands was<br />

starting to be appreciated, with<br />

its unique floral composition, and<br />

huge numbers of seabird colonies.<br />

…Fishes we seldom encounter in New Zealand thrive<br />

here in abundance…<br />

By 1934, all the crown land was<br />

gazetted for a Flora and Fauna<br />

Reserve, with the remaining<br />

private land on Raoul obtained by<br />

the government and added to the<br />

Reserve in 1992.<br />

The land under the sea has also<br />

Left page: Blue dragon and by-the-wind sailor<br />

Below: Drummer<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 35

Humpback whale breachings<br />

been protected, becoming New<br />

Zealand’s third, and still largest,<br />

marine reserve in 1990. There’s<br />

a lot to protect. In the desert<br />

latitudes, the Kemedecs provide<br />

a surprising hotspot of flora and<br />

fauna.<br />

Underwater<br />

And diving is why we are here! On<br />

first appearances, the reefs appear<br />

relatively barren. Absent are the<br />

lush kelp forests of temperate<br />

coasts, and missing too are the<br />

sprawling coral reefs of the tropics.<br />

Nevertheless it’s quickly apparent<br />

that most surfaces of boulder or<br />

bedrock are covered with a blend<br />

of delicate or turfing algae, and soft<br />

and hard corals.<br />

Fish fascinators<br />

This fascinating mixture of<br />

tropical and temperate is multiplied<br />

by the fish life. Of the <strong>175</strong> or<br />

so coastal fish species currently<br />

known to live here, 42% are considered<br />

tropical, 45% subtropical, and<br />

…We anchored at the islands for a week and found it hard to<br />

tire of the constant breaching and singing from these gentle<br />

leviathans. Their vocalisations certainly added a unique<br />

sensation to our night dives…<br />

12% of temperate origin, showing<br />

the mixed nature of their origins.<br />

Fishes we seldom encounter<br />

in New Zealand thrive here in<br />

abundance; the likes of yellowbanded<br />

perch, gold-ribbon grouper,<br />

and painted moki. Also, given the<br />

lack of kelp, there are a surprising<br />

Spanish lobster & Sandagers wrasse<br />

36 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Kermadec Islands<br />

number of herbivorous fishes,<br />

including drummers, marblefish and<br />

Parma anglefishes. Here they are more<br />

diverse in their diet, relying more on<br />

plankton, and it is not uncommon to<br />

see large schools of drummer feeding<br />

on salps in the top couple of metres of<br />

the water column.<br />

The mobile invertebrates are chiefly<br />

tropical: crown-of-thorns starfish,<br />

tropical urchins, exquisite crustaceans<br />

and gastropods. Perhaps the most<br />

iconic are the giant limpets, endemic<br />

to the islands, and dominating the<br />

shallow surge zone.<br />

Splendid hawkfish (Notocirrhitus splendens)<br />

…Gratitude for wild places like<br />

this, left for nature, without<br />

human interference…<br />

However due to its isolation, and<br />

compared with other places, the<br />

knowledge of this underwater world<br />

is relatively low. Even from our few<br />

days there, between us we recorded at<br />

least two fish species that we hadn’t<br />

encountered in New Zealand before.<br />

Predators<br />

Two large predators patrol the reefs.<br />

The Galapagos sharks are very<br />

common, a great sign of a healthy<br />

ecosystem, and they are our near-constant,<br />

yet distant, companions on<br />

dives. As dusk approaches each day,<br />

we find their curiosity increasing.<br />

Several close encounters ensue!<br />

Fortunately, most are less than a<br />

couple of metres, and as I consider<br />

there to be a basic size hierarchy with<br />

sharks, so as long as I am longer than<br />

them, I’m happy!<br />

Hingebeak shrimp & diadema urchin<br />

Grey moray (Gymnothorax nubilus) in soft coral<br />

The other large fish predator we<br />

encounter is the charismatic spotted<br />

black grouper. The Kermadecs are the<br />

last bastion of healthy populations<br />

of this species which reach nearly<br />

two metres long! Being long lived and<br />

easy to catch, they are vulnerable to<br />

overfishing, irrespective of the marine<br />

reserve status, and they are fully<br />

protected throughout New Zealand,<br />

in fact one of only two species of bony<br />

fish in New Zealand that are. But, here<br />

there is megafauna even larger than<br />

either sharks or the grouper.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 37

Whales!<br />

Sperm, right, and humpback whales<br />

traditionally pass by the Kermadecs<br />

twice a year on their annual migrations.<br />

In the 19th century they<br />

attracted whalers from around the<br />

globe. The Kermadecs find themselves<br />

in the logbooks of many a whaling<br />

ship, along with hundreds of barrels of<br />

whale oil, in particular those from the<br />

famed whaling haunts New Bedford<br />

and Nantucket in the US.<br />

Spotted black groupers (Epinephelus daemelii)<br />

Toadstool grouper (Trachypoma macracanthus)<br />

The Donna Catharina<br />

Since the cessation of whaling,<br />

humpbacks have started visiting the<br />

Kermadecs in numbers once more.<br />

Each spring scores of them, many with<br />

calves in tow, stop to rest and socialize<br />

around Raoul for a few weeks on<br />

their way south to feeding grounds in<br />

Antarctica. We anchored at the islands<br />

for a week and found it hard to tire of<br />

the constant breaching and singing<br />

from these gentle leviathans. Their<br />

vocalisations certainly added a unique<br />

sensation to the night dives we undertook.<br />

Keen sense of the remote<br />

One week at the Kermadecs Islands<br />

was never going to be enough. This<br />

rugged, swell-battered, volcanically<br />

active group of rocks really kindles a<br />

sense of the remote, a feeling not many<br />

places left on Earth can. And with<br />

the fascinating blend of human and<br />

natural history it was easy to be truly<br />

captivated both above and below the<br />

water.<br />

Sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus)<br />

38 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Kermadec giant limpets (Patella kermadecensis)<br />

Of the many feelings elicited over our seven adventurous<br />

days at this special place, the most profound<br />

perhaps was a sense of appreciation. Gratitude too, that<br />

there are still wild places like this we can visit, wild<br />

places like this left for nature, without human interference.<br />

With thoughts like these and a firm easterly filling our<br />

sails, against the silhouette of Raoul sinking below the<br />

horizon, we set off on our four-day passage back to the<br />

mainland.<br />

Sandagers wrasse<br />

You can choose to have HECS technology in any<br />

of our top quality NZ made drysuits<br />

www.oceandry.co.nz<br />

25 Station Rd, Wellsford, Auckland<br />

info@oceandry.co.nz Phone: 09 423 8237<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 39

My best dive experience<br />

We had waited all week for<br />

Leeza, the owner manager<br />

of Triton Bay <strong>Dive</strong>rs Resort, to<br />

tell us we were going to see the<br />

incredible whale sharks.<br />

Whale sharks are a filter-feeder<br />

carpet shark, and the largest of<br />

fish species. Some grow to 18m<br />

making them by far the largest<br />

non-mammalian vertebrate, and<br />

the whale sharks around Papua<br />

are the only known<br />

non-migratory whale<br />

sharks in the world.<br />

Leeza announced<br />

that tomorrow was<br />

the big day. Someone would<br />

wake us at 5am and we had to<br />

be at the boat with all our gear<br />

by 6. Nobody needed to wake<br />

us - we were up and rearing to<br />

go, nervously hoping that after<br />

travelling all the way from New<br />

Zealand to Triton Bay in West<br />

Papua, we would get to see what<br />

we came for.<br />

Other guests had travelled<br />

greater distances: a couple from<br />

England; another from France;<br />

one from Italy. and one from<br />

Malta. We were three: husband,<br />

adult daughter and myself from<br />

Akaroa.<br />

Expectations were high. We<br />

excitedly made our way quickly<br />

to get the best position on one of<br />

the boats. I get sea sick so needed<br />

to be out in the fresh air, but the<br />

sea was flat calm as we made<br />

…the whale sharks around Papua are the only known<br />

non-migratory whale sharks in the world…<br />

the hour long trip to where the<br />

bagans, and hopefully, the whale<br />

sharks were. Bagans are lift-net<br />

vessels and whale sharks are<br />

attracted to them as fishermen<br />

hand out baitfish. The bagans<br />

move around a lot in the area but<br />

the resort boats knew exactly<br />

where to look.<br />

When we came up we went<br />

from bagan to bagan to see if the<br />

whale sharks were nearby. After<br />

the fourth my stomach dropped<br />

and I began feeling quite despondent.<br />

But a fifth one was pointed<br />

out and we headed there. And<br />

then the excitement mounted<br />

there were two whale sharks<br />

there. We had nine people on<br />

two boats with seven of them<br />

divers. My daughter, a snorkeler,<br />

had said she would be too scared<br />

to get in the water with them<br />

but she was the first to jump<br />

in, elbowing<br />

everyone out of<br />

the way.<br />

The two whale<br />

sharks were<br />

young males, the larger one over<br />

six metres and the smaller about<br />

five metres. Inquisitive creatures<br />

they were. They came over to<br />

inspect the boats then gracefully<br />

circled as they sucked in as many<br />

bait fish as they could, like large<br />

puppies.<br />

Whale sharks passively filter<br />

everything in their path with<br />

what’s called “cross- flow filtration”<br />

– water travels nearly<br />

parallel to their filter pad, not<br />

40 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Story and photos<br />

by Sarah Ford<br />

perpendicularly through it,<br />

before passing outside. Denser<br />

food particles continue to the<br />

back of the throat. This suctionfeeding<br />

system allows them to<br />

swallow schools of small bait<br />

fishes along with many litres<br />

of water, retaining the fish and<br />

pushing the water back out.<br />

The night before Leeza had<br />

explained how gentle these<br />

creatures are. We could approach<br />

closely to them and, if we kept<br />

still, they would know where<br />

we were and avoid us. The dive<br />

guide signalled for us to come<br />

and hold a rope right near where<br />

they were coming to feed. But as<br />

they came right up it was hard to<br />

stay our ground. They eye balled<br />

us, and with their giant mouths<br />

open.<br />

…They grow very slowly reaching maturity when around 30<br />

years of age, and live to be 60-100 years old. They reproduce<br />

only slowly…<br />

We were so lucky to spend an<br />

hour in the water within a metre<br />

or two of these massive creatures<br />

as they fed and swam around us.<br />

When we reluctantly boarded<br />

the dive boats everyone was on a<br />

high. The excitement was clearly<br />

visible on everyone’s faces. We<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 41

Conservation International and like-minded<br />

organisations do what they can to protect,<br />

and learn more about them. We took photos<br />

to share with Conservation International who<br />

are also tagging and tracking some of them in<br />

Cenderawasih Bay. Like human fingerprints,<br />

whale sharks have a unique pattern of spots<br />

allowing individual sharks to be identified.<br />

Fortunately in New Zealand they are protected<br />

in our waters. Let’s hope they will be around<br />

for many more generations to enjoy. This<br />

certainly was a life time experience!<br />

…When we reluctantly boarded the<br />

dive boats everyone was on a high.<br />

The excitement was clearly visible<br />

on everyone’s faces. We all admitted<br />

having emotional tears inside our<br />

dive masks…<br />

all admitted having emotional tears inside<br />

our dive masks.<br />

Sadly these beautiful animals are endangered<br />

around the world. They grow very<br />

slowly reaching maturity when around 30<br />

years of age, and live to be 60-100 years<br />

old. They reproduce only slowly.<br />

In some areas they are still being hunted<br />

with their fins used for soup. Others<br />

are caught in nets, or hit by boats.<br />

42 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Counting fish at the<br />

Poor Knights (and Mokihinaus)<br />

By Harry Allard<br />

My research based at the Leigh Marine Laboratory focuses on the effects that<br />

no-take protection can have on fishes, including unexpected flow-on effects.<br />

