DOE-STD-1090-96, DOE Standard Hoisting and Rigging Manual ...

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DOE-STD-1090-96, DOE Standard Hoisting and Rigging Manual ...

INCH-POUNDDOE STANDARDDOE-STD-1 090-96Revision 1September 1996SupercedesDOE-HDBK-1090-95June 1995HOISTING AND RIGGING(Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)TERu.s. Department of EnergyWashington, D.C. 20585AREA SAFT.ITRIBU110N OF THIS DOCUMENT IS lJNUM1T!Dcift-dDISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.


This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and TechnicalInformation, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (423) 576-8401.Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, TechnologyAdministration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161;(703) 487-4650.Order No. DE97000159


DISCLAIMERPortions of this document may be illegible .in electronic image products. Images areproduced from the best available originaldocument.


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)6.3.7Instructors6-96.4 REQUALIFICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6-106.5RECORDS6-11CHAPTER 7OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANES7.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.1.2 Rated-Load Marking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.1.3 Modification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.1.4 Egress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.1.5 Hoist Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.1.6 Power Shutoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.1.7 Hoist-Limit Switch .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-57.1.8 Load Limits 7-57.1.9 Maintenance History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-57.2 INSPECTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.2.1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.2.2 Crane Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.2.3 Initial Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.2.4 Daily Preoperational Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.2.5 Monthly Rope, Chain and Hook Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 7-77.2.6 Frequent Inspection 7-77.2.7 Periodic Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-77.2.7.1 Cranes '. . . . . . . 7-77.2.7.2 Wire Rope 7-87.2.7.3 Chain (Welded Link) 7-97.2.7.4 Chain (Roller) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 7-97.2.8 Cranes Not in Regular Service 7-107.3 TESTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-117.3.1 Operational Tests 7-117.3.2 Rated Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-117.4 MAINTENANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-127.4.1 Operating Equipment 7-127.4.2 Wire-Rope Maintenance 7-127.5 OPERATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-137.5.1 Conduct of Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-137.5.2 Hoist-Limit SwitchlDevice 7-137.5.3 Standard Hand Signals ................•....................... 7-137.5.4 Identification ofSignalers 7-157.5.5 Size ofLoad '.' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-15v


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)7.5.6 Attaching the Load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-157.5.7 Moving the Load 7-157.5.8 Ordinary Lifts 7-167.5.9 Critical Lifts 7-16Exhibit I Bridge, Wall, Gantry Crane Load Test and Inspection 7-19CHAPTER 8HOISTS8.1 GENERAL.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-48.1.2 Marking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-48.1.3 Warning Labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-48.1.3.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoists· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-48.1.3.2 Hand-Chain-Operated or Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists. . . . . . 8-48.1.4 Design Standards 8-58.1.5 Design Factors 8-58.1.6 Load-BrakinglLoad-Controlling Mechanisms 8-58.1.6.1 Electric-Powered Hoists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-58.1.6.2 Air-Powered Hoists 8-58.1.6.3 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists 8-58.1.6.4 Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-58.1.7 Wire Rope 8-68.1.8 Load Chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-68.1.8.1 Electric-Powered, Air-Powered, and Manual-Lever-OperatedHoists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-68.1.8.2 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists 8-68.1.9 Web Strap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-78.1.10 Overtravel Protection 8-78.1.10.1 Upper-Limit SwitcheslDevices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-78.1.10.2 Lower-Limit SwitcheslDevices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-78.1.11 Travel Warning Devices 8-78.1.12 Support.................................................... 8-78.1.13 Location................................................... 8-78.1.14 Load Rating 8-78.2 INSPECTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-88.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-88.2.2 Hoist Service 8-88.2.3 Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-88.2.4 Daily Inspection 8-88.2.5 Frequent Inspection 8-88.2.6 Periodic Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 8-98.2.6.1 Hoists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-98.2.6.2 Wire Rope 8-98.2.6.3 Welded-Link Chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-108.2.6.4 Roller Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-11vi


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)8.2.6.5 Synthetic-Web Strap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-128.2.7 Hoists Not in Regular Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-128.3 TESTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-138.3.1 Operational Tests 8-138.3.1.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoists. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-138.3.1.2 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists 8-138.3.1.3 Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-138.3.2 Proof-Load Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-138.3.2.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoists 8-138.3.2.2 Hand-Chain-Operated or Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists 8-138.4 MAINTENANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-148.5 OPERATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-158.5.1 Conduct ofOperator. '.' , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-158.5.2 Size ofLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-158.5.3 Attaching the Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-158.5.4 Moving the Load 8-158.5.5 Hoist-Limit Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-168.5.6 Ordinary Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-168.5.7 Critical Lifts 8-17Exhibit I Hoist Load Test and Inspection 8-19CHAPTER 9MOBILE CRANES9.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19.1.2 Load Limits 9-19.1.3 Load Rating Chart 9-19.1.4 Load Hoist Brakes 9-59.1.5 Power-Controlled Lowering 9-59.1.6 Booms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59.1.7 Rerating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59.1.8 Maintenance History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59.1.9 Design Standards 9-59.2 INSPECTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-69.2.1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-69.2.2 Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-69.2.3 Preoperational Check 9-69.2.4 Monthly Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-69.2.5 Frequent Inspection 9-69.2.6 Periodic Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-79.2.6.1 Cranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-79.2.6.2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Hose, Fittings, and Tubing. . . . . . . . . . 9-7vii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)9.2.6.3 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pumps and Motors 9-89.2.6.4 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-89.2.6.5 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Cylinders. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-89.2.6.6 Hydraulic Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-89.2.6.7 Wire Rope 9-89.2.7 Load HoodsILoad Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-99.2.8 Cranes Not in Regular Use 9-109.3 TESTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-119.3.1 Operational Tests 9-119.3.2 Rated Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-119.4 MAINTEN.AN"CE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-129.4.1 Preventive Maintenance 9-129.4.2 Maintenance Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-129.4.3 Wire-Rope Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-129.5 OPERATION , 9-139.5.1 Conduct ofOperator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-139.5.1.1 Traveling the Machine 9-149.5.1.2 Making Adjustments or Repairs 9-149.5.1.3 Ensuring Stability , 9-149.5.1.4 Observing Boom-Length Precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-159.5.2 Operating Near Power Lines and Transmitter Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-159.5.2.1 Crane Operations De-energized and Grounded ElectricalPower Lines 9-189.5.2.2 Power Lines Energized, Crane Operating Less ThanErectedIFully Extended Boom Length Away FromProhibited Zone 9-189.5.2.3 Crane Operations are Within the Prohibited Zone and thePower Lines are Energized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-189.5.2.4 Crane in Transit with no Load and Boom Lowered. . . . . . . . . .. 9-209.5.2.5 Crane Operations Near Transmitter Towers 9-209.5.3 Hoist-Limit Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-209.5.4 Standard Hand Signals 9-209.5.5 Identification ofSignalers . . . . . . . . .. 9-209.5.6 Size ofLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-239.5.7 Attaching the Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-239.5.8 Moving the Load 9-239.5.9 OrdinaryLifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-239.5.10 Critical Lifts 9-27Exhibit I Mobile Crane Load Test and Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-29CHAPTER 10FORKLIFT TRUCKS10.1 GENERAL10-1viii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)10.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-110.1.2 Rated Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-110.1.3 Marking 10-110.1.4 Warning Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-110.1.5 Attachments................................................ 10-110.1.6 Modifications 10-210.1.7 Overhead Guards 10-210.1.8 Fire Hazard Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-210.1.9 Work Atmosphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-210.1.10 Electric-Battery-Operated Trucks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-210.1.11 Internal-Combustion Trucks 10-210.1.12 Fork Arm 10-210.1.13 Design Standards 10-210.2 TYPE DESIGNATIONS AND AREAS OF USE 10-310.2.1 Type Designation 10-310.2.1.1 Nonhazardous Locations 10-310.2.1.2 Hazardous Locations 10-310.2.2 Specific Areas ofUse 10-310.2.3 Forklift Truck Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-410.2.4 Hazardous-Area Signs 10-410.3 INSPECTIONS.................................................... 10-710.3.1 Daily Preoperational Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-710.3.2 Periodic Inspection Requirements ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-710.4 TESTING 10-810.5 OPERATION 10-910.5.1 Conduct ofOperator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-910.5.2 Lifting ofPersonnel. 10-1010.5.3 Standard Hand Signals 10-1110.5.4 Size ofLoad 10-1110.5.5 Moving the Load 10-1110.5.6 Ordinary Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-1110.5.7 Critical Lifts 10-11Exhibit I Forklift Load Test and Inspection 10-15CHAPTER 11WIRE ROPE AND SLINGS11.1 GENERAL11-111.2 WIRE ROPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 11-411.2.1 Wire-Rope Lays , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-411.2.2 Wire-Rope Cores 11-411.2.3 Wire Rope for General Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-5ix


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)11.2.3.1 6 x 19 Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-511.2.3.2 6 x 37 Classification , 11-511.2.4 Wire-Rope Inspections 11-511.2.5 Wire-Rope Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-511.3 SLINGS 11-811.3.1 General.................................................... 11-811.3.1.1 Load Angle Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-811.3.1.2 Safe Load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-811.3.1.3 Design Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-1011.3.1.4 Sling Care 11-1011.3.1.5 Sling Storage 11-1011.3.2 Wire-Rope Slings 11-1011.3.2.1 Inspections 11-1911.3.2.2 Proof-Testing....................................... 11-1911.3.2.3 Operation 11-1911.3.3 Alloy Steel-Chain Slings , 11-2211.3.3.1 Pre-Use Inspections 11-2311.3.3.2 Annual Inspections 11-2511.3.3.3 Proof-Testing 11-2511.3.3.4 Operation 11-2511.3.4 Metal-Mesh Slings 11-2611.3.4.1 Inspections......................................... 11-2911.3.4.2 Proof-Testing 11-2911.3.4.3 Operation 11-2911.3.5 Synthetic-Web Slings 11-3011.3.5.1 Inspections 11-3211.3.5.2 Proof-Testing 11-3611.3.5.3 Operation 11-36Exhibit I Rigging Tackle Annual Inspection (Wire-Rope Slings) 11-39Exhibit II Rigging Tackle Annual Inspection (Chain) 11-41Exhibit III Rigging Tackle Periodic Inspection (Synthetic-Web Slings) 11-43CHAPTER 12RIGGING ACCESSORIES12.1 GENER.AI.. 12-112.1.1 Inspections................................................. 12-112.1.2 Testing.................................................... 12-312.1.3 Good and Bad Rigging Practices , 12-312.2 RIGGING HOOKS , 12-612.2.1 Design 12-612.2.2 Marking 12-612.2.3 Construction................................................ 12-6x


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)12.2.4 Load Limits 12-612.2.5 Inspections 12-612.2.5.1 Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-612.2.5.2 Daily Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-612.2.5.3 Frequent Inspection 12-612.2.5.4 Periodic Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-812.2.6 Testing '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-812.2.7 Maintenance................................................ 12-812.2.8 Operation.................................................. 12-812.3 SHACKLES12.4 E1rEJBOLTS12-912-1112.5 TURNlBUCKLES 12-1412.6 LINKS AND RINGS 12-1612.7 METAL-PLATE CLAMPS 12-1812.8 LOAD-INDICATING DEVICES 12-19Exhibit I Rigging, Tackle, Accessories Load Test and Inspection (Hooks, Shackles,Rings, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-21CHAPTER 13LOAD HOOKS13.1 GENERAL 13-113.1.1 Marking 13-113.1.2 Attachments 13-113.1.3 Load Limits 13-113.1.4 Hook Standards 13-113.2 INSPECTIONS.................................................... 13-213.2.1 Hook Service 13-213.2.2 Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13-213.2.3 Daily Inspection 13-213.2.4 Frequent Inspection 13-213.2.5 Periodic Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13-213.3 TESTING 13-413.4 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) 13-613.4.1 NDT Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13-613.4.2 NDT Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13-613.4.3 NDT Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13-613.4.4 Acceptance Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13-6xi


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)13.4.5 Discontinuity Removal 13-613.5 MAINTENANCE 13-813.6 OPERATION13-9CHAPTER 14BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES14.1 GENERAL14-114.2 STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL LIFTING DEVICES 14-214.2.1 DesignlFabrication 14-214.2.2 Marking 14-214.2.3 Modification/Rerating......................................... 14-214.2.4 Guarding................................................... 14-214.2.5 Inspections................................................. 14-214.2.5.1 Initial Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-214.2.5.2 Frequent Inspection 14-214.2.5.3 Periodic Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-514.2.6 Testing.................................................... 14-514.2.6.1 Operational Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-514.2.6.2 Rated Load Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-514.2.7 Maintenance................................................ 14-614.2.8 Training/Qualification......................................... 14-614.2.9 Operation.................................................. 14-614.3 VACUUM LIFTING DEVICES ..................•.................... 14-714.3.1 DesignlFabrication 14-714.3.2 Marking 14-714.3.3 Installation 14-914.3.4 Inspections 14-914.3.4.1 Initial Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-914.3.4.2 Frequent Inspection 14-914.3.4.3 Periodic Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-914.3.5 Testing.................................................... 14-1014.3.5.1 Operational Test 14-1014.3.5.2 Rated Load Test 14-1014.3.6 Maintenance 14-1014.3.7 Training/Qualification 14-1014.3.8 Operation 14-1114.4 MAGNETS, CLOSE-PROXIMITY-OPERATED 14-1214.4.1 DesignlFabrication 14-1214.4.2 Marking 14-1214.4.2.1 Rated Load (Capacity) 14-1214.4.2.2 Controls..................................... . . . . .. 14-1214.4.3 Installation 14-12xii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.4.4 Inspections 14-1414.4.4.1 Initial Inspection , 14-1414.4.4.2 Frequent Inspection 14-1414.4.4.3 Periodic Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-1414.4.5 Testing 14-1414.4.5.1 Operational Test 14-1414.4.5.2 Rated Load Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-1514.4.6 Maintenance................................................ 14-1514.4.7 Training/Qualification 14-1514.4.8 Operation.................................................. 14-1614.4.8.1 External-Powered Electromagnets 14-1614.4.8.2 Battery-Operated Electromagnets 14-1614.4.8.3 Electrically Controlled Permanent Magnets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-1614.4.8.4 Manually Controlled Permanent Magnets 14-1614.5 MAGNETS. REMOTE-OPERATED 14-1714.5.1 DesignlFabrication 14-1714.5.2 Marking 14-1714.5.3 Installation 14-1714.5.4 Inspections 14-1714.5.4.1 Initial Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-1714.5.4.2 FrequentInspection 14-1714.5.4.3 Periodic Inspection : 14-1714.5.5 Testing 14-1914.5.5.1 Operational Test , 14-1914.5.6 Maintenance 14-1914.5.7 Training/Qualification 14-1914.5.8 Operation.................................................. 14-20Exhibit I Lifting Bars and Spreaders Load Test and Inspection 14-22CHAPTER 15CONSTRUCTION HOISTING AND RIGGING EQUIPMENTREQUIREMENTS15.1 GENERAL15.2 DEFINITIONS .15.3 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS .15.3.1 Qualified Operators ofMobile Cranes .15.3.2 Qualified Operators ofFortlift Trucks .15.3.3 Qualified Riggers .15.3.4 Person-in-Charge (PIC) .15.3.5 Designated Leader .15.4 INSPECTION AND TESTING .15.4.1 General .15-115-215-715-7 . I15-8 I15-8 I15-8 I15-8 I15-915-9xiii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)15.4.2 Mobile CranesIBoom Trucks-Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-915.4.2.1 Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-915.4.2.2 Daily Inspection . . . . . . . . .. 15-915.4.2.3 Monthly Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-915.4.2.4 Frequent Inspection "........................... 15-1015.4.2.5 Periodic Inspection 15-1015.4.2.5.1 Cranes................................... 15-1015.4.2.5.2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pumps 15-1115.4.2.5.3 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Valves 15-1115.4.2.5.4 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Cylinders 15-1115.4.2.5.5 Hydraulic Filters 15-1115.4.2.5.6 Wire Ropes 15-1115.4.2.5.7 Load HooksILoad Blocks 15-1215.4.2.6 Cranes Not in Regular Use .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-1315.4.3 Mobile CranesIBoom Trucks-Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-1315.4.4 Forklift Trucks-Inspection 15-1315.4.5 Forklift Trucks-Testing 15-1415.4.6 Slings-Inspection 15-1415.4.6.1 Wire Rope 15-1415.4.6.2 Synthetic Web 15-1415.4.6.3 Steel Chain 15-1415.4.7 Slings-Testing 15-1515.4.7.1 Wire Rope 15-1515.4.7.2 Synthetic Web Slings 15-1515.4.7.3 Alloy Steel Chain 15-1615.4.8 Rigging Accessories-Inspection 15-1615.4.9 Rigging Accessories-Testing 15-1615.5 OPERATION 15-1715.5.1 Conduct ofOperator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-1715.5.2 Mobile CranesIBoom Trucks " 15-1815.5.2.1 Attaching the Load 15-2115.5.2.2 Moving the Load 15-2115.5.2.3 Traveling the Machine 15-2215.5.2.4 Operating Near Power Lines and Transmission Towers 15-2215.5.2.4.1 Crane Operations Near De-energized andGrounded Electrical Power Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-2315.5.2.4.2 Power Lines Energized, Crane Operating Lessthan ErectedlFully Extended Boom Length awayfrom the Prohibited Zone 15-2315.5.2.4.3 Crane Operations are within the Prohibited Zoneand the Power Lines are Energized 15-2715.5.2.4.4 Crane in Transit with No Load and Boom Lowered . 15-2715.5.2.4.5 Crane Operations Near Transmitter Towers 15-2715.5.2.5 Ordinary Lifts ". . . . . . . . . . .. 15-2715.5.2.6 Critical Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-3015.5.2.7 Lifting Personnel 15-30xiv


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)15.5.3 Forklift Trucks 15-3315.5.3.1 Operating the Unit 15-3415.5.3.2 Moving the Load 15-3515.5.3.3 Ordinary IJfts " 15-3515.5.3.4 Critical Lifts " 15-3715.5.3.5 Lifting Personnel 15-37CHAPTER 16REFERENCESxv


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)History and BackgroundIn 1975, cognizant safety and health personnel at the U.S. Department ofEnergy (DOE) Headquarters (HQ)met to discuss the need for a DOE hoisting and rigging manual. At that meeting, existing, applicable hoistingand rigging codes, standards, and regulations, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA) 29 CFR 1910, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B-30 series, and others, werereviewed in detail. Subsequently, it was determined that these documents, while adequate as minimumgeneral industry standards, did not contain the detail necessary to adequately accomplish the extremelycomplex, critical, and hazardous hoisting and rigging operations being performed at DOE sites, in allprobability, at other government agency and private sectors throughout the country. Because ofthe highpotential for accidents that could result in significant property loss or serious personnel injury or death, it wasdecided that a DOE hoisting and rigging manual was not only desirable but absolutely necessary.Preliminary work on the manual was initiated in 1976. The manual that was developed at that timeincorporated the minimum requirements ofOSHA, ANSI, and similar documents and also included additionalmore stringent requirements deemed necessary to adequately control hoisting and rigging work processesthroughout DOE. Each phase ofthe manual was then critically reviewed byDOE and contractor personnel.A fmal draft was completed in 1978 and implemented on a trial basis.In June 1980, a decision was made to formally issue and distribute the manual under controlled distribution,an arrangement where the manual must be specifically requested from the originating source; however, oncerequested, updates are automatically received through an actively maintained distribution list. In 1982, themanual was included as a reference standard in DOE 5480.4, "Environmental Protection, Safety, and HealthProtection Standards." Updates and improvements have been made over the years on an approximatelyannual basis. Revisions have occurred in 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1993, 1995, and 1996 to clarifyintent, comply with OSHA and ANSI B-30 changes, improve format, strengthen wording, delete needlessredundancy, eliminate obsolescence, and the like. Prior to inclusion in the manual, all changes must beapproved by the DOE Hoisting and Rigging Committee, which meets semi-annually, and by the HeadquartersOffice of Occupational Safety and Health Policy, which has safety responsibility for DOE hoisting andrigging. The Committee is also a major source for input into the manual, particularly concerning those areasthat are not defmed or are only generally defined by Federal and national standards, such as training andqualification, and those concerning the DOE's unique operational environment, such as hoisting and riggingover nuclear reactors and other locations containing critical equipment. In the years that minor revisionsoccur, only the changed pages, usually 8 to 10, are sent to individuals on the distribution list. After two tothree such supplements, the manual is reissued in its entirety, which incorporates the previous supplementsplus the most recent unpublished changes approved by the committee. An example is the complete revisionissued in 1993 followed by another complete revision in 1995, without any intervening supplements. In thiscase, the supplements were omitted because ofthe numerous improvements incorporated within the veryshort time period. Some of the most notable changes in the current standard include:1. Full compliance with OSHA and ANSI requirements, with the OSHA requirements havingpriority where conflicts exist.2. Expansion ofChapter 6 to include greater detail on qualifications for a larger number ofpositions. Criteria to be evaluated in training programs have likewise been expanded,enabling sites to tailor training programs to their particular characteristics.3. The complete reformatting ofeach section into major equipment categories so that thehandbook is easier to use.4. The use ofdouble-column format along with a slightly larger font size which improvesreadability. The double-column format has the added advantage ofplacing figures and tablescloser to their referencing text.5. Labeling ofthe side-by-side good practice, bad practice drawings so that the informationbeing conveyed is immediately apparent. Also, in some cases portions of drawingsHistory and Background -1


