samoqalaqo samarTlis sasamarTlo praqtikis problematur ...

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samoqalaqo samarTlis sasamarTlo praqtikis problematur ...

PsaqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlor e k o m e n d a c i e b isamoqalaqo samarTlis sasamarTlo praqtikisproblematur sakiTxebzeX X XsaqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTloserTgvarovani praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTandakavSirebiTTbilisi25 ivlisi, 2007 weli1


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winasityvaobasaqarTvelos saerTo sasamarTloebis mosamarTleebs!Zvirfaso kolegebo,TqvenTvis cnobilia, rom sasamarTlo sistemaSi masStaburi,yovlismomcveli reforma mimdinareobs. sxvasTan erTad, am reformiserT-erTi umTavresi mizani erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikisCamoyalibebaa. cxadia, aRniSnulis miRwevas wlebi sWirdeba, magram esar niSnavs imas, rom Cven mSvidad unda mivyveT dros. piriqiT, sworedaqedan gamomdinare, aucilebelia am mimarTulebiT intensiuri muSaobisdawyeba da msoflioSi aprobirebuli yvela saTanado meqanizmisgamoyeneba, raTa SedarebiT mcire droSi miviRoT Sedegi.tradiciuli demokratiis saxelmwifoebs, am mxriv, CvenTanSedarebiT udidesi upiratesoba aqvT: es aris ramdenime aTeuli wlisgamocdileba da am aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibebuli damudmivad ganviTarebuli sasamarTlo praqtika, romelic qveyndebaspecialuri krebulis saxiT (an vrceldeba eleqtronuli programismeSveobiT kompiuterul qselSi) da yvelasaTvis, pirvel rigSi kimosamarTleTaTvis aris xelmisawvdomi. amasTan erTad, gansakuTrebiTsainteresoa aRniSnul saxelmwifoebSi aseve wlebis ganmavlobaSidamkvidrebuli e.w. `guidelines~ (`rekomendaciebis~, `saxelmZRvaneloprincipebis~) Seqmnis praqtika (am mxriv gansakuTrebuli tradiciiTamerikis SeerTebuli Statebi gamoirCeva). es rekomendaciebi (sxvadasxvaqveyanaSi maT sxvadasxva saxelwodeba aqvT) kidev ufro uwyoben xelsnormaTa erTgvarovani gamoyenebis praqtikis damkvidrebas da,Sesabamisad, marTlmsajulebis swrafad ganxorcielebis erT-erTsafuZvels qmnian.miuxedavad imisa, rom 2000 wlidan dawyebuli saqarTvelosuzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebi qveyndeba krebulis saxiT daegzavneba mosamarTleebs, magram mxolod gamoqveyneba namdvilad araris sakmarisi da ver xsnis problemas. amis dasturia is garemoeba,rom Zalian xSiria gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic msgavsi garemoebebismqone saqmeebze radikalurad gansxvavebul Sedegs adgenen, e.i. arsebobsuamravi norma, romelTan mimarTebiTac sxvadasxva instanciissasamarTloebs sxvadasxva mosazrebebi gaaCniaT da sxvadasxvapraqtikas misdeven, rac, saboloo jamSi, saqmeTa gadawyvetaze aisaxebada saqmeTa ganxilvis gaWianurebas iwvevs. erT-erTi mizezi amisa isicaris, rom saqmeebiT uaRresad datvirTul mosamarTleebs mcireodenidroc ki ar rCebaT uzenaesi sasamarTlos praqtikis gasacnobad.yovelive zemoTqmulidan da demokratiul saxelmwifoTaaRniSnuli gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, 2006 wlis TebervalSisafuZveli Caeyara axal iniciativas, rac gulisxmobs saqarTvelosuzenaes sasamarTloSi yvela instanciis mosamarTleTa regularuliSexvedrebis organizebas. am SexvedraTa mizania sasamarTlopraqtikisaTvis mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis ganxilva, analizi, sxvadasxva5


instanciis mosamarTleTa gansxvavebuli mosazrebebis Sejereba dadiskusiis Sedegad konkretul normaTa erTgvarovani gagebisCamoyalibeba. Sexvedris Sedegebi gaformdeba werilobiT darekomendaciebis saxiT daegzavneba yvela mosamarTles mTeli qveynismasStabiT.2006 wlis 18 Tebervlidan dRemde uzenaes sasamarTloSiramdenime aTeuli aseTi Sexvedra gaimarTa, romlebSic monawileobamiiRes Tbilisisa da saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela regionismosamarTleebma. Sexvedrebis Sedegad samoqalaqo samarTlis normaTaerTgvarovani gamoyenebis rekomendacia Camoyalibda aTeulobiTproblematur sakiTxze. sayuradReboa, rom saqarTvelos uzenaesisasamarTlos gadawyvetilebaTa krebulisagan gansxvavebiT,rekomendaciebi Camoyalibebulia mokled, TiTo sakiTxi 1-2 gverdze damartivad, naTlad da mkafiod gadmoscems sakiTxis arss. cxadia, romsamarTlis yvela normasTan dakavSirebiT erTiani midgomisCamoyalibebas wlebi dasWirdeba, magram amgvari Sexvedrebis SedegadmiRebul rekomendaciaTa gamoyenebiT Cven SedarebiT ufro swrafadunda SevZloT konkretul problematur sakiTxTa mogvareba da maTierTgvarovani gamoyeneba.saboloo jamSi, Cveni mizania samoqalaqo samarTlis normaTaumravlesobasTan dakavSirebiT aseTi erTiani midgomis ganviTareba,rac xels Seuwyobs swrafi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebas. aqigulisxmeba ara mxolod mosamarTleTa mier procesis ufro swrafadwarmarTvis SesaZlebloba, aramed isic, rom advokatebisa da maTiklientebis umravlesobisaTvis Tavidanve ganWvretadi iqneba maTisamarTlebrivi pretenziis perspeqtiva. maT aseve ecodinebaT, rom espraqtika Tanamimdevrulad gamoiyeneba ara mxolod pirveli instanciiskonkretul sasamarTloSi, aramed zemdgomi instaciis sasamarTloebSicda saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlo swored Tanmimdevruli praqtikisgaTvaliswinebiT cnobs sarCelebs dasaSvebad an dauSveblad. Sedegad,SesaZlebelia sarCelTa raodenobac ki Semcirdes, radgan gonieri dakeTilsindisieri advokati da misi klienti tyuilad ar gawevenxarjebs sasamarTloSi da ar dakargaven dros, an Tavidanve SeecdebianmowinaaRmdege mxaresTan morigebas.aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom rekomendaciebs ar aqvT savaldebuloZala (iseve rogorc dasavleTis demokratiul saxelmwifoebSi), magramerTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikisa da erTiani (gabatonebuli)samarTlebrivi midgomis Camoyalibebis TvalsazrisiT maTgansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eqnebaT. mosamarTleebi Tavad unda iyvnenmowadinebulni miiRon, Seqmnan rekomendaciebi rac SeiZleba metnormasTan dakavSirebiT, radgan es, pirvel rigSi, maTi saqmianobisgaumjobesebas gamoiwvevs (gansaxilveli rTuli normebis swrafadgagebisa da gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT). sayuradReboa is garemoeba, romsxva saxelmwifoTa mosamarTleebi wlebis ganmavlobaSi ganuxreladiyeneben rekomendaciebs (erTeuli gamonaklisebis garda) TavianTsaqmianobaSi da procesis warmarTvisas Sesabamisi krebulebi maTimTavari saxelmZRvaneloa.garda rekomendaciebisa, krebulSi aseve warmodgeniliasaqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos samoqalqo samarTlis saqmeTapalatis, agreTve didi palatis sasamarTlo praqtika, romelic6


Camoyalibda ganvlili wlebis ganmavlobaSi da rasac mudmivad daTanmimdevrulad iyeneben saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlosmosamarTleebi. es sakiTxebi gadmocemulia mokle da mkafioganmartebebis saxiT, raTa TqvenTvis advilad xelmisawvdomi iyosTiToeuli maTgani. am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba aRiniSnosmxolod is, rom aRniSnul erTgvarovan praqtikas Tanmimdevruladamtkicebs da aviTarebs uzenaesi sasamarTlos yoveli axaligadawyvetileba, amitom qveda instanciis mosamarTleTa mier maTigaTvaliswineba aucilebelia yoveli msgavsi sakiTxis gadawyvetisas.saerTo jamSi, winamdebare krebulSi mocemulia yvela isrekomendacia, romelic miRebul iqna mosamarleTa mier 2006 wlis 18Tebervlidan 2007 wlis ivlisis CaTvliT. amasTan, aRniSnul krebulSiTavmoyrilia uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtikiT dadgenilisamoqalaqo samarTlis normaTa ganmartebisa da masTan dakavSirebuliasamde praqtikuli sakiTxis samarTlebrivi analizi.pativiscemiT,konstantine kublaSvili7


sawarmos reorganizacia. reorganizaciis erT-erTi nairsaxeoba kisawarmos naturiT gayofaa. am ukanasknels ki, ra Tqma unda, icnobs dauSvebs `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanoni. (amis Taobaze SegiZliaT ixiloT mag.uzenaesi sasamarTlos ganCinebebi #as 117815-03; #3k/409-03).IV.samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 39-e muxliT ganisazRvra sarCelisuzrunvelyofis, axlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTa gamo saqmis warmoebisganaxlebisa da baTilad cnobis Taobaze Setanil gancxadebazegadasaxdeli saxelmwifo baJis odenoba. aRniSnuliT ar icvleba amgancxadebebTan dakavSirebiT Setanil amave muxliT gaTvaliswinebulkerZo saCivarze (davis sagnis Rirebulebis) 1,5% da saapelaciosaCivarze 3% gadasaxdeli saxelmwifo baJis odenoba.V.ganxilul iqna samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1343-e muxli da masSi 2005 wlis9 dekembers Setanili cvlileba. winamdebare muxli awesrigebsumkvidro qonebis saxelwifoze gadasvlis sakiTxs. am muxlidangamomdinare, metad mniSvnelovania problema, Tu aRniSnul procesSivin unda iqnes Cabmuli saqmeSi samkvidros miRebis vadis gagrZelebisTaobaze saTanado mopasuxed. manamde moqmedi redaqciiT umkvidroqoneba gadadioda xazinaze (da am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifoswarmomadgenlad da, Sesabamisad, mopasuxed gamodioda finansTasaministro). ganxorcielebuli cvlilebiT es norma Seicvala daganisazRvra, rom `Tuki arc kanoniT da arc anderZiT memkvidreebi ararian, an arc erTma memkvidrem ar miiRo samkvidro, anda, roca yvelamemkvidres CamoerTva memkvidreobis ufleba, umkvidro qoneba gadadissaxelmwifoze~.saxelmwifo metad farTo cnebaa. xSirad amgvari tipis procesSimosarCele mxare mopasuxed uTiTebs notariuss da sxva pirebs,romelnic arasaTanado mopasuxeebs warmoadgenen. amitom, dgebasaTanado mopasuxis gansazRvris (procesSi Cabmis, Canacvlebis) sakiTxi.am problemasTan mimarTebaSi saWiroa ganvsazRvroT, Tu raigulisxmeba umkvidro qonebaSi da, aqedan gamomdinare, umkvidroqonebis saxelmwifoze gadasvlaSi, anu ra iuridiuli faqtebiganapirobeben imas, rom dadgindes, jer erTi, aris Tu ara qonebaumkvidro da, meore, gadavida Tu ara umkvidro qoneba saxelmwifoze.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1343-e muxli ganmartavs, Tu rasamarTlebrivi safuZvlebis arsebobisas miiCneva qoneba umkvidrod. amasgansazRvravs is iuridiuli mniSvnelobis Semadgenloba, romelicmocemulia winamdebare muxlSi, kerZod: 1. rodesac arc kanoniT da arcanderZiT memkvidreebi ar arian; 2. arc erTma memkvidrem samkvidro ar12


miiRo; 3. yvela memkvidres CamoerTva memkvidreobis ufleba anu esiuridiuli mniSvnelobis Semadgenloba iZleva imis SesaZleblobas,rom qoneba cnobil iqnes umkvidrod,. xolo amis Semdeg ki es umkvidroqoneba gadadis saxelmwifoze. uZravi qonebis gadasvlis sakiTxszogadad aregulirebs samoqalaqo kodeqsis 183-e muxli. ase rom,umkvidro qoneba saerTo dadgenili wesiT gadadis saxelmwifossakuTrebaSi.saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi gadasvlis sakiTxi dakavSirebulia imorganos uflebamosilebasTan, romelic samarTlebriv urTierTobebSigamodis saxelmwifos saxeliT. kerZod, saxelmwifosuflebamosilebebi, konkretul SemTxvevaSi unda ganaxorcielos imorganom, romlis kompetenciaSic Sedis saxelmwifos saxeliTsaxelmwifo qonebis floba, marTva da gankargva.gansaxilveli normiT umkvidro qonebis miRebis valdebulebagaaCnia saxelmwifos da ara TviTmmarTvelobas. am SemTxvevaSiyuradReba unda gavamaxviloT imaze, rom adgilobriviviTviTmarTvelobis erTeuli damoukidebeli iuridiuli piria da misiqonebis Seqmnis wess, wyaroebs da kategoriebs, agreTve, TviTmmarTvelierTeulisaTvis saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebis gadacemiswess ganisazRvravs kanoni (saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1509-emuxlis pirveli nawilis `a~ da `b~ qvepunqtebi, `adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis me-10 muxlis pirvelinawili, 46-e muxlis me-4 nawili da `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobiserTeulis qonebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoni.)amrigad, aRniSnuli kategoriis saqmeebze mopasuxed unda iqnesCabmuli saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministro(saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros debulebis me-2muxlis me-2 nawilis `m~ qvepunqti), radgan mis kompetenciaSi Sedissaxelmwifo qonebis floba, marTva da gankargva.qoneba, romelic saxelmwifoze gadavida (saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsis 1444-e muxlis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifos ara aqvs ufleba uariTqvas samkvidros miRebaze, romelic masze gadavida) Sedissaxelmwifos samarTlebrivi interesis sferoSi.im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac samkvidros realurad floben sxvamemkvidreebi, xolo piri iTxovs gaSvebuli vadis aRdgenas, procesSimopasuxed mowveul unda iqnan es pirebi (pirebi, romelTac samkvidrofaqtobrivad miiRes) da ara saxelmwifo. mxedvelobaSi misaRebia, Turomeli piris uflebasa da kanoniT dacul interess exebasasamarTlos mier gaSvebuli vadis sapatiod miCneva.administraciul-teritoriul erTeulebSi SeiZleba aseT davebSimopasuxed CarTuli iqnes ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministrosadgilobriv-teritoriuli organoebi.Tuki arsebobs mxolod ori memkvidre, romelTagan orivem gauSvasamkvidros vada da mxolod erTi iTxovs am vadis aRdgenas,zemoaRniSnuli samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis gaTvaliswinebiT aseTprocesSi saxelmwifo Caebmeba procesSi mopasuxed.13


am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mosamarTleebma dasves SekiTxva asevesaxelmwifo baJTan dakavSirebiT, kerZod rogor unda moxdes amSemTxvevebSi baJis gadaxda da ra moculobiT.gamomdinare iqidan, rom aRniSnuli kategoriis saqmeebiwarmoadgenen qonebriv-samarTlebriv davebs, e.i. saxelmwifo baJisodenoba aseT davebSi damokidebulia davis sagnis Rirebulebaze(sabazro Rirebuleba).VI.aRiarebiTi sarCelis miRebisa da ganxilvisaTvis aucilebelia yvelaim winapirobis arseboba, romelic samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 180-emuxliT aris dadgenili. sxva winapirobebTan erTad samoqalaqosaproceso kodeqsis 180-e muxli gulisxmobs iuridiuli interesebisarsebobas sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT aseT aRiarebasTan mimarTebaSi.aRiarebiTi sarCeli SeiZleba aRiZras uflebisa da samarTlebriviurTierTobebis arseboba-ararsebobis dadgenis, dokumentebisnamdvilobis aRiarebis an dokumentebis siyalbis dadgenis Sesaxeb, TumosarCeles aqvs amis iuridiuli interesi. aRniSnuli normis mixedviTiuridiuli interesis arseboba arsebiTad ukavSirdeba sarCelisaRZvris SesaZleblobasa da dasaSvebobas.samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT, iuridiuli interesisarsebobisaTvis aucilebelia arsebobdes mxareTa Soris dava uflebisTu samarTlebrivi urTierTobis Taobaze; mopasuxe unda ecilebodesmosarCeles uflebaSi, aseTi dava unda qmnides uflebis momavalSidarRvevis realur saSiSroebas; aRiarebiTi sarCelis gadawyveta davisgadawyvetis saukeTeso saSualeba unda iyos, am gadawyvetilebasgarkveuli sargebloba unda mohqondes mosarCelisaTvis; aRiarebiTisarCeli dauSvebelia, Tu SesaZlebelia aRiZras sarCeli TviTvaldebulebis Sesrulebis Taobaze. aRiarebiTi sarCeli aRiZvrebamxolod maSin, roca mikuTvnebiTi sarCelis gamoyeneba ar arisSesaZlebeli. am garemoebaze kanonSi uSualod ar aris miTiTebuli,magram gamomdinareobs mosarCelis samarTlebrivi interesebidanaRiarebiTi sarCelis specialuri formis mimarT. yovelTvis, rocamosarCeles SeuZlia mikuTvnebiTi sarCeliT sargebloba, aRiarebiTisarCelis gamoyeneba dauSvebelia. aseT SemTxvevaSi mosarCele veriqneba am ukanaskneliT samarTlebrivad dainteresebuli, radgan masSesaZlebloba aqvs sarCelis sxva formiT ukeTesad miaRwios mizans.Tu sasamarTloSi aRZruli aRiarebiTi sarCelidan ar CansmosarCelis interesi, sasamarTlo samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 180-e,178-e, 185-e muxlebis safuZvelze gamoitans ganCinebas xarvezis Sesaxebda Tu mosarCelis mier ar iqneba miTiTebuli misi interesi aRiarebiTisarCelis mimarT sasamarTlo sarCels mosarCeles daubrunebs 185-emuxlis safuZvelze.14


VII.sarCelis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb gancxadeba aucileblad undapasuxobdes samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 191-e muxlebis moTxovnebs.sarCelis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb gancxadeba unda akmayofilebdes aramxolod zemoxsenebuli muxlis moTxovnebs, aramed gadaxdili undaiqnes saxelmwifo baJi samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 39-e muxlispirveli nawilis `e~ qvepunqtis Sesabamisad. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki mxarismier aseTi gancxadebis wardgenis momentisaTvis ar iqneba gadaxdilisaxelmwifo baJi, maSin sasamarTlo uflebamosilia, miuTiTos mxaresxarvezze, gamoitanos Sesabamisi ganCineba da mosTxovos mas amxarvezis gamosworeba. xarvezis gamousworeblobis SemTxvevaSi kigancxadeba ganuxilvelad iqneba datovebuli.Tu sarCelis aRZvramde piri iTxovs uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebisgamoyenebas, miT ufro, aseT gancxadebas man unda daurTos saxelmwifobaJis gadaxdis qviTari. xarvezis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi imave kodeqsis190-e muxliT dadgenili vada ar dairRveva, radganac mosamarTlis miermxarisaTvis xarvezis dadgena jer ar niSnavs gancxadebis srulyofilganxilvas. vada unda aiTvalos im droidan, rodesac xarvezigamosworebuli iqneba.samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 194-e muxlis mexuTe nawilisSesabamisad, sarCelis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb gancxadebisdaukmayofileblobis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos gamoaqvs ganCinebasarCelis uzrunvelyofaze uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb. SeTanxmdnen: aseTSemTxvevaSi sasamarTlosaTvis xelmeored mimarTva imave saganze imavesafuZvliT dauSvebelia. am normis Tanaxmad, Tu sasamarTlom ukveimsjela uzrunvelyofis gancxadebaze, ar daakmayofila igi da mxarexelaxla Semoitans sasamarTloSi identuri saxis gancxadebas,sasamarTlo gancxadebas ganuxilvelad datovebs dauSveblobismotiviT.im SemTxvevaSi, roca saxelmwifo baJi gadaxdilia, magram mxarearasrulyofilad miuTiTebs uzurnvelyofis RonisZiebis gamoyenebissafuZvlebze, maSin sasamarTlo miiRebs ganCinebas xarvezis Sesaxeb damiscems gancxadebis avtors vadas xarvezis Sesavsebad.VIII.ganxilul iqna procesSi erT-erT mxared filialebis monawileobissakiTxi. mosamarTleTa nawili Tvlida, rom sawarmos filialis mierdadebul garigebebze (ZiriTadad Sromis xelSekrulebebze) saTanadomopasuxea swored sazogadoebis filiali Tanaxmad 79-e muxlis me-2nawilisa, Tumca raionuli sasamarTloebi am saxis davebs maincZiriTadi sawarmos adgilsamyofelis misamarTiT agzavnian.saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier dadgenili praqtikiTsabolood Camoyalibda, rom yvela im sakiTxze, romelzedac mxareedaveba sawarmos filials, procesSi mopasuxed Cabmuli unda iyos15


ZiriTadi sawarmo da ara misi filiali. filiali ar warmoadgenscalke iuridiul pirs, igi ZiriTadi sawarmos (iuridiuli piris)warmomadgenlobaa, mas ar gaaCnia gancalkevebuli qoneba dakreditorTa winaSec igi damoukideblad sakuTari qonebiT pasuxs aragebs. amitom miCneulia, rom ZiriTadma sawarmom mis filialze undagasces saproceso warmomadgenlobiTi uflebamosileba. Tuki filialsmis wesdebaSi (an misi Semqnis raime sxva saxis dokumentSi) aRniSnuliaqvs, rom igi gaxlavT ZiriTadi sawarmos warmomadgeneli ara mxolodmesame pirebTan, kontrahentebTan garigebebis dadebaSi, aramed igi aseveZiriTadi sawarmos saproceso warmomadgenelic gaxlavT – maSindamatebiT filialze ZiriTadi sawarmosagan warmomadgenlobisdamadasturebeli uflebamosilebis miReba saWiro aRar aris.IX.sakiTxi Seexo samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1274-e muxls, kerZod, rasamoqalaqo saproceso subieqtad unda iqnes miCneuli, samoqalaqokodeqsis 1274-e muxlis Tanaxmad, Svilad ayvanis gauqmebis an baTiladcnobis saqmis ganxilvisas meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organo?aRniSnuli normis mixedviT, sasamarTloSi Svilad ayvanis gauqmebis anbaTilad cnobis saqmis ganxilvisas yvela SemTxvevaSi monawileobaunda miiRos meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organom anu sasamarTloSies organo unda gamoivides raime saxis subieqtad. materialurmasamarTalma gansazRvra, rom yvela SemTxvevaSi meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organom am tipis saqmeebSi aucileblad unda miiRosmonawileoba. gamomdinare iqidan, rom mosarCele Tavad gansazRvravsTu vin Caabas mxared procesSi da mesame pirebic damoukidebelisasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe swored misi iniciativiT iqnebianCarTulni saqmeSi, problemac naTelia – am SemTxvevaSi materialurinorma gansazRvravs amgvar procesSi meurveobisa da mzrunvelobisorganos savaldebulo monawileobas, xolo, Tu ra subieqtad undaiqnes igi Cabmuli am saqmeSi, arsadaa gansazRvruli, maT Soris amasarc saproceso kodeqsi aregulirebs. gamoiTqva mosazreba, xom ar undamonawileobdnen es organoebi aRniSnul procesSi rogorcspecialistebi.sabolood azri Sejerda imaze, rom am saqmeebSi meurveobisamzrunvelobis organoebi unda gamovidnen mesame pirebad damoukidebelisasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe. am organoebis kanonier interessaRniSnul saqmeebze gamotanili gadawyvetilebebi namdvilad exeba.Tundac is faqti, rom Svilad ayvanis sakiTxSi es organoebi erT-erTgadamwyvet rols asruleben, gascemen Tanxmobas Svilad ayvanasTandakavSirebiT, daskvnebs da a.S. Svilad ayvanis gauqmebis an baTiladcnobis sakiTxebSic es urTierToba ueWvelad Seexeba meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organoTa samarTlebriv interess. problema ar iqmneba16


iseT SemTxvevebSi, rodesac Svilad ayvanis gauqmebas da baTiladcnobas Tavad meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organo iTxovs da,maSasadame, gamodis mosarCeled an mxarem Tavad moiTxova aseTiorganos CarTva procesSi mopasuxed. Tuki dava aqts Seexeba,SesaZlebelia, sssk-is 85-e muxlis Sesabamisad, daisvas sakiTxisaTanado mopasuxis Sesaxeb an amave kodeqsis 84-e muxliTganisazRvros saTanado mosarCelis sakiTxi. ase rom, sssk-is 203-emuxlis safuZvelze, mosamzadebel sxdomaze SeiZleba aseTi sakiTxebisgarkveva, magram, Tuki ar gvaqvs amgvari SemTxvevebi da maincsavaldebuloa meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos CarTva saqmeSisaproceso subieqtad, maSin ra xerxs unda mimarTos sasamarTlom?sasarCelo moTxovnam Tavad unda miaxvedros sasamarTlo Tu romelsubieqtad unda iqnes miCneuli ama Tu im saqmeSi meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organo, anu sasarCelo moTxovnam Tavad unda daanaxossasamarTlos Tu baTilobis ra safuZvels exeba dava da Tu visTan aqvssaqme. rogorc zeviT aRiniSna, SesaZlebelia es organo warmodgesmopasuxis, mosarCelis, Tanamonawilis (TanamosarCelis anTanamopasuxis) rangSi da a.S. niSandoblivia is faqti, rom am mxrivnamdvilad aris winaaRmdegoba samoqalaqo kodeqssa da samoqalaqosaproceso kodeqss Soris, vinaidan, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsisTanamxad, mesame pirad procesSi ama Tu im subieqtis CarTva ar xdebasasamarTlos iniciativis safuZvelze, es Tavad mxaris prerogativaa.magram, radganac aseT imperatiul danawess adgens samoqalaqomaterialuri kodeqsi, sasamarTlo unda gamovides swored materialurisamarTlidan da amis safuZvelze Caabas meurveobisa da mzrunvelobisorgano saqmeSi mesame pirad damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnisgareSe. sabolood Sejerda azri, rom aseT saqmeebSi meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organo sasamarTlos mier CaerTveba mesame piraddamoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, gamomdinare iqidan, Tu rasaxis sasarCelo moTxovnaa dayenebuli sasamarTloSi. am SemTxvevaSigvyavs sssk-is 89-e muxlis safuZvelze mesame piri damoukidebelisasarCelo moTxovniT (rasac iTvaliswinebs samoqalaqo saprocesokanonmdebloba), magram ar arsebobs iniciativa mxarisa am pirissasamarTloSi mowvevis Taobaze, amitom, aseTi iniciativisganxorcielebis uflebamosileba materialuri samoqalaqo kodeqsissafuZvelze sasamarTlom unda itvirTos. amasTan erTad, SeiZlebaganimartos sssk-is 203-e muxli, sadac gansazRvrulia, Tu risimoqmedebis ganxorcieleba SeuZlia mosamarTles saqmis ganxilvisaTvis,maT Soris procesSi mesame pirebisa da Tanamonawileebis sakiTxi da,Sesabamisad, saqmeSi mesame pirad damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSemeurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos Cabmis motiviT, daeyrdnossamoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis zemoaRniSnul normas.17


X.sakiTxi Seexo mravalbinian saxlebSi saziaro uflebis gauqmebas.am sakiTxidan gamomdinare, saWiroa gaimijnos erTmaneTisagan saziarouflebis instituti, romelic samoqalaqo kodeqsSia mocemuli da isinstituti, romelic aseve aregulirebs mravalbinian saxlebSimobinadreTa urTierTobebs. faqtobrivad saziaro uflebebi arvrceldeba im urTierTobebze, romelic warmoiSoba mravalbiniansaxlebSi mobinadreTa Soris (aq viyenebT specialur normebs da amisdanawesi samoqalaqo kodeqsSi arsebobs). ra Tqma unda, samoqalaqokodeqsSi arsebobs zogadi normebi, romlebic saerToa am oriinstitutisaTvis, magram iseTi urTierTobebi, rogoricaa wilisgamoyofa, am wilis gankargvis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi – isinicalke gvaqvs mocemuli swored am institutiT.ZiriTadad problema warmoSva pirveli instanciis sasamarTloebSie.w. italiur ezoebTan dakavSirebulma davebma, kerZod, magaliTad,rodesac am `italiur~ saxlebSi xdeba saerTo sakuTrebis farTisgayofa, ramdenad SeiZleba CaiTvalos es mravalbinian saxlad da a.S.Zalian xSiria davebi, rodesac mxareebi iTxoven saerTo sargeblobaSiarsebuli farTis gayofas da am SemTxvevaSi sruliad samarTlianadismeba kiTxva: arsebobs Tu ara am farTis gayofis samarTlebrivisafuZveli? yuradReba unda gamaxvildes im garemoebaze, romsaqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi, kerZod ki zemoT xsenebuliinstituti (binis sakuTreba mravalbinian saxlebSi) ar iTvaliswinebsnaturiT gamoyofas anu erT-erTi mesakuTris mier saerTo sakuTrebidanfarTis (qonebis) naturiT gamoyofis SesaZleblobas samoqalaqokodeqsi ar iZleva. Tumca samoqalaqo kodeqsis 212-e muxliaregulirebs saerTo sakuTrebaSi wilis gansazRvris sakiTxs, anusaerTo sakuTrebaSi wilis gansazRvra xdeba individualuri farTisproporciulad. aq mxedvelobaSia misaRebi mxaris individualursakuTrebaSi arsebuli farTi da mTel saxlSi individualursakuTrebaSi arsebuli yvela binis saerTo farTobi (maT Soris`italiuri~ tipis saxlebSi). ase rom, kodeqsis winamdebare muxliuSvebs mxolod wilis gamoyofas, magram ramdenadaa aseve SesaZlebeliam muxlze dayrdnobiT qonebis naturiT gamoyofa? aRsaniSnavia isgaremoeba, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsis 211-e muxlis pirveli nawiliTgansazRvrulia individualuri sakuTrebis sagnis definicia, romlisTanaxmad individualur sakuTrebaSi arsebuli farTia (amave kodeqsis208-e muxlis me-2 nawiliT mocemuli individualuri sakuTrebis cnebisgarda) aseve misi mxolod is Semadgeneli nawilebi, romlebic SeiZlebamoscildes, gadakeTdes, daematos, magram arsebobs daTqma, rom es arunda moxdes saerTo sakuTrebis xelSeSlis sanacvlod anuugulebelyofili ar unda iyos is umTavresi principi, romliTacdaculia saerTo sakuTreba amgvar urTierTobaSi. samoqalaqo kodeqsis211-e muxli ar akonkretebs, Tu uSualod romel farTze midis masSisaubari. am normis Tanaxmad, dauSvebelia saerTo sargeblobis farTisSemcireba. amasTan erTad gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom gansaxilvelinormis Tanaxmad, igulisxmeba im farTis mocileba, gadakeTeba,18


damateba, romelic warmoadgens 208-e muxlis me-2 nawiliTgaTvaliswinebuli individualur sakuTrebaSi arsebuli farTisSemadgenel nawils. arniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, dauSvebeliamravalbinian saxlebSi saerTo sakuTrebis reJimis transformaciaindividualur sakuTrebaSi.sabolood SeTanxmeba iqna miRweuli, rom saerTo sakuTrebaSiarsebuli farTis Semcireba individualuri sakuTrebis xarjze arSeiZleba. ra Tqma unda, SesaZlebelia, iseTi farTebis rekonstruqcia,mierTeba, SeerTeba, romlis transformaciis gziTac ar dairRvevasaerTo sakuTrebis reJimi da amiT ar Seilaxeba sxva danarCenimesakuTreebis kanoniT daculi uflebebi da interesebi. swored amasgulisxmobs nacionaluri kanonmdeblobis saziaro uflebis institutida esec mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac yvela sxva danarCenimesakuTris Tanxmoba iqneba gacemuli.SeiZleba gakeTdes daskvna, rom saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis211-e muxlis Sesabamisad, SesaZloa, iseTi farTis mierTeba,rekonstruqcia, Tuki amis Sedegad ar Seilaxeba saerTo sakuTrebaSiarsebuli farTi, anu ar Seilaxeba am saerTo sakuTrebis farTisdaniSnuleba. amis Sefaseba ki sasamarTlos SeuZlia specialistisdaskvnis an/da sxva meqanizmebis safuZvelze, ris Semdegac sasamarTlomiiRebs gadawyvetilebas.aRiarebiTi sarCelis safuZvelze idealuri wili SeiZlebaganisazRvros, magram amas unda hqondes ara is mizani, rom SemdgomSigamoiyos (naturiT) es idealuri wili saerTo sakuTrebidan, aramedunda gaaCndes sxva mizani, magaliTad, am farTiT sargeblobamravalbinian saxlebSi saerTo sakuTrebis institutisaTvis dadgeniliwesebiT, gadasaxadebis gansazRvra da a.S. rodesac Sendebamravalbiniani saxli, proeqtiT gansazRvrulia asasvleli kibisujredi, lifti, sxva saerTo sakuTreba, romlis gamocalkaveba danaturiT gamoyofa SeuZlebelia da amas arc saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsi iTvaliswinebs.XI.sasamarTlos mier gakotrebis mmarTvelis, aseve reabilitaciismmarTvelis daniSvnis an ardaniSvnis Sesaxeb ganCinebis gasaCivrebissaproceso-samarTlebriv safuZvlebisa da am ganCinebebze mxarisaTviskerZo saCivris Setanis SesaZleblobis miniWebis kriteriumebisgansazRvris sakiTxi metad aqtualuria.aseTi ganCinebebis gasaCivrebis Sesaxeb miTiTebulia `gakotrebissaqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 31-e muxlSi da aRniSnulia, romTuki es kanoni ar aregulirebs am sakiTxs, maSin gamoyenebuli iqnebasamoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis debulebebi. rac Seexeba samoqalaqosaproceso kodeqsis normebs, romelnic kerZo saCivars Seexebian,19


gansazRvraven, Tu gasaCivrebis Sesaxeb pirdapir aris miTiTebuli,maSin igi kerZo saCivriT gasaCivrdeba, xolo Tuki miTiTebulisaproceso kanonmdeblobiT ar aris – gasaCivreba ar SeiZleba.Camoyalibda azri imis Taobaze, rom saproceso kodeqsis am normebs(gasaCivrebasTan dakavSirebiT) sasamarTlo ver gamoiyenebs, radgan`gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonSi faqtobrivadmiTiTebuli ar aris Semajamebeli gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebisSesaZleblobazec ki. xolo es TavisTavad ar niSnavs imas, romgakotrebis saqmeebze gasaCivreba ar daiSveba da isini pirvelinstanciaSi sruldeba. amasTanave, `gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebisSesaxeb~ kanonis 31-e muxlSi miTiTebulia, rom im SemTxvevaSi SeiZlebagamoyenebuli iqnes samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis normebi, Tuki is arewinaaRmdegeba Tavad gakotrebis mizans. Sejerda azri, romSemajamebeli gadawyvetilebebi, maT Soris gakotrebis mmarTvelis,reabilitaciis mmarTvelis daniSvnis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebi(ganCinebebi) es gaxlavT sakmaod mniSvnelovani gadawyvetilebebi, maTSeuZliaT arsebiTi gavlena moaxdinon gakotrebis procesze, aseTgadawyvetilebebs SeuZliaT ziani miayenon kreditorTa kanoniT daculinteresebs da amitom aseTi saxis gadawyvetilebebis gasaCivrebisSesaZlebloba mxareebs unda mieceT. aRniSnuli uzenaesi sasamarTlospraqtikaSi arsebobs, romlis mixedviTac miCneulia, rom aseTi saxisganCinebebi metad mniSvnelovan ganCinebaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba daisini unda gasaCivrdes kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT. am daskvnamdeuzenaesi sasamarTlo mivida Semdegi mosazrebebis gamoc: samoqalaqosaproceso kodeqsSi aRniSnulia, rom Tuki miTiTebuli ar arisgasaCivrebis SesaZleblobaze, maSin gasaCivreba ar SeiZleba. magram`gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis zogierTi normamiuTiTebs gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobaze, zogierTi norma ki krZalavs,xolo zogierTi ganCinebis gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobaze angasaCivrebis akrZalvaze ki saerTod ar aris miTiTebuli, rac niSnavs,rom gakotrebis specialuri kanoniT dadgenilia samoqalaqo saprocesokodeqsis principebisagan gansxvavebuli danawesi. amdenad, dadginda,rom iseTi mniSvnelovani gadawyvetilebebi, rogoric gaxlavTgakotrebis mmarTvelis, reabilitaciis mmarTvelis daniSvnaardaniSvnis Sesaxeb sasamarTlos ganCinebebi unda gasaCivrdesdadgenili wesis mixedviT. gakotrebis saqmis warmoeba bevradaadamokidebuli Tavad gakotrebis mmarTvelis pirovnebaze, misgamocdilebasa da sxva kriteriumebze da amis gamo es sasamarTlokontrols uTuod unda daeqvemdebaros.zemoT Tqmulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba dadgindes Semdegi principi:Tu `gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanoniT dadgenili ar aris,rom es gadawyvetilebebi ar saCivrdeba, maSin sasamarTlo undagamovides im principidan, rom Tuki ama Tu im gadawyvetilebas SeuZliaziani moutanos mxares an Tuki es gadawyvetileba SeiZlebaewinaaRmdegebodes Tavad am kanonis principebs, miznebs da, miuxedavadimisa, rom kanonis arasrulyofilebis gamo, masSi araferia aseTigadawyvetilebebis gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobebis Taobaze naTqvami,20


sasamarTlom unda mianiWos mxareebs ufleba maTi (gadawyvetilebebis)gasaCivrebisa.rac Seexeba kerZo saCivars, `gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~kanonis 31-e muxlis me-3 punqti exeba am sakiTxs da aRniSnavs, romkerZo saCivari sam etaps gaivlis, vinaidan SeiZleba saapelaciosasamarTlos dadgenileba gasaCivrdes kerZo saCivriT saqarTvelosuzenaes sasamarTloSi, xolo, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsismixedviT, kerZo saCivari mxolod or etaps gadis, amitom, azri SejerdaSemdegze: radganac gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis miznebisaTvisgakotrebis kanoni specialur normatiul aqts warmoadgens da masSiaRniSnulia zemoT miTiTebuli sakiTxi (kerZo saCivraTandakavSirebiT), samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis im normebis gamoyeneba,romlebic kerZo saCivars exeba, am SemTxvevaSi ar SeiZleba.`gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 31-e muxlis me-3 punqtismixedviT, saapelacio sasamarTlos dadgenileba saCivrdeba, Tukiarsebobs samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 393-e muxliT dadgenilisakasacio saCivris safuZvlebi, amitom saapelacio sasamarTlom amkanonis mixedviT, SeiZleba Tavad gansazRvros gasaCivrebis anargasaCivrebis uflebis miniWebis sakiTxi anu, Tu kerZo saCivarSiiqneba warmodgenili sakasacio safuZvlebi, igi samive instanciasgaivlis.XII.es sakiTxi warmoiSva quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTloSi da igiSemdegnairad daisva: pirvel instanciaSi mosarCelem dava moigo. esgadawyvetileba mopasuxe mxarem gaasaCivra saapelacio saasamarTloSi.apelaciaSi pirvel instanciis sasamarTloSi mopasuxed myofi pirigvevlineba ukve apelantad. xolo mowinaaRmdege mxare saapelacioinstanciaSi uars ambobs sarCelze. rogor wyvets sasamarTlo amsakiTxs da ras aRniSnavs mis gadawyvetilebaSi?azri Semdegze Sejerda: am SemTxvevaSi dispoziciurobis principidangamomdinare, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis me-3 muxlis me-2 nawilisme-2 winadadebis Tanaxmad, mosarCeles SeuZlia uari ganacxadossarCelze anu mas procesis nebismier stadiaze aqvs ufleba, romisargeblos dispoziciurobis principiT da uari Tqvas sarCelze. ssskis372-e muxlis Tanaxmad, saapelacio sasamarTloSi saqmis warmoebisasgamoiyeneba pirveli instanciis sasamarTlosaTvis dadgenili wesebi,xolo 272-e muxlis ”e” punqtis mixedviT saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetaxdeba im safuZvliT, Tu mosarCelem uari Tqva sarCelze, anumosarCeles, Tundac igi mogebuli mxaris poziciidan gamodiodes,dispoziciurobis principis Sesabamisad ar erTmeva ufleba ganacxadosuari sarCelze. azri Sejerda aseve saapelacio sasamarTlos miersaqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis SemTxvevaSi sarezolucio nawilis21