At Leigh’s Cape Rodney-Okakari Point Marine Reserve, previous research<br />

showed how the recovery of predatory snapper and crayfish under protection impact kina,<br />

slowing their grazing and in turn allowing kelp forests recover, an example of the “indirect<br />

effects” of reserve protection flowing on from the protection of targeted species. The key<br />

aim of my PhD research is to investigate whether similar, indirect effects are common among<br />

fish species, and how they might vary at other marine reserves.<br />

The Poor Knights Islands are a star<br />

destination of New Zealand diving,<br />

previously shown off to television audiences<br />

around the world by famous people like<br />

Jacques Cousteau and David Attenborough.<br />

Situated in clear oceanic waters 23 km off<br />

the Tutukaka coast, these small islands<br />

are washed by the East Auckland Current<br />

bringing wildlife from warmer locations<br />

like Lord Howe Island near Australia which<br />

contributes to the Poor Knights’ diverse fish<br />

fauna,. Besides coastal staples like snapper<br />

and red moki, the Poor Knights are home<br />

to a host of colourful wrasses and rarer<br />

species as illustrated on these pages. Here,<br />

dramatic stone archways, grand caves and<br />

sheer sunken cliffs provide surreal settings<br />

for some truly special underwater sights.<br />

Recognising just how unique<br />

the Poor Knights were, in the<br />

1960s and 70s now-legendary<br />

conservationists like the late<br />

Kelly Tarlton, Roger Grace, and<br />

Wade Doak were instrumental<br />

in affording the islands partial<br />

protection from fishing in 1981<br />

moving into full no-take protection<br />

in 1998.<br />

Snapper armada<br />

At the Poor Knights, snapper<br />

have undergone a population<br />

boom, with an armada of large<br />

snapper moving in around 1998<br />

and holding fort ever since.<br />

But to figure out what other<br />

effects protection may have<br />

had, I needed to compare what<br />

happened at the Poor Knights to<br />

another, unprotected location.<br />

and for this I selected the<br />

Mokohinau Islands which is open<br />

to fishing, and has not experienced<br />

the same snapper boom.<br />

In the autumn of 2019, our<br />

small team headed out on<br />

the University of Auckland’s<br />

research vessel Hawere, diving<br />

for several days at both locations.<br />

We collected data to compare<br />

with previous fish monitoring<br />

results, often getting bitten by<br />

feisty Sandager’s wrasse in the<br />

process.<br />

Working on the data, it became<br />

clear that at the Poor Knights the<br />

snapper biomass (the estimated<br />

weight of all the fish combined)<br />

was on the rise, indicating a<br />

growing number of large, legalsized<br />

fish. In contrast, snapper<br />

biomass at the Mokohinau<br />

Islands remained low, consistent<br />

with a popular target species<br />

whose large individuals are<br />

frequently fished.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 43

Counting fish<br />

As well there were a few other<br />

long-term positive effects of<br />

reserve protection, including<br />

an increase in the likelihood of<br />

observing kingfish at the Poor<br />

Knights, and the stable numbers<br />

of multiple fished species.<br />

Reverse decline, increases<br />

In the same time period, we<br />

observed the decline in numbers<br />

of three wrasses (spotty,<br />

banded wrasse, and scarlet<br />

wrasse) at the Poor Knights,<br />

while they increased at the<br />

fished Mokohinau Islands. Such<br />

changes could be due to competition<br />

with (or in the case of<br />

the small spotty, predation by)<br />

snapper at the Poor Knights.<br />

While the Poor Knights and<br />

Mokohinau Islands fish<br />

communities were consistently<br />

different, the influence<br />

of indirect effects of<br />

protection is likely to be<br />

weak, and likely to apply<br />

to just the three of 77 fish<br />

species we recorded.<br />

species are gradually lost.<br />

Tropical fishes show up at both<br />

the Poor Knights and Mokohinau<br />

Islands, as well as other North<br />

Island locales like the Bay<br />

of Islands. These occasional<br />

arrivals range from the tiny<br />

sergeant major to the titanic<br />

whale shark, and with all kinds<br />

of interesting species recorded<br />

at the Poor Knights in warm<br />

seasons.<br />

Buffer species?<br />

At locations where tropicalisation<br />

has occurred (including<br />

areas of Tasmania), the recovery<br />

of predators in marine reserves<br />

can act as a buffer against the<br />

process, as the predators are<br />

likely to eat or outcompete<br />

small newcomers. It follows<br />

that if tropicalisation is occurring<br />

offshore, it may be more<br />

pronounced at the fished<br />

Mokohinau Islands.<br />

However tropical species were<br />

rare in our data, which spanned<br />

from 1998 to 2019, and the<br />

numbers of warm water species<br />

in general (including subtropical<br />

wrasses) did not appear to<br />

be gradually increasing. In fact,<br />

by looking at past studies by<br />

other scientists, it’s evident that<br />

most of the subtropical wrasses<br />

were far more common in the<br />

late 1970s. At that time, north<br />

eastern New Zealand experienced<br />

a period of particularly<br />

warm waters, and subtropical<br />

wrasses were able to estab-<br />

Climate change<br />

tropicalisation<br />

The effects of reserve<br />

protection were not the<br />

only source of long-term<br />

ecological change I was<br />

interested in. Our climate<br />

is steadily changing,<br />

which is leading to a<br />

whole litany of problems<br />

from freak weather events<br />

to melting polar ice caps.<br />

And where temperate<br />

reefs are exposed to a<br />

poleward-flowing current<br />

bringing warmer water<br />

and its associated species,<br />

“tropicalisation” can<br />

occur. In this scenario, the<br />

warming of the temperate<br />

location means that<br />

vagrant tropical species<br />

can comfortably settle<br />

down, while temperate<br />

species gradually retreat<br />

to cooler waters. For a<br />

time, this comingling of<br />

tropical and temperate<br />

species boosts biodiversity,<br />

before the temperate<br />

Sea surface temperature range<br />

Sea surface temperature range (°C) at the Poor Knights Islands (PKI) from<br />

1982-2019, with additional long-term monitoring (1967-2019) from<br />

Leigh Marine Reserve. Annual mean temperatures from 1982-2019 were<br />

closely correlated between Leigh and PKI (r = 0.89). Regression lines are<br />

shown for all time series. Regression lines for Leigh show the full time<br />

series as well as the 1982-2019 period only. Regression lines for the PKI<br />

show the 1982-2019 period as mean summer temperature, overall annual<br />

mean temperature, and mean winter temperature.<br />

44 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

dnz164<br />

Counting fish<br />

lish populations at multiple<br />

locations. Since then those<br />

populations have depended on<br />

similar warm water events to<br />

top up their numbers. Fittingly,<br />

our data showed spikes in<br />

the numbers of these species<br />

following years with high<br />

summer water temperatures.<br />

Sea temperature rise<br />

Sea temperatures for the Poor<br />

Knights have been recorded by<br />

satellite since 1982, with the<br />

average summer temperatures<br />

increasing at a worrying 0.2°C<br />

per decade in this time. But this<br />

is a relatively narrow window<br />

to draw conclusions from. At<br />

Leigh, sea temperatures have<br />

been recorded daily since 1967,<br />

and when that whole period<br />

is accounted for, there has not<br />

been any significant warming in<br />

average temperature there.<br />

Nonetheless the existing Poor<br />

Knights temperature records<br />

and the Leigh temperature<br />

records are closely correlated.<br />

And if pre-1982 temperatures<br />

were similarly correlated, there<br />

may have been a similar lack of<br />

long-term warming at the Poor<br />

Knights. Though we can’t confidently<br />

address pre-1982 temperatures<br />

at the Poor Knights Islands,<br />

winter temperatures there are<br />

still cool, and it’s unclear if new<br />

tropical arrivals would fare well<br />

enough to establish permanent<br />

populations.<br />

Species comings & goings<br />

Over the years, the Poor Knights<br />

have been inhabited by collections<br />

of warm water fishes that<br />

have waxed and waned with<br />

warmer periods. Those early<br />

dives that dazzled spearfishers<br />

decades ago most likely took<br />

place during a bumper season of<br />

diversity, but nothing in nature<br />

is fixed.<br />

At this point, a group of the<br />

subtropical wrasses including<br />

combfish were extremely<br />

common in 1975 but virtually<br />

extinct locally by 1979. However,<br />

those populations soon got<br />

topped up, and during my 2019<br />

dives I saw those same species<br />

again.<br />

Whether the East Auckland<br />

Current will continue to supply<br />

subtropical fishes to the Poor<br />

Knights in the decades to come<br />

remains to be seen. Some oceanographic<br />

research suggests the<br />

effects of climate change on<br />

oceanic currents may eventually<br />

weaken the connectivity<br />

between Australia and New<br />

Zealand.<br />

All you can eat buffet?<br />

In the face of long-term changes,<br />

the Poor Knights Islands Marine<br />

Reserve is working well at<br />

maintaining healthy populations<br />



SIMPLY<br />

AWESOME!<br />

New snapper biomass plot<br />

Snapper Chrysophrys auratus biomass (kg) 125 m-2<br />

(mean ± standard error), in the Poor Knights Islands<br />

and Mokohinau Islands across all surveys.<br />

FREE<br />

PHONE<br />

0800 288 882<br />

www.diving.co.nz<br />

3-5 Rona Place, Tutukaka, Whangarei, SOUTH PACIFIC<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 45

Coris sandeyeri<br />

Amphichaetodon howensis<br />

of targeted species. Snapper are<br />

thriving, and thankfully aren’t<br />

treating the reserve as an all-youcan-eat<br />

buffet of other species.<br />

But whether the Poor Knights look<br />

something like an ecosystem that<br />

was never fished is unclear; the<br />

reserve currently extends just 800<br />

m off the islands and is unlikely<br />

to help deeper-dwelling target<br />

species.<br />

Neither are no-take marine<br />

reserves a silver bullet for the<br />

problems we’ve lumped on<br />

the marine world. But when<br />

carefully designed and properly<br />

implemented, marine reserves<br />

certainly provide a tool to secure<br />

healthier fish populations.<br />

I hope that during the next<br />

20-something years, the fishes of<br />

the Poor Knights Islands continue<br />

to thrive, supporting our marine<br />

ecosystems and the humans that<br />

rely upon them.<br />

Arothron firmamentum<br />

46 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Paolo the fisherman:<br />