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)containing key information, such as hand signals, finger positions were difficult to discern.These have been retouched.6. This document contains many common element requirements which differ slightly inwording when applied to a specific equipment type. These differences have been compared,and whenever appropriate, the most comprehensive (and clearest) wording has been used.7. To improve readability, the writing style has been changed to the active voice, which reduces,to some extent, the use ofthe word "shall," indicating a mandatory requirement. The readershould note that the use ofthe active (imperative) voice, such as "ensure that, check for, useonly," indicates a mandatory requirement even ifthe word "shall" is not present in thesentence.8. The reissued June '95 edition marked a change in classification. The DOE Office ofScientific and Technical Information (OST!) reclassified the manual as a handbook and wasissued as DOE Hoisting and Rigging Handbook (DOE-IIDBK-1090-95). Mter furtherreview, OSTI has reclassified the handbook as a DOE Technical Standard and the September1996 edition is now issued as DOE STANDARD HOISTING AND RIGGING (FormerlyHoisting and Rigging Manual), DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-I).While The Hoisting and Rigging Standard is in itselfa best practice document, much ofits content, such asthe OSHA, ANSI!ASME, and Crane Manufacturers Association ofAmerica standards, is mandatory withinDOE. In addition, many DOE organizations have, on their own initiative, adopted the standard as mandatoryto ensure safe and proper hoisting and rigging operations at their facilities. Whether mandatory or not, thestandard is and will continue to be the standard by which the excellence ofDOE hoisting and riggingprograms are judged.History and Background - 2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)AcknowledgmentThe Department ofEnergy (DOE) acknowledges the many organizations whose documents providedimportant source material for the standard. They include:American Society ofMechanical EngineersANSI B30.2, "Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Multiple Girder)"ANSI B30.5, "Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes"ANSI B30.9, "Slings"ANSI B30.10, "Hooks"ANSI B30.16, "Overhead Hoists (Underhung)"ANSI B56.1, "Low Lift and High Lift Trucks"ANSI MHll.4, "Forks and Fork Carriers for Powered Industrial Fork Lift Trucks"Construction Safety Association (CSA) ofOntario"The Rigging Handbook"Society ofAutomotive Engineers, Inc. (SAB)SAB 11028, "Mobile Crane Working Area Defmitions"Permission to reprint specific figures and illustrations was obtained from CSA and SAB.Applicable sections of29 CFR 1910, "Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry," and29 CFR 1926, "Occupational Safety and Health Regulations for Construction," have been paraphrased orreproduced verbatim throughout. The contributions ofDOE's Hoisting and Rigging Committee, which hasmet semi-annually since 1980, is also recognized. Representing many DOE sites, this group has providedadvice and clarification ofthe codes and standards that form the underlying basis for this document Withouttheir time and talent, which has been provided gratuitously, there would be no standard.Other significant contributors include the two editors, Ingeborg Westfall and Marshall Henrie, whoseconsiderable efforts resulted in several ofthe substantive improvements described in the History andBackground section, and whose changes regarding text, format, and spelling have improved the standard towhat we believe is the equivalent ofdesktop-publishing quality and in doing so increased its usefulness to thehoisting and rigging community. The Department is also greatly indebted to Kay Johnson, now retired, who,during his 10-year tenure as program coordinator, perhaps more than any other person, was responsible fordeveloping the standard into the truly invaluable document that it is today.The standard is a safety, not a design, document intended for use by safety professionals and managers. Inkeeping with this philosophy, only those portions ofstandards and regulations dealing with safety,particularly those deemed most relevant to DOE operations, have been included. While it is convenient tohave focused, indepth hoisting and rigging safety information concentrated into one document, thesignificance ofthe above source material is acknowledged, and readers are strongly encouraged to revieweach ofthem so as to have a full description ofthe subject area covered.In the past, DOE issued and disseminated the Hoisting andRigging Standard using controlled distributionlist. Beginning with this edition, uncontrolled distribution is available through the DOE Office ofScientificand Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, telephone 423-576-8401, to Federalagencies and their contractors; and the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department ofAcknowledgment-1


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161, telephone 703-487-4650, to non-Federalagencies, and the private sector. These organizations charge a fee for a copy ofthe document. DOEappreciates the opportunity to share The Hoisting and Rigging Standard with a wider audience.Acknowledgment - 2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)IntroductionTheu.s. Department ofEnergy (DOE) Hoisting and Rigging Standard is intended as a reference documentto be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnelresponsible for safety ofhoisting and rigging operations atDOE sites. The standard quotes verbatim orparaphrases (with minor editorial changes for consistency) the requirements ofthe U.S. Occupational Safetyand Health Administration (OSHA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It alsoencompasses, under one cover, hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations,eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries ofhoisting and rigging standardsthroughout DOE.As indicated in the History and Background section, the use ofthe imperative voice (as in "Never usediscarded load chain for slings") or the word "shall" denotes a mandatory action, whereas use ofthe word"should" denotes a recommended action in keeping with best management practices.From chapter to chapter, the reader may notice what appears to be excessive repetition. Such repetition,however, is by design, enabling the use ofeach chapter, ifneeded or convenient, as a stand-alone document.The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA andANSI; and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the extremely complex,diversified, critical, and oftentimes hazardous hoisting and rigging work found within the DOE complex. Indoing so, it addresses the following items which are not covered in detail in the general industry standards:1. Management responsibility and accountability2. Operator/inspector training and qualification requirements3. Definition ofcritical lifts and the additional requirements for making them4. The need and responsibilities of a person-in-charge for critical lifts5. The need and responsibilities of a designated leader for ordinary lifts6. The definition and special requirements for preengineered production lifts7. Special requirements for the testing, inspection, and maintenance ofhoisting equipment inhostile environments8. Nondestructive testing/nondestructive examination requirements for such items as hooks,welds, and spreader bars9. Special requirements for inspection and load-testing ofhoisting and riggingequipment/accessories10. Hook latch requiremen~ for cranes, slings, and rigging accessories11. Design standards for such equipment as cranes, forklifts, and hooks12. Operating practices for hoisting and rigging operations13. Rigging information and load tables14. Good and bad rigging practices.Because the possibility ofserious accidents resulting in personnel injury or death or significant propertydamage exists whenever hoisting and rigging take place, the requirements for these operations must be clearlydefmed and precautions ensured, including proper preplanning, extreme care, attention to detail, teamwork onIntroduction -1


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)the part oftrained operators/riggers, and the use ofequipment that is reliable, properly designed, inspected,and maintained. Although not mandatory at all DOE sites and locations, this standard has been used formany years byDOE and its contractors as a valuable resource for conducting hoisting and rigging safely andefficiently and as the standard against which to judge all hoisting and rigging programs. The fullimplementation ofthe requirements and recommendations of this standard will dramatically strengthenhoisting and rigging programs throughout the DOE complex and will significantly decrease the probability ofserious accidents resulting in personnel injury or death or severe property damage.When organizations operating under nuclear energy programs are required to use DOE document NE F8-6T,those organizations shall use a combination ofit and The DOE Hoisting and Rigging Standard. Whereconflicts exist, this standard shall be given priority since it is being kept current and NE F8-6T has not beenrevised since 1985.To propose improvements to the standard, please use the copy ofthe form at the back. All requests orsuggestions for improvement should be submitted to:Hoisting and Rigging Project ManagerU.S. Department ofEnergyEH-51, 270 CC19901 Germantown RoadGermantown, MD 20874-1290Introduction - 2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CHAPTER 1TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONSThe following are specialized terms commonlyused when discussing hoisting and riggingoperations. Many may not be used in thisstandard but are included for general information.The terms are arranged in alphabetical order.lllustrations are included for clarity.ABRASION: Surface wear.ACCELERATION STRESS: Additional stressimposed due to increasing load velocity.ALTERNATE LAY: Lay ofwire rope in whichthe strands are alternately regular and lang lay.ANSI: American National Standards Institute.APPOINTED: Assigned specific responsibilitiesby the employer or the employer's representative.AREA, METALLIC: Sum of the cross-sectionalareas ofindividual wires in a wire rope or strand.ATTACHMENT: A device other thanconventional forks or load backrest extension,mounted permanently or removably on theelevating mechanism of a truck for handling theload. Popular types are fork extension clamps,rotating devices, side shifters, load stabilizers,rams, and booms.AUTHORIZED: Assigned by a duly constitutedadministrative or regulatory authority.AUXILIARY HOIST: Supplemental hoistingunit oflighter capacity and usually higher speedthan the main hoist.BACK STAY: Guy used to support a boom ormast or that section of a main cable, as on asuspension bridge, or cableway, and the like,leading from the tower to the anchorage.BAIL: A U-shaped member of a bucket, socket,or other fitting.BASKET OR SOCKET: The conical portion ofa socket into which a splayed rope end is insertedand secured with zinc.BATTERY-ELECTRIC TRUCK: An electrictruck in which thepower source is a storagebattery.BECKET LOOP: A loop ofsmall rope or astrand ofrope fastened to the end of a large wirerope to facilitate installation.BENDING STRESS: Stress on wires ofa wirerope imposed bybending. This stress need not beadded to direct load stresses. When sheaves anddrums are ofsuitable size, bending stress does notaffect the normal life ofthe wire rope.BIRDCAGE: A colloquialism describing theappearance ofa wire rope that is forced intocompression. The outer strands form a "cage"and at times displace the core.BIRDCAGING: The twisting offiber or wirerope in an isolated area in the opposite direction ofthe rope lay, causing it to take on the appearanceofa birdcage.BOOM (CRANE): A member hinged to therotating superstructure and used for supportingthe hoisting tackle.BOOM LINE: A wire rope for supporting oroperating the boom on derricks, cranes, draglines,shovels, and the like.BRAKE: A device used for slowing or stoppingmotion by friction or electromagnetic means.BRAKE, DRAG: A brake that provides stoppingforce without external control.BRAKE, HOLDING: A brake that setsautomatically and that prevents motion whenpower is off.BRAKE, PARKING: A device to prevent themovement ofa stationary vehicle.BRAKING, COUNTERTORQUE: A methodofstopping motion in which the power to themotor is reversed to develop torque in theopposite direction.BRAKING, DYNAMIC: A method ofcontrolling crane motor speeds when in theoverhauling condition to provide a retarding force.BRAKING, MECHANICAL: A method ofslowing motion byfriction.1-1Chapter 1Terminology and Definitions


BRAKING, REGENERATIVE: A form ofdynamic braking in which the electrical energygenerated is fed back into the power system.BREAKING STRENGTH: The measured loadrequired to break a wire rope or chain.BRIDGE: The part of a crane. consisting ofgirders, walkways, railings, trucks. and drivemechanisms, that carries the trolley or trolleys.BRIDGE TRAVEL: Horizontal travel ofthecrane parallel with runway rails.DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)BRIDLE SLING: A sling composed ofmultiplelegs (branches), the top ends·of which terminate ina fitting that latches onto the lifting hook.BULL RING: The main large ring ofa sling towhich sling legs are attached.BUMPER (BUFFER): An energy-absorbingdevice for reducing impact when a movingoverhead crane or trolley reaches the end ofitspermitted travel, or when two moving cranes ortrolleys come into contact.Figure 1-1. Cantilever trUCk,counterbalanced truck, forklift trUCk,high-lift trUCk, rider truck.CHOKER ROPE: A short wire-rope sling usedto form a slip noose around the object to be movedor lifted (see Figure 1-2).CAB: The operator's compartment.CABLE: A term loosely applied to wire ropes.wire strands, manila ropes. and electricalconductors.CABLE-LAID WIRE ROPE: A type ofwirerope consisting ofseveral independent wire ropeslaid into a single wire rope.CABLE CROWD ROPE: A wire rope used toforce the bucket ofa power shovel into thematerial being handled.CANTILEVER TRUCK: A self-loadingcounterbalanced or noncounterbalanced truckequipped with cantilever load-engaging means.such as forks (see Figure 1-1).CARRIAGE: A support structure for forks orattachments. generally roller-mounted, travelingvertically within the mast of a cantilever truck.CENTER: A single wire or fiber in the center ofa strand around which the wires are laid.CENTER CONTROL: The position near thecenter of a truck cab from which the operatorcontrols movement ofthe truck.Sliding choker hookFigure 1-2. Choker rope.CIRCUMFERENCE: Measured perimeter of acircle circumscribing the wires of a strand or thestrands of a wire rope.CLAMP, STRAND: A fitting used to form aloop at the end ofa length ofstrand; consists oftwo grooved plates and bolts.CLEARANCE: The distance by which oneobject clears another, or the clear space betweenthem.CLEVIS: A V-shaped fitting with pins.CLIP: A fitting used to clamp two parts of wirerope.CLOSED SOCKET: A wire-rope fittingconsisting ofan integral becket and bail.Chapter 1Terminology and Definitions 1-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CLOSING LINE: Wire rope that closes aclamshell or orange-peel bucket and then operatesas ahoisting rope.COIL: Circularbundle of wire rope not packedon a reel.COLLECTOR: Contacting device mounted on abridgeor trolley and used to collect current fromthe conductor system.COME-ALONG: A portable, hand-operateddevice consisting ofa housing, a length ofchain orwire rope, two hooks, and a rateheting lever, thatis used for miscellaneous pulling.CONDUCTOR: Wire, angles, bars, tees, orspecial sections mounted to transmit current to thecollectors.CONICAL DRUM: Grooved hoisting drum ofvarying diameter.CONSTRUCTION (WIRE ROPE): Refers tothe design ofwire rope, including number ofstrands, number ofwires per strand, andarrangement of wires in each strand.CONTINUOUS BEND: Reeving ofwire ropeover sheaves and drums so that it bends in onedirection (as opposed to reverse bend).CONTROLLER: An operator's device forregulating the power delivered to a motor or otherequipment.CONTROLLER, SPRING RETURN: Acontroller that, when released, will returnautomatically to a neutral position.CORE: The center member of a wire rope aroundwhich the strands are laid. It may be fiber, a wirestrand, or an independent wire rope.CORING LINE: Wire rope used to operate thecoring tool for taking core samples during thedrilling ofa well.CORROSION: Chemical decomposition byexposure to moisture, acids, alkalies, or otherdestructive agents.CORRUGATED: A term used to describe thegrooves ofa sheave or drum when worn so as toshow the impression ofa wire rope.COUNTERBALANCED TRUCK: A truckequipped with load-engaging means wherein,during normal transporting, all the load is externalto the polygon formed by the wheel contacts (seeFigure 1,.1).COVER WIRES: The outer layer ofwires.CRANE: A machine used for lifting and loweringa load vertically and moving it horizontally andthat has a hoisting mechanism as an integral partofit.CRANES, TYPES OF:Automatic Crane: A crane that, whenactivated, operates through a presetcycle or cycles.Cab-Operated Crane: A crane controlledby an operator in a cab located on thebridge or trolley.Cantilever Gantry Crane: A gantry orsemigantry crane in which the bridgegirders or trusses extend transverselybeyond the crane runway on one orbothsides.Floor-Operated Crane: A crane whoseoperation is controlled by use ofapendant in the hands of an operator onthe floor or on an independent platform.Gantry Crane: A crane similar to anoverhead crane, except that the bridgefor carrying the trolley or trolleys isrigidly supported on two or more legsrunning on fixed rails or other runway.Jib Crane: A fixed crane with a verticalrotating member supported at thebottom (also at the top in some types)from which an arm extends to carry thehoist trolley. Jib cranes are mostcommonly mounted on a verticalcolumn, supplied as part ofthe jib crane,or on existing structural members (e.g., awall-mounted jib crane).Overhead Traveling Crane: A crane witha movable bridge carrying a movable orfixed hoisting mechanism and travelingon 3D: overhead fixed-runway structure.Power-Operated Crane: A crane whosemechanism is driven by electricity, air,hydraulics, or internal combustion.Pulpit-Operated Crane: A crane operatedfrom a fixed operator station that is notattached to the crane.1-3Chapter 1Terminology and Definitions


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Remote-Qperated Crane: A cranecontrolled by an operator not in a pulpitor a cab attached to the crane, by anymethod other than pendant or ropecontrol (e.g., radio-controlled crane).Semigantry Crane: A gantry crane withone end ofthe bridge rigidly supportedon one or more legs that run on a fixedrail or runway, the other end ofthebridge being supported by a truckrunning on an elevated rail or runway.Wall-Mounted Crane: A crane having ajib, with or without a trolley, supportedfrom a side wall or line ofcolumns ofabuilding. It is a traveling-type crane andoperates on a runway attached to theside wall or line ofcolumns.Wall-Mounted Jib Crane: See Cranes,Types Of, Jib Crane.CRITICAL DIAMETER: Diameter ofthesmallest bend for a given wire rope that permitsthe wires and strands to adjust themselves byrelative movement while remaining in their normalpositions.CRITICAL ITEM: A part, assembly, component,or piece ofequipment designated as critical by apurchaser or facility operator, because thedropping, upset, or collision ofit could: (a) causedamage that would result in schedule delay, (b)cause undetectable damage that could jeopardizefuture operation or the safety ofthe facility, (c)result in significant release ofradioactivity orother undesirable condition, or (d) present apotentially unacceptable risk ofpersonnel injuryor property damage. Critical items may includepumps, heat exchangers, piping subassemblies,other primary-system components, fuelassemblies, large radiation-shielded shippingcasks, or other items that require special care inhandling because of size, weight, installation inclose-tolerance receptors, fragility, extremesusceptibility to damage, or other unusual factors.CRITICAL SERVICE: The use ofequipment ortackle for hoisting, rigging, or handling of criticalitems.CYLINDRICAL DRUM: Hoisting drum ofuniform diameter.DECELERATION STRESS: Additional stressimposed on a wire rope due to decreasing the loadvelocity.DEFLECTION:ooSag ofa rope in a span, usuallymeasured at midspan as the depth from achord joining the tops ofthe twosupports.Any deviation from a straight line.DESIGN FACTOR: Ratio ofultimate strengthto the design working stress.DESIGNATED: Selected or assigned by theemployer or the employer's representative as beingqualified to perform specific duties.DESIGNATED LEADER: "An individualassigned responsibility for hoisting and riggingactivities requiring more than one person".DIAMETER: Distance measured across thecenter ofa circle circumscribing the wires ofastrand or the strands ofa wire rope.DIESEL-ELECTRIC TRUCK: An electrictruck in which the power source is a generatordriven by a diesel engine.DOCKBOARD: A portable or fixed device forspanning the gap or compensating for thedifference in level between loading platforms andcarriers.DOG-LEG: Permanent short bend or kink in awire rope caused by improper use.DRAGLlNE: Wire rope used to pull anexcavating ordrag bucket.DRIVE: Motor, coupling, brake and gear case, orgear cases used to propel bridge, trolley, or hoist.DRIVE GIRDER: A girder on which is mountedthe bridge drive, cross shaft, walk, railing, andoperator's cab.DRUM: A cylindrical-flanged barrel ofuniform(cylindrical drum) or tapering (conical drum)diameter on which a wire rope is wound foroperation or storage. It may be smooth orgrooved.ELASTIC LIMIT: Limit ofstress beyond whicha permanent deformation takes place within thematerial. This limit is approximately 55-65percent ofbreaking strength ofsteel-wire ropes.ELECTRIC TRUCK: A truck in which theprincipal energy is transmitted from power sourceto motor(s) in the form ofelectricity.Chapter 1Terminology and Definitions 1-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)END CONTROL: An operator-control positionthat is located at the end opposite the load end ofthe truck.EQUALIZER: A device used to compensate forunequal length or stretch ofa hoist rope.EQUALIZING SLINGS: Slings composed ofwire rope and equalizing fittings.EQUALIZING THIMBLES: A special type offitting used as a component part ofsomewire-rope slings.EYE OR EYE SPLICE: A loop with or withouta thimble formed in the end of a wire rope.FAIL-SAFE: A provision designed toautomatically stop or safely control any motion inwhich a malfunction could occur.FATIGUE: A term commonly applied toprogressive fracture ofany load-supportingmember.FIBER CENTERS: Cords or rope made ofvegetable fiber used in the center ofa strand.FIBER CORES: Cords or rope made ofvegetable fiber used in the core of a wire rope.FIRST POINT: The first setting on theoperator's controller that starts crane motion(slowly) in each direction.FITTING: Any accessory used as an attachmentfor wire rope.FLAG: Mark or marker on a rope to designateposition ofload.FLAT ROPE: Wire rope made ofparallelalternating right-lay and left-lay ropes sewntogether byrelatively soft wires.FLATTENED STRAND ROPE: A wire ropewith either oval or triangular strands that present aflattened rope surface.FLEET ANGLE: Angle between the position ofa rope at the extreme end wrap on a drum and aline drawn perpendicular to the axis ofthe drumthrough the center of the nearest fixed sheave.FORKS: Horizontal tine-like projections,normally suspended from the carriage, used toengage and support loads.FORK HEIGHT: The vertical distance from thefloor to the load-carrying surface adjacent to theheel ofthe forks with the mast vertical, and in thecase ofreach trucks, with the forks extended.FORKLIFT TRUCK: A high-lift self-loadingtruck equipped with load carriage and forks fortransporting and tiering loads (see Figure I-I).GALVANIZE: To coat with zinc to protectagainst corrosion.GALVANIZED ROPE: Rope made ofgalvanized wire.GALVANIZED STRAND: Strand made ofgalvanized wire.GALVANIZED WIRE: Wire coated with zinc.GAS-ELECTRIC TRUCK: An electric truck inwhich the power source is a generator driven by anLP-gas or gasoline engine.GROMMET: A seven-strand wire-rope slingmade from one continuous length ofstrand or anendless synthetic-web sling.GROOVED DRUM: Drum withgrooved outersurface to accommodate and guide a rope.GROOVES: Depressions in the outer surface ofa sheave or drum for positioning and supporting arope.GUY LINE: Strand or rope, usually galvanized,for holding a structure in position.HANDLING FIXTURE: A cradle, structure,shipping fixture, or container designed specificallyto facilitate supporting, lifting, or handling acomponent during fabrication, loading, shipping,storage, or installation.HIGH-LIFT TRUCK: A self-loading truckequipped with an elevating mechanism designedto permit tiering. Popular types are high-liftplatform trucks (see Figures 1-1 and 1-3).HIGH-LIFT PLATFORM TRUCK: As.elf-Ioading truck equipped with an elevatingmechanism intended primarily for transportingand tiering loaded skid platforms (see Figure 1-3).HOIST: A device that applies a force for liftingor lowering.HOIST, LEVER OPERATED: Alever-operated manual device used to lift, lower,or pull a load and to apply orrelease tension.1-5Chapter 1Terminology and Definitions


