FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1/2017

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Volume 32 _D42804 F

Journal for meat production,

processing and research




Global share is growing steadily


Meat products as

carrier of probiotics


Equipment for

secondary material



animal species


Smoking and Ripening

Poultry Processing

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



RenateKühlcke -kck Gerd Abeln -abe YvonneBuch -yb MichaelWeisenfels -mw

KathrinGrünewald -gru

Focus on quality

2017 presents anew FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international

Over the years poultry has become extremely

appreciated by consumers worldwide. An

ever-growing share in the global meat consumption

is the mirror of this development.This

means that poultry is the focus of both the consumers

and the industry -and of this issue of


Likethe title story and our readers, we editors

focus on the quality of our product–the bimonthly

magazine for the entire meat sector.

Over the past few months, we have sharpened the

profile of FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international

and given it amodern look. At thefirst glance, the

clear,straightforward logo and the new cover

layout,based on hygienic design optics, come into

view.The content is noticeably different and yet

familiar.New fonts, arevised picture and graphic

language, clear tables and agreater diversity of

articles makethe reading experience more distinctive


international non-interchangeable.

Thetried-and-tested structure of the journal

remains unchanged. Thepractical-oriented

front part of each issue shows the "meat chain"

from agricultural generation to harvesting,

processing and marketing. Apart of the DNA

of our FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international

is also the peer-reviewed “Research and Development”section.

Our diversity and depth of

topics are consistently aligned with the needs

of our target group with atechnological and

scientific focus. In terms of content,wecontinue

to rely on the expertise of the specialist

authors, which has carried us intothe 32nd

year of our international issue in English and

the 97th of our German one. Our claim remains

to be areliable navigator.Here we use

the columns "News", "Business News"and

"Foreign Markets", which arelocated on the

first pages of each issue. In this section information

about meat-relevant events and topics,

the initiation and accompaniment of debates

are central concerns.

It is atricky thing to revise awell-tried print

journal, which is anchored in the industry.Finding

the right measure was our goal. Please let us

know if we have succeeded. r red-flw@dfv.de



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


14 44


In recent years consumers have

more and more appreciated all

kinds of poultry as an important

source of protein. In addition they

like the low fat content and the

good digestibility. 14 Photo: Marel


3 Editorial

6 News

8 Business News

11 Foreign Markets

18 Industry News

47 Calendar

48 Advertisers, Credits, Subscriptions

55 Research News

Meat chain

14 Poultry

Use of antibiotics in the Chinese poultry

industry and alternative solutions development

of antibiotic-free breeding

24 Machinery

Multi-purpose equipment allows the

processing of secondary meat raw


36 Food Waste

Active and intelligent packagings can

reduce wastes in meat-producing


44 Testing Methods

Duplex PCR opens new possibilities for

the detection of GM soya in chicken


Research &Development

50 Methods of differentiating animal species in foods –

Status quo

56 Storage stability of chicken meat incorporated noodles

at ambient temperature under aerobic condition

62 Thermoresistance and regeneration

of heat-damaged E. faecium PCM 1859

in amedium with reduced ph value

66 Guidelines for authors

of FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



20 Consumer Research

Dutch per capita consumption of poultry

meat remains constant at ahigh level

22 Packaging

Modern technologies and materials lead

to high quality and product safety

28 Ingredients

Fermented meat products are suitable

carriers of probiotics




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



Pork Quarterly Q1published

The level to which China imports pork

after Chinese New Year will determine

the start of the seasonal increase of

the Rabobank Five-Nation Hog Price

Index, according to the latest

Rabobank Pork Quarterlyreport.

Chinese pork prices will remain

elevated, but likelyslightlyless so

after Chinese New Year.The stabilising

sow herd and rapidlyrising productivity

will not affect the market

before summer, while the continuing

impact of environmental policies on

industry restructuring will limit expansion.

Pressured supplyand

continuing exports will support

prices and margins in the EU. However,

rising export dependency as a

result of ongoing pressured domestic


Ban for beef lifted

U.S. authorities have lifted an

embargo on French beef imports

after 19 years, the French agriculture

ministry said. This was

reported by CTV News.

France is the fourth EU country

to have its beef re-admitted to

the US market after a1998 ban

consumption increases the importance

of afavourable exchange rate,

given rising competition from the

Americas. The margin split in the US

industry will continue in 1H 2017.

Rising production will continue to

pressure farmers’ margins, while

demand will support packers’ margins.

However, trade developments

and the impact of exchange rates will

be the wildcards.


imposed because of fears over

bovine spongiform encephalopathy

(BSE), also known as mad

cow disease. The others are

Ireland, Lithuania and the




Partner country was Hungary

Once again the International Green Week Berlin 2017 emphasised

its function as aleading trade fair for national and international

agribusiness. From 20 to 29 January atotal of 1,650 exhibitors

from 66 countries provided acomprehensive review of

the food industry’s global market and of the achievements of

agriculture and horticulture.

Messe Berlin registered at the trade fair and conferences of the

Green Week 2017 total almost 400,000. In addition to visitors

attending this event daily the halls were filled each day with some

10,000 personnel such as exhibitors and stand staff,service

operatives and media representatives. Percapita expenditure by

visitors to the fair remained at last year’s level, exceeding of 120€

and providing exhibitors with sales worth more than 48 mill. €.

Dates of the next event:19to28January 2018.


Photo: Messe Berlin


Danish Institute opened modern slaughterhouse in South Korea

Daejeon Chungnam Pig-Farmer Cooperative

(DC) plans to establish a40,000 m 2 new

slaughterhouse for 3,000 pigs and 300 cattle

per day near Cheonan, South Korea. It will

become the workplace of 400 employees. DC

is amajor pig producer and the owner of

butcher shops and restaurants in South


The facility is planned to start operating at

the end of 2018,meeting all modern demands

and standards. DC has engaged the Danish

Meat Research Institute and Haenglim Architecture

&Engineering to facilitate the


The capacity of the plant is planned to

process 3,000 pigs and 300 cattle per day

with the possibility of expanding with aprocessing

department. The site will offer space

of around 85,000 m 2 ;the buildings will take

around 40,000 m 2 .The construction works are

The Danish Meat

Research Institute

designed the

state-of-the-art plant for

the Daejeon Chungnam

Pig-Farmer Cooperative.

planned to start in the earlyspring of 2017

and by the end of 2018 the production will

start up. The slaughterhouse will complywith

the standards of the European Union and the

United States of America for slaughtering,

cutting, de-boning and hygiene for producing

quality meat products for Korea. Facilities will

be made for the collection and separation of

animal by-products according to the EU

by-product regulation “Health rules concerning

animal by-products not intended for

human consumption” EU 1774/2002.

Equipment and processes will be chosen

according to the EU environmental standards

for slaughterhouses, BREF (11.03) "Best Available

Techniques in the Slaughterhouses and

Animal By-Product Industries". Media consumption

and emission will be within the

ranges stated in the EU BREF. Transport of

products to and from the slaughterhouse will

be made from the main roads east and south

of the site.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017




Gates Foundation grants

poultry project in Africa

The World Poultry Foundation

(WPF) has received afour year

$21.4mill. grant from the Bill &

Melinda Gates Foundation to

enhance poultry production in

Tanzania and Nigeria.

Working closelywith government

and in-country private sector

partners, the WPF will lead a

project that will catalyze atransformation

of rural poultry production

in these two countries. This

initiative will increase poultry

production and productivity

through the access of low-input

dual purpose birds, increase rural

household income, improve household

nutrition and empower


The grant provides WPF with an

opportunity to implement astrategy

that creates access of improved

genetics to the rural

famers, provides technical assistance

and training, and offers

access to markets that may not

have been possible before. The

goal is to impact 2.5 mill. households

across Tanzania and Nigeria

by the end of this four-year initiative.

The project will focus on training

and extension support to build a

sustainable value chain. Another

key component of the project is

the establishment of over 1,500

entrepreneurial enterprises –

primarilyowned and managed by

women –that will supplyhealthy

brooded and vaccinated chicks to

the rural smallholder farmers.



Chronic wasting disease implies risks for EU

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is

most likelytoenter the European

Union through the movement of live

cervids that are transported or roam

freelyfrom Norway to Sweden and


EFSA’sPanel on Biological Hazards

has identified monitoring activities

and measures to prevent the introduction

and spread of the disease

into and within the EU. The experts

also assessed new evidence on

possible public health risks. CWD is a

highlycontagious and deadlyanimal

brain disease belonging to the group

of diseases known as Transmissible

Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE).

It was thought to be restricted to

deer, elk and moose in North America

and South Korea, but in April and

May 2016 it was discovered in one

wild reindeer and one wild moose in

Norway.Itwas the first time that the

disease has been detected in Europe

and in reindeer in the wild. EFSA

Reindeer and Moose take CWD into Europe.

Photo: Dieter Schütz/pixelio.de

scientists note that humans may

consume infected meat in areas

where the disease is present.

However, they conclude that there

is no current scientific evidence

that humans can get the disease

through eating meat from infected

animals. EFSA’sopinion proposes a

three-year monitoring system

across eight countries to detect if

US President Donald J. Trump

signed an executive order withdrawing

the United States from the

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)

agreement, which was signed by

President Obama as well as the

leaders of eleven other Pacific Rim


The aim of the agreement was to

lower tariff and other barriers to

trade. President Trump said he

would withdraw from the agreement

altogether, and his executive

order to that effect made good on

that pledge. The order was met

with consternation in most of the

agriculture community, which had

been broadlysupportive of the TPP,

extolling its potential benefits for

US agricultural exports. It was

expected the Trump administration

also may seek changes to the

22-year-old North American Free

Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with

the disease is present. It also provides

risk managers with aset of

possible measures for prevention

and control which aim at reducing

contact between animals, lowering

cervid population densities, and

increasing awareness of the disease.



Trade agreement canceled by US President

Canada and Mexico. Indications

were the Trump administration was

seeking meetings with the leaders

of those two nations.

The US Meat Export Federation

(USMEF) said the organization

would remain committed to trading

partners in the TPP and NAFTA,

which account for more than 60%

of US red meat exports.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Business News

CP Foods

Takeover of Bellisio completed

Thailand’sCharoen Pokphand

Foods (CP Foods) has taken over

frozen specialist Bellisio Foods

with a$1.075 bn. deal. CP Foods’

huge deal to take over Bellisio

Foods marks its first acquisition of


The transaction brings together

one of America’smost dynamic

frozen food firms with the might of

Thailand’sdominant verticallyintegrated

meat business. Bellisio

manufactures and distributes

single-serve frozen entrées under

anumber of brands, such as Michelina’s,

Atkins, Boston Market,

Chili’s, EatWell and Eat. Bellisio also

produces arange of private-label

and foodservice items. In business

for over 25 years, Minneapolis-based Bellisio

Foods manufactures more than 400 frozen food

items and CP Foods said the well-known brands

would enhance its US operation. CP Foods

acquired all outstanding interest in Bellisio

Financial expert called Charoen Pokphand Foods (CP Foods) the

ideal partner for Bellisio Foods. Photo: Bellisio Foods

from US-based private equity firm Centre Partners.

Bruce Pollack, managing partner at the

investment firm, described CP Foods as the

ideal partner for Bellisio.



Company’s pork exports to China will start

Atria Finland Ltd has signed the contract of the

first pork delivery to China. Atria supplies frozen

pork products to its Chinese customers around

3mill. kg during the year 2017.

The delivery includes all types of products

derived from apig carcass. The first delivery to

the customer will be realized in earlyMay.The

company has reached an agreement with their

Danish Crown

Acquiring Teterower Fleisch

Danish Crown is acquiring the German cattle

slaughterhouse Teterower Fleisch to become the

fifth-largest cattle slaughterhouse in Germany.

The purchase price will not be disclosed.

Teterower Fleisch in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern,

afederal state in Germany, has an annual turnover

of 150mill. €, slaughters 110000 cattle annually,

has 187employees and is privatelyowned. Close to

20% of the cattle slaughtered by Teterower Fleisch

are organic. The company also slaughters pigs and

lambs, but mainlycattle. Danish Crown’sbeef

division also has significant slaughtering activities

in the north German city of Husum, where almost

90000 animals are slaughtered annually. Following

the takeover of Teterower Fleisch, the plan is to

run Danish Crown Beefs existing slaughterhouse

activities in Husum and the newlyacquired business

as an integrated unit, focusing on specialization

and on utilizing synergies in the international

Chinese customers of the first deliveries of

meat to China. Negotiations with customers are

progressing well and the first large-scale

delivery is evaluated as apromising start to

long-term cooperation, said Juha Gröhn Atria

Group's CEO.


markets that both companies serve. The agreement

on the acquisition of Teterower Fleisch has

been reported to the German federal cartel office

(the Bundeskartellamt), which must approve the



The Danish company will become the

fifth-largest cattle slaughterhouse in



Company acquires

Walsroder Casings Group

Viskase Companies, Inc., announced that it has

signed adefinitive agreement to acquire 100% of

the equity interests in Walsroder Casings Group

(including its subsidiaries Walsroder Casings

GmbH and Walsroder Casings Polska Sp. zo.o.),

headquartered in Bomlitz, Germany, from Quota

International GmbH and CT Holding GmbH. The

acquisition also includes the casing business

assets of Poly-clip System, LLC, Walsroder’s US

distributor and an affiliate of Quota, located in

Mundelein, Illinois.

After several decades, Walsroder is widely

recognized by the processed meat industry for

its high quality product line of fibrous and plastic

casings and innovative manufacturing technology.The

company’sproducts are distributed

throughout the world. There are manufacturing

and distribution facilities in Germany and Poland,

and distribution in the US through Poly-clip.

For the year ending 2016,Walsroder’s total

turnover is approximately$60 mill. This acquisition

will strengthen and complement Viskase’s

broad product line of fibrous and plastic casings

and provide additional production capacity for all

of Viskase’skey markets. Final closing of the

acquisition is expected by mid-January, once

regulatory requirements are completed. Transition

of the Poly-clip casings finishing and distribution

business in the US to Viskase will occur

over the next few months to ensure that all

customer needs will continue to be satisfied.



Increases in food

production recorded

Miratorg Zapad, Russia’slargest producer of

frozen semi-finished meat products and readyto-eat

meals reports a27% increase in production

to over 43000 tin2016.

The plant with atotal capacity of 80000 tof

products per year produces more than 150

different types of products and is akey supplier

for international restaurant chains in Russia.

The enterprise is also certified for supplyinto

foreign markets.

The company’sstrategy focuses on consistent

growth of production volumes and expansion

of product lines to satisfy the demand for

high-quality meat semi-finished products and

ready-to-eat meals both for Horeca sector and

the retail market. Miratorg additionallyinvested

more than 1bnrubles in increase of the enterprise

capacity and the installation of new hightech

lines that allow manufacturing of products

unique for the Russian market. In 2017 the

enterprise will continue to increase production

and start new types of semi-finished products.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



Five specialists joined their forces

Business News

During the fall of 2016 and beginning

of 2017,the Danish private

equity company Axcel acquired

five companies –all regarded as

leaders within their respective

fields: Attec, Itec, Carometec, SFK

Leblanc and Frontmatec. As from

31 January 2017,the Group and

the various entities will conduct

their business under the name


The goal is to create aleading

global supplier of equipment,

solutions and software for international

food companies. The integration

of the companies is well

under way the companies are

united under the name Frontmatec,

under the leadership of a

newlyappointed Executive Team.

The new team of Executive

Directors to head the Frontmatec

Group is: Henrik Andersen as CEO,

Lars Hansen as COO and Henrik

Alifas Nielsen as CFO. He has

been heading the European

organization of the

combined Frontmatec

Group for the

past three. Prior to

this, he has been CEO

of Carometec, a

company with an

enviable development,

and considered

as atrue innovator

in its field. He

has extensive experience

in the food

industry and is highly

respected for his

commitment. He also

has astrong commercial

and technical background.

Starting in June 2017,Lars

Hansen will join the team as Chief

Operating Officer.Heiscurrently

VP SupplyChain/Operations at

Assa Abloy Entrance Systems and

is highlyexperienced in aglobal

manufacturing footprint.

Frontmatec is the name for the new Group after Attec, Itec, Carometec, Frontmatec and SFK

Leblanc have joined forces.

Henrik Alifas Nielsen, currently

CFO at SFK Leblanc, will continue

as CFO for the new Group.

The implementation of the

Frontmatec name as the new

corporate brand starts as of 31

January 2017.The transition from

current brands to Frontmatec will

happen graduallyduring 2017,with

no immediate changes affecting

existing business relationships.

Though changing the company

names to one united corporate

brand, ITEC will remain as acategory

brand under Frontmatec for

hygiene equipment and solutions.



Progress in sow keeping

Smithfield Foods, Inc. reported that

87% of pregnant sows on companyowned

farms have been transitioned

to group housing systems, a

6% increase over 2015.Asplanned,

all company-owned farms in the

U.S. are expected to be fullyconverted

by 2017.Actuallynearlynine

out of every ten of their pregnant

sows are living in group housing.

The change has cost several hundred

mill. dollars, and on many of

the farms, the transition process

led to additional construction work,

equipment and system upgrades

and the development of new feeding

and watering systems. Beyond

efforts at company-owned farms,

the company previouslyannounced

it expects all U.S. contract growers

to transition to group housing by

2022. It's hog production operations

in Poland (AgriPlus) and Romania

(Smithfield Ferme) fullyconverted to

group housing facilities years ago.

Other international hog operations,are

expected to convert to

group housing by 2022.


Sanderson Farms

New facility opened

Sanderson Farms opened anew

$155mill. processing plant and

wastewater treatment facility in

St. Pauls, N.C. This new 180,000-

square-foot plant will accompany

the existing 65,000-square-foot

hatchery located in Lumberton,

N.C., as well as afeed mill in

Kinston, N.C. The facility features

the latest technology in the poultry

industry, including food safety,

employee welfare and environmental

conservation. The stateof-the-art

poultry complex will be

able to process 1.25 mill. birds per

week and will sell approximately

500 mill. pounds of dressed poultry

meat annually.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Business News

Allen Harim

Two personal changes announced


Institute appointed

new leader


Jackson becomes president

and chief operating officer

Photos: Allen Harim

Photo: MRI

Photo: Simmons

Allen Harim, aleading producer and

processor of chicken on Delmarva,

has named veteran communications

expert Catherine M. Bassett

as the new Director of Public Relations

to help share positive news

about the company and oversee

community relations. Also they

hired Harry L. Tillman as afood

industry sales management professional

to oversee business development

for the company.

Bassett began her career in Salisbury

as anewspaper reporter for

The DailyTimes in 1989. She started

her own public relations company in

2009, and has worked with arange

of clients including Delmarva

Power, the Ocean City Air Show,

Maryland Capital Enterprises and

the Delmarva Zoological Society.

Tillman joined Allen Harim in mid-

January as Senior Manager of Business

Development. He has spent

the past 20 years as asales operations

and strategy executive with a

deep background in high quality

value added and retail businesses.


Hormel Foods

Leadership hire announced

Hormel Foods Corporation announced

the appointment of Janet Hogan as

vice president, human resources,

effective 17 January 2017.

Hogan assumes responsibility for

leading the global HR function at the

company.Her responsibilities will

include building and executing

world-class strategies for talent

development, employee engagement,

total rewards and labor relations.

Most recently, she has led

global human resource organizations

including ProQuest and OshKosh

Corporation. Prior to her work at

these companies, Hogan served as

the vice president of human resources

for five years at Harsco

Corporation and spent almost 20

years at Monsanto Company.


Professor Dr.Pablo Steinberg,

Director of the Institute for Food

Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry

at the University of Veterinary

Medicine Hannover, has been appointed

President of the Max Rubner

Institute by the Federal Ministry

of Food and Agriculture.

Professor Steinberg studied biochemistry,

taking his doctorate in

this field at the University of Buenos

Aires. He has aHabilitation in toxicology

from Johannes Gutenberg

University Mainz and held various

positions there. In 1998, he was

appointed to the Chair of Food

Toxicology in the Institute of Nutritional

Science at the University of

Potsdam, becoming Executive

Director of the Institute of Nutritional

Science in 2002. This was

followed in 2008 by the Professorship

in Food Toxicology and Replacement/Complementary


to Animal Testing at the University

of Veterinary Medicine Hannover.Concurrently,


Steinberg became the university’s

Director of the Institute for Food

Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry.


Simmons Prepared Foods, Inc.,

announced that David Jackson will

succeed Gary Murphy as President

and Chief Operating Officer of Simmons

Prepared Foods, reporting

directlytoToddSimmons, Chief

Executive Officer of Simmons Foods,

Inc. &Affiliates.

David was succeeded as President

and Chief Operating Officer of Simmons

Pet Food by Jason Godsey in

October.Murphy recentlycelebrated

25 years with Simmons, after almost

two decades with ConAgra Foods.

As President and COO of Simmons

Prepared Foods, he led consistent

growth, including multiple recordsetting

years of performance.

Jackson earned aBachelor of Science

degree in Administrative

Management from the University of

Arkansas and aMaster of Business

Administration degree from the

University of Texas at Austin. He

recentlycelebrated 25 years at

Simmons. Jackson spent most of his

earlycareer in the poultry business

before leading Simmons Pet Food as

President and Chief Operating

Officer for the last four years.



Enterprise reached Tier 2onfarm animal welfare

BRF, one of the largest food companies in the

world, has advanced to Tier 2from Tier 3inthe

annual report of the Business Benchmark on

Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW). This improvement

recognises BRF’scommitment to animal welfare,

as reflected in the company’spolicies and


BRF’sclimb in the BBFAWranking follows

years of continuous investment in animal welfare,

during which appropriate systems were

adopted and relevant actions intensified.

Alongside this, data and information concerning

animal welfare on BRF’swebsite have been

broadened and made easier to access.

In its report, BBFAWacknowledges the established

internal processes BRF has put in

place to manage compliance and best practices

concerning animal welfare commitments.

It also draws attention to BRF’spartnership with

World Animal Protection (WAP), which is working

to better animal welfare practices in the supply

and production chains. One goal towards which

BRF is working, with the assistance of WAP, is

the transitioning of 100% of sows to group

gestation systems by 2026.

Amongst the examples of BRF’sanimal welfare

engagement in 2016 was the implementation

of environmental enrichment instruments

in more than 200 aviaries, which encourage

natural animal behaviour and lead to stress

reduction. With animal welfare being acore

value at BRF, ongoing investment is being

made in environmental enrichment studies,

with aview to improving conditions for animal


Now in its fifth year, the BBFAWpublishes an

annual review of 99 global food companies,

assessing their quality of animal welfare management,

as well as their disclosure of animal

welfare policies and practice.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Foreign Markets


Welfare monitoring in



Buffalo meat from India finally accepted

France's national assembly

adopted draft legislation that could

see all livestock slaughtering

recorded on video from next year to

enforce animal welfare regulations.

This was reported by Irish Farmers

Journal. “From 1January 2018,

pending trials to evaluate feasibility

and implementation conditions,

cameras will be installed in all

lairage, housing, restraining, stunning,

slaughtering and killing areas,”

the bill adopted by French

deputies. It adds that footage will

be kept for up to one month for

inspection and may be used for

staff training. The legislation also

asks the government to produce

reports regarding potential bans on

the slaughter of female livestock in

the last third of pregnancy and the

use of CO2 asphyxiation to slaughter

pigs. The bill must now go to the

senate before final adoption.


China has finallyagreed to remove

restrictions on beef export

from India. Atop official in the

Commerce ministry said Beijing,

which has sent quality inspection

team to India earlier to examine

buffalo meat facilities, has

cleared 14 abattoirs for importing

meat from here. Making China

agree for direct import of bovine

meat from India has been atop

priority for Indian government

since Narendra Modi government

took over in May 2014.This was

reported by the Indian Express.

Officials said China has been

buying Indian beef from Vietnam

in the last few years and New

Delhi was not getting any advantages

in terms of changing the

bilateral trade. Sources said

Ministry hopes that the export of

beef would make aconsiderable

change in the bilateral trade

deficit. India’strade deficit with

China increased to $52.69 bn. in

With the world’slargest population, China’sconsumption of meat has been

rising. Photo: Janine Grab-Bollinger

2015-16 from $48.48 bn. in the

previous financial year.

China signed an MoU for importing

bovine meat from India in

2013 during Premier Li Keqiang’s

visit, but has not lifted the restrictions

yet. The country has

exported 13,14,158.05 MT of

buffalo meat products to the

world for the worth of

Rs 2,6681.56 crore and the main

export destinations are Malaysia,

Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Iraq

apart from Vietnam.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Foreign Markets

Hong Kong

Country bans imports


Trade potential discussed

Regarding to the News Agency

Xinhua, Hong Kong authorities

announced that they have banned

the import of poultry meat and

products from Chile's Quilpue and

Romania. This was reported by

Global Times.

The Center for Food Safety (CFS)

of Hong Kong's Food and Environmental

Hygiene Department said

that in view of anotification from

the Chilean authorities about an

Highlypathogenic H5N8 avian

influenzainRomania was one

reason for the ban. Photo: Peter

Smola /pixelio.de

outbreak of low pathogenic avian

influenzaH7inQuilpue, Chile, it

has banned the import of poultry

meat and products (including

poultry eggs) from the above area

with immediate effect. In addition,

in view of anotification from the

World Organization for Animal

Health (OIE) about an outbreak of

highlypathogenic H5N8 avian

influenzainRomania, the CFS has

banned the import of poultry meat

and products (including poultry

eggs) from Romania with immediate

effect to protect public health

in Hong Kong.

ACFS spokesman said that in

the first eleven months of last

year, Hong Kong imported about

750 toffrozen poultry meat from

Chile. Since Hong Kong has not

established any protocol with

Romania for imports of poultry

meat and eggs, there is no import

of such commodities from Romania.


