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Early Cretaceous Freshwater Fish Fauna in Kyushu, Japan

Early Cretaceous Freshwater Fish Fauna in Kyushu, Japan

Early Cretaceous Freshwater Fish Fauna in Kyushu,

Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Nat. Hist., 13: 107-254, pis. 36-59. March 30, 1994 Early Cretaceous Freshwater Fish Fauna in Kyushu, Japan Yoshitaka Yabumoto Kitakyushu Museum and Institute of Natural History, Nishihonmachi 3, Yahatahigashiku, Kitakyushu 805, Japan (Received July 8, 1993) Abstract The Wakino Subgroup in the Kwanmon Group at Kitakyushu City in the northern part of Kyushu, Japan, has a rich yield offreshwater fish fossils. Twenty-one species, 8 genera and 6 families are described in the present study, among them, 15 species are described as new, plus 4 new genera Nipponamia, Aokiichthys, Wakinoichthys and Paraleptolepis; and 2 newfamilies, Chuhsiungichthiidae and Wakinoichthiidae, are estab lished. Three different paleoichthyofaunas are recognized in the Wakino Subgroup. The Nipponamia-Aokiichthys, the Paraleptolepis-Wakinoichthys and Diplomyslus-Wakinoichthys faunas are proposed to designate them. The name Wakino fish fauna is proposed for the entire ichthyofauna of the Wakino Subgroup. It is composed of the primitive halecostome orders Semionotiformes and Amiiformes, and the primitive teleostean orders Ichthyodectiformes, Osteoglossiformes andClupeiformes. In numbers ofspecies and individuals, osteoglossiform and clupeiform fishes are most abundant. This fish fauna is the only freshwater oneknown from the Mesozoic ofJapan. The Nipponamia-Aokiichthys fauna is found in the First Formation (W,). This fauna consists of Lepidotes macropterus sp. nov. of the order Semionotiformes, Nipponamia saloi gen. et sp. nov. of the Amiiformes, Chuhsiungichthysyanagidai sp. nov. of the Ichthyodecti formes, andAokiichthys toriyamai gen. et sp. nov., A. changae gen. et sp. nov., A. olai gen. et sp. nov. and A. uyenoi gen. et sp. nov., A. praedorsalis gen. et sp. nov., and A. sp. of the Osteoglossiformes. Among these, theorderOsteoglossiformes are the mostabundant in numbers of species and individuals. The Paraleptolepis-Wakinoichthys fauna is found in theThird Formation (W3). This fauna is composed ofParaleptolepis kikuchii gen. et sp. nov. and P. elegans gen. et sp. nov. of the order and family incertae sedis, Chuhsiungichthys sp.ofthe Ichthyodectiformes, and Wakinoichthys aokii gen. et sp. nov. and W. robustus gen. et sp. nov. ofthe Osteoglossiformes. Fishes ofthegenera Paraleptolepis and Wakinoichthys are the most abundant. The Diplomystus-Wakinoichthys fauna is found in the Fourth Formation (W4), and composed of Chuhsiungichthys japonicus sp. nov. of the order Ichthyodectiformes, Yungkangichthys macrodon sp. nov. and Wakinoichthys aokii gen. et sp. nov. of the Osteoglossiformes, and Diplomyslus primotinus, D. kokuraensis, D. altisomus sp. nov. and D. sp. of the Clupeiformes, with the genus Diplomyslus being most abundant. No fish fossils have been found in the Second Formation (W2). Among the Wakino fish faunas, the Nipponamia-Aokiichthys fauna is closest to the Mesoclupea assemblage from southeastern China. Four families: Semionotidae, Amiidae, Chuhsiungichthiidae and Lycopteridae; and one genus, Lepidotes, are common in both faunas. The Paraleptolepis-Wakinoichthys and Diplomystus-Wakinoichthys faunas are con sidered to be endemic. In comparison with the Cretaceous freshwater fish faunas of the world, the Wakino fish fauna is characterized by theabundance ofthe Osteoglossiformes and Clupeiformes.

