Why do we really need a new edition of the Avesta?

ada.usal.es

Why do we really need a new edition of the Avesta?

Why do we really need a new edition

of the Avesta?

Alberto Cantera


FONTES CRITICAE

Westergaard (p. 3):

“The manuscripts containing these texts, and of which I have made

use, are first and chiefly the splendid collection now in the

University-library of Copenhagen, which Erasmus Rask succeeded

in acquiring on a scientific visit to Bombay in 1820. […] Besides a

few manuscripts belonging to myself, I have also been privileged

freely to use in my own home those belonging to my friend Dr. John

Wilson of Bombay. I have further examined more or less

completely, during a short journey abroad for that purpose in the

spring of 1850, the collections and single manuscripts preserved in

the East-India-house and the British museum, in the two

libraries of Oxford, in the Imperial library, Paris, and those which

belonged to Eugène Burnouf” [my italics]


Geldner about Westergaard’s edition

(Prolegomena, i):

I may say at once that he succeeded

marvellously in accomplishing the most

difficult task, an editio princeps of the Avesta.

So admirably did Westergaard work through

the manuscripts known to him, and so model

the text he provided, that without entirely

new material, there would have remained

little or nothing for me to do. A re-reading

of the texts extant in Europe, I found, promised

but little fruit.


Geldner (Prolegomena, p. i):

A re-reading of the texts extant in Europe, I found, promised but little fruit. It son

became evident, however, that in India there was hidden an unopened store of

manuscripts, and I forthwith directed my attention to securing these. Through the

kindness of friends I succeeded in procuring the greater number of them, and those

the more important; this circumstance has placed me in a position to improve upon

Westergaard in details, or in cases where he had already hit upon the right Reading -

as for the most part he had- to substantiate this by better authority.

Especially for the Yasna much new material became accessible to me. In the Yashts,

the one ancestral manuscript has placed the text criticism on a firmer basis. In the

Vendidad, on the contrary, I have not been able to get much beyond Westergaard's

material. It is particularly to be regretted that some of the Yasna manuscripts

came to hand late; some in fact even after the printing was finished. All the

more unfortunate was this, as among the stragglers were some that at the outset

were almost indispensable, as regards text criticism for a proper classification and

estimation of the manuscripts.


Iranian manuscripts of the long liturgy used by

Westergaard

• K4 (1723)

• K9 (copy of Mf2)

• a collation of 8 fragards of

Mf2

First page of K4


Iranian manuscripts of the long liturgy used by

Geldner

only Iranian manuscripts available

in Europe or India

• Vīdēvdād Sāde Mf2

(1618/1638) y Jp1

(1638/1658, actual location

unknown) , K9 (copy of Mf2)

• Yasna Sāde: Mf1 (1741)

• Yasna Pahlaví Pt4 (1774) y Mf4

(younger), they are Indian

copies

• VīštāspYašt Sāde K4 (1723)

Sample of Pt4


G18a (Meherji-rana Library, Navsari)


Iranian manuscripts known today

Yasna Vīsperad Vīdēvdād Vīštāsp Yašt

s. XVII G18b (1647) Ave976 (1627)

Ave977/978 (1628)

Mf2 (1618/1638)

Jp1 (1638/1658)

Ave992 (1643)

Ave1001 (1632/1652)

Ave1007 (1638/1658)

RSPA 230 (BL) (1647)

G18a (1647)

Mf9 (1647)

s. XVIII Mf1 (1741) K9 (1746) K4 (1723)

s. XIX ML15284 (< 1823) Xodābaxš Forud

(1842)

Sorušyān (1884)

ML15285 1893

D59 (1816)

MK 1182 (< 1813)

MK1185 (1816)

MK1263 (1894)

s. XX Nuširawān Jahāngir

(1918)

sin fecha

Fl1 (Iranian style)

Kh1 (Iranian style)

ML15283


Ave977/978 (private owner, Yazd)


EXAMINATIO CODICUM

• Use of collations and transcriptions by scholars, mainly of

European manuscripts

• Superficial analysis of many manuscripts


USE OF COLLATIONS AND TRANSLITERATED COPIES

• Collations:

• Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris: Olshausen’s P6, P10 and

P12

• British Museum of London:

• M. A. Stein’s Lb1 and Lb16

• E. V. Arnold’s Lb2

• A. V. Williams Jackson’s Lb5

• Copies:

• Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris:

• Olshausen’s P2, P11, P13 and P14

• Burnouf’s & Brockhaus printed edition of P1


Consequences: confusion of manuscripts

P2 :: P10

• Geldner’s presentation of the mss: P2 = Suppl. Pers. 26 & P10 =

Suppl.Pers. 25

• But Geldner’s Prolegomena and critical apparatus: P2 =

Suppl. Pers. 25 & P10 = Suppl.Pers. 26

• Geldner (Prolegomena x) V13.17 P2 pr. manu srao inō; sec.

manu sraē əmnō

Suppl.Pers.25 Suppl.Pers.26

• Geldner (Prolegomena xiv) V13.50: P2 pr. Manu nasuš,

Suppl.Pers.25 Suppl.Pers.26


L17 and B3 in Geldner’s description

Prolegomena, pp. ii & ix

Prolegomena, pp. xxx

•B3 and L17 are “from

the same scribe”

•L17 (1551) ist the

oldest Yasna Sāde

•B3 and L17 derive

from K5


• B3 and L17 belong to the same school, but are not written by the

same scribe

• They do not derive from K5

• L17 is an indirect copy of B3 and its date is not the year 1551

given in the colophon.


L17

B3

4

5

10


• Numbering in lists


• Probably different hands


L17 B3 otros

ą

T46

ah

β

b


L17 is a later copy than B3

• Y2.1

zaoϑra. āiiese. yešti. barəsma. āiiese. yešti. barəsma. āiiese.

yešti. zaoϑra. āiiese. yešti: zaoϑra. haδa.barəsma. āiiese.

yešti. barəsma. haδa.zaoϑra. āiiese. yešti: ahmiia. zaoϑre.

ima . barəsma. āiiese. yešti. ana. barəsmana. imąm.

zaoϑrąm. āiiese. yešti: haδa.zaoϑrəm. ima . barəsma.

āiiese. yešti. ima . barəsma. haδa.zaoϑrəm. haδa.aiβii

ŋhanəm. a aiia. frastarətəm. > āiiese. yešti.

• Y2.2

ahmiia. zaoϑre. barəsmanaēca.ahurəm. mazdąm. a

auuanəm. a ahe. ratūm. āiiese. yešti amə ā. spəṇtā.

hux aϑrā. huδ ŋhō. āiiese. yešti

Include the secondary

addition:

YS: J6, Lb2,L20

VS: Ml630, M2, T46,

O2, B4, FK1, G42

PV: F2

Missing:

PV:K5, J2, Mf4, Pt4,

M1, T6

YS Bh5

YS-Ir: ML15284

VrS: G18b, K4, K8


Y51.1: the definitive proof

vohū. xšạϑrəm. vairīm. bāgəm.

aibī.bairištəm. vīdīṣ̌əmnāiš. īžācīt̰. aṣ̌ā.

aṇtarə.caraitī. šíiaoϑanāiš. mazdā.

vahištəm. tat̰. nə̄ . nūcīt̰. varəṣ̌ānē.::


Yes, but not direct copies


The Avestan text is not extracted from K5

• Geldner does not give any arguments

• Where Sāde manuscripts show differences to

the Pahlavi, B3 and L17 show the readings of

the Sāde

• The readings of B3 and L17 do not confirm the

dependence from K5


Beginning of the Gāθās


CONSTITUTIO STEMMATIS CODICUM

LACHMANN’S METHOD

• Agreement of error as an indicator of relationship between manuscripts, s. V3.41

A(B2, T46, L1, P1) B (L5, FK1) C (L2, E4, G42, B4)

spaiieiti draošəm spaiieiti draošəm spaiieiti draošəm

auuaγnīm

spaiieiti. auuaγnīm

spaiieiti. yātuγnīm spaiieiti. yātuγnīm spaiieiti. yātuγnīm

L5

X

FK1

daēna. māzdaiiasniš. narš. āstauua

nahe. baṇdəm. spaiieite. drao əm.

spaiieite. yātuγnīm. spaiieiti. a

auuaγnīm. spaiieite. nasuspaēm.

daēna. māzdaiiasniš. narš. āstauua

nahe. baṇdəm. spaiieite. drao əm.

auuaγnīm. spaiieite. yātuγnīm. spaiieiti.

a auuaγnīm. spaiieite. nasuspaēm.