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)LAY LENGTH: The lengthwise distance on awire rope in which a strand makes one completetum aroWld the rope's axis (see Figure 1-4).Left Lay:Figure 1-4. Rope lay.Figure 1-3. High-lift trUCk, high-liftplatform truck.HOLDING LINE: Wire rope on a clamshell ororange-peel bucket that holds the bucket while theclosing line is released to dump the load.ooStrand: Strand in which the coverwires are laid in a helix having aleft-hand pitch, similar to a left-handscrew.Rope: Rope in which the strands arelaid in a helix having a left-hand pitch,similar to a left-hand screw.Right Lay:HOOK LOAD: The total live weight supportedby the hook of a crane, derrick, or other hoistingequipment, including the load, slings, spreaderbars, and other tackle not part of the load butsupported by the hook and required for thehandling ofthe load.IDLER: Sheave or roller used to guide or supporta rope.INDEPENDENT WIRE-ROPE CORE: Wirerope used as the core ofa larger rope.ooLIFT:oStrand: Strand in which the coverwires are laid in a helix having aright-hand pitch, similar to a right-handscrew.Rope: Rope in which the strands arelaid in a helix having a right-hand pitch,similar to a right-hand screw.Maximum safe vertical distance throughwhich a hook can travel.INNER WIRES: All wires of a strand exceptsurface or cover wires.INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINETRUCK: A truck in which the power source is agas or diesel engine.oThe hoisting of a load.LIFT, CRITICAL: Lifting ofparts, components,assemblies, or other items designated as criticalbecause the effect of dropping, upset, or collisionofthem could:INTERNALLY LUBRICATED: Wire rope orstrand having all wires coated with lubricant.oPresent a potentially Wlacceptable riskofpersonnel injury or property damage.KINK: Permanent distortion ofwires and strandsresulting from sharp bends.LAGGING: External wood covering on a reel ofrope or a strand.LANG-LAY ROPE: Wire rope in which thewires in the strands and the strands in the rope arelaid in the same direction.oooResult in significant release ofradioactivity or other WldesirableconditionsCause Wldetectable damage resulting infuture operational or safety problemsCause significant work delayLIFT, ORDINARY: Anylift not designated as acritical lift or a preengineered production lift.Chapter 1Terminology and Definitions 1-6


LIFT, PREENGINEERED PRODUCTION:Repetitive, production-type lifting operation,independent of the nature of the load to be lifted,in which the probability ofdropping, upset, orcollision is reduced to a level acceptable to theresponsible manager by preliminary engineeringevaluation, specialized lifting fixtures, detailedprocedures, operation-specific training, andindependent review and approval ofthe entireprocess.LINE: A rope used for supporting and controllinga suspended load.LOAD: The total weight superimposed on theload block or hook.DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)LOAD BLOCK: The assembly ofhook orshackle, swivel, bearing, sheaves, pins, and framesuspended by the hoisting ropes.LOAD-BACKREST EXTENSION: A deviceextending vertically from the fork carriage frame.LOAD-BEARING PARTS: Anypartofamaterial-handling device in which the inducedstress is influenced by the hook load. A primaryload-bearing part is a part the failure of whichcould result in dropping, upset, or uncontrolledmotion ofthe load. Load-bearing parts which, iffailed, would result in no more than stoppage ofthe equipment without causing dropping, upset, orloss ofcontrol ofthe load are not considered to beprimary load-bearing parts.LOAD CENTER (FORKLIFTS): Thehorizontal longitudinal distance from theintersection ofthe horizontal load-carryingsurfaces and vertical load-engaging faces oftheforks (or equivalent load-positioning structure) tothe center ofgravity ofthe load.LOW-LIFT TRUCK: A self-loading truckequipped with an elevating mechanism designedto raise the load only sufficiently to permithorizontal movement (see Figure 1-5).MAGNET: An electromagnetic device carried ona cranehook and used to pick up loads.MAIN HOIST: The hoist mechanism providedfor lifting the maximum-rated load.MAN TROLLEY: A trolley having an operator'scab attached to it.MARLINE SPIKE: Tapered steel pin used insplicing wire rope.Motorized hanel/rider truck:Figure 1-5. Low-lift trucks.MESSENGER STRAND: Galvanized strand orbronze strand used to support telephone andelectrical cables.MODULUS OF ELASTICITY: Mathematicalquantity giving the ratio, within the elastic limit,between a definite range ofunit stress on a wirerope and the corresponding elongation.MOUSING: A method ofbridging the throatopening ofa hook to prevent the release ofloadlines and slings, under service or slack conditions,by wrapping with soft wire, rope, heavy tape, orsimilar materials.NARROW-AISLE TRUCK: A self-loadingtruck intended primarily for right-angle stacking inaisles narrower than those normally required bycounterbalanced trucks ofthe same capacity (seeFigure 1-6).NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (NOE):The development and application oftechnicalmethods to examine materials or components, inways that do not impair future usefulness andserviceability, in order to detect, locate, measure,and evaluate discontinuities, defects, and otherimperfections; to assess integrity, properties, andcomposition; and to measure geometricalcharacteristics.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NOT): SeeNONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION.1-7Chapter 1Terminology and Definitions


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)Figure 1-6. Narrow-aisle trUCk.NONROTATING WIRE ROPE: SeeRotation-Resistant Wire Rope.OPEN SOCKET: A wire-rope fitting consistingofa basket and two ears with a pin.ORDER-PICKER TRUCK, HIGH-LIFT: Atruck, controllable by an operator stationed on aplatform, which is movable, has a load-engagingmeans, and is intended for (manual) stockselection. The truck may be capable ofself-loading and/or tiering (see Figure 1-7).Figure 1-8. Pallet truck, motorized handtruck.PEENING: Permanent distortion ofoutside wirein a rope caused by pounding.PERSON-IN-CHARGE: The manager or otherresponsible person (other than the equipmentoperator) mown to be qualified and appointed tobe responsible for the safe handling ofcriticalloads and for the safe handling ofnoncritical itemsin, around, or above spaces in which critical itemsare located.POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK: A mobile,power-driven vehicle used to carry, push, pull, lift,stack, or tier material.PREFORMED WIRE ROPE: Wire rope inwhich the strands are permanently shaped, beforebeing fabricated into the rope, to the helical formthey assume in the wire rope.PREFORMED STRAND: Strand in which thewires are permanently shaped, before beingfabricated into the strands, to the helical form theyassume in the strand.PRESTRESSING: Stressing a wire rope orstrand before use under such a tension and forsuch a time that stretch that would otherwise occuronce the load is picked up is largely nonexistent.Figure 1-7. Order piCker trUCk, high-lift.OVERHEAD GUARD: A framework fitted to atruck over the head ofa riding operator.PALLET TRUCK: A self-loading,nonmotorized or motorized low-lift truckequipped with wheeled forks ofdimensions sizedto go between the top and bottom boards ofadouble-faced pallet, the wheels fitting into spacesbetween the bottom boards, so as toraise the palletoffthe floor for transporting (see Figure 1-8).PROOF TEST: A nondestructive tension testperformed to verify construction andworkmanship ofslings or rigging accessories.PUBLIC CARRIER: A for-hire companyengaged in the public transportation ofgoods.QUALIFIED: A person who, bypossession ofarecognized degree, certificate, or professionalstanding, or who, by extensive knowledge,training, and experience, has successfullydemonstrated an ability and competence to solveor resolve problems relating to the subject matterand workChapter 1Terminology and Definitions 1-8


QUALIFIED ENGINEER/QUALIFIEDENGINEERING ORGANIZATION: Anengineer or engineering organization whosecompetence in evaluation ofthe type ofequipmentin question has been demonstrated to thesatisfaction ofthe responsible manager.QUALIFIED INSPECTOR: One whosecompetence is recognized by the responsiblemanager and whose qualification to performspecific inspection activities has been determined,verified, and attested to in writing.QUALIFIED OPERATOR: One who has hadappropriate and approved training, includingsatisfactory completion ofboth written andoperational tests to demonstrate knowledge,competence, and skill, in the safe operation oftheequipment to be used.DOE-STD-i090-96 (Rev-i)QUALIFIED RIGGER: One whose competencein this skill has been demonstrated by experiencesatisfactory to the appointed person.NOTE: The term "rigger" or "qualifiedrigger" in this standard refers to the functionperformed, and in no way relates to theworker's classification in any union orbargaining unit.RATED CAPACITY: The maximum hook loadthat a piece ofhoisting equipment is designed tocarry; also the maximum load that an industrialtruck or a sling, hook, shackle, or other riggingtackle is designed to carry.NOTE: At the option ofthe user, a ratedcapacity can be assigned that is less than thedesign-rated capacity.REACH TRUCK: A self-loading truck,generally high-lift, having load-engaging meansmounted so it can be extended forward undercontrol to permit a load to bepicked up anddeposited in the extended position and transportedin the retracted position (see Figure 1-9).REEL: The flanged spool on which wire rope orstrand is wound for storage or shipment.REEVING: A system in which a rope travelsaround drums or sheaves.REGULAR-LAY ROPE: Wire rope in whichthe wires in the strands and the strands in the ropeare laid in opposite directions.REVERSE BEND: Reeving ofa wire rope oversheaves and drums so that it bends in oppositedirections.Figure 1-9. Reach trucks.RIDER TRUCK: A truck that is designed to becontrolled by a riding operator.RIGGING: The hardware or equipment used tosafely attach a load to a lifting device. The art orprocess ofsafely attaching a load to a hook bymeans ofadequately rated and properly appliedslings and related hardware.ROLLERS: Relatively small-diameter cylindersor wide-faced sheaves used for supporting orguiding ropes.ROTATION-RESISTANT WIRE ROPE: Wirerope consisting of a left-lay, lang-lay inner ropecovered byright-lay, regular-lay outer strands.RUNNING SHEAVE: A sheave that rotates asthe load block is raised or lowered.RUNWAY: Assembly ofrails, girders, brackets,and framework on which a crane operates.SAFE WORKING LOAD: Load that a ropemay carry economically and safely.SEALE: A strand construction having onesize ofcover wires with the same number ofone size ofwires in the inner layer and each layer having thesame length and direction oflay. Most commonconstruction is one center wire, nine inner wires,and nine cover wires.SEIZE: To securely bind the end ofa wire ropeor strand with seizing wire or strand.1-9Chapter 1Terminology and Definitions


SEIZING STRAND: Small strand, usually ofseven wires, made ofsoft-annealed-iron wire.SEIZING WIRE: A soft-annealed-iron wire.SELF-LOADER: A truck with tires that can fitbetween the top and bottom boards ofadouble-faced palletSERVE: To cover the surface ofa wire rope orstrand with a wrapping of wire.SHACKLE: A type ofclevis normally used forlifting (see Figure 1-10).DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 1-11. Side-loader truck.Figure 1-10. Shackle.SHALL: A word indicating that an action ismandatory.SHEAVE: A grooved wheel or pulley used witha rope to change direction and point ofapplicationofa pulling force.SHEAVE, NONRUNNING (EQUALIZER): Asheave used to equalize tension in opposite partsofa rope, called nonrunning because ofits slightmovementSHEAVE, RUNNING: A sheave that rotates asthe load block is lifted or lowered.SHOULD: A word indicating a recommendedaction, the advisability ofwhich depends on thefacts in each situation.SIDE LOADER: A self-loading truck, generallyhigh-lift, having load-engaging means mounted insuch a manner that it can be extended laterallyunder control to permit a load to be picked up anddeposited in the extended position and transportedin the retracted position (see Figure 1-11).SIDE PULL: That portion of a hoist pull actinghorizontally when the hoist lines are not operatedvertically.SLINGS: Wire ropes, chains, synthetic web, andmetal mesh made into forms, with or withoutfittings, for handling loads.SLINGS, BRAIDED: Very flexible slingscomposed of several individual wire ropes braidedtogether.SMOOTH-FACED DRUM: Drum with a plain,not grooved, face.SPAN: Thehorizontal, center-to-center distanceofrunway rails.SPIRAL GROOVE: Groove that follows thepath ofa helix around a drum, similar to thethread ofa screw.SPLICING: Interweaving oftwo ends ofrope tomake a continuous or endless length withoutappreciably increasing the diameter. Also refersto making a loop or eye in the end ofa rope bytucking the ends ofthe strands.Splice, Hand Tucked: A loop or eyeformed in the end ofa rope by tucking the endofthe strands back into the main body oftherope in a prescribed manner.Splice, Mechanical: A loop or eye formedin the end ofa wire rope bypressing orswaging one or more metal sleeve over thewire rope junction. .STAINLESS-STEEL ROPE: Wire rope madeofchrome-nickel steel wires having greatresistance to corrosion.STEEL-CLAD ROPE: Rope with individualstrands spirally wrapped with flat steel wire.Chapter 1Terminology and Definitions 1-10


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CHAPTER 2CRITICAL LIFTSDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)This chapter provides guidelines for critical-lift determination and requirements for planning and performinga critical lift safely and judiciously.2.1 CRITICAL-LIFT DETERMINATION... . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 2-12.2 CRITICAL-LIFT REQUIREMENTS 2-22-iChapter 2Critical Lifts


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DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)2.1 CRITICAL-LIFT DETERMINATIONa An appointed person shall classify each liftinto one ofthe DOE categories (ordinary, critical,or preengineered production) prior to planning thelift.b. A lift shall be designated as a critical lift ifcollision, upset, or dropping could result in anyone ofthe following:1. Unacceptable risk ofpersonnel injuryor significant adverse health impact (onsite oroffsite).2. Significant release ofradioactive orother hazardous material or other undesirableconditions.3. Undetectable damage that wouldjeopardize future operations or the safety of afacility.4. Damage that would result inunacceptable delay to schedule or other significantprogram impact such as loss ofvital data.c. A lift should also be designated as critical ifthe load requires exceptional care in handlingbecause ofsize, weight, close-toleranceinstallation, high susceptibility to damage, orother unusual factors.2-1Chapter 2Critical Lifts


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)2.2 CRITICAL-LIFT REQUIREMENTSa. Ensure that the requirements are met forordinary lifts specified in each section ofthisstandard for each particular equipment category.b. The operating organization shall appoint aPIC for the entire operation. This person shallmeet the defmitions of appointed, designated, andqualified as described in Chapter 1, "Terminologyand Defmitions," and shall bepresent at the liftsite during the entire lifting operation.c. The PIC shall ensure that a pre-job plan orprocedure is prepared that defmes the operationand includes the following:1. Identification ofthe items to bemoved, the weight, dimensions, and center ofgravity ofthe load, and any hazardous or toxicmaterials that are present2. Identification ofoperating equipmentto be used by type and rated capacity3. Rigging sketches that include (asapplicable):i. Identification and rated capacityofslings, lifting bars, riggingaccessories, and below-the-hooklifting devices.ii.iii.iv.Load-indicating devices.Load vectors.Lifting points.v. Sling angles.vi.vii.Boom and swing angles.Methods ofattachment.viii. Crane orientations.ix.Other factors affectingequipment capacity.4. Operating procedures and specialinstructions to operators including riggingprecautions and safety measures to be followed asapplicable.d. Experienced operators who have beentrained and qualified to operate the specificequipment to be used shall be assigned to makethe lift.e. Only designated, qualified signalers shallgive signals to the operator. However. theoperator shall obey a STOP signal at all times.no matter who gives the signal.f. The procedure and rigging sketches shall bereviewed and approved by the responsiblemanager (or designee) and the responsible oversiteorganization (such as safety, quality assurance, orquality control) before the lift is made.g. A pre-lift meeting involving partiCipatingpersonnel shall be conducted prior to making acritical lift. The critical lift plan/procedure shallbe reviewed and questions shall be resolved.Chapter 2Critical Lifts 2-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CHAPTER 3PREENGINEERED PRODUCTION LIFTSThis chapter provides requirements for the design, evaluation, and performance ofpreengineered productionlifts. This lift designation may be used at the discretion of the contractor for selected operations.3.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13.2 OPERATION EVALUATION 3-23.2.1 Load Identification... .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . 3-23.2.2 Task Determination .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. . 3-23.2.3 Hazards Evaluation 3-23.2.4 EquipmentJRigging Selection. . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 3-23.3 LIFfING FIXTURES 3-33.3.1 Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-33.3.2 Fabrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-33.3.3 Inspection and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-33.3.4 Storage, Maintenance, and Control " 3-33.3.5 Modification and Repair 3-43.4 PROCEDURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-53.4.1 Content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3-53.4.2 Development.......................................................... . 3-53.4.3 Preparation and Revision. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 3-53.4.4 Approval..... . .. 3-63.4.5 Review ; 3-63.4.6 Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-63.5 DESIGNATED LEADER 3-73.6 TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-83.6.1 Equipment Operation 3-83.6.2 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-83-iChapter 3Preengineered Production Lifts


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DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)3.1 GENERALa. A preengineered production lift is arepetitive, production-type lifting operation that isindependent of the nature ofthe load to be lifted.Also, the probability ofcollision, upset, ordropping is reduced to a level acceptable to theresponsible manager by preliminary operationevaluation, specialized lifting fixtures, detailedprocedures, operation-specific training, andperformance ofindependent review and approvalof the entire process.b. The preengineered production lift is aspecialized lift performed by productionpersonnel. The required procedures and controlsensure the safety of the operation and set thiscategory oflift apart from traditional hoisting andrigging activities.3-1Chapter 3Preengineered Production Lifts


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)3.2 OPERATION EVALUATIONThe following procedure should be used todetermine ifa lifting operation qualifies as apreengineered production lift.3.2.1 Load Identificationa. Identify the identical items or group(s) ofidentical items to be repetitively lifted. Itemsmust have the same dimensions, weight, andcenter ofgravity to be considered identical.b. Determine the dimensions, weight, center ofgravity, and method ofattachment ofthe items.3.2.2 Task Determinationa. Determine the parameters ofmotion usingthe following as applicable:1. Lifting, rotation, speeds, and traveldirections.2. Actions required with or adjacent tothe load.3. Other lifting operation details thataffect safety and stability ofthe load.3.2.3 Hazards EvaluationDetermine the consequences that could result fromcollision, upset, or dropping the load.3.2.4 Equipment/RiggingSelectiona. Determine the type, class, and minimumcapacity oflifting equipment (hoist, crane,forklift, etc.) required for the operation based onthe identified load, task, and hazards.b. Deime the type oflifting fixtures required tosafely accomplish the required task.Chapter 3Preengineered Production Lifts 3-2


3.3 LIFTING FIXTURESDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)3.3.1Design3.3.2Fabricationc. Special lifting fixtures and riggingaccessories shall be designed according to recognizedconsensus standards (29 CFR 1910,Occupational Safety and Health Standards forGeneral Industry: 29 CFR 1926, OccupationalSafety and Health Regulations for Construction;ASME B30.9, "Slings," B30.10, "Hooks,"B30.20, "Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices"; etc.)and the lifting fixture design requirements inChapters 12 and 14 ("Rigging Accessories" and"Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices," respectively).d. The designer ofspecial lifting fixtures shallbe:1. A member of a qualified engineeringorganization.2. Qualified in machine design.3. Knowledgeable ofspecial liftingfixture design requirements.e. The designer shall determine therequirements for initial and periodic inspections ortests, including acceptance/rejection criteria andperiodic inspection/test intervals.f. Special lifting fixture designs shall receive adocumented review by another member ofaqualified engineering organization and theresponsible oversight organizations (safety,quality assurance, etc.).g. Deviations in design that may result indesign factors less than consensus standardrequirements shall require documentedjustification and approval ofthe designer'smanager and the manager ofthe responsibleoversight organizations (safety, quality assurance,etc.).h. Applications not specifically addressed inthe ASME standards or in this standard may beapproved by the responsible manager andoversight organizations (safety, quality assurance,etc.) when justification and documentation areprovided and all other provisions ofthis sectionare met.Special lifting fixtures shall be fabricatedaccording to the specifications ofthe approveddesign package.3.3.3Inspection and Testinga. Before initial use ofeach special liftingfixture, a qualified inspector shall perform adocumented acceptance inspection and test on it.This process shall include:1. Verification ofconfiguration of thefixture against the design drawing specifications.2. Nondestructive examination asspecified in the approved design package.3. Proof-testing as specified in theapproved design package.b. Personnel performing the lift shall visuallyinspect special lifting fixtures before use forvisible signs ofwear, deformation, deterioration,or damage. Records are not required.c. A qualified inspector shall conduct periodic,documented inspections as required by the designorganization. These inspections shall includepreuse inspection requirements (visible signs ofwear, deformation, deterioration, or damage) and aformal verification ofthe current configuration ofthe fixture against that specified in the approveddesign package.d. Equipment to be used (cranes, hoists,forklifts, etc.) shall be inspected according to theappropriate section requirements in this standardfor that type ofequipment.3.3.4 Storage, Maintenance,and Controla. Lifting fixture users shall do the following:1. Store special lifting fixtures in anappropriate location to prevent damage ordeterioration.3-3Chapter 3Preengineered Production Lifts