Leaders from Russia and Singapore

are examining ways the two

countries can develop import

and export relations between

the two countries concerning

the trade of poultry and pork


The Agri-food and Veterinary

Authority (AVA)ofthe Republic of

Singapore recentlyaddressed

Rosselkhoznadzor, Russia’s

Federal Service for Veterinary

and Phytosanitary Surveillance in

aletter stating its commitment

to start targeted activities aimed

at the development of trade

relations between Singapore and


Specifically, AVA was referring

to the implementation of mutual

inspections of the Russian and

Singaporean animal product

manufacturing establishments

that were scheduled during the

negotiations between the

Rosselkhoznadzor and AVA held

late in November 2016.Thus the

Singaporean party expressed

intention to hold a10-day inspection

of four Russian pork

and poultry plants. In order to

optimize the Singaporean experts’

activities the AVA requested

the Russian agency to

provide supplementary data on

measures taken to control diseases

such as African swine

fever (ASF), foot-and-mouth

disease (FMD) and avian influenzainRussia.

The Singaporean party also

invited the Russian inspectors to

visit animal product manufacturing

establishments interested in

exports to Russia in February

2016,and asked the agency to

provide veterinary and sanitary

requirements for imported meat

and meat products.

The Rosselkhoznadzor stated

it will further take all necessary

measures to start exports of the

Russian animal products to




More than 31,000 attendees visited the fair

The 2017 International Production

&Processing Expo (IPPE), taken

place from 31 January to 2February,

had more than 31,000 poultry,

meat and feed industry leader

attendees from all over the world.

In addition, the show had more

than 533,000 of net square feet of

exhibit space and 1,275 exhibitors.

Sponsored by the U.S.

Poultry &Egg Association, American

Feed Industry Association

and North American Meat Institute,

IPPE is the world's largest

annual feed, meat and poultry

industry event of its kind. This

year’s tremendous exhibit floor

and attendee and exhibitor numbers

are acompliment to IPPE’s

unmatched education programs,

ample networking opportunities

and diverse exhibits.

The excitement and energy

displayed by this year’s attendees

and exhibitors will continue

to safeguard the success and

growth of future IPPEs, the three

organizations said. The central

attraction is the large exhibit

floor.Exhibitors demonstrated

the most current innovations in

equipment, supplies and services

used by industry firms in the

production and processing of

meat, poultry, eggs and feed

products. Numerous companies

highlighted their new products at

the trade show, with all phases

of the feed, meat and poultry

industry represented, from live

production and processing to

further processing and packaging.

The wide variety of educational

programs complemented the

exhibits by keeping industry

management informed on the

latest issues and events. This

year’s educational line-up featured

25 programs, ranging from a

conference on Listeria monocytogenes

prevention and control, to

aprogram on FSMA hazard analysis

training, to aprogram on

whole genome sequencing and

food safety implications.

The wide variety of educational programs completed the exhibitor range.

Photo: IPPE

Other featured events included

the International Poultry Scientific

Forum, Beef 101 Workshop, Pet

Food Conference, TECHTalks

program, Event Zone activities

and publisher-sponsored pro-

grams, all of which have made the

2017 IPPE the foremost annual

protein and feed event in the




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Stricter standards and controls

Use of antibiotics in the Chinese poultry industry and alternative solutions

In China the significance of the

production and the consumption of

poultry meat is very high. The total

output of poultry meat was more

than 14 mill. tin2013; the percapita

consumption was more than 10 kg.

In this way poultry meat is the

second biggest consumer good after

pork (LI WENRUI,2014). This is

associated with apoultry production

becoming more and more intensive.

Particularly with regard to the

preservation of animal health during

the production time the use of

antibiotics seems to be unavoidable.

By Wang Wei, FriedhelmJaeger,

Catharina Hölscher,

HouBoand Ji Lili

According to the official Chinese

statistics the consumption rate

of antibiotics is about 200,000 t.

This is nearly the half amount wold

wide. Theamount of 97,000 tof

them are used in animal farming

systems. This is about 48.5% of the

total amount (LI ZHEN,2009). But

anyimproper practice, especially an

excessive practice in poultry farming,

must appreciated as critically.

Also the importance of the influence

on human health is increasing

today.This item considers the use

of antibiotics in poultry farming

and the correlated problems in

China. Thepossibility and chance

for poultry farming without the use

of antibiotics are discussed.

Use of antibiotics in poultry

production in the past

Since in 1929 the English scholar

Fleming found the Penicillin,

antibiotics are actually the most

used and most important

medicines against infectious diseases.

So theyare regarded as the

biggest discovery in the 20th century.Thus

manyinfectious diseases

could be cured andthe expectancy

of human life could be increased

(HUANG FUBING,2012). Also for

animal farming systems the use of

antibiotics has been amain factor

to prevent and cure epidemic diseases.

In 1946 MOORE et al. reported

already about the performanceenhancing


They verified, that adaily dose of

antibiotics increases the weight gain

notable (MOORE,P., A. EVENSION,T.

LUCKEY,etal., 1946). Other studies

showed, that as aresult of atargeted

and efficient use of antibiotics

chicklets grow faster,hens lay more

eggs and the loss ratedecrease. In

the development of the last 60 years

over 20 different antibiotics are

used in poultry farming. In 2005 a

market report of the International

Society for Animal Hygiene suggested,

that with an abandonment

of antibiotics in the same time the

In recent years, poultry

farming in China was

intensified significantly.

production of poultry has to increase

about 25% to cover the requirement

(LU XIN,2008).

Butalready since the use of

antibiotics has been started the

apprehension about negative consequences

has been present.BARNES

(1958) and ELLIOTT (1959) reported

about bacterial resistances related

to Tetracycline. In 2002 LI KAINAN

showed that already in the 80’s

pathogenic bacteria have been

resistant to manyantibiotics.In

1997 the world health organisation

requested the governments of all

countries to reduce the amount of

antibiotics. As areaction the regulations

and the supervision of the use

of antibiotics has been intensified

(LI KAINIAN,2005).

Current situation

Theuse of antibiotics in countries

of Europeand North America has

along history and is widely used.

Because of the developing research

and the awkward growth of

bacterial resistances the common

use of antibiotics is decreasing. In

the EU-Countries several antibiotics

are prohibited because of

their growth-enhancing influence.

In 2011 the European Commission

pronounced afive year action plan

for defending bacterial resistances.

Thetarget of this plan where the

appropriated and restricteduse of

antibiotics in human and animal

medicine, and also the optimised

supervision of animal used antibiotics.

In the USA the FDAin1977

allowed the use of Penicillin, Aureomycin

and Oxytetracyclin in animal

feeding systems. In 1996 a

supervision and audit system for

bacterial resistances was established

by the government.This was

the basis to reacttothe appearance

of bacterial resistances by prohibiting

targeted antibiotics. On this way

in October2000 twoquinolone

antibiotics were prohibited for

using in animal feed. In 2014 the

FDAprohibited the use of antibiotics

as preventive agents. In this

way the health of human and animals

should be savedsustainable.

Also in Japan and Australia antibiotics

are often used in animal

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



farming systems. Although in this

countries the use of antibiotics has

begun lately,the supervision by the

authority is much stricter. Australia

also has established an entire systemtodetectand

control potential

residues in foodstuff.

In Japan the central government

has founded 12 commissions and

several other entities to approve and

supervise the use of medicines. In

2002 the Japanese government

prohibited the use of Penicillin,

Streptomycin, Salinomycin and

Monensin in animal feeds.

In the 70’softhe 20th century

the use of antibiotics in China has

begun step by step. Butthe quantity

has increased immediately.

According to several studies the

cumulative production of antibiotics

is about 200,000 t. This is

nearly the half amount wold wide.

97,000 tofthem are used in

animal farming systems (ZHANG


To ensure the consumers highest

defence, in 1999 the Chinese

government pronounced standards

for residue levels in animal

source foods. These included 109

medicines. Thestandards are

revised in 2001and 2002. Several

antibiotics were prohibited to use

in feeding systems. In 2001withdrawal-periods

for 20 antibiotics

were defined. Alist with 57 antibiotics

was created. This list

animal species, contained indication,

withdrawal-periodand advises

for each medicine. In 2005

Especiallyinrural areas measures to ensure food safety differ by far from international standards.

the further use of antibiotics were


TheChinese government improves

permanent the legislation

and standards about use of

medicine, especially antibiotics.

Butthere is an increasing demand

for poultry products. As a

consequence the improper use of

antibiotics is still an existing


Abundant appearing problems

In the Chinese industrial poultry

farming the standard of the stockman’s

education is in general low.

There is insufficient knowledge

about breeding, improper use of

antibiotics and the official rules.

That is the reason whyantibiotics

are often used inefficiently.Breeders

couldn’t recognise the right

medical indication for using


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Stricter standards and controls

Some time ago Chinese

researchers have started

to provide the scientific

basis for reducing the

use of antibiotics in

poultry production.

medicine. Also reports about use

of illegal antibiotics and the abusive

use of antibiotics are existing


Inthe year 2004 China pronounced

aregulation about the

administration of medicines. This

includes several reserve antibiotics

for human medicine. So the

use of these antibiotics is prohibited

in animals. Aproblem for

stockmen are the insufficient

broad spectrum efficacyofthe

most antibiotics with are allowed

to use for animals. Thus many

stockmen use the prohibited

antibiotics despiteoftheir deficient

knowledge. In this way they

are impairing the common problems



Theduration of the withdrawal

periodafter use of antibiotic is

one of the main factors for elimination

of residues. Forseveral

medicine the withdrawal period

is clearly defined. Butthere are

still pig fattening systems which

are breaking the official withdrawal

period. According to an

American study 76% of antibiotic

residues are resulting from unregarded

withdrawal periods, 18%

from feed contamination and 6%

from an improper use of antibiotics

(XI HUIPING,2007).

Hazard by an improper

use of antibiotics

According to different studies

bacterial resistances could be

grafted from animals trough the

environment and the food chain

to human. In this way the bacterial

resistances in human organisms

are increasing. Theresult of

an improper use of antibiotics

could be consumption residues in

poultry meat.These residues

could be directly or indirectly

perniciously for the human organism.

Each year there are thousands

of lives claimed by infectious

diseases with resistant

microorganisms. Other risks

could be genomic mutations,

malformations, cancer.Chloramphenicol

and Streptomycin could

be causes for these dangerous

effects (ZHOU SHUPING,2012).

After the application to poultry,

some antibiotics could be excreted

unalterably.Some antibiotics like

Steptomycin have aresilient

structure. So theycouldn’t be

biodegraded easily. Astudy by

ZHANG HUIMIN et al. (2008) about

residues of antibiotic in the north

territory of the province Zhejiang

showed that on the residues of

Terramycin, Tetracyclin and Aureomycin

were 5.172, 0.553 and

0.588 mg/kg among the limit

value after liquid manure had



Every improper use of antibiotics

is also ahigh risk for poultry

farming itself.Because of the

abundant use of several antibiotics,

bacterial resistances increase.

In this way some infectious

diseases couldn’t be cured

anymore. Therelevance Escherichia

coli, Staphylococcus ,

Salmonella ssp. as disease agents

could increase again. In August

1996 the European Union had

stopped all imports of Chinese

farm products from poultry and

other animals, because the value

limits of antibiotic residues had

been exceeded. In 1997 and 1998

experts were sent to Chinato

control the poultry farming systems.

Points of criticism had been

the management of control and

therapy of diseases and the detection

of antibiotic residues. As a

reaction the embargo has been

continued (FU MINGCHUN, XI


Poultry farming

without antibiotics

Because of all the aspects about

the use of antibiotics the effort to a

poultry farming without use of

antibiotics becomes more and

more important.The first efforts

were observed in Europe. Today

there are main strategies for a

poultry farming systems without

use of antibiotics in the USA,

Germanyand Japan. Forexample

the “Kikok”-Production in Germanyisone

of these strategies

with ahigh hygienically standard.

In Japan broiler farming systems

use Chinese healing plants instead

of antibiotics. These chicks

are also mentioned as “Hanfang

Chicks”(DONG SHANGYUN,2004).

At the moment also in China

there is ahigh progress in alternative

methods and technologies.

Themain focus is on probiotics,

antimicrobial peptides, healing

plants and enzyme compounds.

Themethodwithhigh hygienic

standards is based on astrictly

controlled environment.This

begins already with the chicklets.

They are selectedand reared also

with ahigh hygienic standard. In

this way the infiltration with

pathogens and their distribution

should be prevented. Thetemperature,

feed and drinking water are

strictly controlled. DONG

SHANGYUN et al. (2004) made a

comparative study about models

of poultry farming without antibiotics

(WANGWEI, JI LILI,2016). The

results showed, that with ahigh

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



quality of chicklets, feed and with a

good husbandry system poultry

farming without antibiotics is

possible. Unfortunately this systemisstill

very expensive and is

currently reserved for only some

biological working farms with

enough funding. At least the high

prevalence of pathogens is another

problem regarding to theimplementation

of this method. Although

in China the interest in

this methodisincreasing.

Chinese healing plants are one

of the important ingredients of the

traditional Chinese medicine.

Added to feed they are able to

replace antibiotics under special

requirements .WANG CHANGKANG

et al. (2008) tried to describe the

influence of the traditional Chinese

medicine to chicken rearing

and carcass quality.The results

showed, that the use of Chinese

healing plants could decrease the

influence of pathogens and increase

and the quality of poultry


al. (2010,2013) breeded ducks with

asupplement of Garlicin. The

study showed, that Garlicin suppressed

the growth of Escherichia

col in the jejunum and caecum

significantly.Also the loss rate

decreased and the daily gain increased.

Thestudy of SHENG

WEIWU et al. (2012)equally

showed abetter growth of fattening

poultry (Ross-308) with a

supplement of Saccharicterpenin.

YU LIANHONG et al. (2013)used

traditional medicine likeGlauber

salt,Zeolith, Astragalus mongholicus

und garlic together and discovered

how far antibiotics could be

replaced. Anumber of studies

from Chinese scientist clarify,that

antibiotics can be replaced by

Chinese healing plants. Actually

there are some problems. For

example today it isn’t possible to

identify the agent from ahealing

plant which has the main effect

against pathogens. And also there

is not enough data about toxicological

effects. So it’s necessary to

explore these methodmuch more.

Probiotics are also termed as

living microbiological and microeconomical

compounds. They are

applied by drinking water.Important

are also their microbial metabolic

products. They cansuppress

pathogens in the gastro-intestinal

system, produce main organic

acids, decrease the pH-value,

encourage hydrogen peroxide and

encourage antimicrobial effective

agents as Acidophillin. In this way

theyare able to stabilize the enteric

flora (LI DEFA,2009). HE

MINGQING et al. (2002) replaced

antibiotics by microeconomical

compounds like Bacillus 8901for

fattening poultry systems. The

results showed, that the appearance

of diseases decreased about

20%. At the same time the daily

gain increased. Other studies

described similar results. Butin

contrast some studies expounded,

that probiotics actually can’t replaceantibiotics


theywere able to stabilize the

enteric flora, the effectagainst

diseases couldn’t be proven yet


CHENG ANCHUN et al. (2008)

concluded all the studies about the

use of probiotics. They underlined

apart from the opportunity to

replace antibiotics, the positive

effectofprobiotics for the environment,animal

products and the

reduction of bacterial resistances.

They advised to push the development

of probiotics forward.

Theantimicrobial peptide is a

small molecular peptide, which is

also named Bacteriozin. It is

actual mainly used as asupplement

to feed. Thedifferent peptides

can be graduated in peptides

with origin from mammalians,

amphibians, insects, plants,

viruses and bacteria. They have a


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Stricter standards and controls

In the traditional Chinese medicine several plants play an

important role; under certain conditions their effect can

substitute oral antibiotics. Photo: Archive

wide action spectrum against

tumor cells, viruses, protozoa and

bacteria (LEONARD,B.C., V.K.


first antimicrobial peptide was

found in 1972. Studies showed the

good inhibition effecttoviruses,

mushrooms, protozoa and a

killing effectagainst microbials,

without genesis of resistances


(2005) and HUANG ZIRAN (2006)

replaced antibiotics by antimicrobial

peptides from the silkworm.

Theresults were adecrease of

diseases and an increase of the

poultry’s growth.

Today twelve enzyme compounds

be used in feeds. Their

whole production is approaches

100,000 t. Mainly the enzyme

Phytase is used, because the other

products aren’t readyfor practice

yet.One of the negative factors is

the high price and the low effective

range. Theage of the animals, the

kind of enzymes and the method

of application are influencing

factors for the effect(CHENG



ZONGHUI,2014). Thechief virtue

is the increase of digestibility.In

this way the multiplying of

pathogens is inhibited indirectly

(RAVINDRAN V. and J.H. SON, 2011).

GU XIANHONG et al. (2000) were

able to verify,that the daily gain of

fattening poultry in the age of 0to

3weeks increased about 25.41%

when theyadded enzyme compounds

to the feed. Thedaily gain

of fattening poultry in the age of 4

to 6weeks increased about 8.34%.

In both groups the feed conversion

ratio could also be increased.

Although these effects are identified,

the action of enzyme compounds

against pathogens isn’t

known as far.The approval is very

low at the moment.Thus also for

this methodit’snecessary to continue

investigation and proving.


Antibiotics are actually one of the

most important medicines to save

the health in animal farming systems

and to content the demand for

poultry meat and other animal

source foods. Butany improper

practice, especially an excessively

practice in poultry farming, must

appreciated as critically.Currently no

alternatives for the use of antibiotics,

especially to replace the antibiotics,

are found. Butthe development in

the modern animal farming systems

and the requirement of the consumer

are looking forward to abandonment

of antibiotics in poultry

farming. Based on this alternative

solutions for the use of antibiotics

are intensively researched in China.

Thereby hygienic conditions, healing

plants, probiotics, antimicrobial

peptides and enzyme agents are the

focus of several studies. In future at

first the official norms and legislation

considering the use of antibiotics

will be toughened and as well

as environmental pollution and the

developing of resistance will be

stopped. Thetarget is the continuously

decrease of the use of antibiotics

in the farming systems.


The entire bibliography can be requested

either from the corresponding

authors or the editors office.

Author`s addresses

Prof. Dr.Wang Wei, Professsor and Director

(corresponding author for inquiries in

Chinese: wangwei8619@163.com), Hou Bo

and Ji Lili, Central Laboratory for Meat

Processing of the Province Sichuan,

Chengdu University, 610106Chengdu,

Sichuan, China; Prof. Dr.Friedhelm Jaeger

(corresponding author for inquiries in

German: friedhelm.jaeger@mkulnv.nrw.de)

and Catharina Hölscher, Ministry of the

Climate Protection, Environment, Agriculture,

Conservation and Consumer Protection

of the State of North-Rhine Westphalia

(Animal Welfare, Animal Health, Veterinary

Medicines), Schwannstr.3,40476 Düsseldorf,


Food safety

China: bird flu situation is stable

Bird flu

Disease reached Belgium

China's Ministry of Agriculture said

the recent outbreaks of bird flu

have been handled in atimelyand

effective manner without spreading

and have not affected chicken

products or prices.

In an emailed statement to

Reuters, the government department

said the situation in the

world's second-largest poultry

consumer was stable. The comments

come as South Korea and

In China bird flu shows no impact

on the poultry market. Photo:

Nico Lubaczowski /pixelio.de

neighbouring countries battle

outbreaks of various strains of the

highlyvirulent flu.

China has culled more than

170,000 birds in four provinces

since October and closed some

live poultry markets after people

and birds were infected by strains

of the avian flu. The Chinese government

said it has recorded ten

cases of poultry being infected

with the H5N6 strain this year

compared with eleven last year.

The ministry, together with

local agriculture agencies, have

monitored and investigated poultry

markets and farms where

infected people live, it said. It has

also searched for the source of

the virus and conducted emergency

handling for infected poultry,

as well as urged farmers,

butchers and traders to step up

sterilization programmes.


Ahighlycontagious strain of bird

flu that has affected poultry

farmers in France and Germany

has now spread to Belgium. This

was reported by News 24.

The H5N8 avian virus was identified

among birds at ahome in

the Dutch-speaking region of

Flanders between the cities of

Brussels and Ghent. "The virus

that has hit our neighbours in the

past months has now reached

Belgium," said Belgian Agriculture

Minister WillyBorsus. "Professional

farmers have not been

affected, but we must be vigilant,"

he added.

Belgium in November preventivelyimplemented


measures in order to stop an

epidemic during the bird migratory

season. Authorities expanded

them to include private owners of

poultry and other birds.

The H5N8 strain can spread

quicklyinaffected farms, often

Migrating birds are able to spread

bird flu. Photo: uschi dreiucker /


leading to the culling of thousands

of birds. Since October, the

strain has been detected in

15 other European countries

including Britain, France and

Germany.Hungary has had the

highest number of outbreaks in

the past three months, with

201cases reported in farms and

four in wild birds.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



Situation of the US poultry industry

Industry News

As the US is moving from aturbulent

2016 into anew year with an

uncertain political outlook, it is

important for the poultry industry

to understand the various scenarios

that may unfoldinthe near future

and possiblechanges in global trade

agreements, currencyexchange

rates, regulations and overall cost of

production. Using insights from

industry experts within the Nutriad

group and input from external

consultants, the companyreviews

several possiblescenarios and

shares its vision to theyearahead.

Influenzaoutbreaks throughout the

Asian countries and the EU will play

an important role.

Forecast of the market

Both broiler and turkey production

was short in the last quarter of

2016.Broiler production is expected

to increase in the first

quarter of 2017.The forecasts for

2017 prices were increased slightly

for broilers and lowered for turkey

as indicated by the USDA. As of

January 2017,broilers had aslight

increase in price, reaching

87 cents per pound with aforecast

for the year of 80 to 86 cents per

pound for the whole bird. The

turkey production is estimated to

have an increase of 245 mill.

pounds on year-ending stock

increasing previous expectations.


The election of President Donald

Trump, will most certainlybring

changes in the overall trade and

currency panorama. The outlines of

some of those changes can already

be seen in his first days in office. The

US withdrawal from TPP will leave a

vacuum to be filled by China. This

nation will assume greater importance

in Asia and the Pacific Rim.

However, the U.S. may establish

bilateral trade deals with Philippines,

Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand.

Around one in five is exported

Close to 18%ofthe total poultry

production in U.S. is exported, what

makes the U.S. poultry industry

extremelysensitive. The renegotiation

of NAFTAcan also disturb

current trades with Mexico and

Canada, and the threat to overtax

Mexican products in 20%, might

have adirect effect on bilateral

trade. In 2015 Mexican poultry

imports from US reached over $1 bn.

The devaluation of the Mexican

Peso versus the USD might benefit

Mexican imports from South American

countries over the United

States. In January 2017,the value

of the peso fell almost 20% compared

to January 2016.

Regulations and welfare

The reduction in density, having

smaller scale operations and using

non-GM ingredients will demand a

greater need for land and resources,


affecting its sustainability.The new

Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD)

might also have an impact, as

companies adjust to the withdrawal

of antibiotics growth promoters and

adapt to natural alternatives. Avian


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Consumer Research

Ardi and Willyvan Erp

with their farm in Sint

Anthonis are

ambassadors of the

image campaign for the

advertising slogan “We

are proud if you buy one

of our chickens”.

Poultry still as popular as ever

Dutch per capita consumption of poultry meat remains constant at ahigh level

Poultry meat consumption now

accounts for around one third of

total meat consumption in the

Netherlands (per capita around

75 kg). This is due not only to the

factthat for manypeoplepoultry

tastes good,that it is easily digestibleand

can be prepared easily

in manydifferent ways. The study

recently presented by the University

of Wageningen on the development

of meat consumption in the years

2005 to 2015 also shows rational

arguments such as the comparatively

small CO2 footprint.The

Association of Dutch Poultry Processing

Industries (Nepluvi) sees

the constantly high level of poultry

meat consumption as confirmation

of the industry’scommitment to

sustainability and viability.

By Gert-Jan Oplaat

On the basis of the study on

meat consumption in the

Netherlands published recently by

the University of Wageningen

from Wageningen, the Netherlands,

Nepluvi can draw agood

balance for the poultry sector.

Although meat consumption in

general has declined in recent

years, the consumption of poultry

meat has continued to rise and

according to thelatest figures has

remained at the high level of

2014.Thus theper capita consumption

of poultry meat in the

Netherlands reached an impressive

22.3 kg in 2015 too and is

accordingly stable against the


Since 2005 total percapita meat

consumption in general has

dropped by five kg from 80 kg to

75 kg. By contrast, especially in the

years 2005 to 2009, poultry meat

consumption increased strongly

and has remained constant at this

comparatively high level ever


Factors influencing

meat consumption

Thestudy examines the development

of meat consumption by the

Dutch population in the years

2005 to 2015 under various aspects.

Differing attitudes to the

nature and quantity of meat consumption

can be identified over

the years. Alongside changes in

dietary habits targeting ahealthier

or more balanced lifestyle, factors

such as sustainability and animal

welfare are also playing an increasingly

important role, with their

relevance and impactalways depending

on how much meat a

consumer basically consumes.

According to theUniversity of

Wageningen, in the course of recent

years it has become established in

society that lower meat consumption

involves asmaller CO2 footprint.For

some consumers, the

quantity of meat consumed is

directly linked to global warming

(Wageningen Economic Research

Nota 2016-097,9,11).

However,this is not as relevant

for the poultry meat sectorasit is

for other types of meat.Here

poultry meat has an ecological

advantage over pigmeat and beef

above all due to the good feed

conversion ratebythe nature of of

the animals. Furthermore, by

using efficient heat recovery and

heat storage technologies, the

sectorisreducing energy consumption

in poultry-keeping

further.There are already some

energy-neutral farms in the


Focus on health, welfare

and sustainability

Animal welfare and animal health

also influence the population’s

attitude to their meat consumption.

