Construction Solutions in Structural Steel

I S S U E E I G H T M A Y 2 0 0 7




High profile




SX1 – Southern Cross




Melbourne office tower

c o n t e n t s




In the last issue of OneSteel Solutions we highlighted the increase

in market share of steel-framed buildings in the multistorey

buildings market. At the time of publishing, many of those

buildings that contributed to the increasing share count were

still in the construction stage. In this issue of OneSteel solutions

we take a closer look at some of these buildings which are now

complete, including several of the more high-profile buildings that

are being added to the Australian skyline.

Two high-rise buildings, namely the Southern Cross Building and

the Urban Workshop from Melbourne, are featured in the pages to

follow. The medium-rise buildings, specifically Latitude East, The

Advertiser and Sunday Mail Building, and Flinders Link, illustrate

that steel framing is suitable for a range of heights, occupancies

and styles of buildings.

When the projects were being researched for this publication,

it was noticeable that the design teams all mentioned the

sustainability aspects of their particular project. OneSteel,

and indeed the steel industry, has over a number of years now,

looked at the role that steel can play in sustainable developments.

In this edition of OneSteel Solutions we take a look at this issue

and will continue to explore the possibilities in more detail in the

near future.

Please enjoy this issue of OneSteel Solutions.




Release of Latest Suite

• ConnectED 2007

OneSteel – proud sponsors of

UNSW ConnectED




Launch of monthly e-newsletter

4 Structural Steel’s role

In Sustainable Developments




The new high-profile

headquarters for Adelaide




Experience & steel industry knowhow

deliver a win-win result




New standards for Melbourne

office tower



SX1 – Southern Cross






Three developers combine to

create Flinders Link in Adelaide


OneSteel Solutions

issue 8 page

in the news




OneSteel has recently completed

the latest upgrade to its suite of

Composite Analysis Software. The

new suite consists of:

CompSelector ® V1.0;

CompLoader ® V1.0;


CompPanel ® V1.2 (upgraded) and

CompPen ® V1.0 (New)

Version 1.2 of CompPanel ® now has a

‘save’ function following feedback from

designers that they would like to have

the files stored electronically as well

as on paper. CompPen ® , which allows

web penetrations in composite beams

to be analysed, is a new edition to the

suite. CompPen ® will enable designers

to either check a web penetration

for structural adequacy or allow the

software to determine the largest

penetration allowable in a given position

along the composite beam.

Development is currently underway to

write a module that will assist in the

design of shear reinforcement.

To get the latest copy of the software, fill

out and return the coupon attached to

this issue of OneSteel Solutions or call

OneSteel Direct on 1800 1 STEEL.

ConnectED 2007

OneSteel is a proud sponsor of the University of New South Wales

(UNSW) ConnectED Structure.

This structure will be the combined creation of students from three Faculties of UNSW – The College of

Fine Arts, Engineering and Built Environment. The structure will be the icon for the ConnectED Conference

and have a prominent position on the Kensington campus through the duration of the conference.

Creative and innovative design has a key role to play in the quest for designing environmentally

sustainable buildings. OneSteel sees as one of its corporate responsibilities to promote sustainable

developments to the designers of the future. As a material sponsor of the ConnectED Structure,

OneSteel were given the opportunity to present to the students of the three faculties. OneSteel took

this opportunity to promote ideas on design for sustainability. Students were encouraged to explore

the possibilities of designs using steel sections which are deconstructed from other structures. The

students were also challenged to consider designing a structure that could be easily deconstructed and

relocated, or so that the steel could be recycled without the need for remelting.

The students’ submissions can be viewed on the ConnectED website:

Market Assistance

OneSteel has, since its origin, provided

technical and market support to

designers, builders and developers.

This support includes the provision

of design tools and publications,

design advice for construction and

fire engineering, a complementary

composite steel design service, advice

on products and facilitating expert

advice. David Bell looks after the

North/East Region covering NSW, ACT

and QLD, while Spiros Dallas looks

after the South/West Region covering

VIC, TAS, SA, WA and NT.

Both David and Spiros welcome any

enquiries you may have on your next

building project. It is their strong belief

that the earlier they are involved in a

project the better they are able to assist.

Their contact details are listed below.

David Bell – (02) 9792 9075

0407 357 120

Spiros Dallas – (03) 8312 2633

0419 587 951

Gary Oldfield, who has performed

this role in Victoria for 36 years, has

retired from OneSteel. While Gary was

at OneSteel he was also very active in

serving on numerous industry bodies

including Engineers Australia and ASI.

Nick van der Kreek, who previously

serviced the Queensland market, has

taken the role as OneSteel’ Technical

Development Manager.

OneSteel Communiqué Newsletter

OneSteel has just launched a new email newsletter. OneSteel Communiqué is designed to provide practical know-how,

showcase architectural and construction case studies and deliver the most up-to-the-minute news on steel initiatives.

OneSteel Communiqué is a not-to-be-missed monthly e-newsletter. If you’re not already on the distribution list, you can

make sure you are for future editions by calling or emailing OneSteel Direct 1800 1 STEEL or

To see a copy of the first issue of OneSteel Communiqué, log onto

OneSteel Solutions

issue 8 page

Structural Steel’s Role in


Grandstand at WIN Stadium

relocated from the Aquatic Centre.

It is generally accepted that the definition of Sustainable

Development (SD) is: “Development that meets the

needs of the present without compromising the ability

of future generations to meet their own needs”

The underlying principle behind this

definition of SD is that there needs to be

an integration of economic, environmental

and social considerations, whilst seeking

the optimal outcomes. These key factors

should not be examined in isolation but

in totality and a long-term view rather than

a short-term view should be taken

in making decisions.

Even though the tools for making better

SD decisions is a developing area, there

is a strong and growing drive by the

community to readily adopt all that is

believed to be SD, and not necessarily with

much understanding of whether tools or

decisions are scientifically well grounded.

The increased level of embracement of SD

principles and tools is particularly driven by

the broader community’s realisation that

human interaction with the environment

is impacting on climate change and water

resources. Currently the most popular tools

used to measure or compare the level of

sustainability between developments are in

the form of a checklist or scorecard. As a

developing science, it is important that these

tools are simple and easily adjustable to

cater for the ever-increasing improvements

in the science that will affect arbitrary

weighting factors, credit points, and

aspects to be rated in those tools. They

Better informed

design is the key.

should be relevant in the decision making

for building design and operation for the

entire life cycle of the building including

design, materials production, construction,

operation, maintenance, demolition,

component reuse or material recycle.

If we look back at the definition of SD, we

realise that the integration of environmental,

economic and social policies is a complex

task which is difficult to package and

calibrate using just a simple scorecard.