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)2. Perform and document periodicpreventive maintenance as required by the designorganization.3. Establish controls to ensure thatspecial lifting fixtures are used only in theoperations for which they were designed.4. Maintain equipment to be used(cranes, hoists, forklifts, etc.) according to theappropriate section requirements in this standardfor that type ofequipment.3.3.5 Modification and Repaira. Modification to special lifting fixtures shallbe designed, approved, and fabricated accordingto Sections 3.3.1 and 3.3.2 ("Design," and"Fabrication," respectively).b. Following modification or repair of aload-bearing element ofa special lifting fixture,the fixture shall be inspected and tested accordingto the initial use requirements in Section 3.3.3,"Inspection and Testing."Chapter]Preengineered Production Lifts 3-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)3.4 PROCEDURESA detailed, approved, step-by-step procedure shallbe developed for the entire operation.3.4.1Contenta. At a minimum, each procedure shall containthe following information:1. Identification ofthe load to be lifted.2. Identification of the specific liftingfixtures to be used in the operation.3. Identification by class and capacity (ifapplicable) ofthe types of equipment to be used,such as cranes and hoists.4. Verification that all equipment,fixtures, and accessories are operative, up-to-dateon required periodic inspections and maintenance,and are in good condition before the operationbegins.5. Specific instructions for attachment ofthe lifting fixtures to the load and to the liftingequipment.6. Parameters ofmotion required for theoperation.7. Specific instructions for removal ofthe.lifting fixtures from both the load and the liftingequipment.3.4.2Developmenta. The methods for developing newprocedures, including standard procedure formats,should be clearly defmed. Administrativeprocedures or writers guides should direct thedevelopment and review process for procedures ateach site to ensure consistency at the site.b. Qualifications for procedure writers shall beconsidered, including operating organization andexperience.c. Procedures should reference applicablesource documents, such as facility designdocuments, safety analysis documents, vendortechnical manuals, and industry standards.d. Operating procedures should contain onlyone action per step.e. Any necessary warnings, cautions, or notesshould be easily identifiable and should notcontain any action statements. These items shouldprecede the step to which they apply and shouldappear on the same page as the step to which theyapply.f. The sequence ofprocedural steps shouldconform to the normal or expected operationalsequence.g. Procedures should be developed withconsideration for the human-factor aspects of theirintended use. For example, references tocomponents should exactly match drawing andlabel-plate identifiers, and units should be thesame as those marked on applicableinstrumentation. Important factors should behighlighted, such as operating limits, warnings,and cautions.3.4.3Preparation and Revisiona. Appropriately trained personnel shalldevelop, review, and approve a step-by-stepprocedure for each lifting operation. Theresponsible oversight organizations (safety,quality assurance, etc.) shall participate in thereview process.b. Before its first use in the actual productionprocess, the procedure shall undergo a formalverification and validation process usingwalk-throughs or similar methods to ensure thatthe steps are appropriate and correct. Anydiscrepancies found during this process shall becorrected and the process repeated until theprocedure is correct.c. Any changes to an existing, approvedprocedure shall be performed according to theprocess specified above. The change shall beevaluated to determine whether the revisedprocedure must be revalidated and reverified.3-5Chapter 3Preengineered Production Lifts


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)3.4.4 Approvala. Before each procedure is validated, it shallbe reviewed and approved by the followingpersonnel:1; Author ofthe procedure.2. Representative ofa qualifiedengineering organization.3. Representatives ofthe responsibleoversight organizations (e.g., safety, qualityassurance).b. After each procedure is validated, it shall bereviewed and approved by the followingpersonnel:3.4.5 Reviewa. Approved procedures should be reviewed atperiodic intervals to ensure that their informationand instructions are technically accurate and thatappropriate human-factor considerations havebeen included.b. The frequency ofreviews should bespecified for each procedure; it may vary with thetype and complexity ofthe activity involved.c. Applicable procedures should be reviewedafter an incident.d. During each review, procedures should becompared to source documents to verify theiraccuracy.1. Author ofthe procedure. 3.4.6 Use2. Representative ofa qualifiedengineering organization.3. Representatives of the responsibleoversight organizations (Le., safety, qualityassurance).4. Management ofthe facility where theprocedure will be performed.5. Management ofthe productionorganization performing the procedure.c. Revisions ofprocedures shall receive thesame depth ofreview and level ofapproval as theinitial versions received.All procedures, either new or revised, shall beapproved before use.a. A copy ofthe current issue ofthe approvedprocedure shall be in the work area when theoperation is performed.b. Deviations from the approved procedure arenot allowed during normal operations.c. The requirements for use ofproceduresshould be clearly defmed and understood by allpersonnel.d. Ifa procedure is determined to be deficient,a procedure change shall be initiated beforeoperations continue.e. Personnel performing the procedure maytake whatever action is necessary duringemergency conditions to return the process to asafe and stable condition without first initiating aprocedure change.Chapter 3Preengineered Production Lifts 3-6


3.5 DESIGNATED LEADERDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)a. Each time a preengineered production liftrequiring more than one person is performed, adesignated leader shall be present at the lift siteduring the entire operation.b. Leadership designation may be by writteninstructions, specific verbal instruction for theparticular job, or clearly defmed responsibilitieswithin the crew's organizational structure.c. The designated leader's responsibility shallinclude the following:1. Ensure that the personnel involvedhave received proper and current training andqualification for the procedure.2. Ensure that the equipment andaccessories specified in the procedure areavailable.3. Survey the lift site for hazardous orunsafe conditions.4. Ensure that equipment is properly setup and positioned.5. Ensure that a signaler is assigned, ifrequired, and identified to the equipment operator.6. Direct the lifting operation to ensurethat it is don~ safely and efficiently.7. Stop the job when any potentiallyunsafe condition is recognized.8. Direct emergency stabilizationoperations ifan accident or injury occurs.3-7Chapter 3Preengineered Production Lifts


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)3.6 TRAININGSpecialized training shall be conducted forpersonnel involved in performing preengineeredproduction lifts. This training shall beperiodically reviewed and approved by theresponsible operating and oversight organizationsc. Equipment-operation training shall berepeated for personnel whenever a new ordifferent type of equipment is introduced into theprocedure.(safety, quality assurance, etc.). 3.6.2 Procedure3.6.1Equipment Operationa. Personnel shall be trained and qualified onthe specific types ofequipment required.b. The equipment operation training shallinclude:1. A demonstration by the individual ofoperational competence with the equipment.2. Ademonstr~wnofappropri~esafeoperating practices.3. Documented evidence of theindividual's knowledge ofsafety-relatedinformation.a. Personnel shall be trained and qualified inthe proper execution ofeach. specific procedure.b. The procedure training shall include:1. A demonstration by the individual ofoperational competence in performance of theprocedure.2. Documented evidence oftheindividual's knowledge ofthe steps andrequirements ofthe procedure.c. Training on a procedure shall be repeatedperiodically or when a modification to theprocedure results in a significant change in theoperation.Chapter 3Preengineered Production Lifts 3-8


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CHAPTER 4LIFTING PERSONNELThis chapter describes requirements for lifting personnel.4.1 GENERAL.................................................................... 4-14.2 MOBll.E CRANES 4-34.3 OVERIIEAD CRANES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-44.4 PERSONNEL PLATFORM 4-54-iChapter 4Lifting Personnel


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DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)4.1 GENERALa. This chapter specifies the operation, design,testing, and inspection requirements for the use ofpersonnel lift platforms or baskets suspendedfrom mobile or overhead cranes. This chapterimplements the requirements ofASME B30.5,"Mobile Cranes."b. The manager specifically responsible for theoverall work function to be performed shalldetermine that the erection, use, and dismantlingofconventional means ofreaching the work site(i.e., scaffold, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, orelevating work platform) would be morehazardous or is not possible because of structuraldesign or worksite conditions.c. For each personnel lifting procedure, themanager responsible for the task shall authorizethe use ofa crane-suspended work platform andattest to the need for the operation through awritten justification attesting to that need. Astatement describing the operation and its timeframe shall be included. The statement, afterbeing approved by the authorizer, shall be retainedat the job site.d. These special procedures shall be followedwhen lifting personnel:1. The crane shall be inspected dailyprior to lifting personnel, in accordance with therequirements for frequent inspections for the typeofequipment being used.2. The lifting and supporting shall bemade under controlled conditions and under thedirection ofa designated leader. A qualifiedsignaler shall be appointed.3. Prior to use each working shift, thepersonnel lift platform and rigging shall beinspected.4. At each newjob site (and at leastannually) prior to hoisting personnel, thepersonnel platform, rigging, and hook block shallbe proof-tested by a qualified inspector to twicethe personnel platform's rated capacity by holdingit suspended for 5 min with the test load suitablydistributed on the personnel platform. Mterproof-testing, any deficiencies revealed byinspection, or by the prooftest, shall be correctedand another proof-test conducted. Anymodification to the personnel platform or riggingshall require retesting.5. Prior to lifting personnel and after theprooftest, the qualified operator and signaler shallconduct a trial lift with the personnel platformloaded to at least the maximum anticipated load.The trial lift shall be made from ground level (orany other location where employees will enter theplatform) to each location at which the platform isto behoisted and positioned. The designatedleader and the operator shall determine that:i. Crane (mobile) footing isadequate.ii.iii.iv.System controls and safetydevices are activated andfunctioning properly.No interferences exist.Configurations necessary toreach work locations will allowthe crane to remain under50 percent ofrated capacity.NOTE: Materials and tools to be used during theactual lift, ifsecured to prevent displacement, canbe in the platform for the test lift.NOTE: A single trial lift may be performed for alllocations to be reached from a single setupposition.6. The trial lift shall be repeated prior tohoisting employees whenever:i. The crane (mobile) travels or ismoved and set up in a newlocation or returned to apreviously used location.ii.The lift route is changed, unlessthe operator determines that thesafety ofthe hoisted personnel isnot affected.7. A visual inspection ofthe crane,rigging, and personnel platform shall be conductedby a qualified inspector immediately after the triallift, prior to lifting personnel. Any defects found4-1Chapter 4Lifting Personnel


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)that create a safetyhazard shall be corrected priorto hoisting personnel.8. Mter the trial lift and just beforehoisting personnel, the platform shall be lifted afew inches and inspected to ensure that it is secureand properly balanced. Personnel shall not behoisted unless the following conditions exist:i. Hoist ropes are free ofkinks.ii.iii.iv.Multiple-part lines are nottwisted around each other.The primary attachment iscentered over the platform.Ropes are properly seated ondrums and sh~ves.9. Prior to the trial lift, a meeting shall beheld with the designated leader, qualified operator,signaler, persons to be lifted, and the personresponsible for overall worksite safety to plan andreview procedures to be followed. Procedures forentering and leaving the personnel platform orother device and the points at which persons willenter and leave the device shall be reviewed.10. Communications between the craneoperator, signaler, and persons being lifted shallbe maintained throughout the lift.11. The employees being hoisted, moved,or positioned shall remain in continuous sight of,and in direct communication with, the operator orsignaler. In situations where direct visual contactwith the operator is not possible and the use ofasignaler would create a hazard for that person,direct communication alone (such as a two-wayradio) may be used.12. Tag lines shall be used unless their usecreates an unsafe condition.13. The crane shall be operated so thatlowering will be power-controlled (no free-fall).14. When welding is done by personnelfrom the platform or basket, the electrode holdersshall be protected from contact with metalcomponents ofthe personnel platform or basket.15. Employees working from a platformshall wear bodybeltslharnesses with lanyardsattached to the lower load block or overhaul ball,or to a structural member within the platform thatis capable ofsupporting a fall impact. Whenworking above water, the requirements of29 CPR1926.106 (Occupational Safety and HealthRegulations for Construction) shall also apply.16. The operator shall remain at thecontrols when the personnel platform is occupied.17. Movement ofthe personnel platformshall be done in a slow, controlled, cautiousmanner with no sudden movements ofit or thecrane. The lifting or lowering speed shall notexceed 100 ft/min (30 m/min).18. The total weight ofthe lifted load(including personnel) shall not exceed 50 percentofthe crane rating under the planned conditions ofuse.19. Suspended personnel platforms shallbe used only for personnel, their tools, andsufficient materials to do their work. They shallnot be used for transporting bulk materials.20. Personnel shall keep all parts of theirbodies inside the suspended personnel platformduring raising, lowering, and positioning to avoidpinch points. Personnel shall not stand on or workfrom the top rail, midrail, or toeboard ofthesuspended personnel platform.21. Ifthe personnel platform cannot belanded, it should be tied to the structure beforepersonnel get offor on.22. Personnel platforms should not beused in winds greater than 15 mph (25 km/h),electric storms, snow, ice, sleet, or other adverseweather Conditions that could affect the safety ofpersonnel.23. Mer the personnel platform ispositioned, all brakes and locks on the lift craneshall be set before personnel perform any work.Chapter 4Lifting Personnel 4-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)4.2 MOBILE CRANESMobile cranes are designed and intended forhandling materials, not personnel. In addition tothe general requirements in Section 4.1,"General," the following requirements shall bemet when lifting personnel with a mobile crane:aPersonnel are permitted to ride only in oneofthe following:1. A personnel platform that is supportedfrom the crane's hook which meets therequirements ofSection 4.4, "PersonnelPlatform."2. A personnel basket attached directly tothe boom which is approved by the cranemanufacturer.b. Cranes and derricks with variable-anglebooms shall be equipped with a boom-angleindicator that is readily visible to the operator.the operator, at all times, the boom's extendedlength, or an accurate determination ofthe loadradius to be used during the lift shall be madeprior to hoisting personnel.d. A positive-acting device shall be used thatprevents contact between the load block oroverhaul ball and the boom tip (anti-two-blockingdevice), or a system shall be used that deactivatesthe hoisting action before damage occurs in theevent ofa two-blocking situation (two-blockdamage-prevention feature).e. The crane shall be uniformly level within 1percent oflevel grade and located on fIrm footing.f. Cranes shall nottravel while personnel areon a personnel platform or in the basket.g. Cranes with outriggers shall have theoutriggers fully extended and blocked.c. Cranes with telescoping booms shall beequipped with a device to indicate clearly to4-3Chapter 4Lifting Personnel


4.3 OVERHEAD CRANESDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Overhead cranes are designed and intended forhandling materials, not personnel. In addition tothe general requirements in Section 4.1, thefollowing requirements shall be met when liftingpersonnel with an overhead crane.a Personnel are permitted to ride only in apersonnel platform that is supported from thecrane's hook which meets the requirements ofSection 4.4.b. A hoist-limit switch/device shall be providedin the hoisting direction to stop the hoistingmotion to prevent two-blocking.Chapter 4Lifting Personnel 4-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)4.4 PERSONNEL PLATFORMUse only personnel platforms that are specificallydesigned and constructed for the purpose ofsuspending personnel according to the following:a. The personnel platform shall be designed bya qualified person competent in structural design.All welding of the platform shall be performed bya certified welder familiar with the weld grades,types, and material specified in the design.b. The personnel platform shall be limited tocarrying six persons.c. The personnel platform and rigging shall becapable ofsupporting, without failure, at least fivetimes the maximum intended load.d. The personnel platform shall bear a platespecifying its empty weight and the maximumnumber ofpersons and weight for which it israted.e. The personnel platform shall have perimeterprotection consisting ofa top rail approximately45 in. (115 cm) high, a toeboard at least 4 in. (10cm) high, and a midrail approximately halfwaybetween the top rail and the toeboard.f. A grab rail shall be provided inside thepersonnel platform to minimize hand exposure.g. The sides ofthe platform shall be enclosedfrom the toeboard to the midrail with solidconstruction or expanded metal having openingsno greater than ~ in. (1.27 cm).h. Ifaccess doors are installed, they shall openonly to the interior of the personnel platform.Access doors shall be equipped witha device to prevent them from openingunintentionally.i. The personnel platform shall have overheadprotection when there is an overhead hazard.j. Sufficient headroom shall be provided toallow employees to stand upright in the platform.k. Rough edges exposed to contact byemployees shall be surfaced (ground smooth) toprevent injury.1. The personnel platform shall be easilyidentifiable byhigh-visibility color or marking.m. All welding procedures and weldingoperator qualifications shall be in accordance withANSIIAWS D1.1 when welding is to beperformed on load-sustaining members. Wherespecial steels or other materials are used, themanufacturer shall provide welding procedures.Welds shall be inspected by a qualified inspector.n. When being supported by a crane, theplatform shall be attached to the hoist rope by ahook ofa type that can be closed and locked,eliminating the hook throat opening.Alternatively, an alloy-steel anchor shackle with abolt, nut, and retaining pin may be used.o. All eyes in wire-rope slings shall befabricated with thimbles. No rigging accessoriesfor attaching the personnel platform to hoist linesshall be used for any other purpose when nothoisting personnel.p. The suspension system shall minimizeinclination ofthe personnel platform due to themovement ofpersonnel on it.4-5Chapter 4Lifting Personnel


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DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CHAPTER 5HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTSThis chapter describes provisions for hoisting and rigging operations in hostile work environments.5.1 GENERAL........................................................... 5-15.2 HOSTll..E ENVIRONMENT PLAN .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25.2.1 Marking and Posting 5-25.2.2 Inspection and Testing. . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. 5-2Exhibit I Hostile Environment Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-4S-iChapter 5Hostile Environments


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DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)5.1 GENERALa. This chapter contains the special provisionsfor hoisting and rigging operations and equipmentin hostile environments where standard operating,maintenance, inspection, or test procedures cannotbe followed as a result ofradiation or radioactivecontamination, toxic/hazardous chemicals orgases, or temperature extremes.b. Hoisting and rigging activities can usuallybe accomplished where the environment will allownormal operations with access for hands-onequipment contact. In those situations,operations, maintenance, inspections, and testsshall be done in accordance with regularprovisions ofthis standard.c. Hoisting and rigging equipment oroperations shall be reviewed by a designated personto determine compliance with therequirements ofthis standard. Ifit is determinedto be impossible or unreasonable for therequirements ofthis standard to be met as a result .ofhostile environmental conditions, a hostileenvironment plan shall be prepared to documentalternative compliance methods and procedures.d. All hoisting and rigging operations shall beconsistent with DOE's policy of .as-Iow-as-reasonably achievable (ALARA)radiation exposure.e. Safety ofpersonnel shall remain the fIrstpriority.5-1Chapter 5Hostile Environments


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)5.2 HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT PLANa. A hostile environment plan shall be preparedby a designated person and shall cover operations,equipment, inspection, testing, and maintenance.See Exhibit I, Hostile Environment Plan, at theend ofthis chapter.b. At a minimum, the plan shall be reviewedand approved byresponsible management at thefacility where the crane, hoist, or other equipmentis located and byresponsible management ofanoverview organization such as safety or qualityassurance. While the site-specific organizationalstructure will determine other required reviewsand approvals, approval by the following isrecommended:1. Responsible operations manager.2. Equipment custodian.3. Cognizant engineer.c. The plan shall address only those actions orfeatures that require deviation from therequirements of this standard due to a hostileenvironment. At a minimum, it shall contain thefollowing information:1. The specific requirements that cannotbernet.2. The difference between therequirement and actual conditions.3. Justification for not meeting thisstandard's requirements.4. A statement of actions or features tobe used to compensate for the differences.5. Specific maintenance, inspections, andtests to be performed whenever access is possible.6. Replacement or retirement criteria forequipment that is designed to operate with little orno maintenance.d. Detailed operation, inspection, testing, andmaintenance procedures that state specificrequirements and acceptance criteria shall beprepared, based on the hostile environment plan.e. The responsible manager shall ensure thatthe approved hostile environment plan isdistributed as follows:1. DOE Field Office or equivalent (forinformation).2. Equipment operators, maintenanceorganizations, and other organizationsl personnelaffected by the plan.3. Equipment history file.f. Hostile environment plans in the equipmenthistory file shall be readily available to appointedpersonnel.5.2.1Equipment the use ofwhich is required by ahostile environment plan shall be posted with thefollowing information: "Special Maintenance andOperating Instructions Required-see HostileEnvironment Plan."5.2.2Marking and PostingInspection and Testinga. Handling fixtures and rigging accessoriesshall be qualified in accordance with Chapters 11,12, and 14 ("Wire Rope and Slings," "RiggingAccessories," and "Below-the-Hook LiftingDevices," respectively) ofthis standard prior tobeing exposed to the hostile environment.b. Nylon (rope or webbing) slings should notbe used in a radiation area unless absolutelynecessary. When it is necessary to use a nylon orpolyester sling in a radiation area, the responsiblemanager shall ensure that radiation exposure doesnot exceed 100,000 rad during the life ofthe sling.Chapter 5Hostile Environments 5-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Exhibit I is intended to be a sampleform only and is not mandatory.Any other form that accomplishesthe purpose is acceptable.5-3Chapter 5Hostile Environments