CamoyalibebasTan mimarTebaSic, kerZod, sarezolucio nawilSimieTiTeba: dakmayofildes mosarCelis Suamdgomloba saqmis warmoebisSewyvetis Taobaze mis mier sarCelze uaris Tqmis gamo, xolo pirveliinstanciis sasamarTlos mier mocemul saqmeze miRebuligadawyvetileba uqmdeba da wydeba saqmis warmoeba. am SemTxvevaSisasamarTlo xelmZRvanelobs sssk-is me-3 muxlis me-2 nawiliT, 272-emuxlis “g” punqtiT da 372-e muxliT.XIII.pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi mosarCelem moigo dava. apelaciiswesiT gadawyvetileba mopasuxem gaasaCivra. saapelacio sasamarTloSimosarCelem (pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi mosarCele mxarem)moindoma davis sagnis gadideba, magaliTad, pirvel instanciaSi igiiTxovda 5000 lars, xolo apelaciaSi igi moTxovnas zrdis da iTxovs7000 lars. aqvs Tu ara mosarCeles amis ufleba?azri Sejerda imaze, rom mosarCeles saapelacio sasamarTloSiaseTi saproceso ufleba ar gaaCnia. rodesac mosarCeles SeaqvssarCeli pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi, man swored aq undagansazRvros davis sagnis Rirebuleba da misi gazrda saapelaciosasamarTloSi, Tu mas ar aqvs Setanili saapelacio saCivari,dauSvebelia. saapelacio sasamarTlo amowmebs gadawyvetilebassaapelacio saCivris farglebSi.XIV.sakiTxi Seexo aseve gasuli saukunis 20-30-ian wlebSi CemorTmeuliqonebis dabrunebasTan dakavSirebul davebze sarCelis xandazmulobisproblemis gadawyvetas (e.w. restitucia).aseTi kategoriis ramdenime dava ganixila saqarTvelos uzenaesmasasamarTlom. miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis mixedviT, aseT moTxovnebssasarCelo xandazmulobis vadis amowurvis gamo eTqvaT uari. aseTdavebSi mosarCeleebi apelirebdnen, rom maT Tavis droze ar hqondaTgasaCivrebis SesaZlebloba, aseT wess kanonic ar iTvaliswinebda,amitomac maTi sasarCelo moTxovna ar aris xandazmuli da igisasamarTloSi waradgines mas Semdeg, rac amis SesaZleblobarealurad miecaT. sasamarTloebma miiCnies, rom es pozicia ar iyoswori, sarCelis aRZvris kanonieri safuZveli maT hqondaT sabWoTaperiodSi moqmedi normatiuli aqtebis safuZvelze da 90-ian wlebSic,magram maT sarCeli ar aRuZravT. Sesabamisad, uzenaesi sasamarTlospraqtikiT ganisazRvra, rom aseTi sarCelebi xandazmulia da verdakmayofildeba. Tuki aseTi CamorTmeuli qoneba unda daubrundesyofil mesakuTres, saWiroa saxelmwifoebrivi, politikuri neba, amis22


Taobaze unda iqnes miRebuli specialuri kanoni da swored masSi undaaisaxos aseTi pirebisaTvis kompensaciisa Tu CamorTmeuli qonebis ukandabrunebis sakiTxi, rogorc es sxva qveynebSi ganxorcielda.saqarTveloSi dRes moqmedi kanonmdebloba ar iZleva safuZvels, romsasamarTlom aseTi sarCelebi daakmayofilos.rac Seexeba im mosazrebas, rom sasamarTlom uari unda uTxrassaerTod aseTi sarCelebis miRebaze mosarCeles, uaryofil iqna.uflebis sasamarTlo wesiT dacva mxaris konstituciuri uflebaa.gamomdinare aqedan, sasamarTlom unda miiRos warmoebaSi aseTisarCeli (saproceso kanonmdeblobis normaTa gaTvaliswinebiT), xolodakmayofilebaze, zemoaRniSnuli mizeziT, unda eTqvas uari, anu esunda moxdes saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvis Sedegad. (am sakiTxTandakavSirebiT magaliTisTvis SegiZliaT ix. susg #as-721-973-04).XV.sakiTxi Seexo eqspertizasTan dakavSirebul problemas. kerZod,xSirad eqspertizis Catarebas xeli eSleba imis gamo, rom mxareTa mierar xdeba eqspertizis xarjebis anazRaureba (gadaxda). Sesabamisad,aucielebelia Camoyalibdes iseTi meqanizmi, romelic uzrunvelyofsmxareTa mier xarjebis gadaxdas da eqspertizis droul Catarebas.amitom sasurvelia gadawydes, Tu rogor Camoyalibdeba es meqanizmisaqarTvelos moqmedi kanonmdeblobis farglebSi. xSir SemTxvevaSisasamarTlo agzavnis saqmes eqspertizis biuroSi, xolo eqspertizisbiuro imis gamo, rom eqspertizasTan dakavSirebuli xarji ar arisanazRaurebuli, eqspertizis Catarebaze uars ambobs. saqarTvelosiusticiis saministros eqspertizis biuros mosazrebiT, eqspertizisxarjebi aucileblad unda iqnes gaRebuli saxelwifos mxridan,winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi gamoricxuli iqneba misi Catareba. swored amaSimdgomareobs problema, romelic moqmedi kanonmdeblobis farglebSiaucileblad saWiroebs mogvarebas, anu sakiTxi Semdegnairad ismis:rogor da vis mier unda iqnes gaRebuli amgvari xarjebi da rogormoxdeba winaswar am xarjebis anazRaureba eqspertizis biurosaTvis,Sesabamisad, xelSekrulebis gaformeba eqspertizis biurosaTvis, raTamoxdes saTanado eqspertizis Catareba.eqspertizis Catarebis Sesaxeb sasamarTlos ganCinebaSi iwereba, romeqspertizis xarjebi mxareebs gadaxdeT winaswar. magram praqtikaSimxareebis mier am xarjebis gaReba winaswar ar xdeba, rac zemoTmoyvanil problemas qmnis. samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsSi arsebobsnorma, romlis mixedviTac, es xarjebi winaswar unda iqnes gadaxdili,kerZod, saubaria samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 52-e muxlisdanawesze. aq naTqvamia, rom sasamarTlo xarjebi (eqspertizisCatarebis xarjic, kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, sasamarTlo xarjebSimoiazreba) winaswar Seaqvs mxares, romelmac Sesabamisi saprocesomoqmedebis Sesruleba moiTxova. Tu aseTi moqmedebis SesrulebasasamarTlos iniciativiT xdeba, maSin es Tanxa orive mxares Seaqvs23


Tanabarwilad. uxerxulobas badebs aseve samoqalaqo saprocesokodeqsis 45-e muxlis me-2 nawilis mocemuloba, romlis mixedviTac,`saxelmwifo specialuri saeqsperto dawesebulebisaTvis sasamarTlosaeqspertomomsaxurebis anazRaurebas axorcielebs eqspertizisdamniSvneli organo...~ samoqalaqo kodeqsis zogadi principidan TuamovalT, sasamarTlo xarjebis gadaxda xdeba mxareTa mier. amitomsasamarTlo aseT xarjebs, eqspertizis sakuTari iniciativiT daniSvnisdrosac ki, rasakvirvelia, TviTon ver gaiRebs da es xarji mxareebsekisrebaT.Sexvedraze gamoiTqva aseve Semdegi azri: rodesac eqspertizisCatarebas mxare Suamdgomlobs, Sesabamisad, Teoriulad dapraqtikuladac ivaraudeba, rom eqspertizis xarjebs gaiRebs is mxare,romelmac sasamarlos winaSe daayena Suamdgomloba eqspertizisCatarebasTan dakavSirebiT. Tu eqspertizis daniSvnas orive mxaremoiTxovs, maSin mxareebis mier iqneba gadaxdili Tanxa. umravlesSemTxvevaSi am Tanxas orive mxare winaswar gaiRebs. praqtikaSi arisSemTxvevebi, rodesac eqspertizis daniSvna aucilebeliasasamarTlosTvis, maSinac ki, rodesac amas mxareebi ar moiTxoven.amitom sasamarTlo sakuTari iniciativiT niSnavs mas, xolo xarjebisgaRebas ki mxareebs akisrebs Tanabarwilad. aseT SemTxvevebSi kimxareebi ar ixdian eqspertizis safasurs, rac eqseprtizis biurodanmis Catarebaze uaris Tqmis safuZvelia.sasamarTlos iniciativisa da misi aqtiuri rolis farglebi kanoniTzustad aris gansazRvruli (magaliTad, samoqalaqo saprocesokodeqsis 2-4, 103, 203 da aS. mux.), rac uzrunvelyofs samoqalaqosamarTalwarmoebas sruli SejibrebiTobis principiT. mtkicebis sagnisgamosarkvevad sasamarTlos, kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi,SeuZlia gamoiCinos iniciativa. swored am iniciativis farglebSi, TusaWiroa, daSvebulia eqspertizis daniSvna (samoqalaqo saprocesokodeqsis 162-e muxli). es imgavarad unda ganimartos, rom aseTiiniciativa ar arRvevs SejibrebiTobis princips da igi mimarTulia aramtkicebis sagnis gansazRvrisaken (mxareebi Tavad wyveten ra faqtebzedaafuZnon TavianTi moTxovna), aramed xels uwyobs mxareTa miermiTiTebuli da gadawyvetilebisaTvis mniSvnelovani garemoebebissrulad da zustad gamorkvevas. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos iniciativada aqtiuroba mxareTa interesebidan momdinareobs da, bunebrivia, aminiciativis farglebSi arsebuli sasamarTlos xarjebis gadaxdacmxareebs unda daekisroT. ase rom, samoqalaqo saprocesokanonmdebloba mTlianad aris agebuli dispoziciurobis principze,anu am SemTxvevaSi mxareebi TviTon adastureben an uaryofen faqtebs,samarTlebriv mosazrebebs da a.S. amitom am SemTxvevaSi,mizanSewonilia, sasamarTlo ganCinebaSi (eqspertizis daniSvnisTaobaze) miTiTebuli da ganmartebuli iyos mxareebisaTvis, romeqspertizis Catareba ama Tu im sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mxolodmxareTa interes Seesabameba da amitom eqspertizis xarjebis winaswarigadaxdac mxares (mxareebs) ekisreba.im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac eqspertizis Catarebas mxare (mxareebi)moiTxovs, sasamarTlo gamoitans Sesabamis ganCinebas (eqspertizisdaniSvnis Taobaze), sadac eqspertizis winaSe dasmul kiTxvebTan erTadganisazRvreba, rom eqspertizis CatarebasTan dakavSirebuli yvela24


xarji winaswar iqneba anazRaurebuli mxaris (mxareTa) mier. winaaRmdegSemTxvevaSi eqspertiza ver Catardeba, rac saboloo jamSi TviTgadawyvetilebaze iqoniebs gavlenas. amitom, rasakvirvelia, mxare(mxareebi) yovelmxriv iqneba dainteresebuli, eqspertizis droulCatarebaze da praqtikulad problema gadawydeba. samoqalaqosaproceso kodeqsis 52-e muxlis Tanaxmad, eqspertizasTandakavSirebuli yvela xarji winaswar Seaqvs mxares (mxareebs). rodesaceqspertizis daniSvna TviT sasamarTlos iniciativiT xdeba, amSemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo aseve gamoitans ganCinebas (eqspertizisdaniSvnis Taobaze), sadac miuTiTebs ara mxolod im sakiTxTa wres,romlebzedac eqspertma unda gasces pasuxi, aramed aseve ganumartavsmxareebs eqspertizis Catarebis aucileblobisa da maT miereqspertizasTan dakavSirebuli xarjebis winaswar gadaxdis Taobaze.saqme, romelzedac iniSneba eqspertiza rCeba saqmis ganmxilvelsasamarTloSi. mas Semdeg, rac mxareebi (mxare) waradgenen gadaxdisdamadasturebel sabuTs, sasamarTlo saqmes gadaugzavnis saeqspertodawesebulebas eqspertizis Casatareblad. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSieqspertiza ar Catardeba da, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, sasamarTloganumartavs mxareebs, rom aman SeiZleba garkveuli Sedegi iqoniossaboloo gadawyvetilebaze. SesaZlebelia aseve, rom mxareebsganCinebiT mieTiToT garkveuli (sasamarTlos mier dawesebuli) vada,romlis ganmavlobaSic isini valdebulni iqnebian warmoadginongadaxdis damadasturebeli sabuTi da mxolod misi wardgenis Semdeggadaigzavnos saqme eqspertizis biuroSi. kidev erTxel unda aRiniSnos,rom am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos inkviziciurobapirdapirproporciulia mxareTa interesebTan, anu sasamarTlosmoqmedeba TanxvedraSia mxareTa interesTan, raTa saboloo jamSidamtkicdes sarCelis safuZvlianoba an misi usafuZvloba.daskvnis saxiT Camoyalibda erTiani pozicia: sasamarTlo ganCinebiTgansazRvravs kiTxvebs (eqspertisTvis dasasmel kiTxvebs), gansazRvravsTu vin unda gadaixados Tanxa: mxaris Suamdgomlobis SemTxvevaSi –Suamdgomlobis avtorma, xolo sasamarTlos iniciativis dros –mxareebma Tanabrad da miuTiTos, rom saqme eqspertizis bouroSigadaigzavneba mas Semdeg, rac warmodgenili iqneba saTanadoxelSekruleba da xelSekrulebiT gansazRvruli eqspertizis xarjebisgadaxdis damadasturebeli sabuTi. ganCinebis miRebisas mxareebsganemartebaT, rom Tu romelime mxare (xarjebis mxareebs Sorisganawilebis SemTxvevaSi) ar gadaixdis Tanxas, eqspertiza ar Catardeba.Sesabamisad, mtkicebis tvirTi masze gadadis. analogiuri ganmartebamiecema Suamdgomlobis avtors, rodesac eqspertizis daniSvna erTerTimxaris SuamdgomlobiT xdeba.XVI.movalis gardacvalebis Semdeg xSir SemTxvevaSi misi memkvidreebiganzrax ar iReben samkvidros (ZiriTadad, (Tumca ara yovelTvis) uZravqonebas, romelic datvirTulia ipoTekiT) samkvidro mowmobis miRebisgziT, raTa ar moxdes am qonebaze aRsrulebis miqceva, maSin, rodesac25


memkvidreebs es qoneba faqtiuri flobiT miRebuli aqvT, ris gamockreditors uWirs Tavisi uflebis dacva. II. am sakiTxs gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba eniWeba agreTve `sacxovrebeli sadgomiT sargeblobisaswarmoSobili urTierTobebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis subieqtebsSoris urTierTobisas. xSir SemTxvevaSi mesakuTre gardacvlilia damisi memkvidreebi samkvidros ar iReben, an mesakuTres memkvidre arhyavs da maSin kanoniT mesakuTrisTvis miniWebuli ufleba savaraudodsaxelmwifom unda ganaxorcielos? anu mosargeblis mier aseTSemTxvevaSi sarCeli wardgenil unda iqnes ekonomikuri ganviTarebissaministros mimarT? amdenad, vin unda iyos mopasuxe a) Tu memkvidreebiar iReben samkvidros da b) Tu memkvidre ucnobia an ar arsebobs.aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT mniSvenlovania ori SemTxveva: 1. sanamkreditori sarCels aRZravs movale manamde gardaicvala da 2. movalegardaicvala saqmis ganxilvis periodSi da, Sesabamisad, sakiTxi dgasimis Taobaze, Tu rogor CavrTavT movales am procesSi. pirveliSemTxvevis dros, anu rodesac movale ukve gardacvlilia dakreditori sarCels aRZravs, maSin am ukanasknels SeuZlia, sarCeliaRZras memkvidreebis mimarT. maT SesaZloa memkvidreoba sanotarowesiT miRebuli ar aqvT, magram samkvidros faqtobrivad daeuflnen.aseT SemTxvevaSi saqmeSi mopasuxed mowveuli iqneba yvela memkvidre(visac kreditori CarTavs), xolo Tu mowveulma mopasuxeebmaganacxades, rom isini uars amboben memkvidreobaze, maSin samoqalaqosaproceso kodeqsis 85-e muxlis Sesabamisad, daismeba sakiTxi saTanadomopasuxis CarTvasTan dakavSirebiT da saqmeSi mopasuxed saxelmwifoCaebmeba. realurad, rodesac memkvidreebi aRmoCndebian TavianTiqonebis dakargvis realuri safrTxis winaSe, imTaviTve cxadia, romarc erTi maTgani (Tanamopasuxeebis SemTxvevaSi) ar daeTanxmebamopasuxis Secvlas da procesze cxadi gaxdeba, rom memkvidreebi(mopasuxeebi) dasaxelebuli pirebi arian. xolo Tuki isiniganacxadeben, rom ar arian memkvidreebi, maSin saqmeSi Caebmebasaxelmwifo. Tu uZravi qoneba datvirTulia ipoTekiT, gadawyvetilebissarezolucio nawilSi Caiwereba, rom aRsruleba moxdes ipoTekiTdatvirTuli qonebis realizaciis gziT. rodesac movale gardaicvalasaqmis ganxilvis peridoSi, maSin saqme SeCerdeba uflebamonacvlisdadgenamde, xolo ganaxlebis dros ganCinebiT dadgindeba, rom is piri,romelic daeufla qonebas, aris memkvidre da, Sesabamisad, igi iqnebaCabmuli saqmeSi. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac memkvidre ucnobia, maSinamoqmeddeba saTanado meqanizmi da ukve saqmeSi uflebamonacvledsaxelmwifo Caebmeba.XVII.sakiTxi Seexo Sromis kodeqsis 48-e muxls. kerZod, saqarTvelosSromis kodeqsis 48-e muxliT gansazRvrulia davis mogvarebaSemaTanxmebeli proceduriT, romlis drosac erTi mxare ugzavnismeore mxares Setyobinebas davis warmoSobis safuZvlebisa damoTxovnebis Sesaxeb. meore mxare valdebulia ganixilos werilobiTi26


Setyobineba da Tavisi gadawyvetileba werilobiT acnobos meoremxares Setyobinebis miRebidan 10 dRis vadaSi. Tu mxareTa SorisSeTanxmeba ver iqna miRweuli 14 kalendaruli dRis ganmavlobaSi anTu mxarem Tavi aarida SemaTanxmebel procedurebSi monawileobas, meoemxares ufleba aqvs mimarTos sasamarTlos an arbitraJs. aqwarmoiWreba Semdegi sakiTxebi: a) ar aris gansazRvruli daviswarmoSobidan ra vadaSi unda mimarTos muSakma werilobiTiSetyobinebiT administracias. magaliTad, muSaki daaqveiTes 2006 wlis 1agvistos, man ki SetyobinebiT mimarTa administracias 2006 wlis 1oqtombers; b) araa gansazRvruli savaldebuloa Tu ara aseTiproceduris gavla davis sasamarTloSi warmoarTvisaTvis. zogadad,saqarTvelos konstitucia ganamtkicebs sasamarTlosaTvis mimarTvisuflebas, magram am konkretul SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia Tu araSemaTanxmebeli proceduri amowurva sasamarTlosTvis misamarTad; g)SesaTanxmeblad gansazRvruli 14 kalendaruli dRe unda aiTvalos Tuara werilobiTi pasuxis miRebidan? d) 14 dRis gasvlis Semdeg ravadaSia SesaZlebeli sasamarTlosTvis an arbitraJisaTvis mimarTva?saqarTvelos axali Sromis kodeqsi amoqmedda 2006 wlisagvistodan. am kodeqsis 48-e muxlma daadgina damsaqmebelsa dadasaqmebuls Soris warmoSobili davis ganxilvisa da gadawyvetisaxali wesi, kerZod, am muxlis pirvel nawilSi miTiTebulia, rom davaunda gadawydes mxareTa Soris SemaTanxmebeli procedurebiT. imavemuxlis meore nawiliT ki gansazRvrulia aseTi proceduris dawyebiswesi, kerZod, SemaTanxmebeli procedurebis dawyebis Sesaxeb mxaremeore mxares ugzavnis werilobiT Setyobinebas, romelSic zustadunda iyos gansazRvruli davis warmoSobis safuZveli da moTxovnebi.mesame nawili ki exeba meore mxaris valdebulebas werilobiTiSetyobineba ganixilos da Tavisi gadawyvetileba werilobiT acnobosmxares Setyobinebis miRebidan 10 kalendaruli dRis ganmavlobaSi.Tu SromiTi urTierTobis mxareebi miaRweven SeTanxmebas sadavosakiTxis Taobaze, imave muxlis meoTxe nawilis Tanaxmad,warmomadgenlebi an mxareebi iReben werilobiT gadawyvetilebas,romelic xdeba arsebuli SromiTi xelSekrulebis nawili. magram TuaseTi SemaTanxmebeli proceduriT SeTanxmeba ver iqna miRweuli 14kalendaruli dRis ganmavlobaSi, an Tu mxarem Tavi aaridaSemaTanxmebel procedurebSi monawileobas, meore mxares ufleba aqvsmimarTos sasamarTlos an arbitraJs.azri Sejerda imis Taobaze, rom dasaqmebuls SemaTanxmebeliproceduris gareSec aqvs ufleba mimarTos sasamarTlos. radgansaqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxlis pirveli punqtiT yoveladamians ufleba aqvs Tavis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dasacavadmimarTos sasamarTlos. xolo `saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb~saqarTvelos organuli kanonis me-3 muxlis pirvel nawilSi pirdapiraamiTiTebuli, rom yovel adamians ufleba aqvs Tavis uflebaTa daTavisuflebaTa dasacavad piradad an warmomadgenlis meSveobiTpirdapir mimarTos sasamarTlos. amdenad, dasaqmebuls SemaTanxmebeliproceduris dacvis gareSec SeuZlia SromiTi davis gadasawyvetadmimarTos sasamarTlos, mas es ufleba ar SeiZleba SeezRudos; magramkonkretuli SromiTi davis ganxilvisas sasamarTlos dasaqmebulismoTxovnis safuZvlianobis Semowmebisas SeuZlia gamoarkvios is27


garemoeba, ratom ar gamoiyena dasaqmebulma Sromis kodeqsis 48-emuxliT miniWebuli ufleba; aRniSnuli garemoebis gamorkvevis SedegadgakeTebuli daskvnebi ki sasamarTlos SeuZlia safuZvlad daudosmocemul saqmeze miRebul gadawyvetilebas.azri Sejerda aseve imaze, rom muSakma, SemaTanxmebeliproceduris meSveobiT davis gadawyvetis Taobaze, werilobiTiSetyobinebiT, administracias SeuZlia mimarTos, aseTi daviswarmoSobidan nebismier dros.erTiani pozicia Camoyalibda agreTve imasTan dakavSirebiT, romSesaTanxmeblad gansazRvruli 14 kalendaruli dRe unda aiTvaloswerilobiTi pasuxis miRebidan da SemaTanxmebeli procedurisxangrZlivoba sul ganisazRvreba 24 dRiT.winamdebare sakiTxis d) punqtTan mimarTebiT azri Sejerda imaze,rom sasamarTlosaTvis an arbitraJisaTvis mimarTvis vadis aTvladavis warmoSobis momentidan iwyeba da aq gamoiyeneba saqarTvelossamoqalaqo kodeqsiT gansazRvruli sasarCelo xandazmulobis vada.XVIII.sakiTxi Seexo saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdis problemas. kerZod,`saxelwifo baJis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis me-5 muxlis pirvelipunqtis `a~ qvepunqtis mixedviT saxelmwifo baJisagan Tavisufldebianfizikuri pirebi sarCelebze xelfasis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb da sxvamoTxovnebze Sromis anazRaurebis Taobaze, romlebic gamomdinareobsSromis samarTlebrivi urTierTobidan. aSkaraa, rom baJi argadaixdevineba anazRaurebis ama Tu im formis miRebis moTxovniTwardgenil sarCelebze. aseT SemTxvevaSi, mosarCele, romelic iTxovsmxolod samuSaoze aRdgenas unda gaTavisufldes Tu ara saxelmwifosbaJis gadaxdisagan?aRsaniSnavia, rom Sromis kanonTa kodeqsSi iyo norma, romlissafuZvelzec, SromiTsamarTlebriv davebze mosarCelegaTavisfulebuli iyo saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdisagan. amJamad es normagauqmebulia. amitom rCeba mxolod `saxelmwifo baJis Sesaxeb~ kanonisme-5 muxli. winamdebare muxliT fizikuri piri saxelmwifo baJisgadaxdisagan Tavisufldeba mxolod SromiT samarTlebriv davebSixelfasis anazRaurebis moTxovnis Sesaxeb sarCelis wardgenisas. aserom, mxolod am SemTxvevebSi Tavisufldebian fizikuri pirebi baJisgadaxdisagan. sxva SemTxvevebSi, rodesac mxare iTxovs, magaliTad,samuSaoze aRdgenas da sxv. piri baJis gadaxdisagan ar Tavisufldeba.xolo Tuki ramdenime moTxovnaa dayenebuli (SromiT samarTlebriviurTierTobidan gamomdinare), maSin saxelmwifo baJs fizikur pirssasamarTlo ar gadaaxdevinebs mxolod xelfasis anazRaurebisnawilSi.sabolood azri Sejerda imis Taobaze, rom zemoT moyvanilSemTxvevebSi fizikuri pirebi saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdisagan arTavisufldebian.28


XIX.problema Semdeg sakiTxs Seexo: mosarCelem (dedam) mopasuxes (Svils)aCuqa uZravi qoneba, romelsac amJamad mTeli rigi kreditorebismimarT davalianeba gaaCnia. imisaTvis, rom Tavidan iqnes acilebuliaRsrulebis miqceva Svilis uZrav qonebaze, mosarCelem aRZra sarCeliCuqebis xelSekrulebis baTilad cnobis Taobaze, romelsacsavaraudod mopasuxe cnobs. rodesac cxadia aseTi Sedegis dadgomisalbaToba, rogor SeuZlia sasamarTlos raime formiT Caabaskreditori davaSi, raTa maT SeZlon TavianTi uflebebis dacva, imisgaTvaliswinebiT, rom mesame pirebs sasamarTlos sakuTari iniciativiTsaqmeSi ver Caabams.saqarTvelos konstituciia Tanaxmad, yvela pirs aqvs ufleba TavisidarRveuli an sadavod gamxdari uflebebis dasacavad mimarTossasamarTlos. es piris konstutuciuri uflebaa da misi SezRudva arSeiZleba. rodesac pirs sasamarTloSi Seaqvs garkevuli SinaarsissarCeli, ivaraudeba, rom piris es sarCeli marTlzomieria.rasakvirvelia, meore sakiTxia, ramdenad safuZvliania igi da ramdenadakmayofilebs im moTxovnebs, raTa igi sasamarTlos mier gaziarebulda dakmayofilebul iqnes. samoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdeblobiszogadi principidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlo pirs aseT uflebasveranairad ver SeuzRudavs. marTalia, SeiZleba zemoT dasmulkonkretul SemTxvevaSi, marTlac am sarCelis ukan idges garkveuliarakeTilsindisieri ganzraxva pirebisa, raTa maT daicvan qonebaSesaZlo realizaciisagan. umravles SemTxvevaSi aseTi sarCelebiusafuZvlo iqneba da ar dakmayofildeba. amitom saboloo jamSi aseTiRonisZieba arakeTilsindisieri mxareebis mxridan kreditorebissasargeblod qonebis realizaciis mxolod droebiT bariers Seqmnis.sxvagvarad aris viTareba, rodesac mopasuxe cnobs sarCels, racsamoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis Sesabamisad, sarCelis dakmayofilebissruli safuZvelia. am SemTxvevaSi kreditorebi, SesaZloa marTlacuTanasworo mdgomareobaSi Cavardnen. magram amis Tavidan acileba,aseTi SemTxvevebis dros, arafriT SeiZleba. rodesac esa Tu mxarevaldebulebiTsamarTlebriv urTierTobaSi Sedis meore mxaresTan, manimTaviTve unda gaaTavisos is SesaZlo ekonomikuri riski, racsavaraudod SeiZleba moyves valdebulebis Seusruleblobas. amitomrealur cxovrebaSi am riskis Tavidan acileba faqtiuradSeuZlebelia.sabolood azri Sejerda da dadginda, rom zemoT moyvanilSemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom Cveulebriv unda miiRos warmoebaSi aseTitipis sarCeli da ganixilos igi saerTo wesis mixedviT. sxvaSesaZleblobas saqarTvelos moqmedi kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs.XX.sakiTxi Seexo samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 41-e muxlis mixedviT,davis sagnis fasis gansazRvras. kerZod, samoqalaqo saprocesokodeqsis 41-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `k~ qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, davis29


sagnis fasi ganisazRvreba 4000 lariT, Tu qonebriv-samarTlebrivdavaSi (sakuTrebis xelyofa an sxvagvari xelSeSla, samezoblo davada sxva) SeuZlebelia davis sagnis fasis gansazRvra. am muxlisgamoyeneba xdeba gamosaxlebis Sesaxeb mimdinare davebisas saxelmwifobaJis odenobis gansazRvrisaTvis, vinaidan sakuTrebis xelyofa moicavsgamosaxlebasac. Tumca arsebobs alternatiuli mosazrebac, romlismixedviTac gamosaxlebis SemTxvevaSi davis sagnis fasi ganisazRvrosuZravi qonebis RirebulebiT. amitom aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT erTianipoziciis Camoyalibeba mniSvnelovania.samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 41-e muxli gansazRvravs davissagnis fass garkveuli kriteriumebis mixedviT. amave muxlis pirvelinawilis `k~ qvepunqtis mixedviT, Tuki qonebriv-samarTlebriv davaSi(aseTi SeiZleba iyos sakuTrebis xelyofa an sxvagvari xelSeSla,samezoblo dava da sxv. anu is mocemuloba, rac dasmul problemasexeba) SeuZlebelia davis sagnis fasis gansazRvra, maSin davis sagnisfasi ganisazRvreba 4000 lariT. gamosaxlebac sakuTrebis xelyofissamarTlebrivi Sinaarsis matarebeli movlenaa, amitom gamosaxlebismoTxovnisas mxaris mier gadasaxdeli saxelmwifo baJis odenobacswored 4000 lariT unda ganisazRvros. gamomdinare aqedan, isalternatiuli mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac gamosaxlebisSemTxvevaSi davis sagnis fasi ganisazRvros uZravi qonebisRirebulebiT, arasworia. imisaTvis, rom ufro naTeli gaxdes zemoTSejerebuli pozicia, unda gaanalizdes aseve samoqalaqo saprocesokodeqsis 41-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `b~ qvepunqtic, kerZod, nivTis(qonebis) gadacemis an miwodebis Sesaxeb sarCelis SemTxvevaSi davissagnis fasi ganisazRvreba am nivTis sabazro RirebulebiT. ase rom, aqufro saxelSekrulebo urTierTobebidan gamomdinare moTxovnebiigulisxmeba: magaliTad pirma miawodos es nivTi sxvas, gadasces pirsgarkveuli nivTi da a.S. magram, rodesac ukve nivTze uflebrivimdgomareoba garkveulia, am nivTis mesakuTrec cnobilia da masubralod xeli eSleba Tavisi sakuTrebiT sargeblobasa dagankargvaSi, am SemTxvevaSi ufro marTebuli iqneba, rom davis sagnisfasi swored 4000 lariT ganisazRvros. am mxriv praqtikac ufrogaadvildeba da yovelgvari uxerxuloba moixsneba.XXI.sasamarTlo reformis Sedegad saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeborganul kanonsa da samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsSi ganxoriclebulicvlilebebiTa da damatebebiT Semotanil iqna magistrati mosamarTlisinstituti. magistrati mosamarTlis mier davebis ganxilvis wesebi,rasakvirvelia, mocemulia saproceso kanomdeblobaSi. asevemowesrigebulia maTi gansjadobis sakiTxebi. zogierTi ganmartebiT,imdenad, ramdenadac magistrati mosamarTlis instituti realurad aramoqmedebula (mcxeTa-mTianeTis regionis garda), amitom magistratisgansjad saqmeebs mosamarTle ver ganixilavs daCqarebuli wesiT.amasTan dakavSirebiT unda aRiniSnos Semdegi: samoqalaqo saproceso30