To be effective it requires all the

stakeholders to examine the consequences

of the scorecard and offer research and

opinions to improve the calibration of these

scorecards. OneSteel is committed to the

environment and therefore has allocated

resources into this area to provide feedback

to the organisations responsible for

administering these scorecards.

The Green Buildings Council Australia’s

Green Star system is one such a rating

tool for which OneSteel has provided

submissions to identify areas or issues.

Steel is the most recycled material in the

world by weight. This is presumably the

reason why it is one of the first things

that comes to mind when considering

SD. However, this is not the key, better

informed design is the key. In its

submissions OneSteel has also reflected

on the hierarchy of factors that will

improve the environmental performance

of buildings which contain structural steel.

The hierarchy is based on the simple fact

that the order of importance in SD is (1)

Reduce; (2) Reuse; and finally (3) Recycle.

OneSteel and its predecessors have devoted

significant resources to improving the

material strengths of their steel products.

While this was predominantly to be the able

to offer a premium product in the market

place, from an SD perspective, it has also

effectively reduced the amount of steel that

would otherwise be consumed. The support

OneSteel has offered to the development

of Australian Design Standards and the

design guides that OneSteel publishes

promoting more economical designs are

also now effectively facilitating design of

SD by reducing the amount of steel that

would have been used.

Steel-framed buildings are chosen by

many developers because of the inherent

ease with which they can be modified

or adapted. These buildings are easily

extended either vertically or laterally,

unbolted and re-bolted, strengthened and

reshaped because of the nature of the

connection of one piece of steel to another.

Furthermore good design at inception will

allow the steel elements of the structure

to be unbolted and reused elsewhere.

The grandstand seating for the Olympics

at the Sydney Aquatic Centre, which has

been disassembled and relocated to WIN

Stadium, is one such high-profile example.

Refurbishing steel members by re-rolling

to straighten, cutting and drilling, etc

for new application is also an option to

consider before recycling. Component

reuse will save more energy and reduce

greenhouse effects, compared to the

next option of remelting into new steel.

However, when all the reduce and reuse

options are exhausted the steel can be

recycled as is already the case with

around 95% of structural steel that is

used for construction in Australia.

The Green Buildings Council Australia

has recently launched a Shopping Centre

Design Pilot, which includes a new section

in the Materials category that allocates

points to “Reused Products and Materials”

and “Disassembly and Adaptability”.

This is a very pleasing development

and indicates that the submissions by

OneSteel and others are now being


For more information on

sustainable developments

contact OneSteel direct on

1800 1 78335 (1800 1 STEEL)

OneSteel Solutions

issue 8 page

300PLUS ®

Ernst & Young Centre

The new Advertiser

& Sunday Mail Building

The new high-profile headquarters of the

Advertiser and Sunday Mail newspapers follows

an Adelaide trend to build in steel. The project,

which won Best Commercial Building at last

year’s RAIA (South Australian Chapter) Awards

was built with 1200 tonnes of structural steel at

a cost of $50 million.

The five-storey building, at 31

Waymouth Street, is a steel-framed

office construction using composite steel

beams with a basement level and twostorey

plant mezzanine above the roof.

The building fits comfortably into the

podium scale of the street and has

been designed to enhance the quality

of the pedestrian environment and

provide a visually exciting façade on

Waymouth Street.

Designed by E.G.O │Fender Katsalidis,

a joint venture between E.G.O, the

Sydney commercial interior design firm

and architects Fender Katsalidis, the

impressive architecture presents a glass

façade wall, while inside the building

an atrium runs north to south, linked by

bridges at each level from the lifts to the

working floors. An open stairwell runs up

through the atrium creating an ambience

of light and space.

The atrium, which runs the full height

of the building, is a soaring space,

naturally lit from above. This space

allows immediate understanding of

the workings of the building whilst

providing natural light to the deep plan

office floors. It also provides incidental

staff meeting places via bridges which

connect each office floor to the lift core

and toilets, creating an environment for

social and information exchange.

Full height atrium

naturally lit from above.

OneSteel Solutions

issue 8 page

300PLUS ®

Advertiser & Sunday Mail Building

The building was on a tight design and

construction schedule with financial

penalties for the client if not occupied

on time. Because of the medium-rise

character of the building, structural

engineers, Peter McBean and Loreto

Taglienti of Wallbridge & Gilbert, in

consultation with the architects, took

the decision to use steel as the primary

framing material to enable fast erection

of the primary elements of the building.

That approach meant that the fire-rating

of the structure was taken off the critical

path. Steel also provided the flexibly

for the architecture, allowing for large

edge cantilevers – an important part in

realising the lightness of structure at the

façade. While some of the steelwork was

repetitive, other sections were unique.

The typical 8.1 metre X 8.1 metre

grid comprises OneSteel 300PLUS ®

460UB67 primary and 410UB54

secondary beams acting compositely

with the steel-profile decking. Because

of the large floor plate size the floorto-ceiling

heights of 3 metres are

significantly higher than is typical

for office buildings. This avoids the

horizontal squeezing of the internal view

cone that would otherwise occur.

The north and south perimeters have

been designed to be column free. The

3.5-metre cantilevered floors to the

south and in particular to the north also

influenced the selection of structural

steel framing.

On level two (the editorial floor) the

client required a larger floor plate so the

southern building edge at this level was

designed to cantilever 3.6 metres out

from the building face. This solution was

made possible by large steel cantilever

beams, which in turn become part of the

visual expression of the building.

The north façade in particular required

an elegant and minimalist structural

solution which could only be achieved

through the use of steel. Deflection

control of the cantilevered floors was

very tight in order to service the façade

weather seal. Consequently, Wallbridge &

Gilbert considered steel the appropriate

solution because of the greater

deflection predictability, compared

to a concrete structure.

echoing the nature of the work within

and communicating graphically the

power of the use of words. It also

provides pedestrian shelter along

Waymouth Street and strategically

locates the main public and corporate

entrances to the building though a series

of transition spaces from the public

domain of the street and footpath into a

lobby, before passing the security point

into the building proper.

The choice of hollow section columns

was innovative as they provided an

efficient, cost-effective and time-saving

solution. Concrete-filled 400 x 400 x

10.0 Square Hollow Sections (SHS)

were used around the perimeter of the

building, saving up to 30% in steel mass

and fabrication costs.

Floor beam connections to the hollow

section columns took several forms.

Circular Hollow Sections (CHS) columns

with simply supported beams were

connected by a single line of bolts to a

web side plate welded to the column

face. Continuous cantilevered beams

utilised stub beams welded to the

column face with (top and bottom)

flanges welded to ring stiffeners around

the column perimeter. Bolted moment

end plate connections joined the stub

beam to the suspended cross beams.

The north façade in particular

required an elegant and minimalist

structural solution which could only

be achieved through the use of steel.

The glass façade on Waymouth Street.