Making an underwater museum<br />

In a bid to stop illegal trawling, an<br />

Italian fisherman has persuaded<br />

sculptors to create huge marble<br />

artworks then drop them in<br />

the Mediterranean, reports The<br />

Guardian.<br />

Paolo Fanciulli is a fisherman in<br />

the Tuscan village of Talamone.<br />

Now 60 he still plies his trade but<br />

in the past decade trawling near<br />

the coast has been destroying the<br />

marine ecosystem, and his livelihood.<br />

Commercial nets are weighted<br />

with heavy chains and dragged<br />

on the sea bottom uprooting<br />

the posidonia seagrass that the<br />

Mediterranean ecosystem relies<br />

on for sea bream, lobsters and red<br />

gurnards to lay their eggs.<br />

“They don’t care. Nobody is<br />

watching,” says Paolo. “It’s like if<br />

a hunter burned a whole forest to<br />

catch a hare.”<br />

While Italian law bans trawling<br />

within three nautical miles of the<br />

coast, it’s so profitable that boats<br />

often carry on illegally at night.<br />

Fanciulli noticed the damage being<br />

caused by bottom trawling from<br />

the 1980s. So, along with some<br />

other local fishermen and activists<br />

from Greenpeace, he blocked<br />

a commercial port in Tuscany in<br />

protest.<br />

Since then Fanciulli has<br />

destroyed trawling nets<br />

with barbed wire. He<br />

once stopped a trawler<br />

by pretending to be the<br />

police. But threats from<br />

local mafia soon made<br />

it impossible for him<br />

to sell his fish at the<br />

market.<br />

Instead he turned to<br />

fishing tourism taking<br />

visitors out on his boat,<br />

giving them a chance to catch fish<br />

and learn about the ecological<br />

threat of trawling. He also runs a<br />

small restaurant.<br />

To stop the illegal fishing however,<br />

in 2006, a desperate Tuscan<br />

government dropped concrete<br />

blocks into the sea to disrupt<br />

the trawlers. Fanciulli says they<br />

didn’t work as they were too far<br />

apart and the nets simply dragged<br />

between them.<br />

…Biologist Roberto Danovaro likens trawling to “fishing with<br />

bombs”. “You catch the fish, but also destroy their habitat,”<br />

he says. “With no possibility of growing back because<br />

trawling is so intense…<br />

Siren, a sculpture by Giorgio Butini, overgrown<br />

with marine vegetation in the underwater museum<br />

off Talamone, Tuscany. Photograph: Marta Clinco<br />

He got permission from Arpa, the<br />

agency for environmental protection,<br />

to drop an additional 80<br />

blocks at his own expense. Then<br />

he thought, “What if, instead of<br />

dropping concrete blocks into the<br />

water, he dropped art?”<br />

He asked a quarry<br />

nearby if they<br />

could donate two<br />

marble blocks to<br />

make sculptures.<br />

“They donated 100<br />

instead.”<br />

With contributions<br />

from tourists and<br />

online crowdfunding,<br />

Fanciulli<br />

persuaded artists<br />

including Giorgio<br />

Butini, Massimo<br />

Lippi, Beverly<br />



Giorgio Butini’s sculpture ‘Acqua’, carved<br />

from Carrara marble and lying underwater<br />

off the coast of Tuscany. Photograph: Giovanni<br />

Cipriano/New York Times/Redux/eyevine<br />

Pepper and Emily Young to carve<br />

sculptures from the marble.<br />

Then he took them out to sea and<br />

lowered them in.<br />

…What if, instead of dropping concrete<br />

blocks into the water, he dropped art?…<br />

The underwater sculptures create<br />

both a physical barrier for nets and<br />

a unique underwater museum.<br />

UK sculptor Emily Young provided<br />

four sculptures, each weighing 12<br />

tons. She calls them “guardians”.<br />

Nearby lies a mermaid by the<br />

young artist Aurora Vantaggiato.<br />

Lippi has contributed 17 sculptures<br />

representing Siena’s contrade, or<br />

medieval districts.<br />

The museum is open to anyone<br />

who can arrange a visit off the<br />

Tuscan coast either through guided<br />

scuba tours or by arranging their<br />

own dive.<br />

Biologist Roberto Danovaro, head<br />

of the Anton Dohrn research institute<br />

in Naples, likens trawling to<br />

“fishing with bombs”. “You catch<br />

the fish, but also destroy their<br />

habitat,” he says.<br />

Dr Gioia Benedettini, sea manager<br />

of Arpat, the local environmental<br />

agency, says the seagrass is now<br />

growing back. The statues also<br />

help “protect the fish resources<br />

because the nursery areas of<br />

various commercial fish species<br />

are located below the coast”.<br />

Turtles too, are returning.<br />

“We put in the first statues in 2007<br />

but our goal is to reach 100,” says<br />

Fanciulli.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 47

UK’s Natural History Museum presents<br />

Wildlife Photographer of the Year winners<br />

• Now in its 56th year, the Wildlife Photographer<br />

of the Year is the Natural History Museum’s<br />

showcase for the world’s best nature photography.<br />

• This year’s competition attracted 49,000 entries<br />

from professionals and amateurs from across the<br />

world.<br />

• Follow the competition on Instagram, Twitter or<br />

Facebook<br />

• The <strong>2021</strong> competition has opened for entries and<br />

they close at 11.30am GMT on 10 December 2020.<br />

The competition is open to photographers of all<br />

ages and abilities.<br />

And the Grand Title Winner of the 2020<br />

Wildlife Photographer of the Year 2020 is<br />

The Embrace by Sergey Gorshkov, of Russia.<br />

His entry of an Amur tigress hugging an ancient<br />

Manchurian fir in the Russian Far East was selected<br />

from over 49,000 photos from around the world.<br />

Amur, or Siberian tigers are only found in this<br />

region and it took more than 11 months for the<br />

Russian photographer to capture the moment with<br />

hidden cameras.<br />

The Embrace by Sergey Gorshkov, of Russia. Grand Title Winner<br />

Chair of the judging panel, Rosamund ‘Roz’ Kidman<br />

Cox says, ‘It’s a scene like no other. A unique<br />

glimpse of an intimate moment deep in a magical<br />

forest. She grips the trunk in obvious ecstasy and<br />

inhales the scent of tiger on resin, leaving her own<br />

mark as her message, a story told in glorious colour<br />

and texture of the comeback of the Amur tiger, a<br />

symbol of the Russian wilderness.’<br />

The fox that got the goose won for Liina Heikkinen<br />

of Norway the Grand Title of Young Wildlife<br />

Photographer of the Year 2020.<br />

The images were judged anonymously from professional<br />

and amateur photographers by a panel of<br />

experts for their innovation, narrative and technical<br />

ability. They will be showcased in displays at the<br />

Natural History Museum this year before touring<br />

across the UK, Australia, Canada, Denmark,<br />

Germany, and elsewhere.<br />

Entries for the <strong>2021</strong> competition are now open with<br />

new categories focussing on people’s impact on the<br />

planet. The new jury for it has also been announced.<br />

www.nhm.ac.uk<br />

48 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

With an expression of sheer ecstasy, a tigress hugs an ancient Manchurian fir, rubbing her cheek against<br />

bark to leave secretions from her scent glands. She is an Amur, or Siberian tiger in the Land of the Leopard<br />

National Park in the Russian Far East, found only in this region, with a small number surviving over the<br />

border in China and possibly a few in North Korea. The population is threatened by poaching and logging<br />

which also impacts their prey, mostly deer and wild boar. Low prey densities mean tiger territories are huge.<br />

Sergey installed his first proper camera trap in <strong>Jan</strong>uary 2019, opposite this grand fir. But it was not until<br />

November that he achieved this picture, of a magnificent tigress in her Siberian forest environment. Nikon<br />

Z-7 + 50mm f1.8 lens; 1/200 sec at f6.3; ISO 250; Cognisys camera-trap system.<br />

The fox that got the goose by Liina Heikkinen,<br />

Finland Winner 2020, 15-17 years old,<br />

Young Grand Title Winner<br />

On a summer holiday in Helsinki, Liina, then aged<br />

13, heard about a large fox family living in the<br />

city suburbs on the island of Lehtisaari. The foxes<br />

are relatively unafraid of humans, and Liina and<br />

her father spent one long July day watching the<br />

two adults and their six large cubs. It was 7pm<br />

when the vixen arrived with a barnacle goose,<br />

and feathers flew as the cubs fought over it. One<br />

finally dragged it into a crevice to block access to<br />

the others. Lying just metres away, Liina was able<br />

to frame the scene and capture its expression.<br />

Nikon D4 + 28–300mm f3.5–5.6 lens; 1/125 sec at<br />

f5.6 (-0.3 e/v); ISO 1600.<br />

A tiny diamondback squid paralarva flits in the blackness, stops when caught in the light beam, gilds<br />

itself in shimmering gold then moves gracefully out of the light. The beam was Songda’s on a night‐dive over<br />

deep water off the coast of Anilao in the Philippines. All sorts of larvae and other tiny animals migrate up<br />

from the depths under cover of night to feed on surface-dwelling phytoplankton, and after them come other<br />

predators. A paralarva is the stage between hatchling and subadult, already recognizable as a squid, here 6–7<br />

centimetres long.. Chromatophores (organs just below the skin) contain elastic sacs of pigment that stretch<br />

rapidly into discs of colour when the muscles around them contract. Iridophores deeper in the skin reflect<br />

and scatter light, adding an iridescent sheen. Songda captured the fleeting moment when the diamondback<br />

paralarva turned to gold.<br />

The golden moment by Songda Cai, China<br />

Winner 2020, Under Water<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 49

Eleonora’s gift by Alberto Fantoni, Italy Winner 2020, Rising Star Portfolio<br />

On the steep cliffs of a Sardinian island, a male Eleonora’s falcon brings his mate food – a small migrant,<br />

probably a lark, snatched from the sky as it flew over the Mediterranean. When the chicks are fledged, they<br />

all head south to overwinter in Africa, mainly on Madagascar. Alberto was watching from a hide on San<br />

Pietro Island, observing the male always seemed reluctant to give up his catch.<br />

Canon EOS 7D Mark II + 500mm f4.5 lens; 1/2000 sec at f7.1 (+1 e/v); ISO 800; hide.<br />

One hand raised signals the bear to stand, the other holds a rod as the trainer directs the ice-rink show. A<br />

wire muzzle stops the polar bear biting back, and blue safety netting surrounds the circus ring. It’s a shocking<br />

sight – the bear is performing for the entertainment of visitors to the travelling Russian circus in the city of<br />

Kazan, Tatarstan. When not performing, the bear probably spends most of its time in a transportation cage.<br />

The polar bear was reportedly captured in Russia’s Franz Josef Land when two years old and still performing<br />

18 years later for the only circus known to own polar bears. For the photographer who has spent a couple<br />

of years reporting on<br />

animal exploitation and<br />

abuse, this was the most<br />

symbolically shocking<br />

of all the scenes of<br />

exploitation she has shot,<br />

Canon EOS 5D Mark IV +<br />

70–200mm f2.8 lens; 1/500<br />

sec at f4; ISO 2000.<br />

Show Business by<br />

Kirsten Luce, USA<br />

Winner 2020, Wildlife<br />

Photojournalism:<br />

Single Image<br />

50 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

A mean mouthful by Sam Sloss, Italy/USA Winner 2020, 11-14 years old<br />

On a diving holiday in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, Sam was watching a group of clownfishes as they swam<br />

in and out and around their home, a magnificent anemone. Clownfish are highly territorial, living in small<br />

groups within an anemone. The anemone’s stinging tentacles protect them and their eggs from predators<br />

while the clownfish develops a layer of mucus to avoid being stung. The tenants feed on debris and parasites<br />

within the tentacles and aerate the water around them and may also deter anemone‐eating fish. But it was<br />

only when Sam downloaded the photos that he saw tiny eyes peeping out of its mouth, a ‘tongue-eating<br />

louse’, a parasitic isopod that swims in through the gills as a male, changes sex, grows legs and attaches<br />

itself to the base of the tongue, sucking blood. When the tongue withers and drops off, the isopod takes its<br />

place. Its presence may weaken its host, but the clownfish can continue to feed. Sam’s image captures the<br />

three very different life forms, their lives intertwined.<br />

Nikon D300 + 105mm f2.8 lens; 1/250 sec at f18; ISO 200; Nauticam Housing + two INON Z-240 strobes.<br />

A young male proboscis monkey<br />

cocks his head slightly and closes his<br />

eyes. Unexpected pale blue eyelids<br />

now complement his immaculately<br />

groomed auburn hair. He poses for a<br />

few seconds as if in meditation, a wild<br />

visitor to the feeding station at Labuk<br />

Bay Proboscis Monkey Sanctuary<br />

in Sabah, Borneo. Mogens has been<br />

photographing primates worldwide for<br />

the past five years.<br />

Canon EOS-1D X + 500mm f4 lens;<br />

1/1000 sec at f7.1; ISO 1250; Manfrotto<br />

tripod + Benro gimbal head.<br />

The pose by Mogens Trolle, Denmark<br />

Winner 2020, Animal Portraits<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 51


Tickets on sale<br />

Viking powered kayak<br />

& more to be won!<br />

Buy tickets to the <strong>2021</strong><br />

Hutchwilco New Zealand Boat<br />

Show on-line and get a second<br />

bonus entry into the show’s<br />

Grand Prize draw and an<br />

entry into the draw to win this<br />

amazing $6500-plus Viking<br />

Profish Reload prize package,<br />

complete with a powerful Bixpy<br />

electric motor, a 7”Raymarine<br />

Element S and much more.<br />

Tickets to the <strong>2021</strong> Hutchwilco New Zealand Boat<br />

Show are available online now at<br />

www.boatshow.co.nz<br />

The online tickets give faster access into New<br />

Zealand’s favourite boat show, and they also<br />

automatically go into a special draw for a Viking<br />

Kayaks’ ultimate fishing kayak package, worth over<br />

$6500, and give a second, bonus entry into the<br />

popular Surtees/Yamaha Grand Prize draw!<br />

The <strong>2021</strong> Viking Kayaks’ prize package the<br />

impressive Profish Reload fishing kayak complete<br />

with a powerful Bixpy electric motor that is supercompact<br />

and light and easily out-performs other<br />

comparable units. With a battery able to last up to 8<br />

hours, the Bixpy can propel the 4.5m Profish to a top<br />

speed of around 10kph.<br />

The amazing prize package also includes:<br />

• Viking’s innovative Tackle Pod<br />

system<br />

• Viking’s Kid Pod system<br />

• A fully-insulated, removable<br />

Viking Chill Pod<br />

• A professionally installed 7”<br />

Raymarine Element S, complete<br />

with built-in High CHIRP sonar,<br />

category-leading quad-core<br />

processor, oversized waypoint<br />

key, Raymarine RealBathy<br />

personal sonar mapping; CPT-S<br />

transducer and LightHouse NZ<br />

chart;<br />

• A resuseable rescueMe<br />

Electronic Distress Flare<br />

• A self-draining Spinlock Belt<br />

Pack, complete with lanyard<br />

• A Hutchwilco multi-fit safety<br />

vest<br />

• A wide range of practical Viking<br />

Kayaks’ accessories<br />

Bonus Grand Prize Entry<br />

All tickets bought online also qualify for a Free Bonus Entry into the show’s incredible <strong>2021</strong> Surtees/Yamaha<br />

Grand Prize draw (worth over $200,000!). (The 2019 Surtees/Yamaha Grand Prize winner, Christchurch man<br />

Eden Waddington, bought his ticket online and won the prize with his Free Bonus Entry ticket!)<br />

Pre-Xmas bonus<br />

Tickets to the Hutchwilco New Zealand Boat Show make great Christmas presents and stocking fillers, and in<br />

another bonus buying tickets early, all tickets bought before 5pm on December 18 will automatically go into a<br />

special draw for a Raymarine bonus prize package!<br />

Online tickets are $25 each, easy to buy, download and print at home, in the office or on board.<br />

The <strong>2021</strong> Hutchwilco New Zealand Boat Show will be held at the ASB Showgrounds in Greenlane,<br />