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)EXHIBIT IHOSTILE ENVIRONMENT PLANBuilding: Location: _Type crane/hoist:_(e.g., overhead top-running bridge and trolley, top-running bridge with underhung hoist, jib crane, monorail hoist,overhead hoist)Capacity (main): (Auxiliary): _Power method:_Manufacturer:_l.a.H&R standard requirement that will not be metSection number:_(copy the applicable section)1.b.Difference between standard requirement and what is to be allowed bythis plan:l.c. Justification for not meeting the standard requirement: _l.d. Actions or features to compensate for differences: _Include information regarding replacement or retirement criteria for this equipment. Include information regarding anyspecial design, maintenance, or test considerations that apply to this equipment.APPROVAL(signature/date)*FacilityManager: Date: _*Manager, Oversight Organization:_ Date:_Other:*means approval is mandatoryDate:Date:Date:___Chapter 5Hostile Environments 5-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CHAPTER 6PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION ANDTRAININGThis chapter describes personnel qualification and training. Only qualified personnel shall operate theequipment covered in this standard.6.1 GENERAl... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16.2 QUAI..IFICATION 6-26.2.1 General , .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26.2.2 Operators of Cab-Operated and Pulpit-Operated Cranes 6-26.2.3 Operators ofMobile Cranes 6-26.2.4 Operators ofRoor-Operated Cranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-36.2.5 Operators ofForklift Trucks. . . . . . .... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . 6-46.2.6 Riggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-46.2.7 Person-In-Charge (PIC) ,. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . 6-46.2.8 Designated Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-46.2.9 Inspectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6-46.2.10 Instructors......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-46.2.11 First-Line Supervisors. . . . . .. . . .. . .. . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . 6-46.2.12 MaintenancePersonnel................................................... 6-56.3 TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6-66.3.1 General.. . . . .. . .. . ... . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . 6-66.3.2 Operators of Cab-Operated, Pulpit-Operated, and Floor-Operated Cranes . . . . . . . . . . . 6-66.3.3 Mobile Crane Operators 6-76.3.4 Forklift Truck Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-76.3.5 Riggers. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 6-86.3.6 Inspectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-86.3.7 Instructors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-96.4 REQUAI..IFICATION ,........ 6-106.5 RECORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6-116-iChapter 6Personnel Qualifzcation and Training


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DOE-STD-!090-96 (Rev-!)6.1 GENERALa. This chapter delineates the requirements forthe qualification and training ofoperators, riggers,inspectors, and trainers.b. . Personnel who are designated to operateequipment or perform work covered by thisstandard shall be qualified and trained to the levelofproficiency consistent with assigned tasks.6-1Chapter 6Personnel QualifICation and Training


6.2 QUALIFICATIONDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)6.2.1Only qualified personnel or trainees, under thedirect supervision ofqualified personnel, whomeet the following requirements shall be allowedto rig, operate, or inspect cranes, hoists, orpowered forklift trucks:a. Be at least 18 years old.b. Understand spoken and written English or alanguage generally in use at the work location.6.2.2GeneralOperators ofCab-Operated andPUlpit-Operated Cranesa Operators and operator trainees shall meetthe following physical qualifications.1. Have vision of at least 20/30 Snellenin one eye and 20/50 in the other, with or withoutcorrective lenses. Operators whose jobs do notrequire binocular vision (operation ofcranes withtelevision cameras or periscope optics) shall havedistant visual acuity of20/30 in one eye and nospecific visual requirement for the other eye.2. Be able to distinguish colors,regardless ofposition, ifcolor differentiation isrequired for operation.3. Have adequate hearing, with orwithout a hearing aid, for a specific operation.4. Have physical strength, coordination,and sufficient reaction speed to meet the demandsofequipment operation.5. Show no evidence ofphysical defectsor ofemotional instability that could be a hazardto themselves or others, or which, in the opinionofthe examiner, could interfere with their safeperformance; such evidence may be sufficient .cause for disqualification. In these cases, medIcaljudgments and tests may be required.6. Show no evidence ofbeing subject toseizures or to loss ofphysical control; suchevidence shall be sufficient reason fordisqualification. Medical examinations may berequired to detennine these conditions.7. Have normal depth perception, fieldofvision, manual dexterity, coordination, and notendencies to dizziness or similar potentiallyhazardous characteristics.8. Have no detectable or known diseaseor physical restriction that would render themincapable ofsafely operating equipment or .carrying out rigging duties. Where any defiCiencyof an upper or lower extremity exists, theacceptability of a candidate shall be the decisionofthe supervisor, after consulting with thedesignated physician.b. Operators shall be required by the employerto pass a practical operating skill evaluation.Qualification shall be limited to the type ofequipment for which the operator is beingevaluated. The actual or simulated operation shallenable trainees to demonstrate basic knowledgeand skills at a level that ensures the safety ofpersonnel and equipment.6.2.3Operators of MobileCranesa. Operators and operator trainees shall meetthe following physical qualifications.1. Have vision of at least 20/30 Snellenin one eye and 20150 in the other, with or withoutcorrective lenses.2. Be able to distinguish colors,regardless ofposition, ifcolor differentiation isrequired for operation.3. Have adequate hearing, with orwithout a hearing aid, for a specific operation.4. Have physical strength, coordination,and sufficient reaction speed to meet the demandsofequipment operation.5. Show no evidence ofphysical defectsor ofemotional instability that could be a hazardto themselves or others, or which, in the opinionofthe examiner, could interfere with their safeperformance; such evidence may be sufficient .cause for disqualification. In these cases, medIcaljudgments and tests may berequired.6. Show no evidence ofbeing subject toseizures or to loss ofphysical control; suchevidence shall be sufficient reason forChapter 6Personnel Qualification and Training 6-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)disqualification. Medical examinations may berequired to determine these conditions.7. Have normal depth perception, fieldofvision, manual dexterity, coordination, and notendencies to dizziness or similar potentiallyhazardous characteristics.8. Have no detectable or known diseaseor physical restriction that would render themincapable ofsafely operating equipment orcarrying out rigging duties. Where any deficiencyofan upper or lower extremity exists, theacceptability ofa candidate shall be the decisionof the supervisor, after consulting with thedesignated physician.9. Shall successfully pass with anegative result, a substance abuse test. The levelof testing will be determined by the standardpractice for the industry where the crane isemployed and this test shall be confirmed by arecognized laboratory service.10. Operator physical examinations shallbe required every three years or more frequently ifsupervision deems it necessary.b. Operators shall be required by the employerto satisfactorily pass a written examinationcovering operational characteristics, controls, andemergency control skills such as response to:1.2.3. Loss ofstability.4.Fire.Power line contact.Control malfunction.5. As well as characteristic andperformance questions appropriated to the cranetype for which qualifications is sought.c. Operators shall demonstrate their ability toread, write, comprehend and exhibit arithmeticskills and load/capacity chart usage, in thelanguage ofthe crane manufacturer's operationand maintenance instruction materials.d. Operators shall satisfactorily complete acombination written and verbal test on load/chartusage that covers a selection ofthe configurations(the crane maybe equipped to handle) for the typecrane for which qualification is being sought.e. The operator shall complete a practicaloperating skill evaluation test (actual orsimulated), demonstrating proficiency and basicknowledge in handling the specific type crane forwhich the operator is being evaluated, including:6.2.41. Pre-start and post-start inspection.2. Maneuvering skills.3. Shutdown.4. Securing the crane.f. Qualification shall be limited to the type ofequipment for which the operator is beingevaluated.g. Trainee qualification requirements shallinclude but not limited to the following:1. Satisfactory completing of a writtenexamination covering safety, operationalcharacteristics and limitations, and controls ofthetype crane for which they are being qualified.2. Demonstrate their ability to read,write, comprehend, and exhibit arithmetic skillsand load/capacity chart usage, in the language ofthe crane manufacturer's operations andmaintenance instruction materials.3. Satisfactory completion ofacombination written and verbal test onload/capacity chart usage covering various craneconfigurations.Operators ofFloor-Operated Cranesa. Physical qualifications shall be based onspecific job requirements.b. Operators shall be required by theiremployer to pass a practical operating skillevaluation. Qualification shall be limited to thetype ofequipment for which the operator is beingevaluated.c. The actual or simulated operation shallenable operators to demonstrate basic knowledgeand skills at a level that ensures the safety ofpersonnel and equipment.6-3Chapter 6Personnel Qualifkation and Training


6.2.5Operators of ForkliftTrucksa. Physical qualifications shall be based onspecific job requirements.b. Operators shall be required by the employerto pass a practical operating skill evaluation.Qualification shall be limited to the type offorkliftfor which the operator is being evaluated.c. The actual or simulated operation shallenable operators to demonstrate basic knowledgeand skills at a level that ensures the safety ofpersonnel and equipment.DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)6.2.8Designated LeaderThe designated leader shall have sufficientknowledge and experience to accomplish thefollowing responsibilities:a. Ensure that personnel involved understandhow the lift is to be made.b. Ensure that the weight of the load isdetermined and that proper equipment andaccessories are selected.c. Survey the lift site for hazardous or unsafeconditions.6.2.6 Riggersd. Ensure that equipment is properly set up andpositioned.Riggers shall be required to pass a practicalrigging skill evaluation that requires the use ofrigging equipment in safe configurations. Theactual or simulated operation shall enablepersonnel to demonstrate basic knowledge andskills at a level that ensures the safety ofpersonneland equipment.6.2.7 Person-in-Charge (PIC)The PIC shall have the necessary knowledge andexperience ofthe specific type ofequipment andthe hazards ofcritical lifts to direct the safecompletion ofthe operation. The PIC shallunderstand the rules and procedures implementedat the site to ensure that the following arecompleted:a. Necessary administrative requirements.b. Personnel assignments and responsibilities.c. Selection ofproper equipment/tools.d. Recognition and control ofhazardous orunsafe conditions.e. Job efficiency and safety.f. Critical-lift documentation.In addition, the PIC shalla. Direct operations in the case of an accident.b. Exercise authority to start and stop workactivities.e. Ensure that a signaler is assigned, ifrequired, and is identified to the operator.f. Direct the lifting operation to ensure that thejob is done safely and efficiently.g. Stop the job when any potentially unsafecondition is recognized.h. Direct operations ifan accident or injuryoccurs.6.2.9InspectorsQualified inspectors shall have the necessaryknowledge and experience to properly inspecthoisting and rigging equipment.6.2.10Instructors responsible for developing orpresenting hoisting and rigging training programsshall meet the qualification standards specified bythe responsible training organization.6.2.11InstructorsFirst-Line SupervisorsThe f'rrst-line supervisor ofhoisting and riggingoperations should be knowledgeable of thespecific types ofhoisting and rigging operationsunder their supervision and their operationalhazards. The supervisor shall be familiar withapplicable rules and procedures implemented atthe site to ensure that hoisting and rigging workunder their control is done efficiently and safely,with safety as top priority. Supervisors shouldensure that employees fully understand theimportance ofsafety and that they recognize theirChapter 6Personnel Qualification and Training 6-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)own authority and responsibility to stop workwhen safety is questionable.6.2.12Maintenance Personnela. Employees who perform maintenanceactivities on equipment covered by this handbookshould have an understanding ofthe followingcriteria:1.work.The tools to safely accomplish their2. Access to operating instructions toperform adjustments.3. Parts information furnished by themanufacturer or the responsiblemaintenance/engineering organization.4. Manufacturers' recommendations asto points and frequency oflubrication and levelsand types oflubricant to be used.5. Maintenance and repair proceduresrecommended by the manufacturer or responsiblemaintenance/engineering organization.6. Wiring diagrams.7. Documentation requirements formaintenance and repair.6-5Chapter 6Personnel QualifiCation and Training


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)6.3 TRAINING6.3.1a. Organizations that employ personnel whooperate, rig, or inspect equipment covered in thisstandard shall provide training programs,including a means ofevaluation, to ensure that thepersonnel are competent to perform theoperations.b. Training programs for operators shouldaddress two levels ofrequired performance.1. Persons who may operatependant-controlled cranes, manual hoists, andforklifts as an incidental part oftheir normal workassignment.2. Persons whose principal assignmentis the performance ofhoisting and rigging workc. The training organization shall use trainingmethods best suited for the students and thesubject material. This may include, but is notlimited to, computer-aided training, classroomtraining, simulated field training, on-the-jobtraining (OIT), and training by equipmentmanufacturer or commercial training companies.d. Score standards shall be set for eachexamination by the training organization. Theminimum passing score will depend on thesubject, testing technique, and test difficulty.Management shall determine the course of actionfor persons receiving negative evaluations.6.3.2GeneralOperators ofCab-Operated,Pulpit-Operated, andFloor-Operated Cranesa. Only qualified and authorized operators oroperator trainees under the direct supervision of aqualified operator shall be permitted to operatecab-operated, pulpit-operated, and floor-operatedcranes.b. The initial training ofoperators shallinclude:1. Applicant training on equipment forwhich qualification is sought, under the directionof a qualified operator who is designated bymanagement to instruct in the operation ofhoisting equipment.2. Instructor review ofthe applicant'sknowledge, including results ofwritten and oralevaluation, and witnessing a demonstration oftheoperator's skills.c. Operators should be able to demonstrate aknowledge ofequipment operating characteristics,capabilities, limitations, effects ofvariables,safety features, andoperating procedures. Thefollowing checklist contains basic factors withwhich an operator should be familiar. Thischecklist must be tailored to suit actual conditions.I. Operating characteristics.2. Environmental hazards-weather.3. Electrical hazards.4. Traveling with load.5. Traveling without load.6. Lifting personnel.7. Inspections/tests.8. Load weight estimation.9. Emergency procedures.10. Rigging.II.Lessons learned.12. Hand signals.13. Load dynamics.14. Applicable standards andregulations.15. Critical lifts.16. Safety features ofequipment.17. Terminology and defmitions.18. Ropes and reeving.19. Two-blocking.20. Records and documents.21. Limit switches, warning signals.Chapter 6Personnel Qualij'"lcation and Training 6-6


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)22. Operating practices.23. Fire protection.24. Crane components.25. Access and egress.26. Warning devices.6.3.3 Mobile CraneOperatorsa. Only qualified and authorized operators oroperator trainees under the direct supervision of aqualified operator shall be permitted to operatemobile cranes.b. Operators shall meet the criteria specified inparagraphs 6.3.2.b and c, and they should also beable to demonstrate an understanding ofthefollowing:1. Stability.2. Load charts.3. Crane setup.4. Refueling.5. Lifting operations involving multiplecranes.6. Assembly and disassembly.7. Outriggers.8. Operator aids.6.3.4 Forklift TruckOperatorsa. Only qualified and authorized operators oroperator trainees under the direct supervision ofaqualified operator shall be permitted to operatepowered forklift trucks.b. The initial training ofoperators shallinclude:1. Applicant training on equipment forwhich qualification is sought, under the directionofa qualified operator who is designated bymanagement to instruct in the operation ofhoisting equipment.2. Instructor review ofthe applicant'sknowledge, including results ofwritten and oralevaluation, and witnessing a demonstration oftheoperator's skills.c. The following checklist contains basicfactors with which a forklift truck operator shouldbe familiar. This checklist must be tailored to suitactual conditions.1. Stability (equipment).2. Operating characteristics(equipment).3. Capacity chart (read).4. Environmental hazards-weather.5. Hazardous areas or locations.6. Traveling with load.7. Traveling without load.8. Lifting personnel.9. Inspections and tests.10. Load weight estimation.11. Emergency procedures.12. Lessons learned.13. Refueling/recharging.14. Hand signals.15. Maintenance.16. Attachments.17. Load dynamics.18. Applicable standards andregulations.19. Critical lifts.20. Safety features ofequipment.21. Modifications.22. Adequate illumination.23. Terminology and definitions.6-7Chapter 6Personnel QualiflCation and Training


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)24. Records and documents.25. Operating practices.26. Fire protection.27. Components.6.3.5 Riggersa. Training programs for riggers shouldaddress two levels ofrequired performance:1. Persons who may perform riggingfunctions as an incidental part oftheir normalwork assignInent.2. Persons whose principal assignInentis the performance ofrigging work.b. Only qualified and authorized riggers orrigger trainees under the direct supervision of aqualified rigger shall be permitted to performrigging functions.c. Initial training ofriggers shall include theinstructor's review ofthe applicant's knowledge,including results ofwritten or oral evaluation, andwitnessing a demonstration of the operator's skills.The following checklist contains basic factorswith which a rigger should be familiar. Thischecklist must be tailored to suit actual conditions.1. Stability (equipment).2. Operating characteristics ofequipment.3. Environmental hazards-weather.4. Electrical hazards.5. Traveling with load/load control.6. Lifting personnel.7. Inspection/tests.8. Load weight estimation.9. Emergency procedures.10. Rigging equipment selection.11. Lessons learned.12. Hand signals.13. Lifting operations involving multiplecranes.14. Maintenance/storage ofslings andrigging components.15. Assembly and disassembly.16. Load dynamics.17. Applicable standards andregulations.18. Critical lifts.19. Safety features ofequipment.20. Terminology and definitions.21. Ropes and reeving.22. Records and documentation.23. Adjustments and repairs.24. Rigging/operating practices.25. Sling loading.26. Load-indicating devices.27. Personal protective equipment.28. Below-the-hook lifting devices.29. Rigging orhitch configuration.30. DId ratio.31. Sling types and application.6.3.6 Inspectorsa. Employees who perform required,documented inspections ofequipment covered bythis standard shall receive inspector training.b. Inspector training shall include basicinspection techniques and acceptance/rejectioncriteria as specified in this standard and otherapplicable sources. See Chapter 3,"Preengineered Production Lifts."c. The following equipment categories forgeneral inspection are examples that should beconsidered:1. Overhead, gantry, and polar cranes.Chapter 6Personnel Qualif"u:ation and Training 6-8


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)2.3.boom).4.5.slings.6.Monorail, jib, and other hoists.Mobile cranes (hydraulic and latticeForklift trucks.Wire-rope, chain, and synthetic-webRigging accessories.6.3.7Instructorsa. Instructors designated by management to beresponsible for developing or presenting hoistingand rigging training programs shall developtechnical competence by becoming familiar withthe requirements of this standard and bysatisfactorily completing documented training ortechnical experience in the hoisting and riggingdiscipline.b. Instructors should attend recognized trainingcourses, workshops, or seminars in order toremain current on industry practices and changesin applicable codes and standards.6-9Chapter 6Personnel QualifICation and Training


6.4 REQUALIFICATIONDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)a. Operator, rigger, and inspector qualificationis for a period not to exceed 3 years, unless thequalification is revoked sooner by the employee'smanager.b. The program for requalification shallinclude:1. Completion of a written or oralevaluation relevant to the type ofequipment usedor participation in a refresher training program.2. A performance evaluation.Chapter 6Personnel QualifICation and Training 6-10


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)6.5 RECORDSA record oftraining and skill evaluations shall be kept on file and shall be readily available6·11Chapter 6Personnel Qualification and Training


---------------------------------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)INTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 6Personnel Qualification and Training6-12


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CHAPTER 7OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANESThis chapter specifies operation, inspection, maintenance, and testing requirements for the use ofoverheadand gantry cranes and implements the requirements ofASME B30.2 ["Overhead and Gantry Cranes(Top-Running Bridge, Single or Multiple Girder, Top-Running Trolley Hoist)"], B30.11 ("Monorail Systemsand Underhung Cranes"), and B30.17 ["Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top-Running Bridge, Single Girder,Underhung Hoist")]. Only equipment built to the appropriate design standards shall be used in DOEinstallations.7.1 GENERAL.................................................................... 7-17.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification 7-17.1.2 Rated-Load Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-17.1.3 Modification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-17.1.4 Egress. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. 7-17.1.5 Hoist Brakes 7-17.1.6 Power Shutoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.1.7 Hoist-Limit Switch 7-57.1.8 Load Limits. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 7-57.1.9 Maintenance History. .... . . .. . .. . . .. . . ... .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 7-57.2 INSPECTIONS................................................................ 7-67.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.2.2 Crane Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.2.3 Initial Inspection 7-67.2.4 Daily Preoperational Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.2.5 Monthly Rope, Chain and Hook Inspection 7-77.2.6 Frequent Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-77.2.7 Periodic Inspection 7-77.2.7.1 Cranes. . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . 7-77.2.7.2 Wire Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-87.2.7.3 Chain (Welded Link) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-97.2.7.4 Chain (R.oller) 7-97.2.8 Cranes Not in Regular Service 7-107.3 TESTING 7-117.3.1 Operational Tests 7-117.3.2 Rated Load Test 7-117.4 MAINTENANCE ; 7-127.4.1 Operating Equipment 7-127.4.2 Wire-Rope Maintenance 7-127.5 OPERATION 7-137.5.1 ConduetofOperator 7-137.5.2 Hoist-Limit Switch/Device 7-137.5.3 StandardHandSignals 7-137-iChapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