CRITICISM

• The emphasis is upon the difference, but manuscripts have much more text in

common tan differences

• Common errors might be coincidental and this possibility increases in tradition with

texts copied frequently

• Readings do not spread necessarily only trough copies of manuscripts


CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS CHANGES: Y30.1

• mazdaθā: PV: J2, K5, Pt4

Skt-Y: S1, P11 (mazda­.θā)

IrYS: Mf1

IrVS: Ave976, Ave977/978, RSPA230, Jp1

IrVrS: K4

Ind-VS: B2, Bb1, G112

Ind-YS: B3, H1

• mazdā.θβā Ind-YS: L17, G26b, Bh5, J6,7, K11, C1, P6, L13, L20

IndVS: L1, T46, B4, ML630, G106, L3

Skt-Y: T7

PY: F2, M1

• mazdaδātā: IrVrS: G18b

IrYS: Ml15284

PY: M1 (transcription of K5, but corrected prim.man.)

Bartholomae, Die Zend-Hss., 2.3:


COINCIDENTAL AGREEMENT

U. B. Schmid, ‘Genealogy by Chance!’, On the Significance of

Accidental Variation (Parallelisms)’, in Studies in

Stemmatology, ii.127–43

H. J. Vogels found in the Codex Cassellaneus of Tatian’s

Diatessaron 44 “carefully selected as genealocally significant

deviations” from the Codex Fuldensis, from which supossedly

derives. These readings seemed to derive from other codices

and to postulate a new genelogical adscription of this codex.

Schmid has shown that 24 of these “significant readings” are

not present in the original codex, but only in his 19th-century

edition. They were mistakes of the editor and it can be only by

chance that these errors happened to agree with the parallels

adduced by Vogels.


THE PROCESS OF COPY

written transmission

ritual-oral transmission

manuscript


THE SPREADING OF READINGS. FUNCTION OF MANUSCRIPTS

• Not to be used in ritual:

• prohibition

• impossibility. Manuscripts with alternatives (sample G18b)

• for the ritual instruction of priests in the priestly school

• The activity of manuscripts copying can not be separated from

the teaching of the ritual practice and the ritual text

• In the priestly school the autoritative text is the result of

the combination of the knowledge of the priest and the

available written copies

• Priest’s knowledge is partly herited and partly result of his

exegetical activity


CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS CHANGES: Y30.1

• mazdaθā: PV: J2, K5, Pt4

Skt-Y: S1, P11 (mazda­.θā)

IrYS: Mf1

IrVS: Ave976, Ave977/978, RSPA230, Jp1

IrVrS: K4

Ind-VS: B2, Bb1, G112

Ind-YS: B3, H1

• mazdā.θβā Ind-YS: L17, G26b, Bh5, J6,7, K11, C1, P6, L13, L20

IndVS: L1, T46, B4, ML630, G106, L3

Skt-Y: T7

PY: F2, M1

• mazdaδātā: IrVrS: G18b

IrYS: Ml15284

PY: M1 (transcription of K5, but corrected prim.man.)

Bartholomae, Die Zend-Hss., 2.3:


CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS CHANGES: V3.41

A(B2, T46, L1, P1) B (L5, FK1) C (L2, E4, G42, B4)

spaiieiti draošəm spaiieiti draošəm spaiieiti draošəm

auuaγnīm

spaiieiti. auuaγnīm

spaiieiti. yātuγnīm spaiieiti. yātuγnīm spaiieiti. yātuγnīm

daēna. māzdaiiasniš. narš. āstauua

nahe. baṇdəm. spaiieite. drao əm.

spaiieite. yātuγnīm. spaiieiti. a

auuaγnīm. spaiieite. nasuspaēm.

daēna. māzdaiiasniš. narš. āstauua

nahe. baṇdəm. spaiieite. drao əm.

auuaγnīm. spaiieite. yātuγnīm. spaiieiti.

a auuaγnīm. spaiieite. nasuspaēm.