There are things going on in

the Netherlands in this respect.

Forexample the broiler sectoris

the EU-wide pioneer in reducing

the application of antibiotics. The

use of these medicaments there

has dropped by 71% since 2009. It

is evident from the 2015 annual

report of the Dutch Animal Health

Service (Gezondheidsdienst voor

Dieren, GD) that it has been possible

to reduce their use substantially

there within the last seven years.

This is attributable above all to a

special antibiotic use plan that has

been practiced since 2008.

Thecorresponding measures

and methods are applied directly on

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Consumer Research

the farms and above all in advisory/extension

services, documentation

and monitoring. Accordingly

the farms receive professional

support and recommendations

concerning ways of reducing

the use of antibiotics. Theuse of

antibiotics is documented carefully

by the farm veterinarians and the

data are transmitted to acentral


On the basis of this data pool, the

experts can categorise the use of

antibiotics and develop special

benchmarking. In this way it is

possible to identify and evaluate

differences between the use of such

medicaments between farms or


Good animal health can also be

promoted via alternative measures,

for example by modernising

older animal housing

facilities and climatecontrol

measures there. It has also been

possible to develop helpful benchmarks

in other upstream stages of

the chain. Hatcheries and feed

producers are working on optimising

their standards for vital dayold


Sustainability and animal welfare

are important topics for consumers

–and the Dutch industry

is well placed to tackle this issue

when the Dutch food retailtrade

starts to sell only meat from sustainable

production as of the year

2020 (as the result of adecision

taken jointly). In consultation with

the trade, the poultry industry

adopted asustainability programme

for this that incorporates

new criteria for the entire chain,

such as for example the use of

slow-growing breeds or smaller

stocking densities.

Business with this new programme

is already running very

well –long before the scheduled

date. Theshare of this segment in

total fresh poultry meat sold in the

Dutch food retailtrade is already

over 60%.

New dietary trends

According to the study,further

motives for meat shopping decisions

are nutrition-related aspects

that go hand in hand with new

trends. Forexample, certain population

groups such as for instance

the “flexitarians”aim for asustainable

and healthylifestyle characterised

by the attitude, “it is better

to eat less but in return higher

quality foods”.Especially in the

Paul Grefte with his farm in

Hengewelde is ambassador of

the image campaign for the

advertising motif “Chicken meat

has the best CO2 footprint”.

meat segment,this attitude is

manifested by purchases in “special

segments”, such as for example

organic meat,meat from special

breeds or from locally known

suppliers, or “natural seeming


TheDutch poultry industry

fulfils these consumer wishes very

well, as it has habitually been a

pioneer in fields that require

modern and sustainable value

creation. Always looking for optimisation

potential, it works on

structuring the sectorviably with a

sense of responsibility for humans,

animals and the environment.With

new marketing concepts,

the Dutch poultry industry

finds large numbers of customers.

Consumers can choose from a

broad range of widely differing

supply formats, from organic via

conventional right through to

further intermediatesegments.

Image campaign

promotes sales

Thestudy by the University of

Wageningen also shows that

consumers are taking agrowing

interest in the production and

nature of foods. This is catered to

by the new image campaign that

Nepluvi is conducting in the

Netherlands. Its purpose is to

makethe commitment of the

poultry sectortosustainability as

well as to animal welfareand

animal health transparent.The

task of the campaign is to show

consumers plausibly how much

energy the industry continuously

invests in precisely those aspects

that are important to them. New

regulations or rules for greater

sustainability are very frequently

the result of farm-based initiatives

and go beyond the statutory or EU

regulations. In this way consumers

can be sure that theycan

enjoy poultry meat with agood


Themotifs of the image campaign

in autumn last year therefore

show testimonials from the


sectorthat grant insights intotheir

animal housing facilities and work

by way of example. Theslogan,

“we do our best to become even

better”represents the commitment

which poultry keepers have

taken on vis-à-vis the public. The

rebuilding image campaign focuses

above all on three important

areas in which the sectorisworking

intensively and in which essential

developments and innovations

are expectedincoming

years: “Het RobuusteKuiken”

(“The robust chick”), “In en Om

de Stal” (“In and around the hen-

house”) and “Veelzijdigheid”

(versatility). TheDutch poultry

sectorand its committed stakeholders

at all stages along the

chain are continuously engaged in


One of the targets in the sector

is to produce astrong and resilient

chick resulting from intensive

cooperation between breeding

farms, hatcheries and supplier

firms. Other aims are to implement

energy-saving systems and

new housing concepts, and to

examine factors that have positive

effects on food safety,animal

welfare, the local surroundings

and the environment.Furthermore,

all initiatives that allow

greater versatility of chicken supplies

and meet the altered demands

imposed by society are to

be promoted.

Thepositive demand for poultry

meat also shows that the sectorisa

highly valued trading partner for

the high-quality meat products.

Theproduction figures in the

Dutch poultry sectorgrew by

seven percent in 2015 by comparison

with 2014.The share of

chicken meat in the total volume

of poultry meat (1,057,000 t) is

1,009,000 t.Thesource data were

processed through Nepluvi on the

basis of data from its members.

These are responsible, among

other things, for 99% of poultry

slaughtering operations and more

than 85% of production in cutting


Gert-Jan Oplaat

took over the presidency of

Nepluvi at the beginning of

2015.Hepossesses the

necessary many years of

experience for the post, acquired both in

practice and in senior executive functions in

important sector organisations and politics.

From 1998 to 2006 he was amember of the

Dutch Parliament. Before taking on the

Nepluvi presidency, he was Chairman of the

Dutch Union of Poultry Breeders (NVP).

Author’s address

Gert-Jan Oplaat, Kokermolen 11,

3994 DG Houten, The Netherlands.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Appetizing solutions for poultry products

Modern technologies and materials lead to high quality and product safety

Whether chicken, turkey,duck or

goose –today’skitchen not only

values poultry meat for its versatile

flavours, but also because it provides

biologically important protein

and contains less fat and therefore

fewer calories than other meats.

This is whypoultry has become

extremely appreciated by consumers,

as can be seenfrom its

ever-growing share in the global

meat consumption in recent years.

Those who want to convince the

increasingly demanding consumer

of their poultry products need to

satisfy in terms of quality and

freshness. Modern packaging

solutions assist in protecting these

sensitive products, whileextending

their shelf life. By adding special

features, poultry packaging is able

to stand out from the crowd,

especially in the fast-growing

segment of snacks.

The skin pack is easy to open.

vacuum packaging system, such

products are hermetically sealed

inside the tray with ahighly transparent

barrier film that fits the

contours of the productlikea

second skin. As the contents in the

tray are securely held, the product

is closely surrounded by its marinade,

allowing it to fully develop

its flavour.

When it comes to ready meals,

poultry is in demand as well. Here,

aspecial version of the TraySkin

solution was developed. By using

ovenable skin film to securely seal

the productinside the aluminium

or CPET tray,the productcan be

heated directly inside its packaging

in the oven. Theresult is juicy

chicken. TheTraySkin packaging

system allows for an extremely

hygienic cooking process, as the

consumer does not have to touch

the raw product.

By Marcel Veenstra

Poultry manufacturers continuously

have to adapt to the

changing habits of consumers.

In modern life, fast and easy-toprepare

meals are in strong

demand. Furthermore, out-ofhome

consumption is constantly

increasing, thereby creating a

need for snacks and convenience

foods. At thesametime, consumers

are asking for more

variety and quality.This is why

the industry relies on specialists

to developfunctional packaging

solutions that allow for an appetizing


Production safety with maximum

shelf life are important

items in this context.For avariety

of poultry products, Sealpac

offers solutions.

TraySkin provides

taste to marinated


Pre-marinated poultry delicacies

are in high demand. Sealpac’s

newly developed TraySkin system

is suited to enhance the tasteof

marinated, ready-to-grill poultry

products. By means of this special

TraySkin xplus for

whole birds

Fresh poultry –especially largesized

turkey –inthe shapeof

whole birds has always been a

challenge when it comes to packaging.

TraySkin xplus allows

vacuum skin packaging of bulky

products. These are loaded onto

pre-formed trays and reliably

sealed, even if protruding up to 90

mm above the tray edge. The

system allows the use of extremely

flat trays that provide stability to

the protruding productduring the

entire skin packaging process. The

tight-fitting, transparent skin film

provides full view of the product.

To ensure that the packaging is not

damaged due to the shapeorsharp

parts (e.g. bones) of the bird, skin

film in different thicknesses and

properties is available to match the


Within the snacking segment,

more and more manufacturers

turn to portion-packaging in

multi-compartment trays. These

packs allow for multiple portions

of the same snack or amix of

different snacks with extras. Due

to the perforation, each compartment

can easily be pulled off from

the others without the use of hand

tools. Sealing of the tray can be

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



done in different ways: either one

seals the individual cavities all

together or every compartment

separately.Thispreserves the taste

of each individual component,for

example nuggets and dip, and

prevents cross-contamination. It

also provides new opportunities

for productmixtures.

EasyPeelPoint allows

for easy opening

Fancyaquick snack, but no knife

nearby? Anyone who wants to

enjoy asnack on the go relies on

secure packaging that is easy to

open without tools. EasyPeelPoint

became the answer,which has

proven to be extremely beneficial

to snack packaging. With this

revolutionary easy opening

method, the peel corner is integrated

within the sealing contours

of the pack. Thecorner of the top

film is pressed intoaround cavity

and releases from the sealing

edge. With the resulting easy-togrip

peel tab, the topfilmisremoved

from the pack with minimum

force. By using re-closable

film, even more convenience is

provided. Individual products are

easily removed, while the remaining

products are freshly held

inside their packaging in the

refrigerator without loss of quality.

When it comes to poultry products

in bulk, extended shelf life

and optimal productpreservation

strongly determine the choice of

packaging. Quiteoften, costefficient

packaging systems are in

demand. Thermoforming technology

is perfectly suited for BBQ

products in large volumes. As the

poultry is completely surrounded

by its marinade, it is able to fully

develop its flavour and tenderness.

Modern film properties

allow for even more convenience.

Among manufacturers that offer

bulk packaging, the so-called

‘cook-in film’, which allows the

poultry products to be heated

inside their packaging, has become

more popular –anideal

solution for catering and food


Author’s Address

The film allows for

Marcel Veenstra

is Marketing &Communications

Manager at Sealpac


Marcel Veenstra, Langekamp 2, NL-3848 DX

Harderwijk, The Netherlands.

no-touch cooking in the

traditional oven.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Sustainability in focus

Multi-purpose equipment allows the processing of secondary meat raw materials

Universal multi-purpose equipment

for processing secondary

meat raw materials has been

designed, manufactured and

utilized under production conditions

of meat packing plants. It

includes apower grinder,afat

separator and afat melting machine.

The usage of this equipment

provides the intensification

of technological processes, increases

the yieldand quality of

finished products for food,fodder

and technical purposes and contributes

to environmental protection.

By Mikhail L’vovitch


Asaresult of slaughter and

cutting of farm animal carcasses

at meat industry enterprises

producers get basic and

secondary raw meat materials.

Rawmeat by-products include

blood,bones, hair and mucous

offals, raw fat,guts, leather and

horn-and-hoof by-products, endocrine

enzymatic and special raw

materials, inedible offals and the

contents of cattle and small cattle

proventriculus .Depending on the

typeofslaughter animals and

their fatness, the amount of secondary

meat raw materials is a

significant value of up to 60%

during processing of cattle and up

to 40% in processing of pigs

(Fig. 1).Therefore, processing and

use of such raw materials is essential

both in terms of the volume of

manufactured useful products,

and thecost of the main product–

meat.Naturally, the variety of

morphological andchemical

composition of secondary meat

raw materials determines the use

of different types of technological

equipment for itsprocessing. In

this regard, thedesign of machines

and apparatuses, which

would possess universal possibilities

for use as part of technological

lines andplants, regardless of the

specific properties of the initial

raw material (liquid, solid,fleshy)

is important.The availability of

such equipment allows to reduce

costs, compared with the equipment

intended only for aspecific

Fig. 1: During processing of slaughter animals the amount of secondary meat raw materials is asignificant value.

typeofraw materials. Some

progress in this respectwas

achieved at the V.M. Gorbatov

All-Russian Meat Research Institute.

The organization of processing

of inedible wastes at medium- and

low-power meat packing plants,

located at great distances from

each other,did not allow to create

aspecializedproduction, which

could be supplied with raw materials

from individual enterprises.

Theactual conditions demanded

the organization of theiruse and

processing at those enterprises,

where the cattle slaughter was

carried out.Inthis connection,

meat packing plants had to

process these raw materials. For

this purposes technologieswere

developed and machines and

lines were manufactured allowing

to getmeat-and-bone meal and

technicalfat from various kinds of

inedible wastes. Thecircumstances

demanded to design a

universal machine for grinding all

kinds of inedible offals of animal

origin: fleshy(meat), meat-andbone

and bones, too.

Apower grinder for meat

and bone raw material

Forthese purposes, the power

grinder typeZh9-FIS was developed.

It consists of abodywith

fixed knives, cuttershaft,hopper,

frame, electricmotor,reducer,

coupling, protective casings

(Fig. 2). On the steelframe abody,

reducer and electricmotor are

mounted. In the grooves of the

cast ironbodyfour rows of fixed

knives on axes aremounted,

which are pressed with overhead

covers to the slots.Tothe endsof

the body,with the helpofabolt

connection, flanges aremounted,

in the recess of which cutter shaft

bearings are installed. From the

one end of thebody, the shaft is

closed with ablank cover havinga

central opening with athread for

the dismounting bolt.From the

other end, the shaft passes

through the central opening of the

cover and is connectedbythe

coupling with the reducer shaft.

Inside the body, in the loading

part,ahard-wearing metal plateis

installed, the teeth of which are

directedagainst the direction of

rotation of the cutter shaft.Above

the loading part of the body a

removable welded hopper is installed.

Forinspection and cleaning

of the working space alid is

available. Themotion from the

electric motorthrough the reducer

and the V-belt transmission is

transferred to the cutter shaft.The

reducer pulleyissimultaneously a

flywheel ensuring smooth operation

in case of overloads in the

working zoneofthe body.The

coupling and the V-belt transmission

are closed by ahousing.

Themachine operates as follows:

Theraw material is charged

intothe hopper,from where it is

captured by the moving knives

arranged on the shaft along the

helical line, and moves through

the working zone to the discharge

outlet thanks to the helical set

pattern and bevels on each of

them. When moving the raw

material through the working

zone of the cutter mechanism, it is

grounded. From the discharge

outlet the chopped raw material is

fed to further technological processing.

Table 1presents the tech-



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



nicalcharacteristics of the power

grinder type Zh9-FIS.

Afat separator for

dehydration and degreasing

Afundamentally newtypeof

equipmentfor heat treatment of

the groundsecondary meat raw

materials of universal application

is afat separator.Inthe developed

technological process the dry heat

treatment methodthateliminates

thecontactofthe processed raw

materials with the heat carrier

(steam or hotwater) was used.

This method of heatingisutilized

with the aimtoeliminateorminimize

the formation of broth containing

soluble protein substances

and emulsified fat. In some cases

this brothbecomes the main

component of industrial wastewater,whatcauses

great environmental


Thefat separatortypeYa8-FLK-3

is ascrew machine (Fig. 3). It

consists of abodyprovided with a

steam jacket.Inacut thebottom

of thisismade in the shapeofa

semicircle. Inside it,along the

body on bearings, ahollow screw

shaft is mounted, under the action

of which the groundedraw material

is moved to adischarge nozzle.

Thescrew shaft is rotated counterclockwise

from the side of the

loading hopper.Steam with the

pressure of 0.3 to 0.4 MPais

supplied in the jacket andthe

hollow screw shaft.From the

outside the steam jacket is thermally

insulated. To drain the juice

steam, there is apipeonthe cover

of the device, to which avent

pipe-line is attached. Thescrew

shaft is rotated by an individual

electric motor through the V-belt

transmission andawormgear

located at the upper end ofthe


Through thelower end steam is

fed to the screw shaft,and condensateisdischarged.

To the

jacket thesteam is fedthrough a

collector in the upperpart of the

device, andthe condensateexits

through anozzlelocated in the

bottom. Aspecial feature of the

device is the availability of perforation

in the lower part of the

body, through which themelted

fat and coagulated moistureare

removed fromit. To cleanthe

perforation,acomb fixed to the

rotating shaft in the bearings is

available.Atthe end of the shaft

there is alever with aroller interacting

with the cylindrical cam,

which is fixed to the screwshaft.

Thecam has acutout in the shape

of atriangle, thesmallcathetus of

which is arrangedradially.Atthe

end of the lever acounterweightis


Thecleaning mechanism works

as follows: During the rotation of

the screw shaft,the cam mounted

on it removesthe combwith the

pins down, opening the perforation

holes.When theroller

reaches the cut-out in the cam, the

counterweight sharply submits

the comb up,the pins enterthe

holes and clean them.

As aresult of conductiveheating

by the dry method, the fat

contained in the raw material is

melted and fl

ows downintothe

lower part of the device installed

at an angle of 12 °tothe horizon.

Duringprocessing the coagulation

of raw meat proteins, which

is accompanied by release of

moisture, takes place. It is partly

removed from the device through

the perforation, aswellasby

Tab. 1: Technical characteristics of the power grinder type


Capacity, kg/h 2000

Maximum size of loaded raw material, mm


Size of pieces after grinding, mm up to 50

Cutter shaft rotational speed, s -1 0.7

Electric motor power, kW 13

Overall dimensions, mm

Mass, kg 1293




Fig. 2: Power grinder Zh9-FIS: 1–frame 2–protective casing 3–body 4–hopper

5–V-belt drive 6–reducer 7–coupling 8–plate 9–cover 10–overhead covers

11–movable knife 12–electric motor.


evaporation. Thevapors arewithdrawn

from the devicethrough a

nozzle inthe cap. Table 2presents

the technical characteristics ofthe

fatseparator typeYa8-FLK-3.

This machineissuitable for the

processing all kinds of secondary

meat raw materials, except horn

and hoof materials, including

bones andblood after preliminary

coagulation. Itsuse allows to

carry out thetechnological

process shortly and in acontinuous

stream. It therefore found

application inacontinuouslyoperating

meat- andbone-meal

production line. It allows complex

processing of the bone andbone

residues obtained aftermechanical

deboningofbones by the

pressingmethod, to produce

high-quality edible bone fat and

biologically valuable feed meal.

This device alsopositively proved

for the processing the fl

esh of

edible by-products for thesubsequent

useinproduction of pates

and liver sausages. Moderate

temperature heating of the processed

rawmaterials to 85 to

90 °C during 11 to 20 min allows

inactivation of vegetative microfl

ora, butisnot sufficientfor

the destruction of pathogenic


ora. Therefore the processing

of inedible wastes for

production of meat-and-bone

meal may be carriedout only with

the guaranteethat theyare derived

from healthy animals. Otherwise

the rawmaterials processed

inthis machine must

undergo additional heat treatment

at atemperature of above 100 °C

to ensurethe sterilization of the

processed material. When using

the bones and blood of healthy

animals, the application of this

machine guarantees sanitary

welfare of the final food products.

This machineissuccessfully

operated at enterprisesinRussia




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Sustainability in focus


Fig. 3: Fatseparator Ya8-FLK-3: 1–charging hopper 2–cover 3–screw 4–pipe for juice steam 5–body 6–pipe for steam supplyintojacket7–electric motor 8–V-belt drive

9–reducer 10–discharge hatch 11–tray 12–condensate pipe 13–cleaning mechanism 14–pipe for steam supplyintoscrew.

and CIS countries: Thelinefor

complex bone processingtype

Ya8-FLK (authors SINITSYN,K.D.,


and FAIVISHEVSKY,M.L.), the line

forproduction of meat-and-bone

meal typeK7-FKE (authors SINIT-




N.S.)and the installation for production

of liver sausage (authors



The fat melting machine is

designed for heat treatment

Among the continuously operating

machines of versatile use is

the fat melting machine typ Ya8-


and KUZMENKO,N.P.) (Fig. 4).

It consists of aframe on which

an electric motor is fixed. On its


ange abodyofwelded construction

is located, which has asteam

jacket along the radial perimeter

andisequipped with asealing

device along the rotor hub,aswell

as acutouttotighten the nut of

this device.

In the bodyare mounted a

movable knife and arotor of

weldedstructure, consisting of a

hub with around disk, to which

twoperforated cylinders of different

sizes with holes of alargeand

asmall diameter are welded .To

the cylinders areradiallywelded

small blades to replace the raw

materialand impart it centrifugal

motion. Thecylinders by their

edges enter thecircular grooves in

the cover,which is attached to the

Tab. 2: Technical characteristics of the fat separator type


Capacity, kg/h 250

Screw step, mm 75

Pen height, mm 55

Screw rotation speed, s -1 0.06

Installed power, kW 1.5

Overall dimensions (without frame),


Mass, kg 1000



body with quickly removable

grippers. Aparonitegasket is put

between them for sealing.Onthe

cover are mounted twofixed

knives, equippedwith arotary

device. Onthe bodythere is apipe

to feedsteam to the machine. To

the body cover an elbowwith a

pipeorahopper is attached.

Theengine and the machine

bodyhaveasheet metalguard

attached to the bodybybolts. The

machine is equipped with acontrol


Theoperating principle of the

machineisasfollows: Under

pressurecoarsely grounded raw

fatisfed to the machine from the

grinder. Theraw fat particles are

furthergroundedbythe movable

knife and thrown to the wallsof

the internal cylindrical surface of

the rotor. Under the action of

centrifugalforces the particles

are pressed through therotor

holes and trimmed by the fixed

knife. Further the particlesare

thrown to the external cylindrical

surface of therotor with smaller

holes, pressed through these

holesand trimmed by the second

fixed knife. In theprocess of

grinding the raw fat particles are

exposedtothelivesteam, the


ow of which coincides with the

directionoftheir movement,as

well as countercurrently,what

provides complete fat melting.

With the bladeslocated on the

external wallofthe rotor, the

mixture of melted fat,condensate

and cracklings(dross)through

the pipe under pressure is removed

from the machineand fed

to the further processing. Table 3

presents the technical characteristicsofthe

fat meltingmachine


Themainadvantages of this

machine are the following: reliability

in operation, possibility of

mechanized loading, highdegree

of fat extraction due to reduction

of itscontent in cracklings, possibility

of fl

esh-side fat processing

in acontinuous fl

ow,high qualitative

indicators of obtained melted

animal fats, transportation of fat

masses by apipeline over long

distances. Thelatterfactisvery

important,ifthe ground for raw

fat processing is in theroom,

remote from theslaughter shop

and its transportation on trucks

and supply forgrindingare required.

Practice has shown that

this is achieved due to processing

of the raw fat on this machine,

installedinthe slaughter shop.

Thereby the obtained fat mass is

transported by the pipeline to the

fat area for furtherprocessing

without the useoflabor-intensive

transport operations.

When using machine type

Ya8-FIB, the fatextraction degree

reaches 99% of its content in the

raw fat, whereas in plants the

machine typeTsentrifl

ou designed

by Alfa Laval it is 98%

from the same rawmaterial.

Theundoubted advantage of



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017




Fig. 4: Fat melting machine Ya8-FIB: 1–body 2–rotor 3–hopper 4–steam chamber

5, 16–melting chamber 6–movable knife 7, 21–fixed knife 8–blade 9, 15–steam

supplypipe 10–pipe for drainage of fat-protein suspension 11,20–holes for

steam 12–electric motor 13–frame 14–cover 17–inner perforated cylindrical

surface of rotor 18–rotor base 19–steam collector.

this machine is the possibility and

efficiencyofits application for

processing of other types of secondary

meatraw materials in

production of meat and bone

meal. In this case after pre-grinding

in achopper the non-food


eshyraw materials are fed into

the machine, where they are

subjectedtoconsecutive double

grinding. Herewith, due to a

contactwith the livesteam,fat

melting, denaturation of protein

substances and exudation of the

coagulation moisture takeplace.

Then the obtained fat massis

forwarded under pressure, without

apump, to the receiving hopper,

and from it to the continuousaction


Tab. 3: Technical characteristics of the fat melting machine

type Ya8-FIB

Productivity on raw fat, kg/h:

- beef 1500

- pork 2000

- flesh-side 800

Installed power, kW 15


-steam, kg/h 100

-water on sanitization, m 3 /h 0.065

Occupied area, m 2 0.9

Overall dimensions, mm


Mass, kg 300


Thus,fractionation of the fat mass

intotwo fractions takes place:

liquid (oil andcoagulation moisture)

and solid (defatted cracklings).

Thecracklings are then

subjectedtosterilization and

drying, together with or without

the bones, and then are grounded

into meal.

This technology guarantees the

production of high-quality biologically

valuable meat- and bonemeal,

corresponding by its parameters

to the first grade meat- and

bone-meal in accordance with the

requirements of the standard for

this type of products. Besidesit,

the methodallowes to intensify

the process, as the duration of stay

of the raw materials in the machine

is limited to 15 s. In addition,

its usage canimprove the

yield and quality of the technical

and feedfat minimizing environmentalpollution.

Along with this, thefat melting

machine typeYa8-FIB allows to

significantly intensify theprocess

of treatment of technical blood

from slaughter animals to obtain a

dry soluble protein product–

black technical albumin. Technical

blood is called the blood of the

slaughter animal, which is not

collectedasedible. Besidesit,

from the total amount of the blood

of slaughter animals (cattle and

pigs),itispossible to collectabout

50% as edible. Theremaining

amount goes to the gutter andis

used to produce fodder and technical

products. This blood coagulates

in the process of collection

and accumulation. Therefore, for

the organization of its further use

to produce an instant dry product

in accordance with the developed

technology, it is ground and then

subjectedtopercolation. As a

result,fibrin, which servesasraw

material for production of edible

meal, is separated. Theremaining

defibrinated blood is subjectedto

drying in spray-type dryers, resulting

in asoluble powdered product

–black technical albumin.