-------------------------------------------------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)7.5.4 Identification ofSignalers 7-157.5.5 Size ofI..oad " 7-157.5.6 Attaching the I..oad 7-157.5.7 Moving theI..oad 7-157.5.8 Ordinary Lifts 7-167.5.9 Critical Lifts 7-16ExhibitI Bridge, Wall, Gantry Crane I..oad Test and Inspection 7-19Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes7-ii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)7.1 GENERALOverhead and gantry cranes include top-runningsingle- or multiple-girder bridge with top-runningtrolley hoists (Figure 7-1), top-runningsingle-girder bridge with underhung trolley hoists(Figure 7-2), and monorails/underhung cranes(Figure 7-3).7.1.1Operators ofoverhead cranes shall be trained andqualified as required in Chapter 6, "PersonnelQualification and Training."7.1.2Operator Training!QualificationRated-Load MarkingThe rated capacity shall be marked on each side ofthe crane. Ifthe crane has more than one hoistingunit, each hoist shall have its rated capacitymarked on it or on its load block Markings on thebridge, trolley, and load block shall be legiblefrom the ground or floor.7.1.3ModificationCranes may be modified or rerated provided thatthe modifications or supporting structures areanalyzed thoroughly by a qualified engineer or bya manufacturer ofcranes. Modifications andreratings must be approved by the cognizantsafety organization. A rerated crane, or one whoseload-supporting components have been modified,shall be tested in accordance with Section 7.3,"Testing." The new rated capacity shall bedisplayed in accordance with Section 7.1.2,"Rated-Load Marking."7.1.4EgressOn cab-operated cranes, there shall be at least twomeans ofegress from the crane, remote from eachother, and arranged to permit departure underemergency conditions.7.1.5Hoist Brakesa. Each independent hoisting unit shall beequipped with at least one holding brake applieddirectly to the motor shaft or some part ofthe geartrain.b. Each independent hoisting unit (exceptworm-geared hoists, the angle ofwhose wormprevents the load from accelerating as it is beinglowered) shall be equipped with acontrolled-braking means in addition to theholding brake to control speed oflowering.c. Holding brakes on hoists shall be appliedautomatically when power is removed.7.1.6Power Shutoffa. The power supply for the runway conductorsshall be controlled by a switch or circuit-breakerlocated on a fixed structure, accessible from thefloor, and capable ofbeing locked in the OPENposition.b. On cab-operated cranes, an enclosed switchor circuit-breaker (with provisions for locking inthe OPEN position) shall be provided in the leadsfrom the runway conductors. A means of openingthis device shall be located within reach oftheoperator when the operator is in the operatingposition. When the operator opens this switch orcircuit-breaker, the holding brakes should set.c. On floor, remote, or pulpit-operated cranes,an enclosed disconnect device shall be provided inthe leads from the runway conductors.· Thisdevice shall be mounted on the bridge or footwalknear the runway collectors. There shall beprovisions for locking the device in the OPENposition unless the crane is the only load on alockable switch or circuit-breaker that isaccessible from the floor. One of the followingtypes offloor, remote, and pulpit-operateddisconnects shall be provided.1. A nonconductive rope attached to themain disconnect device on a floor-operated crane.Ifthis is selected, the rope shall be suspendedadjacent to the operating ropes ifmanualcontrollers are used, or near the pendantpush-button station ifmagnetic controls are used.2. An under-voltage trip for a maincircuit-breaker, operated by an emergency stopbutton in the pendant push-button station or thepulpit.7-1Chapter]Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)Gantry Crane--Overhead Traveling CraneWall CraneSemi-Gantry CraneCantilever Gantry CraneFigure 7-1. Top-running single- or mUltiple-girder bridge with top-running trolley hoist.Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Bridge Girder""Outrigger BeamOperator'S CabOverhead Cab-Operated CraneCantilever Gantry CraneFigure 7-2. Top-running single-girder bridge with underhung trolley hoist.7-3Chapter?Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Crane bridgePendant controlFloor-operated craneBridge girderCrane trolley\ I/~S~H~~End truckCab~Cab-operated craneFigure 7-3. Monorails and underhung cranes.Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-4


DOE·STD·I090-96 (Rev-I)3. A main-line contactor operated by aswitch or push button on the pendant push-buttonstation, the remote-control station, or the pulpit.7.1.7Hoist-Limit Switcha. The hoisting motion ofall cranes shall havean overtravel-limit switch/device in the hoistingdirection to stop the hoisting motion.b. Lower-travel limit switches/devices shouldbe provided for all hoists where the load blockenters pits or hatchways in the floor.7.1.8Load LimitsThe crane shall not be loaded beyond its ratedcapacity except for test purposes, as described inSection 7.3.7.1.9 Maintenance HistoryThe maintenance history ofthe crane shall beretained throughout its service life.7-5Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)7.2 INSPECTIONS7.2.1 General 7.2.3 Initial Inspectiona There shall be no apparent damage,excessive wear, or deformation of anyload-bearing part ofthe equipment Brakes shallwork satisfactorily and load brakes shall bedesigned to hold any load up to at least 125percent ofthe rated stable capacity oftheequipment without slipping or overheating. Allsafety devices, load indicators, controls, and otheroperating parts ofthe equipment shall be checkedduring each inspection and shall be in goodworking order. Parts found to be defective duringany inspection or nondestructive examination shallbe replaced or repaired as directed by theresponsible line manager or that person'sdesignated representative.b. Frequency notation as used in dates forfrequent and periodic inspections should bedefmed as follows:1. Daily--24 hours.2. Weekly--7 days.3. Monthly--31 days.4. Quarterly--92 days.5. Semi-annually--I84 days.6. Yearly--365 days.c. Violations of inspection periods may begranted on a case by case basis, provided there is apre-established site specific policy.7.2.2Crane ServiceCrane service is defmed as follows:a. Normal service~peratingat less than85 percent ofrated load and not more than 10 liftcycleslhr except for isolated instances.b. Heavy service~peratingat 85 to100 percent ofrated load or in excess of 10 liftcycleslhr as a regular specified procedure.c. Severe service~perating at normal orheavy service under abnormal operatingconditions (Le., extreme temperatures, corrosiveatmospheres).Prior to their initial use, all new, reinstalled,modified, or extensively repaired cranes shall beinspected by a qualified inspector to ensurecompliance with applicable provisions ofthischapter. Dated and signed inspection reports shallbe kept on fIle and shall be readily available.7.2.4 Daily PreoperationalChecka. Operators or other designated personnelshall visually inspect items such as the followingeach day or prior to :first use if the hoist has notbeen in regular service (records are not required):1. Controls and operating mechanismsfor proper operation.2. Hoist upper-limit switch/device forproper operation at the beginning of each shift orprior to use ifhoist has not been in regular service.3. Lines, valves, and other parts of airsystems for leakage.4. Hooks for cracks, deformation anddamage from chemicals (see Chapter 13, "LoadHooks," for additional hook requirements).5. Hoist rope for significant wear,kinking, crushing, birdcaging, and corrosion. Theinspection shall be made by running out as muchofthe rope or chain as is necessary to visuallyexamine those portions that flex over sheaves,sprockets, and the like, and other areas subject towear or abrasion.6. Hoist chain for nicks, gouges,distortion, wear, and corrosion.7. Hook latch, ifused, for properoperation.b. Operators or other designated personnelshall examine deficiencies and determine whetherthey constitute a haz~d and whether a moredetailed inspection is required.Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-6


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)7.2.5 Monthly Rope, Chain,and Hook Inspectiona. The operator or other designated personshall visually inspect the following items fordamage, wear, or other deficiency that mightreduce capacity or adversely effect the safety ofthe crane:7.2.61. hoist rope or chain2. hooksb. Lower the hook block to its lowest positionand examine for any condition that could result inan appreciable loss ofstrength.IIc.. Hoist rope for significant wear, kinking, Icrushing, birdcaging, and corrosion.IId. Hoist chain for nicks, gouges, distortion, Iwear, and corrosion.IIe. Hooks for cracks, deformation, damage from Ichemicals, latch engagement (ifprovided), andevidence ofheat damage.f. Signed and dated inspection records shall be Ikept on ftle and shall be readily available.g. Before the crane is returned to service,correct deficiencies that could reduce its capacityor adversely effect its safety.Frequent Inspectiona Operators or other designated personnelshall visually inspect the crane at the followingintervals (records are not required):1. Normal service-monthly.2. Heavy service-weekly to monthly.3. Severe service-daily to weekly.b. ill addition to the requirements ofSection 7.2.4, "DailyPreoperational Check," theseinspections shall include the following:1. Hoist braking system for properoperation.2. Hoist rope or chain reeving forcompliance with hoist manufacturer'srecommendations.III7.2.73. Observations during operation.c. Operators or other designated personnelshall examine deficiencies and determine whethera more detailed inspection is required.Periodic Inspectiona. A qualified inspector shall perform acomplete inspection at the following intervals:1. Normal service-yearly.2. Heavy service-semiannually.3. Severe service---quarterly.b. The qualified inspector shall examinedeficiencies and determine whether they constitutea safety hazard and whether the crane should beremoved from service until it is repaired:c. Dated and signed inspection records shall bekept on ftle and shall be readily available.d. A sample load test and inspection form isincluded as Exhibit I, which appears at the end ofthis chapter. This form is intended to be a sampleonly and is not intended to be mandatory.7.2.7.1 Cranesill addition to the requirements ofSection 7.2.6,''Frequent fuspections," periodic inspections shallinclude the following:a. Components for deformation, cracks, orcorrosion.b. Bolts, rivets, nuts, and pins for being looseor absent.c. Sheaves and drums for cracks or wear.d. Parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears,rollers, locking and clamping devices, bumpers,and stops for wear, cracks, or distortion.e. Brake-system parts, linings, pawls, andlatches for excessive wear.f. Load, wind, and other indicators over theirfull range for any significant inaccuracies.g. Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other powerplants for improper performance ornoncompliance with other applicable standards.7-7Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)h. Chain-drive sprockets for excessive wearand chains for excessive stretch.i. Electrical apparatus for signs ofanydeterioration ofcontrollers, master switches,contacts, limit switches, and push-button stations(not limited to these items).j. Hooks for damage from chemicals,deformation, cracks, orhaving more than15 percent in excess ofnormal throat operating, ormore than 10 degree twist from the plane oftheunbent hook (see Chapter 13 for additional hookrequirements).k. Hook retaining nuts or collars and pins,welds, or riveting used to secure the retainingmembers for soundness.l. Nondestructive examination ofhooks and ofwelds, bearings, or other suspect load-bearingparts when required by the inspector.In. Testing ofmotion limit devices, whichinterrupt power or cause a warning to be activated,for proper performance (each motion shall beinched or operated at low speed into the limitdevice with no load on the crane).n. Function labels for legibility.7.2.7.2 Wire Ropea. A qualified inspector shall inspect all ropesat least annually. This inspection shall includeexamination ofthe entire length ofthe rope,without detaching it from the hoist drum. Morefrequent intervals shall be determined by aqualified person and shall be based on suchfactors as expected rope life as determined byexperience on the particular installation or similarinstallations, severity of environment, percentageof capacity lifts, frequency rates ofoperation, andexposure to shock loads. The qualified inspectorshall carefully note any deterioration such asdescribed below resulting in appreciable loss oforiginal strength and determine whether furtheruse ofthe rope constitutes an acceptable risk.1. Reduction ofrope size below nominaldiameter, whether due to loss of core support,internal or external corrosion, or wear of outsidewires (see Table 7-1).Table 7-1. Maximum allowable ropereductions.Rope diameterUp to 5/16 in.(8 mm)Over 5/16 in. to1/2 in. (13 mm)Over 1/2 in. to3/4 in. (19 mm)Over 3/4 in. to1 1/8 in. (29 mm)Over 1 1/8 in. to1 1/2 in. (38 mm)Maximum allowablereductionfrom nominal diameter1/64 in. (0.4 mm)1/32 in. (0.8 mm)3/64 in. (1.2 mm)1/16 in. (1.6 mm)3/32 in. (2.4 mm)2. The number and distribution orconcentration ofbroken outside wires.3. Worn outside wires.4. Sections ofrope that are normallyhidden during inspection or maintenance procedures,such as parts passing over sheaves (theseare points most subject to deterioration).5. Corroded or broken wires at endconnections.6. Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, orimproperly applied end connections.7. Kinking, crushing, cutting, orunstranding.b. All rope on cranes that have been idle for 1month or more due to shutdown or storage shallbe inspected before the crane is returned toservice. A dated and signed report ofthe ropeinspection, including results, shall be filed.c. No precise rules can be given fordetermining the exact time to replace rope becausemany variables are involved. Safety in thisrespect depends largely on the use ofgoodjudgment by an appointed person in evaluatingremaining strength in a used rope, after allowancefor deterioration disclosed by inspection. Safetyofrope operation depends on this remainingstrength.Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-8


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Conditions such as the following shall besufficient reason for questioning rope safety andconsidering replacement:1. In running ropes, 12 randomlydistributed broken wires in one rope lay, or4 broken wires in one strand in one rope lay.2. Wear ofone-third ofthe originaldiameter ofoutside individual wires.3. Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or anyother damage resulting in distortion ofthe ropestructure.4. Evidence ofheat damage from anycause.5. Reductions from nominal diametergreater than those listed in Table 7-1.d. Replacement rope and connections shallhave a strength at least as great as the originalrope and connections furnished by the cranemanufacturer. Any deviation from the originalsize, grade, or construction shall be specified by arope manufacturer, the crane manufacturer, or aqualified person.e. Never use discarded rope for slings.7.2.7.3 Chain (Welded Link)a. Operate the crane under load in raising andlowering directions, and observe the operation ofthe chain and sprockets. The chain should feedsmoothly into and away from the sprockets.b. Ifthe chain binds, jumps, or is noisy, firstsee that it is clean and properly lubricated. Ifthetrouble persists, inspect the chain and matingparts for wear, distortion, or other damage.c. The chain should be cleaned beforeinspection. Examine visually for gouges, nicks,weld spatter, corrosion, and distorted links.Slacken the chain and move adjacent links to oneside to inspect for wear at the contact points. Ifwear is observed or stretching is suspected, thechain should be measured according to the hoistmanufacturer's instructions. Ifinstructions are notavailable, proceed as follows:1. Select an Unworn, unstretched lengthofthe chain (e.g., at the slack end).2. Suspend the chain vertically undertension and, using a caliper-type gauge, measurethe outside length ofany convenient number oflinks approximately 12 in. (305 nun) to 14 in.(356 nun) overall.3. Measure the same number oflinks inthe used sections and calculate the percentage ofincrease in length.d. Conditions such as the following shall besufficient reason for questioning safety and forconsidering replacement:1. Ifthe used chain exceeds a cranemanufacturer's recommended length or, in theabsence ofsuch a recommendation, the used chainis 1.5 percent longer than the unused chain forpowered hoists or is 2.5 percent longer than theunused chain for hand-operated chain, replace thechain.2. The existence ofgouges, nicks,corrosion, weld spatter, or distorted links.e. Repairing the load chain by welding or anyother means shall not be attempted by anyoneother than the chain manufacturer.f. Replacement chain shall be the same size,grade, and construction as the original chainfurnished by the crane manufacturer unlessotherwise recommended by the manufacturer dueto working conditions.g. Load-chain links that pass over the loadsprocket on edge (alternate to those that lie flat inthe pockets) should be installed with the weldsaway from the center ofthe sprocket. Thisprecaution is not required on idler sprockets,which change the direction but not the tension inthe chain.h. The chain shall be installed without anytwist between the hoist and an anchored end oneither the loaded side or the slack side.i. When a chain is replaced, disassemble andinspect the mating parts (sprockets, guides,stripper) for wear, and replace ifnecessary.j. Discarded load chain shall not be used forslings.7.2.7.4 Chain (Roller)a. Test the crane under load in raising andlowering directions, observing the operation ofthechain and sprockets. Ifthe chain binds, jumps, oris noisy, clean and properly lubricate it. Ifthe7-9Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)trouble persists, inspect the chain and matingparts for wear, distortion, or damage.b. Ifwear is observed or stretching issuspected, the chain shall be measured accordingto the crane manufacturer's instructions. Ifinstructions are not available, proceed as follows:1. Suspend the hoist in normal positionand apply a light load ofapproximately 50 lb(23 kg).2. Select a 12-in. (305-mm) section ofchain that normally travels over the load sprocket.3. Determine elongation by measuringwith a caliper from the edge ofone chain pin tothe corresponding edge ofanother pin. Ifelongation exceeds 1/4 in. (6.3 mm) in 12 in.(305 mm) compared to new or unstretched chainvalues, the chain shall be replaced.4. Inspect for twist. Replaceifthe twistin any 5-ft (l.52-m) section exceeds 15 degrees.5. Check for straightness in a planeperpendicular to the plane ofthe rollers. Replaceifthe chain has a bow exceeding 1/4 in. (6.3 mm)in any 5-ft (1.52-m) section.6. Additional inspection shall be made byremoving the chain from the crane and cleaning itthoroughly. Deficiencies such as those listedbelow shall be carefully examined and adetermination shall be made as to whether theyconstitute a safety hazard:i. Pins turned from originalposition.ii.iii.Rollers that do not run freelywith light fmger pressure.Joints that cannot be flexed byeasy hand pressure.iv.Side plates that are spread open.v. Corrosion, pitting, ordiscoloration.vi.Gouges, nicks, or weld spatter.c. Roller chain shall bereplaced ifany oftheconditions exist as stated inparagraphs 7.2.7A.b.,1 through 5 above.d. Deficiencies as stated inparagraph 7.2.7.4.b.6 above are reason forquestioning chain safety and considering itsreplacement.e. Repairing ofroller chain by welding orheating shall not be attempted.f. Replacement chain shall be the same size,grade, and construction as the original chainfurnished by the crane manufacturer unlessotherwise recommended by the manufacturer dueto working conditions.g. Roller chain, discarded or new, shall not beused for slings.7.2.8 Cranes Not in RegularServicea. Cranes that have been idle for 1 month ormore but less than 6 months shall be inspectedbefore being placed in service according to therequirements listed above in Section 7.2.6,"Frequent Inspection.b. Cranes that have been idle for 6 months orlonger shall be inspected before being placed inservice according to the requirements listed abovein Section 7.2.7, "Periodic Inspection."Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7·10


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)7.3 TESTING7.3.1Operational Testsa. Prior to initial use, all new, reinstalled,extensively repaired, or modified cranes shall betested by a designated person to ensurecompliance with this chapter, including thefollowing functions:1. Lifting and lowering.2. Trolley travel.3. Bridge travel.4. Locking, limiting, and indicatingdevices, ifprovided.5. Limit switches/devices.b. The trip setting ofhoist-limit devices shallbe determined by tests with an empty hooktraveling at increasing speeds up to the maximumspeed. The actuating mechanism oftheupper-limit device shall be located so that it willtrip the device under all conditions and insufficient time to prevent contact ofthe hook orload block with any part ofthe trolley or crane.7.3.2Rated Load Testa. Prior to initial use, all new, reinstalled,extensively repaired, or modified cranes shall betested by or under the direction of a qualifiedinspector. A designated or authorized person shalldetermine ifrepairs made to a crane are extensive,requiring a rated load test, or routine maintenancerequiring only operational testing. The 'replacement ofrope is excluded from this requirement.However, a functional test ofthe craneunder a normal operating load should be madeprior to putting the crane back in service. Awritten report shall be furnished by the inspectorconirrming the load rating ofthe crane. The loadrating should not be more than 80 percent ofthemaximum load sustained during the test Testloads shall not be more than 125 percent oftherated capacity, unless otherwise recommended bythe manufacturer. Test weights shall be accurateto within -5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulatedvalues.b. The rated load test for new cranes shallconsist ofthe following operations as minimumrequirements:1. Hoist the test load a sufficient distanceto ensure that the load is supported by the craneand held by the hoist brakes. Personnel shall bekept clear ofthe test load while it is suspended.2. Transport the test load by means ofthetrolley for the full length ofthe bridge.3. Transport the test load by means ofthebridge for the full length ofthe runway, in onedirection with the trolley as close to the extremeright-hand end ofthe crane as practical, and in theother direction with the trolley as close to theextreme left-hand end ofthe crane as practical.4. Lower the test load, stopping by thebrakes.c. Extensively repaired or modified cranesshall be tested in accordance withparagraph 7.3.2.b above insofar as interferingequipment/structures permit and in accordancewith recommendations from the manufacturer or aresponsible engineering organization. However,test loads should not be carried over criticalsystems or components.7-11Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)7.4 MAINTENANCE7.4.1 Operating Equipment point to observe the approach ofactive cranes andprohibit contact by the active cranes with the idlea. A preventive maintenance program shall beestablished and based on the recommendation ofthe crane manufacturer or a qualified person.Dated records should be kept where readilyavailable to appointed personnel.b. Replacement parts shall be at least equal tothe original manufacturer's specifications.c. All moving parts ofthe crane for whichlubrication is specified shall be regularlylubricated. Check lubricating systems for deliveryoflubricant Follow manufacturer'srecommendations as to points and frequency oflubrication, maintenance oflubricant levels, andtypes oflubricant to be used.crane, with persons performing maintenance, orwith the maintenance equipment.7. Install a guard or barrier betweenadjacent runways for the length ofthe establishedwork area to prevent contact between personsperforming maintenance and any crane on theadjacent runway.7.4.2 Wire-Rope MaintenancePersonnel using wire rope shall ensure proper careby doing the following:a. Store rope to prevent damage ordeterioration.d. Maintenance personnel shall take thefollowing precautions before performingmaintenance on a crane:1. Move the crane to a location where itwill cause the least interference with other cranesand operations.2. Place any attached loads on the groundor floor.3. Place all controllers in the OFFposition.4. Perform a lockoutltagout procedure.5. Use warning signs and barriers on thefloor beneath the crane where overhead maintenancework creates a hazard.6. Ifthe runway remains energized, placestops or signalers full-time at a visual vantageb. Unreel or uncoil rope as recommended bythe rope manufacturer and with care to avoidkinking or inducing a twist.c. Before cutting rope, use some method toprevent unlaying the strands. Flame-cutting wirerope is prohibited.d. During installation, avoid dragging the ropein dirt or around objects that will scrape, nick,crush, or induce sharp bends in it.e. Maintain rope in a well-lubricated conditionto reduce internal friction and prevent corrosion.Ensure that lubricant applied as part ofamaintenance program is compatible with theoriginal lubricant and is also a type that does nothinder visual inspection. Those sections ofropelocated over sheaves or otherwise hidden duringinspection and maintenance procedures requirespecial attention when the rope is being lubricated.Chapter]Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-12