The glass façade has an inner skin

curtain wall with an extended glass wall

another metre away. This innovative

‘second glass skin’ across the

Waymouth Street frontage enlivens the

building and integrates the corporate

identity within an elegant, well

considered façade.

Environmentally it provides acoustic

and thermal protection and shading as

well as creating a distinctive urbane

and graphically communicative façade,

Perimeter SHS columns were either

continuous with web side plate

connected beams or, when these beams

were cantilevered beyond the column

line, discontinuous at every floor with

cap and base plates connected to

continuous beams. The floors were tied

back to the two service cores, laterally

bracing the building.

Technology was critical to executing the

multifaceted design. The integration of

the 3D software enabled the exchange

OneSteel Solutions

issue 8 page


Advertiser Newspapers Pty



E.G.O Fender Katsalidis


E.G.O Group


Wallbridge & Gilbert


Baulderstone Hornibrook


Manuele Engineers

This award-winning, high-profile

office building is a demonstration

of steel’s design flexibility.




OneSteel Steel and Tube;

Smorgon Steel Metals


OneSteel Solutions

issue 8 page

300PLUS ®

Advertiser & Sunday Mail Building

Innovative glass façade with

an inner skin curtain wall.

of shop drawings between the architect,

engineer and detailer. Steel detailer

USDSA created a 3D model as part of

the USDSA/Manuele Engineers Joint

Venture (drafting and manufacture inhouse)

which allowed the steelwork to

be both drawn and fabricated quickly

offsite to meet the tight construction

timeframes. Steelwork also meant

a less congested site with a smaller

construction team and reduced risk.

This award-winning, high-profile

building, with approximately 15,500

square metres of office space over five

storeys, is a demonstration of steel’s

design flexibility, cost and time benefits

and offers an example of what steel can

deliver for multi-level developments. The

steel frame of the Advertiser building will

mean that changes for future use can

more easily be accommodated.

Fire engineering

Advances in fire engineering design

were key to the final framing system’s

economy and competitiveness.

Sprinklers and concrete-filled hollow

section columns provide significant

efficiencies to enable concessions on fire

ratings to make the final framing system

economically competitive.

The fire engineering study allowed the

majority of beams to be bare steel and

the critical members to have a reduced

fire resistance level (FRL). The 120

minutes FRL required by the Building

Code of Australia (BCA) deemed to

satisfy requirements was reduced to

60 minutes. This meant that only one

coat of intumescent paint was needed to

provide the required protection.

Fire engineering design was done to

Australian Standards and British guidelines.

The gross floor area at each level is

approximately 3100 square metres.

An environmentally

sustainable building

Designed in an environmentally

responsible manner the building limits

emissions and other environmental

pollutants. Careful consideration has

been given to energy conservation,

materials and user health and comfort,

private and public realm and transport.

The building design is consistent with

Council Wide Principles 25 and 26.

The Waymouth Street north façade

has significant protection against solar

infiltration into the interior. Horizontal

sun-shading devices, located at each

floor level and at intermediate levels,

provide shading before the sun reaches

the glazing proper. Sun shades are

encapsulated within a ventilated doubleglass

façade. The outer skin of glass

provides an initial means of converting

the solar radiation into heat before

reaching the main building façade. The

fine dot graphics, incorporated into the

façade, provide additional shading.

The western façade of the building

is masonry, built against an existing

building, and therefore not subject to

heat infiltration.

A much higher building (part of a

redevelopment proposed to the east)

is to be constructed, shading the east

façade of the site further. Because of

this factor and its orientation, the solar

load on this façade is not great and

is dealt with through the choice of an

appropriately performing glazing system

and integrated solar screenings.

Stormwater runoff is collected and

recycled in the watering systems for

the courtyard and roof terrace and for

flushing systems within the building.

The building fabric is designed to reduce

the heating and cooling loads on the air

conditioning which has design initiatives

that minimise energy consumption over

traditional air conditioning systems.

Walls and the roof materials have been

selected from high thermal performance

materials to substantially reduce heat

transmission into space (and heat loss

from the space in winter).

More efficient lighting will reduce lighting

energy consumption by more than

50% based on typical office occupied

hours. Wiring to the lighting has been

configured to incorporate intelligent

lighting controls that automatically

switch off lights when an area is

unoccupied. Similar wiring based on

daylight controls lights close to the

perimeter of the building.

The carpark ventilation includes

CO 2 monitoring to minimise energy

consumption from the carpark exhaust

and ventilation fans.

Steel – The competitive advantage

• On-time occupation for the client.

• Steel facilitated greater flexibility in the architectural expression allowing large edge cantilevers,

to realise the desired lightness at the façade.

• A steel frame enabled fast erection of the primary elements of the building for speedy enclosure.

• The steel solution gave greater deflection predictability and control of the cantilevered floors.

• Advances in fire engineering design were key to the final framing system’s economy

and competitiveness.

• The integration of the 3D software enabled the exchange of shop drawings between the architect,

engineer and detailer.

• Offsite fabrication of the steelwork provided a less congested site with a smaller construction team

and reduced risk.

OneSteel Solutions

issue 8 page

Latitude East @

World Square

E x p e r i e n c e a n d s t e e l i n d u s t r y

k n o w - h o w d e l i v e r a w i n - w i n r e s u lt

The last construction on the World Square site is a

ten-storey A-Grade commercial office building known

as Latitude East. The new building sits on top of

an existing 12-storey concrete structure. The glass

façade structure with an enclosed atrium is being

built above the World Square Retail Complex.

When completed in November 2007 it will deliver

around 25,000 square metres of floor space, to

be occupied by the Australian Taxation Office.

An oversized pressed metal edge form was used at

the edges of the slabs, enabling pouring to a level.

OneSteel Solutions

issue 8 page

300PLUS ®

Latitude East @ World Square

Designed by leading architects Crone

Partners and engineered by Taylor

Thomson Whitting (TTW) Latitude East

is being developed on the World Square

site by Multiplex and follows the three

high-rise towers and the Retail Complex

completed between September 2002

and May 2006. Construction on this

site has presented a number of design

challenges, not the least of which has

been the pre-existence of the multi-level

carpark, loading dock and parts of the

retail structure.

Multiplex had designed the World Square

Retail Complex, over which Latitude East

is built, to support a future residential

development above. When the feasibility

of a major government tenant (the ATO)

became a commercial reality, Multiplex

realised the layout of the proposed

building would have to alter and the

columns would have to be strengthened

substantially to support the change.