Theuse of the machine type

Ya8-FIBinthis technological

process allows to eliminatethe

stage of fibrin percolation. In this

case, allcoagulated blood is directed

to thismachine,where it

undergoesfine grinding.The

obtained suspension is feddirectly

intothe dryer.Thisnot only

significantly reduces the labor

content, intensifies thetechnological

process, implements it in a

continuous stream, but also increases

the yield of the final productbyanaverage

of 2% compared

with the traditional technology

due to the use of the finegrounded

fibrin. Application of

the above machine forthese purposes

requires to install arotor

with holes of asmaller diameter

instead of the existingone.

Themachine type Ya8-FIB

proved good for grinding andheat

treatment of fl

esh (boneless)

by-products used for the manufacture

of liver sausages, pates and

brawns (headcheeses).


Thedesign of the multi-purpose

equipment has significantly reduced

costs compared with the

development andmanufacture of

machines and devices for processing

of certain types of secondary

meat rawmaterials, which led to

their widespread introduction at

meat packing plants.


1. Faivishevsky, M.L. (1988): Processing

of blood from slaughter animals.

Agropromizdat, 222 pp. –2.Faivishevsky,

M.L. (1989): Manufacture of

dry animal feeds, fodder and technical

fats. Agropromizdat, 189pp. –

3. Faivishevsky, M.L. (1995): Manufacture

of edible animal fats. Antikva, 379

pp. –4.Meat and fat production.

Slaughter of animals, processing of

carcasses and secondary raw materials.

Edited by Lisitsyn, A.B., VNIIMP,

2007, 384 pp. –5.Processing and

utilization of secondary raw material

resources of the meat industry and

environmental protection. Directory

edited by Lisitsyn, A.B., VNIIMP, 2000,

405 pp.




is Doctor of Technical

Sciences (Dr.Sci.),

professor, and corresponding member of

the Russian Academy of Engineering. He is

author of 515 scientific publications,

including 14 monographs and lives and

works in Israel.

Author's address

Prof. Dr.Sci. M.L. Faivishevsky, Daphna str,

58, apartment 4Kiriat Byalik, Israel




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Microorganisms may exert health benefits

Fermented meat products are suitable carriers of probiotics

Probiotics are live microorganisms exerting

health benefits upon consumption in an adequateamount

on aregular basis. Meat provides

an excellent medium for growth and carrying of

probiotics that leads to improvement in functional

value, beneficial effectonhealth and

organoleptic properties. Dry sausages are most

appropriatefor carrying probiotics due to processing

these sausages at alow temperature.

The ever-increasing growing demand of meat

products with probiotics provides an open arena

with lots of opportunities for the meat industry.

By PramodK.Singh,Pavan Kumar,

Akilesh K. Verma and RajeevRanjan

The term probiotics is originated from the

Greek word meaning “for life”and was first

used by LILLY and STILLWELL (1965) as antagonist

to antibiotics observing that microbial secretions

stimulating the growth of other microorganisms

(SHARMA et al., 2012). Theconcept of probiotics

was first postulated by the Russian scientist Elie

METCHNIKOFF in 1907 by attributing good health

and longetivity of Bulgarian and Asian farmers to

consumption of afermented milk productnamed

yoghurt containing lactic acid bacteria (LAB).

These LAB bacteria replace harmful bacteria in

the gut by competitive exclusion and maintain

gut health.

According to WHO/FAO (WorldHealth Organization/

Food andAgricultural Organization,

2006) probiotics are live microorganisms which

exert health benefits to thehost when ingested in

Source:SINGH et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2017

Fig. 1: Probiotics have to fit to alot of desired properties.

Fermented sausages are available in lots of different compositions and shapes.

Photo: Alexandra Bucurescu /pixelio.de

adequatelevels in live (Fig. 1).Thus considering

various antimicrobial activities of enzymes and

hostile environment of stomach, these should be

consumed in large quantities (10 6 to 10 8 pergof

food)toensure presence of sufficient numbers

of these organisms in live status in intestine


Probiotics should be homogenously distributed

in the food matrix and the bacterial culture should

be properly tested for health claims, quality,safety,

efficacyand effectiveness both in-vivo (laboratory

trials) and in-vitro (live animal) (Fig. 2).

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Fig. 3)constituteto

be the most commonly used probiotics in the

food industry owing to their characteristic properties

as rapid multiplication, acid and bile tolerance,

good acidifying properties, adhesion to the

intestine wall and associated nutritive and therapeutic

health benefits to the host.These bacteria

are facultative anaerobes and easily replace harmful

pathogenic bacteria of the gut.However,a

non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli isolated

from the feces of First World Warsoldier,who did

not develop enterocolitis during severe outbreak

of shigellosis, was also developed as first non-

LAB probiotics by Alfred NISSLE in 1907.Later

Bifidobacterium was isolated from an infant by

Henry TISSIER and developed as probiotic. Even

today,LAB and Bifidobacterium are the most

commonly used bacterial cultures as probiotics in

the food industry.Among LAB, L. casei Shirota ,

L. johnsonni La1, L. plantarum 299V, L. rhamnosus

LB 21, L. reuteri SD 2112, L. casei Imunitass,

L. casei F19 and L. rhamnosus GG strains are

commonly used as probiotics.

B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12, B. animalis

subsp. Bifidus Actiregularis , B. beve Yakult,VSL

#3(8 strains) and B. longum BB 536 are commonly

used Bfidobacterium strains (Fig. 4) used

in probiotics. E. coli Nissle 1917, Saccharomyces



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Microorganisms may exert health benefits

Source: Singh et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2017

Fig. 2: Many parameters influence survival and challenges of probiotics.

boulardii, Lactococcus, Enterococcus , Saccharomyces

and Propionibacterium are also available

probiotics for use in food products.

Fermented meat products

as carrier of probiotics

Fermentation of meat and meat products is considered

as avery old and economical process used

for enhancing the nutritional value (increase

availability of vitamins and essential amino acids,

solubility,lowering anti-nutritional factors etc.),

organoleptic properties (taste, fl


sliceability etc.) as well as improving the

keeping quality (acidification, lowering water

activity,secretion of antimicrobial peptides etc.)

(KUMAR et al., 2015). Asudden outburst in the

development of fermented meat products were

noticed during the Second World War. At present

Fig. 3: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) avery often

used in the food industry.

these fermented meat products especially

sausages are very popular in Europeand account

nearly 3to5%ofthe total meat consumed

(HUTKINS,2006) constituting 20 to 40%ofthe

processed meat products (HAMM et al., 2008).

Amongst all fermented meat products, sausages

are very popular and there are lots of varieties of

sausages available. As perone estimate, around

350 different types of fermented sausages are

available in Germany. Previously amixture of

native microfl

ora was used for meat fermentation.

Thedrawback of this methodwas along ripening

periodand an inconsistent quality of the end

product. With the introduction of commercial

starter culture consisting defined microfl

ora, the

concern of time and quality has been solved to a

greater extent.In1995,NIVEN et al. (1995) used

Pediococcus cerevisae cultures for meat fermentation.

Currently,homofermentative Lactobacilli

spp. and Pediococcus acidilacti , P. pentosaceus ,

Gram positive catalase positive cocci, non pathogenic

coagulase negative Staphylococcus xylosus

and S. carosus are commonly employed for fermentation

by meat industry (LUCKE,1998; KUMAR

et al., 2015).

Fermentation of meat is done by adding starter

culture or by adding bacteria from previous batch

(backslopping) (Fig. 5). However in some cases,

accidental inoculation of meat has also been

responsible for the fermentation of meat products.

These bacteria lead to necessary biochemical

changes and incompletely oxidize the organic

substrateespecially carbohydrates intoacids,

gases and alcohol in the absence of oxygen. Based

on acidity developed during maturation/ripening,

fermented meat products have been grouped into

following twocategories: low acid fermented meat

products and high acid fermented meat products.

Fermented sausages are very common fermented

meat products. These are one of the oldest and

most popular processed meat products owing to

variety,unique fl

avor,nutritive value, convenience

etc. Theterm sausage derived from the latin word

“salsus” meaning salt.The description of sausage

making and consumption have also been reported

in the ancient Babylonian and Chinese civilization

around 1500 BC and even described in the famous

classic Odyssey. Thepreparation of sausages is

done by chopping emulsified frozen meat,animal

fat,curing salts, spices, seasoning ingredients and

sugar (substratefor getting desired level of acidity).

Starter cultures or live microbial cells from

previous batch (backslopping) or probiotics are

added to thesausagemix and refrigerated to

establish the culture. This raw sausage mix is

stuffed intocasings and put for ripening in a

chamber under controlled time, temperature and

humidity,for facilitating the desired levels of

fermentation. Based on processing parameters

and composition, fermented sausages can be

categorised intodry sausage, semi-dry sausage

and moist/ undried/ spreadable sausage. The

temperature, salt concentration and duration of

ripening depends upon the strain of bacteria as

Lactobacillus plantarum shows optimum growth

between 30 to 35 °C, whereas Pediococcus acidilacici

at more than 40 °C. Lactobacillus sakei and

Lactobacillus curvatus can multiply even at further

low temperature. Theoverall acidification

depends upon rateand action, strain, typeof

meat,ripening temperature, diameter of the

sausage and water activity of the meat.

Premium dry sausages such as Salami, Mortadella,

Geneo, Pepperoni and Cervelat etc. are

prepared without cooking and only by drying at

comparatively lower temperature for about

90 days (PEARSON and GILLET,1997). They are

sometimes mildly smoked. Thedrying is very

critical step as such along periodofdrying makes

these sausages more vulnerable for microbial and

chemical degradation. Thedrying is done at 15 to

35 °C with an air velocity of 15 to 20 cycle per

hour.During ripening and drying, up to 25 to

30% weight loss occurs with 0.5 to 1% lactic acid

acidity,apH value between 4.8 to 5.3, amoisture-

:protein ratio (M:P ratio) less than 2.3:1and a

moisture content less than 35% ranging between

25 and 50%. Thepreparation of semi-dry sausage

such as Thuringer,SummerSausage and Cervelat,iscompleted

within 7to30days of heat drying

and maturation and can be packaged before

or after fermentation. As compared to dry

sausages, these sausages owe asharp tangy taste

attributed to the high acidity (0.5 to 1.3% lactic

acid acidity with pH 4.7to5.3). Thesalt,moisture

and moisture:protein ration of these sausages

range 3.5%, 30 to 50%, and 2.3 to 3.7, respectively.

This high salt,low moisture and acid environment

prolongs the shelf life of these sausages

(PEARSON and GILLET,1997).

Probioticmeat products

Meat products containing beneficial live bacteria

in sufficient amount have been referred as probiotic

meat products. Initially probiotic meat products

were developed in Germanyand Japan

respectively by using human intestinal LAB

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



isolates. Salami incorporated three human intestinal

LAB isolates owing probiotic properties

viz. Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei

andBifidobacterium spp. was developed in 1998

in Germanyand in 1999, fermented meat spread

containing live probiotic culture of Lactobacillus

rhamnosus FERM P-15120 ripened below 20 °C in

the presence of nitrite(200ppm) and sodium

chloride (3.3%) was developed in Japan

(SAMESHIMA et al., 1998). Fermented soft type

probiotic sausages containing L. paracasei have

been developed and several beneficial effects on

consumer’s health such as increase in CD4,

Thelper cells and the phagocytosis index as well

as adecrease of the expression of CD54, decrease

in LDL (low density lipoproteins) and high CLA

(conjugated linoleic acid) have been documented

(BUNTE et al., 2002).

Theproduction of bacteriocins and several

other peptides by LAB during fermentation plays

an important role in improving functionality,

nutritive value and safety of fermented meat

products by inhibiting growth of spoilage and

pathogenic microorganisms. Pediococcus acidilactici

isolated from Spanish dry fermented

sausages exerts strong antimicrobial properties

against gram-positive bacteria. HUGAS et al.

(1995) noted the prevention of Listeria spps. in

fermented sausages due to the presence of LAB

such as Lactobacillus sakei , Lactobacillus curvatus,

L. plantarum. L. casei produces the bacteriocin

Lactocin 05 which prevents the growth of

L. plantarum, L. monocytogenes , S. aureus and

Gram-negative bacteria. JAHREIS et al. (2002)

reported amoderatestepupinimmunity,blood

cholesterol and triglyceride levels after taking

50 gofprobiotic sausage containing L. paracasei

LTH2579 daily for several weeks.

Dry sausages are not cooked and thus provide a

better chance for the survival of probiotics (KLIN-

BERG and BUDDE,2006). Thepresence of fat in

meat products ensures aprotective coating

around probiotics and thus increases their survival.

However,low water activity,lower pH and

the presence of salts createhostile conditions for

probiotics. Probiotic cultures that are resistant to

these conditions in addition to bile and acid

resistance such as Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus

acidilactici are preferred for the incorporation

in dry sausages. Alternatively,avery large

amount of probiotics can be used to compensate

these losses. LUCKE (2000) developed fermented

probiotic sausages containing a Bifidobacterium

culture. Thepoorsurvival of these bacteria is

countered by avery high inoculation to maintain

the minimum prescribed number of these probiotic

bacteria (6 log cfu/g) in fermented sausage.

In traditional Scandinavian typefermented dry

sausages, L. plantarum and L. pentosus have

been isolated and these bacteria possess probiotic

characteristics by good bile and acid resistance

as well as competitive exclusion of harmful

intestinal pathogens. Various strains of LAB

such as L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus and

L. sakei have been isolated from traditional Italian

dry fermented sausage. These strains are

capable to inhibit commonly occurring gut

pathogens like E. coli and Salmonella enterica

(KLINGBERG et al., 2005). Overall preparation of

fermented probiotic meat products is little bit

difficult as the viability of probiotic bacteria is

largely affectedbyahigh salt concentration, an

acidic environment and lower water activity due

to drying of dry sausages (DE VUYST et al., 2008).

Several fermented meat products have been

developed with the addition of probiotics in a

starter culture. In general at the beginning, the

probiotic culture dominates due to ahigh initial

inoculation and as the ripening/ maturation/

fermentation progresses under suitable conditions

as temperature, humidity,salt concentration

etc., then the starter culture dominates and

Fig. 4: Bifidobacterium bifidus is able to replace

easilyharmful pathogenic bacteria of the gut.

makes the most of the dominant flora of fermented

probiotic meat products (PAPAMANOLI et

al., 2003). After the ripening phase, areduction

in LAB count was also observed. BURDYCHOVA et

al. (2008) also documented the initial dominance

of probiotic cultures followed by ahigh LAB

count after ripening (at 11 to 13 °C, 75% relative

humidity for 28 days) in fermented sausages with

an added probiotic culture of L. casei together

with astarter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus

and L. curvatus or Pediococcus acidilactici .

ERKKIL et al. (2001) also noted similar trends in

decreasing L. rhamnosus probiotic strains (GG,

E-97800 or LC-705) after an initial increase after

the completion of a28days ripening phase in

fermented probiotic sausages. However,acompensatory

high inoculation of probiotics resulted

in an availability of sufficient numbers

(7 log CFU/g) in Iberian dry fermented sausages



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Microorganisms may exert health benefits


Tab. :Mode of action of probiotics

Effect Action Outcome References

Prevent entry of enteropathogenic

Increased secretion of mucin from goblet Improve intestinal barrier strength HARDY et al., 2013

bacteria cells by Lactobacillus plantarum 229 vand

Lctobacillus rhamnosus

Lower secretion of water and chloride by


Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus


Gene modulation in T84epithelial cells Increased barrier strength SYNGAI et al., 2016

involve in production of junction protein as

E-cadherin and β-catenin

Repair of damaged intestinal barriers by

altering protein kinase Cand signaling and

production of tight junction protein of

zonula-occludens (ZO-2) as Escherichia

Restoring integrity of intestinal tight


GOUDARZI et al. 2014

coli Nissle 1917

Improving gut immunity

Competitive exclusion of

pathogenic bacteria

Secretion of antimicrobial


Immune modulation

Adhesion to intestinal cells and release of

various cytokines and chemokines as

Lactobacillus plantarum 299v

Production of organic acids like lactic acid,

acetic acid, resulting in decreasing pH of


Stimulation of mucosal and host


Inhibition of pathogenic


HEMAISWARYA et al., 2013

GOUDARZI et al., 2014

Blocking available site for attachment of Easier removal and destruction

pathogenic bacteria

Competing for essential nutrient and Inhibiting growth BROWN 2011


Release of substances as arginine, histidine,

CLAetc. exerting gut protective and

antimicrobial properties

Increased antimicrobial defense HEMAISWARYA et al., 2013

Lactic acid bacteria secrete-lantibiotics Inhibition of food borne pathogens by SAULNIER et al., 2009

(class I), bacteriocins (class II) like lactacin pore formation and preventing cell wall

B(L. acidophilus ), plantaricin (L. plantarum),


nisin (Lactococcus lactis ), and

bacteriolysins (class III)

Reuterin by Lactobacillus reuteri exerting Broad spectrum activity

activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa

and viruses

Defensins –small cysteine-rich antimicrobial

Host defense mechanisms HARDY et al., 2013

peptides especiallyatmucosal sites

capable of destroying cytoplasmic membrane

Inducing expression of human beta-defensin

Increased mucosal barrier NG et al., 2009

2inCaco-2 in testinal epithelial

cells by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917

By inducing macrophages for phagocytosis Innate defense DELCENSERIE et al., 2008

as by L. acidophilus La1, Bifidobacterium

lactis Bb12

Production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) Increased natural killer (NK) cell YAQOOB,2014


Stimulate Bcells for production of IgA in Intestinal humoral immunity DELCENSERIE et al., 2008

mesenteric lymphnodes and Peyers patch

Induce IL-12 and increase NK cell activity Immune stimulation


and TH1 pathways

Inducing IL-10 and the Tregulatory Immunoregulatory


Degrading auto-inducers by enzymatic

secretion or production of auto-inducer

antagonists by Lactobacillus,

Bifidobacterium and Bacillus cereus

Interference with quorum sensing

signaling molecule

GOUDARZI et al., 2014

Source: SINGH et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2017



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017



Source: SINGH et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2017

Fig. 5: The overall process of meat fermentation takes up to several weeks.

even at the end of a4months lasting ripening

period(BENITO et al., 2007).

Microencapsulation ensures

better survival rates

Microencapsulation of probiotic cultures by

enclosing live bacterial cells within asemipermeable

protective coating for physical

isolation from harsh conditions ensures a

better survival rate, controlled release and

production of microbial metabolites (Fig. 6).

Thesize of these microencapsulated beads

ranges from 1to100 µmand the internal environment

inside these beads remain conducive

for the growth and survival of bacteria. Depending

upon the typeofshell/ protective layer

to be digested by specific enzymes or affected

by the specific pH of the gut,the controlled

release of these probiotics at the desired part of

the gut is ensured. Another aspectofmicroencapsulation

is that microencapsulated microbial

cultures do not affectthe organoleptic

properties of meat products. However,most of

the probiotics do not alter the sensory attributes

of meat products. PIDCOCK et al.

(2002) did not found anydeterioration in the

sensory attributes of various fermented meat

products upon incorporating probiotic cultures

from human intestinal isolates like L. paracasei

L26 and Bifidobacterium lactis B94.


added microencapsulated L. reuteri ATCC

55730 in fermented meat products and did not

reported anydeterioration in the organoleptic

properties of these products.

Fig. 6: Microencapsulated bacteria ensure the

controlled release in the gut.

Theproduction of biogenic amines during

fermentation remains amajor concern for

meat industry.Biogenic amines are low molecular

weight nitrogenous compounds produced

as aresult of microbial decarboxylase enzyme

action under low acidic conditions and asuitable

temperature on the freely available amino

acids in meat.The production of biogenic

amines leads to poor freshness and sensory

attributes of fermented meat products. The

consumption of such products leads to toxological

effects on consumer’s health. Theconcentration

of biogenic amines increases upon

storage. Tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine and

histamine are the most common biogenic

amines in dry fermented sausages (EEROLA et

al., 1996). This problem can be overcome by

the maintenance of proper hygiene, selecting

pure and suitable starter cultures with high

acidification capacity,cultures with amino

oxidase activity,lower pH, proper maintenance

of temperature during fermentation etc.


LATORRE-MORATALLA et al., 2008; SOMDA et al.,



Probiotic meat products are the future of development

of novel functional meat products.

With the ever increasing demand of functional

meat products exerting health benefits in the

near future, it is very critical for the meat industry

to develop functional starter cultures capable

of enhancing the organoleptic, nutritional

quality and microbial safety of fermented meat



Literature references can be requested from the

corresponding author or the editorial office, respectively.

Authors’ addresses

Pramod K. Singh (corresponding author: pramodsingh.vet@gmail.com),

Assistant Professor, Deptt of LPT,

College of Veterinary Sciences, Rajasthan University of

Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India-334001,

PavanKumar,Assistant Meat Technology Department

of LPT,COVS, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India-141001,

Akilesh K. Verma, Teaching Associate, College of Veterinary

Polytechnique, DUVASU, Mathura, UP, India-2813001and Rajeev

Ranjan, Assistant Professor, Division of Veterinary Pharmacology

and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal

Husbandry, Kuthulia, Rewa, MP, India-486001.

Biogenic amines


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Industry News


Safe lights


New RFID reader for rugged environments

Larson Electronics LLC from Kemp,

Texas, USA, offers food grade safe

lights which are constructed of

robust materials (no glass) and are

capable of withstanding corrosion

from washdown sessions. For

hazardous area food processing

facilities like smokehouses, the

company offers explosion proof

The lights are withstanding


LED light towers, high bay fixtures

and portable LED food light systems.

Awide selection of drop

lights, task lights and handheld

trouble lights is available as food

grade safe lights for inspections in

confined spaces.


Noax Technologies AG from Ebersberg,

Germany, has developed a

new RFID reader specificallyfor

harsh working environments. Direct

integration with industrial PCs

designed by this company allows

for ergonomic workstation design.

The new reader supports alarge

number of RFID standards such as

Hitag, Mifare, and Legic.

The RFID reader can be equipped

with abadge or special cards to

ensure traceability and the method

is easilyimplemented in production

environments. Developed for harsh

operating environments, the new

RFID reader meets the same rugged

requirements as the industrial PCs

designed by this company.The

reader complies with the IP65

protection standard and protects

against dust and low pressure

water.Itoffers installation on

stand-alone devices, such as on

work tables, or attached directlyto

the IPCs. The RFID readers are able

to be retrofitted to existing industrial


This multi-format reader is not

onlycompatible with many RFID

The industrial IPCs are fullysplash-proof and meet the requirements for

protection classes up to IP69K.

standards, but also supports other

standards such as near field communication

(NFC) and ISO 14443. The

manufacturer offers customers the

option to program the RFID reader

according to acustomer’s specific

needs. This means that the reader’s

output data format can be adapted

to the requirements of awide range

of environments.

Thanks to its versatility of integrating

the reader into existing

environments, meat processors can

continue to use your tried-andtested

hardware without having to

reinvest. The RFID reader simplifies

work processes due to its ruggedness,

broad range of applications,

and straightforward operation.

The industrial PCs (IPCs) designed

by noax are now available with

Windows 10.This allows straightforward

integration into the any existing

computer network.



Ecobalanced functionality


New temperature controller

With Räuchergold from JRS –J.

Rettenmaier &Söhne GmbH &Co.

KG, headquarted at Rosenberg,

Germany, good manufacturer of

organic fiber products proves just

how well thinking economically

and acting ecologicallygotogether.

Leading smoking system manufacturers

prefer Räuchergold

The wood chips asure reliable

plant operations and an excellent

smoking aroma.

products. The products stand for

aplant operation and an excellent

aroma. ISO and HACCP-tested

safety guarantees first-class end

products and smooth and efficient

production. The wood chips

feature optimum fractionation and

aconstant particle size that is

preciselymatched to suit the

temperatures produced in the

smoke generator.This not only

ensures that food produced with

this wood chips safelycomplies

with official threshold values, but

also that the smoking system as

awhole can be operated cleanly

and with cost efficiency.

The products are both economicallyand


Production is in line with the

DIN ISO 50001:2011-certified energy

management system. All

wood used is untreated and

comes from PEFC-certified



Oven Industries Inc. from Camp

Hill, PA,USA, continues its aggressive

product expansion, by

introducing the 5R9-355

temperature controller (Peltier

effect) to the market. This product,

from an operational standpoint,

is the same as the 5R9-350

model released earlier this year.

The complimentary features

included in this new model consists

of acomplete mechanical

enclosure with mounting holes,

user friendlykeypad menu selections

and avivid LCD display.This

controller offers atemperature

resolution of 0.01°Cand a

control stability of ±0.1 °C. It

was designed for applications

needing atemperature control

range of –40 to 250 °C. The company

also offers acomplete line of

temperature sensors.

Oven Industries, Inc. specializes

in the development of custom

electronic temperature controllers

and sensors along with extensive

The new controller is equipped with a

complete mechanical enclosure with

mounting holes.

turnkey contract manufacturing

capabilities and international




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Food Waste

Active and intelligent

packagings –active

packagings include

antimicrobial film as

produced in the

Safe-Pack project, and

pads from Messrs.

McAirlaids. Intelligent

packagings include

aluminium-based TTIs

and photochromic TTIs

(Freshpoint, Israel).