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)7.5 OPERATIONa. The following shall apply to all personnelinvolved in overhead and gantry crane operation.b. At the initial stage ofthe planning process,an appointed person shall classify each lift intoone ofthe DOE-specified lift categories (ordinary,critical, orpreengineered production).7.5.1Conduct of Operator.a. Do not engage in any practice that willdivert your attention while operating the crane.b. Do not operate cranes without complyingwith the requirements of Chapter 6. Yourimmediate supervisor shall participate in thisdetermination.c. Operators shall be held directly responsiblefor the safe operation oftheir equipment.Whenever there is any question as to the safety ofthe activity, an operatorhas the authority to stopand refuse to handle loads until the matter hasbeen resolved by supervisory personnel.d. Sound a warning signal (iffurnished) duringtravel, particularly when approaching personnel.e. Ifyou fmd the crane's main or emergencyswitch open when starting on duty, do not close ituntil it has been determined that no one is on orclose to the crane. Ifthere is a warning sign on theswitch, do not remove it unless you placed it there.Do not close the switch until the warning sign hasbeen removed by the person who placed it there.f. Before closing the main switch, ensure thatall controllers are in the OFF position.g. Ifa power failure occurs during operation,immediately switch all controllers to the OFFposition.h. , Become familiar with your equipment andits proper care. Ifadjustments or repairs arenecessary, or any defects are mown, report thempromptly to the responsible supervisor. Also,notify the next operator ofthe defects at shiftchange.i. Contacts with runway stops or other cranesshall be made with extreme caution. Ifyou areordered to engage with or push other cranes, dothis with particular care for the safety ofpersonson or below the cranes, and only after makingcertain that any persons on the other cranes areaware ofwhat action is to be taken.j. Secure outdoor cranes before leaving them.Ie. When the wind-indicating alarm is given,anchor the bridge on outside cranes.1. Lock and tag the main positive electricalcontrol switch in the OPEN position before anycrane maintenance is performed.m. Operate all controls before beginning a newshift. Ifany controls do not operate properly,adjust or repair them before operations begin.n. Do not hoist two or more separately riggedloads in one lift, even though the combined loadiswithin the crane's rated capacity.o. Ensure that a 10BC or larger fIreextinguisher is installed in the cab ofcab-operatedcranes. The extinguisher shall be maintained in aserviceable condition.p. Do not lift, lower, or travel the crane whileanyone is on the load or hook.7.5.2 Hoist-LimitSwitch/Devicea. At the beginning ofeach work shift, or thefIrst time the crane is used during a shift, test theupper-limit switch/device ofeach hoist under noload. Exercise extreme care to avoidtwo-blocking; "inch" the block into the limitswitch or run it in at slow speed. Iftheswitch/device does not operate properly,immediately notify the supervisor.b. Ifa lift is in progress during a shift change,this testing requirement is considered to have beensatisfied for the completion ofthat lift. However,test the limit switch again before the next lift.c. Do not use the fmal hoist-limit switch!device that controls the upper limit of travel oftheload block as an operating control.7.5.3 Standard Hand SignalsThe standard hand signals for DOE use shall be asspecified in the latest edition ofthe ASME B30standards for the particular type of crane or hoistbeing used (see Figure 7-4).7·13Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)HOIST. With forearm vertical,forefinger pointing up, move hand insmall horizontal circles.LOWER. Extend arm downward,. forefinger pointing down, and movehand in small horizontal circles.BRIDGE. Arm extended forward,hand open and slightly raised, makepushing motion in direction of travel.TROLLEY TRAVEL. Palm up, fingerclosed, thumb pointing in direction ofmotion, jerk hand horizontally.EMERGENCY STOP. Extend arm,palm down, moving hand rapidly rightand left.MULTIPLE TROLLEYS. Hold up onefinger for block marked "1" and twofingers for block marked "2." Regularsi nals follow.,\MOVE SLOWLY. Use one hand togive any motion signal and place otherhand motionless above hand givingthe motion signal. (Hoist slowly shownasexam Ie.Figure 7-4. Standard hand signals for controlling overhead crane operation.Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-14


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)7.5.4 Identification of'Signalersa. All personnel acting as signalers duringcrane operations shall be clearly identified to thecrane operator byusing the following (one ormore, as required by the responsible manager):orange hardhat, orange gloves, and orange vest.This requirement may be waived by theresponsible manager when the lift is very closelycontrolled orpersonnel are required to wearspecial clothing for protection from a hazardousenvironment.b. In those cases where the crane operatorcannot see the signaler, a second person (relaysignaler) shall be stationed where he or she cansee both the signaler and the crane operator andsignals can be relayed to the operator. The relaysignaler shall also be clearly identified by theitems described in the previous paragraph.c. Where voice (direct or two-way radio)communication is used, the signaler shallcommunicate directly with the operator, notthrough a third person.d. The operator shall obey signals only fromthe designated signaler. Obey a STOP si~nal nomatterwhQ gives it.7.5.5 Size of Loada. The weight ofthe load shall be determinedprior to making the lift.b. The crane and rigging equipment shall notbe loaded beyond its rated capacity, except forauthorized testing described in Section 7.3.7.5.6 Attaching the Loada. Ensure that the hoist rope is free from kinksor twists. Do not wrap the hoist rope around theload.b. Ensure the load is attached to the load-blockhookby means ofslings or other approveddevices.c. Take care to make certain that the slingclears all obstacles.7.5.7Moving the Loada. The person appointed to direct the lift shallsee that the load is well secured and properlybalanced in the sling or lifting device before it islifted more than a few inches.b. Before starting to hoist, note the followingconditions:1. Hoist rope shall not be kinked.2. Multiple-part lines shall not be twistedaround each other.3. The hook shall be positioned above thecenter ofgravity ofthe load in such a manner as tominimize swinging when the load is lifted.4. Ifthere is a slack-rope condition, itshould be determined that the rope is properlyseated on the drum and in the sheaves.5. All personnel including the qualifiedrigger shall be clear of the load.c. During hoisting, take care to ensure that:1. The load is lifted slowly until it clearsthe ground or other support to minimize swinging.2. There is no sudden acceleration ordeceleration ofthe moving load.3. The load does not contact anyobstructions. A "dry run" shall be conducted inareas where clearance is limited.d. Cranes shall not be used for side pullsexcept when specifically authorized by anappointed person who has determined that thestability ofthe crane is not endangered and thatload-bearing parts of the crane will not beoverstressed.e. Avoid carrying loads above people.f. Each time a load approaching the ratedcapacity is handled, test the hoist brakes byraising the load a few inches and applying thebrakes. Any slippage or downward motion isunacceptable.7-15Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)g. Do not lower the hook below the pointwhere less than two full wraps ofrope remain onthe hoisting drum.h. When the load or hook approachespersonnel, sound the warning signal.i. Tag lines should be used as required toguide, snub, or otherwise control the load.j. Place any attached load on the ground orfloor, place controls in the OFF position, and turnoffthe power source before leaving the craneunattended, unless required to do otherwise by anapproved emergency procedure.k. Work on suspended loads is prohibitedunder normal conditions. Ifthe responsiblemanager decides that it is necessary to work on asuspended load, guidelines for safe operation shallbe established through consultation with theappropriate safety organization. Suspended loadsthat must be worked on shall be secured againstunwanted movement.7.5.8Ordinary Liftsa. The requirements of all precedingparagraphs in Section 7.5, "Operation," also shallapply to ordinary lifts.b. An appointed person shall classify each liftinto one ofthe DOE categories (ordinary, critical,or preengineered production) before the lift isplanned.c. Hoisting and rigging operations for ordinarylifts require a designated leader who shall bepresent at the lift site during the entire liftingoperation. Ifthe lift is being made by only oneperson, that person assumes all responsibilities ofthe designated leader.d. Leadership designation may be by writteninstructions, specific verbal instructions for theparticular job, or clearly delmed responsibilitieswithin the crew's organizational structure.e. The designated leader's responsibility shallinclude the following:1. Ensure that personnel involvedunderstand how the lift is to be made.2. Ensure that the weight ofthe load isdetermined, that proper equipment and accessoriesare selected, and that rated capacity is notexceeded.3. Survey the lift site for hazardouslunsafe conditions.4. Ensure that equipment is properly setup and positioned.5. Ensure that a signaler is assigned,ifrequired, and is identified to the operator.6. Direct the lifting operation to ensurethat the job is done safely and efficiently.7. Stop thejob when any potentiallyunsafe condition is recognized.8. Direct operations if an accident orinjury occurs.f. The operator, or a designated person, shallensure that the crane is still within the inspectioninterval.g. The operator, or a designated person, shallvisually examine the crane in accordance withSection 7.2.4.7.5.9 Critical LiftsSee Chapter 2, "Critical Lifts," for critical-liftrequirements.Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-16


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)Exhibit I is intended to be a sampleform only and is not mandatory.Any other form that accomplishesthe purpose is acceptable.7-17Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l). IN1ENTIONAILYBLANKChapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes7-18


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT IPage 1 of4BRIDGE, WAlL. GANTRY CRANE LOAD TEST AND INSPECTIONEQUlPMENTNO, MAKE RATED CAPACITY DATE _LOAD TEST INSPECTION REPORTThe following checklist identifies the items to be inspected prior to the load test. Any unusual conditions observedduring the inspection should be noted in the Remarks section.NOTES: 1. Craftsmen shall initial and date all tests, work, and inspections completed below.2. Qualified inspector shall verify all steps prior to load test.INO, I CRANE ITEM I DEFECT I OK INo.1 CRANE ITEM I DEFECT I~1 Load Hook & Blocks 18 Controllers2 Wire Rope and End 19 Relays and CoilsConnections3 Handrails, Walkways, and 20 ~onductors and CollectorsLadders4 Bridge and Trucks 21 Panel Wiring5 Bridge Wheels and 22 lResistorsBearings6 Trollevand Rails 23 lBypass Switches7 Trolley Wheels and 24 ~mit SwitchesBearings8 Crane Alignment 25 Contactor (Electrical)9 Runway Rail & Clamps 26 Motors10 BumperslEndstops 27 Gauges11 Brake System 28 Ucl1ting System12 !Drive Shafts, Gears, 29 Heater and SwitchesCouplings & Bearings13 Pawls, Ratchets, Spuds, 30 Operator's Cab& Windlocks14 Sheaves 31 Safety15 IWarning Devices 32 Chain and Sprockets16 Capacity Signs 33 Structural17 iMain Disconnect 34 Wire Rope Drum andMachinery FoundationREMARKS (Unusual conditions-noises, structural cracks, misalignment, etc.)7-19Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)EXHIBIT I (continued)Page 2 of4lNITIALBRIDGE CRANE AND FOILOwup CHECKSNOTES: 1. Craftsmen shall initial all steps completed below.2. Qualified inspector shall verify all steps below.3. Load test shall beperformed on all new. extensivelyrepaired, or modified cranes prior to initial use.4. Load test crane at 125% ofrated capacity. In no case shall the load test exceed 125% ofratedcapacity. Test weights shall be accurate to -5%. + 0% ofstipulated values.1. Set crane up for load test and qualified inspector verify inspection is complete prior to load test.2. The trip setting ofhoist-limit devices shall be determined by tests, with an emptyhook travelingat increasing speeds up to the maximum speed. The actuating mechanism ofthe limit deviceshall be located so that it will trip the device under all conditions and in sufficient time to preventcontact ofthe hook or load block with any part ofthe trolley or crane.3. Rig test weight to hoist hook using appropriate slings.4. Hoist the test load a sufficient distance to ensure that the load is supported by the crane and heldby the hoist brakes.5. Transport the test loadbymeans ofthe trolley for the full length ofthe bridge. Ensure duringoperation that the trolley runs true on the bridge. Check trolley motor. brake. and gear case foroverheating.6. Transport the test load by means ofthe bridge for the full length ofthe runway. first in onedirection with the trolley as close to the extreme right-hand end of the crane as practical and nextin the other direction with the trolleyas close to the extreme left-hand end ofthe crane aspractical. Ensure that the bridge runs true on the runwayrails and that no undue girderdeflection occurs. Check for bridge motor, brake. and gear-case overheating.7. Move the test load back into the original position and lower the test load. stopping by the brakes.Hold the load for 10 min or the time required to check all primary load-bearing parts whileunder load for slippage, damage. or permanent deformation.8. Slowly lower the test load to the floor.9. At the completion ofthe load test:. visually inspect the following load-bearing parts for signs ofwear, deformation. and deterioration:Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-20


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT I (continued)Page 3 of4DEFECTIVE/OKa. Bridge trackb. Bridge wheelsc. Trolley trackd. Trolley wheelse. Gearsf. Magnetic brakesg. Blocks.Visually inspect rope in accordance with Chapter 11, "Wire Rope and Slings."a. Rope diameter: (Previous) (Present) _b. Wearc. Kinksd. Broken wiresVisually inspect the rope drum for:INITIALe. Other signs ofdeterioration.a. Wearb. Deformationc. Deterioration.10. Qualified inspector shall perform nondestructive tests on hookbyvisual examination, liquidpenetrant examination, or magnetic-partiCle examination. Acceptance: No cracks, linearindications, laps, or seams.Hooks with more than 15% normal (new hook) throat opening shall be replaced. Hooks with more than 10 degree twistfrom the normal (newhook) plane of thehook shall be replaced. Hooks having more than 10% wear in the throatsection or 5% elongation ofthe shank shall be replaced. Lubricate hookbearing and latch pin as applicable.Establish three marks, A, B, and C, with a center punch. For ease in measuring, set distances on an even number ofinches.7-21Chapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT I (continued)Page 4 of4BEFORE LOAD TESTLength ABLength BCin.in.AFTER LOAD TESTLength ABLength BCin.in.Check for:1. Wear and deformation2. Cracks and twisting3. Signs of opening between Point A and Point BLoad Test Inspection Date_Qualified InspectorOperated By__Actual Load TestlbChapter 7Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-22


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)CHAPTER 8HOISTSThis chapter provides safety standards for inspecting, testing, and operating hoists not permanently mountedon overhead cranes and implements the requirements ofASME B30.11 ("Monorail Systems and UnderhungCranes"), B30.16 ["Overhead Hoists (Underhung)"], and B30.21 ("Manually Lever Operated Hoists").8.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18.1.1 OperatorTraininglQualification 8-48.1.2 Marking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-48.1.3 WamingLabels............ 8-48.1.3.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoists 8-48.1.3.2 Hand-Chain-Operated or Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-48.1.4 Design Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-58.1.5 DesignFactors ,. 8-58.1.6 Load-BrakinglLoad-Controlling Mechanisms 8-58.1.6.1 Electric-PoweredHoists......................................... 8-58.1.6.2 Air-Powered Hoists .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . 8-58.1.6.3 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . 8-58.1.6.4 Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists 8-58.1.7 Wire Rope 8-68.1.8 Load Chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-68.1.8.1 Electric-Powered, Air-Powered, and Manual-Lever-OperatedHoists 8-68.1.8.2 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists. 8-68.1.9 Web Strap 8-78.1.10 Overtravel Protection..................... 8-78.1.10.1 Upper-Limit SwitcheslDevices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . 8-78.1.10.2 Lower-Limit SwitcheslDevices 8-78.1.11 Travel WamingDevices 8-78.1.12 Support............................................................... 8-78.1.13 Location............................................................... 8-78.1.14 Load Rating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-78.2 INSPECTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-88.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-88.2.2 Hoist Service 8-88.2.3 Initial Inspection 8-88.2.4 Daily Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-88.2.5 Frequent Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-88.2.6 Periodic Inspection 8-98.2.6.1 Hoists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-98.2.6.2 Wire Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-98.2.6.3 Welded-Link Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-108.2.6.4 Roller Chain 8-118.2.6.5 Synthetic-Web Strap 8-128.2.7 Hoists Not in Regular Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-128-iChapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)8.3 TESTING , 8-138.3.1 Operational Tests 8-138.3.1.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoists 8-138.3.1.2 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists " 8-138.3.1.3 Manual-Lever-OperatedHoists 8-138.3.2 Proof-Load Test ..............................................•.......... 8-138.3.2.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoists 8-138.3.2.2 Hand-Chain-Operated or Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists , 8-138.4 MAINTENANCE , 8-148.5 OPERATION , 8-158.5.1 Conduct of Operator 8-158.5.2 Size ofLoad 8-158.5.3 Attaching the Load 8-158.5.4 MovingtheLoad 8-158.5.5 Hoist-Limit Switch 8-168.5.6 Ordinary Lifts 8-168.5.7 CriticalLifts 8-17Exhibit I Hoist Load Test and Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-19Chapter 8Hoists8-ii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)8.1 GENERALa. Hoists described in this chapter includehand-powered, air-powered, and electric-poweredhoists that are not pennanently mounted onoverhead cranes.b. This chapter applies to the following typesof equipment (see Figures 8-1 through 8-6):1. Overhead hoists (underhung).2. Jib eraneslhoists (floor and wallmounted).3. Monorail systems.4. Manual-lever-operated hoists (wirerope, chain, and web-strap types).c. Wire-rope ratchet and pawl lever-operatedhoists should not be used for lifting service (seeFigure 8-8).d. Systems used for transporting personnel andspecially insulated hoists used for handlingelectrically energized power lines require specialconsiderations and are not included in this chapter.Figure 8-1. Hand-chain-operated hoists.Figure 8-2. Electric/air-powered chain and wire-rope hoists.8-1Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 8-3. Electric/air-powered wire-rope hoists.Figure 8-4. Manual-lever-operated hoist-chain type.Figure 8-5. Manual-lever-operated hoist-wire-rope type.Chapter 8Hoists 8-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 8-6. Manual-Iever-operated hoist-web-strap type.Drive pinionLoad brake hubFigure 8-7. Recommended-hoists with friction brake type load-controlling mechanisms.Ratchet(load sprocket)~W..eropeFigure 8-8. Not recommended-hoists with ratchet and pawl load-controlling mechanisms.8-3Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)8.1.1OperatorTraining/QualificationHoist operators shall be trained and qualifiedaccording to requirements found in Chapter 6,"Personnel Qualification and Training."8.1.2 Markinga. The rated capacity shall be permanentlymarked on the hoist or load block.b. Electric-powered hoists shall be markedwith:1. Name ofmanufacturer.2. Manufacturer's model or serialnumber.3. Voltage ofAC or DC power supplyand phase/frequency ofAC power supply.4. Circuit ampacity.c. Air-powered hoists shall be marked with:1. Name ofmanufacturer.2. Manufacturer's model or serialnumber.3. Rated air pressure.d. Hand-chain-operated hoists shall be markedwith:1. Name ofmanufacturer.2. Manufacturer's model or serialnumber.e. Manual-lever-operated hoists shall bemarked with:1. Name ofmanufacturer.2. Manufacturer's model or serialnumber.8.1.3 Warning LabelsDocumented evidence ofequivalent training oftheuser of the hoist, demonstrating that theinformation on the warning labels has beenconveyed and understood by the user, will waivethe requirement to maintain warning labels.8.1.3.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoistsa. Labels shall be affixed to the hoist, loadblock, or controls that display the wordWARNING or other legend designed to bring thelabel to the attention ofan operator.b. The label shall contain cautionary languageagainst any ofthe following:1. Lifting more than the rated load.2. Operating a hoist when the load is notcentered under the hoist.3. Operating a hoist with twisted, kinked,or damaged chain or wire rope.4. Operating a damaged ormalfunctioning hoist.5. Lifting personnel or lifting loads abovepersonnel.6. Operating a wire-rope hoist with awire rope that is not properly seated in its grooves.7. Removing or obscuring warninglabels.8.1.3.2 Hand-Chain-Operated orManual-lever-Operated Hoistsa. Labels shall be affixed to the hoist or loadblock and shall display the word WARNING orother legend designed to bring the label to theattention ofan operator.b. The label shall contain cautionary languageagainst any ofthe following:1. Lifting more than the rated load.2. Operating a hoist when it is restrictedfrom forming a straight line with the direction ofloading.3. Operating the hoist with twisted,kinked, or damaged wire rope, chain, or webbingstrap.4. Operating damaged or malfunctioninghoists.Chapter 8Hoists8-4