Conscious change: addition of spaiieiti and creation of a PT

PV: spaiieiti draošəm … spaiieiti as ̣uuaɤnīm (L4, T44, B1, Bh11, M3, G34);

spaiieiti draošəm … spaiieiti auuaɤnīm … spaiieiti yātuɤnīm … spaiieiti as ̣uuaɤnīm: F10


A NEW APPROACH TO THE CONSTRUCTIO STEMMATIS CODICUM

•Coherence based genealogical method (CBGM): Institut für neutestamentliche Forschung,

Münster

•Pregenalogical coherence: quantitative method

•Genealogical coherence: a global stemma is the stemma most coherent with the local

stemmata.

•Tools for Avestan Text Criticism

100

80

60

40

20

0

K1 B1 P10 M3 D62 P2

K1

B1

P10

M3

D62

P2

K1

B1

M3

P10

D62

reformist mss. of the family of L4

P2


CONSTITUTIO TEXTUS

SĀDE AND PAHLAVI MANUSCRIPTS

Sample of RSPA230, British Library

Sample of L4, British Library


Pahlavi manuscripts

• Yasna without correspondence in the Great Avesta: the PT and

the Avestan text were put together in the 10 th C. Only small

differences.

• Vidēvdād and VīštāspYašt: only the intercalation between the

Old Avestan texts, although there are peculiarities in the Yasna

parts too.

• Vīsperad: only 24 additions or substitutions before Y54


Visperad

Vidēvdād

Y54.2

VrS29.1 = Vr24.0

airiiamanəm. i īm. a auuanəm. a ahe. ratūm.

yazamaide. ma .afsmanəm. ma .vacastaštīm. ma

.āzaiṇtīm. ma .pərəsūm. ma .paiti.pərəsūm. ma .

vaγžibiiāca. pa biiasca. huframərətəm. framarəmnəm.

hufrāiiaštəm.

frāiiaēziiaṇtəm. ahmi. dąm. ahmi. ciϑre. frax ne.

auui. manō. zrazdātōi . aŋhuiia . haca

airiiamanəm. i īm. a auuanəm. a ahe. ratūm.

yazamaide. ma .afsmanəm. ma .vacastaštīm. ma

.āzaiṇtīm. ma .pərəsūm. ma .paiti.pərəsūm. ma .

vaγžibiiāca. pa biiasca. huframərətəm. framarəmnəm.

hufrāiiaštəm.

frāiiaēziiaṇtəm. ahmi. dąm. ahmi. ciϑre. frax ne.

auui. manō. zrazdātōi . aŋhuiia . haca

VS54.1 =VrS21.2

ātrəmca. iδa. ahurahe. mazdā̊. puϑrəm. yazamaide:

ātarš. ciϑrə̄sca. yazatə̄. yazamaide: ātarš. ciϑrə̄sca.

rašṇušca. yazamaide: aṣ̌āunąmca. frauuašạiiō.

yazamaide: sraoṣ̌əmca. yim. vərəϑrājanəm. yazamaide:

narəmca. yim. aṣ̌auuanəm. yazamaide: vīspąmca. yąm.

ašạonō. stīm. yazamaide.

VS54.2 =VrS21.3

zaraϑuštrahe. spitāmahe. iδa. ašạonō. aṣ̌īmca.

frauuaṣ̌īmca. yazamaide: vīspaēca. iδa. ašạonō. aṣ̌īmca.

frauuaṣ̌īmca. yazamaide: vīspā̊. frauuašạiiō. aṣ̌āunąm.

yazamaide: ādax́iiunąmca. ašạonąm. frauuaṣ̌aiiō.

yazamaide: uzdāxíiunąmca. aṣ̌aonąm. frauuašạiiō.

yazamaide: narąmca. ašạonąm. frauuašạiiō.

yazamaide: nāirinąmca. ašạoninąm. frauuaṣ̌aiiō.

yazamaide.

VS54.3 = VrS21.4

yaēṣ̌ąm. nō. ahurō. mazdā̊. aṣ̌auua. yesne. paiti. vaŋhō.

vaēδa. aēṣ̌ąm. zaraϑuštrō. aŋhuca. ratušca: ṣ̌ōiϑriia.

apasca. zəmasca. uruuarā̊sca. yazamaide.:

VS54.4 =VrS21.5

VrS29.2 = Vr24.1

auuat̰. miždəm. yazamaide: auuat̰. dasuuarə.

yazamaide: auuat̰. ...