Photo: Sophia Dohlen

Delaying loss of freshness

Active and intelligent packagings to reduce wastes in meat-producing chains

The production of high quality and

safe foodshas increased steadily in

recent years. At the same time a

sustainablefoodproduction gains

in importance. Sustainability aspectsinclude

several different

aspects, such as for examplethe

energyefficiency of production and

cooling plants, the logistic concepts,

animal welfare aspects or the

energysupply concepts. Especially

the reduction of wastealong the

entire supply chain is more and

more public discussed.

By Sophia Dohlen and

Judith Kreyenschmidt

Theuse of active and intelligent

packagings is currently being

discussed as apossibility for significantly

reducing the wasteinmeatproducing

chains and at the same

time ensuring the quality and

safety of the products. Different

studies estimatethe amount of

wasted meat and meat products at

approximately 12 –22% (GUSTAVS-

SON et al., 2011;MUTH et al., 2011,

KREYENSCHMIDT et al., 2013).

Influencing factors

Thereasons whymeat and meat

products are discarded are diverse

and include, for example, expiry of

the best before datewithout sale or

consumption of the products,

premature spoilage of the products

caused by wrong handling, meat

and meat products not correspondend

to the quality and safety

requirements, or consumer behaviour.These

various causes are

influenced by alarge number of

factors such as the productproperties

or the shelf life of the product,

process factors such as the processing

and packaging technologies

used, analysis method, marketing

channels and structures, and the

temperature conditions throughout

the entire supply chain.

In the case of perishable foods

the length of shelf life is an important

factorinfluencing the amount

of wasted products. Frequently

products with short shelf life are

discarded without consumption. A

further factoristhat there is currently

alack of rapid methods for

providing just in time information

about the real quality,safety and

the remaining shelf life of the

products. As aconsequence, in the

case of significant interruptions of

the cold chain, perishable goods

are frequently discarded because of

possible health hazards. Thesame

applies for meat and meat products

where the best before datehas

expired. This is precisely where

active and intelligent packagings

start their work to reduce the

amount of wasted products. Intelli-

gent packagings allow productaccompanying

monitoring of the

goodsalong the completechain by

providing information about the

history,quality,shelf life or safety

of the foods. Active packagings, on

the other hand, reactdirectly with

the productorthe productenvironment

and thus contributetoan

extended shelf life and hence to a

longer marketing window.Although

the idea of active and intelligent

packagings is not new,a

large number of new developments

have recently started to emerge in

these fields.

Active packagings

Thefirst developments of active

packagings took place already in

the mid-1970s. Although market

demand was very reserved up to the

end of the 1990s, over the past

years there has been asteady in-


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Food Waste

crease in demand. This has also

been accompanied by aconstant

increase in the number of patent

applications and market implementations

of new technologies.

Various active packaging solutions

have already become established on

the market worldwide. Thespectrum

of active packaging solutions

includes awide range of fields such

as gas absorbers, scavengers and

emitters, moisture regulators,

ethanol emitters, systems for

releasing or absorbing aroma

substances and antioxidants, as

well as antimicrobial packaging

systems. These can be applied into

the meat packagings in the form of

films, trays, labels, pads or sachets.

Among the active packaging solutions

available on the market,

oxygen absorbers, carbon dioxide

emitters and moisture regulators

as well as antimicrobial packaging

materials are commercially important

in the meat and fish industry.

Oxygen absorbers

These absorbers bind the oxygen

present in the packaging through

chemical reaction, thus reducing

oxidation processes in the foods

such as fat oxidation. Oxygen

absorbers in sausage products can

also delay photosensitised oxidation

and hence colour loss, thus

counteracting greying of the

sausage. Furthermore, the growth

of aerobic bacteria can be reduced

by this kind of absorber,which can

lead to an extended shelf life. One

of the first commercial oxygen

absorbers was developed by the

firm Mitsubishi GasChemical in

Japan as an iron powder sachet.

Themajority of the oxygen absorbers

currently available are

based on iron oxidation. Other

systems use for example the ascorbic

acid oxidation reaction or selectedenzymatic


Moisture regulators

These regulators control or bind

the moisture in the packaging to

prevent condensation inside the

packaging or surface moisture on

the product. In themeat sector

such systems are frequently used

for fresh, packaged poultry meat.

In the form of absorbent pads,

these systems bind the drip fl

uid so

that arepresentative sales image

results for the consumer.Furthermore,

thus the growth of bacteria

in the meat juice can be reduced.

Thepads basically consist of a


Fig.:Antimicrobial activity of amultilayer film with 10%Poly(TBAMS) in the inner layer against pathogenic and spoilage

microorganisms at 7°Cafter 24 h.

moisture-absorbing polymer,

which is surrounded by twolayers

of amicroporous plastic.

Carbon dioxide emitters

Thecarbon dioxide emitters release

carbon dioxide intothe packaging

through achemical reaction,

as aresult of which the microbial

growth on the surface of perishable

foodscan be slowed down. Formation

of the carbon dioxide can be

based on different reactions, such

as the reaction of sodium hydrogen

carbonateand citric acid with

liquid of the packaged food.Inthe

form of pads, carbon dioxide emitters

could be used for fresh meat to

prolong the shelf life of the products.

At present CO2 emitters are

used with fresh fish or poultry.

Antimicrobial packaging


Antimicrobial packaging systems

inhibit the growth of microorganisms

or kill microorganisms by

damaging the cell wall, the metabolism

or the genetic material. Especially

in supply chains of perishable

foodssuch as meat,there is ahigh

demand for antimicrobial materials,

as manyproducts have ashort

selling time due to the short shelf

life. Reduction of the initial bacterial

count of perishable foodssuch

as fresh poultry meat in the range

of one log10 unit can result in prolonging

the shelf life for several

days. Antimicrobial substances can

be incorporated directly intopackaging

materials or be applied by

coating on abase material. Antimicrobial

substances can be divided

intodifferent categories depending

on their origin and chemical properties:

metals, bacteriocins, enzymes,

organic acids, plant extracts

or active polymers. If the antimicrobial

substance is released to the

surroundings or the food,meaning

the effectisbased on amigration.

If the active agent is permanently

immobilized to the packaging

material, the microorganismen can

be reduced at the productsurface

between the packaging material

and the food.The majority of the

systems currently being developed

are based on the migration effect.

Thefocus of the research studies is

on integrating natural substances

such as essential oils or plant

extracts intothe packaging materials.

However,inparticular the

integration of the substances into

the polymers and their temperature

stability and controlled release

of the active agents is abig challenge.

Due to their high temperature

stability and good antimicrobial

effectiveness, metals were

incorporated intovarious polymers.

Forexample, silver ions leads

to structural changes of the bacterial

cell wall in contactwith several

bacteria. They reactwith thiol

groups in proteins or enzymes,

which ultimately leads to death of

the cell. Although anumber of

papers have published recently in

the field of antimicrobial packaging

materials and new solutions have

been developed, only afew packaging

solutions that are based on a

migration effectare currently

available on the market.Reasons

for this are on the one hand the

technical challenges in producing

the materials, and on the other

hand the various factors that infl


ence the activity of the incorporated

substances. Forinstance, food

components frequently have a

negative infl

uence on the antimicrobial

effectmechanism. For

example, in the case of packing

materials with silver the effectcan

be reduced significantly as silver

ions are complexed and thus inactivated

by sulfurous amino acids and

other protein constituents. Further-


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Food Waste

Delaying loss of freshness



more, for the use of migrating

substances in packaging material

applications, acontrolled release

during the storage time is necessary.Fast

and highly concentrated

release can lead to short-term

stability as the active ingredients

are then used up and furthermore

this may lead to undesirable sensory

changes in the product. Studies

show that the release of various

substances is influenced by the

temperature. Lowtemperature

conditions such as theyusually in

meat supply chains often reduce

the release from the material and so

the antimicrobial activtiy.

On the basis of the challenges in

migration-based systems described

above, the development of active

polymers has become increasingly

interesting, especially for the meat

industry.One known representative

of this group is the biopolymer

chitosan, which is naturally occurring

and edible. Themodeofaction

of chitosan is possibly based on the

amino groups that reactwiththe

negatively charged microbial cell

components. Anumber of studies

have demonstrated good effectiveness

against abroad spectrum of

meat-relevant microorganisms.

Anew and promising typeof

active polymers are the Sustainable

Active Microbiocidal (SAM) polymers.

This typeofpolymer was

first developed by Degussa GmbH

at the end of the 1990s. Theantimicrobial

activity of these polymers

is based on electrostatic

interactions between the positively

charged polymer and the negatively

charged cell surfaces of the microorganisms.

This leads to damaging

and destruction of the cell membrane

resulting in cell death. The

polymer shows very good antimicrobial

activtiy, but was removed

from the market again due to

insufficient material properties.

Within the framework of nationally

funded research projects (Smart

Surf: Funding reference code

16INO640; www.ccm.unibonn.de),


methylstyrene] (Poly

(TBAMS)) was developed with

improved material properties and

good antimicrobial activity.Within

the context of the cooperative

projectSafe-Pack (Funding reference

code 313-06.01-28-1-68.034-10)

funded by the German Federal

Office for Agriculture and Food

(BLE), different packaging materials

such as packaging films and

pads were produced from this

material in order to extend the

shelf life of meat and meat products.

Various investigations show

that the new materials are highly

Chicken breast fillet

packaged under modified

gas atmosphere with a




Photo: Daniel Abrams

active against alarge number of

pathogenic and spoilage bacteria

even at refrigeration temperatures


Although there is currently still a

shortage of antimicrobial packaging

solutions for the meat sectoron

the market,inview of the large

number of research projects it can

be expectedthat in future the

number of market implementations

will increase. However,one

obstacle that must not be neglected

is the extensive authorisation

procedure required in manycountries

for various new approaches.

Fundamentally,experience from

anumber of projects in the field of

active packagings shows that the

food and packaging industry is

extremely interested in active

packagings. Thecore benefit is

seen in the significant increase in

food shelf lives and safety and the

associated longer selling time.

Further advantages are the increased

customer satisfaction, the

development of new markets and

the declining number of complaints

and of food waste. On the

other hand, the trade fears that as a

result of possible additional labelling

requirements for migration-based

materials, manyconsumers

may view these technologies

with acertain scepticism.

Thefirst patent for an intelligent

packaging were filed already in

the 1930s. However,more than 50

years passed before the intelligent

packagings were first used to

monitor the cold chain of pharmaceutical

products. Up to now,

however,these kinds of intelligent

labels have not been widespread

in the food market.While the

subjectofusing intelligent labels

had almost faded backstage, it is

becoming apparent here too that

the number of patents, publications

and new technologies being

introduced to the market has

recently started to increase significantly.For

manyyears developments

in this field were mainly

focusing on monitoring the temperature

conditions along the

supply chain. In recent years

however the number of developments

of labels that monitor

quality and safety parameters or

other environmental than temperature

conditions is growing

steadily.There is also an increasing

trend towards developing

electronic labels on the basis of

RFID (radio frequencyidentification)

combined with intelligent

sensor technology.

Intelligent packagings can be

classified in different categories

on the basis of the parameters that

are monitored.

Freshness indicators

Theprinciple of freshness indicators

is based on directinteraction

between the food,volatile compounds

and the indicator.Generally,metabolic

products of microorganisms

that are produced during

storage or chemical modifications

in the productare detectedby

these indicators. Forinstance,

freshness indicators may be based

for example on detection of volatile

amines, carbon dioxide, sulphur

dioxide, ammonia, ethanol, or

organic acids. Depending on the

indicator system, the shelf life or

remaining shelf life of the product

can also be displayed. Butcurrently

there is no label available for fresh

meat products, that is able to monitorthe

freshness loss and residual

shelf life at each point along the

value chain in acost efficient way.

Achallenge is still the diversity of

the microflora and the differences

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Food Waste

in their metabolites, which can vary

considerably depending on the

packaging and temperature conditions.

Safety indicators

These indicators, frequently also

called biosensors, indicatethe

presence of pathogenic bacteria.

This typeofindicator is frequently

based on immuno-chemical reactions.

One of the first technologies

is based on an antibodycomplex

that is linked with abarcode system.

Thepresence of acertain

microorganism is made visible by

the development of ablack strip on

the barcode, which then becomes

no longer legible for scanner systems.

record the temperature history

along the whole chill chain in a

simple and cost effective way.The

principle of most of the indicators

is based on chemical, physical,

microbiological or enzymatic

reactions which result in acolour

change of the label. Thelabels can

also be used as afreshness indicator,

if the colour change of the label

correlates with the spoilage kinetics

of the food to which it is attached.

Furthermore, it is possible to

link the colour signals of TTIs with

simulation models to calculatethe

residual shelf life of the product.

Themeasurement of the current

colour using spectrophotometers

supplies precise information on

how long the residual shelf life of

the productisifitisstored at a

certain temperature in the following

stages of the chain. Aprototype

of such asoftware is available at

www.ccm-network.com. With the

additional information at each

stage, it is also possible in the long

term to adjust stockmanagement

in the chains from aFirst In –First

Out strategy to aLeast–Shelf life –

First out strategy.Inparticular in

connection with electronic best

before dates, it is possible to minimise

rejects and thus use resources

more efficiently in this

way.Furthermore, experience from

practice has shown that through

the use of TTIs, weak points in the

Gas sensors

With these indicators the focus is

on monitoring the gas atmosphere

in the packaging. Depending on

the indicator or the composition of

the atmosphere, the decrease or

increase of oxygen or carbon dioxide

is controlled. This makes it

possible to identify directly any

perforation in the packaging that

can be caused by sealing or mechanical

damage during handling

or transport and which lead to

premature spoilage of the products.

Theindicators or pads are

integrated intothe packaging and

display acolour change when the

atmosphere changes, or theyare

based on amachine readable

process, as is frequently the case

with luminescence-based systems.

Time indicators

These indicators monitor only the

time factor, forexample by substances

diffusing along atime

scale. This kind of intelligent

packaging is designed primarily for

the consumer to showhow much

time has passed since apackage

was opened.

Time-temperature indicators

These indicators were the first

labels implemented on the market

in the field of intelligent packagings.

Even today,theystill represent

the most widespread technology

in the field of intelligent labels.

Time-temperature indicators

(TTIs) allow to monitor the temperature

history of aproducts

from the time of packaging to

consumption of the food.Thus,

these labels provide the possibility

to continuously monitor and


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Food Waste

cold chain can be reduced significantly

as the awareness for maintenance

of the cold chain is increased

at all stages. Theoptimised

temperature conditions are at the

same time coupled with an extension

of the shelf life and thus of the

selling window.Afurther benefit

of these labels with regard to reducing

the amount of food wasteis

that the safety margins of the best

before datecan be reduced significantly

by adjusting the indicator to

the real shelf life of the food.Accordingly

the consumer too is able

to see whether aproductisstill fit

for consumption after the end of

the best before date.

Although these technologies

have been available on the market

for more than 20 years and the

topic is currently asubjectofintensive

discussion at the policylevel,

there is still alack of afar-ranging

implementation and acceptance of

these indicators. Accordingly so far

the fields of application worldwide

have concentrated on just afew

supply chains. These include for

example monitoring of cooked

poultry meat,fish and fish products,

mussels, seafood and selectedready-to-eat

products for

airline catering.

Within the framework of twoEU

projects (FP6-012371, IQ Freshlabel-243423),

companies were

asked about the reasons for the

poor level of implementation.

Reasons stated in particular are the

fear of overwhelming consumers

with information, scepticism and a

lack of confidence vis-à-vis new

technologies, or the fear of expensive

implementation in already

existing systems. Furthermore,

manyretailer do not believe in the

reduction of food wastebyTTIs.

Instead, theyfear excessively high

losses due to sorting and arise in

complaints after the point of sale.

Surveys among consumers show a

completely different picture. Consumers

would view the introduction

of TTIs as an advantage and

believe in the reduction of waste

through intelligent packagings, as

theythen receive additional information

about the freshness and

safety of the products. In particular

in the fresh meat and fish sector

consumers would welcome the

introduction of such alabel. Accordingly

the attitudes of the upstream

chain and the last link, the

consumer,are completely opposed

as regards the introduction of

TTIs. Whereas producer,wholesaler

and retailer are skeptical with

regard to introduction of the label

and their contribution to waste

reduction, end consumers are very

positive about the idea of introducing

such indicators.

Summary and


Active and intelligent packagings

can in the long term makean

important contribution to reducing

the amount of wasteincertain

supply chains by extending shelf

life through evidence of correct

producthandling or by just-in-time

information about the actual quality

or remaining shelf life of the


Thepercentage reduction rates

depend on numerous factors,

however.Higher reduction rates

are to be expectedinthe case of

perishable foodssuch as poultry

meat and fish than in the case of

products displaying shelf lives of

more than three weeks. Furthermore,

the logistic structures represent

asignificant influence factor.

Especially in complex food chains

with long transport routes, these

types of packaging can makean

important contribution to sustainablefood

production. Further

influence factors include the customer-supplier

relations, the

process organisation, the current

methods used to control important

quality and safty parameter,the

markets, the production volumes

and the involvement of consumers.

When using intelligent labels it is

crucially important how these

indicators are integrated intothe

overall information and quality

management and whether the

information are chaired withn the

further actors in the chain. The

wastereduction rates also depend

crucially on whether,for example,

time-temperature indicators are

used as cold chain indicators or as

indirectfreshness indicators with

which the residual shelf life can be

determined at each stage along the


In order to reduce the amount of

wasteinthe long term it is important

to first identify the precise

causes of wastes in different supply

chains (product-related and supplychain-related

causes), so that on

this basis the right packaging

technology for the respective chain

or productcan be selected.

Close cooperation between the

packaging industry,agricultural,

processing, transport and trading

businesses, recycling companies,

the authorisation authorities as

well as the consumer is important

for the future development of new,

active and intelligent packaging

technologies. Only in this way can

sustainable, active and intelligent

packagings that gain acceptance

both in the industry and among

consumers be developed and

implemented in line with needs in

the long term.




Global Food Losses and Food Waste.

Study for the international Save Food

Congress, 16-17.05.2011 Düsseldorf. –



P. TEITSCHEID und Y. ILG (2013): Food Waste

in der Fleisch verarbeitenden Kette.

FleischWirtschaft 93 (10), 57–63. –


J.C. BUZBY und H.F. WELLS (2011): Consumer-level

food loss estimates and

their use in the ERS loss-adjusted food

availability data. Technical Bulletin

no. 1927.Washington, DC: USDA.

Further literature references can be

requested from the authors.

Dr. Sophia


works in Food Processing

Engineering at the University

of Bonn. One field of her

research focuses the assessing active

packagings with regard to their potential for

increasing the shelf life of perishable foods.

PD Dr.Judith


heads the Cold-Chain-

Management working group

at the University of Bonn

(IEL, Food Processing Engineering). The

fields of research include creating simulation

models to predict food quality, developing

and implementing new technologies in

the areas of temperature monitoring,

hygiene and packaging to improve food

quality and safety and to reduce food waste.

Authors’ address

Dr.Sophia Dohlen and PD Dr.Judith Kreyenschmidt,

Institute of Nutritional and Food

Sciences (IEL) Food Processing Engineering,

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität

Bonn, Katzenburgweg 7–9, 53115Bonn,

Germany, sdohlen@uni-bonn.de,


Food Waste

Wageningen University

installs Taskforce

The Taskforce Circular Economy in

Food, launched during the National

Food Summit in the Netherlands,

aims to prevent and reduce

food waste and becomes an international

frontrunner in the valorisation

of agrifood residual


The Taskforce, an initiative by

Wageningen University &Research,

in collaboration with the Ministry of

Economic Affairs and the Sustainable

Food Alliance, connects initiatives

against food waste. It is leading

the transition towards acceleration

and the development of a

circular economy.The Taskforce is

currentlycomposed of 25 members

from the entire food supplychain,

from SMEs to food multinationals,

and supplemented with members

from public and societal organizations.

In the second half of 2017,the

Taskforce will publish anational

strategy and roadmap to collectivelyachieve

acircular economy in

food: an economy in which waste

does not exist, agrifood residual

streams are re-used in the best

possible way, and raw materials

retain their value. In the roadmap,

there are concrete goals and actions

for both the short and long

term. In addition, the Taskforce will

function as athink-tank and a

source of inspiration and will challenge

businesses to innovate more


Participants can use insights

gained from the European research

programme Refresh, which is coordinated

by Wageningen University &

Research; the Taskforce is strongly

linked to this programme. “With

businesses taking the lead, we are

building an ecosystem in which we

will dedicatedlywork towards

realising solutions and tangible

economic, ecological, and social

impact,” says Toine Timmermans,

programme manager at Wageningen

University &Research and

initiator of the Taskforce. Within the

Taskforce network, actions, best

practices, instruments, and

progress reports will be shared and

innovative business cases will be

developed. During the upcoming

two years, dozens of actions and

projects will be launched and supported.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Industry News


Whole muscles


Inline inspection involves benefits

Metalquimia, SAU, from Girona,

Spain, introduces the new Twinvac

“Evolution”, the interface for

automatic whole muscle stuffing.

Suitable for all types of meats,

from emulsions to whole muscle

pieces, the interface incorporates

automatic servostuffing control

and acompactation pressure

regulating device.

Its large diameter double cylinder

operation ensures high productivity

and stuffing speed,

resulting in astuffing quality with

total absence of internal holes

and unsurpassed whole muscle

definition. In addition, the Twinvac

“Evolution” "friendly" design,

occupies asmaller installation

space and reduces the number of

installing parts, making assembly

and disassembly, maintenance,

cleaning and disinfection easier

than ever.


Eagle Product Inspection from

Tampa, FL, USA, is an expert in

X-Ray product inspection and fat

analysis systems and demonstrates

the benefits of inline

meat and poultry inspection


Eagle x-ray inspection and fat

analysis (FA) systems boast the

lowest total cost of ownership in

the industry, providing inline

inspection capabilities that

enable processors to optimize

production line efficiency, maximize

uptime, extract maximum

value from raw materials and

ensure that products entering

the retail supplychain are safe

for consumption. The comprehensive

nature of X-Ray inspection

also makes products that

have been inspected in this

manner more attractive to retail


In addition to the detection of

physical contaminants such as

X-Ray inspection systems for

precise bone and contaminant


metal fragments, glass shards

and some plastic and rubber

compounds, the meat and poultry

industry’smost common

concern is the detection of bone.

As aspecialist in the meat and

poultry industry, Eagle understands

the dailychallenge bone

detection presents to processors.

The company’sexperts

have developed arange of systems

to suit awide array of applications,

all capable of detecting

calcified bone down to 2mm.

In addition, two of Eagle’s

trusted partners in the meat and

poultry processing field –Foodmate

and FPEC –are demonstrating

Eagle X-Ray inspection systems.

Foodmate is demonstrating

the Eagle Pack 400 HC Poultry

Optimized, designed to meet the

need for precise bone and contaminant

detection, which is

critical for compliance with stringent

retailer specifications and

food safety regulations. FPEC is

also showcasing aPack 400 HC,

designed specificallyfor chub and

other packaged meat inspection,

which demonstrates the versatility

of the range. Both systems

provide superior contamination

detection and automatic rejection

of foreign objects at speeds of up

to 60 mper min. (200 FPM).



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Industry News


Mesh overlay on belt installed


Scanners for Quality Assurance

Offering an added dimension to its

popular CamEdge conveyor belt for

cageless spiral systems, Cambridge

Engineered Solutions (Cambridge,

USA) has introduced CamEdge More.

The new product features the same

edge treatment as the original

design but includes an interior

mesh overlay to accommodate

smaller foods and soft poultry and

meat parts placed directlyonthe


The original belt has large flat

wire openings so processors can

move larger-sized meat and poultry

parts or packaged product along

the cageless spiral for cooling or

freezing. The CamEdge More mesh

overlay closes openings so nonpackaged

raw product and soft

parts can rest on the belt as they

travel through the spiral. The overlay’smetal

mesh also reduces

product marking but still has sufficient

openness for thorough chemical

and hot water cleaning. With

added attention paid to plastic belt

contamination issues during some

poultry and meat processes, the

CamEdge More metal belt is suited

for dailysanitation practices nec-

Coils, fans and conditioning

systems can be placed in the

center of the conveyor if needed.

essary to prevent Salmonella,

Listeria and other bacteria while

being made from materials that are


The belts are both positively

driven and low in tension. They

utilize arobust, well-supported

drive link on the outer edges that

reduces component flexing during

sprocket engagement. This results

in an extended belt life and less

chance of component fatigue.


In production, various technologies

are used for quality assurance,

including metal detectors as

well as X-Ray scanners. When the

company was looking for anew

supplier of x-ray scanners, the

Sesotec system from Sesotec

Gmbh from Schoenberg, Germany,

convinced with its detection

accuracy, reliability, and ease of

operation, and the company therefore

integrated Sesotec inspection

systems in 16 production lines.

Sesotec's Raycon DX-Ray

scanners primarilyare used for

the final inspection of packed

products and allow high-precision

inline detection of alarge variety

of contaminants such as magnetic

and non-magnetic metals,

glass, ceramics, stones, raw

bones, and several types of

plastics. Raycon Dproduct inspection

systems combine

proven Sesotec X-Ray technology

with hygienic design and ease of

operation. Furthermore, the

conveyor belt in the Raycon D

system can be replaced without

using tools within two minutes by

onlyone operator, which compared

to other systems saves alot

of time.

The Sesotec group is one of the

leading manufacturers of machines

and systems for contaminant

detection and material sorting.

Product sales primarilyfocus

on the food, plastics, and recycling

industries. Sesotec's global

presence includes subsidiaries in

Great Britain, Singapore, China,

USA, France, Italy(2), India,

Canada, Thailand, arepresentative

office in Turkey, and more

than 60 partners all over the


Sesotec Raycon Dx-ray scanners

primarilyare used for the final

inspection of packed meat



Marel Stork

Humane and efficient live bird handling uplifted


Better safety

The new Stork Atlas (Advanced

Technology Live bird Arrival System)

from Marel Stork from

Boxmeer, Netherlands, gives high

attention to animal welfare, while

increasing efficiency considerably.