Auckland on May 13-16, <strong>2021</strong>. www.boatshow.co.nz<br />

52 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

C-MAP Reveal released for<br />

Australia and New Zealand<br />


C-MAP Reveal offers ultra-high resolution<br />

bathymetric data of the sea floor to Lowrance,<br />

Simrad and B&G Customers with its charts<br />

said to be perfect for diving and fishing as it<br />

allows you to identify sea floor structure, along<br />

with reefs and ledges and including:<br />

• Traditional Navigation Data<br />

• High Resolution Bathymetric Coastal Data<br />

• Satellite Imagery Data<br />

• Genesis Layer Data<br />

A single chart covers New Zealand at<br />

RRPNZD399 with four for Australia.<br />

www.c-map.com<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 53


Ocean Signal’s new SafeSea Pro EPIRB<br />

The world’s most compact “float-free” Emergency Position Indicating Radio<br />

Beacon, Ocean Signal’s SafeSea EPIRB1 Pro, is also rugged. It boasts a 10-year<br />

battery life and keeps updating a distressed recreational or commercial vessel’s<br />

location to rescue services for longer.<br />

It releases automatically from its holder once submerged in water, floats free then<br />

emits its distress signal once floating on the surface.<br />

The Olympus TG-6: New instruction book by Alexey Zaytsev<br />

Alexey Zaytsev, a contributor to <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>, has authored a<br />

comprehensive booklet on the Olympus TG series of underwater<br />

cameras and illustrated it with his own award winning photos.<br />

Alexey writes: “Underwater photography has never been more<br />

affordable now in the era of digital photography. Beginning<br />

underwater photographers often make the mistake of thinking<br />

that underwater photography is impossible without expensive,<br />

high-end photo equipment. But this is not the case. Inexpensive<br />

compact cameras can do a lot if you know how to use them and<br />

do it right. The Olympus TG series cameras, immediately after their<br />

introduction in 2012, became very popular and won many awards.<br />

“According to independent experts, the Olympus TG ‐ 6 was<br />

recognized as the best camera in 2019 in the compact camera<br />

class.<br />

“This is not accidental because unlike the cameras of competing<br />

firms and cameras of the same class, this camera was originally<br />

created as a camera for underwater photography.<br />

“The company’s engineers put into the camera all the successful<br />

technical innovation from its early models, and as a “gift” from<br />

higher-end cameras – those with mirrors – it reaped the benefits<br />

of many advanced features that greatly facilitate underwater<br />

photography.<br />

“It will become your faithful friend and partner for unforgettable<br />

underwater adventures!”<br />

Main characteristics:<br />

• 4.5–18 mm zoom lens f2.0 – f4.9<br />

(equivalent to 24–100 mm on a 35 mm film)<br />

• Shutter speed range 1/2–1/2000 sec<br />

• Minimum shooting distance from 0.1 m in<br />

normal mode (W / T)<br />

• Range of shooting in Super Macro and<br />

Microscope modes from 0.01 m to 0.3 m<br />

(from f = 5.4 mm to 18.0 mm).<br />

• 1/2.3” CMOS sensor with a total number of<br />

pixels of approximately 12.71 million<br />

• Water resistant to a depth of 15 metres.<br />

Alexey Zaytsev in the Seychelles<br />

For more go to https://www.olympuseuropa.com/site/en/c/cameras/tough/<br />

tough_cameras/tg_6/index.html<br />

54 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

TecFestnz <strong>2021</strong> gears up<br />

Michael Gibby explores narrow caves with a sidemount rig<br />

Covid-19’s major impact on the world at large<br />

has affected all of us individually in some<br />

way. But New Zealand has been incredibly fortunate<br />

and most business have been able to adapt<br />

to the changes. In many cases there has been an<br />

upturn in trade due to domestic tourism with<br />

locals rediscovering what a wonderful back yard<br />

we really have. Diving is one such business experiencing<br />

unexpected growth, with people diving and<br />

shopping locally.<br />

TecFestNZ 2020 was one of the casualties of the<br />

lockdown earlier this year, frustrating, but unavoidable.<br />

Rather than cancel, steps were quickly made<br />

to reschedule the event for the same time frame in<br />

<strong>2021</strong>.<br />

Doing so has meant we had the benefit of allowing<br />

more time for planning and to offer a bigger and<br />

better event, with the possibility of international<br />

key speakers and more exhibits.<br />

It has also allowed dive centres, clubs and dive<br />

operators more time to promote the event to<br />

old and new clients, bringing the dive community<br />

together for what is New Zealand’s only dive<br />

festival.<br />

With TecFestNZ <strong>2021</strong> at a new location closer to<br />

Taupo town, there is a greater range of accommodation<br />

options and far larger audience capacity at<br />

the Suncourt Conference Centre for workshops and<br />

presentations.<br />

Remember TecFestNZ is not only for technical divers;<br />

there is a big focus at the event for divers interested<br />

who want to give tech a go, by trying out numerous<br />

dive configurations while being coached by New<br />

Zealand’s leading technical divers.<br />

For more information contact the event organizer<br />

Brent McFadden 0274 344 874 or info@tecfestnz.<br />

co.nz<br />

Check out www.tecfestnz.com<br />





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www.dive-pacific.com 55


Clown toado<br />

~Canthigaster callisterna<br />

By Paul Caiger<br />

The clown toado or sharp-nosed pufferfish is<br />

a species of sub-tropical origin distributed<br />

throughout eastern Australia and the southwest<br />

<strong>Pacific</strong> up to New Caledonia.<br />

In New Zealand, whilst abundant at the Kermadecs,<br />

it is also found in the north, especially in places<br />

where the tropical currents reach (that is, islands and<br />

headlands). Recent evidence suggests the species is<br />

becoming more common at these places, likely as a<br />

result of the warming seas around New Zealand.<br />

The clown toado is a member of a very diverse genus<br />

of pufferfishes, being one of 36 Canthigaster species.<br />

It’s brightly coloured, green above and white below,<br />

with two dark parallel stripes running along the body<br />

and covered in iridescent blue wavy lines and dots<br />

throughout. In courting males, the dark stripes fade<br />

completely and the blues and greens become more<br />

vivid (as depicted in the photograph).<br />

Males are territorial and likely to breed with<br />

females exclusively within their territory,<br />

defending their boundaries against other males.<br />

Like other pufferfishes, the clown toado possesses<br />

one of the most potent naturally occurring toxins.<br />

This neurotoxin called tetradotoxin (named after<br />

the pufferfish family) is present in the skin and<br />

other tissues of the fish, thus making it unpalatable<br />

to predators. Their ability to ‘puff’ or inflate<br />

themselves with water, together with their<br />

poisonous skin and tissues, explains why these<br />

small, slow-moving, colourful fish are often found<br />

out in the open sand and rubble environs and not<br />

predated upon by large piscivorous predators such<br />

as snapper.<br />

~Canthigaster callisterna<br />

1 Also known as a sharp-nosed pufferfish or 6<br />

clown toby.<br />

2 Found in northern New Zealand but also 7<br />

Australia and the SW <strong>Pacific</strong>.<br />

3 15-20 cm in length.<br />

8<br />

4 One of 36 species in the genus Canthigaster.<br />

5 Males defend territories, primarily for breeding.<br />

Males display extravagant colouration during<br />

courting.<br />

Containing the pufferfish-specific neurotoxin,<br />

tetrodotoxin which is highly poisonous if ingested.<br />

Like all pufferfishes, will inflate itself with water<br />

to become 3-4 times its size when alarmed.<br />

56 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

The <strong>Dive</strong> Zone group are keen<br />

to see divers enjoy their own<br />

backyard this summer and<br />

looking forward to getting you out<br />

on, and under the water in each of<br />

their fantastic dive locations: <strong>Dive</strong><br />

Zone Bay of Islands, Tauranga, and<br />

Whitianga.<br />

Each of their stores offer awesome<br />

service with a full range of dive<br />

gear to hire or purchase, with<br />

good quality, reliable brands such<br />

as Mares and Beuchat leading<br />

their range. Be it a new dive<br />

knife, a float or flag or even the<br />

whole kit; the <strong>Dive</strong> Zone stores<br />

are locked and loaded ready to<br />

help you, our summer visitors,<br />

enjoy, and get the most out of<br />

their diving.<br />

All stores also offer tank filling<br />

and testing, and BCD and<br />

Regulator testing.<br />

Three top dive<br />

destinations<br />

invite you…<br />

Since our stores are located in<br />

out of the way areas, we are well<br />

used to assisting divers with last<br />

minute problems that can pop up<br />

and prevent you from getting out<br />

on the water.<br />

Got a friend or family member<br />

that wants to learn? Or do you<br />

want to upskill? All of our stores<br />

offer a full range of PADI dive<br />

training courses, and all of them<br />

are available throughout the<br />

summer.<br />

Make the most of our Summer Road<br />

Trip offer. <strong>Dive</strong> with all three stores<br />

and go into the draw to win $1000<br />

to spend with us.<br />

What are you waiting for?<br />

Come and visit us.<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> Zone Bay of Islands<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> Zone Tauranga<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> Zone Whitianga<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> at each of our 3 world class dive<br />

destinations, get your Passport stamped and<br />

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the Aldermen Islands, Te Whanganui A Hei Marine<br />

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So get on the road this summer and come diving<br />

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<strong>Dive</strong> Zone<br />

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Ph 07-5784050<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 57


By DAN World<br />

Skin bend<br />

cuts diving holiday short<br />

The diver made four dives on air, approaching the no-stop limits<br />

of his dive computer but making three minute safety stops. After<br />

two days the diver suffered a skin bend, sought treatment for it and<br />

stopped diving.<br />

By <strong>Dive</strong>rs Alert Network (DAN)<br />

What happened<br />

A male diver aged 46 went on a<br />

diving holiday in Cozumel. He<br />

made four dives in two days,<br />

all on air, with his maximum<br />

depths ranging from 15m<br />

down to 27m. All his total dive<br />

times were just over one hour<br />

long each including his three<br />

minute safety stops at the end<br />

of each dive.<br />

…Two days later the rash<br />

and soreness returned<br />

once again…<br />

He felt no symptoms after<br />

the first day and went to eat<br />

dinner. Later that night he felt<br />

a soreness in his ribs but put<br />

it down to probably sleeping<br />

oddly on his pillow. He went<br />

back to bed and felt fine in the<br />

morning. He made two more<br />

dives.<br />

The pain came back<br />

noticeably about an<br />

hour after surfacing<br />

from the last dive but<br />

this time it burned<br />

and itched just a<br />

little and he noticed<br />

a blotchy rash on his<br />

torso (see photo).<br />

The diver had read<br />

a case study about<br />

skin bends in DAN’s<br />

Alert <strong>Dive</strong>r magazine<br />

and remembered the<br />

blotchy rash. He went to the<br />

dive shop and they supplied<br />

him with oxygen. After a few<br />

minutes the rash almost went<br />

away and the pain reduced.<br />

By now, the diver was<br />

convinced this appeared to<br />

be a case of skin bends, so he<br />

went to the hospital and was<br />

assessed by a DAN-affiliated<br />

medical doctor who confirmed<br />

the diagnosis.<br />

The doctor conducted a neurological<br />

exam to rule out more<br />

serious signs of decompression<br />

sickness then advised<br />

the diver not to dive again<br />

before flying home. Two days<br />

later the rash and soreness<br />

returned once again so he saw<br />

Skin-bend-cozumel<br />

the DAN doctor again and this<br />

time was given more oxygen,<br />

plus he was hydrated intravenously.<br />

The rash dissipated,<br />

the soreness resolved, and the<br />

diver flew home and made a<br />

full recovery.<br />

DAN comments<br />

This case serves to remind us<br />

that decompression sickness<br />

does not always have a clear<br />

cause. In this case the diver<br />

seems to have made all the<br />

right decisions.<br />

First, he was a member of DAN<br />

and recognised his injury from<br />

reading DAN articles. Next, he<br />

accepted oxygen at the dive<br />

shop then sought out medical<br />

…While many divers trust their dive computers completely,<br />

the fact is that dive computers never know who is<br />

wearing them…<br />

advice from a doctor<br />

familiar with diving<br />

medicine. Then he took<br />

it easy and didn’t dive<br />

again (even though he<br />

wanted to).<br />

While many divers<br />

trust their dive<br />

computers completely,<br />

the fact is that dive<br />

computers never know<br />

who is wearing it; they<br />

all simply estimate<br />

no-stop limits based<br />

on a theory, and that<br />

58 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

theory may have been tested<br />

on people who were physically<br />

different to the diver wearing the<br />

computer at the time.<br />

Though probably none of us like<br />

to admit it, the average diver<br />

is not as young as we all once<br />

were and this diver’s plan to dive<br />

more conservatively sounds like<br />

a prudent approach for avoiding<br />

another uncomfortable and inconvenient<br />

skin bend.<br />

Read DAN’s Fast Facts about Skin<br />

Bends: DANAP.org/_pdf/DAN-Fast-<br />

Facts-DCI.pdf<br />

Join DAN’s COVID-19 study<br />

DAN is looking for divers and freedivers who have recovered<br />

from a suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection, for a<br />