VS54.1-3

do bar guftan

auuat̰. miždəm. yazamaide: auuat̰. dasuuarə.

yazamaide: auuat̰. ...


Visperad after Y54

• VrS30 (after Y57) = #VrS20.2-9

• Bhaǰ Dharnā (afterY59): VrS32-VrS37

• Between Y63.3a & 3b

• After Y65

• After Y68


Correspondences between Bhaj

Dharnā and Srōš Drōn

VrS32.0

VrS32.1-6

Y62.1-6

VrS32.7

#Y3.1

VrS32.8 Y22.4

VrS32.9-14 Y3.5-10 Y22.5-10

VrS32.10 Y3.6 Y22.6

VrS32.11 Y3.7 Y22.7

VrS32.12 Y3.8 Y22.8

VrS32.13 Y3.9 Y22.9

VrS32.14 Y3.10 Y22.10

VrS32.15-23

VrS11.1-9

VrS32.24-31 Y3.12-19 Y22.12-19

VrS32.32 #Y22.22 Y22.23-27

VrS32.34

VrS32.32-33

VrS32.35 -38

Y23.1-23

VrS32.39-41

Y3.22-24

VrS33.1

#Y4.1

VrS33.2 Y4.2

VrS33.3

#Y4.3

VrS33.4-21

Y4.4-21

VrS33.22 #Y4.22 Y4.23-25

VrS34.1-6 Y36.1-6 Y5

VrS35.1 Y17.1

VrS35.2-7 Y17.2-7 Y6

VrS35.8-18

VrS7.1-11

VrS35.19-27

Y17.9-17

VrS35.28 VrS32.32 #Y25.4

VrS35.30

Y26

VrS35.31-33

Y6.19-21

VrS36.1 #Y71+Y7.2 #Y7.4

VrS36.3-22

Y7.5-25

VrS36.23

#Y52.1

VrS36.24-26

Y52.2-4

VrS36.27 no equivalent #Y52.4

VrS36.29 Y27.14


Y25.1a

VrS14.1

Amə ā.1 spəṇtā. hux aϑrā. huδ ŋhō. yazamaide:

ahurəm. mazdąm. a auuanəm. a ahe. ratūm. yazamaide:

zaraϑuštrəm. a auuanəm. a ahe. ratūm. yazamaide: zaraϑuštrahe. a

aonō. frauua īm. yazamaide: amə . spəṇt . a aonąm. yazamaide.

Y25.1°

Vr3.13

VrS14.2

a āunąm.1 vaŋuhīš. sūr . spəṇt .frauua aiiō. yazamaide. astuuatō.

manahiiāca:2 apanōtəməm. raϑβąm. yazamaide. yaētuštəməm.

yazatanąm. haŋhanuštəməm. a ahe. raϑβąm. aiβinasąstəməm.

jaγmūštəmąm.3 a aonō. a ahe. raϑβō. ratufritīm. yazamaide.

Vr3.14

VrS14.3

vaca. aršuxδa. yazamaide: srao əm. a īm. yazamaide: a īm. vaŋuhīm.

yazamaide: nairīm.2 saŋhəm. yazamaide: āxštīm. hąm.vaiṇtīm.3

yazamaide: astərətaca. amuiiamna. yazamaide:a āunąmca. frauua

aiiō. yazamaide: cinuuatō.7 pərətūm. yazamaide: garō. nmānəm.

ahurahe. mazd . yazamaide: vahištəm. ahūm. a aonąm. yazamaide.

raocaŋhəm. vīspō. āϑrəm (3x)

Vr7.1

VrS14.4

vahištahe. aŋh uš. vahištąm. aiianąm. yazamaide: arštātəm.

yazamaide.

vaŋuhīm.frāda .gaēϑąm. varəda .gaēϑąm. sauuō.gaēϑąm.3 yąm.

daēnąm. māzdaiiasnīm: ra nūm. razištəm. yazamaide: miϑrəm.

vouru.gaoiiaoitīm. yazamaide: rəuuīm.4 parəṇdīm.5 yazamaide.

rəuuīm. rauuō.manaŋhąm.6 rəuuīm. rauuō.vacaŋhąm. rəuuīm.

rauuō. iiaoϑənanąm. frā. tanuuō. rəṇjaiieiti.