Thanks to the ingenious design of

the container stack, loading capacity

can increase up to 38%,

which means less CO2 emission. At

Atlas sets new standards in hygiene. Photo: Marel

the same time, more space is

available per bird.

In the supplychain, handling

remains animal-friendlyall the

time; during transport and in the

plant the birds stay calmlyintheir

spacious trays. The plant logistics,

such as lairage and destacking,

have been organized to cause the

least stress possible. Atlas seamlesslyintegrates

with CAS Smooth-

Flow stunning; trays are gently

moved through the system. Only

after having lost consciousness,

the broilers are shackled to enter

the process.

The Stork Atlas live bird handling

system features atechnologically

advanced SmartStack module,

consisting of arevolutionary

loadable pallet with avariable

number of frameless trays (mostly

three or four) on top of it. The

clever design of this module increases

the loading capacity up to

38%, which means fewer truck

movements and therefore less CO2

emission. Making use of the same

floor surface, SmartStack provides

more space to each bird. Already at

the farm, the module shows it

advantages, having alarge opening

for easy loading of broilers in

all tray levels.


Arjuna Natural Extracts Ltd. from

Kerala, India, presents X-tend, a

complete, natural, formulationspecific

preservative designed to

increase chilled-meat product

shelf-life. Synthetic preservatives

contain nitrates. These can generate

nitrosamines, chemical compounds

suspected of increasing

cancer risk. But nitrosomyoglobin,

formed from myoglobin and nitric

oxide during curing, is responsible

for the red colour in cured meats

associated with freshness. Some of

the volatile nitrosamines formed

during curing process with nitrates

have mutagenic activity.The allnatural

X-tend formulation can

replace chemical nitrosomyoglobinforming

preservatives yet is noncarcinogenic

and safe to use in

chilled meat. It prevents the growth

of yeast and mold in chilled meat




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Testing Methods

Fig. 1: In

low-price-products soy

flour is often used as an


Innovation in food control

Duplex PCR opens new possibilities for the detection of GM soya in chicken sausages

Up to now the detection of the

GM-soy presence in chicken

sausages was expensive and took

some time. The successful merging

of the procedures for endogene and

transgene amplification in asingle

tubemade it faster and less expensive.

By Zoran T. Popovski,

Elizabeta Miskoska-Milevska,

Tome Nestorovski

and ZlatkoPejkovski

This study reports the screening

for GMO presence in soy containg

(Fig.1) chicken sausages

(Fig. 2) in asingle step using

duplex PCR. Previously,the

screening was performed in two

steps, one for revealing the soy

DNA, and the second for detecting

the presence of the construct that

is present in GM soy.Anoptimization

of the PCR conditions was

performed focusing on the MgCl2

concentration and primers annealing

temperature. The achieved

data showed that aconcentration

of 2.5 mM MgCl2 and atemperature

of 60 °C are appropriate to

amplify the both fragments in a

single reaction. The results did not

show any false positive or false

negative data. They were wellmatched

with those from the

separately accomplished reactions.

This kind of doubled PCR enables

faster and cheaper detection of the

presence of GM-soy.Itgives a

possibility to eliminate too many

negative samples before the quantification

step with real-time PCR.

How GMOs

are detected

Due to the fact that the nucleotide

sequences of GMOs are determined,

the detection of GMO

presence in processed meat products

commonly is performed using

PCR based techniques (Mulis,

1987). One of the most applied

genetic modifications among the

crops is creating herbicide tolerant

plants, especially against the

roundup herbicide and that is the

reason why those crops are named

as “roundup ready” (Oxtoby et al.,

1990). The first step in this procedure

is to detect the presence of an

“housekeeping” gene for the appropriate

organism which was

modified, and then to search for

the presence of aconstruct that can

be present in the sample (Windels,

2001).Asa“housekeeping” gene in

the soy genome, usually,the gene

for lectin synthesis is used, while

for the detection of transgene,

commonly,anamplification covering

part of the promoter sequence

and part of the inserted gene is

performed (Holst-Jensen,2003).

The screening of roundup ready

soya (RRS) was performed in two

ig. 2: Mostlychicken sausages are available for alow price.

steps before, one for revealing soy

DNA, and the second one for

detecting the presence of the construct

that is present in GM soy.

(Meyer et al., 1997).

The aim of this study was to

simplify the procedure for GMO

detection on DNA level developing

anew duplex PCR in order to amplify

the part of endogen and trans-


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Testing Methods

Source: POPOVSKI et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2017

Fig. 4A): MgCl2 gradient concentration from 0.5 Mm to 4.5 mM amplicons of 74 bp of the same sample on a2.5% agarose gel. #1–50 bp ladder #2–0.5 mM MgCl2 #3–1.0mM

MgCl2 #4–1.5mMMgCl2 #5–2.0 mM MgCl2 #6–2.5 mM MgCl2 #7–3.0 mM MgCl2 #8–3.5 mM MgCl2 #9–4.0 mM MgCl2 and #10–4.5 mM MgCl2.

B): Temperature gradient form 55 °C to 65 °C. Electrophoregram of 2.5% agarose gel. #1–50bpladder #2–55.8 °C #3–56.3 °C #4–57.1 °C #5–58.1°C#6–58.8 °C #7–59.6 °C

#8–60.2 °C #9–61.6°C#10–62.2 °C #11–63.3 °C and#12–64.2°C

gene in one reaction. It could serve

as abasis to simplify the procedure

for GMO detection.

Materials and methods

As starting material were used:


ed reference GMO free soybeans,

for positive and negative

control for RRS soybeans purchased

from JRC-IRMM, soy free

chicken sausages and chicken

sausages that contained soy as an


The DNA isolation was performed

using the CTAB method

(DOYLE and DOYLE,1987) with some

slight modifi

cation (MISKOSKA-

MILEVSKA et al., 2011)(Fig. 3).

The soybean DNA detection was

done using PCR to amplify the part

of the lectin gene. The used forward

primer 5’-GCC CTC TAC

TCC ACC CCC ATC-3’ and reverse

primer 5’ -GCC CATCTG CAA



ed afragment with

118bpinlength. The reactions

contained 3.0 mM MgCl2, 0.4 mM

dNTP, 0.2 pM GM03/GM04, 1U

Taqpolymerase and 100ngDNA.

The annealing temperature was at

60 °C. GM soy DNA was detected

with the second pair of primers


ACA CGC TGA-3’) and RR1R


GTG CC- 3’) (WEI et al., 2008). The

amplicon with alength of 74 bp

comprehended the end part of 35S

promoter and the initial part of the

CTP4 inserted gene. The reactions

contain 2.5 mM MgCl2,0.4 mM

dNTP, 0.2 mM RRS1-F/RRS1-R

and 0,5 UAmpliTaq Gold polymerase

activated with hot-start. The

concentration of MgCl2 was optimized

by changing it in the range

from 0.5 mM up to 4.5 mM. Optimization

was done also for the

annealing temperature, in order to


nd an appropriate value for annealing

the two pairs of primers,

one for the transgene covering part

of the CMV 35S promoter and the

part of the CTP4 EPSPS inserted

gene, and the second pair for the

“housekeeping” gene.

concentration for these reactions

(Fig. 4A).

The optimization of the temperature

was done with 12 different

values in the range from 55 °C to

65 °C. The analysis on a2.5%

agarose gel shows that the

strength of the signal started to be

weaker at temperatures above

62.2 °C (Fig. 4B, #11and #12). The

rest of the samples that were


ed at values between

55.8 °C and 62.2 °C did not show

any differences in the bands; that

is an indicator for the possibility

for primers annealing at the temperatures

with awider range.

(Fig. 4B).

Due to the similar conditions in

both reactions atrial was con-

Fig. 3: The DNA isolation was performed using the slightlymodified CTAB method.

What is the result?

The results from the MgCl2 optimization

were visualized on 2.5%

agarose gel. The samples with

0.5 mM and 1.0mMMgCl2 did not

show any fragments, while in the

samples with 1.5mMand 2.0 mM

MgCl2 aweak signal was registered.

The samples that had concentration

of MgCl2 from 2.5 mM up to

4.5 mM have shown visible and

clear fragments. Due to the fact that

the higher MgCl2 concentration

usually results in unspecifi



cation, the 2.5 mM MgCl2 was

considered to be the most suitable



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Testing Methods

Innovation in food control

Source: POPOVSKI et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2017

Fig. 5: Electrophoregram of duplex PCR: #1–50 bp ladder #2 and #3–GMO-free soy #4–positive control #5–negative control #6–non-specific amplification

#7–chicken sausages without soy #8 and #9–chicken sausage containing soy.

ducted to perform aduplex PCR

with both pairs of primers, one to

amplify the part of the lectin gene,

end the second to prove the presence

of the insert. So,the single

tube contains 2.5 mM MgCl2,

0.4 mM dNTP, 0.2 mM primers

(GM03/GM04 and RRS1-F/RRS1-

R), 1.0UAmpliTaqGold polymerase

and 100ngofsoy DNA.

The annealing temperature of

60 °C and the needed concentration

of 2.5 mM MgCl2 were used to

amplify both fragments at once.

This double PCR enables faster

detection of GM soy.The method

is cheaper and quicker.The results

gained through the experiment did

not show false positive or false

negative values. The verifi


was done by agarose gel electrophoresis

(Fig. 5).

The positive control (Fig. 5, #4)

and the samples that contained

DNA derived from the expression

box resulted with two fragments of

118and 74 bp. The negative control

and the samples that were not

genetically modifi

ed resulted with

just one fragment of 118bpfrom

the lectin gene. The control did not

show any fragment; this was aproof

for the absence of any contamination

and excludes any possibility of

false positive results.

Practicle importance and


In order to reduce the expenses a

successful merging of the procedures

for endogene and transgene


cation in asingle tube was

realized. Merging these procedures

enables faster detection of

GM-soy presence.

It offers apossibility to eliminate

many negative samples before

the quantifi

cation step with

real-time PCR will be taken. The

results did not show any false

positive or false negative data.

They were well-matched with

those from the separately accomplished



1. DOYLE,J.J. and DOYLE,J.L. (1987): A

rapid DNA isolation procedure for small

quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phitochem

Bull. 19,11–15.–2.HOLST-JENSEN,


K.G. (2003): PCR technology for screening

and quantification of genetically

modified organisms (GMOs). Anal.

Bioanal. Chem. 375, 985–993. –3.MEYER,

R. and JACCAUD,E.(1997): Detection of

geneticallymodified soya in processed

food products: development and validation

of aPCR assay for the specific

detection of Glyphosate-Tolerant

Soybeans. Proceedings of the Euro

Food Chem IX Conference, Interlaken,

Switzerland, Event No. 220, 1, 23–28. –



Isolation of DNA for fragment analyses

from tomato leaves and seeds. XVI

Savetovanje obiotehnologiji. Zbornik

radova 16 (18),59–64. –5.MULIS,K.B.

and FALOONA,F.A. (1987): Specific synthesis

of DNA in vitro via apolymerase

catalized chain reaction. Methods in

Enzymology 155, 335. –6.OXTOBY,E.and

HUGHES,M.A. (1990): Engineering herbicide

tolerance into crops. Trends

Biotech. 8, 61–65. –7.PÖPPING,B.(2001):

Methods for the detection of geneticallymodified

organisms: Precision,

pitfalls and proficiency.International

Laboratory 31 (4), 23–29. –8.WEI,D.,


HANS,J.P.M., et al. (2008). GMDD: A

database of GMO detection methods.

BMC Bioinformatics 9, 260. –9.WINDELS,


STAELE,E.and DE LOOSE,M.(2001):Characterizations

of the roundup ready soybean

insert. Eur.FoodRes. Tech. 213,


Author’s addresses

Prof. Zoran T. Popovski PhD (corresponding

author: zoran_popovski@yahoo.com),

University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” –

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food –

Institute of Animal Biotechnology, Department

of Biochemistry and Genetic Engineering,

Bld. “Aleksandar Makedonski” –bb,

1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia; Ass.

Prof. Elizabeta Miskoska-Milevska PhD,

University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” –

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food –

Food Institute ,Department of Food Quality

and Safety, Bld. “Aleksandar Makedonski” –

bb, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia;

Tome Nestorovski, University “Ss. Cyril and

Methodius” –Faculty of Agricultural

Sciences and Food –Institute of Animal

Biotechnology –Department of Biochemistry

and Genetic Engineering, Bld. “Aleksandar

Makedonski” –bb, 1000 Skopje,

Republic of Macedonia; Prof. Zlatko

Pejkovski PhD, University “Ss. Cyril and

Methodius” –Faculty of Agricultural

Sciences and Food –Institute of Animal

Biotechnology, Department of Technology

of Animal Products, Bld. “Aleksandar

Makedonski” –bb, 1000 Skopje,

Republic of Macedonia.

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017




24 –26February

Yangon, Myanmar

26 February –2March

Dubai, UAE

28 February –3March

Moscow, Russia


Istanbul, Turkey


Rennes, France


Tokio, Japan


Copenhagen, Denmark

18 –20March

Athens, Greece

21 –23March

Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam

28. –30March

Lagos, Nigeria

Book review

Profound insights for food industry and consumers

HOOGENKAMP,H.(2017): Plant

Protein &DisruptiveDiagnostics

|The Transformational Food

Journey for Today'sFuture |

450 p. |US$ 68,€64 |

ISBN 9781534787421|


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Insights about plant protein and

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Henk Hoogenkamp's book “Plant

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tackles topics from food-related

diseases to malnutrition to organic

and GMO to dealing with a

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Anew nonfiction work shows

the challenge of malnutrition in

the developing world, even as

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For most consumers in the

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the key to solve this dilemma is

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biotechnology that deliver affordable

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Alle Veranstaltungen auch auf www.fleischwirtschaft.de

Hoogenkamp is born in the

Netherlands, in his entire professional

career he has been ahead

of the curve, many times more

right than wrong. Many of the

things he advocated for were

initiallylooked upon skeptically,

but are now standard procedure

in the industry.With honesty and

lots of inside information,

Hoogenkamp gives afresh new

voice to the world of plant protein

technology and marketing. He

shares practical know-how reflecting

the skills needed to feed

the world with food for tomorrow.

Along with coining the term

“Lifestyle Foods” in the 1990s, his

resume includes pioneering work

in developing groundbreaking

applications for milk and plant

protein ingredients in meatfree

foods, cream liquers, and cheese




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


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GovernmentalTechnical Collegefor Meat Technology, Kulmbach

Index of advertisers

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GmbH +Co. KG 31

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GmbH &Co. KG 25

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WORLD PACInternational AG 9


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50 H.U. Waiblinger, D. Bartsch, J. Brockmeyer, C. Bruenen-Nieweler,

U. Busch, I. Haase, A. Hahn, M. Haarmann, W. Hauser, I. Huber,

K.D. Jany, N. Kirmse, S. Lindeke, K. Neumann, H. Naumann,

A. Paschke, K. Pietsch, B. Pöpping, R. Reiting, U. Schroeder,

F. Schwägele, M.G. Weller and J. Zagon

Methods of differentiating animal species in foods –Status quo

56 Akhilesh K. Verma, V. Pathak, Pramila Umaraw and V. P. Singh

Storage stability of chicken meat incorporated noodles at ambient

temperature under aerobic condition

62 Bożena Danyluk and Jerzy Stangierski

Thermoresistance and regeneration of heat-damaged E. faecium

PCM 1859 in amedium with reduced pH value

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·Prof. Dr.Klaus Troeger ·Dr. Joachim




is also available at



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Research &Development

Methods of differentiating animal species

in foods –Status quo

By H.U. Waiblinger, D. Bartsch, J. Brockmeyer, C. Bruenen-Nieweler, U.Busch, I. Haase, A. Hahn,

M. Haarmann, W.Hauser, I.Huber, K.D. Jany, N. Kirmse, S. Lindeke, K.Neumann, H. Naumann,

A. Paschke, K. Pietsch, B.Pöpping, R. Reiting, U. Schroeder, F.Schwägele, M.G. Weller and J. Zagon

Work on standardising methods in the fieldofanimal species differentiation

has been intensified in Germanyinrecent years, not least due to the horsemeat

scandal in 2013.Eventhough there are now hardly ever anypositive

findings anymore in examinations to detecthorse adulterations in foods

such as lasagne, animal species differentiation altogether ranks high in

detecting adulteration of foods. This articletherefore summarises the current

status of analytical techniques used in Germanywith standardisation at

German level. It has been established by the working group “Biochemical

and Molecular Biological Analytics” of the Lebensmittelchemische

Gesellschaft (FoodChemistry Society within the German Chemical Society)

with support of experts in the working group “Molecular biologytechniques

for differentiating plant and animal species” (§ 64 of the German Food and

Feed Code –LFGB) and the “Immunologyand molecular biology” task force

of the food hygiene and food of animal origin working group (ALTS), both

from Germany.

Analytical methods for

detecting animal species

At present molecular biology techniques on the basis of real-time polymerase

chain reaction (PCR) and DNA chips as well as immunological

methods (e.g. ELISA) are mainlyused. In addition, applications of mass

spectroscopy (LC-MS) techniques have been published (VON BARGEN,2013

and 2014;WATSON,2015;OHANA,2016).

Over 20-year-old methods for analysing proteins on the basis of electrophoresis

and isolelectric focusing exist in the official collection of

analytical techniques (ASU L06.00-19,1990, ASU L01.00-39, 1995). These

are now onlyapplied in isolated cases, but they currentlyrepresent the

onlyofficial methods for animal species differentiation in milk and dairy

products. The corresponding techniques for meat and meat products can

be used for raw (PAGE) and heated (PAGIF) products. In most cases the

detection limit is around 5%, which is why these methods are suitable for

identifying non-declared admixtures upwards of this concentration.

PCR-based and other molecular biology

detection methods

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), aDNA amplification technique, represents

asensitive technique for detecting animal species in foods.

Species-specific genes encoded in the cell nucleus can be used for

detection, as described for growth hormone genes (MEYER,1995a) and

phosphodiesterase gene (LAUBE,2007) and, more recently, for other targets

(DRUML,2015a und b; ROJAS,2011; MERZ,2016). Frequently, however, conserved

sequence segments from the mitochondrial (mt) genome serve as

target sequence, especiallyasegment of the gene of the cytochrome c

oxidase subunit I(COI or cox1) (HEBERT,2003) and the cytochrome bgene

(MEYER,1995b; MATSUNAGA,1999). However chromosomal coded segments

may also be suitable for this, for instance the myostatin gene occurring in

mammals and poultry (LAUBE,2007). Using “universal primers” that bind to

such conserved sequences, it is possible to amplify DNA sequences in a

cross-species manner.The animal species are then identified by sequencing,

specific probe binding real-time PCR, melting point analysis or restriction

fragment analysis.

Animal species differentiation via DNA chip

It is also possible to use acommerciallyavailable method on the basis of

aDNA chip to screen for animal species, e.g. products of unknown composition

(IWOBI,2011).Alongside the major mammal/livestock species,

game (e.g. roe deer, red deer, kangaroo) and poultry species (e.g. goose,

pheasant, ostrich, duck species) are also covered. The differentiation is

based on species-specific differences in asequence of the mt 16SrRNA

gene of the animal species. In PCR, biotinylated primers are used. In the

subsequent hybridisation reaction, the corresponding biotinylated amplificates

bind to species-specific oligonucleotide probes immobilised

on achip. The detection is carried out via an enzyme substrate cascade

using alkaline phosphatase coupled with streptavidin and subsequent

colour reaction. The evaluation is carried out with the chip scanner and

the associated software.

The method is purelyqualitative and is suitable for mixtures. The

detection limit is, case-depend, between 0.1% and 1%.

Multiplex methods

In 2008 and 2011,KÖPPEL et al. presented two real-time PCR methods for

simultaneous species-specific determination of four different animal

species, each: cattle, pig, turkey and hen (“All Meat”) (KÖPPEL,2008) and

then cattle, pig, equidae and sheep (“All Horse”) (KÖPPEL,2011).Byusing

calibrators or by calibrating with DNA extracts from materials of defined

composition, the DNA-based methods were applied to quantify the

quantity of the respective animal species (KÖPPEL,2012). In addition, the

methods were trialled on (processed) meat products. The condition for

using these methods with regard to percentage ratios is that no further

animal species apart from the respective four animal species may be


Amatrix-independent approach for simultaneous detection of different

animal species, e.g. cattle, pig, equidae and sheep was published by

IWOBI et al. (2015 and 2017). In these multiplex real-time PCR methods, the

myostatin gene is used as areference gene in combination with animal

species-specific standard series for quantifying the DNA ratios of the

respective animal species. This method has already proven successful in

meat products, dairy products and feedstuffs.

Digital PCR


» Animal species differentiation

» Fish species


» Standardisation

Initial applications of the ‘digital PCR’ which allows standard-independent

quantification at DNA level have been published (FLOREN,2015;

CAI, 2014). Further development and testing for practicability are underway.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


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PCR-based methods for detecting animal species generallyachieve

detection limits in the range of 0.1% in compound foods (LAUBE,2007;

KÖPPEL,2012). In particular when using universal primer systems, it is

possible that in mixtures of different animal or fish species, the target

fragments are amplified to different extents of efficiency, depending on

the species. This can adverselyaffect the sensitivity of the detection in

certain cases (PIETSCH and WAIBLINGER,2010).


Under the conditions described above, multiplex real-time PCR techniques

make it possible to quantify species-specific DNA sequences and

to determine the ratios of these DNA sequences to each other (IWOBI et

al., 2016).

When considering the question of whether acorrelation exists between

DNA ratios and weight ratios of animals in mixed samples, the

following aspects are among those which must be taken into account: in

fatty tissue, compared to meat (muscle tissue), there is generallyless

(around 30%) DNA. Offal such as liver and heart contain 10 to 25 times as

much DNA (originating from mitochondria and the cell nucleus) as muscles

(SCHWÄGELE,2003). When using PCR systems based on target sequences

from mtDNA, it must also be taken into consideration that the

number of mitochondria in animal cells can fluctuate very stronglyfor

example depending on the animal species and tissue (SCHWÄGELE,2003). In

fish roe, mtDNA is the prevailing DNA form (REHBEIN,2003).

ELISA methods

Immunochemical methods such as e.g. Sandwich ELISA (Enzyme Linked

Immunosorbent Assay) or LFD (Lateral Flow Device; Dipsticks) are also

frequentlyused in routine work. Generallykits provided by commercial

suppliers are used. For example, detection methods for the main livestock

species in raw or heated products such as pig/wild boar, cattle/

bison, sheep/goat or equidae (horse, mule, donkey etc.) and deer as a

game species are available. The test kits detect animal species-specific

proteins in both, unheated and heated meat products.

German standard methods for animal species differentiation

Tab.: Overview of the status quo in standardisation of animal differentiation analyses (except for isoelectric focusing)

Designation Method Matrix Animal Remarks/Characteristics/Results


§35L06.00-47 ELISA heated meat products cattle Detection limit =2%;noquantitative data

§64L08.00-61 Multiplex

real-time PCR

sausage products cattle Qualitative to semiquantitative technique:

> 1% (DNA%) reliablyexceeded at 2.3 wt%;

> 5% (DNA%) at 12.2 wt%


Qualitative to semiquantitative technique:

> 1% (DNA%) reliablyexceeded at 0.2 wt%;

> 5% (DNA%) at 1wt%

chicken Qualitative to semiquantitative technique:

> 1% (DNA%) reliablyexceeded at 1.5 wt%;

> 5% (DNA%) at 7.8wt%

turkey Qualitative to semiquantitative technique:

> 1% (DNA%) reliablyexceeded at 1.9 wt%;

> 5% (DNA%) at 7.8wt%



real-time PCR

sausage products cattle Qualitative to semiquantitative technique:

> 1% (DNA%) reliablyexceeded at 3.2 wt%;

> 5% (DNA%) at 6.8 wt%


Qualitative to semiquantitative technique:

> 1% (DNA%) reliablyexceeded at 0.9 wt%

sheep Qualitative to semiquantitative technique:

> 1% (DNA%) reliablyexceeded at 1.1 wt%;

> 5% (DNA%) at 5.3 wt%

equidae Qualitative to semiquantitative technique:

> 1% (DNA%) reliablyexceeded at 4.6 wt%;

> 5% (DNA%) at 8.5 wt%

(animal species: horse)

§35L06.00-47 ELISA heated meat products pig Detection limit =0.2 to 0.5 %; no quantitative data

§35L06.00-47 ELISA heated meat products poultry Detection limit =0.2 to 0.5 %; no quantitative data

§64L06.26/27-2 PCR-RFLP fullypreserved meat horse qualitative technique, specificallyfor animal species

horse; detection limit 1wt%

§35L11.00-7 PCR (cytb) –




fish 36 fish species from the hake, eel, sardine, salmon/trout

and flatfish families tested

§64L10.00-12 PCR (cytb) –


§64L12.01-3 PCR (16S rRNA) –




Legend: §64/§35=Methodinthe Official Collection of Analysis Techniques


6coded samples of plaice, sole, witch flounder, turbot,

common dab

and Pacific dab tested

crustacean products crustaceans 6coded samples of black tiger shrimp, scampi/ Norway

lobster, edible crab, Rosenbergii shrimp, northern deep

water shrimp and white tiger shrimp tested

Source: WAIBLINGER et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2017


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Methods of differentiating animal species in foods –Status quo

An advantage here is the large sample weight (generally25g)provided

for in some protocols by comparison with e.g. PCR-based methods, as

this allows more representative sampling of large sample volumes.