umravlesobasTan erTad) im daskvnamde mivida, rom Tu sarCelSi ar CansaseTi iuridiuli interesi amgvari aRiarebis mimarT, maSin aseTisarCeli warmoebaSi ar miiReba. amasTan dakavSirebiT SesaZloamoyvanil iqnes konkretuli kazusic: magaliTad, mxareebs Sorisarsebobs nasyidobis xelSekruleba da am xelSekrulebis safuZvelzegamyidvelma myidvels ar gadasca nasyidobis sagani. gamomdinare aqedan,m,yidvelma aRZra sarCeli da moiTxova nasyidobis xelSekrulebisdadebulad cnoba. Tumca misi iuriduli interesi gamyidvelisagannasyidobis sagnis miRebas exeba. vTqvaT, sasamarTlom miiRo aseTisarCeli warmoebaSi, ganixila igi, daakmayofila sasarCelo moTxovnada cno nasyidobis xelSekruleba dadebulad. magram, TavisTavadcxadia, aranairi iuridiuli interesi aseTi aRiarebis mimarT arsad arCans, vinaidan mosarCeles aseTi iuriduli interesi aqvs mxolod damxolod nasyidobis sagnis misTvis gadmocemasTan dakavSirebiT. sxvamoTxovna mis mier, faqtiurad, dayenebuli arc aris. swored aseTkonkretul SemTxvevaSi, SesaZlebelia, ssk-is 178, 180-e muxlebissafuZvelze mosarCeles sarCelis miRebaze eTqvas uari.sabolood azri Sejerda imaze, rom sasamarTlo, im SemTxvevaSi,Tuki sarCelSi dafiqsirebuli (Camoyalibebuli) ar iqneba mxaris(mosarCelis) iuridiuli interesi, ssk-is 178-e muxlis safuZvelzemiuTiTebs xarvezze, romlis gamosworebis an gamousworeblobisSemdeg, ganCinebiT ganisazRvreba aseTi sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebis Tumis miRebaze uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb.XXIV.sakiTxi Seexo sasamarTloSi gaweuli xarjebis anazRaurebas.kerZod: mxareTa Soris dasrulda dava, ris Semdegac mopasuxe mxareiTxovs mis mier sasamarTloSi gaweuli xarjebis (advokatisa daauditoris honorari da a.S.), rogorc misTvis miyenebuli zianisanazRaurebis dakisrebas meore mxareze axali calke aRZrulisarCelis meSveobiT. kiTxva SemdegSi mdgomareobs: SesaZlebelia Tuara sarCelis (sasarCelo moTxovnis) safuZveli iyos saprocesosamarTlebrivi norma, an SeiZleba Tu ara aseTi xarjebis moTxovnazianis anazRaurebis materialur samarTlebrivi normebiT?samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis Tanaxmad, saproceso xarjebisasamarTlo da sasamarTlosgareSe xarjebisagan Sedgeba (muxli 37).saqmis dasrulebisa da gadawyvetilebis gamotanis dros mosamarTle(sasamarTlo) valdebulia sasamarTlo xarjebi sakuTari iniciativiTacki Seajamos da gaanawilos mxareTa Soris. xolo, rac SeexebasasamarTlosgareSe xarjebs, Tuki aseTi moTxovna ar arsebobssasamarTlo, TavisTavad cxadia, ver miiRebs aseT gadawyvetilebas.aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac sasamarTlo arc sasamarTlo xarjebze`zrunavs~, gadis damatebiTi gadawyvetilebis gamotanis dro da,Sesabamisad, praqtikaSic yofila SemTxvevebi, rodesac am xarjebs mxarecalke aRZruli sarCeliT iTxovda. amis samarTlebriv safuZvels33


iZleva samoqalaqo kodeqsis 317-e muxli, romlis mixedviTac,valdebuleba SeiZleba warmoiSvas kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuliSemTxvevebis drosac amitom am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gamoviyenoTsamoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdebloba, romlis Tanaxmadac, erTmamxarem meore wagebul mxares SeuZlia mosTxovos xarjebis gadaxda(anazRaureba). swored am saprocesosamarTlebrivi safuZvlisa da, raTqma unda, faqtobrivi garemoebebis dadgena-Sefasebis Semdeg,gadawydeba xarjebis anazRaurebis (rogorc miyenebuli zianis) sakiTxi.aucilebelia, rom am dros sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswinos is realurida gonivruli ziani, rac, Sesabamisad, zianSi unda ivaraudebodes,imdenad, ramdenadac praqtikaSi aseve xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac,magaliTad, advokatisaTvis asanazRaurebel Tanxad (zianad) mxareaSkarad Seusabamo, maRal honorars asaxelebs.Tu ar aris gasuli damatebiTi gadawyvetilebis gamotanis vada,maSin SesaZlebelia mxarem gancxadebiT (da ara sarCeliT) moiTxovosxarjebis anazRaureba (isic mxolod sasamarTlo xarjebis). racSeexeba sasamarTlosgareSe xarjebs, aq aucilebelia, rom mis SesaxebTavad procesze, anu saqmis msvlelobisas warmarTuliyo msjeloba.rac Seexeba moTxovnis xandazmulobis vadas – igi, Cveulebriv,ganisazRvreba samoqlaqo kodeqsiT da zianis miyenebisxandazmulobisaTvis dadgenil vadas, sam wels Seadgens. rodesac mxaremoiTxovs (Tundac SesagebliT) advokatis xarjebis anazRaurebas,bunebrivia, sasamarTlos amis Sesaxeb unda hqondes garkveulimsjelobis safuZveli. amitom sasamarTlo, aseT SemTxvevaSi, verganmartavs, rom aucilebelia am dros calke sarCelis dayeneba (es arcSegebebuli sarCelis miznebSi Sedis). amitom, ssk-is 53-e muxlisSesabamisad, sasamarTlo imsjelebs am xarjebze, rodesac dasruldebaprocesi da amis Taobaze miiRebs Sesabamis gadawyvetilebas. Tumcaaucilebelia, rom sasamarTlos gaaCndes raRac safuZveli. magaliTad,ar aris warmodgenili mtkicebuleba (da aseT mtkicebulebad,ZiriTadad, werilobiTi mtkicebuleba, werilobiTi dokumenti miiCneva),romelic adasturebs advokatisaTvis Tanxis gadaxdas da a.S. amsakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sakmaod saintereso msjeloba warimarTaevrosasamarTlos erT-erT gadawyvetilebaSi (asaniZe saqarTveloswinaaRmdeg), sadac aseve iyo saubari advokatis xarjebis anazRaurebazeda evrosasamarTlom aseT gonivrul Tanxad 5000 evro CaTvala, ra Tqmaunda, im dokumentebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlebic am gonivrulobasadasturebdnen. sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom sasamarTlos xarjebisdakisreba SeiZleba im odenobiT, ra odenobiTac isini realurad dasaWiroebisamebr iqna gaRebuli. amitom Tu ar aris warmodgeniligadaxdis damadasturebeli dokumenti (dokumentebi) sasamarTlos amazever imsjelebs da, Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos ver movTxovT miiRos amisSesaxeb gadawyvetileba.saintereso iyo kiTxva, Tu rogorc unda anazRaurebuliyo mopasuxis(warmomadgenlis) xarjebi SesagebliT. amasTan dakavSirebiT saboloodSejerda azri Semdegze: rogorc iTqva, ssk-is 53-e muxli anawilebssasamarTlo xarjebs, Tumca winamdebare muxlSi aris gamonaklisi,romelic warmomadgenels exeba, anu nawildeba aseve mxaris (mopasuxis)warmomadgenlisaTvis gaweuli xarjebi. ase rom, amis Taobaze(anazRaurebis Taobaze) SesaZlebelia miTiTebuli (moTxovnili) iqnes34


aseve SesagebelSi. am SemTxvevaSi mxares sarCelis wardgenas vermovTxovT.Semajamebeli daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aseT SemTxvevebSisarCeli SeiZleba miRebul iqnes warmoebaSi, rogorcsaprocesosamarTlebrivi normebis, ise materialursamarTlebrivinormebis safuZvelze.XXV.sakiTxi Seexo arasaTando mopasuxis instituts. kerZod: saqmeSimopasuxed monawileobs ramdenime piri. erT-erTi maTgani aSkaradarasaTanado mopasuxea, radgan saqmis Sedegi mis uflebebze verimoqmedebs. sxvebi ki saTanado mopasuxeebi arian (magaliTad, sesxisxelSekrulebis baTilobis davebSi mopasuxed garigebis mxaresTanerTad notariusis aRniSvna), aseT SemTxvevaSi praqtikaSi damkvidrdaaseTi mopasuxis `amoricxvis~ precedenti. ramdenad marTebuliprocesualuri formaa aseTi (mopasuxis `amoricxvis~) ganCinebisgamotana, rac, ZiriTadad, adgilze TaTbiriT xorcieldeba? praqtikaSigamoyenebadi meore varianti aris aseTi piris mimarT sarCelisdakmayofilebaze uaris Tqma. romeli ufro swori forma iqneboda aseTSemTxvevaSi?aseT SemTxvevaSi sworia, rom arasaTanado mopasuxes eTqvas uarisarCelis dakmayofilebaze usafuZvlobis gamo imdenad, ramdenadacaseTi mopasuxis amoricxvis instituts, anu `amoricxvis~ normassaerTod ar icnobs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdebloba.rodesac saubaria ssk-is 85-e muxlis Sesabamisad arasaTandomopasuxeze, sasamarTlom, am normis safuZvelze ukve icis, rom saqmeSierT-erTi mopasuxe miekuTvneba arasaTanado mopasuxes da, aqedangamomdinare, ismis sakiTxi arasaTando mopasuxis saTanado mopasuxiTCanacvlebis Taobaze. ZiriTadad, es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac cnobilia,rom piri arasaTando mopasuxea da garkveulia, Tu vin aris saTanadomopasuxe. amitom piris (mosarCelis) im uflebis swrafad da efeqturadrealizaciisaTvis, romelsac, principSi, icavs sarCelis wardgenisassaproceso kanonmdebloba, moqmedebs arasaTanado mopasuxissaTanadoTi Canacvlebis instituti (muxli 85). magram xSiradpraqtikaSi Tavs iCens iseTi SemTxveva, rodesac piri CarTuliamopasuxed saqmeSi, igi, eWvgareSe, arasaTanado mopasuxea, Tumcacnobili ar aris (da arc kanoniT da arc saqmis garemoebebisgaTvaliswinebiT ar SeiZleba dadgindes), Tu vin unda iyos saTanadomopasuxe. amitom Tu sasamarTlo miva im daskvnamde, rom saqmeSimonawileobs arasaTando mopasuxe, magram ver dadgindeba Tu vin undaiyos saTanado mopasuxe, xolo mxare (mosarCele) ar SuamdgomlobssarCelSi miTiTebuli mopasuxis mimarT moTxovnaze uaris Tqmas, maSinsasamarTlom unda ganixilos mis mimarT sasarCelo moTxovna da undauTxras uari mis dakmayofilebaze (rasakvirvelia, arasaTandomopasuxis nawilSi). ase rom, amoricxva, saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT,arc arsebobs da arc aris gaTvaliswinebuli. amitom yvela SemTxvevaSi35


aseT arasaTanado mopasuxes sasamarTlo sakuTari iniciativiT saqmidanver `amoricxavs~.XXVI.sakiTxi Seexo mxareTa morigebis SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo baJisodenobis gansazRvras. kerZod: ssk-is 49-e muxlis pirvel nawilSimiTiTebulia, Tu sasamarTlos mTavar sxdomaze mxareebi morigdebian,saxelmwifo baJis odenoba naxevrdeba. amasTan, ssk-is 54-e muxlis me-2nawiliT, Tu mxareebma morigebis dros Tavad gaiTvaliswinessasamarTlo xarjebisa da advokatis daxmarebis gamo gaweuli xarjebisganawilebis wesi, sasamarTlo am sakiTxs wyvets maTi SeTanxmebisSesabamisad. xSirad mTavar (an mosamzadebel) sxdomaze warmodgenilimorigebis ati ar Seicavs baJis Taobaze mxareTa raime SeTanxmebas.mxolod amis gamo morigebis damtkicebaze uaris Tqma dauSvebelia.aseT SemTxvevaSi gadasawyvetia baJis (ganaxevrebulis mTavari sxdomisdros da sruli odenobis ki – mosamzadebeli sxdomis dros)dakisrebis sakiTxi. logikuri iqneboda, mosarCelis mier gadaxdilbaJs Tu gadaixdida mopasuxe, magram gansxvavebiT ssk-is 53-e muxlisdanawesisagan, mas procesi ar waugia – igi mxolod morigda.sainteresoa saxelmwifo baJis sakiTxi maSinac, rodesac mosarCelegaTavisuflebuli iyo baJis gadaxdisagan da mxareebi morigdnen(magaliTad, SromiTi an inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis TaobazewarmoSobili davisas). aqedan gamomdinare ismis kiTxva: morigebisSemTxvevebSi, roca mxareebs Tavad ar gadauwyvetiaT saxelmwifo baJissakiTxi, rogor unda gadawydes baJis dakisrebis problema?winamdebare sakiTxs awesrigebs ssk-is 49-e muxlis pirveli da me-2nawili, aseve 54-e muxli, magram, rogorc wesi, rodesac mxareebisasamarTlos warudgenen morigebis SeTanxmebas, am SeTanxmebaSi baJissakiTxis Sesaxeb miTiTebuli saerTod ar aris xolme. am safuZvliTsasamarTlo morigebaze, ra Tqma unda, uars ver ganucxadebs mxareebs,magram sanam sasamarTlo saTaTbiroSi gava da ganumartavs mxareebsmorigebis pirobebisa da mosalodneli Sedegebis Sesaxeb,mizanSewonilia iqve yuradReba gamaxvildes saxelmwifo baJis da misimxareebze ganawilebis sakiTxze. Tu mxareebi, baJis gansazRvris raimegansxvavebul wesze ar SeTanxmebulan da Tu mosarCele baJisgadaxdisagan ganTavisuflebulia, maSin sasamarTlos mxareTa mTavarsxdomaze morigebisas SeuZlia gadawyvitos mopasuxisaTvis baJisdakisrebis sakiTxi da mas daakisros Sesabamisi instanciisaTvisgankuTvnili Tanxis 1/4.ssk-is 49-e muxliT gansazRvrulia, rom Tu sasamarTlos mTavarsxdomaze mxareebi morigdebian, saxelmwifo baJis odenoba naxevrdeba,e.i. Tu sasamarTlo xarjebTan dakavSirebiT mxareebs morigeba argauformebiaT (anu morigebis SeTanxmebaSi es sakiTxi argauTvaliswinebiaT), maSin sakiTxi gadawydeba kanonis Sesabamisad:saxelmwifo baJi ganaxevrdeba da gadanawildeba mxareebs Soris. Tuarsebobs raime SeTanxmeba mxareebs Soris – sakiTxi, bunebrivia,gadawydeba SeTanxmebis mixedviT.36


saboloo azris SejerebisaTvis SesaZlebelia moyvanil iqneskonkretuli kazusi: magaliTad, gadasaxdelia 1000 lari (sax. baJisodenoba) da, morigebis SemTxvevaSi, es Tanxa unda ganawildes Tanabrad– 500 lari mosarCeleze, xolo darCenili 500 ki mopasuxeze. magramerTi mxare ganTavisuflebulia saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdisagan. amitomTu igi ganTavisuflebulia aseTi baJis gadaxdisagan, maSin, bunebrivia,mas aRar daekisreba misi gadaxda. xolo rodesac baJis odenoba(morigebis dros) naxevrdeba, maSin 500 laridan mxaris mier gadaixdebamxolod naxevari – 250 lari. Tuki mosarCelis mier Tavidanve iqnagadaxdili saxelmwifo baJi srulad, xolo mxareebi morigdnen, maSindarCenili naxevris gadaxda daekisreba mopasuxes mosarCelissasargeblod.XXVII.sakiTxi Seexo Sesabamisi mowmobebis ganaxlebamde pensiis gacemas.kerZod: 2006 w. 18 maiss cvlileba Sevida saqarTvelos prezidentis 2005w. 17 dekembris brZanebulebaSi (#1058 - `saqa. omisa da samxedroZalebis Sesaxeb~), romlis me-2 muxliT omisa da samxedro Zalebisveteranebs 2006 w. 1 agvistodan SeuwydaT Sesabamisi pensiis gacemamowmobebis ganaxlebamde. pensia SeuwydaT aseve maTTan gaTanabrebulpirebs: omSi daRupuli meomrebis qvrivebs, romelTac wlebis win pensiadaeniSnaT sakrebulos cnobebis safuZvelze. amJamad veteranTadepartamenti maTTvis axali mowmobebis gacemisTvis iTxovs faqtobriviqorwinebis damadasturebeli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis wardgenas.niSandoblivia, rom am kategoriis veteranebi faqtobriv saqorwinourTierTobaSi Sevidnen 1944 w. 8 ivlisamde, e.i. sanam samarTlebrivadmowesrigdeboda saojaxo da saqorwino urTierTobebi. am qorwinebasaRiarebda 1997 w. ivnisamde moqmedi saq. ssr saqorwino da saojaxokodeqsic. amitom sasamarTlo dainteresebuli piris gancxadebissafuZvelze gancxadebas ixilavda mas ssk-is 312-e muxlis me-2 nawilis`i~ qvepunqtiT. xolo bolodroindeli cvlilebiT (13 ivlisis) amsakiTxis ganxilva udavo warmoebis wesiT aRar SeiZleba. rogor undamoiqces am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo?ZiriTadad, gansaxilveli problemis qvakuTxedia im sakiTxisgarkveva, Tu rogori wesiT unda iqnes ganxiluli aseTi tipisgancxadebebi: udavo wesiT Tu sasarCelo warmoebis gziT.ganmcxadeblis mizani aris pensiis miReba, Tumca mas problema eqmnebaiqidan gamomdinare, rom veteranTa departamenti ar gascems veteranismowmobas, rac Sesabamisad gamoricxavs aseTi pirisaTvis (an masTangaTanabrebuli pirisaTvis) pensiis miRebas.gamomdinare iqidan, rom ssk-is 312-e muxlis me-2 nawilis `i~qvepunqti Zaladakargulia, sasamarTlo udavo warmoebis gziT amsakiTxs ver ganixilavs. samoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdeblobidangamomdinare, nebismier pirs aqvs ufleba idavos misi darRveuli ansadavod gamxdari uflebis dacvisaTvis sasamarTloSi. Cvens37


konkretul SemTxvevaSi, zemoT aRniSnuli piris iuridiuli interesida, Sesabamisad, misi mizani aris pensiis miReba, rac ver xerxdeba imisgamo, rom veteranTa departamenti uars acxadebs mis gacemaze immotiviT, rom warmodgenili unda iyos qorwinebis damadasturebelimowmeba (an rom isini faqtobriv qorwinebaSi imyofebodnen). amitomaseT dros samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT, rCeba mxoloderTi gza: pirma sarCeli Seitanos sasamarTloSi da idavos sworedsasarCelo warmoebis gziT. mopasuxed ki miTiTebuli iqneba is organo,romelic uars ambobs mowmobis gacemaze (mowmobis gacema xom ZiriTadisafuZveli pensiis miRebisa), anu veteranTa departamenti. mokled romiTqvas, pirma unda mimarTos sasamarTlos misi uflebis aRiarebisaSesabamisi moqmedebis ganxorcielebis moTxovniT. amitom, amSemTxvevaSi moTxovnis safuZveli iqneba is, rom es piri imyofebodafaqtobriv qorwinebaSi da, moTxovna - departamentma gasces saTanadomowmoba, romelic, Tavis mxriv, gaxdeba pensiis daniSvnis (ganaxlebis)safuZveli.XXVIII.morigeba1.1. morigebis damtkiceba saCivrisa da kerZo saCivrisganxilvis etapze;1.2. morigebis damtkiceba axlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTa gamosaqmis warmoebis etapze;1.3. morigebis damtkiceba saaRsrulebo warmoebis dawyebisSemdeg;1.4. morigebis damtkicebis Sedegebi;1.5. morigebis damtkicebis gansjadobis sakiTxi;1.6. morigebis damtkiceba saarbitraJo sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebis kanonierebis sakiTxis sasamarTlo wesiT ganxilvisetapze;1.7. morigebis damtkiceba sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebisganxilvis etapze;1.8. daskvna.1.1. pirveli sakiTxi, romelic mosamarTleebma Sexvedraze ganixiles,ukavSirdeba samoqalaqo davebze mxareTa morigebas. samoqalaqosaproceso samarTalwarmoebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi principidan,kerZod, dispoziciurobidan gamomdinare, mosamarTleebma calsaxadmiiCnies, rom morigebis damtkiceba SesaZlebeli unda iyossamarTalwarmoebis nebismier etapze, vinaidan samoqalaqo saprocesosamarTalwarmoebaSi mxareTa nebas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba.mxareTa morigebis SemTxvevaSi wydeba sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoeba,uqmdeba saqmeze miRebuli yvela gadawyvetileba da mtkicdeba morigeba.aRniSnuli morigeba ukve mxareTa mier gamoxatuli axali nebaa, racaxali garigebis dadebas gulisxmobs. Tumca, aRniSnuli sakiTxi38


garkveul problemebTanac aris dakavSirebuli, kerZod, Tu mxareebimorigdnen dauswrebel gadawyvetilebaze Setanili saCivris ganxilvisetapze, SesaZlebelia Tu ara saCivris ganxilvis gareSe aseTimorigebis damtkiceba, amis gamo dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebada saqmis warmoebis Sewyveta an, Tu mxareebi morigdnen kerZo saCivrisSetanis etapze, SesaZlebelia Tu ara saCivris ganxilvis gareSemorigebis damtkiceba. aRniSnuli kiTxvebis arsi mdgomareobs imaSi,rom morigebis damtkicebis dros mosamarTle ar ecnoba saqmis arsebiTmxares da Semofarglulia mxolod konkretuli procesualurimoqmedebis ganxorcielebiT, rac ukanono morigebis damtkicebisSesaZleblobas warmoSobs. amdenad, mosamarTleebs miaCniaT, rommxareTa interesebisa da dispoziciurobis principis dacvis, aseveswrafi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis mizniT, morigebisdamtkiceba SesaZlebeli unda iyos samarTalwarmoebis nebismieretapze, maT Soris saCivrebisa da kerZo saCivrebis ganxilvis drosac.Tumca, am ukanasknel SemTxvevebSi miRebul unda iqnas yvela zoma,raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli ukanono morigebis damtkiceba. racSeexeba ukanono morigebis damtkicebis Tavidan asacilebladgansaxorcielebel RonisZiebebs, sasamarTlo saCivrisa da kerZosaCivris ganxilvis dros morigebis damtkicebis SemTxvevaSi ar undaSemoifarglos mxolod konkretuli procesualuri moqmedebiT, undagascdes saCivrisa da kerZo saCivris moTxovnis farglebs, undaSeiswavlos saqme da mxolod amis Semdeg unda daamtkicos morigeba.1.2. morigebasTan dakavSirebiT mniSvnelovania im sakiTxis garkveva,igive wesiT mtkicdeba Tu ara morigeba axlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTagamo saqmis warmoebis dawyebis SemTxvevaSi. axlad aRmoCenilgaremoebaTa gamo saqmis warmoebis drosac, rogorc samarTalwarmoebisnebismier etapze, dispoziciurobis principi moqmedebs, anu mxareebssamarTalwarmoebis mocemul etapzec aqvT ufleba, gankargon TavianTimaterialursamarTlebrivi uflebebi, rasac TavisiprocesualursamarTlebrivi Sedegi mohyveba.1.3. axlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTa gamo saqmis warmoebis dawyebisasmxareTa morigebis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba wamoiWras erTi problema,kerZod, samarTalwarmoebis mocemul etapze saaRsrulebo furceliSeiZleba ukve amowerili iyos da, Sesabamisad, aRsrulebac dawyebuli.Sexvedraze ganimarta, rom mocemul SemTxvevaSi morigebis damtkicebisgansxvavebuli procedura arsebobs, rac `saaRsrulebo warmoebaTaSesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis me-18 muxliT aris gawerili, kerZod,kreditori da movale aRsrulebis procesSi morigebisas sasamarTloaRmasrulebels gadascemen morigebis Sesaxeb werilobiT SeTanxmebas,romelsac igi sami dRis vadaSi gadaugzavnis sasamarTlos mxareTamorigebis damtkicebis sakiTxis gadasawyvetad. Tu axlad aRmoCenilgaremoebaTa gamo saqmis warmoebis ganaxlebis SemTxvevaSi mxareebimorigdnen da saaRsrulebo warmoeba dawyebuli ar aris, maSinmorigeba Cveulebrivi wesis Sesabamisad damtkicdeba, kerZod, Sewydebaaxlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTa gamo saqmis warmoeba, gauqmdeba saqmezemiRebuli yvela sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba da damtkicdeba morigeba.aqve aRsaniSnavia kidev erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi, kerZod, axlad39


gadawyvetileba da saapelacio da sakasacio instanciis sasamarTloebmaaRniSnuli gadawyvetileba datoves ucvlelad, gansjadobiszemoaRniSnuli wesebis Sesabamisad, morigebis damtkicebis sakiTxsixilavs pirveli instanciis sasamarTlo, magram igi ar auqmebssaapelacio da sakasacio instanciis sasamarTloebis ganCinebebs,vinaidan morigebis damtkicebis dros gauqmebas eqvemdebareba mxolodis gadawyvetileba, romelic garkveuli samarTlebrivi Sedegisdadgomas iwvevs, anu romelic aRsrulebas eqvemdebareba.1.6. rac Seexeba morigebis damtkicebas saarbitraJo sasamarTloTagadawyvetilebebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiTmoqmedebs igive wesebi, kerZod, Tu sasarCelo wesiT ixilebasaarbitraJo sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis kanonierebis sakiTxi,mxareTa morigebis SemTxvevaSi, mtkicdeba morigeba da uqmdebasaarbitraJo sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba.1.7. Sexvedraze ganxilul iqna morigebasTan dakavSirebuli kidev erTisakiTxi, kerZod, SesaZlebelia Tu ara morigebis damtkicebauzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis ganxilvis etapze, maSin, rodesac sarCelijer kidev ar aris aRZruli. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiTCamoyalibda erTiani pozicia, kerZod, gamomdinare iqidan, romsasamarTlosTvis samarTalwarmoebis aRniSnul etapze cnobili araris sarCelis sagani da safuZveli, amitom morigebis damtkicebacmocemul etapze dauSvebelia mxareebisa da davis sagnis ararsebobisgamo.1.8. yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, Sejerda erTiani poziciaimasTan dakavSirebiT, rom morigebis damtkiceba SesaZlebeliasasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebis nebismier etapze. morigebisdamtkicebis dros mosamarTle unda icnobdes saqmis arsebiT mxares,raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli ukanono morigebis damtkiceba.morigebis damtkicebis Sedegad wydeba saqmis warmoeba da uqmdebasaqmeze miRebuli gadawyvetileba (gamonakliss warmoadgens kanonierZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebis dawyebis Semdeg morigebisdamtkiceba, mocemul SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo aRmasruleblisSuamdgomlobis safuZvelze wyvets morigebis damtkicebis sakiTxs,Tumca ar auqmebs kanonier ZalaSi Sesul gadawyvetilebas),aRsasrulebeli rCeba mxolod erTi ganCineba, romliTac morigebadamtkicda. morigebis damtkicebis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlosaTvisxelmeored mimarTva imave mxareebs Soris, imave saganze da imavesafuZvliT dauSvebelia. igive wesi moqmedebs saarbitraJo sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebis kanonierebis sakiTxis ganxilvis dros mxareTamorigebis damtkicebis SemTxvevaSic, mtkicdeba morigeba da uqmdebasaarbitraJo sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. sarCelis uzrunvelyofisetapze ki morigebis damtkiceba dauSvebelia mxareebisa da davis sagnisararsebobis gamo.41


sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZieba uSualodmaterialursamarTlebrivi uflebis dacvisaken aris mimarTuli, amitomsasamarTlo pirvel rigSi materialursamarTlebriv sivrceSi amowmebsuflebis uzrunvelyofis sakiTxs. sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebamaterialursamarTlebrivi uflebis maqsimalurad swrafad daefeqturad dacvis uzrunvelyofas emsaxureba. sarCelisuzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis gamoyenebis safuZvels marTlmsajulebisefeqturobis uzrunvelyofa warmoadgens, kerZod ki, Tu arsebobsdasabuTebuli varaudi, rom uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebaTa miuReblobagaaZnelebs an SeuZlebels gaxdis gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebas,sasamarTlos sarCelis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb ganCineba gamoaqvs,amitom, Tu sasamarTlo praqtika uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebisaRsrulebis droebiTi SeCerebis gasaCivrebas dauSvebs, amiTugulvebelyofs sarCelis uzrunvelyofis umTavres princips, kerZod,swrafi da efeqturi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis uzrunvelyofisprincips.1.3. uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis aRsrulebis droebiT SeCerebisTaobaze miRebul ganCinebaze dauyovnebliv unda gaices saaRsrulebofurceli, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi aRniSnuli SeCereba azrs dakargavs.1.4. Sexvedraze sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebasTan dakavSirebiTkidev erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi ganixiles, kerZod, SesaZlebelia Tuara, rom sarCelis sagani da sarCelis uzrunvelyofis saganierTmaneTs emTxveodes da SesaZlebelia Tu ara aseTi uzrunvelyofisRonisZiebis dakmayofileba, magaliTad: a) piri sarCeliT iTxovsaekrZalos meore pirs kontrafaqciuli produqciis gamoSveba, xolosarCelis uzrunvelyofiT ki iTxovs imaves, oRond sarCelis ganxilvisdasrulebamde an b) piri sarCeliT iTxovs aucilebeli gziTsargeblobis xelSeSlis akrZalvas, uzrunvelyofiT ki iTxovs imavessarCelis ganxilvis dasrulebamde. aseTi uzrunvelyofisdakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi faqtobrivad viRebT Sedegs, roca sarCelidroebiT, magram kmayofildeba, uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebisgamoyenebiT. sarCelis uzrunvelyofis sagani da sarCelis saganisavsebiT SesaZlebelia emTxveodes erTmaneTs, magram ar SeiZleba iyoserTi da igive, vinaidan maT absoluturad sxvadasxva samarTlebriviwinapirobebi gaaCniaT, rasac mxare sarCelis uzrunvelyofiT iTxovs,imas ver moiTxovs sarCeliT, vinaidan erTi emsaxureba meorisganxorcielebas. Tumca, aRniSnuli moTxovnebis TanxvedraSesaZlebelia. sarCelis uzrunvelyofa droebiTi xasiaTis RonisZiebaa,romelic sasamarTlos mier sasarCelo samarTalwarmoebis wesiTdadgenili uflebis realizebas uwyobs xels, igi sasarCelomoTxovnis dacvasa da efeqturad ganxorcielebas isaxavs miznad. Tuarsebobs dasabuTebuli varaudi, rom uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebaTamiuRebloba gaaZnelebs an SeuZlebels gaxdis gadawyvetilebisaRsrulebas, sasamarTlo iyenebs uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebas, imSemTxvevaSic ki Tu uzrunvelyofis sagani da sarCelis sagani emTxvevaerTmaneTs da es aramc da aramc ar gulisxmobs winaswarigadawyvetilebis gamotanas. aRniSnuli msjelobis naTeli magaliTiamSeneblobis akrZalva, rodesac mSeneblobis akrZalva warmoadgens43


mxaris rogorc uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis gamoyenebis, ise sasarCelomoTxovnis sagans. Tu ar dakmayofildeba mxaris moTxovnauzrunvelyofis RonisZiebad mSeneblobis akrZalvis gamoyenebasTandakavSirebiT, maSin sarCelis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlogadawyvetilebis aRsruleba gaZneldeba, vinaidan aRniSnuli SenobisdemontaJi seriozul xarjebTan iqneba dakavSirebuli.1.5. sarCelis uzrunvelyofis gamoyenebis Taobaze moTxovnebisdakmayofileba unda gadawydes individualurad, saqmis garemoebebidangamomdinare. sarCelis uzrunvelyofis instituti koncentrirebuliasaqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 191-e muxlSi da kerZodki im winadadebaSi, sadac weria, rom, `Tu arsebobs dasabuTebulivaraudi, rom uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebaTa miuRebloba gaaZnelebs anSeuZlebels gaxdis gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebas, sasamarTlossarCelis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb ganCineba gamoaqvs~. yvela saqmezeuzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis gamoyenebaze msjelobisas sasamarTlompirvel rigSi yuradReba unda gaamaxvilos sarCelis uzrunvelyofissafuZvelze, kerZod, samomavlod saqmeze miRebuli gadawyvetilebisaRsrulebis gaZnelebis an aRusruleblobis SeuZleblobissaSiSroebaze, da aseve imazec, Tu iuridiulad ramdenadgamarTlebulia sasarCelo moTxovna, rac imas niSnavs, romgamokveTili unda iyos sasarCelo moTxovnis iuridiuli dasabuTeba.sasarCelo moTxovnis iuridiuli marTebuloba aris sarCelisdakmayofilebis erT-erTi uacilebeli safuZveli, romelsacmniSvneloba aqvs sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis misaRebad. araris gamarTlebuli im uflebis uzrunvelyofa, romelic ar arsebobsda es imTaviTve naTelia sasamarTlosaTvis. Tu ar arsebobs ufleba,arc imis saSiSroebaa, rom igi dairRveva sarCelis uzrunvelyofismiuReblobiT, amdenad, sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebisadmi,rogorc saproceso- samarTlebrivi institutisadmi, formalurimidgoma dauSvebelia da igi umeteswilad sasarCelo moTxovnisdakmayofilebis mizanSewonilobazea damokidebuli.1.6. rac Seexeba uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis gamoyenebas aRiarebiTisarCelis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, unda aRiniSnos, rom sarCelisuzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis gamoyeneba aRiarebiTi sarCelisgamoyenebis dros iseve SesaZlebelia, rogorc mikuTvnebiTi sarCelisarsebobis SemTxvevaSi. aRiarebiTi sarCelis drossamarTalurTierTobis aqtiuri centri gadatanilia uflebaze, mxareiTxovs Tavisi uflebis dacvas, raTa momavalSi ar dairRves is. imaRiarebiTi gadawyvetilebiT, romliTac mxare iZens garkveulimoqmedebebis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobas, amdenad, mas aqvspativsadebi mizezi, rom sasamarTlos Tavisi samomavlo moqmedebebisganxorcielebis SesaZleblobis uzrunvelyofa mosTxovos.1.7. rac Seexeba eleqtroenergiaze daricxuli Tanxis Camowerasa da,sarCelis uzrunvelyofis saxiT, eleqtroenergiis miwodebis aRdgenas,am SemTxvevaSic sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebasTan dakavSirebiTar arsebobs winaswari calsaxa midgoma misi gamoyenebis anargamoyenebis Taobaze. sakiTxis amgvari formaluri gadawyveta srul44


winaaRmdegobaSi movidoda sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebisgamoyenebis arsTan, amitom, mocemul SemTxvevaSic, uzrunvelyofisRonisZiebis gamoyeneba damokidebuli unda iyos imaze, Tu ramdenadsarwmunod daadasturebs mxare drois gansazRvrul monakveTSieleqtroenergiis aRdgenis iuridiul interess. aseve, aRniSnuliRonisZiebis gamouyeneblobiT misTvis gamousworebeli zianis miyenebisfaqts da SedgomSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebis gaZnelebisan saerTod aRsrulebis SeuZleblobis saSiSroebas. amasTan,aRniSnuli sakiTxisadmi formaluri midgomis gamosaricxad, yovelkonkretul SemTxvevaSi gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos aseve TviTsasarCelo moTxovnis iuridiuli marTebuloba.1.8. yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, mosamarTleTa mosazrebaSejerda imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom sarCelis uzrunvelyofisaRsrulebis Sesaxeb ganCinebis droebiT SeCerebis Taobaze gamotaniliganCinebis saCivriT gasaCivreba dauSvebelia. uzrunvelyofisRonisZiebis aRsrulebis droebiT SeCerebis Taobaze miRebulganCinebaze dauyovnebliv unda gaices saaRsrulebo furceli.sasarCelo moTxovnisa da sarCelis uzrunvelyofis sagani SeiZlebaemTxveodes erTmaneTs. Tu arsebobs dasabuTebuli varaudi, romuzrunvelyofis RonisZiebaTa miuRebloba gaaZnelebs an SeuZlebelsgaxdis gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebas, sasamarTlo iyenebsuzrunvelyofis RonisZiebas, im SemTxvevaSic ki Tu uzrunvelyofissagani da sarCelis sagani emTxveva erTmaneTs. yvela saqmezeuzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis gamoyenebaze msjelobisas sasamarTlompirvel rigSi yuradReba unda gaamaxvilos sarCelis uzrunvelyofissafuZvelze, kerZod, samomavlod saqmeze miRebuli gadawyvetilebisaRsrulebis gaZnelebis an aRusruleblobis SeuZleblobissaSiSroebaze, da aseve imazec, Tu iuridiulad ramdenadgamarTlebulia sasarCelo moTxovna, rac imas niSnavs, romgamokveTili unda iyos sasarCelo moTxovnis iuridiuli dasabuTeba.sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebis gamoyenebisadmi formalurimidgoma dauSvebelia. mikuTvnebiTi sarCelis msgavsad SesaZlebeliaaseve aRiarebiTi sarCelis uzrunvelyofa. rac Seexebaeleqtroenergiaze daricxuli Tanxis Camowerasa da, sarCelisuzrunvelyofis saxiT, eleqtroenergiis miwodebis aRdgenas, amSemTxvevaSic sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebasTan dakavSirebiT ararsebobs winaswari calsaxa midgoma da misi gamoyenebis anargamoyeneba damokidebulia imaze, Tu ramdenad sarwmunoddaadasturebs mxare drois gansazRvrul monakveTSi eleqtroenergiisaRdgenis iuridiul interess da aRniSnuli RonisZiebisgamouyeneblobiT misTvis gamousworebeli zianis miyenebis saSiSroebas.45