Vr7.2

VrS14.5

nairiiąm. hąm.varəitīm.1 yazamaide. framən.narąm.2

framən.narō.vīrąm.2 yā. āsao . āsii .3 yā. taxmō.tą ii . yā . dim.

jasaiti. baγō.baxtəmci .

yā. narəm. vīγərəptāci . tanuuō. baoxtārəm. daδāiti:

afnəm. mazdaδātəm. yazamaide. āitīm. pasuu . vīraii

Vr7.3

VrS14.6

auu . Dāmąn. a auuanō. yazamaide. y .4həṇti. paoiriiō.dāta.

paoiriiō.fraϑβaršta. a n āa ca. apāa ca. zəmāa ca. uruuaraiiāa ca.

gao ca.

huδ ŋha : zraiiō. vouruka əm. yazamaide: vātəm. dar īm.10

mazdaδātəm. yazamaide: asmanəm. anuuaṇtəm. yazamaide.

paoiriiō.dātəm. paoiriiō.fraϑβarštəm. gaēϑīm. gaēϑaii . stōiš

Vr7.4

Y25.1b

iməm. haoməm. a aiia. uzdātəm. yazamaide: imąmcā.

gąm. jīuuiiąm. a aiia. uzdātąm. yazamaide: imąmcā.

uruuarąm. haδānaēpatąm. a aiia. uzdātąm.

yazamaide.


Between Y63.3a & 3b

Y63.3 (a) VrS39.3 VrS39.3

VrS39.4 Y39.2 VrS39.4 Y39.2

VrS39.5 Yt13.155 VrS39.5 Yt13.155

VrS39.6 no equivalent, #Y25.2+Y25.3VrS39.6 no equivalent, #Y25.

VrS39.7 Vr7.5 VrS39.7 Vr7.5

Y63.3 (b) VrS39.8 Y71.24 VrS39.8 Y71.24


After Y65

Y65.17 VrS40.2 Y65.17 + VrS10.6b VrS40.2 Y65.17 + VrS10.6b

VrS40.3 #VrS10.7 VrS40.3 #VrS10.7

VrS40.4 #VrS10.7 VrS40.4 #VrS10.7

Y65.18 VrS40.5 VrS40.5

VrS40.6

VrS40.6

VrS40.7 VrS4.3 VrS40.7 VrS4.3

Y65.19 VrS40.8 VrS40.8

VrS40.9 VrS9.1 VrS40.9 VrS9.1

VrS40.10 VrS9.2 VrS40.10 VrS9.2

VrS40.11 VrS18.1 VrS40.11 VrS18.1


After Y68

Y68.24 Y47 Y68.24 Y47 / Y43 Y68.24 Y47 / Y43

VrS43.1 VrS3.11 VrS43.1 VrS3.11

VrS43.2 VrS3.12 VrS43.2 VrS3.12

VrS43.3 VrS24.0 / VrS23.0 VrS43.3 VrS24.0 / VrS23.0

VrS43.4 VrS24.1 / VrS23.1 VrS43.4 VrS24.1 / VrS23.1

VrS43.5 VrS24.2 / VrS23.2 VrS43.5 VrS24.2 / VrS23.2

VrS43.6 VrS24.3 / VrS23.3 VrS43.6 VrS24.3 / VrS23.3

VrS43.7 VrS24.3 / VrS23.3 VrS43.7 VrS24.3 / VrS23.3

VS68.2

VrS43.8 VrS15.1 VrS44.8 VrS15.1

VrS43.9 VrS15.2 VrS44.9 VrS15.2


GELDNER’S PREEMINENCE OF THE PAHLAVI MANUSCRIPTS

GELDNER, Prolegomena xix:

All mss. of the Vendidâd sâda ultimately presuppose a common

archetype. There seems to me to be no doubt that this

archetype in turn was excerpted and compiled from the Pahlavi

Avestâ Mss. We can hardly conceive of the Vendidâd of the

Sassanians without the Pahlavi translation. As a direct proof of

this may be instanced numerous Avesta glosses of the Pahlavi

translation which have crept into the Avesta text of the

Vendidâd sâda. In separating the Avesta text from its Pahlavi

setting several mistakes may have been made by the compiler of

the Vendidad sada, namely in cases where the text was abridged

and he tried to give it complete.