long-term study on the effects of COVID-19 on diver’s health<br />

and fitness to dive.<br />

If you have been infected with COVID-19, are recovering or<br />

have fully recovered, and are planning to return to diving or<br />

have already returned, please consider signing up for our study.<br />

In 15-20 minutes you can easily complete the initial survey<br />

then over the next five years you will be contacted periodically<br />

by DAN to follow-up on your diving career and any possible<br />

medical issues: https://www.research.net/r/DANcovidstudy<br />

THANKS!<br />

Diving after Covid-19: What we know<br />

COVID-19 symptoms range<br />

from mild to severe. Some<br />

people have no symptoms at<br />

all while others require complicated<br />

stays in ICUs with ventilatory<br />

support to recover. In<br />

addition to the impact of the<br />

primary viral infection, factors<br />

such as underlying medical<br />

conditions, age, secondary<br />

complications and more will<br />

affect recovery.<br />

COVID-19 shares many features<br />

with other serious viral<br />

pneumonias and requires a<br />

period of convalescence before<br />



returning to normal activities.<br />

The amount of time needed to<br />

recover will vary, as will the<br />

long-term effects of COVID-19<br />

such as pulmonary function.<br />

As information becomes available<br />

it will be incorporated into<br />

COVID-19 prevention, treatment<br />

and follow-up guidelines.<br />

Determination of your fitness<br />

to return to diving after a<br />

COVID-19 infection will require<br />

assessment by your doctor<br />

confirming your full recovery<br />

and ability to safely perform<br />

unrestricted vigorous activity.<br />

If your doctor needs to consult<br />

with a dive medicine specialist,<br />

DAN doctors are here to help.<br />

We also have a database of<br />

dive medicine doctors and can<br />

provide referral information.<br />

How do you make sure<br />

your mask stays clear on<br />

dives?<br />

If you’re used to spitting in<br />

your mask to help keep it<br />

defogged, it may be time to<br />

opt for commercial defog or a<br />

creative alternative. In light<br />

of the recent pandemic, we’re<br />

encouraging all divers getting<br />

back to it to do what they can to<br />

prevent the spread of viruses.<br />

Tiny changes like opting for<br />

defog and avoiding communal<br />

rinse buckets can make a huge<br />

difference.<br />

+ 39 Years<br />

<strong>Dive</strong>rs Helping <strong>Dive</strong>rs<br />

+ 24/7<br />

Emergency Medical Services<br />

+ 150,000<br />

Emergency Calls Managed<br />

+ 2,000,000<br />

Members Served Worldwide<br />

Experience Matters.<br />

Join DAN<br />

DANAP.org<br />

For more diving health and safety<br />

articles DANinsider.org for weekly<br />

posts discussing recent incidents,<br />

and diving health and safety content.<br />

Visit: daninsider.org and follow us on<br />

Facebook by searching DAN World.<br />

Need more information? Send DAN<br />

World an email (info@danap.org) or<br />

call +61-3-9886 9166<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 59


Why a diver should avoid Covid-19 and<br />

what happens if they don’t<br />

By Professor Simon Mitchell, University of Auckland<br />

It is easy to run out of adjectives in describing this very strange year. “Unprecedented” is one you<br />

hear quite a lot. The truth is most of the hyperbole is pretty well justified. The world has been<br />

thrown into economic and social turmoil by the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, and tragically,<br />

a lot of people have lost their lives or livelihoods.<br />

We in New Zealand have been<br />

relatively lucky, though<br />

to a large extent we made our<br />

own luck. The early successful<br />

lockdown was a testament to<br />

both good leadership and highly<br />

commendable buy-in by the kiwi<br />

public at large.<br />

As a sharp end medical practitioner<br />

(an anaesthetist) I for one<br />

am deeply grateful. I was on the<br />

intubation team tasked with<br />

putting very sick covid patients on<br />

ventilators at Auckland Hospital.<br />

We were envisaging Italy or<br />

the USA or the UK here, and it<br />

simply never happened. Indeed,<br />

although we intubated a number<br />

of suspected cases, not a single<br />

one actually turned out to have<br />

the virus.<br />

The fact that we eliminated that<br />

outbreak and several subsequent<br />

ones from the community should<br />

be a source of great pride. It may<br />

not last, but let’s hope it does.<br />

I say let’s hope it does because<br />

contrary to early opinions, this<br />

disease is not as forgiving as<br />

many had assumed it to be.<br />

Unforgiving<br />

Early in the pandemic, outcomes<br />

following covid-19 infection were<br />

often portrayed as binary: you<br />

either died, and that was rare,<br />

or you lived, by far the most<br />

common outcome, allegedly<br />

without any problems. “In most<br />

people its just like a common<br />

cold” was an opinion often<br />

expressed.<br />

No. Its. Not.<br />

This is a far more serious disease<br />

…Sicker patients can also develop other strange manifestations,<br />

like a tendency for blood to clot more easily. This has led to<br />

events like strokes, sometimes in young patients. Some patients<br />

also seem to develop a virally induced weakening of their heart<br />

that leaves them with markedly reduced exercise capacity…<br />

than the common cold, or influenza.<br />

Yes, it remains true the<br />

vast majority of people survive<br />

Covid-19, but depending on how<br />

complications are defined, a large<br />

proportion of survivors suffer<br />

them, and if you are a diver some<br />

of those complications could be of<br />

substantial significance.<br />

Massive inflammatory/immune<br />

response<br />

In some respects, Covid-19 is a<br />

typical respiratory virus. Early in<br />

an infection it produces cold-like<br />

upper respiratory tract symptoms,<br />

albeit with some unusual variations<br />

like loss of taste or smell.<br />

Later, it can spread to the lower<br />

respiratory tract producing a<br />

pneumonia-like disease typically<br />

involving both lungs. Nothing<br />

particularly unusual there, but<br />

this is where things can begin to<br />

go off the rails.<br />

In some patients, but not others,<br />

spread to the lungs appears to<br />

elicit a massive inflammatory/<br />

immune response that, simply<br />

put, does more harm than good.<br />

The lungs can become extremely<br />

congested with inflammatory<br />

material making breathing difficult<br />

and oxygenation increasingly<br />

inefficient. This is when patients<br />

sometimes require intubation<br />

and ventilation, though the<br />

more recent trend is to have a<br />

higher threshold for doing that.<br />

Experience has shown us that<br />

patients can do better if we can<br />

avoid mechanical ventilation.<br />

Clinicians are getting more accustomed<br />

to tolerating moderate<br />

degrees of hypoxia and trying to<br />

nurse patients through without<br />

intubating them.<br />

The sicker patients can also<br />

develop other strange manifestations,<br />

like a tendency for blood<br />

to clot more easily. This has led<br />

to events like strokes, sometimes<br />

in young patients. Some patients<br />

also seem to develop a virally<br />

induced weakening of their heart<br />

that leaves them with markedly<br />

reduced exercise capacity.<br />

Given that we have only been<br />

dealing with this disease for a<br />

short time, we don’t understand<br />

the natural history of this complication.<br />

Patients may recover, but<br />

may not; only time will tell.<br />

Change in the lungs<br />

From a diver’s point of view the<br />

most concerning complication<br />

is medium to long-term change<br />

in the lungs. Covid-19 appears<br />

capable of producing sustained<br />

changes in the lungs, call it<br />

‘scarring,’ for want of a simpler<br />

description, that the patient may<br />

never recover from.<br />

Again, the natural history of<br />

60 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

these changes is not known, though experience with the<br />

SARS-Cov-1 virus some 10 years ago suggests that they<br />

can be permanent.<br />

Concerns about such change are at least three-fold. First,<br />

they may make the diver more vulnerable to pulmonary<br />

barotrauma with its complications such as pneumothorax<br />

and arterial gas embolism.<br />



Second, they may reduce the diver’s ability to exercise,<br />

thus rendering them less likely to be able to cope with the<br />

functional demands of diving.<br />

Third, the lung changes may make them less efficient at<br />

filtering venous nitrogen bubbles that most of us form<br />

on typical dives. These normally harmless bubbles may<br />

then be able to enter the arterial circulation where their<br />

presence can increase the risk of decompression sickness.<br />

This all adds up to a disease that divers should be<br />

motivated to avoid until there is a vaccine.<br />

At this point in time, there are probably very few divers in<br />

New Zealand who have suffered Covid-19, but in case there<br />

are any, a reasonable rule of thumb is that you should be<br />

assessed by a diving doctor before returning to diving.<br />

This would apply even if the case appeared mild, but<br />

would be critically important for someone sick enough to<br />

be hospitalized and treated with supplemental oxygen in<br />

any way. Same for a non-diver who has suffered Covid-19<br />

and wants to learn to dive.<br />

Managing risk<br />

If all this sounds a bit dark, then I am happy to report<br />

that in the USA there are many divers who have suffered<br />

Covid-19 and who have returned to diving. The point,<br />

however, is that such divers should be assessed to derive<br />

some sense of their risk in diving again so that sensible<br />

choices can be made. This is likely to involve investigations,<br />

and colleagues in the USA have recently published a<br />

guideline for choosing appropriate investigations based on<br />

the severity of the Covid-19 illness. It has been published<br />

in diving medicine journal:<br />

Sadler C, Alvarez Villela M, Van Hoesen K, Grover I, Lang<br />

M, Neuman T, Lindholm P. Diving after SARS-CoV-2<br />

(COVID-19) infection: Fitness to dive assessment<br />

and medical guidance. Diving Hyperb Med. 2020 Sep<br />

30;50(3):278-287. doi: 10.28920/dhm50.3.278-287. PMID:<br />

32957131.<br />

By the time this <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand article is published, the<br />

Sadler paper should be freely available on PubMed Central<br />

at the following link.<br />

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32957131/<br />

New Zealand is not out of the Covid-19 woods yet, and<br />

won’t be until a significant proportion of the population<br />

has been vaccinated against the virus.<br />

In the meantime, protect your safety and fitness to dive<br />

by following the rules. Use the covid app, practice sensible<br />

social distancing where practicable, wash your hands<br />

often, and if we get further community spread, use a<br />

mask.<br />


JOIN DAN<br />

+ 24/7 Emergency Medical Services<br />

+ Emergency Medical Evacuation<br />

Assistance<br />

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www.dive-pacific.com 61<br />

<strong>Dive</strong>_NZ_8.5cmx25.7cm.indd 1<br />

2/6/19 12:51 PM



DIAG highlights diver diversity<br />

Recent work by Worksafe’s <strong>Dive</strong> Industry Advisory Group (DIAG) chaired by Professor Des Gorman<br />

of Auckland University, while focusing on updating Technical Bulletins, developing risk models and<br />

setting guidelines for such as standby divers and aquaculture, also tabled interesting facts on the<br />