XXX.qonebis yadaRisagan ganTavisufleba1.1. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis me-200 muxlis me-2nawiliT dadgenili uflebis dacvis gansjadoba;1.2. cvlileba sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi;1.1. Sexvedraze ganxilul iqna kidev erTi sakiTxi, romelic sisxlissamarTlis saproceso kodeqsis me-200 muxlis me-2 nawiliT dadgeniliuflebis dacvis gansjadobas exeba. SekiTxva Sexvdraze Semdegnairaddaisva: prokuraturis mier sisxlis samarTlis saqmis warmoebis drosdayadaRebuli qonebis yadaRisagan ganTavisuflebis Taobaze aRZruligancxadeba (sarCeli) ganxilul unda iqnes sisxlis, samoqalaqo Tuadministraciuli wesiT. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT^ azriSejerda imaze, rom prokuraturis mier sisxlis samarTlis saqmiswarmoebis dros dayadaRebuli qonebis yadaRisagan ganTavisuflebasisxlis samarTlis wesiT unda ganxorcieldes Semdeg garemoebaTagamo: 1) sisxlis samarTlis wesiT dayadaRebuli qoneba gansjadobisimave wesiT unda iqnes ganTavisuflebuli yadaRisagan; 2) dauSvebeliasamoqalaqo saproceso samarTalwarmoebis dros sisxlis samarTlissaproceso kodeqsiT xelmZRvaneloba, Tu amis Sesaxeb TviT samoqalaqosaproceso kanonmdeblobaSi araferia naTqvami; 3) is garemoeba, romprokuraturis mier sisxlis samarTlis saqmis warmoebis drosdayadaRebuli qonebis yadaRisagan ganTavisuflebis wess sisxlissamarTlis saproceso kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs da ara samoqalaqosaproceso kodeqsi, TavisTavad metyvelebs aRniSnuli saprocesosamarTalwarmoebis gansjadobaze. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiTwamoiWra erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi, kerZod, Tu ra saprocesoRonisZieba unda ganaxorcielos moqalaqem, romelic sisxlissamarTlis saqmesTan aranairi formiT ar iyo dakavSirebuli, magramSecdomis safuZvelze moxda misi qonebis dayadaReba, amgvari SecdomisTvalnaTeli magaliTia mosamarTlis daudevroba, romelmac uZravqonebaze yadaRis dadebisas ar ixelmZRvanela sajaro reestrisamonaweriT da, faqtobrivad, mesame piris uZrav qonebas daado yadaRa.mocemul SemTxvevaSi ismis kiTxva: unda hqondes Tu ara aRniSnulpirs sakuTari qonebiT sargeblobis xelSeSlis aRkveTis moTxovnisufleba da samoqalaqo saproceso wesiT yadaRisagan sakuTari qonebisgaTavisuflebis moTxovnis SesaZlebloba. aRniSnul kiTxvaze pasuxsiZleva TviT sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis me-200 muxli,romelic mocemul SemTxvevaSi dazaralebuls uflebas aZlevs yadaRisdadebis Sesaxeb brZaneba gaasaCivros yadaRis brZanebis gacemidan anuSualod brZanebis aRsrulebidan 72 saaTSi. amdenad, aRniSnulimuxliT daculia im mesame piris ufleba, romelmac Tavisi qonebisdayadaRebis Taobaze mosamarTlis brZanebis gamocema saerTodSeiZleba ver gaigos, kanonmdebeli am garemoebasac iTvaliswinebs dayadaRis gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobas mxares ara mxolod brZanebisgamocemidan, aramed aRniSnuli brZanebis aRsrulebidan 72 saaTSianiWebs.46


1.2. garda zemoaRniSnulisa, 2007 wlis 22 ivniss saqarTvelos sisxlissamarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi Sevida cvlileba, romlis Tanaxmadac,sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 615-e muxls daemata SemdegiSinaarsis `d~ qvepunqti: `gadawyvetilebis gamomtan sasamarTlosufleba aqvs, aRmofxvras gadawyvetilebaSi arsebuli bundovanebauzustobebi,rac ar gamoiwvevs mis gauqmebas an Secvlas, kerZod:daazustos qonebaze yadaRis sakiTxi~. amdenad, sssk-is 615-e muxlisSesabamisad, gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis an Secvlis gareSegadawyvetilebaSi arsebuli bundovaneba-uzustobis aRmofxvris uflebaaqvs uSualod gadawyvetilebis gamomtan sasamarTlos.XXXI.komli1.1. sakolmeurneo komli;1.2. sakomlo meurneoba;1.1. Sexvedraze mosamarTleebma mimoixiles aseve sasoflo sameurneokomlTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, kerZod, Sexvedraze ganimartaSemdegi: 1993 wlamde saqarTveloSi arsebobda sakolmeurneo komli.sakolmeurneo komlis erT-erTi da ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeli niSaniiyo komlis yvela Sromisunariani da srulwlovani wevriskolmeurneobis wevroba, piradi SromiT sakolmeurneo warmoebaSi dakomlis damxmare meurneobaSi monawileobis savaldebulo xasiaTi.sakolmeurneo komlis wevrebi damxmare meurneobas komlisaTvisgankuTvnil sakarmidamo miwis nakveTze saerTo ZalebiT awarmoebdnenda am komlis qonebis TanamesakuTreebad gvevlinebodnen. Tu ojaxSikolmeurneobis arc erTi wevri ar rCeboda, sakolmeurneo komliispoboda da muSa-mosamsaxuris ojaxi iqmneboda, xolo damxmaremeurneobis adgils muSa-mosamsaxuris meurneoba ikavebda. saqarTvelossamoqalaqo samarTlis kodeqsis (1964 wlis) 122-e muxlis Tanaxmad,sakolmeurneo komlis qoneba komlis wevrebs TanasakuTrebis uflebiTekuTvnoda. aRniSnuli kodeqsis 125-e muxlis Tanaxmad ki, komlis yvelawevrs, maT Soris arasrulwlovansa da Sromisuunarosac, Tanabariwili ekuTvnoda. `saqarTvelos respublikaSi saxelmwifo meurneobebis,kolmeurneobebis da sxva sasoflo-sameurneo sawarmoebisreorganizaciis wesis Sesaxeb~ mTavrobis 22.09.92 wlis #949dadgenilebis, saxelmwifo sabWos 21.10.1993 wlis #29 dekretissafuZvelze 1993 wlidan dadginda saxelmwifo meurneobebis,kolmeurneobebis reorganizacia da axal organizaciul samarTlebrivformaze gadasvla. kolmeurneobebis gauqmebiT sakolmeurneo komlisarsebobas samarTlebrivi safuZveli gamoecala da man arsebobaSewyvita. Sesabamisad, qoneba, romelic komlis qonebas da amave droskomlis wevrTa saerTo sakuTrebas warmoadgenda, aRar warmoadgenskomlis qonebas da aris im pirTa saerTo sakuTreba Tanabar wilSi,romlebic komlis wevrebs warmoadgenen. aRniSnul qonebaze vrceldeba47


saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli sakuTrebissaeTo reJimi.1.2. rac Seexeba `sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis sakuTrebisSesaxeb~ saqarTvelos 1996 wlis 22 martis saqarTvelos kanoniTgaTvaliswinebul sakomlo meurneobas, aRniSnuli sruliad axaliinstitutia da arsebiTad gansxvavdeba 1993 wlamde arsebulisakolmeurneo komlisagan, Sesabamisad, `sasoflo-sameurneodaniSnulebis miwis sakuTrebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniTgaTvaliswinebuli sakomlo meurneoba ar unda iqnes ganxilulisakolmeurneo komlis samarTalmemkvidred. aRniSnuli kanonisSesabamisad, sakomlo meurneoba aris sasoflo-sameurneo miwisnakveTebis, maTze arsebuli sacxovrebeli da sameurneo nagebobis,agreTve Sesabamisi gadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobis obieqtebisa damowyobilobebis erToblioba, romelic warmoadgens erTi fizikuripiris sakuTrebas anda meuRleTa an ojaxis sxva wevrebis saerTosakuTrebas. sakomlo meurneoba registrirebuli unda iqnessaadgilmamulo wignSi (sajaro reestrSi). Tu es meurneoba meuRleTaan ojaxis sxva wevrebis saerTo sakuTrebaa, saadgilmamulo wignSi(sajaro reestrSi) TiToeuli maTgani sakomlo meurneobisTanamesakuTred unda iqnes daregistrirebuli.XXXII.`sacxovrebeli sadgomiT sargeblobisas warmoSobiliurTierTobebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulisacxovrebeli farTis ganmartebamorigi sakiTxi, romelic Sexvedraze iqna ganxiluli, ukavSirdebasacxovrebeli farTis ganmartebas. `sacxovrebeli sadgomiTsargeblobisas warmoSobili urTierTobebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTveloskanonis me-2 muxlis me-11 punqtis Tanaxmad, sacxovrebel sadgomadganisazRvreba is farTi, romelzedac Tavdapirvelad arsebobdagarigeba mesakuTresa da mosargebles Soris an gaTvaliswinebuli iyoadministraciuli aqtiT. Sexvedraze Sejerda mosazreba imasTandakavSirebiT, rom rodesac saxezea registraciiT da komunalurigadasaxadebis gadaxdiT warmoSobili urTierToba da mosargeblemiuTiTebs, rom mis mier sacxovreblad faqtobrivad dakavebulfarTTan erTad flobs aseve uSualod am farTisgan moSorebiT ezossiRrmeSi arsebul saTavsos (iyenebs sakuWnaod, abanod da a.S.),aRniSnuli miCneul unda iqnas sacxovrebeli sadgomis farTSi.mocemul farTze daTmobis garigebis arseboba ki unda dadasturdesuSualod aRniSnuli farTis moxmarebis faqtis damadasturebelimtkicebulebebiT.48


XXXIII.sasamarTlo uwyeba1.1. saidentifikacio formulari da kancelariis muSakis uflebamovaleobebiaRniSnuli formularis SevsebasTan dakavSirebiT;1.2. mxareTa da procesis sxva monawile pirTa sasamarTloSidabareba teqnikuri saSualebebis gamoyenebiT;1.3. teqnikuri saSualebiT Setyobinebis ganxorcielebazepasuxismgebeli pirebi;1.4. teqnikuri saSualebiT Setyobinebis ganxorcieleba;1.5. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos anda saqarTvelosSinagan saqmeTa saministros teritoriuli organoebis saubnosamsaxurebisaTvis (ubnis inspeqtorebisaTvis) sasamarTlo davalebaadresatisaTvis sasamarTlo uwyebis Cabarebis Taobaze;1.6. sasamarTlo Setyobinebis drouli ganxorcielebisa dasaqmeTa ganxilvis gaWianurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT sasamarTlomoxeleTa urTierTTanamSromloba;1.7. sasamarTlo uwyebis Cabarebis Taviseburebani mopasuxisadgilsamyoflis daudgenlobis SemTxvevaSi;1.8. sasamarTlo Setyobinebis ganxorcielebis teqnikuriuzrunvelyofa, sasamarTlo SetyobinebaTa kompiuteruli aRricxva dakontroli.1.1. sakiTxi Seexo sasamarTlo uwyebasTan dakavSirebulproblemebs. kerZod, teqnikuri saSualebebiT mxareTa dabarebisgaaqtiurebas, aseT SemTxvevebSi, uwyebis Cabarebis dadasturebas da a.S.am mxriv didia procesis monawile pirTa saidentifikacio formularis(SemdgomSi - formulari) Sevsebis mniSvneloba, romlis srulyofiladSevsebis SemTxvevaSi gaadvildeba procesis monawile pirTasasamarTloSi dabareba, amasTan, sasamarTlo uwyebis CaubareblobismizeziT naklebad moxdeba procesebis gadadeba da daCqardeba saqmisganxilva. aqedan gamomdinare, azri Semdegze Sejerda:a) sasamarTloSi sarCelis (gancxadebis) Setanisas, agreTveSesageblis warmodgenisas, sasamarTlos kancelariis uflebamosilmamoxelem mkacrad unda gaakontrolos mosarCelis, mopasuxis, agreTvemaTi warmomadgenlebis (Tu mxare saqmeSi monawileobs warmomadgenlismeSveobiT) mier formularis srulyofilad Sevseba, gansakuTrebiTsakontaqto monacemebis miTiTeba (telefoni, faqsi, eleqtronulifostis misamarTi). Tu formulari srulyofilad ar iqneba Sevsebulikancelariis uflebamosilma moxelem unda misces miTiTeba misiSevsebis Taobaze da mxares an mis warmomadgenels ganumartos, romformularSi arsebuli monacemebi daexmareba sasamarTlos masTandakavSirebas da misi uflebebis swraf dacvas. sakuTari sakontaqtomonacemebis arqonis gamo formularSi aseTi monacemebismiuTiTeblobis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlos kancelariis uflebamosilmamoxelem mxares unda mosTxovos im piris sakontaqto monacemebismiTiTeba, visi meSveobiTac SesaZlebeli iqneba masTan dakavSireba.b) formularSi ganzrax araswori monacemebis miTiTebisSemTxvevaSi, mtkicebis tvirTi gadavides Sesabamisad mxareze.49


1.2. yuradReba gamaxvilda im faqtze, rom sasamarTloebis miermxareTa da procesis sxva monawileTa sasamarTloSi dabarebaZiriTadad xorcieldeba sasamarTlo uwyebis meSveobiT da naklebadxdeba sasamarTlo Setyobinebis iseTi alternatiuli saSualebebisgamoyeneba rogoricaa: telefoni, faqsi, eleqtronuli fosta(SemdgomSi - teqnikuri saSualebebi). aseve, xSiria sasamarTlo uwyebisCaubareblobis mizeziT saqmis ganxilvis gaWianurebis SemTxvevebi.aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, azri Sejerda Semdegze:a) sasamarTloebis mier aqtiurad ganxorcieldeba mxareTa daprocesis sxva monawile pirTa sasamarTloSi dabareba teqnikurisaSualebebiT.b) sasamarTloebi Setyobinebis ganxorcielebisas aqtiuradgamoiyeneben, rogorc formularSi miTiTebul informacias, asevesakontaqto monacemebis mopovebis mizniT, mimarTaven informaciis sxvawyaroebs (satelefono cnobari, piradi kontaqtebi da sxva).g) sasamarTlo uwyebis gagzavna fostiT an kurieris meSveobiT,ZiriTadad, ganxorcieldeba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sasamarTlosagandamoukidebeli mizezebis gamo SeuZlebeli gaxdeba teqnikurisaSualebebiT Setyobineba.1.3. Camoyalibda erTiani poziacia imasTan dakavSirebiT, romteqnikuri saSualebebiT Setyobineba ganaxorcielos mosamarTlisTanaSemwem, sasamarTlos sxdomis mdivanma an sasamarTlosuflebamosilma moxelem (SemdgomSi – sasamarTlos moxele).Sesabamisad, maT daekisroT pasuxismgebloba teqnikuri saSualebiTdabarebis Sesaxeb aqtSi (SemdgomSi – aqti) araswori monacemebisSetanisaTvis.1.4. yuradReba mieqca im faqts, rom teqnikuri saSualebebiTSetyobinebisas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs sasamarTloSidasabarebeli pirisaTvis informaciis amomwuravad da gasagebadmiwodebas, aseve teqnikuri saSualebebiT gagzavnili uwyebis Cabarebisdadasturebas. am mizniT, azri Sejerda Semdegze:a) sasamarTlos moxelem sasamarTloSi dasabarebel pirTan(SemdgomSi – adresati) telefoniT dakavSirebisas pirvel rigSi undadaadginos im piris vinaoba (mxolod saxeli da gvari) visacdaukavSirda. misi mxridan dasturis miRebis Semdgom dauyovneblivunda acnobos mas sasamarTlo uwyebis Sinaarsi, kerZod: imsasamarTlos saxelwodeba da zusti misamarTi, sadac adresati undagamocxaddes; saqmis dasaxeleba mokled da davis sagani; gamocxadebisdro (ricxvi, Tve, weli) da adgili (sasamarTlo sxdomis darbazisnomeri); ra statusiT aris adresati sasamarTloSi dabarebuli;arasapatio mizeziT sasamarTloSi gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi mismimarT gamosayenebeli zomebis Sesaxeb, kerZod dajarimebisSesaZlebloba; gamoucxadeblobis Sedegebi, kerZod mis mimarTdauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotanis SesaZlebloba; sasamarTlossakontaqto monacemebi; aseve ganumartos ufleba masTan arsebulimtkicebulebebis warmodgenis Sesaxeb da valdebuleba, acnobossasamarTlos gamoucxadeblobis mizezebi.50


) Tu sasamarTlos moxele daukavSirdeba adresatTan mcxovrebojaxis srulwlovan wevrs, samuSao adgilis Sesabamis pirs, adresatiswarmomadgenels an formularSi miTiTebul sxva pirs, dauyovneblivunda acnobos mas sasamarTlo uwyebis Sinaarsi da ganumartossasamarTlo uwyebis Sinaarsis adresatisaTvis dauyovnebliv gadacemisvaldebuleba.g) Tu satelefono kavSiri Sedgeba da piris identificirebaganxorcieldeba, sasamarTlos moxele Seadgens da xels moawers aqts,ra drosac sasamarTlo uwyeba Cabarebulad CaiTvleba.d) im SemTxvevaSi Tu satelefono kavSiri gawydeba sasamarTlosmoxelisa da adresatisagan an sxva pirisagan damoukidebeli mizezebisgamo, sasamarTlos moxelem kidev unda scados adresatTan dakavSireba,xolo Tu es SeuZlebeli iqneba mimarTos sxva saSualebas. satelefonokavSiris gawyvetamde gadacemuli informacia CaiTvleba gadacemuladda misi gameoreba savaldebulo aRar iqneba.e) im SemTxvevaSi Tu adresati an sxva piri misi identificirebisSemdeg Segnebulad gawyvets satelefono kavSirs an aSkara iqneba, romigi Tavs aaridebs informaciis miRebas, sasamarTlos moxele saTanadoaRniSvnas gaakeTebs aqtSi, ra drosac miiCneva, rom adrsati uarsacxadebs sasamarTlo uwyebis miRebaze da sasamarTlo uwyebaCabarebulad CaiTvleba.v) faqsiT sasamarTlo uwyebis gagzavnisas, faqsis aparatiTmiRebuli dasturis Semdeg sasamarTlos moxele unda daelodosadresatis mier uwyebis miRebis dadasturebas. Tu adresatidaadasturebs sasamarTlo uwyebis miRebas, sasamarTlos moxeleSeadgens da xels moawers aqts, ra drosac sasamarTlo uwyebaCabarebulad CaiTvleba. Tu adresatis dasturi faqsis gagzavnidan 24saaTis ganmavlobaSi ar iqneba miRebuli, sasamarTlos moxelem yvelasaSualebas unda mimarTos, raTa telefoniT daukavSirdes adresats daacnobos mxolod misTvis sasamarTlo uwyebis faqsiT gagzavnisSesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo uwyebis Sinaarsis damatebiTcnobeba savaldebulo aRar iqneba. Tu satelefono kavSiri Sedgeba dapiris identificireba ganxorcieldeba, sasamarTlos moxele Seadgensda xels moawers aqts, ra drosac sasamarTlo uwyeba CabarebuladCaiTvleba. Tu faqsiT sasamarTlo uwyebis gagzavna SeuZlebeli iqneba,sasamarTlos moxelem unda mimarTos sxva saSualebas.z) eleqtronuli fostiT sasamarTlo Setyobinebisas sasamarTlosmoxelem:a.a. adresats unda acnobos sasamarTlo uwyebis Sinaarsi, kerZod:im sasamarTlos saxelwodeba da zusti misamarTi, sadac adresati undagamocxaddes; saqmis dasaxeleba mokled da davis sagani; gamocxadebisdro (ricxvi, Tve, weli) da adgili (sasamarTlo sxdomis darbazisnomeri); ra statusiT aris adresati sasamarTloSi dabarebuli;arasapatio mizeziT sasamarTloSi gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi mismimarT gamosayenebeli zomebis Sesaxeb, kerZod dajarimebisSesaZlebloba; gamoucxadeblobis Sedegebi, kerZod mis mimarTdauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotanis SesaZlebloba; sasamarTlossakontaqto monacemebi; aseve ganumartos ufleba masTan arsebuli51


mtkicebulebebis warmodgenis Sesaxeb da valdebuleba, acnobossasamarTlos gamoucxadeblobis mizezebi;a.b. eleqtronuli dokumentis gagzavnisas adresats damatebiT undaganumartos valdebuleba, mis mier eleqtronuli dokumentisgaxsnisTanave imave misamarTze dasturis gamogzavnis Sesaxeb.T) Tu eleqtronuli dokumeti gaigzavneba, sasamarTlos moxeleunda daelodos adresatis dasturs eleqtronuli dokumentis miRebisSesaxeb. Tu adresati daadasturebs sasamarTlo uwyebis miRebas,sasamarTlos moxele Seadgens da xels moawers aqts, ra drosacsasamarTlo uwyeba Cabarebulad CaiTvleba. Tu adresatis dasturieleqtronuli dokumentis gagzavnidan 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi ar iqnebamiRebuli, sasamarTlos moxelem yvela saSualebas unda mimarTos,raTa telefoniT daukavSirdes adresats da acnobos mxolod misTvissasamarTlo uwyebis eleqtronuli fostiT gagzavnis Sesaxeb. amSemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo uwyebis Sinaarsis damatebiT cnobebasavaldebulo ar aris. Tu satelefono kavSiri Sedgeba da pirisidentificireba ganxorcieldeba, sasamarTlos moxele Seadgens daxels moawers aqts, ra drosac sasamarTlo uwyeba CabarebuladCaiTvleba. Tu eleqtronuli fostiT sasamarTlo uwyebis gagzavnaSeuZlebeli iqneba sasamarTlos moxelem unda mimarTos sxvasaSualebas.i) eleqtronuli fostis gamoyenebisas, sasamarTlo uwyebaSeiZleba daskanerdes, Tu sasamarTloSi iqneba amis teqnikuriSesaZlebloba.yuradReba gamaxvilda aseve im garemoebaze, rom eleqtronulifosta SeiZleba ufro aqtiurad iqnes gamoyenebuli mxarisaTvis saqmismasalebis gadasagzavnad, Tuki aseTi masalebi sasamarTloSiwardgenili iqneba eleqtronul formatSi da mxare Tanaxmobasganacxadebs misTvis eleqtronuli dokumentebis gagzavnis Taobaze.1.5. Sexvedraze erT-erT qvesakiTxad ganxilul iqna uwyebisCaubareblobis mizezebi da Camoyalibda erTiani pozicia imasTandakavSirebiT, rom sasamarTlo uwyebis Cabarebas xSirad aferxebs isgaremoebebi, rom sasamarTloSi dasabarebeli piri cxovrobsmiudgomel raionSi an misi moZebna ver xerxdeba. Tumca aRiniSna, romam SemTxvevaSi aqtiurad unda iqnes gamoyenebuli samoqalaqosaproceso kodeqsis 73-e muxlis me-7 nawiliT gaTvaliswinebulinormebi. amitom azri Semdegze Sejerda:a) Tu mxareebs, maT warmomadgenlebs, agreTve mowmeebs, eqspertebs,specialistebsa da Tarjimnebs sasamarTlo sxdomis an calkeulisaproceso moqmedebis Sesrulebis droisa da adgilis Sesaxeb verecnobebaT veranairi saSualebiT, sasamarTloebma aqtiurad daavalonadresatisaTvis sasamarTlo uwyebis Cabareba adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis organos anda saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTasaministros teritoriuli organoebis saubno samsaxurebs (ubnisinspeqtorebs).b) adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos anda ubnis inspeqtorismier saTanado aRniSvniT sasamarTlo uwyebis meore egzemplarissasamarTloSi warmodgenisTanave sasamarTlo uwyeba CaiTvlebaCabarebulad.52


1.6. sasamarTlo Setyobinebis drouli ganxorcielebisa da saqmeTaganxilvis gaWianurebis Tavidan acilebis miznebidan gamomdinare,aucilebelia koordinirebuli moqmedeba da erTmaneTisTvissamarTlebrivi Tu teqnikuri daxmarebis aRmoCena, am mizniT:a) sasamarTlos aparatis moxeleebi gacvlian erTmaneTissakontaqto monacemebs (telefoni, faqsi, eleqtronuli misamarTi).b) im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mxare cxovrobs saqmis mwarmoebelisasamarTlos samoqmedo teritoriisagan moSorebiT da aRniSnulimizeziT sasamarTlo uwyebis Cabareba ver moxerxdeba:a.a. mosamarTlis TanaSemwe an sasamarTlos saamisoduflebamosili moxele (Txovnis gamgzavni sasamarTlo) daxmarebisaTvisaqtiurad mimarTavs im sasamarTlos (Txovnis mimRebi sasamarTlo)Sesabamis moxeles, romlis samoqmedo teritriazedac cxovrobssasamarTloSi dasabarebeli piri;a.b. Txovna ganxorcieldeba Txovnis mimRebi sasamarTlosaTvissaTanado wesiT Sevsebuli sasamarTlo uwyebis faqsiT aneleqtronuli fostis meSveobiT gagzavniT;a.g. Txovnis mimRebi sasamarTlos Sesabamis moxele awarmoebsspecialur Jurnals, romelSic aRiniSneba: Txovnis gamgzavnisasamarTlos dasaxeleba; sasamarTlo uwyebis gamomgzavni moxelisvinaoba; Txovnis miRebis TariRi; Txovnis Sesrulebis TariRi;sasamarTlo uwyebis Cabarebis dasturis Txovnis gamgzavnisasamarTlosaTvis gagzavnis TariRi;a.d. Txovnis mimRebi sasamarTlos Sesabamis moxele sasamarTlouwyebas miRebisTanave dausvams sasamarTlos beWeds da uzrunvelyofsmisi kurieris meSveobiT adresatisaTvis Cabarebas saqarTvelossamoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsiT da aRniSnuli rekomendaciebiTdadgenili wesiT;a.e. Txovnis ganxorcielebisTanave, Txovnis mimRebi sasamarTlosSesabamisi moxele dauyovnebliv daukavSirdeba Txovnis gamgzavnsasamarTlos da gaugzavnis sasamarTlo uwyebis Cabarebis dasturs.dasturis miRebisTanave Txovnis gamgzavni sasamarTlo uflebamosiliaganixilos saqme.1.7. yuradReba mieqca agreTve im faqts, rom sasamarTlo uwyebisCabarebas mniSvnelovnad aferxebs mopasuxis adgilsamyofelisdaudgenloba. maT aRniSnes, rom samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 78-emuxli saukeTeso SesaZleblobas iZleva sasamarTlom Tavidan aicilossaqmis ganxilvis gaWianureba, kerZod, sasamarTlo uwyeba Caabarosadgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos anda gamoitanos ganCinebapublikaciis meSveobiT sajaro Setyobinebis Sesaxeb. mosamarTleebmaaRniSnes, rom 78-e muxlis danawesi mosamarTles ar akisrebsvaldebulebas da mas aZlevs srul diskrecias mimarTos an erT anmeore saSualebas, an orives erTad. amasTan dakavSirebiT CamoyalibdaerTiani pozicia:a) mxareTa interesebis dacvisa da saqmis ganxilvis gaWianurebisTavidan acilebis mizniT, sasamarTloebma pirvel rigSi sasamarTlouwyeba Caabaron adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs, ra drosac53


sasamarTlo uwyeba Cabarebulad CaiTvleba adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis organoebisaTvis gadacemisTanave.b) sasamarTloebma publikacia gamoiyenon ukidures SemTxvevaSi, radrosac sasamarTlo uwyeba Cabarebulad CaiTvleba publikaciidanerTi Tvis vadaSi.g) sasamarTloebma gaiTvaliswinon is garemoeba, rom mosarCeleuflebamosilia sasamarTlo ganCinebis safuZvelze Tavisi xarjebiTganaxorcielos sajaro Setyobineba publikaciis meSveobiT. aqedangamomdinare, Tu sasamarTlo darwmundeba, rom sajaro Setyobinebaxels Seuwyobs mopasuxeTa sasamarTloSi gamocxadebas, dauyovnebliviqnes gamotanili Sesabamisi ganCineba.1.8. sasamarTlo Setyobinebis efeqturad da drouladganxorcieleba ufro metad damokidebulia sasamarTlos aparatisgamarTul da organizebul muSaobaze, vidre teqnikuri saSualebebisSesaZleblobebze. aqedan gamomdinare, azri Sejerda Semdegze:a) mxareebs, aseve procesis sxva monawileebs sasamarTlo sxdomisSesaxeb ecnoboT sxdomis daniSvnidan 3 dRis vadaSi.b) sasamarTloebSi ganxorcieldes sasamarTlo Setyobinebiskompiuteruli aRricxva, romelic xelmisawvdomi iqneba mosamarTlisTanaSemweebis, sasamarTlos sxdomis mdivnebis, sasamarTloskurierebisa da sasamarTlos aparatis saamisod uflebamosilimoxeleebisaTvis.g) sasamarTlos sxdomis mdivnebma pasuxismgeblobiT aRricxonsasamarTlo uwyebis Caubareblobis konkretuli mizezebi, Tu es gaxdasxdomis gadadebis safuZveli.d) mosamarTlis TanaSemweebma procesis gamarTvamde gonivrulvadaSi magram ara ugvianes 10 dRisa Seamowmon sasamarTlo uwyebisCabarebis mdgomareoba da Caubareblobis SemTxvevaSi, dauyovneblivmiiRon yvela zomas sasamarTlo uwyebis Casabareblad, raTa ar moxdesprocesis gadadeba.e) sasamarTlos aparatis saamisod uflebamosili moxelis miermkacrad gakontroldes sasamarTlos kurierebis muSaobis reJimi,kerZod: sasamarTloSi gamocxadeba; sasamarTlo uwyebis Cabareba;sasamarTlo uwyebaze saTanado aRniSvnebis srulyofilad Sevseba.v) sasamarTloebma sasamarTlo uwyebis Cabarebis yovelkvartalurianalizi periodulad miawodon saqarTvelos iusticiis umaRlessabWos.z) sxdomis mdivnebma saqmeebSi dauyovnebliv Cadon sasamarTlouwyebis Cabarebis dasturi.T) sasamarTlos Tavmjdomarem pirad kontrolze aiyvanossasamarTlo uwyebis Caubareblobis mizeziT saqmis ganxilvisgaWianurebis faqtebi, rac aucileblad gaxdes konkretuli pirismimarT Sesabamisi zomebis gamoyenebis msjelobis sagani.54


XXXIV.sakiTxi Seexo sasamarTloSi wesrigis dacvas. azri Sejerda zogadixasiaTis rekomendaciaze, sasamarTloSi wesrigis darRvevisaTvispasuxismgeblobis RonisZiebebis gamoyenebis Taobaze (ssssk-is 208-e mux.,sssk-is 212-e mux.).1. sxdomis darbazSi adgilidan wamoZaxili, mobiluri telefonis zarian saqmis ganxilvisas mobiluri komunikaciis saSualebiT sargebloba,dabal xmaze saubari an samarTalwarmoebis monawilesTangadalaparakeba, sicili, mowonebis an dawunebis SeZaxili, an sxvaimgvari qceva, rac iwvevs samarTalwarmoebis sxva monawilisyuradRebis miqcevasa da marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisaTvisxelSeSlas – gafrTxileba an dajarimeba 50 laris odenobiT. igiveqmedeba Cadenili ganmeorebiT _ dajarimeba 100 laris odenobiT an/dagaZeveba.2. sxdomis darbazSi xmamaRali saubari (maT Soris mobilurikomunikaciis saSualebiT), xSiri gadaadgileba, mosamarTlis nebarTvisgareSe procesis monawilesTan saubarSi CarTva an mxarisaTvissakuTari poziciis gamoxatvaSi xelis SeSlis mcdeloba, adgilidanreplikis gakeTeba, Tu igi ar ukavSirdeba procesis monawilissaproceso kanonmdeblobiT miniWebul uflebas, sasamarTloSi xmisgamaZlierebeli saSualebebiT gakeTebuli gancxadeba an sxva qmedeba,rac xels uSlis sasamarTlos (mosamarTles) procesis warmarTvaSi anmiznad isaxavs sasamarTlo procesis CaSlas an sasamarTlo ganxilvisgadadebas _ dajarimeba 100-dan 200 laramde odenobiT an,gansakuTrebiT specifiur SemTxvevaSi, gafrTxileba (igulisxmeba Tuamas akeTebs dazaralebuli an sxva mniSvnelovani SemTxvevaa). igiveqmedeba Cadenili ganmeorebiT _ dajarimeba 150-dan 300 laramdeodenobiT an/da gaZeveba.3. sxdomis darbazSi an sasamarTloSi samarTalwarmoebis monawileTa(garda mosamarTlisa), sasamarTlo mandaturis, sasamarTlos aparatissxva mosamsaxureTa, saqarTvelos iusticiis saministros specialuridacvis samsaxuris badragirebis danayofis uflebamosil pirTaupativcemuloba, maT mimarT ironiuli da damcinavi epiTetebisgamoyeneba, an sxva upativcemulobis gamomxatveli gamonaTqvamebi _dajarimeba 250-dan 350 laramde odenobiT an/da gaZeveba. igive qmedebaCadenili ganmeorebiT _ dajarimeba 300-dan 400 laramde odenobiT an/dagaZeveba. igive qmedeba Cadenili ucenzuro sityvebis gamoyenebiT,agreTve im piris mier, romelic winaT Cadenili wesrigisdarRvevisaTvis gaZevebul iqna sxdomis darbazidan _ dajarimeba 400-dan 500 laramde odenobiT an dapatimreba 10 dRe-Ramemde vadiT.4. sasamarTlos (mosamarTlis) upativcemuloba, agreTve ironiuli dadamcinavi epiTetebis gamoyeneba an sxva SeuracxmyofeligamonaTqvamebis gakeTeba _ dajarimeba 300-dan 400 laramde odenobiTan/da gaZeveba an dapatimreba 15 dRe-Ramemde vadiT. igive qmedebaCadenili ganmeorebiT, agreTve sasamarTlosaTvis materialuri zianismiyeneba_ dajarimeba 350-dan 500 laramde odenobiT an/da gaZeveba an55


dapatimreba 20 dRe-Ramemde vadiT. sasamarTlos (mosamarTlis) mimarTuxamsi ironiuli da damcinavi epiTetebis gamoyeneba an sxva aSkaradSeuracxmyofeli gamonaTqvamebis gakeTeba (maT Soris ucenzurosityvebis gamoyeneba) _ dajarimeba 400-dan 500 laramde odenobiT an/dagaZeveba an dapatimreba 20-dan 30 dRe-Ramemde vadiT. sasamarTlosupativcemuloba, rac miznad isaxavs sasamarTlo xelisuflebisdiskreditacias _ dapatimreba 30 dRe-Ramemde vadiT.SeniSvna:1. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac wesrigis damrRvevi piri arasamarTlebrivimeTodebiT aprotestebs mosamarTlis gadawyvetilebas, mosamarTleiRebs gadawyvetilebas mis mier gamoyenebuli zomebis gamkacrebisSesaxeb imis mixedviT, Tu ra formiT xdeba am gadawyvetilebisgaprotesteba.2. igive wesebi gamoiyeneba, rodesac wesrigis darRvevas adgili aqvssasamarTloSi an sasamarTlos sxdomis darbazSi gadawyvetilebisgamocxadebis Semdeg. aseT SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos mandaturi(mandaturebi), romelic ufro axlos imyofeba wesrigis damrRvevTan,Tavadve aRkveTs darRvevas, adgens oqms, sadac detalurad miuTiTebs,Tu raSi gamoixata wesrigis darRveva. sasamarTlos Tavmjdomaregadawyvetilebas iRebs zemoaRniSnuli wesebis Sesabamisad darRvevisxasiaTis adeqvaturad.3. Tu wesrigis damrRvevi piri nebayoflobiT ar aRasrulebsTavmjdomaris (mosamarTlis) gankargulebas sxdomis darbazidangaZevebis Sesaxeb an Tu sxdomis darbazidan gaZevebuli piri kvlavacagrZelebs wesrigis darRvevas, an ar asrulebs mandaturis kanoniermiTiTebebs, aseT SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos mandaturi uzrunvelyofsmis gayvanas sasamarTlos sxdomis darbazidan an sasamarTlodan,amasTan mis mimarT SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iyos sisxlis samarTlissaproceso kodeqsis 208-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dapatimreba.4. sasamarTlosaTvis materialuri zianis miyenebis SemTxvevaSi (SuSebisCamtvreva, inventaris dazianeba, sasamarTloSi gamokruli sajaroinformaciis ganadgureba da sxv.), gamoiyeneba aranakleba 20 dRianidapatimrebis RonisZieba. amasTan, zianis mimyenebels daekisreba zianisanazRaureba saproceso kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT.5. Tu sasamarTlo sxdomis darbazSi, sasamarTlos SenobaSi damrRvevmapirebma fizikuri Seuracxyofa miayenes mosamarTles, prokurors,damcvels an procesis sxva monawiles, sasamarTlos mandaturis mierunda moxdes am pirTa dakaveba da policiisaTvis gadacema, sisxlissamarTlis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli zomebis miRebis mizniT.56


saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtikasamoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT* * *ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova da xelSeSlis aRkveTassk muxli 1721. mesakuTres SeuZlia mflobels mosTxovos nivTis ukandabruneba, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca mflobels hqonda am nivTisflobis ufleba.magaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-sa da g-s mimarT da moiTxova maTibinidan gamosaxleba im safuZvliT, rom d-s gardacvalebis Semdeg masze gaicakanonismieri memkvidreobis uflebis damadasturebeli mowmoba. b-m da g-m uariganacxades binis gamonTavisuflebaze im safuZvliT, rom maT qiravnobisxelSekruleba dades e-sTan da sacxovrebel saxls flobdnen kanonierad.sakasacio palatam saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis Sesabamisaddamtkicebulad miiCnia is garemoebebi, rom b-s da g-s binis flobis uflebamiRebuli hqonda e-sgan d-s gardacvalebis Semdeg da e-s d-sgan ar hqondamiRebuli sadavo binis gankargvis ufleba. sakasacio palatam dadgeniladmiiCnia, rom a-s hqonda sadavo binis sakuTrebis ufleba, xolo b da g iyvnennivTis mflobelebi, Tumca maT ar gaaCndaT nivTis flobis ufleba. palatamixelmZRvanela ssk-is 172-e muxlis pirvelis nawiliT da b-s da g-s daakisranivTis gamonTavisuflebis movaleoba.magaliTi 2a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova ukanonomflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova im safuZvliT, rom sadavo qonebawarmoadgenda mis sakuTrebas, rac dasturdeboda g-sTan dadebuli yidvagayidvisxelSekrulebiT, xolo b aRniSnul qonebas flobda ukanonod. b-msarCeli ar cno, vinaidan igi sadavo qonebas flobda d-sTan dadebuliqiravnobis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze. sakasacio sasamarTlom saapelaciosasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis Sesabamisad dadgenilad miiCnia, rom sadavoqonebis mesakuTres warmoadgenda a, vinaidan misi sakuTrebis ufleba uZravqonebaze dasturdeboda sajaro reestris monacemebiT, xolo b ki flobdaqonebas, magram ar gaaCnda misi flobis ufleba, vinaidan man qiravnobisxelSekruleba dado d-sTan, romelic ar warmoadgenda aRniSnuli qonebismesakuTres. sakasacio palatam ixelmZRvanela ssk-is 170-e, 172-e, 183-e da 312-emuxlebiT da b-s daakisra sadavo farTis gamonTavisuflebis movaleoba.57


magaliTi 3a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova ukanonomflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova im safuZvliT, rom man sacxovrebeli binaCuqebis xelSekrulebiT miiRo g-sgan, xolo b ukanonod flobda aRniSnulbinas. miuxedavad imisa, rom Cuqebis xelSekruleba registrirebuli ar iyosajaro reestrSi, pirveli instanciis sasamarTlom dadasturebulad CaTvalaa-s sakuTrebis ufleba sadavo binaze mxolod Cuqebis xelSekrulebidangamomdinare, vinaidan TviT b-c aRiarebda, rom mas ar gaaCnda sakuTrebisufleba sadavo binaze da Sesaxlebuli iyo unebarTvod, Tumca a-ssasargeblod ar aTavisuflebda binas, vinidan Cuqebis xelSekruleba,romliTac a-s g-sgan sakuTrebaSi gadaeca sacxovrebeli bina,registrirebuli ar iyo sajaro reestrSi. saqmis sakasacio instanciiTganxilvis dros Cuqebis xelSekruleba ukve registrirebuli iyo sajaroreestrSi. amdenad a warmoadgenda sadavo farTis mesakuTres, xolo bukanonod flobda sadavo binas. sakasacio palatam ixelmZRvanela 172-emuxlis pirveli nawiliT da b-s daakisra binis gamonTavisuflebis movaleoba.magaliTi 4a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova ukanonomflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova Semdegi safuZvlebidan gamomdinare: a-mzepiri garigebis Sedegad avtomanqana gadasca g-s, im pirobiT, rom gavtomanqanas gadaiformebda mxolod Rirebulebis gadaxdis Semdeg. g-misargebla avtomanqanis saregistracio mowmobiT da notariusTan SeTanxmebisgziT avtomanqana daagirava b-sTan 8000 aSS dolaris sesxis uzrunvelsayofadda miimala. sakasacio palatam ganmarta, rom nasyidobis xelSekrulebisdadeba niSnavs xelSekrulebiT nakisri uflebebisa da valdebulebebiswarmoSobas, magram, is jer kidev ar niSnavs sakuTrebis gadasvlas myidvelze.samoqalaqo kodeqsis 186-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad, moZrav nivTebzesakuTrebis gadasacemad aucilebelia, rom mesakuTrem namdvili uflebissafuZvelze gadasces SemZens nivTi. amrigad, moZrav nivTze sakuTrebisgadacemisaTvis aucilebelia ori winapirobis arseboba: namdvili ufleba (amkonkretul SemTxvevaSi nasyidobis xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili uflebamyidvelisa moiTxovos nivTis gadacema) da nivTis faqtobrivi gadacema (amSemTxvevaSi avtomanqanis gadacema myidvelze). samoqalaqo kodeqsis 188-emuxlis pirveli nawilis pirveli winadadebis Tanaxmad, Tu gamsxvisebelmapirobad daTqva sakuTrebis gadasvla SemZenze mxolod nivTis safasurisgadaxdis Semdeg, ivaraudeba, rom sakuTreba gadava SemZenze safasurissrulad gadaxdis Semdeg. SemZenze gadacemuli nivTi safasuris sruladgadaxdamde gamsxviseblis sakuTrebaa.miuxedavad a-sa da b-s Soris dadebuli nasyidobis xelSekrulebisa, adarCa avtomanqanis mesakuTred da sakuTrebis ufleba avtomanqanaze b-sTvisar gadaucia. amitom rogorc mesakuTres, mas SeuZlia, samoqalaqo kodeqsis172-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Sesabamisad, moiTxovos sxvisi ukanonomflobelobidan avtomanqanis gamoTxova.komentari:yoveli valdebuleba Sedgeba, ZiriTadad, ori nawilisagan _konkretuli saqmis faqtobrivi garemoebebisa da normis aRwerilobiTinawilisagan, romelic zogadi Sinaarsisaa da Sedegebisagan, romelsackanoni iTvaliswinebs normis aRwerilobiTi nawilis Semadgenelielementis arsebobisas.mosamarTle valdebulia, mosarCelis sasarCelo gancxadebidangamomdinare, moZebnos kanoni, romelic iTvaliswinebs im samarTlebriv58


Sedegs, romelsac mosarCele Tavisi sarCeliT moiTxovs. mosamarTlemunda daadginos, miuTiTebs Tu ara mosarCele im garemoebebze,romlebic kanonis mier gansazRvrulia am samarTlebrivi Sedegisdadgomis winapirobad. unda dadgindes gansaxilveli moTxovnissafuZvlisaTvis aucilebeli winapirobebi, anu kanoniT dadgenilinormis Semadgenlobis niSnebi. iuridiuli muSaobis meTodikis mixedviTnormebi unda daiSalos misi elementebis, kerZod, normisaRwerilobiTi nawilis Semadgeneli elementebis mixedviT. iuridiulisamuSao swored am amoxsnis sisworezea damokidebuli.ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovasa da xelSeSlisaRkveTis moTxovnas iTvaliswinebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis172-e muxli. ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova (vindikaciurisarCeli) mesakuTris uflebis dacvis ZvelTaganve miRebulisaSualebaa. esaa sarCeli, romelsac mesakuTre maSin iyenebs, rocaSelaxulia nivTze misi mflobeloba, saxeldobr, roca mesakuTrisqoneba ukanono mfloblis xelTaa. nivTis vindicirebac sxvisi ukanonomflobelobidan mis gamoTxovas gulisxmobs. vindikaciuri sarCelisarsi sakuTrebis absoluturi bunebidan momdinareobs. mesakuTres ssk-s158-e muxlis me-2 nawilisa da 170-e muxlis me-3 nawilis Sesabamisad,ufleba aqvs ar flobdes an ar sargeblobdes kuTvnili nivTiT.amdenad, mesakuTres aqvs sakuTari nivTis Tavisufali flobisa dasargeblobis ufleba, Tuki ar arsebobs sargeblobis aucilebelisocialuri interesi. es ki gulisxmobs mesakuTris Tavisuflebas,nebismier dros daeuflos kuTvnil nivTs an isargeblos am nivTiT, maTSoris, moiTxovos ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova.aRniSnul urTierTobas awesrigebs ssk-is 172-e muxlis pirveli nawili,romelic normis aRwerilobiTi nawilis Semadgenel sam elementsSeicavs:1. mosarCele unda iyos nivTis mesakuTre;2. mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli;3. mopasuxes ar unda hqondes am nivTis flobis ufleba (normisaRwerilobiTi nawilis e.w. negatiuri, uaryofiTi Semadgenelielementi).mxolod mas Semdeg, rodesac mosamarTle am samive winapirobis(normis aRwerilobiTi nawilis Semadgeneli elementebis) arsebobasdaadgens, SeuZlia ganawesos samarTlebrivi Sedegi: mosarCelissasargeblod mopasuxisaTvis ukanono mflobelobidan nivTisgamoTxovis dakisreba.vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis pirvel pirobas, rogorczemoT ukve aRvniSneT, warmoadgens, is rom mosarCele unda iyosmesakuTre. vinaidan mesakuTris mier dabrunebis moTxovna TanabradukavSirdeba rogorc moZrav, ise uZrav nivTebs, amitom mesakuTredyofnis prezumfcia sxvadasxvagvarad dasturdeba. uZravi nivTismesakuTreoba ssk-is 183-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Sesabamisad sajaroreestridan dasturdeba, sajaro reestris monacemebis mimarT ki, 312-emuxlis Sesabamisad, moqmedebs utyuarobisa da sisrulis prezumfcia(magaliTi 2). Tumca, piris sakuTrebis ufleba uZrav qonebaze SeiZlebaar dasturdebodes sajaro reestridan, magram aRniSnuli udavod iqnesmiCneuli piris sakuTrebad sxva samarTlebrivi safuZvlidan59


gamomdinare da gaxdes vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebissafuZveli (magaliTi 1).vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis meore aucilebel pirobaswarmoadgens is, rom mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli. aRniSnuliTavisTavad gamomdinareobs moTxovnis arsidan, vinaidan sasarCelomoTxovna exeba nivTis mflobelobidan gamoTxovas, magram aqveaRsaniSnavia, rom mflobeloba ar unda iyos kanonieri, vinaidan 172-emuxlis pirveli nawili mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iZleva mflobelobidannivTis gamoTxovis SesaZleblobas, Tu mflobeloba arakanonieria.uZrav nivTebTan mimarTebiT sakiTxi martivad wydeba, vinaidansakuTrebis ufleba sajaro reestridan dasturdeba, xolo rac SeexebamoZrav nivTebs, am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom unda gaiTvaliswinos iseTimniSvnelovani garemoebebi, rogoricaa mewarmis gulisxmiereba,sakuTrebis uflebis gadacemis momenti da a.S (magaliTi 4). kidev erTisakiTxi, romelsac sasamarTlo gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobsukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovis Taobaze davis ganxilvisas,aris mfloblis subieqturi damokidebulebis garkveva mflobelobisfaqtis mimarT. aRniSnuli, marTalia, zegavlenas ar axdens 172-emuxliT gaTvaliswinebul Sedegze (ukanono mflobelobis dadgenisSemTxvevaSi nivTi gamoTxovil unda iqnes mesakuTris sasargeblod),magram ssk-is 164-e, 165-e muxlebis Tanaxmad, gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba eniWeba mopasuxis mimarT (vindikaciur sarCelSi)samarTlebrivi Sedegis dadgomisaTvis.ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova, Tavisi arsidangamomdinare, yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi sakmaod gavrcelebulimoTxovnaa. aqedan gamomdinare, aRniSnul sakiTxze arsebulisasamarTlo praqtikac sakmaod vrcelia.ssk muxli 172.2. Tu sakuTrebis xelyofa an sxvagvari xelSeSla xdeba nivTisamoRebis an misi CamorTmevis gareSe, maSin mesakuTres SeuZlia xelisSemSlels mosTxovos am moqmedebis aRkveTa. Tu amgvari xelSeSlakvlav gagrZeldeba, mesakuTres SeuZlia moiTxovos moqmedebis aRkveTasasamarTloSi sarCelis Setanis gziT.magaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra b-s (mezoblis) mimarT, romelmac misi sacxovrebelioTaxis Tavze abazanisa da tualetis mSenebloba daiwyo da amoWra iataki. a-m moiTxova misi, rogorc mesakuTris, sakuTrebiT sargeblobis uflebisxelSeSlis aRkveTa. saqmeze Catarebuli sainJinro-teqnikuri eqspertizisdaskviniT mopasuxis mier binaSi saabazanosa da tualetis mowyobiT dairRvasamSeneblo normebi da wesebi. sakasacio palatam ssk-is 170-e muxlisa da 172-emuxlis me-2 nawilis Tanaxmad, mesakuTris mier sakuTrebiT sargeblobisufleba darRveulad miiCnia da moTxovna daakmayofila.60


komentari:sakuTrebis xelyofis an sxvagvari xelSeSlis aRkveTa nivTisamoRebis an misi CamorTmevis gareSe tradiciulad literaturaSimoixsenieba rogorc negatoruli sarCeli. sakuTrebis xelyofa ansxvagvari xelSeSla SeiZleba gamoixatebodes rogorc moqmedebaSi,aseve umoqmedobaSi. negatoruli sarCelis safuZveli SeiZleba iyosmesakuTris mier sakuTrebiT SezRudulad sargebloba. mesakuTre asevesaerTod SeiZleba moklebuli iyos Tavisi sakuTrebiT sargeblobisSesaZleblobas. mesakuTris ufleba, moiTxovos xelSeSlis aRkveTa, arSeiZleba iyos xandazmuli, vinaidan mesakuTris aRniSnuliTavisuflebis xandazmulobis SemzRudavi danawesebisadmidaqvemdebareba ewinaaRmdegeba sakuTrebis uflebis absolutur bunebas,saqarTvelos konstituciasa da samoqalaqo kodeqsis aRniSnulnormebs. Sesabamisad, xandazmulobis vadebi ar unda gavrceldesukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovasa da xelSeSlis aRkveTismoTxovnaze, Tumca, negatoruli sarCelTan mimarTebiT, xandazmulobisvadebi garkveuli TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba, kerZod, mesakuTresxelSeSlis aRkveTis moTxovniT sarCelis aRZvris ufleba aqvs iqamde,sanam xelSeSla grZeldeba, Tundac xelSeSla usasrulodgrZeldebodes, xolo xelSeSlis aRkveTis Semdeg negatorulisarCelis wardgena SeuZlebelia. am SemTxvevaSi mesakuTres uflebaaqvs moiTxovos zianis anazRaureba.sarCelis xandazmulobassk muxli 1281. sxva pirisagan raime moqmedebis Sesrulebis an moqmedebisagan TavisSekavebis moTxovnis uflebaze vrceldeba xandazmuloba.2. xandazmulobis vada ar vrceldeba:a. pirad araqonebriv uflebebze, Tu kanoniT sxva ram ar arisgaTvaliswinebuli;b. meanabreTa moTxovnaze banksa da sxva sakredito dawesebulebebSiSetanili anabrebis gamo.g. xandazmulobis saerTo vada Seadgens 10 wels.ssk muxli 1291. saxelSekrulebo moTxovnebis xandazmulobis vada Seadgens sam wels,xolo uZrav nivTebTan dakavSirebuli saxelSekrulebo moTxovnebisa _eqvs wels.2. xandazmulobis vada im moTxovnebisa, romlebic warmoiSobaperiodulad Sesasrulebeli valdebulebebidan, sami welia.3. calkeul SemTxvevebSi kanoniT SeiZleba gaTvaliswinebul iqnesxandazmulobis sxva vadebic.61


magaliTi 1a-m 2002 wlis 6 agvistos sarCeli aRZra b-sa da g-s mimarT da moiTxova1996 wlis 7 ivniss dadebuli binis nasyidobis xelSekrulebis baTilad cnobaSemdeg garemoebaTa gamo: b warmoadgenda a-s meuRles. b-sa da g-s Sorisdaido binis nasyidobis xelSekruleba, romelic fiqtiuri iyo da aremsaxureboda iuridiuli Sedegis dadgomas. g-m sarCeli ar cno da miuTiTa,rom nasyidobis xelSekruleba daido b-s mier g-sgan nasesxebi 2300 aSSdolaris sanacvlod. sakasacio sasmarTlom moTxovna xandazmulad miiCnia daganmarta, rom a-m sadavo nasyidobis xelSekrulebis dadebis Taobaze SeityoxelSekrulebis dadebis dros, Sesabamisad, kanoniT dadgenili eqvswlianixandazmulobis vada sarCelis Setanis droisaTvis ukve gasulad undaCaiTvalos. aRniSnul garemoebebze dayrdnobiT sasamarTlom gamoiyenasamoqalaqo kodeqsis 129-e muxlis pirveli nawili, romlis Tanaxmad, uZravnivTebTan dakavSirebuli saxelSekrulebo moTxovnebis xandazmulobis vadaSeadgens eqvs wels. amave kodeqsis 130-e muxlis Sesabamisad, xandazmulobaiwyeba moTxovnis warmoSobis momentidan. moTxovnis warmoSobis momentadCaiTvleba dro, roca pirma Seityo an unda Seetyo uflebis darRvevisSesaxeb. samoqalaqo kodeqsi xandazmulobis vadebs adgens im mizniT, rom amvadebSi pirma moiTxovos darRveuli uflebis iZulebiT ganxorcieleba. esSesaZlebloba ki pirs ekargeba moTxovnis xandazmulobis vadis gasvliT.ssk muxli 130xandazmuloba iwyeba moTxovnis warmoSobis momentidan. moTxovniswarmoSobis momentad CaiTvleba dro, roca pirma Seityo an undaSeetyo uflebis darRvevis Sesaxeb.ssk muxli 1401. sarCelis Setana xandazmulobis vadis denis Sewyvetas ar gamoiwvevs,Tu mosarCele uars ityvis sarCelze an sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSiSesuli gadawyvetilebiT sarCeli ganuxilvelad iqneba datovebuli.magaliTi 22001 wlis 28 agvistos a-m sarCeliT mimarTa b-s da moiTxova binis qiris800 aSS dolaris gadaxdis dakisreba. aRniSnuli saqme 2002 wlis 8 ianvrisganCinebiT ganuxilvelad iqna datovebuli. a-m axali sarCeli aRZra 2004wlis 5 noembers. ssk-is 129-e muxlis me-2 nawilis mixedviT, xandazmulobisvada im moTxovnebisa, romlebic warmoiSoba periodulad Sesasrulebelivaldebulebebidan, sami welia. amave kodeqsis 130-e muxlis Tanaxmad ki,xandazmuloba iwyeba moTxovnis warmoSobis momentidan. moTxovniswarmoSobis momentad CaiTvleba dro, roca pirma Seityo an unda Seetyouflebis darRvevis Sesaxeb. gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi kasators moTxovnisufleba warmoeSva 2000 wlis seqtemberSi. ssk-is 140-e muxlis pirveli nawilismixedviT, sarCelis Setana xandazmulobis vadis denis Sewyvetas argamoiwvevs, Tu mosarCele uars ityvis sarCelze an sasamarTlos kanonierZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT sarCeli darCeba ganuxilveli. rogorccnobilia, mxares dadgenil vadaSi ar Seutania kerZo saCivari 2002 wlis 8ianvris ganCinebaze da amdenad, gasaCivrebisaTvis dadgenili TormetdRianivadis gasvlis Semdeg igi kanonier ZalaSi Sevida. aqedan gamomdinare,xandazmulobis samwliani vada amoiwura 2003 wlis seqtemberSi, a-m ki axalisarCeli saerTo wesiT aRZra 2004 wlis 5 noembers. amdenad, sakasaciopalatam a-s moTxovna miiCnia xandazmulad da ar daakmayofila.62


komentari:sasarCelo xandazmuloba gulisxmobs dros, romlis ganmavlobaSipirs SeuZlia moiTxovos Tavisi darRveuli uflebis aRdgena.xandazmulobis Semofargvla drois periodulobiT, sasamarTlopraqtikidan gamomdinare, mraval mizezs ukavSirdeba:1. xandazmulobis vada sasamarTlos umsubuqebs faqtebis dadgenisada Seswavlis process da am gziT xels uwyobs dasabuTebuligadawyvetilebis gamotanas; 2. xels uwyobs samoqalaqo brunvisstabilizacias; 3. aZlierebs samoqalaqo samarTlebrivi urTierTobissubieqtebis urTierTkontrolsa da iZleva darRveuli uflebisdauyovnebliv aRdgenis stimulizacias. xandazmulobis vadiswarmoSobis safuZvelia uflebis darRveva, Tumca vadis aTvla ar xdebauflebis darRvevis momentidan. misi aTvla iwyeba im momentidan, rocapirma Seityo an unda Seetyo uflebis darRvevis Sesaxeb.xandazmulobis saerTo vadaa aTi weli. aRniSnulixandazmulobis vada dadgenilia yvela im urTierTobisaTvis,romlisTvisac kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs specialurxandazmulobis vadas. specialuri xandzmulobis vadis dadgena kiSesaZlebelia kanoniT.xandazmulobis cneba mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli sarCelisaRZvris uflebasTan. sssk-is me-2 muxli uzrunvelyofs yoveli pirisuflebas, mimarTos sasamarTlos sakuTari uflebebis dasacad. aq arigulisxmeba mxolod araxandazmul moTxovnebi. pirs sasamarTlowesiT nebismieri darRveuli uflebis aRdgenis moTxovnisSesaZlebloba aqvs. Tumca sarCelis ufleba 2 nawilisagan Sedgeba:sarCelis aRZvrisa da sarCelis dakmayofilebis uflebebisagan.xandazmulobis vadac swored sarCelis dakmayofilebis uflebazevrceldeba da ara sarCelis aRZvraze.sasamarTlo praqtikisaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvsxandazmulobis vadis gamoyenebis safuZvels; xandazmulobis vadazeunda miuTiTos mxarem da ara sasamarTlom Tavisi iniciativiT, es imasniSnavs, rom mxares unda ekavos aqtiuri pozicia xandazulobissakiTxebTan mimarTebiT. amaze metyvelebs Tundac is garemoeba, rom masSemdeg, rac mxare miuTiTebs xandazmulobis vadaze, Semdeg ukvesasamarTlos kompetencias warmoadgens xandazmulobis vadis gamoTvla,agreTve imis dadgena, xom ar iyo am periodSi xandazmulobis vadaSewyvetili da a. S. aRniSnuli momdinareobs mxareTa SejibrebiTobisprincipidan, vinaidan, Tu erT mxares eniWeba darRveuli uflebissasamarTlo wesiT dacvis SesaZlebloba, meore mxare uflebamosilia,gamoiyenos nebismieri samarTlebrivi meqanizmi mowinaaRmdege mxarispoziciis gasaqarwyleblad, xolo sasamarTlos mxridanxandazmulobis vadaze miTiTebiT, ilaxeba mxaris ufleba, vinaidanaRniSnuli ewinaaRmdegeba mxaris, rogorc uflebis sasamarTlo wesiTdacvis SesaZleblobas, aseve SejibrebiTobis princips.mniSvnelovania aseve sakiTxi imis Taobaze, Tu rogor unda moiqcessasamarTlo, rodesac saqmeSi ramdenime mopasuxea da mxolod erT-erTimaTgani uTiTebs xandazmulobis vadis gaSvebaze. pasuxi calsaxaa:sasamarTlo xandazmulobis sakiTxs wyvets mxolod im mopasuxesTanmimarTebiT, romelmac aRniSnuli moTxovna daayena.63


praqtikisaTvis aseve mniSvnelovania sakiTxi, imis Taobaze, romxandazmulobis vadaze miTiTeba pirvelad sakasacio instanciissasamarTloSi dauSvebelia. aseT dros xandazmulobis vadaze mxarismier miTiTeba SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqmedabrundeba qvemdgomi instanciis sasamarTloSi xelaxlagansaxilvelad.praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT, xandazmulobis vadis sasamarTlowesiT dadgenisaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWebaxandazmulobis warmoSobis momentis garkvevas. ssk-is 130-e muxlisTanaxmad, xandazmuloba iwyeba moTxovnis warmoSobis momentidan.moTxovnis warmoSobis momentad CaiTvleba dro, roca pirma Seityo anunda Seetyo uflebis darRvevis Sesaxeb. e.i. Tu xandazmulobiswarmoSobis momentis dadgena obieqturad SeuZlebelia, yuradReba undamieqces subieqtur moments, amasTan, igulisxmeba, rom xandazmulobiswarmoSobis obieqturi da subieqturi momentebi Tanmxvedria, xolo imSemTxvevaSi, Tu mosarCele ar eTanxmeba xandazmulobis warmoSobisobieqturi da subieqturi momentebis Tanxvedras, maSin mtkicebistvirTi ekisreba mas, imis gasarkvevad, Tu rodidan unda daiwyosxandazmulobis vadis aTvla.satransporto saSualebis eqspluataciisas damdgarizianis anazRaurebassk muxli 9991. mgzavrebis gadayvanisa da tvirTis gadazidvisaTvisgaTvaliswinebuli satransporto saSualebis mflobeli, Tu misisatransorto saSualebis eqspluatacias mohyva adamianis sikvdili,dasaxiCreba an janmrTelobis moSla, anda nivTis dazianeba,valdebulia dazaralebuls aunazRauros aqedan warmoSobili ziani.magaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova miyenebuli zianisanazRaureba im motiviT, rom a SromiT urTierTobaSi iyo b-sTan dasargeblobda mis mier micemuli samgzavro bileTiT. elmavliT erT-erTimgzavrobis dros, maSon rodesac a samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg brundebodasaxlSi, qvis TavSi moxvedris Sedegad miiRo travma da dakarga Sromis unari.a-m b-sgan moiTxova yovelTviuri sarCos anazRaureba. sakasacio palatamaRniSnuli SemTxveva ar miiCnia b-s braliT gamowveul zianad, xolo racSeexeba, rogorc mometebuli safrTxis wyaros mflobelis mier zianisanazRaurebis valdebulebas, sakasacio sasamrTlom ar miiCnia dadmdgariziani mometebuli safrTxis wyaros Sedegad damdgar zianad da ardaakmayofila a-s moTxovna b-s mimarT zianis anazRaurebis Taobaze.64


komentari:SromiTi movaleobis Sesrulebisas muSakis janmrTelobisaTvisvnebis miyenebis Sedegad zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnasTandakavSirebiT ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba saqarTvelos prezidentis 1999wlis 9 oqtombris #48–e brZanebulebiT damtkicebuli ,,Sromismovaleobis Sesrulebisas muSakis janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebisSedegad zianis anazRaurebis wesi~, samoqalaqo kodeqsi da SromiskanonTa kodeqsi.rodesac muSakis janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebis Sedegad zianisanazraurebis moTxovnazea saubari, pirvel rigSi unda gairkves SemdegisakiTxebi:1.miadga Tu ara muSakis janmrTelobas vneba uSualod SromiTimovaleobis Sesrulebis dros da2. bralis sakiTxi.saqarTvelos Sromis kanonTa kodeqsis 155-e muxlis Tanaxmad,sawarmoebi, dawesebulebebi, organizaciebi materialuradpasuxismgeblebi arian muSakTa da mosamsaxureebisaTvis miyenebulizianis gamo, rac gamowveulia SromiTi movaleobis Sesrulebisas maTidasaxiCrebis an janmrTelobis sxvagvari vnebiT.saqarTvelos samoqaloqo kodeqsis 408-e muxlis me-2 nawilis Tanaxmadki, Tu dazaralebuls sxeulis dazianebiT an janmrTelobisaTvisvnebis miyenebis Sedegad, waerTva Sromis unari an Seumcirda, mas undaaunazRaurdes es ziani YyovelTviuri sarCos gadaxdiT.`SromiTi movaleobebis Sesrulebisas muSakis janmrTelobisaTvisvnebis miyenebis Sedegad zianis anazRaurebis wesis Sesaxeb~saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebis me-2 muxlis Sesabamisad,damqiravebeli materialurad pasuxismgebelia muSakisjanmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebis Sedegad zianisaTvis, agreTve, imsawarmoo travmisaTvis, romelic moxda SromiTi movaleobisSesrulebisas organizaciis teritoriaze an mis farglebs gareT,agreTve, samuSaoze an samuSaos Semdeg mgzavrobisas damqiraveblismier gamoyofil transportze. amave brZanebulebis me-3 muxli adgensdamqiraveblis bralis arsebobis aucileblobas zianisanazRaurebisaTvis. aRniSnuli brZanebulebis me-5 muxlSi kiganmartebulia, Tu ra CaiTvleba damqiraveblis braleulobiT damdgarzianad, kerZod: `muSakis janmrTelobisaTvis miyenebuli ziani iTvlebadamqiraveblis braleulobiT, Tu igi moxda misgan Sromiskanonmdeblobis, Sromis dacvis wesebis, normebisa da sxva normatiuliaqtebis moTxovnaTa ugulebelyofiT an arasaTanado SesrulebiT~.Tu muSaki Tavisi movaleobis Sesrulebisas marTavda elmavalsda SromiTi dasaxiCreba miiRo samsaxurebrivi movaleobisSesrulebisas avtosatransporto saSualebis eqspluataciis Sedegadmisi bralis gareSe, muSaks unda aunazRaurdes miyenebuli ziani.avtosatransporto saSualebis mflobeli am SemTxvevaSi calsaxadaris valdebuli aunazRauros muSaks ziani Semdeg garemoebaTa gamo:1. rogorc mometebuli safrTxis wyaros mflobelma, romlisavtosatransporto saSualebis eqspluatacias mohyva muSakisaTviszianis miyeneba (ssk-is 999-e muxli);2. rogorc damqiravebelma, romelic materialurad pasuxismgebeliamuSakis janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebis Sedegad zianisaTvis65


(prezidentis 1999 wlis 9 oqtombris #48–e brZanebulebiTdamtkicebuli ,,SromiTi movaleobis Sesrulebisas muSakisjanmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebis Sedegad zianis anazRaurebiswesis~ me-2 muxli).imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ramdenad ekisreba sawarmos muSakisaTvismgzavrobis dros qvis TavSi moxvedris Sedegad zinis anazRaurebismovaleoba, warmoadgens Tu ara eqspluataciaSi myofi elmavlisfanjaraSi moxvedrili qva, eqspluataciis mometebuli safrTxisSedegs, sakasacio palatam miiCnia, rom samgzavro ufaso bileTisawarmos mier a-Tvis miniWebuli SeRavaTi iyo. samgzavro ufasobileTi warmoadgens samgzavro SeRavaTs, romelic SeiZleba mieceTstudentebs, invalidebs da a. S. igi aRniSnuli SeRavaTis mimniWebeliorganizaciis miTiTebiT, SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas TiTqmis yvelasaxis sazogadoebrivi transportiT sargeblobis dros. ufasosamgzavro bileTi ar iTvleba zemoT xsenebuli brZanebulebiTgaTvaliswinebul `damqiraveblis mier gamoyofili transportiTuzrunvelyofad~. rac Seexeba ssk-is 999-e muxls, aRniSnuli muxlisTanaxmad, mgzavrebis gadayvanisa da tvirTis gadazidvisaTvisgaTvaliswinebuli satransporto saSualebis mflobeli, Tu misisatransporto saSualebis eqspluatacias mohyva adamianis sikvdili,dasaxiCreba an janmrTelobis moSla, anda nivTis dazianeba,valdebulia dazaralebuls aunazRauros aqedan warmoSobili ziani.fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebi, romlebic iyeneben mometebulisafrTxis wyaroebs, valdebuli arian aanazRauron ziani, romelicmiyenebulia mometebuli safrTxis wyaros mier; satransportosaSualeba mometebul safrTxis wyaros miekuTvneba imis gamo, romadamianis mxridan misi gamoyenebis dros sruli da garantirebulikontrolis ganxorcieleba SeuZlebelia da eqspluataciis drosadamianis janmrTelobisaTvis zianis miyenebis garkveuli SesaZleblobaarsebobs.is specialuri norma, romelic mocemuli safrTxis wyaros miermiyenebuli zianis anazRaurebas iTvaliswinebs, gamoiyeneba imSemTxvevaSi, rodesac ziani gamowveulia nivTis im TvisebebiT, risgamoc is mometebul safrTxis wyaros ganekuTvneba, Tu ziani damdgariaTundac mometebuli safrTxis wyaros eqspluataciis dros, magram aramometebuli safrTxis wyaros Tvisebebidan gamomdinare, maSinpasuxismgeblobis dakisreba saerTo safuZvlebiT xdeba. ssk-is 999-emuxli satransporto saSualebis mflobels mxolod im SemTxvevaSiakisrebs pasuxismgeblobas, Tu darRveulia eqspluataciis wesebi.sakasacio palatas miaCnia, rom damqiravebels muSakisaTvis mometebulisafrTxis wyarodan miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba ekisreba imSemTxvevaSi, rodesac ziani warmoiSveba im mizezTa gamo, ris gamocaRniSnuli mometebul safrTxis wyarod miiCneva anu Sedegi,yovelgvari gare faqtorebis zemoqmedebis gareSe, uSualo SedegobrivkavSirSi unda iyos safrTxis mometebis gamomwvev mizezebTan. amSemTxvevaSi ziani gareSe faqtoris zemoqmedebis Sedegad dadga anukasators ziani garedan nasroli qvis Sedegad miadga, racavtosatransporto saSualebis mfloblis pasuxismgeblobisgamomricxveli garemoebaa.66


dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebasssk muxli 241dauswrebeli gadawyvetileba unda gauqmdes da saqmis ganxilvaganaxldes, Tu arsebobs 233-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlebi, anTu mxaris gamoucxadebloba gamowveuli iyo sxva sapatio mizeziT,romlis Sesaxebac mas ar SeeZlo Tavis droze ecnobebinasasamarTlosaTvis.sssk muxli 2331. sasamarTlos dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotana dauSvebelia,Tu:a) gamoucxadebeli mxare mowveuli ar iyo 70-78-e muxlebiT dadgeniliwsiT:b) sasamarTlosaTvis cnobili gaxda, rom adgili hqonda dauZlevelZalas an sxva movlenebs, romlebsac SeeZloT xeli SeeSalaTsasamarTloSi mxaris droulad gamocxadebisaTvis;g) gamoucxadebel mxares droulad ar ecnoba saqmis faqtobrivigaremoebebis Sesaxeb;d) ar arsebobs sarCelis aRZvris winapirobebi.2. am muxlis pirveli nawilis `a~, `b~ dan `g~ qvepunqtebSi miTiTebulierT-erTi garemobis arsebobisas sasamarTlo saqmis ganxilvas sxvadroisaTvis niSnavs, ris Sesaxebac atyobinebs gamoucxadebel mxares dasaqmeSi monawile sxva pirebs, xolo `d~ qvepunqtSi miTiTebulisarCelis aRZvris winapirobebis arsebobisas, sasamarTlo Sewyvetssaqmis warmoebas 272-e muxlis Sesabamisad.magaliTi 1a-m quTaisis saolqo sasamarTloSi sarCeli aRZra b-s winaaRmdeg damoiTxova janmrTelobis vnebiT miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba 20 000 larierTdroulad da 100 lari yovelTviurad. sxdomaze ar gamocxadda b. b-swarmomadgenelma procesis dawyebamde (procesi CaniSnuli iyo 12 saaTze)warmoadgina gancxadeba da moiTxova saqmis ganxilvis sxva droisaTvisgadadeba im motiviT, rom igi imave dRes monawileobas iRebda saqarTvelosuzenaes sasamarTloSi sisxlis samarTlis procesSi. quTaisis saolqosasamarTlom b-s warmomadgenlis gancxadeba ar miiCnia sapatiod, vinaidangancxadebas ar erTvoda ganmcxadeblis gamoucxadeblobis mizezisdamadasturebeli dokumenti. amitom kolegiam daakmayofila a-s Suamdgomlobadauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotanis Taobaze da 2005 wlis 18 Tebervlisdauswrebeli gadawyvetilebiT a-s sarCeli daakmayofila. b-s daakisraerTdroulad 20 000 larisa da yovelTviurad 100 laris gadaxda. miuxedavadimisa, rom mxarem warmoadgina cnoba, romelic adastirebda mis gancxadebaSimiTiTebul garemoebebs, aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba ZalaSi darCa imavesasamarTlos 2005 wlis 30 martis ganCinebiT, rac sakasacio wesiT gasaCivrdauzenaes sasamarTloSi. sakasacio palatam miaCnia, rom quTaisis saolqosasamarTlos 2005 wlis 18 Tebervlis dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebiT Seilaxamxaris sasamarTlo mosmenis ufleba, vinaidan sasamarTlom dauswrebeligadawyvetileba gamoitana iseT pirobebSi, rodesac misTvis cnobili iyomxaris gamocxadebisaTvis damabrkolebeli garemoebebis arsebobis Sesaxeb, damiuxedavad imisa, rom mxarem warmoadgina sapatio mizezis arsebobisdamadasturebeli mtkicebuleba, sasamarTlom es garemoeba ar gaiTvaliswina.67