Weight, always an issue on the World

Square site because of load limitations

on the pre-existing multilevel carpark,

became even more critical on Latitude

East. Steel, as a material able to deliver

a 30% lighter building, was the ideal

structural solution. The lighter frame

greatly reduced the degree to which

the existing structure needed to be


Stephen Boss of Multiplex said that:

“The strengthening work would have

meant time delays on the project

that couldn’t be predicted because

of uncertain access to existing retail

tenancies. However, a structural steel

solution was around 30% lighter so

many less columns needed to be

strengthened, reducing the uncertain

time risks. The steel option allowed

Multiplex to improve our risk profile on

the project.”

Apart from the increased time and cost

to strengthen the columns to carry a

heavier commercial structure the site

had other constraints including:

• construction operating times

restricted to 7am-7pm weekdays

and Saturdays from 7am-5pm

• limitation to traffic movements on

and off the site

• workforce number limitations

of the site.

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 10

Construction work shows the atrium with

balustrades to the lower floors in position.

300PLUS ®

Latitude East @ World Square

Offsite fabrication of the steelwork

and a cooperative approach from the

steel industry overcame these and

other restrictions.

TTW carried out the engineering design,

including design of the floors to meet

structural requirements. Greg Kane,

TTW’s Structural Engineer, said that:

“There are 12 storeys below the new

structure. The first new level (level 13)

was built as a transfer deck. From level

14 the construction is composite steel

decking with a structural steel frame.

Of over 200 existing columns only 30

needed to be strengthened for structural

reasons, with a few more modified for

architectural motives, greatly reducing

the impact on the retail tenancies and

to discuss the feasibility of the steel

option. These meetings were the

genesis of a cooperative coordinated

working relationship between Multiplex

and the emergent BlueScope Lysaght

Design & Construction team which

resulted in a win-win outcome for all

and substantially reduced Multiplex’s

risk profile on the project.”

Multiplex contracted BlueScope

Lysaght Design & Construction Pty Ltd

to manage the steelwork packages,

including supply, fabrication and erection

of the steel frame and the installation of

the steel decking and shear studs.

Greg Kane said that: “Erection was very

fast. The average deck was on a six-day

site-work drilling, surveying, fitting

safety barriers and the installation of the

curtain wall brackets. We coordinated

the work of over 20 suppliers. This

approach gave Multiplex a completely

integrated delivery of the steelwork and

reduced the risks associated with the

steel option.”

Brent Poll said that the 900 tonnes of

steel beams, plus the columns, decking

installation and the roof structure, was

erected over 11 weeks.

The composite beams were designed

with OneSteel’s latest CompPanel ®

software. Pre-cambers offset the beam

self weight and wet concrete deflection

to provide a horizontal beam soffit and

Erection was very fast. The

average deck was on a six-day

cycle. We started construction

in mid September and had

virtually finished the structure

by late December.

access to the carpark. Only eight new

columns were needed.”

Chris Mathews, a former Multiplex

Construction Manager had worked on

the Latitude/Ernest & Young Tower and

the Retail Complex with Harry Young

(Project Manager) and Stephen Boss of

Multiplex. Their combined experience

on both projects and Chris Mathews’

association as a consultant to BlueScope

Lysaght’s Design & Construction

business meant the team was able to

sit down and design out a lot of the

construction issues on the Latitude

East project.

Stephen Boss said that: “Chris Mathews

bought to the evolving design table

OneSteel engineers and the BlueScope

Lysaght Design & Construction business

cycle. We started construction in mid

September and had virtually finished the

structure by late December.”

Greg attributed the speed of erection

to pre-planning. “Once into the

construction phase all went smoothly.

It went very well largely because of the

detailed pre-planning which went into

the steelwork. Weekly pre-planning

meetings were held between May and

August to design out any aspects which

might hold up the project.”

Brent Poll, Manager of BlueScope

Lysaght Design & Construction, said

that they put a huge effort into the

management of the job. “We took a

holistic approach and integrated the

design management, the steelwork

detailing, fabrication, ancillary formwork,

uniform slab thickness. This meant that

the slabs could be poured to a level

with a uniform thickness resulting in

minimal concrete wastage. Site feedback

indicated that the pre-cambers specified

generally came out as calculated. An

oversized pressed metal edge form was

used at the edges of the slabs.

Extensive interactions between

BlueScope Lysaght Design &

Construction and TTW generated

highly economical connection details.

Most of the web side plate (WSP)

connections were changed to angle

cleat connections. The single angle

cleat connections (rather than a WSP)

meant many of the primary beams,

as well as all the secondary beams

could be processed on a beam line

by Sebastian Engineering rather than

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 11

300PLUS ®

Latitude East @ World Square






Crone Partners


Taylor Thomson Whitting


Multiplex Construction


BlueScope Lysaght

Design & Construction

requiring the welding of a WSP, enabling

greater speed of fabrication and ease of


Connection to concrete core wall

generally consisted of site welding an

angle cleat to a plate that had been cast

into the wall. Horizontally slotted holes

in the cleat enabled fast installation

of the beam.

Innovative column to primary beam

connections, fabricated by Phoenix

Engineering were also used extensively

to speed up shop fabrication and improve

the economy of the finished solution.

The OneSteel 300PLUS ® 310UB40

secondary beams allowed the air

conditioning ductwork to pass below the

bottom flange. Using OneSteel’s beam

penetration software, web penetrations

were located in the primary beams

where required. Some large reinforced

web penetrations were beyond the

scope of the OneSteel software, so were

designed using finite element analysis.

In the preliminary design the team used

Murray et al, Steel Design Guide Series

11: Floor Vibrations due to Human

Activity published by American Institute

of Steel Construction (AISC) 2003 to

show that the vibration level was within

acceptable limits for interior floors.

Vibration performance of the cantilever

areas was checked by TTW using finite

element software.

As there is a wall of glass on the internal

atrium there was no need for any special

vibration treatment here which would

have been have needed if there had only

been a lightweight balustrade.

The cantilevered non-composite

OneSteel 300PLUS ® 610UB125 primary

beams were passed through a slotted

stub 600-millimetre Circular Hollow

Section (CHS) column. For ease of

transportation and fast site erection

they were fabricated as an assembly.

The 600-millimetre diameter columns

allowed good access for concrete

pouring either side of the beams.

The curtain wall façade dictated that the

cantilevers and edge beams be sized to

limit deflection at the mid-span of the

edge beam between adjacent floors to

within acceptable limits.

Small scissor lifts were used to erect the

beams, enabling easy, safe access for

the riggers. Expandable foam was used

to seal the gap between the decking and

the circular columns.

Some concrete blade walls were made

with two small UC sections used to

support the steel floor. Then the concrete

blade columns were formed up and

poured, allowing the floor construction

to go ahead of the blade walls, and each

floor and the supporting blade walls to

be poured concurrently.

The stairwells are supported from each

level rather than self supporting over the

entire height.