  • Page 2 and 3: 108 Yoshitaka Yabumoto It is consid
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  • Page 18 and 19: Fig. 8. Nipponamia satoi gen. et sp
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  • Page 46 and 47: Fig. 31. Aokiichthys toriyamai gen.
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    156 Yoshitaka Yabumoto E E o

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    158 Yoshitaka Yabumoto DEN CRA Fig.

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    160 Yoshitaka Yabumoto lower jaw is

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    162 Yoshitaka Yabumoto ^

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    164 Yoshitaka Yabumoto PREM DEN 10m

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    jgg Yoshitaka Yabumoto The coracoid

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    10mm Fig. 44. Aokiichthys uyenoi ge

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    170 Yoshitaka Yabumoto PREM Fig. 46

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    172 Yoshitaka Yabumoto length. The

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    174 Yoshitaka Yabumoto length. The

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    176 Yoshitaka Yabumoto

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    178 Yoshitaka Yabumoto Horizon. The

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    180 Yoshitaka Yabumoto from Upper J

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    182 Yoshitaka Yabumoto Horizon. The

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    Fig. 53. Wakinoichthys aokii gen. e

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    186 Yoshitaka Yabumoto URN URN1 PU1

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    10mm Fig. 57. Wakinoichthys aokii g

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    190 Yoshitaka Yabumoto vertebrae. T

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    192 Yoshitaka Yabumoto 3^ E E o o

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    198 Yoshitaka Yabumoto 1mm Fig. 66.

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    200 Yoshitaka Yabumoto abdominal ve

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    — 6-10 202 Yoshitaka Yabumoto Tab

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    204 Yoshitaka Yabumoto 1mm Fig. 70.

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    206 Yoshitaka Yabumoto 1mm Fig. 72.

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    208 Yoshitaka Yabumoto standard len

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    Fig. 74. Diplomystus altisomus sp.

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    212 Yoshitaka Yabumoto ventral end

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    214 Yoshitaka Yabumoto length. The

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    Fig. 78. Diplomystus sp., KMNH VP 1

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    218 Yoshitaka Yabumoto MAX DEN Fig.

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    220 Yoshitaka Yabumoto In KMNH VP 1

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    222 Yoshitaka Yabumoto EPI-3 UN5.4

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    224 Yoshitaka Yabumoto are relative

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    228 Yoshitaka Yabumoto HYU7 PARH .

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    230 Yoshitaka Yabumoto length is 32

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    232 Yoshitaka Yabumoto

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    234 Yoshitaka Yabumoto URN1-4 HYU1

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    236 Yoshitaka Yabumoto 1mm Fig.94.

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    238 Yoshitaka Yabumoto orders Semio

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    240 Yoshitaka Yabumoto Table8. Faun

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    242 Yoshitaka Yabumoto Table9. Faun

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    250 Yoshitaka Yabumoto North Kyushu

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    252 Yoshitaka Yabumoto Ota, Y. 1959

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    254 Yoshitaka Yabumoto the22thAnn.

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    Explanation of Plate 36 1. Lepidote

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    Explanation of Plate 37 Nipponamia

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    Explanation of Plate 38 1. Nipponam

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    Explanation of Plate 39 Chuhsiungic

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    Explanation of Plate 40 1. Chuhsiun

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    Explanation of Plate 41 1. Chuhsiun

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    Explanation of Plate 42 1. Chuhsiun

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    Explanation of Plate 43 1. Yungkang

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    Explanation of Plate 44 1. Aokiicht

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    Explanation of Plate 45 1. Aokiicht

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    Explanation of Plate 46 1. Aokiicht

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    Explanation of Plate 47 1. Aokiicht

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    Explanation of Plate 48 Aokiichthys

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    Explanation of Plate 49 1. Aokiicht

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    Explanation of Plate 50 Wakinoichth

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    Explanation of Plate 51 Wakinoichth

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    Explanation of Plate 52 1. Wakinoic

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    Explanation of Plate 53 1. Diplomys

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    Explanation of Plate 54 1. Diplomys

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    Explanation of Plate 55 1. Diplomys

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    Explanation of Plate 56 1. Diplomys

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    Explanation of Plate 57 1. Paralept

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    Explanation of Plate 58 1. Paralept

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    Explanation of Plate 59 1. Paralept

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