diversity of commercial diving.<br />

The DIAG group includes reps<br />

from the Navy, Police, NIWA,<br />

Aquaculture, other universities,<br />

film, recreational divers, NZUA<br />

along with Worksafe.<br />

From the Certificates of<br />

Competence for commercial divers<br />

issued by Worksafe we can assess<br />

the numbers of divers working<br />

in different fields. The recent<br />

numbers of certificates were:<br />

• Science – 21<br />

• Construction (various) – 39<br />

• Recreational (IT/T) – 66<br />

• Aquaculture – 5<br />

• Film & Photo – 30<br />

Science divers represent a growing<br />

career with there now being:<br />

• 154 CoC divers in six institutions<br />

• 5,000 dives a year (160,000<br />

minutes of dive time)<br />

• 50% of which is training and<br />

• 80% of dives are less than 10m<br />

(95% less than 20m)<br />

Environment divers include:<br />

• Fresh water & marine – (some<br />

remote defined as 2+ hours to get<br />

to a chamber)<br />

• Phd/MSc students diving for 3+<br />

years<br />

• Academics/staff diving for 5+<br />

years<br />

• No surface supplied breathing<br />

apparatus (SSBA) as used in<br />

construction<br />

• Very limited archaeological work<br />

Three recent Worksafe<br />

occupational tech bulletins<br />

Three diver Technical Bulletins<br />

were released recently for<br />

commercial divers:<br />

• Use and maintenance of a diver’s<br />

hose in occupational diving<br />

• Diving with underwater powered<br />

tools<br />

• Breathing oxygen and enriched<br />

mixtures while diving<br />

These are on Worksafe’s website<br />

www.worksafe.govt.nz<br />

Worksafe issues divers COVID 19 Safety Alert<br />

Earlier this year Worksafe put<br />

a COVID-19 Safety Alert for<br />

Occupational <strong>Dive</strong>rs on its website<br />

as follows.<br />

The safety alert highlights the<br />

serious health and safety risks<br />

posed for occupational divers if<br />

they are exposed to COVID-19.<br />

Though many people may not<br />

be affected, those that are, can<br />

range from being asymptomatic<br />

(showing no symptoms) to<br />

suffering from severe respiratory<br />

responses. Incidents of respiratory<br />

distress have resulted in some<br />

people showing possible longer<br />

term damage to their lungs. This<br />

increases the potential for serious<br />

harm to divers and highlights the<br />

importance of establishing safe<br />

medical standards for those who<br />

may have been infected.<br />

Respiratory injury can cause<br />

serious harm to a diver.<br />

Occupational divers have to pass<br />

annual medical assessments to be<br />

deemed medically fit.<br />

WorkSafe advises anyone with<br />

respiratory symptoms not to dive,<br />

and arrange for COVID-19 testing.<br />

If testing is negative, they should<br />

see their GP for further advice.<br />

If someone tests positive for<br />

COVID-19 they must not dive even<br />

if they are asymptomatic.<br />

Any diver who tests positive to<br />

COVID-19 should seek a full diving<br />

medical from a Designated Diving<br />

Doctor, including a full respiratory<br />

assessment and send it along with<br />

a completed medical questionnaire<br />

identifying COVID-19 recovery, to<br />

the Diving Hyperbaric Medicine<br />

Service (DHMS) for review by a<br />

hyperbaric medical specialist.<br />

Diving should not commence until<br />

a new Diving Medical Clearance<br />

has been issued by the DHMS.<br />

Any diver who has come into<br />

close contact with someone who<br />

has tested positive for COVID-19<br />

should not dive. They should also<br />

contact the public health service<br />

for further advice.<br />

No diving should be undertaken<br />

until after any isolation period has<br />

passed, and the diver has sought<br />

advice from the DHMS.<br />

The Safety Alert was developed in<br />

consultation with Diving Industry<br />

Advisory Group hyperbaric medical<br />

specialists.<br />

Certificates of<br />

Competence (CoC)<br />

(Occupational divers must hold one of<br />

these issued by Worksafe) :<br />

The Diving Hyperbaric Medicine<br />

Service (DHMS) has advised that<br />

where a diver is scheduled to<br />

undertake a five yearly medical<br />

check with a Designated Diving<br />

Doctor to obtain their Certificate<br />

of Compliance, the new Medical<br />

Clearance can be issued provided<br />

the online annual questionnaire<br />

is completed and no new health<br />

issues are raised. The clearance<br />

is issued for one additional year<br />

during which a Full Medical will be<br />

required to be submitted prior to<br />

any subsequent Clearance.<br />

Where an Annual Medical is<br />

required as stated on the Clearance<br />

Certificate the DHMS will review<br />

each case according to the<br />

questionnaire and medical history<br />

and advise individually.<br />

New divers applying for a CoC:<br />

<strong>Dive</strong>rs seeking new registration<br />

still have to complete the full<br />

medical examination along with<br />

the questionnaire. This is on the<br />

Worksafe website.<br />

62 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

How good a dive buddy am I?<br />

By Andy Stewart. <strong>Dive</strong> Instructor<br />

andy@diveinstructor.co.nz<br />

Photo: Paihia <strong>Dive</strong><br />

One of the key safety<br />

messages promoted<br />

by the New Zealand<br />

Underwater Association is you<br />

should always dive with a dive<br />

buddy.<br />

The buddy system reduces risks<br />

and improves divers’ safety, but<br />

there are also other factors you<br />

should consider.<br />

Pre-dive<br />

First, you should always let<br />

somebody else know where you<br />

intend to dive and, ideally, you will<br />

have at least one person at the<br />

surface on the boat or shore to act<br />

as cover while you’re in the water.<br />

But what should they do if you do<br />

become overdue, lost, or have a<br />

diving accident? In case one of<br />

these things eventuates you need an<br />

emergency plan, or at least to talk<br />

through what to do in the unlikely<br />

event something does go wrong.<br />

The dive plan<br />

The key elements of an emergency<br />

plan at the very least should include:<br />

• Roles and responsibilities. Who<br />

does what, who is First Aid trained<br />

and/or experienced in underwater<br />

searches?<br />

• What diver recall procedures<br />

should you agree on? These can<br />

be as simple as banging a knife on<br />

a tank or boat hull to get attention.<br />

Or four pulls on the surface marker<br />

buoy if one is being used.<br />

• What emergency contact details<br />

will you use? We suggest 0800<br />

4 DES 111 (0800 4337 111) or a<br />

Medical Diving Emergency, or 111<br />

for any other emergency.<br />

• What emergency equipment do<br />

you have ready? Where is your First<br />

Aid Kit located? Emergency oxygen<br />

etc?<br />

• Where are your nearest medical<br />

facilities? This could be a hospital,<br />

GP practice or even fire station,<br />

should emergency oxygen be<br />

required.<br />

Who’s got first aid?<br />

Our underwater adventures take<br />

us to offshore islands or remote<br />

coastlines where medical help isn’t<br />

always available quickly should we<br />

need to call on it so up to date First<br />

Aid training is an obvious essential<br />

skill for all divers to have.<br />

And shouldn’t our non-diving,<br />

significant others and those<br />

supporting us on the boat or from<br />

the shore also be first aid trained?<br />

Limits<br />

Another rule is don’t dive beyond<br />

the limits of the least experienced<br />

or qualified buddy though confident<br />

and experienced divers aren’t<br />

immune from possible problems or<br />

difficulties on a dive.<br />

Team of two<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> buddies are a team. And all<br />

divers need to be confident that they<br />

have the skills and experience for the<br />

conditions they are diving in, to help<br />

each other should the need arise.<br />

‘I’ve got your back’<br />

We teach our kids that peer pressure<br />

is not cool! The same goes for us<br />

divers. The best diver is not the<br />

one that dives the deepest, or the<br />

longest, or catches the biggest<br />

crayfish. It’s the responsible and<br />

considerate diver that makes<br />

good decisions that don’t put<br />

themselves or their buddies at<br />

risk or in situations where they are<br />

uncomfortable.<br />

Getting cold?<br />

Thinking about comfort levels in<br />

the water, appropriate exposure<br />

protection is important, particularly<br />

in winter or when the water<br />

temperature is dropping. Don’t be<br />

too proud to tell your buddy when<br />

you’re getting cold and want to end<br />

the dive; once you are cold you are<br />

very unlikely to warm up again, and<br />

hypothermia can set in quicker than<br />

you think.<br />

Don’t be put off by cooler winter<br />

waters though; some of the best<br />

diving is over winter. But maybe<br />

for winter you need a hood to add<br />

to your summer wetsuit, a thicker<br />

wetsuit, a semi-dry wetsuit or even a<br />

dry suit.<br />

So how good a<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> Buddy are you?<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 63

Chapter 4:<br />

Back to the Basics<br />

A Practical Guide for Beginners by Alexey Zaytsev<br />

Exclusively for <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong> magazine.<br />

(All photo's by Alexey Zaytsev)<br />

Automatic camera modes:<br />

When to use them<br />

Alexey Zaytsev is well known<br />

amongst Russia’s dive and<br />

underwater photography<br />

community, and has undertaken<br />

professional photographic<br />

assignments in many<br />

places around the world,<br />

including many visits to Egypt,<br />

Sudan, Bali and elsewhere. To<br />

illustrate the book, and also<br />

his own credentials, Alexey is<br />

making available a selection of<br />

his fine photographic work for<br />

this series.<br />

We have looked at the technique of shooting in the manual mode ‘M’. What<br />

about the automatic settings? There must be a reason why all modern<br />

cameras offer these. Which of them can we use underwater?<br />

Shoot without strobes!<br />

1) The ‘green’ mode<br />

This is fully automatic - the<br />

camera chooses the main<br />

shooting parameters (shutter<br />

speed and aperture). And this<br />

mode is unacceptable for underwater<br />

photography.<br />

When set to this mode, the<br />

camera chooses average settings<br />

for shutter speed and aperture.<br />

It does not take account how<br />

quickly or slowly a subject is<br />

moving, whether you would like<br />

to blur the background or obtain<br />

the maximum possible depth of<br />

field. If set to this mode underwater<br />

the camera will tend to<br />

overexpose images and produce<br />

blurred images with overexposed<br />

areas.<br />

2) The ‘P’ mode<br />

This is the same as the ‘green’<br />

mode but with an option to<br />

compensate for exposure. In<br />

other words, if you see your<br />

image has overexposed areas,<br />

you can introduce negative<br />

exposure compensation and get<br />

rid of the blown out areas, better<br />

than the ‘green’ mode but not<br />

suitable for shooting underwater<br />

because the camera will always<br />

arbitrarily choose the aperture/<br />

shutter speed pair.<br />

* On your camera find a square<br />

symbol with +/- sign. This is the<br />

exposure compensation button.<br />

By pressing it and rotating a dial<br />

on the camera, you can make<br />

the camera reduce or increase<br />

exposure (in ‘P’, ‘A’ and ‘S’<br />

modes). Exposure compensation<br />

limitations range from +5 to -5<br />

f-stops (exposure value). If you<br />

set your camera to automatic<br />

ISO selection, then in the ‘M’<br />

mode you will be able to use the<br />

exposure compensation button to<br />

increase or decrease ISO values<br />

as necessary.<br />

3) A or aperture priority mode<br />

This is very useful and important<br />

for a serious photographer. This<br />

is the mode I recommend for<br />

land photography, especially<br />

landscapes. You set the aperture<br />

and the camera chooses the right<br />

shutter speed. In this way you<br />

can control the depth of field,<br />

one of the most powerful artistic<br />

tools in photography.<br />

4) S or shutter priority mode<br />

You choose the shutter speed and<br />

the camera chooses the aperture.<br />

This is the best automatic mode<br />

for shooting underwater without<br />

strobes. You select the shutter<br />

speed: remember the safe shutter<br />

speed rule (SSSR) and don’t forget<br />

64 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

Shark watching in Fiji<br />

fast moving subjects require shorter<br />

shutter speeds. The camera selects the<br />

aperture value and if the image doesn’t<br />

look right (most likely overexposure),<br />

you can negatively compensate for that.<br />

5) All other modes – ‘Active’,<br />

‘Landscape’, ‘Portrait’…<br />

These are crutches for a photographer<br />

too lazy to think. If you know<br />

that to take an interesting portrait the<br />

background should be blurred, you can<br />

open up the aperture, can’t you? If you<br />

are shooting action, you choose the ‘S’<br />

mode, set the shortest possible shutter<br />

speed (to ‘freeze’ the subject’s motion)…<br />

There is no need for a thinking and<br />

knowledgeable photographer to use<br />

these modes…<br />

Wreck “Kingston” (1881). Straits of Gubal, Red Sea, Egypt.<br />

Nikon D700 15 mm F2.8 (f11; 1/60 ñ; ISO100)<br />

Ikelite housing<br />

6) The underwater mode<br />

Almost all Olympus cameras, both pointand-shoots<br />

and mirrorless, are equipped<br />

with this. It works fine! When set to this<br />

mode, the camera automatically chooses<br />

the right white balance, selects shutter<br />

speed, aperture and sensitivity values.<br />

For an owner of a point-and-shoot, who<br />

is just starting, this is a simple and<br />

reliable solution.<br />

Then when you’ve played enough with<br />

the auto underwater mode, you will<br />

want to switch to the manual mode. Of<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 65