According to Greg Kane the Latitude

East project goes a long way to

dispelling the beliefs and myths

surrounding steel. He said that: “The

construction industry doesn’t have a

lot of experience building in steel so is

chary about using it as a construction

material. Steel may take more preplanning

than a concrete structure but

that pre-planning pays dividends in the

speed of erection once construction

gets underway. This building benefited

from the experiences some of the team

had gained on the Latitude/Ernst &

Young Tower next door. The involvement

of the steel industry at the early

planning stage contributed to a troublefree

construction program.”

Fire Engineering

Web penetrations were located in the deeper primary beams where required.

Most web penetrations were un-reinforced for economy.

Fire engineering conducted by

Norman Disney & Young and

supported by OneSteel provided

a solution where only the primary

beams and the main secondary

beams joining columns were fire

sprayed, and only to an FRL of

60 minutes. The fire engineering

solutions also allowed the entire

top 2 levels of the office floors

to be entirely unprotected steel

floor beams.

A completely enclosed safety mesh

barrier was erected on the active

construction level and moved

upwards as erection progressed.

Angle cleat connections saved costs on the project.

The cleats were site welded to a plate that had been

cast into the wall. Horizontally slotted holes in the

cleat allowed quick installation of the beam.

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 12

Steel frame

construction delivers

N e w s ta n d a r d s f o r M e l b o u r n e o f f i c e t o w e r

According to its advocates, the new Urban

Workshop at 50 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne,

designed by John Wardle Architects in

association with Hassell and NH Architecture,

has “unparalleled modern features that will

set new standards in office accommodation.”

The majority of the building’s occupants will be within 12 metres of a window, no

matter where they are in the 54,000 square metres of floor space above ground

levels. The Department of Human Services is the anchor tenant.

The Urban Workshop took six years of interactive planning between the clients,

The Industry Superannuation Property Trust (ISPT), Multiplex and architect John

Wardle. Together they have created a landmark commercial building. The 34-level

tower with a five-level basement (accommodating 476 cars, 216 bicycles and 89

motorcycle spaces) integrates a mixture of uses, provides an innovative workplace

milieu and an enhanced urban environment.

At ground level a network of new public laneways was designed to reflect the original

street configuration, lost to title consolidation in the 1950s, but now remembered

and reinterpreted as pedestrian thoroughfares passing through the foyer, actively

connecting to the life of the city.

Built at a cost of $200 million, the building is light and transparent and very open,

indicating there is a lot that is different under the skin.

The four-level podium provides

interactive office space with bridge links

between the tenancies overlooking the

large foyer and retail area below.

The innovative design of the steel and

glass structure was fundamental to

achieving the light, airy, transparent

look. The composite steel decking and

a structural steel frame with innovative

composite columns and metal deck

was prop-free construction. Floor

construction employs composite steel

beams (up to 13-metre span), with a

cantilever that supports floor to ceiling

windows and provides a column-free

façade effect.

The 1900-square-metre floor plate

is unique for a 34-storey building in

Melbourne. The slender side core,

housing 17 lifts in three rises with two

dedicated goods lifts, is offset and has

three core outriggers at the top of the

building to assist in providing structural

stiffness. Flying beam structures are

employed for the podium floors.

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 13

300PLUS ®

50 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne

Peter Chancellor of Connell Mott

MacDonald, the design engineers on the

project, said that: “We produced designs

for two versions – in post tension

concrete and in steel. Both were costed

by Rider Hunt and were pretty close.

Because of similar floor-to-floor heights

of 3.95 metres for the concrete and

steel alternatives and the same vertical

interval for accommodating services,

there was no significant variation in

costs for services.”

Multiplex, the builder on the project, then

made the call for the steel version, and

the detailed design was done. In making

the decision to use steel Multiplex

said that steel presented less risk to

the building program and a significant

reduction in labour costs.

Chancellor went on to say that: “There

was a tight program for this job, and

Multiplex felt there was a lower risk

with the steel option as more of the

components could be fabricated off site.”

“Another benefit was the jump-start

method of construction for which steel

is very suitable. The lower podium

floors are quite complex post-tensioned

concrete structures so it was an

advantage to remove these from the

critical path for the project. The tall steel

jump-start columns protruded above

the podium levels. By building on top of

those jump-start columns, work could

proceed on the upper levels, while the

complex and time-consuming podium

“The innovative design of the

steel and glass structure was

fundamental to achieving the

light, airy, transparent look.”

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 14

300PLUS ®

50 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne

floors were simultaneously attended

to. Steel construction is ideal for this

approach,” Chancellor concluded.

The project grid was 9 x 12 metres,

with a central spine beam. Because

the floor plate was not rectangular, it

needed a bay of varying span secondary

beams with one support on the central

concrete core. Fabrication was carried

out by GFC Industries. The beams were

generally OneSteel 700WB and OneSteel

300PLUS ® 610UB and 530UB sections

with tubular steel perimeter columns and

square steel internal composite columns,

involving innovative splice details.

The floor slabs were 120 millimetres

with designated areas strengthened for

compactus loading.

Flying beams in the podium floors

The reasons for going with steel


• large floor plates ranging from

1700 to 1900 square metres were

economical in steel

• simplicity and ease of construction

• speed of erection

• emphasis on repetitive engineering

• considerable off-site construction,

reducing on-site trades and labour

• lower structural weight compared to

concrete construction, which reduced

column and footing sizes.

The Building Management System

is flexible, responding to occupant

demands, as well as optimising energy

use and logging usage patterns. It

covers all energy aspects of the building.

The system manages lighting, power,

transport, safety, security and air

handling. It can utilise outside air when

outdoor ambient conditions permit,

thus avoiding the need to cool air. Heat

recovery from light fittings in ceiling

voids can also be used to supplement

heating in winter.

State-of-the-art management and

control of the building’s services is just

one, albeit important, aspect of the

project. The building has achieved a

4.5 star Australian Building Greenhouse

Rating (ABGR).The rating measures the

management, health and wellbeing of

a building’s occupants, accessibility

to public transport, water use, energy

consumption, embodied energy of its

materials, land use and pollution.

The steel solution presented less risk

to the overall construction program

and the contract time saving was

estimated at two months. The major

tenant moved in between March and

the end of April 2006.

The project lead the Royal Australian

Institute of Architects 2006 Victorian

Awards where it won awards for

Commercial Architecture, Interior

Architecture, Urban Design and shared

the Melbourne Prize awarded for

projects which have made a significant

contribution to the CBD.

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 15

300PLUS ®

50 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne




John Wardle Architects in

association with Hassell

and NH Architecture


Connell Mott MacDonald


Multiplex Constructions

Built at a cost of $200 million, the

building is light and transparent and

very open, indicating there is a lot

that is different under the skin.