komentari:saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 241-e muxlis Tanaxmad,dauswrebeli gadawyvetileba unda gauqmdes da saqmis ganxilvaganaxldes, Tu arsebobs 233-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlebi an,Tu mxaris gamoucxadebloba gamowveuli iyo sxva sapatio mizeziT,romlis Sesaxebac mas ar SeeZlo Tavis droze ecnobebinasasamarTlosaTvis.amave kodeqsis 233-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `b~ punqtisTanaxmad, sasamarTlos dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotanadauSvebelia, Tu sasamarTlosaTvis cnobili gaxda, rom adgili hqondadauZlevel Zalas an sxva movlenebs, romlebsac SeeZloT xeliSeeSalaT sasamarTloSi mxaris droulad gamocxadebisaTvis.zemoaRniSnuli muxlebis axsna-ganmartebidan naTlad Cans, rommxaris gamoucxadeblobis sapatiod miCnevisaTvis ar aris dauZleveliZalis arseboba savaldebulo, aramed Tundac mxolod `sxva movlenis~arseboba, rasac mxaris gamocxadebisaTvis xelis SeSla SeeZlo,sakmarisia sxdomis gadadebisaTvis. Tu sasamarTlosaTvis cnobiligaxdeba mxaris gamoucxadeblobis damabrkolebeli gareoebebisarsebobis Sesaxeb, man unda uzrunvelyos samarTlianisamarTalwarmoebis konstituciuri principis – dispoziciurobis –dacva da unda misces mxares saqmeSi monawileobis miRebisSesaZlebloba, Tundac mas eWvi eparebodes mxaris gamoucxadeblobismizezebis sapatioobaSi. aRniSnuli gamomdinareobs dauswrebeligadawyvetilebis, rogorc saproceso dasjis meqanizmis, arsidan.dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotana mxolod maSin arismizanSewonili, rodesac mxare Tavisi moqmedebiT an umoqmedobiT uarsganacxadebs saproceso TanamSromlobaze, anu rodesac mas aqvsprocesze gamocxadebis SesaZlebloba, magram ar aqvs neba. sakasaciopalata Tvlis, rom im pirobebSi, rodesac saxezea mopasuxis aSkaradgamoxatuli neba monawileoba miiRos saqmis ganxilvaSi, magram amasxels uSlis garemoebebi, romelic SesaZloa misi uneburi SecdomiT,gaufrTxileblobiT aris gamowveuli, mis winaaRmdeg dauswrebeligadawyvetilebis miReba dauSvebelia. amgvari gadawyvetilebisgasaCivrebis SemTxvevaSi gamoucxadebloba unda CaiTvalos sapatiodda dauswrebeli gadawyvetileba gauqmdes.sakasacio palatas miaCnia, rom dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebismiRebis erT-erT pirobas imis varaudic warmoadgens, rom mopasuxemcno sarCeli, amitom dakarga interesi, rom daicvas Tavi. dauswrebeligadawyvetilebis gamotana im mopasuxis winaaRmdeg, romelicsasamarTlos Seuqmnis rwmenas, rom mopasuxem cno sarCeli da dakargasarCelisagan Tavis dacvis interesi, logikuri da gamarTlebulia,magram im mopasuxis winaaRmdeg, romlis gamoucxadeblobamacsasamarTlos ver Seuqmna amgvari rwmena, dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebisgamotana gaumarTlebelia.mocemul SemTxvevaSi saolqo sasamarTlosaTvis cnobili iyo,rogorc mopasuxis gamoucxadeblobis mizezebis, aseve _ misi nebisSesaxeb, raTa monawileoba mieRo saqmis ganxilvaSi da sarCelSimiTiTebuli argumentebis sawinaaRmdegod daeyenebina TavisimoTxovnebi.68


sakasacio palatas miaCnia, rom mxares gaaCnda samoqalaqosaproceso kodeqsis 241-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva sapatiomizezi, ris safuZvelzec saolqo sasamarTlos dauswrebeligadawyvetileba unda gaeuqmebina.araqonebrivi zianisaTvis fuladi anazRaurebassk muxli 4131. araqonebrivi zianisaTvis fuladi anazRaureba SeiZlebamoTxovil iqnes mxolod kanoniT zustad gansazRvrul SemxvevebSigonivruli da samarTliani anazRaurebis saxiT.2. sxeulis dazianebis an janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebisSemTxvevebSi dazaralebuls SeuZlia moiTxovos anazRaureba qonebrivizianisTvisac.magaliTi 1a-m sasamarTloSi sarCeli aRZra gazeT X-sa da Jurnalist b-s winaaRmdegda moiTxova moraluri zianis saxiT 7000 laris anazRaureba SemdeggaremoebaTa gamo:igi cnobil iqna dazaralebulad sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze,romliTac g-s daedo msjavri sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 19-137-e muxlismesame nawiliT, 188-e muxlis pirveli nawiliT da Seefarda TavisuflebisaRkveTa 4 wliT. dazaralebulis SuamdgomlobiT yvela sxdoma Catardadaxurulad.aRniSnul faqtTan dakavSirebiT gazeT X-is Jurnalisti b-s miergamoqveynda statia saTauriT – „gaupatiurebis mcdeloba gansakuTrebulisisastikiT“. mosarCelis azriT aRniSnuli publikaciiT JurnalistmadaarRvia saqarTvelos konstituciiT, sk-is 413-e da sisxlis samarTliskodeqsis me-12, me-13 muxlebiT daculi misi uflebebi.komentari:araqonebrivi zianis anazRaurebasTan dakavSirebul davebSigansakuTrebiT didia sasamarTlos roli, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, romkanonmdebloba ar adgens arc araqonebrivi zianis cnebas da arc misiodenobis gamoTvlis raime wess, am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo praqtikisgaazreba gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens.Tavisi arsiT araqonebrivi anu moraluri ziani aris fizikuri dafsiqologiuri tanjva, romelsac piri ganicdis ama Tu im sikeTis,umeteswilad ki aramaterialur faseulobaTa xelyofis gamo.vsaubrobT ra araqonebriv zianze, mxedvelobaSia misaRebi konkretulisazogadoebis moraluri standartebi.samoqalaqo kodeqsi gansazRvravs moraluri zianis anazRaurebisnormatiul safuZvlebs.konkretul SemTxvevaSi, sagazeTo publikaciaSi seqsualuriZaladobis Sesaxeb utyuari cnobebi gamoqveynda, magram dazaralebulis69


saxelis srulad gamoyenebiT Seilaxa misi piradi cxovrebissaidumloeba, romelic konstituciuri Tavisuflebaa.kanoni icavs pirovnebas piradi cxovrebis saidumloebisxelyofisagan da ara obieqts, anu piradi cxovrebis saidumloebas.aqedan gamomdinare, piradi cxovrebis uflebis darRveva ar xdebamxolod yalbi cnobebis gamoqveynebiT, aramed maSinac roca isinisinamdviles Seesabameba, magram maTi sajaroobidan dacva piriscxovrebiseul interesSi Sedis. am SemTxvevaSi piradi cxovrebisTavisufleba zRudavs gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. yvela piris azrebi daemociebi daculia da misi nebis gareSe pirad cxovrebaSi SeWra misiuflebebis xelyofaa.qonebrivi zianisagan gansxvavebiT, SedarebiT ufro rTulidasadgenia, Tu ra odenobiT unda anazRaurdes moraluri ziani. amSemTxvevaSi xom ilaxeba piris sulieri faseulobebi, aramaterialurisikeTe, romelic Tavis mxriv, Seufasebeli kategoriaa.samoqalaqo kodeqsi adgens, rom araqonebrivi ziani undaanazRaurdes gonivruli da samarTliani anazRaurebis saxiT. Tu raiTvleba gonivrul da samarTlian anazRaurebad faqtis sakiTxia damisi dadgena mTlianad sasamarTlos mixedulobazea damokidebuli.SeuZlebelia anazRaurebis mizani iyos zianis srulikompensireba. fuladi kompensacia am SemTxvevaSi ufro usiamovnogancxadebis gaqarwylebiskenaa mimarTuli. bunebrivia, araqonebrivizianis anazRaurebis odenobis gansazRvrisas mxedvelobaSi unda iqnasmiRebuli konkretuli piris damokidebuleba Tavisi uflebisxelyolfisadmi, magram amasTan, sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi undamiiRos sxva ufro obieqturi garemoebebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, yalbida saxelis gamtexi cnobebis simZime da misi gavrcelebis farglebi.SesaZlebelia pirs erTi qmedebiT miadges rogorc qonebrivi, isearaqonebrivi ziani, kanonmdebloba orive maTganis anazRaurebisSesaZleblobas iTvaliswinebs. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sakasaciopalatam araerTxel ganmarta Semdegi:moraluri zianis anazRaurebis moculobas gansazRvravssasamarTlo mosarCelis moTxovnis safuZvelze. mosarCeleuflebamosilia sasarCelo gancxadebaSi miuTiTos fuladi Tanxa,miyenebuli sulieri Tu fizikuri tkivilis kompensaciisaTvis, magrames moTxovna mosarCelis mxolod mosazrebaa da anazRaurebismoculobis gansazRvra sasamarTlos mixedulobiT unda gadawydes.moraluri zianis anazRaurebas akisria sami funqcia:pirveli _ daakmayofilos dazaralebuli; meore _ zemoqmedebamoaxdinos zianis mimyenebelze; mesame _ Tavidan aicilos pirovnuliuflebebis xelyofa sxva pirebis mier.moraluri zianis anazRaurebis umTavres mizans ar Seadgensxelyofili uflebebis restitucia, radgan miyenebul zians fuladiekvivalenti ar gaaCnia da SeuZlebelia misi sruli kompensacia. ZalianxSirad damdgari Sedegebis gamosworeba Seuqcevadi movlenaa darogori didic ar unda iyos kompensacia, igi mainc ver aRudgensdazaralebuls xelyofamde arsebul sulier mdgomareobas.kompensaciis mizania mosarCelis gamarTleba sazogadoebis TvalSi damoraluri zianiT gamowveuli tkivilis Semsubuqeba. kompensaciamimarTulia uaryofiTi emociebis gasaqarwyleblad.70


moraluri zianis anazRaurebis prevenciuli funqciisganxorcielebisaTvis mniSvneloba eniWeba iseT faqtors, rogoricaasamarTaldarRvevis ganmeorebis saSiSroeba zianis mimyeneblis mier,magram prevenciuli funqciis gadametebam SesaZloa gamoiwvios fuladikompensaciis uzomod gazrda da presis Tavisuflebis dausabuTebeliSezRudva.kompensaciis odenoba usaSvelod ar unda iyos gazrdili da arunda mowydes realobas, misi mizani ar unda iyos mopasuxis dasja, risgamoc kompensaciis gansazRvris dros gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyosmopasuxis qonebrivi mdgomareobac.bemuxli 421. cnebabed miiCneva fuladi Tanxa, romelsac xelSekrulebis erTi mxareaZlevs meore mxares da amiT dasturdeba xelSekrulebis dadebisfaqti.muxli 422. bes CaTvla gadasaxadis angariSSibe CaiTvleba valdebulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli gadasaxdelisangariSSi, xolo, Tu ar CaiTvleba,- xelSekrulebis Sesrulebis Semdegigi ukan unda dabrundes.muxli 423. bes CaTvla zianis anazRaurebis angariSSi1. Tu bes mimcemi braleulad daarRvevs masze dakisrebulvaldebulebas, be rCeba mis mimRebs. amasTan, be CaiTvleba zianisanazRaurebis angariSSi.2. Tu valdebulebis Seusrulebloba gamowveulia bes mimRebisbraleuli moqmedebiT, man be ukan unda daabrunos ormagad. amasTan,bes mimcems SeuZlia moiTxovos zianis anazRaureba.magaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova ZiriTadivalis 1500 aSS dolaris dabruneba. mosarCelem ganmarta, rom mas surdamopasuxisagan binis Sesyidva, risTvisac winaswar gadaixada 1500 aSS dolari.aRniSnuli xelSekruleba, mopasuxis moTxovniT, notariuli wesiT gaformda,rogorc vadiani uprocento sesxis xelSekruleba. sesxis xelSekrulebisvadis gasvlis Semdeg mopasuxem mosarCeles arc bina mihyida da arc fulidaubruna.mopasuxem sarCeli ar cno da miuTiTa, rom mosarCele marTlacapirebda misi kuTvnili saxlis 15 000 aSS dolarad Sesyidvas, raSic bessaxiT winaswar gadaixada 1500 aSS dolari, magram be ratomRac gaformdasesxis saxiT. saxlis gayidvaze mas uari arasdros ganucxadebia, magram,miuxedavad amisa, mosarCelem saxli ar SeiZina.sasamarTlom aRniSnuli Tanxa miiCnia bed saTanado formis dacvisgareSe, Tumca, mxareebs Soris dadebuli xelSekruleba baTilad CaTvalarogorc formis daucvelad dadebuli (ssk-is 50-e muxli) da rogorc71


TvalTmaqcuri (ssk-is 56-e muxlis me-2 nawili). sasamarTlom ixelmZRvanelasamoqalaqo kodeqsis 976-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `a~ punqtiT, romlisTanaxmadac pirs, romelmac sxvas valdebulebis Sesasruleblad raimegadasca, SeuZlia, viTom kreditors mosTxovos misi ukan dabruneba, Tuvaldebuleba garigebis baTilobis an sxva safuZvlis gamo ar arsebobs damosarCelis moTxovna daakmayofila.magaliTi 2a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da miuTiTa, rom igi b-savtomanqana „toiotas“ nasyidobis Taobaze SeuTanxmda. a-m SeTanxmebisamebr,winaswar gadaixada 1700 aSS dolari, xolo darCenili 800 dolari or TveSimanqaniT sargeblobiT miRebuli Semosavlidan unda gadaexada. a-sgancxadebiT, avtomanqanis wayvanidan meore dResve aRmoCnda, rom manqanateqnikurad gaumarTavi iyo, risTvisac a-m garkveuli periodis gasvlis Semdegmanqana saremontod profilaqtikaSi miiyvana. saremonto samuSaoebis dros b-mZaliT waiyvana avtomanqa. a-m moiTxova gadaxdili 1800 dolaris dabruneba.b-m Segebebuli sarCeli aRZra da aRniSna, rom manqana unaklo iyo. manmoiTxova gadaxdili 1700 aSS dolaris bed CaTvla da misTvis datoveba a-smxridan xelSekrulebiT SeTanxmebuli pirobebis darRvevis gamo.sasamarTlom aRniSnuli xelSekruleba miiCnia ganvadebiT nasyidobisxelSekrulebad da ara bes Sesaxeb aqcesorul xelSekrulebad.sasamarTlom ganvadebiT dadebul xelSekrulebasa da b-s Taobazedadebul xelSekrulebas Soris gaavlo zRvari da aRniSna, rom samoqalaqokodeqsis 421-e muxlis Tanaxmad, bed miiCneva fuladi Tanxa, romelsacxelSekrulebis erTi mxare aZlevs meore mxares da amiT dasturdebaxelSekrulebis dadebis faqti. gansaxilveli normis Tanaxmad, be warmoadgensxelSekrulebis dadebis faqtis mtkicebulebas, romelic amavdrouladuzrunvelyofs ZiriTadi valdebulebis Sesrulebas. amdenad, be damatebiTi,aqcesoruli xelSekrulebaa, romelic ar arsebobs ZiriTadi valdebulebisgareSe da aramarto adasturebs mxareTa Soris ZiriTadi uflebavaldebulebebisarsebobis faqts, aramed uzrunvelyofs valdebulebebisSesrulebas. gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi ki ZiriTadi valdebulebaSesrulebulia, anu manqana gadacemulia myidvelisaTvis da darCeniliamyidvelis mxridan gamyidvelisaTvis nawili Tanxis gadaxda. amdenad,sasamarTlom daakmayofila a-s moTxovna da b-s daekisra a-s mier misTvisgadaxdili Tanxis ukan dabruneba, Sesabamisad, ar daakmayofila b-s moTxovnaaRniSnuli Tanxis bed miCnevisa da misTvis datovebis Taobaze.komentari:be warmoadgens moTxovnis uzrunvelyofis erT-erT damatebiTsaSualebas. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 421-e muxlis Tanaxmad,bed miiCneva fuladi Tanxa, romelsac xelSekrulebis erTi mxareaZlevs meore mxares da amiT dasturdeba xelSekrulebis dadebisfaqti. imisaTvis, rom erTi mxaris mier meore mxarisaTvis gadacemulifuladi Tanxa miviCnioT bed, aucilebelia, rom aRniSnulisamarTalurTierToba akmayofilebdes Semdeg pirobebs: 1. be SeiZlebaiyos mxolod fuladi Tanxa, anu fulis gansazRvruli raodenoba,amitom kreditorisaTvis sxva qonebrivi sikeTis gadacema ar ganixilebabed. dReisaTvis `fuladi Tanxa~ gamoiyeneba uSualod fulis, anubanknotebisa da monetebis mniSvnelobiT; 2. bes saSualebiT SeiZlebamxolod saxelSekrulebo valdebulebis uzrunvelyofa.72


e gadaicema gadasaxdeli Tanxis angariSSi. amitom igi CaiTvlebamisi saSualebiT uzrunvelyofili valdebulebis Sesrulebisas. Tavadbe ar warmoadgens ZiriTadi valdebulebis Sesrulebas. Tu movalemdaiwyo ZiriTadi valdebulebis Sesruleba, Tundac arajerovnad, bexdeba Sesrulebis nawili da, aqedan gamomdinare, unda CaiTvalosnawilobriv gadaxdad.bes gadacema xdeba xelSekrulebis dadebis dasadastureblad. amfunqcias asrulebs mxolod gadacemuli be. gadacemulad undaCaiTvalos be, romelic gadaeca kreditors.qonebis gadacema xelSekrulebis dadebisas aris garigeba,romelic iwvevs saxelSekrulebo urTierTobis warmoSobas. zogadiwesis mixedviT, qonebis gadacemis faqtis dadastureba realurixelSekrulebis dadebisas eqvemdebareba am xelSekrulebis formisadmiwayenebul moTxovnebs.be unda ganvasxvavoT avansisagan, anu gadaxdisagan, romelicxorcieldeba valdebulebis Sesrulebis saxiT manam, sanam meore mxareSeasrulebs Semxvedr valdebulebas. xSirad avansis nacvladgamoiyeneba termini `winaswari gadaxda~. avansis gadacema ar axdensgavlenas xelSekrulebis namdvilobaze. avansis bedi wydebavaldebulebis Sesrulebis Sesaxeb zogadi wesebis mixedviT.valdebulebis Seusruleblobisas, avansi eqvemdebareba dabrunebas.avansis datoveba im mxaris mier, romelmac ar Seasrula valdebuleba,ganixileba usafuZvlo gamdidrebad.Tu arsebobs eWvi imis Sesaxeb, gadaxdili Tanxa bea Tu avansi,ivaraudeba, rom igi warmoadgens avanss. sapirispiro prezumfciagaumarTlebelia, radgan gamoiwvevda mxareebis mdgomareobis damZimebasmaTi nebis sawinaaRmdegod. garda amisa, kanonmdeblis poziciamimarTulia samoqalaqo brunvis gamartivebisaken da Tu araadadasturebuli sawinaaRmdego, ivaraudeba, rom mxareebi irCeven ufromartiv da Cveul formas (avanss) da ara ufro rTuls.Tu valdebulebis Seusruleblobaze pasuxismgebelia bes mimcemi,bed gadacemuli fuladi Tanxa rCeba meore mxares, xolo, Tuvaldebulebis darRvevaze pasuxismgebelia bes mimRebi, igi valdebuliameore mxares ormagad gadauxados be. unda aRiniSnos, rom aRniSnuliwesebi moqmedebs mxolod maSin, roca mxareebi saerTod ar asrulebenvaldebulebas da ar vrceldeba arajerovan Sesrulebaze.valdebulebis Seusrulebloba, bunebrivia, iwvevs zianisanazRaurebasac. be CaiTvleba zianis anazRaurebis TanxaSi. es niSnavs,rom, Tu valdebulebis Seusruleblobaze pasuxismgebelia bes mimcemi,man ziani unda aanazRauros im odenobiT, ra odenobiTac aRemateba besTanxas, xolo, Tu pasuxismgebelia bes mimRebi, meore mxares SeuZliamoiTxovos bes ormagad gadaxda da, garda amisa, zianis anazRaureba imodenobiT, ra odenobiTac igi aRemateba bes erTjerad Tanxas. amSemTxvevebSi ZiriTadi valdebuleba wydeba.realurad saqarTveloSi besTan dakavSirebuli davebis simravlemganapiroba erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibeba.aRniSnuli kategoriis davebze saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlossamoqalaqo, samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeTa palatam ganmartaSemdegi:73


e warmoadgens xelSekrulebis dadebis faqtis mtkicebulebas,romelic amavdroulad uzrunvelyofs ZiriTadi valdebulebisSesrulebas. amdenad, be damatebiTi, aqcesoruli xelSekrulebaa,romelic ar arsebobs ZiriTadi valdebulebis gareSe da aramartoadasturebs mxareTa Soris ZiriTadi ufleba-valdebulebebis arsebobisfaqts, aramed uzrunvelyofs valdebulebebis Sesrulebas. sakasaciopalatam ganmarta, rom be nasyidobis xelSekrulebis nawilia, misigadacemiT dasturdeba mxareTa Soris nasyidobis xelSekrulebisdadeba da amitom igi gaformebuli unda iyos iseTive formiT, rogorcnasyidobis xelSekruleba. bes gadacema warmoadgens winarexelSekrulebas, romelic win uswrebs ZiriTad nasyidobisxelSekrulebas. sk-is 327-e muxlis III nawilis mixedviT,xelSekrulebisTvis gaTvaliswinebuli forma vrceldeba aseve winarexelSekrulebazedac. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, ZiriTadixelSekrulebisaTvis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli formis dacvasavaldebuloa winare xelSekrulebis, mocemul SemTxvevaSi `bes~gacemis gaformebisas. ssk-is 323-e muxlis Tanaxmad, xelSekruleba,romliTac erTi mxare iRebs valdebulebas, uZrav nivTze sakuTrebagadasces sxvas an SeiZinos igi, unda damowmdes sanotaro wesiT. ssk-is59-e muxlis I nawilis mixedviT, baTilia kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuliaucilebeli formis daucvelad dadebuli garigeba. amave kodeqsis 328-emuxlis Sesabamisad, Tu kanoniT xelSekrulebis namdvilobisaTvisdadgenilia gansazRvruli forma, maSin xelSekruleba ZalaSi Sedismxolod am formis Sesaxeb moTxovnis Sesrulebis Semdeg. amdenad, Tumxareebs Soris daideba xelSekruleba uZravi qonebis Sesaxeb, amxelSekrulebis dadebis damadasturebel uzrunvelyofis saSualeba –bes saxiT gadaxdili Tanxa (romelsac sagadamxdelo funqciac akisriasamoqalaqo kodeqsis 416-e da 422-e muxlebi) im formis dacviT undagaformdes, rogor formasac iTvaliswinebs uZravi qonebis nasyidobisxelSekruleba. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, radgan uZravi nivTisnasyidobis xelSekruleba sanotaro wesiT unda damowmdes, amxelSekrulebis dasadastureblad bes gadacema amave wesiT undagaformdes, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, xelSekruleba, saTanado formisdaucvelobis gamo, baTilad CaiTvleba, xolo, Tu aRniSnulixelSekruleba baTilad CaiTvleba, maSin urTierTobismosawesrigeblad gamoiyeneba usafuZvlo gamdidrebis maregulirebelisamarTlebrivi normebi. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 976-e muxlis pirvelinawilis `a~ punqtis Sesabamisad, pirs, romelmac sxvas valdebulebisSesasruleblad raime gadasca, SeuZlia viTom kreditors mosTxovosmisi ukan dabruneba, Tu valdebuleba garigebis baTilobis an sxvasafuZvlis gamo ar arsebobs.74


sxeulis dazianebis an janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebisSedegad materialuri da moraluri zianis anazRaurebamuxli 992. cnebapiri, romelic sxva pirs marTlsawinaaRmdego, ganzraxi angaufrTxilebeli moqmedebiT miayenebs zians, valdebulia aunazRaurosmas es ziani.muxli 413. zianis anazRaureba araqonebrivi zianisaTvis1. araqonebrivi zianisaTvis fuladi anazRaureba SeiZlebamoTxovil iqnes mxolod kanoniT zustad gansazRvrul SemTxvevebSigonivruli da samarTliani anazRaurebis saxiT.2. sxeulis dazianebis an janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebisSemTxvevebSi dazaralebuls SeuZlia moiTxovos anazRaurebaaraqonebrivi zianisTvisac.magaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxovamopasuxisaTvis moraluri zianis saxiT 2000 laris dakisreba.mosarCelem Tavisi moTxovna imiT daasabuTa, b-m mas miayena sxeulisganzrax msubuqi dazianeba. raionuli sasamarTlos ganaCeniT a-saTvisjanmrTelobis ganzrax msubuqi dazianebisaTvis b cnobil iqna damnaSaved dasasjelis saxiT Seefarda jarima, xolo amave raionuli sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebiT masve daekisra a-s sasargeblod materialuri zianis 205laris gadaxda.sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina is garemoeba, rom b-s mis mier CadenilidanaSaulisaTvsi Seefarda sisxlissamrTlebrivi sasjeli, agreTve mopasuxisasaki, socialuri mdgomareoba, is faqti, rom materialuri zianisanazRaurebis saxiT mas ukve dakisrebuli hqonda garkveuli Tanxa damoraluri zianis sakompensaciod daakisra 200 lari.magaliTi 2a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova zianissakompensaciod 3000 laris dakisreba, Semdegi safuZvlebiT: b-m a-s miayenasxeulis mZime dazianeba, ris gamoc mosarCelis janmrTeloba gauaresda damas dasWirda mkurnalobis xarjebis gaReba. raionuli sasamarTlos ganaCeniTb cnobil iqna damnaSaved saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 121-emuxliT da miesaja pirobiTi msjavri 3 wlis vadiT.mopasuxem sarCeli ar cno da ganmarta, rom danaSaulis mizezi iyo a-sbraleuli moqmedeba, ramac mopasuxe miiyvana Zlieri sulieri aRelvebismdgomareobamde. mkurnalobisa da wamlebis Rirebuleba mosarCelemxelovnurad gazarda.sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom zianis anazRaurebis valdebulebis dakisrebada am anazRaurebis moculobis gansazRvra unda momxdariyo mxareTabraleulobis xarisxiT, kerZod, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Seuwyo Tu ara xelidazaralebulis moqmedebam zianis dadgomas da ufro metad romel mxaresmiuZRvoda brali zianis dadgomaSi.magaliTi 3a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi ss `b-s~ mimarT zianis _ 15000 aSSdolaris odenobiT anazRaurebis Sesaxeb, Semdegi safuZvlebiT: ss `b~ kaxeTis75


gzatkecilis saval nawilze awarmoebda saremonto-sareabilitaciosamuSaoebs, rac amave wlis 31 agvistos droebiT SeCerda. imave dRes 3.45saaTze mosarCele moZraobda ra Tavisi avtomanqaniT daaxloebiT 70kmsiCqariT TbilisSi, kaxeTis gzatkecilze, gzis mesame rigSi, daejaxasaremonto samuSaoebisaTvis iqve dayril qva-RorRs, ris Sedegad mosarCelemda misma meuRlem miiRes sxeulis msubuqi dazianebebi, xolo avtomanqanaimdenad dazianda, rom misi aRdgena SeuZlebeli gaxda. mopasuxem daarRvia`sagzao moZraobis usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 21-e muxlis meTxuTmetepunqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnebi samuSaoTa warmoebis adgilzeSesabamisi sagzao niSnebis, mimaniSnebeli da SesaRobi mowyobilobebis, RamiTda arasakmarisi xilvadobis pirobebSi damatebiTi wiTel-yviTeli sasinaTlonaTurebis damontaJebis Sesaxeb.sasamarTlom zianis anazRaurebis Tanxis odenobis gansazRvrisasgaiTvaliswina is garemoeba, rom avtosagzao SemTxvevas xeli Seuwyodazaralebulis moqmedebamac, romelmac daarRvia `sagzao moZraobisusafrTxoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 29-e muxlis pirveli punqtis moTxovnebi, argaiTvaliswina meteorologiuri pirobebi, ar gauwia mudmivi kontroli misimarTvis qveS myofi avtomanqanis moZraobas, nacvlad 60 km.sT siCqarisa,moZraobda 70 km.sT siCqariT da sasarCelo moTxovna nawilobrivdaakmayofila.magaliTi 4a-m da arasrulwlovan b-s warmomadgenelma g-m sarCeli aRZressasamarTloSi mopasuxe Sps „d-sa“ da ss „e-s“ mimarT janmrTelobisaTvisvnebis miyenebiT gamowveuli materialuri da moraluri zianis anazRaurebisSesaxeb, Semdegi safuZvlebiT: a-s kuTvnil miwis nakveTze aSendaeleqtroqvesadguri. 1965 wlidan, TviTon da misi ojaxis wevrebi dasaqmebuliiyvnen am qvesadgurSi. 1991 wels gardaecvala mama - v, 1998 wels – deda, z.maTi gardacvalebis mizezi iyo gul-sisxlZarRvTa sistemis mwvave daavadeba.garda amisa, v-s dadgenili hqonda filtvebis, xolo z-s _ sarZeve jirkvlebiskibo. amave ojaxSi cxovrobda a-s 14 wlis disSvili b, romelic daavaddamwvave leikoziT. aRniSnuli daavadebebi gamowveulia eleqtroqvesadguriseqspluataciisa da eleqtroenergetikuli danadgarebis teqnikuriusafrTxoebis wesebis darRveviT, ris gamoc isini iZulebuli gaxdnengamoecvalaT sacxovrebeli adgili. qvesadguris mflobelisagan a-s ojaxmaganicada rogorc moraluri, ise materialuri ziani.sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom udavod dadgenili iyo kavSiri mosarCeleTamimarT damdgar ziansa da mopasuxeTa uxeS gaufrTxilebel umoqmedobasSoris da daakmayofila mosarCeleebis moTxovna.komentari:saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 992-e muxli eZRvneba e.wdeliqtur valdebulebebs, romlebic gansakuTrebul jgufadgamoiyofoda jer kidev romis samarTalSi. aRniSnuli valdebulebawarmoiSoba dazaralebulis absoluturi subieqturi samoqalaqouflebebis darRvevis Sedegad, atarebs arasaxelSekrulebo xasiaTs damimarTulia miyenebuli qonebrivi an moraluri zianisanazRaurebisaken. deliqturi valdebulebebi atarebs fardobiTxasiaTs, radganac warmoiSoba zianis miyenebis Sedegad konkretulpirebs Soris, kerZod, dazaralebuls, romelic uflebamosiliamoiTxovos zianis anazRaureba (kreditori) da zianis mimyenebelsSoris, romelic valdebulia aanazRauros ziani (movale).76


ssk-is 992-e muxlis Tanaxmad, anazRaurebas eqvemdebarebanebismieri ziani, miyenebuli moqalaqis pirovnebis an qonebisaTvis,aseve ziani, miyenebuli iuridiuli piris qonebisaTvis.zianis qveS, romelic, rogorc wesi, srulad anazRaurdeba,pirvel rigSi, igulisxmeba, dazaralebulis subieqturi samoqalaqouflebebis darRvevis qonebrivi Sedegebi. amasTan, Tavad darRveuliuflebebi SeiZleba iyos rogorc qonebrivi, ise piradi xasiaTis. zianiSeiZleba gamoixatos dazaralebulis qonebis ganadgurebiT andazianebiT, gaSvebuli mogebis, dazaralebulis mier gamomuSavebisdakargvis an SemcirebiT, misi Sromisunarianobis Semcirebis gamo daa.S. zianis erT-erTi saxea aseve e.w. moraluri ziani, gamoxatulidazaralebulis fizikur an sulier tanjvaSi, misi uflebebisa dakanonieri interesebis darRvevis gamo.zogadi wesis mixedviT, dazaralebuls zians Tavad mimyenebeliunazRaurebs. amasTan, zog SemTxvevaSi zianis anazRaurebisvaldebuleba awevs im pirebs, romlebic Tavad ar arian zianismimyeneblebi, magram pasuxismgebeli arian im piris qmedebaze, romelmacmiayena ziani. aseT SemTxvevebs adgens kanoni, rac gamoricxavsxelSekrulebis saSualebiT SeTanxmebas.deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis erT-erTi principi aris zianissrulad anazRaureba. es niSnavs, rom dazaralebuls undaaunazRaurdes yvela qonebrivi danakargi, rogorc realuri, asevegaSvebuli mogeba. miyenebuli zianis odenobis mtkicebis tvirTi awevsdazaralebuls.am principidan arsebobs gamonaklisebi. rig SemTxvevebSi zianisanazRaureba SeiZleba aRematebodes miyenebul zians an piriqiT,srulad ar faravdes mas. kompensaciis gadaxda miyenebuli zianisaTvisSeiZleba dadgenili iyos kanoniT an xelSekrulebiT. praqtikaSi aseTanazRaurebas adgili aqvs piris janmrTelobisaTvis zianis miyenebis ansxeulis dazianebis SemTxvevaSi.asanazRaurebeli zianis odenobis Semcireba dasaSvebia mxolodkanoniT dadgenil SemTxvevebSi, magram ara xelSekrulebis safuZvelze.es dasaSvebia ukiduresi aucileblobisas zianis miyenebis SemTxvevaSi,aseve dazaralebulis bralis arsebobisas.rac Seexeba moralur zians, Selaxuli sikeTis xasiaTidangamomdinare da sulieri tanjvis xarisxis zustad gansazRvrisSeuZleblobis gamo, ufro marTebulia zianis ara srulad anazRaureba,aramed, misi kompensacia, ramdenadac es SesaZlebelia saerTod.pasuxismgeblobis aucilebeli pirobaa zianis mimyeneblis bralisarseboba. brali gamoixateba ganzraxvis an gaufrTxileblobis formiT,romelic, Tavis mxriv, iyofa Cveulebriv da uxeS gaufrTxileblobad.bralis formas, zogadi wesis mixedviT, zianis anazRaurebisaTvismniSvneloba ara aqvs, garda kanoniT pirdapir gaTvaliswinebuliSemTxvevebisa. mniSvnelovania mxolod is, rom zianis mimyeneblismoqmedeba iyos braleuli. bralis forma ar axdens gavlenaskompensaciis odenobazec.garda amisa, samoqalaqo samarTali uSvebs zianis anazRaurebisvaldebulebis dakisrebas im pirebisaTvis, romlebsac ar miuZRviTbrali damdgar zianSi, radganac es aris gamonaklisi zogadi wesidan,aseTi SemTxvevebi pirdapir unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli kanoniT. maT77