course, it makes sense to switch<br />

to the manual mode only if you<br />

replace your camera with a<br />

full-featured single-lens reflex<br />

camera or a mirrorless camera<br />

with interchangeable lenses.<br />

Let’s shoot in the automatic<br />

mode<br />

For the lucky owner of a first<br />

underwater point-and-shoot<br />

camera here is a recipe for<br />

successful shooting.<br />

1) Set your camera to the underwater<br />

shooting mode. Usually<br />

marked with the icon of a fish.<br />

2) But before that don’t forget<br />

to turn on the Highlight and<br />

Histogram preview modes in the<br />

camera’s menu.<br />

3) <strong>Dive</strong> and snap away! The<br />

camera’s computer will choose<br />

the correct shooting parameters.<br />

4) Some cameras, such as the<br />

Olympus Tg-4, allow you to select<br />

other shooting modes when<br />

set to the Underwater mode:<br />

Portrait in a swimming pool or<br />

on a beach; Shooting wide angle<br />

from a distance (landscape);<br />

macro and HDR (for images with<br />

wide dynamic range the camera<br />

would shoot several frames with<br />

different brightness levels and<br />

merge them into one image).<br />

Select the ‘sub-mode’ before<br />

shooting.<br />

5) Take photos and evaluate<br />

exposure by checking highlights<br />

and histogram preview screens.<br />

6) If there are blown out areas,<br />

press the ‘magic’ exposure<br />

compensation button and rotate<br />

the dial toward the ‘-‘sign to<br />

adjust exposure. Retake the<br />

image, and play exposure<br />

compensation again if needed.<br />

7) You already know what needs<br />

to be done if the image is too<br />

dark. Good job. The same as in 6)<br />

above, only rotate the exposure<br />

compensation dial toward the “+”<br />

button.<br />

If you are experienced photographer<br />

with a serious camera but<br />

want to shoot in shallow waters<br />

without strobes:<br />

1) Decide on the depth at which<br />

you want to shoot. If shooting<br />

playful dolphins or fast moving<br />

seals, set your camera to the<br />

shutter speed priority mode.<br />

Shorter shutter speeds, such<br />

as 1/500 or even 1/1000 will<br />

make the animals look sharp by<br />

freezing their movements.<br />

2) If you are shooting a landscape<br />

or beautiful sunrays breaking<br />

through the water surface, set<br />

your camera to the aperture<br />

priority mode. F 8 or even f 11<br />

will increase the depth of field<br />

making the rays sharper and<br />

more pronounced.<br />

3) In case of overexposure, do the<br />

same as owners of point-andshoots<br />

would.<br />

May the force of the exposure<br />

compensation button be with you!<br />

User settings<br />

Let’s now talk about some tricks<br />

that can make life easier. Modern<br />

cameras have a wonderful<br />

feature allowing us to select user<br />

settings to pre-set. The camera<br />

will remember and not forget<br />

Fiji shark<br />

66 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

them even after you’ve switched it off.<br />

With the help of these settings you can make your<br />

camera work within a required range of shutter<br />

speeds or ISO settings. In doing so, you can obtain<br />

a new, artistic shooting mode. For example, you<br />

can allow your camera to select ISO automatically<br />

while restricting it to using shutter speeds longer<br />

that certain value, ie longer than 1/125 s. This user<br />

mode is helpful when shooting subjects underwater<br />

such as schools of fish, whale sharks, manta rays,<br />

dolphins or seals.<br />

I use the following:<br />

· A (aperture priority) or M (manual) mode<br />

· Aperture of f 8<br />

· Shutter speed – 1/125 s or 1/250s if I’m shooting<br />

fast moving objects;<br />

· Automatic ISO selection – in poor lighting conditions<br />

the camera will increase ISO in order to not<br />

underexpose an image<br />

· I set the maximum shutter speed (in the automatic<br />

ISO settings menu) to 1/125 s (if shooting in the A<br />

mode)<br />

· I set the maximum possible ISO that the camera is<br />

allowed to use in insufficient lighting conditions<br />

(eg when photographing in Bali with a Nikon D700 I<br />

set the maximum ISO to 1600 to shoot mola-molas<br />

early in the morning)<br />

· Automatic auto focusing point selection<br />

· AF-C as an automatic focusing mode (continuous<br />

focus for moving objects)<br />

· Multi-area exposure metering.<br />

In case of overexposure, press the exposure<br />

compensation button and rotate the adjustment<br />

dial toward the ‘-’ sign. The camera will reduce<br />

the sensitivity of the sensor and the image will be<br />

darker.<br />

Improving our images using ‘magic filters’<br />

We can get very decent landscape images, images<br />

of schools of fish and other sea dwellers, or even<br />

divers at small depths where the water has not yet<br />

absorbed the red colour and other warm<br />

tints of the spectrum. In tropical waters the<br />

depth is up to 10 m. Ideally, visibility should<br />

be over 20 m with the best time for shooting<br />

between 10 am and 3 pm, when the sun<br />

is out and high in the sky. The clearer the<br />

water, the better your images will be.<br />

Further adjusting white balance in a RAW<br />

converter will make colours look even<br />

more attractive. But there is a better way to<br />

improve your images while still shooting<br />

them rather than in post-processing… Magic<br />

filters.<br />

Magic filters will make your images more<br />

colourful and natural looking. These filters<br />

were created by renowned English underwater<br />

photography enthusiasts, Alex<br />

Mustard and Peter Rowland. Using them<br />

you can bring back colour saturation when<br />

shooting wide-angle scenes without the use<br />

of additional lighting. The clearer the water<br />

and the fewer clouds in the sky, the greater<br />

the effect from the use of the filter. In very<br />

clear waters, you can produce very decent<br />

images even at the depth of 20 m. Magic<br />

filters will help you obtain excellent results<br />

when shooting wrecks, large animals and<br />

landscapes.<br />

More about them in the next issue!<br />

“Sponge on a dump” Poor Knights Islands,<br />

North Island, New Zealand.<br />

Olympus OM-D E-M5 Mark II, 8 mm F3.5 lens<br />

(f8; 1/125 s; ISO200)<br />

Nauticam housing and Two Inon 240 strobe<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 67


By region. To list your dive/sports stores contact <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand for information.<br />

More information on <strong>Dive</strong> Stores, Clubs & Travel at www.<strong>Dive</strong>NewZealand.com<br />



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New Zealand Diving Charters to the Hauraki Gulf<br />

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VIP0819<br />

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68 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

dnz164<br />

More information on <strong>Dive</strong> Stores, Clubs & Travel at www.<strong>Dive</strong>NewZealand.com<br />




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PH 64 09 4440804<br />

info@highpressure.co.nz<br />

Island Bay <strong>Dive</strong>rs New Zealand’s oldest dive retail &<br />

training business. Off street parking. Full retail range,<br />

equipment hire, large gear range for snorkel trail divers,<br />

scuba, Freedivers. Scuba and Snorkel guided tours,<br />

24 hour turn around on tank testing, repairs on most<br />

equipment brands, full range of diver training since<br />

1985. Corner Reef St & the Parade, Island Bay.<br />

Open 9am to 6pm. 7 days in summer, but 5 days<br />

(closed Tuesdays & Wednesdays) in winter.<br />

P: 04-383-6778 E: tim@ibdivers.co.nz<br />

www.ibdivers.co.nz<br />

Oceandry suits<br />

35 Station Road.Wellsford<br />

www.oceandry.co.nz<br />

Call Paul on 021 425706<br />

Email: info@oceandry.co.nz<br />


P A C I F I C<br />

Colin Gestro - Affinity Ads<br />

M: 027 256 8014<br />

colin@affinityads.com<br />


P A C I F I C<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 69<br />



<strong>Dive</strong> HQ Christchurch 30 years industry<br />

experience, Christchurch’s only PADI 5 Star<br />

Instructor Development Centre and Adventure<br />

Activities Certified for SCUBA diving and<br />

snorkelling. Busy retail store selling the world’s<br />

leading brands and offering PADI recreational<br />

and tertiary SCUBA qualifications. Full range<br />

of spearfishing equipment including breath<br />

hold courses. Quality gear hire, service centre,<br />

Enriched Air training and filling station, local and<br />

international dive and spearfishing trips.103<br />

Durham St Sth. Sydenham, Christchurch.<br />

Freephone 0800-DIVEHQ.<br />

P: (03)379- 5804 www.diveskiworld.co.nz<br />

E: sales@diveskiworld.co.nz<br />

Waikawa <strong>Dive</strong> Centre located at Waikawa Marina,<br />

Picton. Offering dive training and trips through the<br />

Marlborough Sounds. Fully-certified dive cylinder<br />

filling/testing, dive gear servicing/repairs, hire gear.<br />

Carrying a multi-brand range of diving equipment.<br />

Open 7 days during summer. Ready to take care of all<br />

your diving needs.<br />

P: 03-573-5939, F: 03-573-8241<br />

waikawadive@xtra.co.nz<br />

www.waikawadivecentre.co.nz<br />

www.facebook.com/Waikawa<strong>Dive</strong>Centre<br />

Deep Blue Diving Making diving affordable for all<br />

divers. The Deep Blue brand is well known for its<br />

value for money and has a strong company reputation<br />

for delivering quality and excellent service. Visit our<br />

website or come in and see us for a huge range of dive<br />

gear, equipment servicing, tank filling, gear hire and<br />

Padi training.<br />

15B Byron St, Sydenham, Christchurch 8025.<br />

P: 03 332 0898 E: sales@deepbluediving.co.nz<br />

www.deepbluediving.co.nz<br />




Pro <strong>Dive</strong> Cairns Offers the highest quality, best value<br />

PADI dive courses and 3-day liveaboard Outer Great<br />

Barrier Reef dive trips in Cairns. We have 16 exclusive<br />

dive sites across 4 different reefs to choose from and<br />

departures 6 days/week.<br />

Check out www.prodivecairns.com<br />

or call us on +617 4031 5255<br />

or E: info@prodivecairns.com<br />

Spirit of Freedom visits the remote dive destinations<br />

of Cod Hole, Ribbon Reefs, and Coral Sea. The 37m<br />

vessel offers spacious en-suite cabins, every comfort<br />

on board, and exceptional service. Marine encounters<br />

include the potato cod feed, Minke whales in season,<br />

and the shark dive at Osprey Reef.<br />

E: info@spiritoffreedom.com.au<br />

www.spiritoffreedom.com.au<br />

Tusa <strong>Dive</strong> Cairns local day dive operators with over<br />

30 years experience diving the Great Barrier Reef.<br />

Tusa’s fast modern catamaran the Tusa 6 will visit two<br />

unique sites where you can enjoy up to three dives<br />

in the day. Tusa <strong>Dive</strong> also offer a great day out for<br />

snorkellers. P: 00617 4047 9100<br />

E: info@tusadive.com www.tusadive.com<br />

DNZ161<br />

Book an ad space today!<br />

For Editorial or Classified ads call<br />

Colin Gestro<br />

Affinity Ads<br />

M: 027 256 8014<br />

colin@affinityads.com<br />


HDS Australia-<strong>Pacific</strong><br />

PO Box: 347 Dingley Village Victoria 3172,<br />

Australia. www.classicdiver.org<br />


<strong>Dive</strong> Aitutaki with Bubbles Below Explore Aitutaki’s<br />

underwater world with Bubbles Below. Only 40<br />

minutes from mainland Rarotonga to the picturesque<br />

island of Aitutaki.PADI dive courses Beginner to<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> Master. Manned boats during dives! Safety and<br />

enjoyment paramount! ‘Take only Memories & Leave<br />

only Bubbles <strong>Dive</strong> Safe, <strong>Dive</strong> Rite, <strong>Dive</strong> Bubbles<br />

Below!’ www.diveaitutaki.com<br />

E: bubblesbelow@aitutaki.net.ck<br />

The <strong>Dive</strong> Centre – The Big Fish PADI 5-star dive<br />

operator. Services: intro/lagoon dives, dive trips<br />

twice a day, courses, retail and rental gear. 2<br />

boats, boats are manned with an instructor, 7 days,<br />

night dives. Aroa Beach by the Rarotongan Resort.<br />

P: 682 20238 or 682 55238<br />

E: info@thedivecentre-rarotonga.com<br />

www.thedivecentre-rarotonga.com<br />

dnz164<br />

70 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong>

More information on <strong>Dive</strong> Stores, Clubs & Travel at www.<strong>Dive</strong>NewZealand.com<br />

FIJI<br />


Subsurface Fiji Visit Fiji for fun, relaxing<br />

tropical diving. Subsurface Fiji PADI 5-Star <strong>Dive</strong><br />

shops are located in the beautiful Mamanuca<br />

Islands, offering daily trips and courses to some<br />

of the best dive spots in Fiji. Subsurface provides<br />

full diving services from Musket Cove, Plantation,<br />

Malolo, Likuliku, Tropica, Lomani, Funky Fish,<br />

Namotu, Tavarua, Wadigi & Navini Island Resorts.<br />

E: info@subsurfacefiji.com<br />

www.subsurfacefiji.com (DNZ159)<br />

Captain Cook Cruises Reef Endeavour and Tivua<br />

Island are 5 star PADI operations – Discover Scuba –<br />

Scuba <strong>Dive</strong> – Open water dive – Advance Wreck <strong>Dive</strong>,<br />

MV Raiyawa at Tivua Island. Fiji P: +679 6701 823 E:<br />

fiji@captaincookcruisesfiji.com<br />

www.captaincookcruisesfiji.com<br />

Mantaray Island Resort Yasawa Islands – Fiji – Over<br />

40 dive sites ; vibrant reefs, stunning coral gardens,<br />

caves, swim throughs, wall dives, drop offs, shark<br />

dives, turtles, and a stunning house reef. Fiji’s only<br />

accredited free-diving school, Mantaray swimming<br />

May–Oct. Small group diving in a safe and enjoyable<br />

environment visit us at<br />

www.mantarayisland.com<br />

Volivoli Beach Resort offers you relaxed, unspoilt<br />

white sandy beaches in a spectacular part of Fiji. Ra<br />

<strong>Dive</strong>rs operates from the resort giving you a water<br />

wonderland on the worlds best soft coral dive sites.<br />

The Fiji Siren is a livaboard boat offering you 7 and 10<br />

night dive packages. www.volivoli.com<br />

E: info@volivoli.com P: +679 9920942<br />


Raiders Hotel and <strong>Dive</strong> Wreck and Reef diving,<br />

Accommodation, Bar and dining, Snorkelling<br />

Hiking and more. Located 1 hour from Honiara on<br />

the waterfront of the historic Tulagi harbour. <strong>Dive</strong> -<br />

Discover – Relax. www.raidershotel.com<br />

email raidershotel@solomon.com.sb<br />

ph +677 7594185 / 7938017<br />

SIDE <strong>Dive</strong> Munda – <strong>Dive</strong> the unexplored<br />

Experience Magical Munda at Agnes Gateway Hotel.<br />

Award winning service and pristine diving. SSI<br />

Instructor Training Centre. WWII wrecks, caves and<br />

reefs – untouched and unspoilt.<br />

www.divemunda.com<br />

divemunda@dive-solomon.com<br />

Find us on Twitter, Facebook & Instagram<br />

SIDE TAKA <strong>Dive</strong> See more of the Solomon Islands by<br />

liveaboard! Save $700 on a 7 night booking on board<br />

MV Taka: 7 Nights Accommodation; 3 gourmet meals<br />

daily; 24 <strong>Dive</strong>s – sharks, WWII wrecks, manta rays,<br />

night dives; Round trip airport transfers. Conditions<br />

apply. For more information or to make a reservations:<br />

book@dive-solomon.com<br />

Tulagi <strong>Dive</strong> Solomon Islands An underwater paradise<br />

for marine life and explore the many ships and aircraft<br />

wrecks at the famous Iron Bottom Sound. We offer<br />

the PADI and TDI courses. Phone (+677) 25700<br />

www.tulagidive.com dive@tulagidive.com<br />




INDEX<br />


Enquiries to: Colin Gestro<br />

Affinity Ads M: 027 256 8014<br />

colin@affinityads.com<br />

Airtec 10<br />

DAN 59&61<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong> subs ad 72<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> Tutukaka 45<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> Zone 57<br />