GFC Industries


Straightline Drafting


Rider Hunt


Norman Disney & Young

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 16

The Urban Workshop foyer




An exciting new business development is

taking shape at the top end of Bourke Street

on the western corner of Exhibition Street.

This prominent site was once the location of

Melbourne’s prestigious Southern Cross Hotel.

The site was procured by joint venture partners and is now under the ownership of

Multiplex. The current phase of the project was completed in March.

The new Southern Cross Development is well located at the eastern precinct of the

Melbourne Central Business District. The site also enjoys excellent amenities with

shops, restaurants, hotels, major office buildings and public transport nearby.

The trend for modern corporations to seek larger floor plates rather than skyscrapers

was a driving force in the commercial brief of this new corporate building. The target

market is a mix of corporate and government tenants.

Planned to be staged, the development

of two building towers linked with

Southern Cross Lane under the canopy

and five basement levels, will offer to

the market 120,000 square metres of

office space in total, over 5000 square

metres of retail space and secure

parking for 950 cars, 150 bicycles and

100 motor bikes.

The SX1 building will comprise four

major elements:

• double height ground level consisting

of main entries, foyer and secured lift

lobbies, whilst the remaining space

will be offered for mixed-use retail

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 17

300PLUS ®

SX1 – Southern Cross Development

Due to various advantages,

structural steel framing

was selected for use in the

construction of the extension.

• above ground level, two podium

floors providing 3500 square metres

net lettable area of office area each

• elegantly constructed and transparent

canopy enclosing the space between

the buildings at the top of their

podium levels will open up to

new civic and retail precinct labelled

Southern Cross Lane

• the tower above the podium levels

will have open office floor plates in

excess of 2100 square metres

and will accommodate plant rooms

and required building services.

The SX1 (or East tower) with centrally

located concrete core and only one row

of columns to building perimeter will

deliver 76,700 square metres over forty

floors. The SX2 (or West Tower) with side

core and two rows of columns (perimeter

and centre of building) will provide

45,200 square metres over 22 levels will

be occupying the western end of the site

in the future.

Stage 1 of the development, fully let

to the Victorian State Government,

includes the construction of five levels of

basement carparking below street level

and the 40-level (165-metre-high) East

Tower – SX1. Multiplex Construction is

the ‘design and construct’ builder for this

$300 million development. It is estimated

that 40,000 cubic metres of concrete

and 6500 tonnes of steel will be used on

the project.

Woods Bagot, the architect on the

projects, has designed a dramatically

angled glazed façade, to take advantage

of the city views. Gordana Ticak, Woods

Bagot’s Project Director said that: “On the

eastern façade we utilised the slim profile

of the slab and floor structure to extend

glazing from floor to the underside of the

slab above, thus maximising the views

and natural light penetration. The steel

structure and the beam cantilever has

enabled creation of large podium floors,

giving a dramatic effect of space without

any apparent support.”

Lift shafts, toilets, lobby and escape

stairs were located centrally within the

floor plates, with columns located at the

building’s perimeter, creating column-free

space. The floor plates for the building

are approximately 4300 square metres

through the podium levels (levels 1 to 4),

while the typical floors are approximately

2650 square metres.

The 14-metre span was a massive selling

feature for SX Developments and enabled

work station layouts at a 1500-millimetre

grid rather than 800 or 900 millimetres.

This significantly improved building


The structural solution for the tower floor

plate needed to accommodate spans of

up to 16 metres radiating from the central

core. Multiplex Constructions required that

the structure be simple, easy to construct,

repetitive and minimise the on-site trades.

Durham Shaw, Multiplex Constructions’

Design Manager on the site, said that the

two main drivers for steel were the price

of formwork and competitive quotes from

the steel fabricators.

Durham said that GVP Fabricators,

engaged as the steel fabricator and

erector, conducted the operation in a

highly professional manner. “There was

no previous relationship with the site

team but some relationship with Multiplex.

The Multiplex site team was relatively

unfamiliar with high-rise structural steel

construction so the key was in the

professional shop detailing, and GVP

facilitated this. The big advantage in

building in steel is floor turnaround time.

With steel you can move the screens the

next day whereas with concrete, screens

cannot move until the back-propping

is complete and the concrete has had

sufficient time to cure.”

“The other great advantage was the

reduction in the number of workers on

site. On this project the erection team

was 15, whereas if the building had been

a concrete frame the number of form

workers would have been approximately

80,” Durham said.

Bonacci Group (structural engineers

on the project) Director Stuart Rossiter

proposed an unpropped steel frame,

acting compositely with metal deck

formwork as the most cost-effective

solution for the tower, and this was

then verified by Multiplex Constructions.

Columns were spaced around the

building’s perimeter, at 9-metre centres,

to suit the architectural ceiling and façade

grid, and there are no column transfers.

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 18

300PLUS ®

Brisbane Airport

Steel detailing

Steel detailer Ricky Hains of PlanIT

Design Group said they created a 3D

model for the project. “To ensure that

the correct amount of precamber was

being applied to the steel floor beams, a

bay of steelwork was actually assembled

at GVP’s plant and then loaded with

steel plates to simulate the loading from

wet concrete. The amount of deflection

was then measured and compared to

the theoretical deflection previously

calculated. The fact that the measured

figures were all within an acceptable

range of the theoretical figures is

testament to the level of engineering

expertise employed on this project”.


“Full structural steel columns were adopted

in lieu of composite columns or columns

encased in concrete. This enabled the

structural column to be relatively smaller

in cross-section. We designed a fabricated

column section, made from 400-grade

steel plate, with the capacity to support

the large axial loads.”

These fabricated columns were not in

the standard OneSteel Welded Column

range and therefore it was sourced from

overseas. GVP Fabricators, the steel

fabricators and erectors, used these

sections for the lower 28 levels of the

building and OneSteel Welded Columns

for the upper levels as this was the

most economical solution. Smorgon

Steel Metals Distribution supplied 5345

tonnes of hot rolled and welded sections

into the project from OneSteel.


The building floor framing system has

composite steel secondary beams

spanning up to 15 metres. Lou said that:

“These were pushed out to 3-metre

centres to optimise the span of the

metal formwork, with cantilevers varying

from 1-metre above level 5 and 4

metres between level 2 and level 4.”

“The cantilevers rely on beam continuity

through the primary support beams,”

Lou said. “To control tip deflections

Multiplex elected to prop the ends of

the beams, which was critical because

of the method of fixing the curtain wall

system. Steel channels were cast into

the slab, so that the curtain wall could

effectively be fixed to the building,

controlling the tip deflections. There

were no penetrations in the beams

but a services haunch around each

The SX1 (or East tower) with centrally located concrete

core and only one row of columns to building perimeter

will deliver 76,700 square metres over forty floors.