miekuTvneba mometebuli safrTxis wyaros mier miyenebuli ziani, zianismiyeneba ukiduresi aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi da a.Sdeliqturi valdebulebis warmoSobis erT-erTi piroba ariszianis mimyeneblis qmedebis aramarTlzomiereba, raSic igulisxmebasxvisi subieqturi uflebebis yovelgvari darRveva, saTanadouflebamosilebis arqonis SemTxvevaSi. vinaidan aRniSnuli ikrZalebakanoniT, uflebis damrRvevi amavdroulad arRvevs kanons, romelicicavs pirebis uflebebs, Tavisuflebebsa da kanonier interesebs.aramarTlzomieri SeiZleba iyos rogorc moqmedeba, ise umoqmedoba.Tumca, zogjer, ziani dgeba marTlzomieri qmedebis Sedegad.aseTi ziani anazRaurdeba mxolod kanoniT pirdapir gaTvaliswinebulSemTxvevebSi. ase, magaliTad, ar anazRaurdeba aucilebeli mogeriebisSedegad miyenebuli ziani, radganac momgerieblis moqmedeba miCneuliamarTlzomierad. marTlzomieria aseve zianis miyeneba damnaSavisSepyrobisas, xulignobis aRkveTisas, avadmyofi cxovelis Sepyrobisasda a.S. marTlzomieri qmedebis Sedegad damdgari zianis anazRaurebismagaliTi, romelic kanoniTaa gaTvaliswinebuli, aris ukiduresiaucileblobisas miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba.moraluri ziani gansazRvrulia, rogorc fizikuri an sulieritkivili. macalkevebeli kavSiri `an~ uSvebs moraluri zianis arsebobasrogoc mxolod fizikuri an sulieri tkivilisas, ise orivesierTdroulad.moraluri zianis kompensacia, zogadi wesis mixedviT,SesaZlebelia mxolod piradi araqonebrivi uflebebis darRvevisas.sxva SemTxvevebi pirdapir unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli kanoniT.moraluri zianis kompensacia xdeba fuladi saxiT. arcsamoqalaqo kodeqsi, arc sxva kanonebi ar iTvaliswinebs moralurizianis odenobis gansazRvris zust wess. kanonmdebloba Semoifarglebamxolod im kriteriumebis gansazRvriT, romliTac sasamarTlom undaixelmZRvanelos moraluri zianis kompensaciis odenobisgansazRvrisas, sasamarTlo, pirvel rigSi, mxedvelobaSi Rebulobszianis mimyeneblis bralis xarisxs. brali samoqalaqo samarTalSiaris pasuxismgeblobis piroba da ara zoma, Tumca mocemul SemTxvevaSidaSvebulia gamonaklisi, amitom kompensaciis odenobis gansazRvrisassasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos zianis mimyeneblisdamokidebuleba mis mier Cadenili qmedebisadmi.fizikuri tanjva ivaraudeba mxolod sicocxlisa dajanmrTelobisaTvis zianis miyenebisas, magram am SemTxvevaSicmoTxovnili kompensaciis odenobis dasasabuTeblad unda damtkicdesfizikuri tanjvis xarisxi.Tu moraluri ziani eqvemdebareba kompensacias qonebriv zianTanerTad (piris janmrTelobisaTvis zianis miyenebis SemTxvevaSi manganicada sulieri tkivili, amasTan hqonda xarjebi mkurnalobasa dareabilitaciasTan dakavSirebiT), moraluri zianis odenoba ubralodar unda daematos qonebrivi zianis odenobas, Tumca sasamarTlopraqtika zogjer am gziT midis. yvela konkretul SemTxvevaSikompensaciis odenobis gansazRvrisaTvis, sasamarTlom unda daadginospiris individualur TaviseburebebTan dakavSirebuli fizikuri dasulieri tkivilis xarisxi, zianis mimyeneblis brali (im SemTxvevebSi,78


oca es pasuxismgeblobis aucilebeli pirobaa) da sxva yuradsaRebigaremoebebi.deliqtur samarTalSi saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTlosSemuSavebuli aqvs erTiani praqtika. deliqturisamarTalurTierTobidan warmoSobili davebis ganxilvisas sakasaciosasamarTlom ganmarta Semdegi:saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 992-e muxlis Tanaxmad, piri,romelic sxva pirs marTlsawinaaRmdego, ganzraxi an gaufrTxilebelimoqmedebiT miayenebs zians, valdebulia aunazRauros mas es ziani.mocemuli muxliT pirs zianis anazRaureba ekisreba, Tu arsebobszianis miyenebisaTvis pasuxismgeblobis dakisrebis pirobebi, kerZod,Tu saxezea ziani, ziani miyenebulia marTlsawinaaRmdego moqmedebiT,marTlsawinaaRmdego moqmedebasa da zians Soris arsebobs mizezobrivikavSiri da brali zianis mimyenebels miuZRvis.samoqalaqo samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisaTvis udidesimniSvneloba aqvs piris braleulobis xarisxs im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki araris gamoricxuli varaudi imisa, rom zianis warmoSobas an gazrdasxeli Seuwyo dazaralebulis moqmedebam. samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobiT,zianis mimyenebelma pasuxi unda agos mxolod sakuTari braleulimoqmedebisaTvis anu misi pasuxismgebloba unda Semoifarglos mis mierganxorcielebuli marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebiT. aRniSnuligamomdinareobs samoqalaqo kodeqsis 415-e muxlis pirveli nawilidan,romlis Tanaxmad, Tu zianis warmoSobas xeli Seuwyo dazaralebulismoqmedebamac, maSin zianis anazRaurebis valdebuleba da amanazRaurebis moculoba damokidebulia imaze, Tu ufro metad romelimxaris braliT aris ziani gamowveuli. amave kodeqsis 326-e muxlisSesabamisad ki wesebi saxelSekrulebo valdebulebis Sesaxebgamoiyeneba aseve sxva arasaxelSekrulebo valdebulebaTa mimarT, Tukivaldebulebis xasiTidan sxva ram ar gamomdinareobs.saqmis faqtobrivad ganmxilvelma sasamarTlom zianisanazRaurebis valdebulebis dakisreba da am anazRaurebis moculobisgansazRvra unda moaxdinos mxareTa braleulobis xarisxiT, kerZod,sasamarTlom unda imsjelos Seuwyo Tu ara xeli dazaralebulismoqmedebam zianis dadgomas da ufro metad romel mxares miuZRvisbrali zianis dadgomaSi. am mimarTebiT sasamarTlom unda imsjelosdazaralebulis marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebaze, misi bralis formasada xarisxze.deliqturi valebulebidan warmoSobili moraluri zianisanazRaurebis SemTxvevaSi palatam ganmarta, rom TiToeul konkretulSemTxvevaSi moraluri zianis anazRaureba ganisazRvreba araekvivalentobis principiT, aramed, saqmis individualuriTaviseburebebidan gamomdinare, moraluri zianis xarisxisa daxasiaTis, aseve dazaralebulisa da zaralis mimyeneblis qonebrivimdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT.79


inis privatizebamagaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s winaaRmdeg da moiTxova anderZisbaTilad cnoba ESemdeg garemoebaTa gamo: sadavo binaze privatizebaganxorcielda 1992 wels, am droisaTvis binaSi Cawerilebi iyvnen a, b (a-sdedamTili), g (a-meuRle) da d (a- Svili). privatizeba ganxorcielda b-ssaxelze. g-s gardacvalebis Semdeg sadavo binaSi cxovrebas ganagrZobdamxolod b. vinaidan privatizebis Sedegad mTeli qoneba aRiricxa mxolod b-ssaxelze, amitom am ukanasknelma mTeli bina Svilis gardacvalebis SemdeguanderZa SviliSvil d-s. aRniSnul saqmesTan dakavSirebiT sakasacio palatamganmarta: „saqarTvelos respublikaSi binebis privatizaciis (usasyidlodgadacemis) Sesaxeb“ saqarTvelos ministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlis#107 dadgenilebis me-5 punqtis Tanaxmad, sacxovrebeli saxli (bina)usasyidlod gadaeca saqarTvelos respublikis moqalaqeebs, romlebic amsaxlis (binis) damqiraveblebi an damqiraveblis ojaxis wevrebi arian.aRniSnuli punqtiT saxelmwifom yvela im moqalaqes, romelic dadgeniliwesiT iyo Casaxlebuli binaSi, damqiravebeli iqneboda igi, Tu misi ojaxiswevri, misca saSualeba, gamxdariyo binis mesakuTre. am dadgenilebisTanaxmad, privatizebis dros binaSi mcxovrebi yvela piri, maT Sorisarasrulwlovanic, unda CaiTvalos binis potenciur TanamesakuTred imismiuxedavad, ojaxis romeli wevris saxelze moxda binis privatizeba.aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sakasacio palatam CaTvala, rom ramdenadacprivatizebaSi monawileoba miiRo oTxma pirma, TiToeulma maTganma sadavobinaze moipova sakuTrebis ufleba sadavo binis 1\4-ze. sasamarTlom daadgina,rom a-s meuRlis g-s gardacvalebis Semdeg sadavo binaSi cxovrebasagrZelebda gardacvlilis deda – b. palatam miuTiTa samoqalaqo kodeqsis1336-e muxlze, 1421-e muxlis mesame nawilze da daaskvna, rom b-m, rogorc g-spirveli rigis memkvidrem, faqtobrivi flobiT miiRo misi gardacvliliSvilis kuTvnili wili binis 1\4 da misi wili sadavo binaSi ganisazRvra 2\4wiliT (anu 1/2). palatam ixelmZRvanela samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1404-e muxlispirveli nawiliT da miuTiTa, rom b-s mier gaformebuli anderZi, romliTacman sadavo bina uanderZa d-s, nawilobriv baTilia, vinaidan, misi sakuTrebasadavo binaSi warmoadgenda 1\2-s, danarCeni 1\2 samkvidro qonebaSi arSedioda. zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, saapelacio palatam sadavo anderZibaTilad cno binis 1\2 nawilze.magaliTi 2a-m da b-m sasamarTloSi sarCeli aRZres g-s, baTumis qarxnisa danotarius d-s mimarT da moiTxoves privatizebis xelSekrulebis gauqmeba.mosarCeleebma ganmartes, rom mravalricxovan ojaxTan erTad sacxovrebelifarTis simciris gamo SeiWrnen baTumis qarxnis kuTvnili baga-baRis SenobaSi.q. baTumis meriis gadawyvetilebiT. aRniSnuli baga-baRi mTlianad Cairicxasacxovrebel fondSi da danawilda konkretul mosaxleebze, maT SorismosarCeleebzec. mogvianebiT gairkva, rom qarxanam maT sargeblobaSi arsebulfarTis nawilze sabinao orderi gadasca g-s, romelmac moaxdina sadavofarTis privatizeba.sasamarTlom umarTebulod miiCnia kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli pirisSps-s qonebis gaigiveba saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi fondis qonebasTan.aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom mesakuTres Tavisi qonebaprivatizaciis xelSekrulebiT ar unda gadaeca SemZenisaTvis, radganac kerZopirebs Soris qonebis usasyidlod sakuTrebaSi gadacemasTan dakavSirebulivaldebulebiTi samarTlebrivi urTierToba unda mowesrigdes sk-isSesabamisi normebiT.80


komentari:vinaidan 90-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi moxda sabazro ekonomikazegadasvla da kerZo sakuTrebis damkvidreba, normaluri sakuTrebiTiurTierTobebis CamoyalibebisTvis aucilebeli gaxda saxelmwifosakuTrebis kerZo samarTlis subieqtebisaTvis gadacema. privatizebazogadad niSnavs fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis an maTigaerTianebebis mier saxelmwifo qonebaze sakuTrebis uflebis SeZenas,ris Sedegadac saxelmwifo kargavs privatizebuli qonebis flobis,sargeblobisa da gankargvis, saxelmwifo organoebi ki – misi marTvisuflebebs.privatizebis normatiul safuZvlebs adgens kanoni „saxelmwifoqonebis privatizebis Sesaxeb“. kerZod, me-2 muxlis pirvel punqtSiaRniSnulia, rom saxelmwifo qonebis privatizeba xorcieldebasaqarTvelos konstituciis, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis, amkanonisa da agreTve im kanonqvemdebare aqtebis safuZvelze, romlebic90-iani wlebis dasawyisidan dRemde iqna miRebuli am sferoSi.pirveli normatiuli aqti, romelic privatizebis processawesrigebda da win uswrebda saqarTvelos konstitucias, iyosaqarTvelos respublikis ministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlisdadgenileba, `saqarTvelos respublikaSi binebis privatizaciis(usasyidlod gadacemis) Sesaxeb“.aRniSnuli dadgenilebis mizani iyo saxelmwifo dasazogadoebrivi sabinao fondis moqalaqeTaTvis sakuTrebaSi gadacema.dadgenileba iTvaliswinebda privatizebis xelSekrulebis gaformebassabinao-samSeneblo kooperativis wevrsa da gamgeobas Soris.xelSekrulebis namdvilobis winapiroba iyo, rom kooperativis wevrsmTlianad unda hqonoda gadaxdili sacxovrebeli binis Rirebuleba.imisaTvis, rom samarTlebrivi urTierToba privatizebis SesaxebkanonmdeblobiT mowesrigdes, aucilebelia privatizebis obieqtis anusaxelmwifo qonebis arseboba. Tu ra CaiTvleba saxelmwifo qonebad,dadgenilia „saxelmwifo qonebis privatizebis Sesaxeb“ saqarTveloskanoniT, agreTve saqarTvelos respublikis ministrTa kabinetis 1992wlis 1 Tebervlis dadgenilebis me-2 punqtiT.dauSvebelia kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris kuTvnili qonebissaxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi fondis qonebasTan gaigiveba. kerZopirebs Soris sakuTrebis gadacema wesrigdeba samoqalaqo kodeqsisSesabamisi normebiT da dauSvebelia maT Soris privatizebisxelSekrulebis gaformeba.privatizebis xelSekrulebis sayofacxovrebo bunebidangamomdinare, xSiria aRniSnuli samarTalurTierTobebidanwarmoSobili davebi, romelTa mimarTebiTac saqarTvelos uzenaesmasasamarTlom moaxdina „saxelmwifo qonebis privatizebis Sesaxeb“saqarTvelos kanonis normis interpretacia da SeimuSava erTgvarovanipraqtika.saqarTvelos respublikis ministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1Tebervlis dadgenilebis me-2 punqtiT, moqalaqes mis mier dakavebulisacxovrebeli saxli (bina) sakuTrebaSi gadaecema mxolod ojaxisyvela srulwlovani wevris TanxmobiT, amave dadgenilebis me-5 punqtiTki dadginda, rom sacxovrebeli saxli (bina) usasyidlod gadaecemasaqarTvelos respublikis moqalaqeebs, romlebic am sacxovrebeli81


saxlis (binis) damqiraveblebi an damqiraveblis ojaxis wevrebi arian;aRniSnuli normebis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, privatizebul binebzesakuTrebis ufleba mieca yvela im pirs, romelsac binis privatizebisdroisaTvis sacxovrebel farTobze ufleba mopovebuli hqonda;amasTan, dadgenilebis meore punqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli Tanxmobagamoxatavs mxolod binis erT-erTi damqiraveblis mesakuTredaRricxvaze Tanxmobas da ara sakuTrebis uflebaze uaris Tqmas.aRniSnuli dadgenilebiT saxelmwifom sakuTrebis ufleba mianiWa binisyvela damqiravebels da Tu am ukanasknels dadgenili wesiT uari arganucxadebia sakuTrebaze, igi binis mesakuTres warmoadgens,miuxedavad imisa, warmoadgens Tu ara igi privatizebis xelSekrulebismxares, Tu piri privatizebis periodSi amowerili ar yofila sadavofarTidan, aseve ar yofila cnobili farTze uflebadakargul pirad,Sesabamisad, misi moTxovna cnobil iqnes sadavo binis Tavisi kuTvniliwilis mesakuTred, samarTlebrivad gamarTlebulia.saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebis usasyidloprivatizebiT, marTalia, saxelmwifo aRniSnul qonebas usasyidlodgadascems moqalaqes, magram es urTierToba ar aris samoqalaqokodeqsiT dadgenili Cuqebis saxelSekrulebo urTierTobis identuri.saqarTvelos respublikis ministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlis#107 dadgenilebis me-5 punqtis Tanaxmad, am dadgenilebis safuZvelzeganxorcielebuli privatizebisas sacxovrebeli saxli (bina)usasyidlod gadaecemodaT saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs, romlebic amsacxovrebeli saxlis (binis) damqiraveblebi an damqiraveblis ojaxiswevrebi iyvnen. amdenad, saxelmwifom rogorc damqiravebels, ise misiojaxis wevrebs misca saSualeba, gamxdariyvnen binis mesakuTreebi.amitom, samarTlebrivad qonebaze ufleba mopovebuli aqvs ara marto impirs, romlis saxelzec ganxorcielebulia privatizeba, aramed imasac,vinc privatizebis droisaTvis damqiravebeli an misi ojaxis wevri iyo,anu aRniSnuli normatiuli aqti ar ayenebs sacxovrebeli saxlis(binis) arc erT damqiravebels an mis ojaxis wevrs priviligirebulmdgomareobaSi. gansaxilveli normatiuli aqtis Tanaxmad,sacxovrebeli saxlis (binis) damqiraveblebi an misi ojaxis wevrebigamoTqvamen nebas, Tavisi konstituciuri uflebis realizaciis mizniT,sakuTrebaSi miiRon sacxovrebeli saxli (bina), romelic maTgadacemuli hqondaT sargeblobaSi. `saqarTvelos ssr sabinaokodeqsis” me-60 muxlis pirveli abzacis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo dasazogadoebrivi sabinao fondis saxlebSi sacxovrebeli sadgomisqiravnobis xelSekruleba ideba werilobiT sacxovrebeli sadgomisorderis safuZvelze gamqiravebels _ sabinao-saeqspluatacioorganizaciisa da damqiravebels _ moqalaqes Soris, romlis saxelzecgacemulia orderi. amave kodeqsis 62-e muxlis pirveli abzacispirveli winadadebis Tanaxmad, gansazRvrulia aseve im pirTa uflebavaldebulebebi,romlebic damqiraveblis ojaxis wevrebi arian damasTan erTad cxovroben. miuxedavad imisa, rom maT ara aqvT dadebulisacxovrebeli sadgomis qiravnobis Sesaxeb xelSekruleba, isinisargebloben yvela uflebiT da ekisrebaT yvela movaleobasacxovrebeli sadgomis qiravnobis xelSekrulebidan gamomdinare. amaveabzacis me-2 winadadebis Tanaxmad, ojaxis srulwlovan wevrebsdamqiravebelTan erTad ekisrebaT solidaruli qonebrivi82


pasuxismgebloba aRniSnuli xelSekrulebidan gamomdinarevaldebulebebisaTvis.sakasacio palatam ganmarta, rom saqarTvelos respublikisministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlis #107 dadgenilebiTganisazRvra ufleba, romlis realizaciis faqtobriv safuZvelswarmoadgens `saqarTvelos ssr sabinao kodeqsis” Tanaxmadsacxovrebeli sadgomiT sargeblobis faqti, rac aseve danarCendamqiraveblebsac gaaCniaT. amasTan, gasaTvaliswinebelia, romsargeblobis ufleba erT SemTxvevaSi, warmoiSoba werilobiTixelSekrulebis safuZvelze, xolo sxva SemTxvevaSi, damqiravebelTanmcxovrebi ojaxis wevrobis safuZvelze. ojaxis wevrebs gaaCniaT yvelais ufleba, romliTac sargeblobs damqiravebeli. amrigad,saqarTvelos respublikis ministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlis#107 dadgenilebiT miniWebuli uflebis realizacia vrceldebadamqiravebelTan erTad mcxovreb yvela ojaxis wevrze da, miuxedavadimisa, rom sakuTrebis ufleba maTi TanxmobiT SeiZleba aRiricxoserT-erT damqiravebelze, saerTo uflebebTan erTad maT ekisrebaTsargeblobidan gamomdinare mesakuTris yvela valdebuleba. aRniSnulidebuleba daculia aseve dadgenilebis me-5 punqtis pirveli abzaciT,romlis Tanaxmad, sacxovrebeli saxli (bina) usasyidlod gadaecemaTsaqarTvelos respublikis moqalaqeebs, romlebic am sacxovrebelisaxlis (binis) damqiraveblebi an damqiraveblis ojaxis wevrebi arian.amdenad, sakasacio palata ganmartavs, rom is faqti, rom sadavosacxovrebel binaze sakuTrebis ufleba registrirebulia erTdamqiravebelze, ar niSnavs imas, rom masTan mcxovrebma ojaxiswevrebma uari ganacxades sakuTrebis uflebis mopovebaze. amSemTxvevaSi, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom privatizebis ganxorcielebazeyvela ojaxis wevris nebis arseboba (rac davis sagans ar warmoadgens)gulisxmobs sakuTrebis uflebis mopovebas yvela ojaxis wevrissasargeblod, miuxedavad imisa, rom sakuTrebis ufleba SeiZlebaregistrirebul iqnes mxolod erT-erT damqiravebelze.amrigad, mxolod erT-erTi damqiraveblis saxelze (sxva ojaxiswevrebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi) privatizebis xelSekrulebissafuZvelze sakuTrebis registraciis faqti ar niSnavs sakuTrebisuflebis gasxvisebas mxolod masze.am SemTxvevaSi sakuTrebis institutisaTvis damaxasiaTebeliniSnebi vrceldeba yvela damqiravebelze, anu is damqiravebeli,romlis saxelzec registrirebulia sakuTrebis ufleba vergamoiyenebs am sakuTrebis uflebas danarCen ojaxis wevrebTanmimarTebaSi ise, rogorc im SemTxvevaSi, Tu aRniSnuli sakuTrebisufleba gasxvisebuli iqneboda mxolod masze.yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sacxovrebeli saxlisusasyidlod gadacemis xelSekrulebiT danarCen ojaxis wevrebswarmoeSobaT ufleba sajaro reestrSi daaregistriron (Sesabamiswilis gaTvaliswinebiT) sakuTrebis ufleba. (aRniSnuli sakiTxi asevedaregulirebuli iyo im dros moqmedi saqarTvelos uzenaesisasamarTlos plenumis 1996 wlis 2 aprilis # 1 dadgenilebis me-2punqtiT, romlis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos ministrTa kabinetis 1994 wlis5 agvistos #520 dadgenilebam gaauqma binebis privatizebisaTvisojaxis srulwlovani wevrebis Tanxmobis aucilebloba. miuxedavad83


amisa, privatizebul binebze sakuTrebis ufleba aqvs yvela im pirs,romelsac sacxovrebel farTobze ufleba mopovebuli aqvs binisprivatizebis droisaTvis).sajaro reestris cnebis ganmartebisaTvis aucilebelia sworadSefasdes sajaro reestris daniSnuleba da funqcia, Tu ra interesebsemsaxureba aRniSnuli instituti da aqedan gamomdinare, ra mniSvnelobaeniWeba reestris registraciis faqts.upirveles yovlisa, yuradReba unda gavamaxviloT sajaroreestris daniSnulebaze, romelic warmoadgens samoqalaqo brunvisgarants da emsaxureba brunvis monawilis interesebis uzrunvelyofas,dacvas. aRniSnuli principis safuZvelze, obieqturad arsebuli faqti_ sajaro reestrSi uflebis registracia, icavs ndobisa dakeTilsindisierebis princips sajaro reestrSi registraciaunarianuflebebis gankargvis dros da misi sisworis prezumfcia exebarogorc adrindeli mesakuTris, aseve axali SemZenis uflebebs.amrigad, erT-erTi damqiraveblis mier farTis privatizebisSedegad Tavis saxelze sakuTrebis uflebis registraciis faqti argamoricxavs danarCeni ojaxis wevrebis sasargeblod am uflebisSeZenis faqts, radgan am uflebis registraciiT (anu SeZenisinstitutiT gaTvaliswinebuli wesebis realizaciiT) man uzrunvelyosakuTrebis ufleba, rac man moipova yvela ojaxis wevris sasargeblod.aRniSnuli sakiTxis Taviseburebis gaTvaliswinebiT, sakuTrebisuflebis warmoSoba ar SeiZleba daukavSirdes mxolod sajaroreestris instituts. konkretul SemTxvevaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia, romdanarCenma damqiraveblebma moipoves Tavisi uflebis sajaro reestrSiregistraciis ufleba.Cuqebamuxli 524 cnebaCuqebis xelSekrulebiT mCuqebeli usasyidlod gadascemsdasaCuqrebuls qonebas sakuTrebad misi TanxmobiT.muxli 529Cuqebis gauqmeba dasaCuqrebulis umadurobis gamo1. Cuqeba SeiZleba gauqmdes, Tu dasaCuqrebuli mZime Seuracxyofasmiayenebs an did umadurobas gamoiCens mCuqeblis an misi axlonaTesavis mimarT.2. Tu Cuqeba gauqmdeba, maSin gaCuqebuli qoneba SeiZleba gamoTxoviliqnes mCuqeblis mier.3. Cuqeba SeiZleba gauqmdes erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi mas Semdeg, racmCuqebeli Seityobs im garemoebis Sesaxeb, romelic mas Cuqebisgauqmebis uflebas aZlevs.84


magaliTi 1Cuqebis xelSekrulebiT a-m saCuqrad gadasca b-s bina. CuqebisxelSekrulebas safuZvlad daedo a-sa da b-s Soris dadebuli zepiriSeTanxmeba, imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom aRniSnuli binis sanacvlod b mTelisicocxlis manZilze mouvlida a-s. a-s gardacvalebis Semdeg b-s winaaRmdegsarCeli aRZra g-m (g iyo a-s axlo naTesavi) da moiTxova CuqebisxelSekrulebis gauqmeba im motiviT, rom b-m a-s mimarT didi umadurobagamoiCina da mZime Seuracxyofa miayena. sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila g-smoTxovna da miuTiTa, rom Cuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmebis ufleba gaaCniamxolod xelSekrulebis monawile mxareebs, radgan Cuqebis gauqmeba mxolodmaSin SeiZleba, Tu dasaCuqrebuli mZime Seuracxyofas miayenebs an didumadurobas gamoiCens gamCuqeblis an misi axlo naTesavis mimarT, xolo raSeiZleba CaiTvalos Seuracxyofad da umadurobad, amis gansazRvra mxolodmCuqebels SeuZlia. aqedan gamomdinare, saapelacio palatam miiCnia, romaRniSnuli muxlis safuZvelze mosarCeleebs Cuqebis gauqmebis moTxovnisufleba ara aqvT.magaliTi 2a-m sarCeli aRZra b-s mimarT da moiTxova 1996 wels dadebuli binisCuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmeba, im motiviT, rom b, binis dauflebis Semdegdid umadurobas iCenda a-s mimarT da ar patronobda umweo mdgomareobaSimyof a-s. I instanciis sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvis dros a-sgardacvalebis gamo, sasamarTlom daniSna misi uflebamonacvle _ g,romelmac dazustebuli sasarCelo gancxadebiT Cuqebis xelSekrulebisgauqmeba moiTxova, rogorc TvalTmaqcuri garigebis, vinaidan aRniSnuligarigeba dadebuli iyo samidReSio rCenis uzrunvelsayofad. sasamarTlomdazustebuli sasarCelo gancxadeba ar miiRo, vinaidan igi davis safuZvlisSecvlad miiCnia. sasamarTlom Cuqebis xelSekrulebis baTilobis sakiTximoawesriga samoqalaqo samarTlis kodeqsiT (1967w), romelic dasaCuqrebulisumadurobis gamo xelSekrulebis baTilobas ar icnobs da ara samoqalaqokodeqsiT (1997).komentari:529-e muxlis pirvel punqtSi mocemulia uRirsi saqcielisamomwuravi CamonaTvali, romelic saSualebas iZleva Cuqebis gauqmebissakiTxi daisvas, kerZod, mCuqeblis an misi axlo naTesavisadmidasaCuqrebulis mier mZime Seuracxyofis miyeneba an didi umadurobisgamoCena. Tu vis gaaCnia Cuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmebis moTxovnisufleba, aRniSnulze naTlad metyvelebs rogorc kanoniTgaTvaliswinebuli wesebi, aseve saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlosmier damkvidrebuli praqtika. qarTuli samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobaCuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmebis moTxovnis uflebas mxolodmCuqebels aniWebs.Tu dasaCuqrebuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis kanonier ZalaSiSesvlis Semdeg Caidens ganzrax qmedebas, romlis SedegadacSeuZlebeli xdeba gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba da naCuqari nivTisamoReba (nivTis gasxviseba, ganadgureba, moxmareba da a.S.) misiRirebuleba SeiZleba amoRebuli iqnas dasaCuqrebulisagan usafuZvlo85


gamdidrebis Sedegad warmoSobili valdebulebiTi urTierTobebismomwesrigebeli normebis Sesabamisad anu sasamarTlo gadawyveytilebiskanonier ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg dasaCuqrebulis zemoaRniSnuliqmedeba ganixileba rogorc usafuZvlo gamdidreba, radganacmesakuTris uflebamosilebis realizaciis samarTlebrivi safuZvelidasaCuqrebuls ukve aRar gaaCnda. rac Seexeba arabraleul, anugaufrTxilebel qmedebebs dasaCuqrebulis mxridan, romelTaSedegadac SeuZlebelia naCuqrobis sagnis naturiT dabruneba, vergaxdeba misgan sagnis Rirebulebis amoRebis safuZveli.Cuqebis xelSekrulebis zemoaRniSnul sakiTxebTan mimarTebiTsakasacio sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom mCuqeblis kanonismiermemkvidreebs sk-is 529-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlebiT Cuqebisgauqmebis moTxovna ar SeuZliaT. Cuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmebissafuZvels miTiTebuli normiT warmoadgens dasaCuqrebulis miermCuqeblis an misi axlo naTesavis mimarT didi umadurobis gamoCena anmZime Seuracxyofis miyeneba. aRniSnuli normis meore nawiliT, TuCuqeba gauqmdeba, maSin gaCuqebuli qoneba SeiZleba gamoTxovil iqnesmCuqeblis mier, amave normis mesame nawiliT ki Cuqeba SeiZlebagauqmdes erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi mas Semdeg, rac mCuqebeli Seityobsim garemoebis Sesaxeb, romelic mas Cuqebis gauqmebis uflebas aZlevs.zemoxsenebuli materialur-samarTlebrivi norma yvelaze naTladasaxavs ra samarTlisa da zneobis urTierTkavSirs, mCuqeblisaganqonebrivi sikeTis usasyidlod miRebis sanacvlod dasaCuqrebulsakisrebs zneobrivad qcevis valdebulebas. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi,Tuki dasaCuqrebuli mZime Seuracxyofas miayenebs an umadurobasgamoiCens mCuqeblis an misi axlo naTesavis mimarT, zneobrivfaseulobaTa dacva mocemul SemTxvevaSi xdeba Cuqebis xelSekrulebisgauqmebiT, rasac Tan axlavs saTanado samarTlebrivi Sedegi –mCuqeblisaTvis gaCuqebuli nivTis sakuTrebaSi dabruneba.sk-is 529-e muxlis Sinaarsidan aSkarad Cans, rom dasaCuqrebulisarazneobrivi saqcielis Semfasebeli TviTon mCuqebelia, razedacmetyvelebs normaSi arsebuli gamonaTqvamebi: `qoneba SeiZlebagamoTxovili iqnes mCuqeblis mier~, `Cuqeba SeiZleba gauqmdes erTiwlis ganmavlobaSi mas Semdeg, rac mCuqebeli Seityobs im garemoebisSesaxeb, romelic mas Cuqebis gauqmebis uflebas aZlevs~.Cuqebis moSlas iwvevs ara yovelgvari zneobis sawinaaRmdegomoqmedeba, aramed mZime Seuracxyofa da didi umaduroba. Tu ra saxisSeuracxyofaa pirisaTvis mZime an ras miiCnevs did umadurobad, esmxolod konkretuli subieqtis _ mCuqeblis Sefasebis sagans SeiZlebawarmoadgendes. sk-is 529-e muxlis pirveli nawilis mixedviT, Cuqebisgauqmebis safuZvlad miCneulia, rogorc mCuqeblis, ise misi axlonaTesavis mimarT gamoCenili didi umaduroba da mZime Seuracxyofismiyeneba. am danawesis analizi cxadyofs, rom axlo naTesavis mimarTdasaCuqrebulis arazneobrivi saqcieli mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iwvevsCuqebis gauqmebas, Tuki aseTi mCuqeblis mier iqneba moTxovili, anumCuqebeli misi axlo naTesavis mimarT dasaCuqrebulis zneobrivadgasakicx qmedebas imdenad unda iTavisebdes, rom TviTonve unda xdidessadavod massa da dasaCuqrebuls Soris arsebul valdebulebiTsamarTlebrivurTierTobas.86