The detection limits stated by the manufacturer or cited in literature

are in the range of 0.05 to 5%. However, the achievable level of sensitivity

depends stronglyonthe animal species, the nature of the meat component

used (muscle meat or inner organs) and the extent to which the food

to be examined has been processed. In the case of highlyheated foods,

the detection limit rises steeplydue to denaturation/destruction of the

target proteins, so that incorrect negative results in highlytreated (e.g.

canned) samples cannot be ruled out. In dry, scalded and cooked

sausages, a1%meat component is generallyidentified safely.

Furthermore, there are commercial methods which detect not onlyone

or afew species, but also relativelylarge, phylogeneticallyrelated

groups such as poultry or ruminants. In the latter case, anti-body-based

kits are offered that are reportedlysuitable for products which have

been heated to extremelyhigh temperatures (up to 150°C) and treated

under strong pressure, such as e.g. meat-and-bone meals. Heat-stable

target proteins named by kit manufacturers (e.g. Transia or Neogen) or

cited in literature are for example troponin I(CHEN,2002) or h-Caldesmon


Ring trials have been conducted above all with kits for detecting

ruminants in highlyprocessed meat-and-bone meals (FUMIÈRE,2009; VAN

RAAMSDONK,2012). The desired detection limit of 0.1% (w/w) for ruminant

material heated up to 133°C/20 min/3 bar in compound feed has not

been reached with the available commercial kits so far.

In view of the differing composition of foods and different production

methods, the animal species detections using ELISA are therefore to be

classified as purelyqualitative.

Animal species differentiation

using LC-MS-MS

The development of mass-spectrometry methods for differentiating

animal species is as yet astill relativelynew technique that is encountering

increasing interest in research, and in isolated cases is already

being used in routine analyses.

In particular targeted proteomics, in other words the targeted massspectrometry

detection of enzymaticallygenerated marker peptides, is

becoming established as an alternative method of species identification.

For this it is first necessary to identify sequence polymorphisms (insertions,

deletions, amino acid exchanges) in the proteome that are specific

for the species to be identified. Identification of these peptides can

be carried out via databases. Frequentlythese databases are not complete,

however, so that experimental identification of these polymorphisms

by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry becomes necessary.Marker

peptides that contain the corresponding sequence polymorphisms

can then be detected sensitivelyand specificallythrough

mass spectrometry, even on routine equipment. Detection of horse or pig

in beef now manages this with detection limits of up to around 0.1%,

even in processed foods (VON BARGEN,2013, VON BARGEN,2014). The signal

conditions of corresponding marker peptides from homologous proteins

of the species to be differentiated can be used for relative quantification

of mixtures of different species (WATSON,2015). Alternative approaches to

animal species differentiation use the direct comparison of alarge

number of MS/MS spectra (spectral matching) in order to achieve differentiation

without prior identification of marker peptides (OHANA,2016).

This omits the need for partiallycostlyidentification of specific biomarkers,

but for each measurement of an unknown sample at least 2000

MS/MS spectra have to be generated here and compared with spectral

libraries in order to allow authentication.

Molecular biology methods for

differentiating fish species

Today, PCR sequencing with universal primers is the method of choice

for differentiating fish species (GRIFFITH et al., 2014). The mitochondrial

markers cytochrome b(cytb) and cytochrome coxidase subunit I(cox1)

are predominantlyused. While according to the publications, cytb was

preferred for fish species differentiation up to the year 2007 (TELETCHEA,

2009), agrowing trend in the direction of cox1can be noted. This is due

not least to the “International Barcode of Life (iBOL)” Initiative (HEBERT et

al., 2003). Mitochondrial gene markers satisfy the condition regarding

high interspecific and low intraspecific variability for reliable identification

(WARD et al., 2005). In view of approx. 33000 different fish species

(Fishbase), the identification represents amajor challenge. Various

universal M13-marked cox1primer cocktails for barcoding of fish were

first presented by the working group IVANOVA et al. (2007). In this study

the cox1-cocktail COI-3 was convincing regarding PCR and sequencing

success, so that within the context of the EU “Labelfish” project a

standard operating procedure (SOP) with this cocktail was developed

and validated in an international ringtrial (publication pending).

In addition, further mitochondrial markers are used, such as for example

the 16SrRNA gene which is to be classified more as conserved and is

used for confirmation of an unknown fish sample (REHBEIN and OLIVEIRA,

2012), or the variable control region gene used for clear differentiation of

closelyrelated fish species such as tuna fish (Thunnus spp.) (VIŇAS and

TUDELA,2009). Especiallywhen allocation of the fish species is rendered

more difficult for instance by hybridisations, introgressions and few SNP

(Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism) differences, as in the case of tuna

fish species, it is advisable to conduct FINS (ForensicallyInformative-

Nucleotide-Sequencing) with avariable mitochondrial and anuclear

marker (VIŇAS and TUDELA,2009). The use of anuclear marker alone, such

as the intron-free rhodopsin gene 1(Rh1),shows limitations when differentiating

between species of the same genus, e.g. in the case of eels

(Anguilla spp.) or sturgeons (Acipenser spp.) (REHBEIN,2013).

Traditionallythe RFLP, SSCP or sequencing of an amplicon from the

16SrRNA gene are frequentlycarried out to detect mussels and crustaceans

(MARÍN et al., 2013;SCHIEFENHÖVEL and REHBEIN,2010). However, cox1

barcoding is also becoming increasinglymore popular for differentiating

between mussels and crustaceans by providing suitable primer systems

(LOBO et al., 2013;GELLER et al., 2013).

Until recently, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques were

limited to the area of fish, molluscs and crustaceans in biodiversity

studies. To identify species on the basis of pyrosequencing, the research

group DE BATTISTI et al. (2013)developed techniques for diverse

fish species, while the research group ABBADI et al. (2016)developed

techniques for various mussel types. However, these techniques only

consider individuals and not mixtures. In the meantime, afew papers

have been published that describe the NGS method for identifying animal

and plant species in unknown mixed samples as well. There are NGS

approaches that carry out an analysis via the classic barcode sequence

regions and also non-targeted techniques (STAATS et al., 2016;RIPP et al.,


Quick methods

In order to achieve fast and high sample throughputs in species differentiation

of fisheries products, quick methods or screening applications

are increasinglybeing developed alongside the conventional PCR sequencing


Real-Time PCR

While the developments in real-time PCR techniques for mussels (SÁNCHEZ

et al., 2014)and cephalopods (HERRERO et al., 2012;ESPIŇEIRA and VIEITES,

2012)have been very clearlystructured to date (there have been none

for crustaceans so far), in recent years anumber of different qualitativelyoriented

single, duplex and multiplex applications have been

published for relevant fish species. In this context we can name, for

example, the real-time PCR techniques for detecting the oilfish Lepidocybium

flavobrunneum and Ruvettus pretiosus (GIUSTI et al., 2016), the

European eel (Anguilla anguilla )byESPIŇEIRA and VIEITES (2016), as well as

sole (Solea solea)byHERRERO et al. (2014)and tuna fish (CHUANG et al.,

2012). Commercial real-time PCR kits are already available on the market

for various salmonid and gadoid species and for the European hake

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Research &Development

(Merluccius merluccius ), as well as for differentiating between white and

black halibut.

Microarray and LAMP

The microarray developed within the context of the EU project “Fish &

Chips” (2004–2007), which enabled differentiation of fish species with

the aid of oligonucleotide probes, based on the mt genes cytb, cox1

and the 16S-rRNA (KOCHZIUS et al., 2010), should be mentioned. The

focus here lays on the selection of fish species for monitoring biodiversity.Invarious

proof-of-concept studies, further DNA chips were

presented for identifying different fish species such as e.g. salmonids,

Korean rays, eels and catfish. In view of the still relativelyhigh apparatus

requirements for the fluorescence-based detection systems and

the associated costs prevailing at the time of development, DNA chips

for fish species have not yet become established.

For on-site examinations, the LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal

amplification) based quick test TwistFlow® Red Snapper from the firm

TwistDx in the United Kingdom for detecting Lutjanus campechanus

deserves mention. The isothermal DNA amplification method proceeds

at constant temperatures and, as recentlydescribed for detecting

Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua )(SAULL et al., 2015), represents an interesting

alternative to PCR.


In isolated cases commercial ELISA tests are available for identifying fish

species, e.g. in raw or cooked pangasius. However, the ELISA manual

points out that wherever possible fresh fillet should be used.

Animal species differentiation in dairy products

Arelativelyold, protein analysis technique on the basis of isoelectric

focusing (ASU, 1995) can be used to monitor sheep and goat cheese

for bovine components. The gel-specific detection and determination

limit is in the range of 1to3%ineach case. The method is not suitable

for mixtures with whey cheese, as the casein band is used for quantification.

In the meantime multiplex real-time PCR methods for use in milk and

dairy products have also been published and trialled in aring trial

(RENTSCH,2013). These comprise atriplex PCR designated as

“AllCheese” in which the chromosomallyencoded, species-specific

sequences of cattle, sheep and goat are amplified, as well as a

tetraplex PCR designated as “AllMilk” in which the mt cytochrome b

gene sequences of cattle, sheep, goat and water buffalo are used as

target sequence for the PCR. The “AllMilk” method displays astrong

cross-reaction between sheep and goat, but possesses better sensitivity

and lower measurement uncertainty than the “AllCheese”

method. The latter displays better specificity, especiallybetween

goat and sheep.

Within the context of the ring trial, calibration was carried out with

both DNA mixtures and matrix calibrators (cheese produced from defined

components of milk of the said animal species). In the quantitative

evaluation of the ring trial, the authors came to the conclusion

that both methods are suitable for differentiating unavoidable traces

(< 1wt%) and admixtures (> 5wt%). In particular in the case of ripened

cheese, reduced sensitivity can be expected as aresult of DNA degradation


Interlaboratory studies

In the meantime regular interlaboratory examinations are being conducted

in the field of animal species differentiation (including fish

species) (LVU, FAPAS). The evaluations to date are purelyqualitative.

Experience gained so far shows that PCR and ELISA techniques are

basicallysuitable for qualitative differentiation. However, in the case

of foods heated to high temperatures, the detection limit of the ELISAbased

test systems rises so steeplythat incorrect negative results

cannot be ruled out. In the case of highlyheated foods, therefore,

PCR-based methods should preferablybeused.

Reference materials

The company LGC (GB) offers reference materials for the animal species

turkey, chicken, sheep, horse, cattle and pig, as well as mixtures of 5%

and 1% cattle, turkey or chicken in mutton on the market. Furthermore,

materials of defined composition from interlaboratory studies and ring

trials are available to laboratories (e.g. working group ERFA (CH), LVU,


Method standardisation, status quo

The table describes the available standard methods for animal species

differentiation using molecular biology methods or ELISA published so

far within the context of the Official Collection of Analysis Methods in

accordance with §64LFGB (German Food and Feed Code).


An animal species determination method using ELISA (ASU L06.00-47,

2002) dating back to 2002 is described in the Official Collection. ELISA

systems for detecting pig, cattle, sheep and poultry were tested. The

method is described as aqualitative technique, no quantitative evaluation

is available. Depending on the animal species and degree of

processing, the detection limits lay between 0.2% and more than 2%.

Since then, no further standardisation of methods for animal species

differentiation using ELISA has been carried out.

Amethod for detecting horse based on the qualitative, PCR with subsequent

restriction digestion (gel-based detection) dating from 2007

was published in the Official Collection. The method is specific for the

animal species horse and the detection limit is 0.1%.

Twomultiplex real-time PCR methods for animal species determination

based on the method published by KÖPPEL et al. in 2008 and 2011 were

recentlypublished in the Official Collection. The “AllMeat” method was

also tested in aring trial in Switzerland (EUGSTER et al, 2009). With regard

to the “All Horse” method, it should be noted that the detection covers

not onlyhorse, but also other equidae such as donkey or zebra. According

to the quantitative ring trial evaluation for the systems “All Meat” (ASU

L08.00-61, 2016)and ”All Horse” (ASU L08.00-62, 2016), however, the

variation is relativelyhigh in each case. For instance, with aDNA share of

50% the variation is from 31.8% to 68.2% (All Meat) or from 32.9% to

67.1% (All Horse). If the DNA amount is determined to be e.g. 10%, the

measurement uncertainty is 4.3% to 19.7% (All Meat) or 4.8% to 18.7%

(AllHorse) results. This means that the methods can be used primarilyfor

qualitative detection. With restrictions, following the validation reports

on the methods, they can also be used as semi-quantitative screening



APCR-RFLP technique for differentiating fish species was included in

the Official Collection already in 2002. Asequence region of the cytochrome

bgene is amplified and then differentiated by means of

restriction analysis. Not least due to the increasing diversity of the

fish species to be differentiated and the limited differentiating possibilities

of gel-based restriction analysis, amodified technique with

differentiation of the cytochrome bamplificates via sequencing analysis

and identification of the animal species via database comparison

was published. This makes awide-ranging differentiation of fish

species possible. Asimilar method which amplifies an mt cytochrome

coxidase gene sequence parenthesis and differentiates by means of

sequence analysis was recentlytried out in an international ring trial

within the framework of the Labelfish project (European Union INTER-

REG Atlantic Area Program-Project 2011-1/163) (previouslyunpublished


Since 2012,aPCR/sequencing technique based on the amplification

and sequence analysis of a16S rRNA gene segment has also been available

for differentiating crustaceans.

The techniques each have aqualitative character and can be used on

materials that consists of one fish or one crustacean species.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Research &Development


Standardised techniques are available for differentiating mammal, fish

and crustacean species. The techniques are primarilyqualitative in

character.Inmixtures the detection limits are approx. 0.1to1%.

Methods that include differentiation by means of conventional sequence

analysis allow abroad species differentiation. However, these

methods are less suitable for differentiation in mixtures. There have

been some developments here in the field of NGS in recent years that will

allow the use of NGS methods for analysing mixed samples in routine

work as well in future. Accordinglysome service laboratories are already

offering this analysis method.

For screening of abroader spectrum of animal species, acommercial

system on the basis of aDNA chip is also suitable.

LC-MS/MS methods for animal species differentiation have not yet

been adopted in routine analysis, but they certainlyhave potential for

this. Further developments in this field remain to be awaited, and the

same applies for Digital PCR (ddPCR).

The techniques of animal species determination via multiplex realtime

PCR now included in the Official Collection can be used, especially

with suitable matrix calibrators, in asemi-quantitative manner as well

and thus for separating unavoidable trace contamination (

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Research &Development

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anew HPLC-MS/MS based method for the fast and sensitive detection of

horse and pork in highlyprocessed food. J. Agric. Food Chem 62,9428–9435. –

60. WATSON,A.D., Y. GUNNING,N.M. RIGBY,M.PHILO and E.K. KEMSLEY (2015): Meat Authentication

via Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry of Myoglobin Peptides.

Anal. Chem. 87,10315–10322

Authors’ address

H.U. Waiblinger (corresponding author: hans-ulrich.waiblinger@cvuafr.bwl.de), D. Bartsch,

J. Brockmeyer, C. Bruenen-Nieweler, U. Busch, I. Haase, A. Hahn, M. Haarmann, W. Hauser, I. Huber,

K.D. Jany, N. Kirmse, S. Lindeke, K. Neumann, H. Naumann, A. Paschke, K. Pietsch, B. Pöpping,

R. Reiting, U. Schroeder, F. Schwägele, M.G. Weller and J. Zagon, Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt

Freiburg, Bissierstr.5,79114 Freiburg, Germany

University of Georgia

Support for SA poultry farmers

Mike Lacy, professor emeritus and

former head of the University of

Georgia Department of Poultry

Science located at Athens, Georgia,

USA, has been tapped by the

U.S. Department of State to help

train agricultural extension agents

in South Africa and to provide

support to poultry farmers there.

Lacy, who retired from UGA in

2016,will travel to South Africa in

Mike Lacy is aprofessor emeritus

and retired department head of

the University of Georgia

Department of Poultry Science.

February 2017 as part of the Department

of State’sFulbright Specialist

Program, asponsored exchange

program for academics and


He worked in UGA Cooperative

Extension poultry housing research

for many years before entering

administration. He led outreach

trips to African countries throughout

his career.Inaddition to assisting

fledgling poultry industries,

teams from UGA poultry science

worked to build the capacity for

rural, smallholder farmers, many of

whom are women, to manage

small-scale poultry flocks.

Lacy will work with the World

Poultry Foundation and the

KwaZulu-Natal Poultry Institute to

provide assistance to historically

disadvantaged poultry producers

who have faced significant production

constraints due to high

feed costs, absence of disease

control and asevere lack of educational



Zhejiang Gongshang University

Consortium to boost food science in China

Five universities have joined forces

to establish ajoint knowledge

base for international food companies

to access the Chinese market,

and promote their food science

and nutrition work in the country.

Massey University in New Zealand,

through the Riddet Institute

Centre of Research Excellence, has

signed aMemorandum of Understanding

(MOU) with The University

of Leeds, United Kingdom, Wageningen

University and Research,

the Netherlands and Zhejiang

Gongshang University, China, creating

anew International Consortium

in food science and nutrition.

Professor Harjinder Singh, Co-

Director of Riddet Institute and

Director of the Massey Institute of

Food Science and Technology led

the Massey delegation to China.

“This international consortium will

provide an excellent platform for

our staff and students to enhance

research capability and capacity at

different universities. The combined

expertise of the four highly

ranked universities in food science

will be attractive to international

food industry and will bring in new

partnerships and funding,” he said.

The MOU is aformalisation of the

four universities in order to provide

consistency, and afocal point for

the preparation and administration

of the Consortium for collaboration

and cooperation.


The Zhejiang


University is Chinas

most traditional

business school.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Research &Development

Storage stability of chicken meat

incorporated noodles at ambient

temperature under aerobic condition

By Akhilesh K. Verma, V.Pathak, Pramila Umaraw and V. P. Singh

The effectofchicken meat incorporation in rice flour based noodlesand

its preservation was studied. Nutritional composition, pH, water activity

(aw), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS),

water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), texture profile,microbial

quality and sensory characteristics were investigated during

30 days storage time at ambient temperature. The results showed that the

moisture, aw,TBARS, FFA, WAI, total platecounts, yeast and mould

counts and crispiness values increased significantly (P



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Research &Development

chicken meat while the treated group had 50% minced chicken meat.

Noodles were formed by amanuallyoperated stainless steel extruder

into around shape in atray and were dried in ahot air oven (SciTech) at

65±2 °C for the required time (7 to 8h). The dried and cooled noodles

were manuallybroken into 10 to 15 cm and were packed and sealed with

asealer (Singhal, HSP-200, India) in pre-sterilised LDPE. The LDPE bags

containing chicken meat noodles and control were kept at ambient

temperature for further analysis of different physico-chemical parameters

(moisture, fat, protein, crude fibre and ash), pH, water activity (aw),

water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), free fatty acid

(FFA), 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, textural

profile analysis (TPA), microbial quality and sensory attributes during the

storage study at ambient temperature of 35±2 °C up to 30 days.

Analytical techniques

Proximate composition

The moisture, protein, fat and ash content of the chicken meat noodles

were determined following standard methods as per (AOAC 1995).

Crude fiber

Crude fiber was determined by refluxing 2gof each sample with 100mlof

0.3 NH2SO4 for 1h.The hot mixture was filtered through afibre sieve cloth.

The residue obtained was returned to the flask and refluxed for another

1hwith 100mlof0.3N NaOH solution. The mixture was filtered through a

sieve cloth and the residue washed with 10 ml of acetone. The residue

was then washed with 50 ml hot distilled water twice on the sieve cloth

before it was finallytransferred into the crucible. The crucible with

residue was oven dried at 105°Covernight, and weighed. The crucible and

its content was then transferred into amuffle furnace set at 550 °C and

heated for 4h,cooled and re-weighed. The weight of crude fibre was

then calculated as g/100gof original sample (SAURA-CALIXTO et al. 1983).


The pH of the noodles was determined according to (TROUT et al., 1992) by

blending 10 gofsample with 100mldistilled water for 1min. using pestle

and mortar.The pH of the suspension was recorded by dipping acombined

glass electrode of an Elico pH meter (Model LI 127).

Water activity (aw)

Water activity was determined using ahand held portable digital water

activity meter (Rotonix Hygro Palm AW1Set/40). Afinelyground sample

was filled up (80%) in amoisture free sample cup provided along with the

aw meter.The sample cup was placed into the sample holder, and then

Source: VERMA et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2017

Fig.:Change in the TBARS (malondialdehyde mg/kg) values during the storage

study of chicken meat noodle under aerobic condition.

sensor was placed on it for 5min. Duplicate readings were performed for

each sample.

Free fatty acids (FFA)

The method described by KONIECKO (1979) was followed: 5gof the chicken

meat noodles sample was blended for 2min with 30 ml of chloroform in

the presence of anhydrous sodium sulphate (5 g). Then it was filtered

through Whatman filter paper No. 1into a450 ml conical flask. About 2or

3drops of 0.2% phenolphthalein indicator solution was added to the

chloroform extract, which was then titrated against N/10 alcoholic

potassium hydroxide to get pink color at the end point. The quantity of

potassium hydroxide consumed during titration was recorded. Free fatty

acids percentage was calculated as follows:

Tab. 2: Change in nutritive values of chicken meat noodles at ambient temperature under aerobic condition

Composition (%) Treatment 0Day 10 Days 20 Days 30 Days

Moisture C 9.31 b ±0.03 9.39 b ±0.03 9.49 ab ±0.02 9.52 Ba ±0.02

T 9.39 c ±0.04 9.46 cb ±0.04 9.54 b ±0.05 9.67 Aa ±0.07

Fat C 2.38 B ±0.09 2.33 B ±0.08 2.23 B ±0.07 2.13 B ±0.10

T 4.33 Aa ±0.13 4.23 Aab ±0.12 4.15 Aab ±0.11 4.00 Ab ±0.12

Protein C 8.97 B ±0.46 8.79 B ±0.45 8.95 B ±0.55 8.77 B ±0.36

T 22.11 A ±0.99 21.93 A ±0.68 21.75 A ±1.14 21.56 A ±0.71

Crude fibre C 1.68 Aa ±0.02 1.62 Ab ±0.02 1.56 Ac ±0.02 1.49 Ad ±0.01

T 0.81 B ±0.01 0.79 B ±0.01 0.79 B ±0.02 0.76 B ±0.01

Ash C 2.59 Ba ±0.07 2.43 Bab ±0.05 2.33 Bb ±0.04 2.33 Bb ±0.03

T 3.78 Aa ±0.12 3.72 Aa ±0.07 3.64 Aab ±0.05 3.52 Ab ±0.05

Mean ±S.E.withdifferent superscripts row wise (small alphabets) and column wise (capital alphabets) differ significantly(P



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Research &Development

Storage stability of chicken meat incorporated noodles at ambient temperature...

The extraction method described by WITTE et al. (1970) was used with

appropriate modifications for the determination of TBARS values: 10 gof

sample was triturated with 25 ml of precooled 20% trichloroacetic acid

(TCA) in 2Morthophosphoric acid solution for 2min. The content was

then transferred quantitativelytoabeaker by rinsing with 25 ml of cold

distilled water which was then well mixed and filtered through Whatman

filter paper No. 42. To this 3mlofTCA extract (filtrate) and 3mlofTBA

reagent (0.005 M) was mixed in test tubes and placed in adark room for

16 h. Ablank sample was made by mixing 3mlof10% TCA and 3mlof

0.005 MTBA reagent. The absorbance (A) was measured at afixed wavelength

of 532 nm with ascanning range of 531nmto533 nm using an

UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Elico). The TBARS value was calculated as mg

malondialdehyde per kg of sample by multiplying the value with the

factor 5.2.

Water absorption index (WAI)

The water absorption index was determined in accordance with method

described by (ANDERSON et al. 1969). Accurately2.5 goffinelyground

noodles sample was taken in acentrifuge tube, to which 30 ml of distilled

water was added. It was allowed to settle for 30 min, and was

finallycentrifuged at 5000 rpm (1957×g) for 10 min. The gel obtained after

centrifugation was weighed and the water absorption index was determined

using following formula:

Water solubility index (WSI)

Water solubility index was estimated in accordance with method described

by (ANDERSON et al. 1969). Afinelyground noodles sample (2.5 g)

was taken in acentrifuge tube with 30 ml of distilled water which was

mixed and allowed to settle for 30 min. It was then centrifuged at

5000 rpm (1957×g) for 10 min. The supernatant obtained after centrifugation

was completelydried in ahot air oven. The weight of the sample

leftovers after drying was taken and the water solubility index was determined

using following formula:

Optimum cooking time

The optimum cooking time of noodles was measured according to the

method of SINGH et al. (1989). The noodles sample (5 g) was inserted into a

beaker containing 75 ml distilled water and one strip was crushed between

two glasses at every 30 s. The cooking was continued until the

white fraction in the core of the crushed noodles disappeared; the time

that passed was recorded as optimum cooking time.

Texture profile analysis (TPA)

The textural properties of the chicken meat noodles were evaluated

using atexturometer (stable micro system TA.XT-2i-25) at the goat products

technology lab at the central institute for research on goat (CIRG) in

Makhdoom, Mathura. The texture profile analysis (TPA) following BOURNE

(1978) was performed using ahomogeneous sample for each treatment

which was compressed to 10 mm of their original height through aminiature

Ottowa and Kramer shear cell platen probe. Across head speed of

2mmper s, post-test speed 10 mm per sand atarget mode distance of

10 mm waere used and hardness (N), work of shear (Ns) and crispiness

(number of peaks) were determined.