“Apart from the steelwork supporting

the façade work on the first four levels

where there were some interesting

geometric requirements, the detailing

was relatively straightforward. One

variable that had to be considered was

the impact of the axial compression

on the steel columns with an extra 2

millimetres added to the height of the

columns for each floor. Multiplex’s use

of a web-based project management

programme facilitated the exchange of

documentation and helped coordination

between the various sub-contractors,

including those working on the façade

glazing and the steel structure.”

Structural steel design

Lou Piovesan, Director at Bonacci Group

described the design of the columns,

slab and beams of the structural system.

Generally, the columns were erected

three storeys high, with splices at 1000

millimetres above the finished floor level.

Splices were designed in accordance

with AS 4100 1998 Steel structures.

The ends of columns were prepared for

full contact with splice plates designed

to transmit nominal axial compressions

and minimum moments.

Adjustments to the column heights

were made to control the differential

settlement between the concrete core

shortening and creeping and shortening

of the steel columns.


Continuous metal deck formwork spanning

3 metres between secondary beams was

used to support the 120-millimetre thick

floor slab, with continuous reinforcing top

fabric. In areas where greater acoustic

requirement was needed (such as plant

rooms), a thicker slab with secondary

beams at closer centres was adopted.

beam. The secondary beams were

also notched at each end, to assist in

services reticulation for the building.

Beams are supported by the concrete

core at one end and steel primary

beams at the other.”

“Composite primary beams spanning

between the steel columns support

the secondary beams and gave the

structure a degree of rigidity during

erection and pouring of slabs.”

“Connection details needed to be simple

to reduce erection time of structural

members on site. We designed

bearing plate connections for primary

beams, simple cleated connections for

secondary beams and end plates, where

continuity was required,” Lou concluded.


SX Developments


Multiplex Constructions


Woods Bagot


Bonacci Group


GVP Fabricators


PlanIt Design Group


Smorgon Steel Metals


OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 19

300PLUS ®

SX1 – Southern Cross Development

Fire engineering design

A thorough fire engineering design

was investigated by Lincolne Scott

Fire, all working through the building

surveyor, Philip Chun and Associates. The

investigation considered all the other

services, such as sprinklers, smoke

detection and hydrants that also fire

protect the building. The fire engineering

solution adopted to comply with the

requirements of the Building Code of

Australia (BCA) was to fire protect all

steel columns to the underside of primary

beams, as well as primary beams with a

surface area to mass ratio of greater than

20 square metres per tonne.

The fire engineering study reduced the

protection from two hours to one hour

through larger exits and covenanting

design. This solution was an economically

acceptable outcome as most of the

structural steel was unprotected.


Lou Piovesan said that: “This

building is unique, in that Woods

Bagot has implemented a number

of environmentally sustainable

development (ESD) initiatives, such as

double glazing and double skin façades.


We have recycled steel off-cuts, black

water treatment and, where possible,

used environmentally friendly material.”

“The ESD façade provided the design

team with some challenges, in

particular to support the outer façade

skin. We also needed to maintain

access between the two façades.


This was achieved by extending

the floor plate structure beyond the

concrete edge, in order to support the

walkway outer skin, while at the same

time carrying the vertical and horizontal

load imposed by the external façade.”


Lou Piovesan, Director Bonacci Group,

said that: “To achieve the maximum

benefit for structural steel-framed

buildings a more active role during the

design phase should be played by the

steel fabricator/erector and steel detailer

so that systems of repetition, optimised

connection design and planned erection

sequencing can be implemented

that best suits the capabilities of the

fabricator. This, however, does mean

engaging the fabricator before the

design is finalised. Builders are always

nervous about this, as it eliminates the

opportunity for competitive tendering.”

“A better understanding early in the

design phase of external façade

systems would greatly assist designers

in optimising and detailing systems

that accommodate façade system

tolerances and fixing requirements.

Again, this limits the builder getting

competitive tender prices for the work,

if the manufacturers and installers are

employed at the beginning of the project,

before the design is fully scoped.”

“The other challenge, not only with steel

framed structures but also with all

construction, is that change to the floor

plate is difficult to incorporate once

construction begins. With steel it is

because once steel fabrication begins, the

steelwork is manufactured a number of

floors ahead of construction. Late changes,

which require modification on site, can

be very expensive but are easier to

accommodate in steel than, say, concrete.”

Advantages of the steel solution

Cost: The unpropped steel acting

compositely with metal deck formwork

was the most cost-effective solution for

the tower.

Ease of construction: The steel

solution was simple, easy to construct,

repetitive and minimised the on-site


Reduced workforce: The

reduction in the number of workers

on site made for a safer and less

congested site. Erection team was

15 as opposed to around 80 form


Flexiblity: The flexibility of steel

allowed the architects to design a

dramatically angled glazed façade, to

take advantage of the city views.

Metal deck: The slim composite

steel deck enabled the architect to

extend the glazing from the floor to the

underside of slab above, maximising

the views and natural light penetration.

Lou concluded his comments on this

project by saying that: “Bonacci Group

has, over recent years, established

an enviable track record in designing

and delivering a varied range of steelframed

structures. We recognised that

pre-planning is paramount in achieving

and delivering the project on time and

on budget. It is through getting the

project team working closely together

at the initial planning phase that

determines the success of the building

system adopted. We were fortunate that

architectural issues were addressed

and accommodated early, as well as the

services requirements for plant, duct

work and penetrations.”

“If the building can be planned and

understood and all interfaces between

the owners, consultants and builder

coordinated early during the design

phase, then the advantages of opting

for a structural steel building system

can be realised.”

“Bonacci Group would have no hesitation

in repeating the exercise, given the

success of this project.”

Technology: Creating a 3D model

of the project allowed web-based

document exchange facilitating

accuracy and reducing the number

of RFIs.

Time: Big advantage in steel is floor

cycle times.

Large spans: The 14-metre

spans enabled work station layouts

at a 1500-millimetre grid rather than

800 millimetres or 900 millimetres,

significantly improving building


Off-site construction: Off-site

construction of the structural steelwork

reduced traffic and site congestion.

Industry capability: Competitive

steel fabrication industry. High

professionalism of the steel fabricator

and their facilitation of the professional

shop detailing.

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 20




In the heart of Adelaide three developers have combined to create

Flinders Link. The new development is an exciting mix of office, retail

and residential-use development. A complex of multistorey office

buildings, residential and carparking is being built in five stages

and is set to invigorate the inner city.

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 21

300PLUS ®

Flinders Link – Adelaide

PT Building Services is a one-third

partner developer with Kambitsis Group

and Hindmarsh Group. The joint project

at 58–80 Flinders and Wyatt Streets

will replace the former Nolan Shannon

Building, the rundown YMCA Building

and the former BEA Motors site. A

pedestrian walkway links Flinders and

Pirie Streets and joins onto Freemasons

Lane (stage 1); a multistorey public

carpark, with 700 spaces (stage 2); the

construction of a nine-storey apartment

building fronting Wyatt Street with 36

two-bedroom apartments – to be known

as “Dakota on Wyatt” (stage 3); multistorey

office building (stage 4); and

an eight-storey office building for one

tenant (stage 5).