<strong>Dive</strong> Zone Tauranga 25<br />

Nautilus Watersports Vanuatu’s longest running<br />

dive operation in Port Vila with 30+ years’ experience.<br />

Nautilus offers 4 dives a day (double dive both<br />

morning and afternoon). We also offer PADI course<br />

from Discover Scuba right through to <strong>Dive</strong> Master. For<br />

dive groups we can also offer diving/accommodation<br />

packages. P: Peter or Leanne +678 22 398<br />

www.nautilus.com.vu<br />

E: nautilus@vanuatu.com.vu<br />



fish • hunt • dive • cruise<br />

Fish, Hunt, <strong>Dive</strong> or Cruise aboard the fully<br />

refurbished MV Cindy Hardy. Fiordland or<br />

Stewart Island, our scenic cruises will provide<br />

you with a once in a lifetime experience.<br />

Everything is provided regardless of how<br />

short or long your time on board with us is.<br />

Cruise options available on our website.<br />

www.cruisefiordland.com<br />

info@cruisefiordland.com<br />

+6421 088 14530<br />

(DNZ156)<br />


Travelandco<br />

At travel&co (previously <strong>Dive</strong> Fish Snow<br />

Holidays) we’ve been crafting tailor-made active<br />

travel trips and experiences for over 30 years.<br />

Our team of active travel experts share your<br />

passion for adventure and can help book an<br />

exceptional active travel experience that goes<br />

beyond the ordinary. From wreck or reef diving,<br />

learning to dive, to liveaboard adventures - for<br />

insider tips on the best dive locations and<br />

tailormade diving experiences let your active<br />

travel journey start with us.<br />

t: 09 479 2210 Toll free NZ: 0800 555 035<br />

e: enquire@travelandco.nz<br />

www.travelandco.nz/dive<br />

Outer Gulf Charters<br />

One hour north of Auckland CBD<br />

Providing divers with the ultimate diving day<br />

out with diver lift, fast/comfortable travel, hot<br />

water shower, and all the tea and coffee you<br />

want.<br />

Recommended <strong>Dive</strong> Sites: Goat Island Marine<br />

Reserve, Mokohinau Islands, Great/Little<br />

Barrier, Sail Rock/Hen & Chickens in style. Trip<br />

schedule and info<br />

www.outergulfcharters.co.nz<br />

or phone Julie 021 827 855<br />

ESE Ltd 21<br />

Fiordland Expeditions 27<br />

General Marine Services 13<br />

Hecs Drysuit 39<br />

HPE NZ Ltd 15<br />

Hutchwilco Boatshow 1<br />

On the seafront downtown Port Vila.<br />

• Certified dives • Snorkel Tours • Training to<br />

Instructor Level • Full gear hire available •<br />

Very friendly, professional & experienced<br />

local Instructors & <strong>Dive</strong> Masters.<br />

20 dive sites (10 to 20 minutes) including 5 wrecks<br />

(including 4 engine QANTAS Sandringham flying<br />

boat and 150 year old sailing ship Star of Russia)<br />

Temp 24-28°c. Viz 10m to<br />

40m. Free pickup from<br />

Resorts in town.<br />

P: +678 27518 or email:<br />

dive@bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

www.bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

For your safety Vanuatu has<br />

recompression facilities.<br />


Available for talks to dive clubs etc. You can find full<br />

details on these speakers/lectures at<br />

www.<strong>Dive</strong>NewZealand.co.nz/dive-in-nz/dive-shops/<br />

Terry Brailsford Wreck diving for gold & treasure. Incl<br />

the Rothschild jewellery, search for General Grant.<br />

0274 958816, theadmiral@xtra.co.nz<br />

Tony Howell History and entertainment with lots of<br />

rare historical photos and illustrations – 12 powerpoints<br />

in total. 45 mins –1 hr each.<br />

Contact me for topics. 04 233-8238,<br />

www.scubadiving.co.nz<br />

tony@scubadiving.co.nz<br />

Darren Shields Spearfishing titles,uw cameraman,<br />

author. Motivating/compelling/innovative/inspiring/<br />

entertaining P: 09-4794231, 021839118,<br />

darren@wettie.co.nz<br />

Jamie Obern Technical instructor/cave diver, 20+<br />

years exp. globally. Photos/video: uw caves in<br />

Mexico, On USA, the UK, seafront NZ, Australia. downtown Techdive Port NZ/GUE Vila. NZ<br />

instructor. • Certified P: 021 dives 614 • 023, Snorkel Tours • Training to<br />

www.techdivenz.com Instructor Level • Full jamie@techdivenz.com<br />

gear hire available •<br />

Dave Very Moran friendly, Ching professional Dynasty porcelain & experienced<br />

from the Tek<br />

Sing. P: <strong>Dive</strong> local New Instructors Zealand & 09-521 <strong>Dive</strong> 0684, Masters.<br />

E: 20 divenz@<strong>Dive</strong>NewZealand.co.nz<br />

sites (10 to 20 minutes) including 5 wrecks<br />

(including 4 engine QANTAS Sandringham flying<br />

Samara boat and Nicholas 150 year M.O.N.Z old sailing -Programme ship Star Director: of Russia)<br />

Experiencing Marine Reserves Temp 24-28°c. – Te Kura Viz Moana: 10m to<br />

samara@emr.org.nz 40m. Free pickup from<br />

www.emr.org.nz www.facebook.com/emr.mtsct<br />

Resorts in town.<br />

P: 09 4338205 or 0210362019<br />

P: +678<br />

(field<br />

27518<br />

only)<br />

or email:<br />

dive@bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

Northland <strong>Dive</strong> www.bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

39<br />

Saltaway For your 55&26 safety Vanuatu has<br />

recompression facilities.<br />

SeaTech 53<br />

TecFestNZ 9&OBC<br />


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What counting fish in the PKI, Moks is telling us<br />

Top NZ dive destinations for the summer<br />

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Why isn't the NZ Government interested in Cook’s Endeavour?<br />

Meeting the unexpected in the Philippines<br />

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The wrecks of Solomon Islands<br />

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Close Calls<br />

A collection of life changing stories from the<br />

industry’s greatest:<br />

If they made mistakes you will too!<br />

RRP $39.99 Full colour photos throughout, paperback.<br />

Published by Bateman Books www.batemanpublishing.co.nz<br />

Greek cave diving instructor and<br />

adventure filmmaker Stratis Kas<br />

has released his much-anticipated<br />

book Close Calls, a collection of 68<br />

gripping, personal close call stories by<br />

high profile technical divers including<br />

Jill Heinerth, Edd Sorrenson, Leigh<br />

Bishop, Steve Davis, Richie Kohler,<br />

and Becky Kagan Schott, about diving<br />

incidents that nearly cost them their<br />

lives. Incidents include entanglement,<br />

getting lost in caves, running out of<br />

gas, equipment failures, hypoxia,<br />

hypercapnia, caustic cocktails and<br />

more.<br />

“My intent was simple,” Kas<br />

explained. “If high profile divers and<br />

dive industry leaders were willing to<br />

share their own mistakes and lapses<br />

of judgement, many of which nearly<br />

cost them everything, it would help<br />

rank-and-file divers realize<br />

that they are fallible and<br />

subject to similar errors,<br />

and hopefully make them<br />

safer divers.”<br />

Kas says, “As anesthesiologist<br />

Dr. Simon<br />

Mitchell noted at the sixth<br />

International Rebreather<br />

Meeting held in Ponza, Italy,<br />

last year, ‘Human factors<br />

are the most important,<br />

but also the most difficult,<br />

path to improving rebreather diving<br />

safety.’ The point applies equally to<br />

open circuit diving…”<br />

A cave diving instructor and<br />

filmmaker, Stratis Kas, says he was<br />

inspired to organize Close Calls while<br />

attending a diving conference where<br />

one of his friends and heroes was<br />

willing to share his mistakes and<br />

be vulnerable, which helped Kas<br />

acknowledge his own early mistakes<br />

learning to cave dive and provided<br />

the idea for the book. The photos<br />

throughout are spectacular.<br />

Close Calls is a print-on-demand book<br />

available through Kas’ website www.<br />

stratiskas.com for 40€.<br />

50% of profits from the book will be<br />

donated to DAN Europe’s Claudius<br />

Obermaier Fund, a charitable fund<br />

which helps divers and their families<br />

who find themselves in need.<br />

Photo by Mariona Y. Daviu<br />

Wild and temperate seas<br />

For those nostalgic for the UK (how is that possible?) comes<br />

two recent dive guides: Wild and temperate seas: 50 dive sites,<br />

and Diving the Thistlegorm.<br />

Wild and temperate seas is a new-style guide with 50 personal<br />

favourites at some of the UK’s most popular underwater<br />

destinations. Author Will Appleyard and his collaborators<br />

showcase both popular as well as sites seldom seen.<br />

A wise man once said ‘There’s no such thing as bad weather,<br />

Diving the Thistlegorm<br />

Diving the Thistlegorm is an in-depth look at one of the world’s<br />

best-loved shipwrecks, the World War II British Merchant<br />

Navy steamship wrecked in the Red Sea.<br />

The guide is highly visual guide with cutting edge photographic<br />

methods to show off the famous wreck and its<br />

fascinating cargo. It sits upright in 30m of clear, Red Sea<br />

waters packed with the materials of war: lorries, motorbikes,<br />

aircraft spares and airfield equipment are crammed into the<br />

forward holds and the remains of other vehicles lie amongst<br />

boxes of ammunition in the exploded aft holds.<br />

The Thistlegorm is often referred to as an underwater<br />

museum, and the wreck a place of fascination. The book is<br />

good for bucket list browsing for when Covid is over, as it<br />

just the wrong thermal protection’.<br />

Donning a drysuit is a must for most.<br />

Author Will Appleyard wrote Discover<br />

UK Diving and many articles for<br />

magazines, adventure-based platforms,<br />

adventure outfitting and travel brands –<br />

www.willappleyard.com.<br />

identifies individual items and illustrates<br />

where they can be found.<br />

The authors: Simon Brown is a photogrammetry/3D<br />

reconstruction expert<br />

who has documented many underwater<br />

subjects including for National<br />

Geographic Channel and Discovery<br />

Canada. Jon Henderson is Reader in Archaeology at the<br />

University of Edinburgh and Director of their Underwater<br />

Archaeology Research Centre. Alex Mustard, a marine biologist<br />

is an award-winning underwater photographer. Mike<br />

Postons pioneered the use of digital 3D modelling to visualise<br />

shipwrecks, and processes for reconstructing original ships<br />

from historic plans.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 73

1/2/3rd<br />

• Sidemount, CCR, Drysuit,<br />

Twin Backmount, Full Facemask and<br />

Scooter trydives<br />

• Boat and River Drift <strong>Dive</strong>s<br />

•<br />

Presentations on Cave<br />

Diving and Wreck Diving<br />

• Equipment Exhibitions<br />

•<br />

New for 2020:<br />

- new venue at Suncourt Hotel<br />

and Conference Centre<br />

- new foreshore venue<br />

Brilliant prizes including overseas trips<br />

You don’t have to be a technical diver to join in the<br />

action - come along and see how it is to Go Tec.<br />

Order your ticket online now at www.tecfestnz.com<br />

E: info@tecfestnz.co.nz M: 0274 344 874<br />

or ask at your local dive shop<br />

Pre-festival ticket purchase required, no entry tickets sold at event<br />

is sponsored by<br />


P A C I F I C<br />


P A C I F I C<br />


74 <strong>Dive</strong> New Zealand | <strong>Dive</strong> <strong>Pacific</strong><br />


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