Assay for microbiological quality

The Sstandard plate counts (SPC), total coliforms counts (TCC), Staphylococcus

spp. counts (SCC), and yeast and mould counts (Y&M) in the

samples were enumerated following the methods as described by the

American Public Health Association (APHA1984). The Salmonella spp.

count was done as per the procedure mentioned in the OIE Terrestrial

Manual (2008) which was based on the ISO standard (6579:2002) with

certain modifications, such as addition of Novobiocin supplement to

Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar.

Sensory evaluation

Anine member experienced panel of judges consisting of teachers and

postgraduate students of the College of Veterinary Science and animals

husbandry (DUVASU), Mathura, evaluated the samples for the attributes

of appearance and colou, flavou, texture, mouth-coating, saltiness,

meat flavor intensity and overall acceptability using an 8point descriptive

scale following KEETON (1983)where 8= extremelydesirable and 1=

extremelyundesirable. Three evaluations (n= 27) were conducted for

each replicate and at each point of storage time the samples were

warmed in amicrowave oven for 20 s.

Statistical analysis

The data were analysed statisticallyonthe SPSS-16.0 software (SPSS

Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) package as per standard methods by SNEDECOR and

Physico-chemical parameters

Tab. 3: Effect of storage on physicochemical parameters of chicken meat noodles under aerobic condition

Parameter Treatment 0Day 10 Days 20 Days 30 Days

pH C 6.38 Aa ±0.01 6.230 Ab ±0.01 6.32 Ab ±0.01 6.36 Aa ±0.01

T 6.06 Bc ±0.01 6.02 Bc ±0.01 6.097 Bb ±0.01 6.35 Aa ±0.01

aw C 0.400 Ad ±0.001 0.411 Ac ±0.002 0.426 Ab ±0.002 0.442 Aa ±0.001

T 0.294 Bd ±0.004 0.334 Bc ±0.003 0.3185 Bb ±0.003 0.404 Ba ±0.002

FFA % C 0.038 Bc ±0.01 0.043 Bb ±0.01 0.046 Bab ±0.01 0.049 Ba ±0.01

T 0.046 Ac ±0.01 0.049 Abc ±0.01 0.050 Ab ±0.01 0.055 Aa ±0.01

WAI% C 1.79 Bb ±0.04 1.84 Bb ±0.04 1.90 Bab ±0.03 2.00 Ba ±0.02

T 1.99 Ab ±0.08 2.06 Ab ±0.03 2.08 Aab ±0.04 2.20 Aa ±0.03

WSI % C 0.072 Aa ±0.002 0.071 Aab ±0.002 0.068 Aab ±0.002 0.066 Ab ±0.002

T 0.049 Ba ±0.001 0.048 Bab ±0.001 0.048 Bab ±0.001 0.047 Bb ±0.001

Mean ±S.E. with different superscripts row wise (small alphabets) and column wise (capital alphabets) differ significantly(P


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Research &Development

Microbial quality

Tab. 4: Microbial quality of chicken meat noodles under aerobic condition

Parameter Treatment 0Day 10 Days 20 Days 30 Days

Total plate count C 1.09 d ±0.23 1.77 Bc ±0.04 2.90 b ±0.06 3.59 a ±0.03

log cfu/g

T 1.07 d ±0.35 2.21 Ac ±0.03 3.05 b ±0.05 3.68 a ±0.07

Coliform counts C ND ND ND ND



Staphylococcus C ND ND ND ND

counts cfu/g


Salmonella counts C ND ND ND ND



Yeast and mould C 0 c ±0 0 c ±0 0.55 Bb ±0.25 0.98 a ±0.22


T 0 b ±0 0 b ±0 1.15 Aa ±0.07 1.12 a ±0.21

Mean ±S.E. with different superscripts row wise (small alphabets) and column wise (capital alphabets) differ significantly(P




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Research &Development

Storage stability of chicken meat incorporated noodles at ambient temperature...

Texture profile

Tab. 5: Change in the texture profile analysis of chicken meat noodles under aerobic condition

Parameter Treatment 0Day 10 Days 20 Days 30 Days

Hardness C 256.04 a ±26.65 159.14 b ±28.18 82.39 bc ±2.15 62.80 c ±6.10

(Force N) T 267.63 a ±63.12 138.66 bc ±13.39 130.96 bc ±18.10 85.80 c ±8.69

Work of

C 450.69 a ±34.80 231.97 b ±34.15 152.28 Bcd ±5.16 95.73 d ±3.88

shearing (Ns) T 390.97 a ±30.59 251.62 b ±22.04 243.04 Abc ±21.29 147.88 d ±9.79

Crispiness C 49.67 Bd ±2.86 73.33 c ±2.08 82.33 b ±2.03 90.67 a ±3.08

(Peak counts) T 59.00 Ac ±5.35 75.33 b ±1.80 82.83 ab ±2.34 90.33 a ±1.17

Mean ±S.E. with different superscripts row wise (small alphabets) and column wise (capital alphabets) differ significantly(P

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Research &Development

pearance and color of the chicken meat noodles showed good acceptability

by all sensory panelists throughout storage. The decrease in

appearance and colour might be attributed due to the development of

oxidation in noodles during the time of storage. The Maillard reaction or

browning between carbohydrate and protein present in the noodles

during drying at high temperature may also be attributed to the color

change which was in agreement with KONG et al. (2010), who reported a

decreasing trend in the appearance and colour values of an extrusioncooked

salmon product. Flavor is aprime indicator of product quality

which involves both taste and odor of products. Flavor and texture

decreased non-significantly(P>0.05) in the control whereas in the

treatment it decreased significantly(P


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Research &Development

Thermoresistance and regeneration of

heat-damaged E. faecium PCM 1859

in amedium with reduced pH value

By Bożena Danyluk and Jerzy Stangierski

The aim of this study was to determine anew model useful to calculatethe

lethality value. It was required to determine the influence of the decreasing

pH of the medium during heating and recovery on the thermoresistance of

Enterococcus faecium and determine zpH and z’pH parameters. These parameters

determine the influence of the heating (zpH)and recovery (z’pH)pHofa

medium on the D-value. The experiments revealed that Enterococcus faecium’s

PCM 1859 thermoresistance decreased during heating in an environment

characterised by areduced pH. Statistically significant differences

occurred when the pH was reduced to the valueof6.5. The impactofpHon

the examined bacteria thermoresistance was characterised by the following

coefficients: zpH=4.09–5.12,z’pH=2.98–4.08. On the basis of these values

and the earlier determined coefficients zaw=0.14–0.28 and z’aw=0.18–0.44, it

was possibletodetermine anew model to calculatethe lethality value.

Canned food are traditional products and in order to remain attractive for

potential buyers, it is essential to improve their quality and enhance

their health security.Canned meat products belong to botulogenic foods;

high water activity and pH of the filling in combination with low oxidation

potentials create conditions for the development of Clostridium botulinum .

That is why canned meat products belonging to the group of “full” preserves,

which do not require refrigeration during storage, are subjected to

the process of sterilisation to the value of F= 4.0–5.5 (LEISTNER,1979). The

F-value for sterilization processes (P-value for pasteurization) can be

calculated according to the following formula (BALL and OLSON,1957):

F(P) =∫ o


where :t–heating time, L–degree of lethality and

L=10 T-T r



where: T–temperature of critical zone of canned meat during heating;

Tr –reference temperature (generallyTr=121.1 °C for sterilisation and

Tr=70°C for pasteurisation); z–increase of temperature which leads to a

ten-fold reduction of the decimal reduction time (D).

The high quantity of heat supplied to the product, especiallytoits external

parts, causes anumber of unfavorable changes. In this situation, these

adverse consequences can onlybereduced using jointlyanumber of preservation

methods, i.e. utilisation of the so called “hurdle” technology.Anexample

of such technology is the production of Shelf Stable Products (SSP) canned

food products where, apart from the basic preservation factor, other conservation

factors applied in appropriate combinations are employed, e.g. reduced

water activity and/or pH value, addition of sodium nitrate (III) etc. (LEISTNER,


VUKOVIĆ,1999). This kind of approach makes it possible to reduce heating

parameters. Instead of the sterilisation process, during which the temperature

in the centre of the can usuallyreaches 117to120 °C, it is possible to applya

milder process, i.e. pasteurization. During pasteurization, the temperature of

the heating agent does not exceed 100°C, while the temperature in the centre

usuallyamounts to 70 °C. In this case, onlyvegetative forms of microorganisms

are inactivated.


» Enterococcus faecium

» Thermoresistance

» pH

» Pasteurization

» Canned food

Joint application of several preservation methods protects these products

against the development of Clostridium botulinum and the lower

heating temperature (below 100°C) means that the obtained canned food

is characterized by better quality: higher amounts of vitamins, improved

sensory quality, lower concentration of Maillard’sreaction products (LAN-

GOURIEUX and ESCHER,1998)and asmaller quantity of the thermal drip (HONIKEL,

2004), as well as asmaller difference between the extent of heating of

external and internal layers. However, the change of environmental conditions

during heating affects the thermoresistance of the inactivated

microorganisms and creates possibilities for the regeneration of damaged

cells following the thermal process in the course of arelativelylong storage

period. It is well known, that even during sterilisation not all microorganisms

are killed; some of them are impaired to the extent that after the

thermal process, they are unable to regenerate and develop. One of the

problems is to determine possibilitiy of bacteria’sregeneration following

their thermal damage. These possibilities are checked in optimal conditions

in alaboratory on an optimal medium (composition, aw,pH). However,

if the composition of the can filling is modified, e.g. change its pH value or

aw,then the thermallyimpaired cells of microorganisms have adifferent

possibility of regeneration in the course of the subsequent storage than on

optimal substrates. That is why the degree of lethality L–employed to

determine sterilization and pasteurization values –should take into consideration

the aw and pH values of the canned products both during heating

as well as during storage of the finished product.

LEGUÉRINEL et al. (2005) emphasised that the thermoresistance of microorganisms

ascertained on the basis of D-value (time of decimal reduction)

should be calculated according to the following formula:

T–T* pH–pH* a

log D=log D*- ( z T

) - - ( w–1) -

z pH


z aw



) 2 -

where: Tisthe temperature in centre of canned meat, in the critical zone;

T* is the reference temperature (generallyinsterilization process T*=

121.1°C); D* –Disthe value at T*, pH* and aw=1;zTis the conventional

z-value; pH* is the pH of the maximal heat resistance of bacteria (generally

7); zpH is the distance of pH from pH* which leads to aten-fold reduction of

decimal reduction time (D); aw is the water activity of the heated product;

zaw is the distance of aw from 1which leads to aten-fold reduction of the



( ) 2



Received: 28 April 2016 |reviewed: 3January 2017 |revised: 3January 2017 |accepted: 4January 2017


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Research &Development

D-value; pH’ is the pH of the recovery medium; pH’opt is the optimal pH value

of the recovery medium; z’pH is the distance of pH from pH’ of the recovery

medium which leads to aten-fold reduction of the D-value; a’w is aw of the

recovery medium; a’wopt is the optimal aw of the recovery medium; z’aw is the

distance of aw from the a’w of the recovery medium which leads to atenfold

reduction of the D-value.

Taking into consideration the correlation between the time of decimal

reduction and the degree of lethality L:




anew calculation model of the Lvalue was elaborated:

T–T* IpH–pH*I a w–1



( ) 2


L =10

( ) 2

z T z pH z aw z´pH

+ + ++

Explanations as in the equation above.

It replaces the well-known model elaborated by BIGELOW (1921).

The application of the above-presented model requires the determination

of appropriate coefficients (zpH,zaw,z’pH,z’aw)for the indicator microorganism.

These coefficients were determined for bacteria from the

Bacillus and Clostridium genera, in other words, sporulating bacteria

which should be taken into consideration during the sterilisation process

(LEGUÉRINEL et al., 2000, 2005; GAILLARD et al., 1998; COROLLER,etal., 2001;

MAFART et al., 2001).Following the process of sterilisation of canned meat

products of the SSP type, spores of bacteria are no longer capable of

germinating because of unfavorable environmental conditions (reduced

aw and pH values, presence of NaNO2)and, therefore, when assessing the

effectiveness of the heating process, it is necessary to take into account

the survivability of thermoresistant non-sporulating bacteria. Enterococci

are considered to be most thermoresistant among the vegetative bacteria

(GIRAFFA,2002; FRANZ et al., 2003; HUGAS et al., 2003). These bacteria

occur in many foods (meat, dairy and vegetable origin) and play an important

role in the production of fermented meat products and cheese (PAVIA

et al., 2000). The surface of pig carcasses contain 10 4 to 10 8 enterococci

per 100cm 2 .The predominant isolated species are E. faecium and E.

faecalis (KNUDTSON and HARTMAN,1993). Enterococci are used as starter

cultures and their bacteriocins are usuallyactive towards such

pathogens like Listeria and Clostridium (GIRAFF et al., 1995, 1997; AYMERICH

et al., 2000). They are also used as human probiotics however they are

important nosocomial pathogens, that cause bacteraemia, endocarditis

and other infections. The role of enterococci in diseases call into question

their safety for the usage in foods or as probiotics. The presence of

enterococci in the gastrointestinal tract of animals leads to ahigh potential

for contamination of meat at the time of slaughter (FRANZ et al., 2003).

In the case of these microorganisms, the impact of water activity on

changes in their thermoresistance and possibilities of regeneration after

pasteurisation was determined, in other words, zaw and z’aw values were

determined which –for Enterococcus faecium PCM 1859 –amount to 0.14

and 0.44, respectively(DANYLUK et al., 2013). On the other hand, no information

is available with respect to the influence of pH on the behavior of

these microorganisms during pasteurization and their possibilities of

regeneration during astorage period, i.e. zpH and z’pH values were not


The aim of this paper was to ascertain thermoresistance and regeneration

possibilities of thermallydamaged Enterococcus faecium PCM 1859

cells depending on the pH value of the medium during heating and incubation

following the thermal process and to determine zpH and z’pH values. In

combination with the results published earlier (DANYLUK et al., 2013), they

allow the determination of anew formula for the calculation of the degree

of lethality which constitutes the basis for the determination of the pasteurization

value Pduring heating of canned meat products. The subjectmatter

of the article is very complex and depends on anumber of factors

mentioned in the manuscript and it constitutes amodel system which

provides abasis for further investigations in future.

Materials and methods

Preparation of samples

The bacterial strain used in the described experiments was that of Enterococcus

faecium PCM 1859 derived from the Strain Collection of the Polish

Academy of Sciences in Wrocław. Experimental bacteria were cultured on

Slanetzand Bartey medium with differing pH values. The substrate pH value

was reduced with by HCl and the following variants were obtained:

r basic medium (optimal) containing: pepton 20.0 g, dipotassium phosphate

4.0 g, yeast extract 5.0 g, glucose 2.0 g, sodium azide 0.4 g,

TTC0.1 g, agar 15.0 g, distilled water 1L;pHofthe ready medium 7.2,

aw=1.0 –A

r basic medium +0.8 mL 1NHCl; aw=1.0, pH= 7.0–B

r basic medium +2.7 mL 1NHCl; aw=1.0, pH= 6.8 –C

r basic medium +5.0 mL 1NHCl; aw=1.0, pH= 6.5 –D

Following inoculation, the samples were incubated for 48 hatatemperature

of 37 °C. Bacteria collected from media AtoDwere placed in the test

tubes (Ø= 16 mm) with aphysiological fluid containing the same quantity of

HCl as during culturing. Their initial concentration amounted to 10 6 to

10 8 cfu/mL. Next, 10 mL suspension was collected from each flask, transferred

to three test tubes and heated in awater bath at atemperature of

55 °C, respectively, for 10,20and 30 min. The same procedures were followed

when bacteria were heated at atemperature of 60 °C for 1, 3and

5min and at 65 °C for 1, 2and 3min. Each experiment was repeated three

times. After the appropriate time of heating, the bacteria were inoculated

Heat resistance

Tab. 1: Heat resistance of Enterococcus faecium cultured, heated and recovered in medium with different pH.

Decimal reduction time

pH value of medium during


Heating Recovery D55 (min.) D60 (min.) D65 (min.)

7.2 7.2 A 10.82 c ±0.45 1.51 c ±0.01 0.91 e ±0.10

7.0 7.2 B 10.17 c ±0.22 1.43 c ±0.26 0.84 de ±0.07

7.0 7.0 B’ 9.78 bc ±1.22 1.46 c ±0.07 0.69 bcd ±0.06

6.8 7.2 C 9.92 c ±0.15 1.38 bc ±0.11 0,80 bcde ±0.11

6.8 6.8 C’ 8.97 abc ±0.11 1.15 abc ±0.05 0.67 bc ±0.08

6.5 7.2 D 7.83 ab ±0.85 1.04 ab ±0.17 0.61 ab ±0.00

6.5 6.5 D’ 7.26 a ±0.45 0.95 a ±0.14 0.51 a ±0.02

The same letters in columns denote not significant difference for means at p ≤ 0.05 (n= 6; mean ±standard deviation)




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017

Research &Development Thermoresistance and regeneration of heat-damaged E. faecium PCM 1859 ...


Fig. 1: Change of the D-value (%) during heating of E. faecium in the environment

with reduced pH value.

a, b–different letters for agiven temperature indicate statisticallysignificant

differences at p≤0.05 (n= 6)

in order to ascertain the number of survived microorganisms. Bacteria

cultured on medium Awere flushed after heating with medium A; bacteria

collected from the media of reduced pH value were incubated on medium A

(optimal) and, simultaneously, on the medium characterised by the same

parameters as during heating. The Asurvival curve was plotted for agiven

heating temperature from which the time of the decimal reduction Dwas

determined for both the bacteria incubated on the basic medium and on

the modified medium (of reduced pH value) and then from the curve of

log D-pH dependence, zpH and z’pH coefficients were determined. When

plotting the log D-pH curve, alinear course was assumed (R 2 =0.7634 for

D55;R 2 =0.6326 for D60;R 2 =0.8048 for D65).

Measurements of pH

Measurements of pH value were conducted employing aSchott Geräte

pH-meter type CG 840 (Mainz, Germany) equipped with aglass electrode.

Statistical analysis

All the determinations were performed in two replications and the results

were subjected to statistical analysis. One-factorial analysis of variance

and post hoc Tukey’stest were applied for multiple comparison of mean

value. The level of significance was p≤0.05. All computations were performed

using Statistica PL v. 10 software by StatSoft.

Results and discussion

Table 1presents the impact of the medium pH during heating on the D-

values (variants A, B, Cand D-regeneration on optimal medium). The obtained

research results indicate that the sensitivity of the assessed bacteria

to heating differed depending on the pH of the environment during the

heating process.

Figure 1presents differences in the D-values during heating at agiven

temperature depending on the pH of the medium. The D-value determined

during sample heating on the substrate of the optimal pH of 7.2was assumed

as 100%. During heating at the temperature of 55 and 60 °C, the

reduction in the D-value was similar and amounted to, respectively, 6and

5.3% at pH 7.0and to 8.3 and 8.6% at pH 6.8. Heating at the temperature of

65 °C led to the greatest reduction in the value of D, i.e. by 7.7% at pH 7.0

and by 12.1% at pH 6.8. The lowest thermal resistance of the strain was

recorded when samples were heated in the environment where the pH

amounted to 6.5; the D-values were reduced by 27.6% (55 °C), 31.1% (60 °C)

and 33.0% (65 °C) in comparison with the values determined during the

heating at agiven temperature at optimal pH (7.2). However, astatistically

significant impact of the medium pH on E. faecium’s thermoresistance

expressed by the D–value was demonstrated onlyinthe case of heating of

the bacteria in the environment of pH 6.5 irrespective of the temperature

of heating. On the other hand, experiments on the thermal resistance of

Bacillus stearothermophillus carried out by LÓPEZ et al., (1996) demonstrated

that the effect of any given pH is depended on the treatment

temperature. At low treatment temperatures (115 °C), amarked reduction

of the D-values was observed when pH was lowered from 7.0to4.0. This

reduction was significantlylower at 125°C. At higher temperatures

(135°C), the D-values obtained in pH 6.0 and 7.0 did not show significant


The available literature data indicate that pH reduction enhances the

preservation effect of food products. This may be caused by the growth

inhibition of microorganisms, whose growth depends on levels of free H +

ions and concentrations of undissociated, weaker acids which, in turn,

is dependent on pH. Anions of some weaker acids are metabolised in the

bacterial cell in such away that H + ions are liberated by acidifying the

interior of the cell to the level of inhibiting growth (SABATAKOU et al., 2001).

The effect of preservation can also be the result of diminished thermoresistance

of microorganisms in the environment with reduced pH. In the

case of spores, the mechanism of this phenomenon can be explained by

the fact that, during heating in acid environment, hydrogen ions replace

calcium ions associated with the cell and form the so called H-sporeions

characterised by lower thermoresistance. All calcium ions which

constitute approximately2%ofspore dry matter can be removed in this

way.This is areversible phenomenon. When pH increases, hydrogen ions

are again substituted by calcium found in food products. However, this

process is so slow that during heating of food products spores continue

to be sensitive to heat (GOULD,1996).

Reduced thermoresistance at lower pH was demonstrated for Salmonella

enteritidis and Escherichia coli indicating simultaneouslythat the effect

depended on the type of the applied acid: lactic acid and acetic acid exhibited

asimilar or even greater lethal effect than HCl, whereas the application

of citric acid decreased this effect (BLACKBURN et al., 1997). Reduced

thermoresistance under the influence of lactic and acetic acids was also

reported in the course of heating of S. faecium (HOUBEN,1980; 1982). It was

demonstrated that bacteria were more sensitive to pH changes than

yeasts and molds (SABATAKOU et al., 2001).

The calculation of D-values determined in the case of E. faecium

heating in environments characterised by different pH allowed determination

of log D-pH dependence as well as the zpH coefficient, i.e. the

difference in the pH value which causes tenfold reduction of D. The zpH

values presented in Table 2confirm that, together with the increase of

heating temperature, the sensitivity of the examined strain to the

medium acidity also increases: zpH decreases from 5.12 (55 °C) to 4.09

(65 °C).

If during the heating process the conditions (aw and pH) in the can are

not optimal for bacteria, then also during storage the possibility of regeneration

of microorganisms will be reduced. The results collated in Table 1

indicate that heating and regeneration of E. faecium bacteria on the

medium with areduced pH value (variant B`, C` and D`) –incomparison

with the control (variant A) –caused astatisticallysignificant diminishment

of the decimal reduction times D55 and D60 onlythen, when the pH

value was lowered to 6.5 (variant G`). On the other hand, heating at the

temperature of 65 °C caused astatisticallysignificant change of the

decimal reduction time already at pH ≤7.0 indicating that the D65 value for

B`, C` and D` variants differed statisticallysignificantlyfrom the D65 value

determined for the control sample (variant A). From the dependence log D-

pH of the medium during regeneration, the z’pH coefficient was determined

for E. faecium on amodified medium of differing pH. The obtained results

are collated in Table 2. The z’pH coefficient declined together with the

increase of heating temperature and fluctuated from 4.08 (55 °C) to 2.98

(65 °C). These values were by 20.3 to 27.4% lower in comparison with the

zpH value which means that the thermoresistance of the examined bacteria

was significantlysmaller than those determined on optimal media.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2017


Research &Development

Values of zpH

Tab. 2: Values of zpH as related to heating temperature and pH of


T( o C) pH zpH z’pH


55 7.0 5.12 b ±0.39 4.08 b ±0.14




60 7.0 4.35 ab ±0.37 3.23 a ±0.29




65 7.0 4.09 a ±0.26 2.98 a ±0.11



zpH –the distance of pH frompH* =7which leads to atenfoldreduction in D-value

z’pH –the distance of pH from pH’ of recovery medium, which leads to atenfold reduction in


The same letters in columns denote not significant difference for means at p ≤ 0.05

(n= 6; mean ±standard deviation)


Experiments carried out earlier (DANYLUK et al., 2013)made it possible to

determine zaw and z’aw coefficients. On the basis of the results presented in

this study, zpH and z’pH coefficients were determined. It is true that the

experiments were conducted in model conditions but E. faecium bacteria

were used which are treated as indicator microorganisms in pasteurised

canned meat production. Therefore, they can be helpful in the calculation

of lethality degrees Linaccordance with the new model for any value of pH

and aw.


Improvement of the canned meat production process involves restraining

the heat treatment parameters and, simultaneously, applying other

conservation factors such as, for example, reduction of water activity

values and pH of the raw material (“hurdle” technology). The end-products

obtained in this way are characterised by better quality due to the

fact that the range of unfavorable changes associated with the action

of heat on food is reduced. The care for the safety of the manufactured

products requires improvement of the accuracy of models describing

heat treatment conditions of canned food. The model of determination

of the degree of lethality employed so far based onlyontemperature is

no longer sufficient. The new model should take into consideration,

apart from temperature changes, also changes of thermoresistance of

microorganisms depending on water activity and pH of the environment

in the course of heating and possibilities of their regeneration following

the thermal process in the environment of changed parameters.

The performed investigation revealed that the reduction of pH values

resulted in the diminished Enterococcus faecium thermoresistance

and the coefficients determining the impact of this parameter on

thermoresistance amounted to zpH=4.09 to 5.12,ifbacterial survivability

was tested on the optimal medium and z’pH=2.98 to 4.08, if they were

cultured on the medium with the pH identical to during heating. This

means that when heating canned meat products characterised by

reduced pH value, the applied dose of heat should be smaller.The results

obtained in this study and earlier (DANYLUK et al., 2013)corroborate

the advisability of the pasteurisation control of canned meat products

using for this purpose anew model of determination of the degree of

lethality L.



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Authors‘ addresses

Bożena Danyluk, PhD, Institute of Meat Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznan

University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznań, Poland and Jerzy Stangierski,

PhD, Department of Food Quality Management, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznan

University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznań, Poland


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