The first three stages currently being built

are the 700-space multilevel carpark

(stage 2) and IAG Building (stage 5) and

the Santos Building (stage 4). Although

described as stage 2 and 5 the carpark

and IAG Building integrate, with the top

two levels of the office building extending

over the carpark.

Stage 2 and 5 during construction

IAG has leased 100% of the building

and taken naming rights while the oil

and gas giant, Santos, has locked in

a ten-year lease taking 100% of the

second new office building. These three

stages of the project were planned for

completion before March 2007 but were

completed in July 2006.

The IAG Building has achieved a Five

Star Green Energy Rating under the

Green Building Council of Australia

system. High performance double

glazing cuts down heat penetration

and loss while the air system monitors

CO 2 emissions, cutting in and out as

required. Low-use water appliances

have been installed and all the fittings

and fixtures have low volatile organic

compounds (VOC). Ample bicycle parking

has been provided.

Designed by architects HASSELL and

engineered by Wallbridge & Gilbert, the

façade of the new IAG office building is

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 22

300PLUS ®

Flinders Link - Adelaide

a double glazed curtain wall on a steelframed

structure with composite metal

decks and a central concrete core.

Square hollow section columns support OneSteel

primary beams.

Steel was perceived as the preferred

material for several reasons. Greg

Zafiridis, Walbridge & Gilbert’s Project

Engineer, said that as the carpark was

designed to be built in steel it became

the most logical choice for the adjoining

building. “We saw that there was market

capability to deliver and erect the steel

to meet the tight construction schedule

imposed by the tenant’s need to occupy

the building within a tight timeframe.”

The Samaras Group detailed and

fabricated the steelwork off site, delivering

the structural steel to the site where they

carried out the steel erection.

Chris Watkins, project architect for

HASSELL said that: “The site covers an

area of 6600 square metres to deliver a

building with 12,000 square metres of

office space over eight levels. To level six

the grid is 8.4 x 8.4 metres but changes

at level eight to 16.8 x 16.8. These top

two levels extend over the carpark below

to deliver large floor plates of 3000

square metres each.”

To level six the building is supported

on 508 x 10 circular hollow sections

(CHS) filled with reinforced concrete.

The column design was based on Corus

Tubes Design Guide for Concrete Filled

Columns. These columns have a fire

resistance level (FRL) of 120 minutes.

Typical primary beams in the office

and carpark are OneSteel 300PLUS ®

530UB92 primary beams and 410UB54

secondary beams. All internal beams of

the office and the secondary beams of

the carpark are composite with web side

plate connections. The primary carpark

beams and all edge beams and minor

trimmers are non-composite and erected

without propping.

OneSteel worked with the project

team to provide information on the key

benefits of structural steel, in particular

the fire engineering design. This

assistance ensured the most economical

solution for the owner. More than 1600

tonnes of steelwork has gone into the

project with most of the steel supplied

by OneSteel Steel & Tube.

The structural steel decking has spans

of 2.8 metres unpropped with a slab

thickness of 140 millimetres. The floor

to ceiling heights are 2.7 metres.

Fire engineering

The structural steel solution was adopted

following a Fire Engineering assessment

by The Centre for Environmental Safety

and Risk Engineering (CESARE at

University of Victoria. As the carpark

module was limited to 25 metres in height

with ample cross-flow ventilation, no

sprinklers or mechanical ventilation were

necessary. However, the additional two

levels of office space over the carpark

was required to include sprinklers.

Fire engineering evaluation

demonstrated that concrete-filled

400x300x12.5 RHS and 300x300x10

SHS carpark columns provided an FRL

of 60 minutes. OneSteel’s Fire Design

Note 3, Sept 2002 was the basis for

these designs. These composite design

columns also supports the two floors

of office space located above the ninestorey


Using the Cardington UK test as a

reference only, selected office floor

beams required FRL 60 minimum.

These beams were all primary with

grid line secondary beams. Assessment

dictated that they be painted with one

coat of intumescent paint. The painting

was undertaken after erection and

included connections.


PT Building Services,

Kambitsis Group and

Hindmarsh Group




Wallbridge & Gilbert


The structural steel decking is predominantly at spans

of 2.8 metres.

Lateral resistance is provided via the

combination of the central concrete lift

and stair core, precast northern shear

walls and K-bracing in the carpark.

Greg Zafiridis of Wallbridge & Gilbert

said that: “The fire engineering

assessment resulted in a cost-effective,

versatile structural steel solution which

was simple to fabricate.”

Thanks to steel the first stages of this

exciting complex are now complete

ahead of schedule and work has

commenced on the next planned stages.

Wallbridge & Gilbert


Samaras Group


Samaras Group


Currie & Brown


OneSteel Steel & Tube

OneSteel Solutions issue 8 page 23


Freecall 1800 178 335


Freefax 1800 101 141


OneSteel publications and

product literature are available

by contacting OneSteel Direct.

Detailed engineering assistance is available from

OneSteel State Market Engineers and Development staff.



State Market Engineer

Phone: (02) 9792 9075

Fax: (02) 9792 9093

Mobile: 0407 357 120



State Market Engineer

Phone: (03) 8312 2633

Fax: (03) 8312 2650

Mobile: 0419 587 951



Regional Manager

New Zealand &

Pacific Islands

Phone: +64 (09) 579 3002

Fax: +64 (09) 579 1555

This publication has been prepared by OneSteel Manufacturing Pty Limited ABN 42 004 651 325, a business unit of OneSteel Market Mills. Please note that any specifications or

technical data referred to in this publication are subject to change and/or variation or improvement without notice and no warranty as to their suitability for any use is made.

Users of this publication – to ensure accuracy and adequacy for their purposes – are requested to check the information provided in this publication to satisfy themselves as to its appropriateness and

not to rely on the information without first doing so. Unless required by law, the company cannot accept any responsibility for any loss, damage or consequence resulting from the use of this publication.

Photographs shown are representative only of typical applications, current at May 2007. This publication is not an offer to trade and shall not form any part of the trading terms in any transaction.

©Copyright 2000-2007. OneSteel Market Mills. 300Plus ® , CompSelector ® , CompLoader ® , CompPanel ® and CompPen ® 16318

are registered trademarks of OneSteel Manufacturing Pty Limited.

ABN 42 004 651 325. COMPBEAM ® is a registered trademark of OneSteel Reinforcing Pty Limited. ABN 22 004 148 289. Issue 8. Printed May 2007. 16318

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