PREEMINENCE OF THE SĀDE-TRADITION

• Spiegel (Zur Textkritik des Avesta), 592

Zu meiner Rechtfertigung kann ich jedoch sagen, dass ich zwar

keine einzelne Handschrift der Vendidäd-sades einer

besonderen Berücksichtigung werth finde, dass mir aber die

Lesart der Vendidād-sādes ebensoviel gilt, wie die der alten

Handschriften, wenn sie unter sich übereinstimmen, denn ich

halte den Grundcodex der Vendidad-sâdes dem der

Handschriften mit Uebersetzung vollkommen ebenbürtig.

• Kellens, “Considérations sur l’histoire de l’Avesta”, JA

1998:

the refuse of the linearity: Sassanian archetypes >

Stammhandschriften > manuscripts

the “Sassanian” ritual Avesta: argumentation based on

the existence of the ceremonies

• Nērangs and nērangestān


RITUAL VARIETY

Geldner Rituals in the mss. varieties

Yasna ī rapihwin

Yasna

Yasna

Visperad (only 24 changes) Visperad Gāhānbār

Frawardīgān

Panǰ Gāhān

Ardā Frawahr

Srōš

Dō-hōmāst

Vīdēvdād (interc.) Vīdēvdād Ohrmazd

Srōš

VīštāspYašt


RITUAL VARIETY: DEDICATORIES (ŠNUMAN)

Yasna

Visperad + intercalation ceremonies

Y0.8-12

Y4.23-24 (drōn šnūman)

Y22.23-27

Y24.28-32

Y25.4-8

Y0.8-12

Y4.23-24 (drōn šnūman)

Y22.23-27

VrS13.41-46 [Vr11.16]

Y25.4-8

VrS32.33

VrS33.23-25

VrS35.29

VrS36.18

VrS36.28


• DEDICATORIES OF VISPERAD

• Gāhānbār:

raϑβō. bərəzatō. yō. a ahe. raϑβąm. yō. a ahe. raϑβąm.

aiiaranąmca. asniianąmca. māhiianąmca. yāiriianąmca.

sarəδanąmca. raϑβąm. vīspe. mazištanąm. yōi. həṇti. a ahe.

ratauuō. hāuuanīm. paiti. ratūm. + corresponding Gāhānbār

raϑβō

• Srōš:

sraošahe. ašịiehe. taxmahe. tanumąϑrahe. dar i. draoš. āhūiriiehe.

• Frawardīgān und Ardā Frawahr:

ahurahe. mazd . raēuuatō. arənaŋuhatō. amə anąm.

spəṇtanąm. a āunąm. frauua inąm. uγranąm. aiβiϑūranąm.

paoiriiō. kaē anąm. frauua inąm. nabānazdištanąm. frauua inąm.

• Dō-Hōmāst (K7b):

isa .vāstrahe. Zaraθuštrahe. ašạonō. frauuaṣ̌əe


OTHER CHANGES: Y23 (1-4) & Y26

Ave976, Ave977/78, RSPA 230

agar šnūman nē srōš bawēd ān ī bawēd guftan agar ardā

fraward bawēd čīyōn mazdaδāta. a aciϑra. y. (end of Y25.3)

guftan ahurəm. mazdąm. raēuuaṇtəm. arənaŋuhaṇtəm. y.

amə ā. spəṇtā. huxšaϑrā. huδ ŋhō. y. [it followsY26]

If it is not the dedicatory to Sros, then you say the

corresponding dedicatory. If it is the (the dedicatory) to Arda

Frawahr, then you say as mazdaδāta. a aciϑra. y. (end of

Y25.3), (then) (the dedicatory) ahurəm. mazdąm. raēuuaṇtəm.

arənaŋuhaṇtəm. y. amə ā. spəṇtā. huxšaϑrā. huδ ŋhō. y. [it

follows Y26]

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