SromiTi movaleobis Sesrulebisas muSakisjanmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebis Sedegad zianisanazRaurebamagaliTi 1a-m da b-m sarCeliT mimarTes sasamarTlos g sawarmos mimarT damoiTxoves sawarmoo travmiT miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba. mosarCeleebmaaRniSnes, rom muSaobdnen mopasuxe sawarmoSi, roca marTavdnen benziniTa danavTiT datvirTul matareblis Semadgenlobas, iZulebulni gaxdnen SeeyvanaTmatarebeli damWer CixSi samuxruWe sistemis araefeqturi moqmedebis gamo.momxdari ubeduri SemTxvevis gamo a-m da b-m dakarges Sromisunari 80%-iT.Semadgenlobis sadguridan gamosvlamde vagonebis teqnikuri momsaxurebispunqtis vagonis gamsinjvelis mier gacemuli iyo cnoba muxruWebisgamarTulad muSaobis Sesaxeb. amasTan, imave dRes Sedgenili ubeduriSemTxvevis aqtebSi miTiTebuli iyo, rom ar muxruWdeboda Semadgenlobis 15vagoni, xolo am faqtze Catarebuli samsaxurebrivi Semowmebis Sedegadgamocemul brZanebaSi aRniSnuli iyo, rom Semadgenlobis 15 vagoni armuxruWdeboda, 4-ze muxruWebi ar moqmedebda, xolo 6 vagonze samuxruWesistema ar uzrunvelyofda 10 wuTian Seyovnebas. sasamarTlom dadgeniladmiiCnia sawarmos braleuloba, mizezobrivi kavSiri momxdar ubedurSemTxvevasa da vagonebis gaumarTaobas Soris.magaliTi 2a-m sarCeli aRZra b sawarmos mimarT da moiTxova sxeulis dazianebisSedegad miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba. a-m aRniSna, rom igi SromiTixelSekrulebis safuZvelze muSaobda mopasuxe sawarmoSi. ubeduri SemTxvevisdRes igi eswreboda TaTbirs, romelzec ganixileboda moxmarebulieleqtroenergiis danaxarjis amoRebis, gaumjobesebis sakiTxi, direqtorebsdaevalaT calkeuli RonisZiebebis gatareba. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, a-mmiiRo gadawyvetileba Casuliyo „. . . hesSi“ da daeregulirebina gadamcemxazze gantvirTvis avtomatikis moqmedeba. mZRolma uari ganacxada hesSiwasvlaze, amitom sazogadoebis kuTvnil avtomanqanas Tavad a. marTavda.mcxeTa – yazbegi – larsis gzis 21-e kilometrze moxda avtosagzao SemTxvevada a-m miiRo sxeulis dazianeba. sasamarTlom aRniSnuli ar miiCnia sawarmootravmad da zianis anazRaurebis valdebulebis dakisrebis safuZvlad, radgana-m gadawyvetileba gamgzavrebis Sesaxeb uSualod miiRo da ara sazogadoebisdavalebiT, amasTan saxeze ar arsebobda sazogadoebis brali momxdaravtosagzao SemTxvevasTan dakavSirebiT.magaliTi 3a-m sarCeliT mimarTa sasamarTlos b sawarmos mimarT da moiTxovamopasuxe organizaciisaTvis 1992 wlis ianvridan 2003 wlis agvistomdeyovelTviuri sarCos, aseve sicocxlis bolomde yovelTviuri sarCos saxiT98 laris gadaxdis dakisreba da Tanxis miuReblobiTa da vadis gadacilebiTmiyenebuli zianis anazRaureba, sul 42 835 lari 80 TeTri. sarCelissafuZvlad ki miuTiTa Semdeg faqtobriv garemoebebze: mosarCele sawarmoSimuSaobda durglebis brigadirad, masze dakisrebuli movaleobebisSesrulebisas, 1989 wlis 17 marts, miiRo sawarmoo travma, ris Sedegadac87


cnobil iqna mesame jgufis invalidad, aseve daudginda Sromis unarisdakargva 60 %-iT. am monacemebis safuZvelze mopasuxe organizaciamganusazRvra yovelTviuri sarCos saxiT zianis sakompensacio Tanxa 215 maneTi,romelsac igi 1991 wlis dekembris CaTvliT yovelTviurad iRebda, 1992 wlisianvridan ki aRar miuRia. mopasuxe organizaciam, miuxedavad mravalgzismimarTvisa, uari ganacxada Tanxis gacemaze.sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom yovelTviuri sarCos gadaxda perioduladSesasrulebeli valdebuleba iyo da masze vrceldeboda samwlianixandazmulobis vada, aseve CaTvala, rom `SromiTi movaleobis SesrulebisasmuSakis janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebis Sedegad zianis anazRaurebiswesis~ me-12 punqtis safuZvelze aucilebeli iyo sarCos odenobis xelaxlagadaangariSeba da sawarmos a-s sasargeblod daakisra bolo sami wlismiuRebeli sarCos erTjeradad gadaxda, sul 2616 lari da 2005 wlis 15ivlisidan yovelTviurad _ 18 lari.magaliTi 4a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b sawarmos mimarT da moiTxovajanmrTelobis dazianebiT gamowveuli zianis anazRaureba, SemdegisafuZvlebiT: a muSaobda sawarmoSi zeinklad, igi yoveldRiurad dadiodamcxeTis raionis sof. Zegvidan TbilisSi organizaciis mier gamoyofiliufaso samgzavro bileTiT. erT-erTi mgzavrobis dros garedan nasroli qvisTavSi moxvedris Sedegad miiRo sxeulis dazianeba da dakarga Sromis unari,ris gamoc gaaTavisufles samsaxuridan.sasamarTlom ar miiCnia, rom ufaso samgzavro bileTis arsebobaniSnavda sawarmos mier transportis gamoyofas, aqedan gamomdinare kiaRniSnuli SemTxveva ar CaTvala sawrmoo travmad.komentari:sawarmoo travmis Sedegad miyenebul zianis anazRaurebasTandakavSirebiT saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTlos aqvs erTgvarovanipraqtika.am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganmartaSemdegi: miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos teritoriaze ganTavsebulsawarmoebSi, dawesebulebebSi, organizaciebSi dasaqmebul muSakTaSromiTi movaleobis Sesrulebisas sawarmoo travmiT, profesiulidaavadebiT an janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebis Sedegad zianisanazRaurebis samarTlebriv safuZvlebs awesrigebs saqarTvelosprezidentis #48 brZanebulebiT damtkicebuli `SromiTi movaleobisSesrulebisas muSakis janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebis Sedegadzianis anazRaurebis wesebi~, aRniSnuli samarTlebrivi urTierTobamainc warmoadgens zianis miyenebis (deliqtis) safuZvelze warmoSobilvaldebulebas, vinaidan valdebuleba warmoiSoba dazaralebulisabsoluturi subieqturi samoqalaqo uflebebis darRvevis Sedegad,atarebs arasaxelSekrulebo xasiaTs da miznad isaxavs araqonebrivisikeTisaTvis (sicocxlisa da janmrTelobisaTvis) miyenebuli zianisanazRaurebas. deliqturi valdebulebebis dros xdeba absoluturiuflebebis xelyofa, konkretul SemTxvevaSi ki iseTi uflebebis,rogoricaa pirovnebis janmrTelobisa da sicocxlis dacva. aqedangamomdinare ki aRniSnul samarTlebriv urTierTobebze vrceldebadeliqturi valdebulebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela principi da88


aucilebelia misi warmoSobisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlebis –zianis mimyeneblis bralisa da damdgar ziansa da qmedebas SorismizezSedegobrivi kavSiris arseboba.piris sicocxlisa da janmrTelobisaTvis miyenebuli zianisawrmoo travmad CaiTvleba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igisamsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebis procesSia miyenebuli.samsaxurebriv movaleobad SeiZleba CaiTvalos pirisaTvisnormatiuli aqtis, Sromis xelSekrulebis, an administraciisdavalebis safuZvelze dakisrebuli movaleobebi. sxva SemTxvevaSizianis anazRaurebis valdebuleba warmoiSoba da regulirdebasamoqalaqo kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli deliqturi valdebulebebismomwesrigebeli normebis mixedviT.sawarmoo travmad aseve CaiTvleba ubeduri SemTxveva sawarmosmier gamoyofil satransporto saSualebebze. satransportosaSualebis gamoyofad ar CaiTvleba ufaso samgzavro bileTis, an sxvasamgzavro SeRavaTis miniWeba konkretuli transportiTsargeblobisaTvis.zianis anazRaurebis odenobis gansazRvrisaTvis mniSvnelovaniasawarmoos bralis xarisxis dadgena. Tu ubeduri SemTxveva mxolodsawarmos braleuli moqmedebiTaa (Sromis kanonmdeblobis, Sromisdacvis wesebis, normebisa da sxva normatiuli aqtebis moTxovnaTaugulvebelyofiT an arasaTanado SesrulebiT) gamowveuli, igi sruladanazRaurebs damdgar zians, rac Seexeba Sereuli bralis arsebobisSemTxvevebs, sasamarTlos ganmartebiT, zianis dadgomaSi sawarmosbralis arseboba ukve warmoadgens sawarmos pasuxismgeblobissafuZvels. dazaralebulis bralis arseboba ki aris sakompensacioTanxis Semcirebis da ara sawarmos pasuxismgeblobisagangaTavisuflebis safuZveli.sawarmoos bralis dadasturebis erT-erT saSualebadsasamarTlos miaCnia e.w ubeduri SemTxvevis aqti. ubeduri SemTxvevisaqtis Sedgena unda adasturebdes ubeduri SemTxvevis faqts, ubeduriSemTxvevis kavSirs samsaxurebrivi movaleobis SesrulebasTan daubeduri SemTxvevis gamomwvev mizezebs.zianis anazRaurebis odenoba gamoiTvleba saqarTvelosprezidentis #48 brZanebulebiT dadgenili wesebis Sesabamisad.amasTan, zianis kompensacia SesaZlebelia rogorc erTjeradi gadaxdis,ise yovelTviuri sarCos saxiT. yovelTviuri sarCos odenobisgamoTvlisaTvis mxedvelobaSi miiReba is Tu ra TanamdebobazemuSaobda dazaralebuli sawarmoo travmis dadgomis momentSi da arais Tu ra movalebebs asrulebda igi amis Semdeg.sasamarTlos myari praqtika aqvs am tipis moTxovnebisaTvisarsebuli xandazmulobis vadebis Sesaxeb.uzenaesi sasamarTlos ganmartebiT, sasarCelo xandazmuloba esaris kanoniT dadgenili dro, romlis ganmavlobaSic pirs, romlisuflebac Selaxulia, SeuZlia, moiTxovos iZulebiTi aRsruleba anuflebis dacva. Tuki darRveuli uflebis iZulebiT dacvisSesaZlebloba kanoniT gansazRvruli vadiT ar iqneboda SezRuduli,es gamoiwvevda samoqalaqo saqmeze gadawyvetilebis gamotanisgaZnelebas, vinaidan didia albaToba saqmesTan dakavSirebuli utyuarimtkicebulebebis dakargvisa, saqmeSi monawile pirebis mier saqmis89


garemoebebis araadekvaturad aRqmisa da sxva. amrigad, sasarCeloxandazmuloba xels uwyobs ra samoqalaqo urTierTobaTastabilizaciasa da simyares, amavdroulad exmareba samoqalaqourTierTobis monawileebs TavianTi uflebebisa da valdebulebebisaqtiurad da droulad ganxorcielebaSi.sawarmoo travmis Sedegad damdgari zianis sakompensaciodyovelTviuri sarCos gadaxda warmoadgens periodulad Sesasrulebelvaldebulebas da masze vrceldeba xandazmulobis samwliani vada.rodesac ubeduri SemTxvevis Semdeg sawarmo dazaralebulze zianisanazRaurebis mizniT gascemda Tanxas an arsebobda sasamarTloskanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetileba da mxolod wlebis SemdegSewyvita sawarmom Tanxis gacema, aseT SemTxvevaSi zianis anazRaurebismoTxovnaze ar vrceldeba sasarCelo xandazmulobis vada. es sakiTximxareTa Soris ukve gadawyvetilad da uTuod aris miCneuli. aseTSemTxvevaSi SeiZleba dadges periodulad Sesasrulebelivaldebulebebidan warmoSobili moTxovnebis samwliani xandazmulobissakiTxi samoqalaqo kodeqsis 129-e muxlis me-2 nawilis Sesabamisad.90


uZravi qonebis keTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebebisaqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos praqtikaSiSinaarsiI. kanonmdeblobaII. doqtrinaIII. praqtika1. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlis interpretacia2. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlis moqmedebis farglebi3. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 159-e muxlis interpretacia (marTlzomieri dakeTilsindisieri SemZenis gamijvna)4. keTilsindisierebis moqmedebis dro5. meuRleTa TanasakuTreba da uZravi qonebis keTilsindisieriSemZeniI. kanonmdeblobaqarTuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis seriozul Taviseburebaswarmoadgens keTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebrivi mdgomareobisdetaluri mowesrigeba. am mxriv igi Tanamedrove evropul kerZosamarTalTan sruli harmonizaciiT gamoirCeva. mTavari sakiTxi amSemTxevevaSi qonebis mesakuTrisa da keTilsindisieri SemZenisinteresebis samarTliani balansirebaa. samoqalaqo kodeqsi amsakiTxs wyvets aramarto brunvis konkretuli monawilisinteresebidan gamomdinare, aramed TviT am brunvis simyarisa dastabilurobis interesebis gaTvalswinebiT.kanonmdebloba mesakuTrisa da keTilsindisieri SemZenisinteresTa konfliqtis sakiTxs gansxvavebulad awesrigebs moZravida uZravi qonebis brunvis SemTxvevaSi. Tu pirvel SemTxvevaSi winaplanze dgas qonebis mesakuTris interesebi, meore SemTxvevaSiprioriteti eZleva keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesebs. amasTavisi axsna moeZebneba, razedac qvemoT gveqneba saubari. amjerad,saWirod migvaCnia Tavad sakanonmdeblo normebi moviSvelioT.aRniSnuli sakiTxis mowesrigebis aucilebloba gamowveuliasamoqalaqo kodeqsis im fundamenturi normiT, romelic SeexebauZrav qonebaze sakuTrebis warmoSobas. am kodeqsis 183-e muxlispirvel punqtSi naTqvamia:,,uZravi nivTis SesaZenad aucilebelia sanotaro wesiTdamowmebuli sabuTi da SemZenis registracia sajaro reestrSi.registraciisaTvis gancxadebis Setana SeuZlia, rogorcgamsxvisebels, ise SemZens".uZravi qonebis SeZenis es wesi ganapirobebskeTilsindisieriE SemZenis interesebis dacvis mowesrigebas.samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlis saxiT Camoyalibda norma, romelicuproblemod jdeba Tanamedrove evropuli samarTlis sxeulSi.91


kerZod, am muxlSi aRniSnulia: ,,SemZenis interesebidangamomdinare, gamsxvisebeli iTvleba mesakuTred, Tu igi aseTadaris registrirebuli sajaro reestrSi, garda im SemTxvevebisa,roca SemZenma icoda, rom gamsxvisebeli ar iyo mesakuTre".keTilsindisieri SemZenis aseTi uflebrivi mdgomareobagamowveulia sajaro reestris specifikuri daniSnulebiTsamoqalaqo brunvis meqanizmSi. kerZod, reestris monacemebskanonmdebeli apriorulad utyuarobisa da sisrulis niSniTnaTlavs. samoqalaqo kodeqsisa 312-e muxli ityobineba:,,1. reestris monacemebis mimarT moqmedebs utyarobisa dasisrulis prezumfcia, e.i. reestris Canawerebi iTvleba swored, vidrear damtkicdeba maTi uzustoba. 2. im piris sasargeblod, romelicgarigebis safuZvelze sxva pirisagan iZens romelime uflebas daes ufleba gamsxviseblis saxelze iyo reestrSi registrirebuli,reestris Canaweri iTvleba. swored, garda im SemTxvevebisa, rocaam Canaweris sawinaaRmdegod Setanilia saCivari, an SemZenma icoda,rom Canaweri uzustoa".amgvarad, roca saqme exeba uZravi qonebis SeZenas, aq sajaroreestris (uflebis registraciis faqtis) sandoobis prezumfcia gvaqvssaxeze, maSin roca moZravi nivTebis mflobelis SemTxvevaSi sandoobisvaraudi gvaqvs saxeze. mokled, orive SemTxvevaSi moqmedebs SesaZeniuflebis namdvilobis varaudi. es kargad Cans samoqalaqokodeqsis 158-e muxlidan, romliTac dadgenilia:,,1. ivaraudeba, rom nivTis mflobeli aris misi mesakuTre.2. es wesi ar moqmedebs im SemTxvevaSi, roca nivTze sakuTrebiTiurTierTobis xasiaTi vlindeba sajaro reestridan. sakuTrebisprezumfcia ar gamoiyeneba arc Zveli mflobelis mimarT, Tu man esnivTi dakarga, mohpares an sxvagvarad gavida igi misi mflobelobidan.sakuTrebis prezumfcia moqmedebs Zveli mflobelis sasargeblodmxolod misi mflobelobis periodSi."aRsaniSnavia is, rom mocemuli sakiTxebi nawilobrivmowesrigebulia specialuri kanonmdeblobiTac. aq dasaxelebulinormebidan naTlad Cans, rom uZravi nivTis keTilsindisieri SeZenaam qonebaze sakuTrebis SeZenis TaviseburebiTaa ganpirobebuli.mowesrigebis aseTi forma bevrad waagavs germanuli samarTlisdanawesebs.axla rac Seexeba zemoTmotanili normebis komentarebsa dadoqtrinalur axsna-ganmartebas.II. doqtrinadoqtrinisaTvis amosavalia keTilsindiseri samoqalaqobrunva, rasac safuZvels uyris moqmedi samoqalaqo kodeqsi.brunvis keTilsindisiereba am brunvis monawileTakeTilsindisierebaa, es ki gulisxmobs brunvis monawileebisadmisandoobas. aseTi urTierT damokidebuleba gamartivebuli dacocxali samoqalaqo brunvis aucilebeli winapirobaa. es92


sruliadac ar niSnavs urTierTobis monawileTa mxridanerTmaneTis mimarT TvaldaxuWul ndobas. igi aucilebladgulisxmobs windaxedulobis gonivrul masStabs, romlisignorirebamac SeiZleba brunvis monawile arakeTilsindisiermonawiled aqcios da dacvis miRma datovos. imdenadmniSvnelovania keTilsindisiereba samoqalaqo brunvisaTvis, romuflebisa da keTilsindisierebis, rogorc faseulobaTaurTierTdapirispirebis SemTxvevaSi, zogjer keTilsindisierebaimarjvebs da Tavad xdeba uflebis wyaro. kanonmdebeli sxvagvaradverc ki moiqceva. saqme imaSia, rom calkeul SemTxvevebSikeTilsindisierebisadmi prioritetis miniWebiT kanonmdebeli icavsTavad samoqalaqo brunvas, rogorc faseulobas da am gziT brunvismonawileTa pativsadeb interesebs.samoqalaqo brunvis mniSvnelovani Tavisebureba is aris, romyoveli mxare im tvirTis matarebeli SeiZleba iyos, romliszidvac mas SeuZlia. roca mtkicdeba, rom igi uZluria zidos estvirTi, pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxic ixsneba.Cvens mier motanil normebSi erTmaneTis pirispir dgananmesakuTre da keTilsindisieri SemZeni. rogorc ukve iTqva, maTimdgomareoba arsebiTad gansxavebulia moZravi da uZravi nivTebisSeZenisas. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 186-e muxlidan gamomdinare moZravqonebaze sakuTrebis SeZena xdeba misi gadacemiT. aq iseTisinamdvile yalibdeba, rodesac erTmaneTis pirispir dganan nivTismesakuTre da misi SemZeni. maT Soris ar dgas araviTari sxva iseTipiri, romelic, uxeSad rom vTqvaT, TavisTavze aiRebda raimepasuximsgeblobas. nivTis SemZenis bediRbali mTlianadaadamokidebuli gamsxviseblis samarTlebriv mdgomareobaze da sakuTarwindaxedulobaze. ar aRmoCndeba gamsxvisebeli mesakuTre-SemZeniskeTilsindisireba ver gaxdeba yovelTvis misi uflebis dacvisiaraRi. umeteswilad, aq sakuTreba imarjvebs keTilsindisirebazeda amis gamo orTabrZola mesakuTris sasargeblod mTavrdeba.sruliad sxva suraTi gvaqvs uZravi qonebis SeZenisas. aq ukvedapirispirebul mxareebs Soris dgas, uxeSad rom vTqvaT,,,arbitri", romelic pasuximgeblobis ZiriTad tvirTs Tavis TavzeiRebs. es ,,arbitri" sajaro reestria, romlis wyalobiTaa, romkeTilsindisiereba imarjvebs sakuTrebaze. is ZiriTadi tvirTi,romelic gamsxviseblis uflebamosilebis Sesamowmeblad ekisrebodaSemZens, normatiulad sajaro reestris xelSia aRebuli.yovelive es erTgvarad amartivebs keTilsindisieri SemZenistvirTs. rogorc motanili normebidan Cans, sajaro reestrismonacemebis mimarT moqmedebs utyuarobisa da sisrulisprezumfcia. raxan es asea SemZens naklebad xelewifeba Seamowmosgamsxviseblis uflebrivi mdgomareoba. aqedan gamomdinare misiwindaxedulobis farglebic Sesabamisad viwroa. marTaliakanonmdebeli ki uSvebs imis SesaZleblobas, rom SemZenma SeiZlebaicodes, rom ,,gamsxvisebeli ar iyo mesakuTre", magram misi gamorkvevaerTob Zneli unda iyos. Tuki sakuTrebis uflebas fetiSisturadmiudgebiT, cxadia gagviWirdeba im sinamdvilisadmi Segueba, rodesacmasze imarjvebs keTilsindiseri SemZeni. amisi aRqma marTlacZnelia iseTi sinamdvilis pirobebSi, rodesac erTmaneTis pirispir93


dganan sruliad ubralo mesakuTre da aseTive SemZeni. erTiSexedviT, roca mesame piria gamsxvisebeli piri, romlissaxelzedac arasworad aRiricxa sakuTreba sajaro reestrSi,ratom unda daiCagros mesakuTre. gana is, risi SeZenissafuZvelic xarveziania, SeiZleba sabolood SeZenilad CaiTvalos?gana SeZenis obieqturi safuZveli ar aris am SeZenis namdvilobissafuZveli da ara pirTa subieqturi neba? Tumca, aq martosubieqturi neba-keTilsindisiereba ara gvaqvs saxeze, aqvea xarvezianiobieqturi neba sajaro reestrisa. mokled, es is SemTxvevaa,rodesac subieqturi neba asworebs obieqturis nakls. e. i. TukiSemZeni keTilsindisieria, sajaro reestris xarvezianobaciCrdileba da igi verafriT ver Svelis uflebawarTmeulmesakuTres. warmovidginoT aseTi magaliTi, mesakuTre xangrZlivimivlinebiT wavida ucxo qveyanaSi da sakuTari bina droebiTsargeblobaSi dautova axlonaTesavs. am ukanasknelma yalbidokumentebis meSveobiT miaRwia imas, rom sajaro reestrSiaRiricxa, rogorc am binis mesakuTre da igi gaasxvisa pirze,romelic am faqtis mimarT iyo keTilsindisieri. moqmedikanonmdeblobis mixedviT, Zalianac, rom ecados binis dabrunebasmisi namdvili mesakuTre, verafers gaxdeba, keTilsindisier SemZensdarCeba igi sakuTrebaSi. wminda adamianuri poziciidan TuSevxedavT am sakiTxs, namdvili mesakuTris uflebas cota vinmeTu SeewinaaRmdegeba. dava unda gadawydes mis sasargeblod dakeTilsindisieri SemZenis sawinaaRmdegod. magram ra Sedegebimoyveba amas Tu dauSvebT? yvelaze mZime Sedegi iqnebasamoqalaqo brunvis Seferxeba da misadmi undoblobis gaCena. raxanSemZeni ar iqneba daculi misi keTilisindisierebis SemTxvevaSic,cxadia, interesi moiklebs uZravis SesaZenad. ufro garkveviT, romvTqvaT, moiSleba samoqalaqo brunvis stabiluroba da SeZeniluflebebs saeWvoobis daRi daedeba. kidev ufro dazustebiT, romvTqvaT, eWqveS dadgeba samoqalqo brunvis usafrTxoeba, romelic,rogorc faseuloba am brunvis monawileTa uflebebis garantiaa.sajaro reestris arseboba keTilsindisier SemZensaTavisuflebs mometebuli pasuxismgeblobisa da riskisagan.amdenad, kvlav unda iTqvas, rom uZravi qonebis SeZenisreJimis pirdapiri Sedegia keTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebiscalsaxad prioritetuli dacva. aqve unda iTqvas, rom uZravi qonebisSeZenis wesi Tanabrad vrceldeba yvela saxis sakuTrebaze, esiqneba individualuri Tu saerTo. doqtrinaSi kamaTs iwvevsmeuRleTa TanaskuTrebaze uflebis warmoSobis sakiTxi. migvaCnia,rom im droidan rac saqarTveloSi SemoRebul iqna sajaro reestri,uZravze sakuTrebis ufleba arcerT SemTxvevaSi ar warmoiSobasajaro reestrSi registraciis gareSe. am pozicias adgassaqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos praqtika. sakonstituciosasamarTlomac 1998 wlis 25 ivnisis gadawyvetilebaSi, romelicexeboda ,,sacxovrebeli sadgomiT sargeblobisas warmoSobiliurTierTobebis Sesaxeb" kanonis konstituciurobas, sagangebodgausva xazi formis mniSvnelobas uflebis warmoSobis saqmeSi.aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, nebismieri sakuTrebis ufleba, igigarigebis safuZvelze warmoiSoba YTu kanonis safuZvelze94


sabolood warmoSobilad CaiTvleba sajaro reestrSi registraciisgziT. amitomac, kanonis danawesi, rom ,,meuRleTa mier qorwinebisganmavlobaSi SeZenili qoneba warmoadgens saerTo qonebas(TanasakuTrebas)" ar unda gavigoT martooden sityva-sityviTi azriT.am SemTxevvaSi sinamdvileSi saubaria TanasakuTrebis warmoSobissafuZvelze, Tavad es TanasakuTreba ki gveqneba orive meuRlissaxelze aRniSnuli qonebis sajaro reestrSi registraciiT.mokled, arc kerZo neba, romlis Sedegia - garigeba da arcnormatiuli neba, romlis Sedegia - kanoni, TavisTavad ar arissakmarisi garemoeba sakuTrebis uflebis warmosaSobad.III. praqtika1. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlis interpretaciauZravi qonebis keTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebis dacvisSesaxeb sakmaod vrceli sasamarTlo praqtika dagrovda.sasamarTloebi ZiriTadad sworad iyeneben samoqalaqo kodeqsis185-e muxls. es yvelaze metad iTqmis uzenaesi sasamarTlosSesaxeb, romelic aRniSnuli muxlis gamoyenebis principulgaremoebebsac xazgasmiT gamoyofs. ase magaliTad, 2006 wlis 9 martisganCinebaSi (#as-980-1243-05) sasamarTlom calke gamoyo normaprincipi:,,uZravi nivTis gamsxviseblis mesakuTred miCnevisaTvissakmaris safuZvels warmoadgens SemZenisaTvis, rom gamsxvisebelimesakuTred registrirebuli iyos sajaro reestrSi". rac SeexebakeTilsindiseri SemZenis uflebas, sasamarTlo mas miiCnevsaRniSnulidan gamonaklisad. kerZod, sasamarTlos azriT, ,,es isSemTxvevaa, rodesac SemZenma icis, rom sajaro reestrSiregistrirebuli gamsxvisebeli, ar aris mesakuTre". aqedangamomdinare sasamarTlo akeTebs Semdeg daskvnas: ,,... aRniSnulinormiT dawesebuli SemZenis keTilsindisierebis dadgenisaTvis,sakmarisi ar aris mxolod sajaro reestris monacemebisgaTvaliswineba, vinaidan mocemul SemTxvevaSi arsebiTi sakiTxiamesakuTris vinaobisadmi SemZenis subieqturi damokidebuleba (icodaTu ar icoda). Sesabamisad, SemZenis interesebis maregulirebelinormis gamoyenebisas unda Semowmdes rogorc sajaro reestrismonacemebi, aseve utyuarad unda dadgindes, rom SemZenma ar icodaqonebis sxva mesakuTris Taobaze".rac Seexeba keTilsindisierebis axsnas, sasamarTloebiZiriTadad Semoifarglebian konkretuli SemTxvevebis analiziT. Cvensmier moZiebul masalebSi am mxriv ar Cans samoqalaqo kodeqsisSesabamisi normis zogadi interpretacia. vinaidankeTilsindisierebas afuZnebs SemZenis subieqturi damokidebulebagarkveuli faqtebisadmi, sasamarTlos gansakuTrebuli sifrTxilemarTebs misi Sefasebisas. SemZens ar SeiZleba moeTxovos iseTigaremoebebis codna, romelic aRemateba (scildeba) misi95


SesaZleblobis farglebs. keTilsindisierebis Sefasebisas mTavariaSemZenis mxridan faqtebis gacnobierebis SesaZlebloba da ara Tavadinteresi am faqtebisadmi. sxva sityvebiT, Sefasebis saganiaaRniSnuli faqtebis codna da ara mizanmimarTuli codna.Seswavlili praqtika mowmobs, rom 185-e muxlis interpretaciaxdeba samoqalaqo kodeqsis im normebTan organul kavSirSi,romlebic misTvis safuZvelsa da gasaRebs warmoadgens. kerZod,samoqalaqo kodeqsis 183-e, 312-e da sxva muxlebTan erTad.2. 185-e muxlis moqmedebis farglebisasamarTloebis praqtikaSi zogjer wamoiWreba sakiTxi impirze samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlis gavrcelebis Sesaxeb,romlis mesakuTred registracia sajaro reestrSi ferxdebamisgan damoukidebeli mizezebiT. sakasacio sasamarTlos 2004wlis 3 dekembris ganCinebidan Semdegi viTareba dasturdeba:Yi.botkoveli da i. wiklauri imyofebodnen registrirebulqorwinebaSi. erTad cxovrebis periodSi SeiZines bina, romelicaRiricxa erT-erTi meuRlis, kerZod, i. wiklauris saxelze. amukanasknelma i. WeliZesTan gaaforma aRniSnuli binis nasyidobisxelSekruleba, risi baTiloba da TanasakuTrebaSi wilis aRiarebamoiTxova i. botkovelma. marTalia binis nasyidobis garigebagaformda, magram SemZenis nebisagan damoukideblad, ar moxerxdamisi (i. WeliZis) sajaro reestrSi registracia.sasamarTlos winaSe dadga sakiTxi i. WeliZis SenaZenisnamdvilobisa da misi dacvis mizanSewonilobis Taobaze.amdenad, binis nasyidobis xelSekruleba gaformebulia,Aarsebobs registraciis neba, magram registracia jer ar momxdaraqonebaze yadaRis dadebis gamo. miuxedavad imisa, rom sakuTrebisSeZenis procesi ar dasrulebula, raionulma sasamarTlom CaTvala,rom i. WeliZe aris keTilsindisieri SemZeni. am motiviT, sasamarTlomar daakmayofila i. botkovelis moTxovna binis nasyidobis baTiladcnobaze.saapelacio palatis gadawyvetilebaSic analogiurad iqnaganmartebuli uZravi qonebis keTilsindisieri SeZena. kerZod,palatis ganmartebiT, samoqalaqo kodeqsis ...,, 185-e muxli icavsmyidvelis qonebriv interesebs, anu garantias iZleva Tu myidvelmaSeiZina uZravi nivTi sajaro reestrSi miTiTebuli am nivTismesakuTrisagan, risTvisac gadauxada mas gansazRvruli Tanxa, igiar dazaraldeba, nivTi mas ar CamoerTmeva da aRniSnuli arSeiZleba iyo damokidebuli imaze, moaswro Tu ara myidvelmaaRricxva sajaro reestrSi am nivTis mesakuTred, miT ufro,rodesac ... aRricxva ver xerxdeba binaze dadebuli yadaRis gamo".amdenad, saapelacio palatis ganmartebiT, keTilisindisieriSeZenis Zalaunarianoba moqmedebs uZrav qonebaze sakuTrebissajaro reestrSi registraciamde.vfiqrobT, rom swori pozicia daikava sakasacio sasamarTlom,romelmac Seaxsena saapelacio sasamarTlos, rom 183-e muxlispirvel nawils alternativa ar moepoveba, kerZod is, rom uZravinivTis SesaZenad aucilebelia SemZenis registracia sajaro96


eestrSi. 311-e muxlis Tanaxmad ki, sajaro reestrSi SeitanebasakuTreba da sxva sanivTo uflebebi, romlebic ukve arseboben.Tu gaviziarebdiT saapelacio sasamarTlos pozicias, maSinTavdayira dadgeboda samoqalaqo kodeqsis 183-e da 185-e muxlebiTgaTvaliswinebuli wesi. vidre xelSekrulebis safuZvelzedaTmobili sakuTreba ar aRiricxeba sajaro reestrSi, manam arces uflebaa da arc misi keTilsindisieri SemZeni. 185-e muxliTgaTvaliswinebuli ufleba mkacrad moxazul samarTlebriv sivrceSiada misi sxvagan gadatana, kerZod saxelSekrulebo urTierTobissivrceSi dauSvebelia.sakasacio sasamarTlom erT-erT ganCinebaSi aRniSna, rom 185-emuxlis gamoyeneba dauSvebelia, roca mesame piris uflebasaTanado ar aris gaformebuli.3. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 159-e muxlis interpretacia (marTlzomieri dakeTilsindisieri SemZenis gamijvna)sasamarTlom kargad unda gamoarkvios uZravi qonebisSemZeni marTlzomieri SemZenia Tu keTilsindisieri. SeuZlebeliaerTdroulad piri iyos marTlzomieri SemZenic dakeTilsindisieric. samwuxarod, praqtika icnobs aseTdamokidebulebasac, raSi ,,braleuli" unda iyos samoqalaqokodeqsis 159-e muxlis pirveli winadadeba, romlis Tanaxmadac,,keTilsindisieria mflobeli, romelic nivTs marTlzomieradflobs". saqme imaSia, rom keTilsindisieri mflobelobis sakiTximxolod maSin dgeba, roca mflobeloba aramarTlzomieria. amSemTxvevaSi keTilsindisiereba faravs aramarTlzomierebas da igixdeba uZravi nivTis SeZenis safuZveli. amitomac, rocadadgenilia, rom mflobeloba marTlzomieria, uflebis dasabuTebissafuZvlad keTilsindisierebaze miniSneba sruliad zedmeti dauadgiloa.sakasacio sasamarTlos 2005 wlis 19 maisis ganCinebaSi(#as-1355-1481-04) sadavo urTierTobis Semdegi suraTia saxeze: m.giorgobiani iZens vinme i. basilaSvilsagan uZrav qonebas (miwisnakveTebsa da saxls). am ukansaknels ki es qoneba SeuZenia s.suTiaSvilisagan. vinaidan s. suTiaSvili ar aTavisufldeba m.giorgobianis mier SeZenil binas, man sarCeliT mimarTa raionulsasamarTlos da kidec aRidgina masze pirdapiri mflobeloba. s.suTiaSvili Tavis mxriv ki Tvlida, rom aRniSnuli qonebismesakuTre kvlavac TviTonaa, radganac i. basilaSvilma masmotyuebis gziT waarTva es qoneba sakuTrebaSi. aqedan gamomdinare,igi mosarCele giorgobianis sakuTrebas eWvis qveS ayenebda.saapelacio sasamarTlom ver dainaxa s. suTiaSvilisagan i.basilaSvilze aRniSnuli qonebis sakuTrebaSi gadacemisaramarTlzomiereba, rac TavisTavad unda miviCnioT, rom ueWvelsxdis m. giorgobianis mier qonebis SeZenis marTlzomierebas.miuxedavad amisa, ratomRac saapelacio da sakasacio sasamarTlosmTeli yuradReba gadaaqvT qonebis SeZenis keTililsindisierebisfaqtze. ase magaliTad, sakasacio sasamarTlos ganCinebaSi naTqvamia:,,vinaidan, m. giorgobianTan xelSekrulebis gafromebis dros sadavo97


qonebis mesakuTred registrirebuli iyo i. basilaSvili, saapelaciosasamarTlom m. giorgobiani miiCnia keTilsindisier SemZenad".amasTan dakavSirebiT unda iTqvas, rom SemZenis keTilsindisierebiscnobisaTvis ar aris konstituciuri niSani, qonebis gamsxvisebelzeregistraciis faqti. aseTi niSani iqneboda registraciisxarvezianoba (aramarTlzomiereba) da am faqtis mimarT SemZeniskeTilsindisiereba. roca qonebis registracias uxarvezod aRiarebssasamarTlo, maSin SemZeni keTilsindisieri ki ar aris aramedmarTlzomieria.aqedan gamomdinare saeWvod unda miviCnioT sakasaciopalatis motivacia, romelic emyareba samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-emuxls.4. keTilsindisierebis moqmedebis drosakasacio sasamarTlom 2005 wlis 16 seqtembers ganCinebaSi(3as-409-756-05) 185-e muxlis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT aseTidebuleba daafiqsira: ,,keTilsindisierebis faqti unda arsebobdesnivTis gadacemamde". uZravi qonebis SeZenasTan dakavSirebiT,keTilsindisiereba 185-e muxliT gaTvalsiwinebul Sedegebs iwvevsmxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca mas adgili aqvs sakuTrebis uflebissajaro reestrSi registraciamde. registraciis Semdgomdroindelisinamdvile, kerZod, is rom pirma gaigo qonebis SeZenisaramarTlzomierebis DSesaxeb, samarTlebrivad umniSvneloa. qonebisSeZenis Semdeg, piri xdeba misi marTlzomieri mflobeli daamdenad SeZenis samarTlebrivi buneba ucvleli rCeba. amitomacaa,rom Tuki Semdgom am pirisagan SeiZens vinme uZrav qonebas, massaqme eqneba marTlzomier mflobelTan.mokled, SeZenis aRiarebis momentidan asparezidan qreba amSeZenis mimarT subieqturi damokidebuleba.5. meuRleTa TanaskuTreba da keTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebrivimdgomareobasasamarTlo praqtika erTob mdidaria meuRleTaTanasakuTrebis keTilsindisieri SeZenis SemTxvevebiT. sakasaciosasamarTlom 2005 wlis erT-erT ganCinebaSi (#3a/932-02) daafiqsirapozicia, romelic vfiqrobT, rom sworad warmoaCens meuRleTasaerTo qonebaze sakuTrebis warmoSobis moments.sakasacio palatam xazi gausva garemoebas, rom uZrav qonebazesakuTrebis ufleba warmoiSoba sajaro reestrSi registraciisgziT da amis ZiriTadi mizania SemZenis interesebis dacva.kerZod, meuRleTa TanasakuTrebasTan mimarTebiT aRniSna: ,,...SemZenis interesebidan gamomdinare, meuRleTa qorwinebisganmavlobaSi erTad SeZenil samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1158-e muxliTgaTvaliswinebul uZrav qonebaze (TanasakuTrebaze) meuRleTasakuTrebis ufleba warmoiSoba mxolod sajaro reestrSi orivemaTganis registraciis Semdeg. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi mesamepirebis mimarT reestris Canawerebi iTvleba sworad".98


aqedan ukve cxadi xdeba, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-emuxlis is debuleba, rom ,,meuRleTa mier qorwinebis ganmavlobaSiSeZenili qoneba warmoadgens maT saerTo qonebas (TanasakuTrebas)"ar unda ganimartos martooden sityva-sityviTi azriT. aseTiqoneba saerTo sakuTrebad iqceva, mxolod orive meuRlis uflebassajaro reestrSi registraciiT. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, kasatormamisive nebiT xelidan gauSva SesaZlebloba, sajaro reestrSiaRricxuliyo, rogorc TanamesakuTre. mniSvnelovania is faqti, rompalatam gansazRvra samoqalaqo kodeqsis 158-e da 1160-e muxlebisadgili samoqalaqo normebis urTierTmimarTebis meqanizmSi. kerZod,Tu doqtrinasa da nawilobriv - praqtikaSi gavrcelebuli iyoazri, rom 158-e muxli 1160-esTan mimarTebiT zogad normaswarmoadgenda, palatis azriT, orive SemTxvevaSi specialurnormebTan gvaqvs saqme. es unda metyvelebdes mowesrigebissagnobriv gansxvavebaze. kerZod, ganCinebis Tanaxmad ,,samoqalaqokodeqsis 185-e muxli iZleva keTilsindisier SemZenis interesebisdacvis samarTlebriv garantiebs, xolo 1160-e muxli awesebsTanamesakuTre meuRlis interesebis dacvis iuridiul meqanizms".palata Tvlis, rom am SemTxvevaSi keTilsindisieri SemZenisinteresebs unda mieniWos prioriteti, vinaidan TanamesakuTremeuRlem araferi iRona, sakuTrebis ufleba sajaro reestrSi romdaeregistrirebina.bunebrivia, keTilisindisieri SemZenis interesebis dacvissakiTxi maSinac dadgeba, roca TanamesakuTre meuRlisaganmalulad moxdeba erT-erTi meuRlis saxelze mTeli sakuTrebisregistracia. migvaCnia, rom verc es SemTxveva ver gaxdebakeTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebis uaryofis safuZveli.99


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