DOE-STD-l090-96 (Rev-i)5. Lifting personnel or lifting loads abovepersonnel.6. Operating a hoist with lever extensions(for lever-operated hoists).7. Operating hoists with other thanmanual power (for hand-chain-operated hoists).8. Removing or obscuring warninglabels.8.1.4Design Standards .a. At a minimum, safety features and operationshall meet the provisions ofASME B30.16 andB30.21.b. Mechanical, electrical, and structuralcomponents ofhoist design shall meet acceptedhoist design standards contained in ASMEHST-IM, -2M, -3M, -4M, -5M, and -6M("Performance Standard for Electric ChainHoists"; "Performance Standard for Hand ChainManually Operated Chain Hoists"; "PerformanceStandard for Manually Lever Operated ChainHoists"; "Performance Standard for Electric WireRope Hoists"; "Performance Standard for AirChain Hoists"; and "Performance Standard for AirWireRope Hoists," respectively).8.1.5Design Factorsa. For electric- or air-powered hoists,load-suspending parts ofpowered hoists shall bedesigned so that the static stress calculated for therated load will not exceed 20 percent oftheaverage ultimate material strength. Thisrequirement is commonly reflected by quoting aminimum design factor of 5:1.b. For hand-chain-operated andmanual-lever-operated hoists, load-suspendingparts shall be designed so that the static stresscalculated for the rated load will not exceed25 percent of the average ultimate strength. Thisrequirement is commonly reflected by quoting aminimum design factor of4:1.8.1.6 Load-Braking/Load-Controlling Mechanisms8.1.6.1 Electric-Powered Hoistsa. Under normal operating conditions withrated load and under test conditions with test loadsup to 125 percent ofrated load, the brakingsystem shall perform the following functions:1. Stop and hold the load hook whencontrols are released.2. Limit the speed ofthe load duringlowering, with or without power, to a maximum of120 percent ofthe rated lowering speed for theload being handled.3. Stop and hold the load hook in theevent ofa complete power failure.b. The braking system shall have thermalcapacity for the frequency of operation requiredby the service.c. The braking system shall have provision foradjustments, where necessary, to compensate forwear.8.1.6.2 Air-Powered Hoistsa. Under normal operating conditions withrated load and under test conditions with test loadsup to 125 percent ofrated load, the brakingsystem shall perform the following functions:1. Stop and hold the load hook whencontrols are released.2. Prevent an uncontrolled lowering ofthe load in the event of a loss of air pressure.b. The braking system shall have thermalcapacity for the frequency ofoperation requiredby the service.c. The braking system shall have provision foradjustments, where necessary, to compensate forwear.8.1.6.3 Hand-Chain-Operated HoistsThe hoist shall be designed so that when theactuating force is removed, it will automaticallystop and hold any test load up to 125 percent ofthe rated load.8.1.6.4 Manual-Lever-Operated Hoistsa. The hoist shall be equipped with aload-controlling mechanism.b. The load-controlling mechanism shallperform the following functions under normal8-5Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)operating conditions with test loads up to125 percent ofrated capacity:1. Stop and hold the load when the leverforce is removed and the lever stroke is completed.2. Provide for incremental movement ofthe load when lifting or lowering.c. The friction brake mechanism shall haveprovision for adjustment where necessary tocompensate for wear.8.1.8 Load Chain8.1.8.1 Electric-Powered, Air-Powered,and Manual-lever-OperatedHoistsa. Load chain may be either roller or weldedlink type (see Figure 8-9). Chain shall be pitched(calibrated) so as to pass over all load sprocketswithout binding.8.1.7 Wire Ropea. Wire rope shall be ofa constructionspecified by the hoist manufacturer or by aqualified person.b. H a load is supported by more than one partofwire rope, the tension on the parts shall beequalized.c. Socketing shall be done in the mannerspecified by the manufacturer ofthe assembly orthe rope.d. Eye splices shall be made in a mannerrecommended by a qualified person. Ropethimbles should be used in the eye.e. Swaged or compressed fittings shall beapplied as recommended by the rope, hoist, orfitting manufacturer or a qualified person.f. Use rope having an independent wire-rope,wire-strand core, or othertemperature-damage-resistant core ifthe rope willbe exposed to ambient temperatures greater than180 degrees F (82 degrees C).g. The rope ends should be attached to thehoist in a manner to prevent disengagementthroughout rated hook travel. No less than twowraps ofrope shall remain on the anchorage ofthehoist load sprocket (drum) when the hook is in itsfully extended position, unless a lower-limitdevice is provided, in which case one wrap shallremain on each anchorage ofthe drum hoist.8.1.8.2Roller TypeWelded-Unk TypeFigure 8-9. load chain.b. The load chain shall be proof-tested by thechain or hoist manufacturer with a load at leastequivalent to 1.5 times the hoist's rated loaddivided by the number ofchain parts supportingthe load.c. Ifa load is supported by more than one partofload chain, the tension on the parts shall beequalized.Hand-Chain-Operated Hoistsa. The hand chain shall be ofa shape and pitchto fit the hand-chain wheel without binding orjamming under normal operating conditions.b. Thehand chain shall be guarded to preventdisengagement from the hand-chain wheel.c. The hand chain shall withstand, withoutpermanent distortion, a force ofthree times thepull required to lift the rated load.Chapter 8Hoists 8-6


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)8.1.9Web StrapThe following applies for manual-lever-operatedhoists:a Web strap should be nylon, polyester, orsimilar synthetic material.b. Ifa load is supported by more than one partofweb strap, the tension on the parts shall beequalized.c. End terminations shall be done in themanner specified by the manufacturer oftheassembly or the web strap.d. Eyes shall be made in a mannerrecommended by the hoist manufacturer or aqualified person.e. Nylon and polyester web straps shall not beexposed to an ambient temperature greater than200 degrees F (93 degrees C).f. The web strap shall be attached to the hoistin a manner to prevent disengagement throughoutrated hook travel; no less than two wraps of webstrap shall remain on the hoist load sprocket(drum) when the hook is extended to its full ratedlift.8.1.10 Overtravel Protection8.1.10.1 Upper-Limit Switches/DevicesFor electric- or air-powered hoists, the hoist shallbe designed and constructed so that the load hook,either loaded or empty, shall not exceed the upperlimit of travel. In lieu ofa limit switch, amechanism such as a slip clutch maybe used.8.1.10.2 Lower-Limit Switches/Devicesa. For electric- or air-powered hoists, the hoistshall not be installed where, during normaloperating conditions, the hook can be loweredbeyond rated hook travel unless the hoist isequipped with a lower-limit device. Lower-limitdevices should beprovided for hoists where theload block enters pits or hatchways in the floor.b. For hand-chain-operated andmanual-lever-operated hoists, before the loadchain can be completely run out ofthe hoist, itshall be restrained in its fully extended position.The restraint shall be such that the unloaded hoistcan withstand a lowering hand chain or operatinglever force equivalent to twice the pull required tolift the rated load, or with the rated load on thehoist, a hand chain or operating lever forceequivalent to the pull required to lift the ratedload.8.1.11 Travel Warning DevicesOn cab- and remote-operated carriers, an audibleor visual warning means shall be provided, unlessit is impossible for personnel to work on the floorbelow the hoist.8.1.12 SupportSupport structures, including trolleys andmonorails, shall have a rated capacity at leastequal to that ofthe hoist.8.1.13 LocationThehoist shall be installed only in locations thatwill permit the operator to remain clear ofthe loadat all times.8.1.14 Load RatingThe rated capacity shall not be exceeded exceptfor properly authorized tests.8-7Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)8.2 INSPECTIONS8.2.1 General 8.2.4 Daily Inspectiona. Frequency notation as used in dates forfrequent and periodic inspections should bedefmed as follows:l. Daily--24 hours.2. Weekly--7 days.3. Monthly--31 days.4. Quarterly--92 days.5. Semi-annually--184 days.a. Operators or other designated personnelshall visually inspect items such as the followingat the beginning ofeach shift or prior to fIrst use ifthe hoi~t has not been in regular service (recordsare not required):1. Controls and operating mechanismsfor proper operation.2. Hoist upper-limit switch, asapplicable, for proper operation.3. Lines, valves, and other parts of airsystems for leakage.6. Yearly--365 days.b. Violations ofinspection periods may begranted on a case by case basis, provided there is apre-established site specific policy.8.2.2 Hoist ServiceHoist service is defined as follows:a. Nonnal service-operation with randomlydistributed loads within the rated load limit, orunifonn loads less than 65 percent ofrated loadfor not more than 15 percent ofthe time formanual-lever-operated hoists or for not more than25 percent ofthe time for electric- or air-poweredhoists.b. Heavy service-operation within the ratedcapacity that exceeds nonnal service.4. Hooks for cracks, defonnation, anddamage from chemicals (see Chapter 13, "LoadHooks," for additional hook requirements).5. Hoist rope for kinking, crushing,birdcaging, and corrosion.6. Hoist chain for nicks, gouges,distortion, wear, cracks, and corrosion.7. Synthetic web strap for abrasive wear,knots, cuts, or tears, broken stitching, acid orcaustic burns, melting or charring, or weldsplatter.8. Hook latch, ifused, for properoperation.b. Operators or other designated personnelshall examine defIciencies and determine whetherthey constitute a safety hazard.c. Severe service-operating at nonnal orheavy service under abnonnal operatingconditions, (i.e., extreme temperatures, corrosive8.2.5 Frequent Inspectionatmospheres). a. Operators or other designated personnelshall visually inspect the hoist at the followingintervals (records are not required):8.2.3 Initial InspectionPrior to their initial use, all new, extensivelyrepaired, or modified hoists shall be inspected bya qualified inspector to ensure compliance withthe applicable provisions ofASME B30.11,B30.16, and B30.21. Dated and signed inspectionrecords shall be kept on file and shall be readilyavailable.Chapter 8Hoists 8-81. Nonnal service-monthly.2. Heavy service-weekly to monthly.3. Severe service-daily to weekly.b. In addition to the requirements listed aboveinDaily Inspection, these inspections shall includethe following:


DOE·STD-I090·96 (Rev-I)1. Hoist braking system for properoperation.2. Hoist rope or chain reeving forcompliance with hoist manufacturer'srecommendations.3. Lever for bends, cracks, and the like4. Observations during operation.c. Examine deficiencies and detennine whethera more detailed inspection is required.8.2.6Periodic Inspectiona. A qualified inspector shall perform acomplete inspection at the following intervals:1. Normal service-yearly.2. Heavy service-semiannually.3. Severe service-quarterly.b. The qualified inspector shall examinedeficiencies and determine whether they constitutea safety hazard and whether disassembly isrequired.c. Dated and signed inspection records shall bekept on file and shall be readily available.d. A sample load test and inspection form isincluded as Exhibit I, which appears at the end ofthis chapter. This form is intended to be a sampleonly and is not intended to be mandatory.8.2.6.1 Hoistsa. In addition to the requirements listed inSection 8.2.4, "Frequent Inspection," periodicinspections ofhoists shall include the following:1. Loose fasteners.2. Cracked or worn drums or sheaves.3. Worn, corroded, cracked, or distortedparts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollerslocking, and clamping devices.4. Excessive wear on motor or loadbrakes.5. Excessive wear ofchains, ropes,synthetic web strap, load sprockets, drums,sheaves, and chain stretch.6. Deterioration or damage ofendconnections and terminations ofwire rope, loadchains, and synthetic web.7. Hooks having more than 15 percent inexcess ofnormal throat opening, or more than 10degree twist from the plane ofthe unbent hook(see Chapter 13 for additional hook requirements).8. Hook-retaining nuts or collars andpins, welds, orriveting used to secure the retainingmembers. .9. Suitable crack-detecting inspectionsfor hooks, such as dye-penetrant ormagnetic-particle inspections (performed whenrequired by the inspector).10. Electrical apparatus for signs ofpittingor any deterioration ofcontroller contactors, limitswitches, and push-button switches.11. Supporting structures and trolleys, ifused, for continued ability to support the imposedloads.12. Warning labels for illegibility orabsence.8.2.6.2 Wire Ropea. A qualified inspector shall inspect runningrope at least annually. This inspection shallinclude examination ofthe entire length ofrope,without detaching it from the hoist drum. Morefrequent intervals shall be determined by aqualified person and shall bebased on suchfactors as expected rope life as determined byexperience on the particular installation or similarinstallations, severity ofenvironment, percentageofcapacity lifts, frequency rates ofoperation, andexposure to shock loads. The qualified inspectorshall carefully note any deterioration, such asdescribed below, resulting in appreciable loss oforiginal strength and determine whether furtheruse ofthe rope constitutes an acceptable risk.1. Reduction ofrope size below nominaldiameter, whether due to loss ofcore support,internal or external corrosion, or wear ofoutsidewires (see Table 8-1).8-9Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)2. A number ofbroken outside wires andthe distribution or concentration ofsuch brokenwires.3. Worn outside wires.4. Sections ofrope that are normallyhidden during inspection or maintenanceprocedures, such as parts passing over sheaves(these are points most subject to deterioration).5. Corroded or broken wires at endconnections.6. Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, orimproperly applied end connections.Table 8-1. Maximum allowable ropereductions.Rope diameterup to 5/16 in.(8mm)Over 5/16 in. to1/2 in. (13 mm)Over 1/2 in. to3/4 in. (19 mm)Over 3/4 in. to1 1/8 in. (29mm)Over 1 1/8 in. to1 1/2 in. (38 mm)Maxim urn allowablereductionfrom nominal diameter1/64 in. (0.4 mm)1/32 in. (0.8 mm)3/64 in. (1.2 mm)1/16 in. (1.6 mm)3/32 in. (2.4 mm)7. Kinking, crushing, cutting, orunstranding.b. No precise rules can be given fordetermining the exact time to replace wire ropebecause many factors are involved. Safetydepends largely on the use ofgood judgment by an~ppointed person in evaluating remaining strengthm a used rope, after allowance for deteriorationdisclosed by inspection. Safety ofrope operationdepends on this remaining strength.c. Conditions such as the following shall bereason for questioning rope safety and consideringreplacement:1. Inhoist ropes, 12 randomly distributed .broken wires in one rope lay, or 4 broken wires inone strand in one rope lay.2. Wear ofone-third ofthe originaldiameter ofoutside individual wires.3. Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or anyother damage resulting in distortion ofthe ropestructure.4. Evidence ofheat damage from anycause.5. Reductions from nominal diametergreater than those shown in Table 8-1.d. The qualified inspector shall give specialattention to end fastenings and shall examineropes frequently at socketed fittings; on thedevelopment oftwo broken wires adjacent to thispoint, resocket or replace the rope. Resocketingshall not be attempted ifthe resulting rope lengthwill be insufficient for proper operation. Thoseportions ofthe rope subjected to reverse bendsand operation over sma1l-diameter drums orsheaves shall be closely examined.e. Replacement rope and connections shallhave a strength rating at least as great as theoriginal rope and connections furnished by thehoist manufacturer. Any deviation from theoriginal size, grade, or construction shall bespecified bya rope manufacturer, the hoistmanufacturer, or a qualified person.f. Never use discarded rope for slings.8.2.6.3 Welded-Link Chaina. A qualified inspector shall do the followingduring periodic inspections:1. Operate the hoist under load in raisingand lowering directions, and observe the operationofthe chain and sprockets. The chain should feedsmoothly into and away from the sprockets.2. Make sure that, ifthe chain binds,jumps, or is noisy, frrst clean and properlylubricate it. Ifthe trouble persists, inspect thechain and mating parts for wear, distortion, orother damage.3. The chain should cleaned beforeinspection. Examine visually for cracks, gouges,nicks, weld spatter, corrosion, and distorted links.Chapter 8Hoists 8-10


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)Slacken the chain and move adjacent links to oneside to inspect for wear at the contact points. Ifyou observe wear or suspect stretching, measurethe chain according to the hoist manufacturer'sinstructions. Ifinstructions are not available,proceed as follows:i. Select an unworn, unstretchedlength ofthe chain (e.g., at theslack end).ii.iii.iv.Suspend the chain verticallyunder tension and, using acaliper-type gauge, measure theoutside length ofany convenientnumber oflinks approximately12 in. (305 mm) to 14 in. (356nun) overall.Measure the same number oflinks in the used sections andcalculate the percentage ofincrease in length.Ifthe used chain exceeds a hoistmanufacturer's recommendedlength, or in the absence ofsucha recommendation, ifthe usedchain is 1.5 percent longer thanthe unused chain for poweredhoists or is 2.5 percent longerthan the unused chain forhand-operated hoists, replace thechain.v. Examine the chain for gouges,nicks, corrosion, weld spatter, ordistorted links. Any oftheseconditions shall be sufficientreason for questioning safety andconsidering replacement. Safetyin this respect depends largely onthe use ofgood judgment by anappointed person in evaluatingthe degree ofdamage.6. Load-chain links that pass over thehoist-load sprocket on edge (alternate to those thatlie flat in the pockets) should be installed with thewelds away from the center ofthe sprocket Thisprecaution is not required on idler sprockets,which change the direction but not the tension inthe chain.7. Ensure that replacement chain isinstalled without any twist between the hoist andan anchored end on either the loaded side or theslack side.8. When a chain is replaced, disassembleand inspect the mating parts (sprockets, guides,stripper) for wear, and replaceifnecessary.9. Never use discarded load chain forslings.8.2.6.4 Roller Chaina. A qualified inspector shall do the followingduring periodic inspections:1. Test the hoist under load in raising andlowering directions, observing the operation ofthechain and sprockets. Ifthe chain binds, jumps, oris noisy, clean and properly lubricate it. Ifthetrouble persists, inspect the chain and matingparts for wear, distortion, or damage.2. Ifyou observe wear or suspectstretching, measure the chain according to thehoist manufacturer's instructions. Ifinstructionsare not available, proceed as follows:i. Suspend the hoist in normalposition and apply a light load ofapproximately 100 Ib (46 kg).ii.Select a 12-in. (305-mm) sectionof chain that normally travelsover the load sprocket4. No one except the chain manufacturershall repair the load chain by welding or any othermeans.5. Ensure that replacement chain is thesame size, grade, and construction as the originalchain furnished by the hoist manufacturer, unlessotherwise recommended by the hoist manufacturerdue to working conditions.iii.Determine elongation bymeasuring with a caliper from theedge ofone chain pin to thecorresponding edge of anotherpin. Ifelongation exceeds 1/4 in.(6.3 mm) in 12 in. (305 mm)compared to new orunstretchedchain values, replace the chain.8-11Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-!090-96 (Rev-!)iv.Inspect for twists. Replace ifthetwist in any 5-ft (l.52-m) sectionexceeds 15 degrees.v. Check for straightness in a planeperpendicular to the plane oftherollers. Replace ifthe chain has abow exceeding 1/4 in. (6.3 mm)in any 5-ft (1.52-m) section.3. Make additional inspections byremoving the chain from the hoist and cleaning itthoroughly. Carefully examine deficiencies suchas those listed below and determine whether theyconstitute a safety hazard. Any deficiencies arereason for questioning chain safety andconsidering its replacement.i. Pins turned from originalposition.ii.iii.iv.Rollers that do not run freelywith light fmger pressure.Joints that cannot be flexed byeasy hand pressure.Side plates that are spread open.v. Corrosion, pitting, ordiscoloration.Safety depends largely on the use ofgoodjudgmentby an appointed person in evaluatingremaining strength in a used web, after allowancefor deterioration disclosed by inspection.b. Conditions such as the following shall bereason for questioning continued use ofthe webstrap or increasing the frequency ofinspection:1. Severely worn end connections.2. Distortion ofthe web-strap structure.3. Evidence ofanyheat damage.c. The web strap shall be removed from servicewhen damage such as the following is discovered:1. Melting or charring.2. Acid or caustic burns.3. Weld spatter.4. Broken stitching.5. Cuts or tears.6. Damaged eyes or fittings.7. Abrasive wear.vi.Gouges, nicks, or weld spatter.8. Knots.4. Do not attempt to repair roller chainby welding or heating.5. Ensure that replacement chain is thesame size, grade, and construction as the originalchain furnished by the hoist manufacturer unlessotherwise recommended by the hoist manufacturerdue to working conditions.6. Never use discarded or new rollerchain for slings.8.2.6.5 Synthetic-Web Strapa No precise rules can be given fordetermining the exact time to replace web strap.8.2.7 Hoists Not in RegularServicea. A hoist that is not in regular service (idle fora period of 1 month or more. but less than 1 year)shall be inspected before being placed in serviceaccording to the requirements listed above inSection 8.2.5, "Frequent Inspection."b. A hoist that is not in regular service (idle fora period of 1 year or more) shall be inspectedbefore being placed in service according to therequirements listed above in Section 8.2.6,"Periodic Inspection."Chapter 8Hoists 8-12


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)8.3 TESTING8.3.1Operational TestsAll new hoists shall be tested by the hoistmanufacturer. All modified or extensivelyrepaired hoists orhoists that have not been usedwithin the preceding 12 months shall be testedbefore being placed in service. All tests shall bedone by a qualified inspector or under thedirection ofthat inspector as detailed in thefollowing paragraphs.8.3.1.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoistsa. Check lifting and lowering (testing throughcomplete rated lift length is not required).b. Check operation ofbrakes.c. Determine the trip-setting oflimit devices bytests under no-load conditions. Conduct tests firstby hand, ifpractical, and then under slowest speedobtainable. Test with increasing speeds up tomaximum speed.8.3.1.2 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoistsa. Check all functions ofthe hoist, includinglifting and lowering, with the hoist suspended inan unloaded state.b. After testing unloaded, apply a load ofatleast 50 Ib (23 kg) multiplied by the number ofload-supporting parts ofchain to the hoist tocheck proper load control.8.3.1.3 Manual-Lever-Operated Hoistsa. Check all functions ofthe hoist with thehoist suspended in an unloaded state.b. After testing unloaded, apply a load of atleast 100 Ib (46 kg) multiplied by the number ofload-supporting parts ofload line to the hoist tocheck proper load control.8.3.2Proof-Load TestTest anchorages or suspensions shall be approvedby a qualified person.8.3.2.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoistsa. The manufacturer shall dynamically test newhoists as specified in Section 8.3.1.1 ("Electric- orAir-Powered Hoists"), steps a. and b., with a testload ofat least 125 percent ofthe rated load. Ifthe manufacturer cannot test the hoist, the usershall benotified and the test shall be accomplishedat another location orjob site by a qualifiedinspector or under the direction ofthat inspector.b. A qualified inspector shall test hoists inwhich load suspension parts havebeen modified,replaced, or extensively repaired as specified inSection 8.3.1.1, steps a. and b. by or under thedirection ofa qualified inspector. and a record ofthe test should be made. A designated orauthorized person shall determine ifrepairs madeto a hoist are extensive, and require a rated loadtest, or routine maintenance and require only anoperational test. The applied test load shall not beless than 100 percent of the rated capacity of thehoist, or more than 125 percent ofthe ratedcapacity ofthe hoist unless otherwiserecommended by the manufacturer or a qualifiedperson. The replacement ofload chain and rope isspecifically excluded from this hoist test;however, a functional test ofthe hoist under anormal operating load should be made inaccordance with 8.3.1., "Operational Tests," priorto putting the hoist back in service.8.3.2.2 Hand-Chain-Operated orManual-Lever-Operated Hoistsa. The manufacturer shall dynamically test newhoists with a test load of at least 125 percent ofthe rated capacity. Ifthe manufacturer cannot testthe hoist, the user shall be notified and the testshall be accomplished at another location orjobsite by a qualified inspector or under the directionofthat inspector.b. Hoists in which load suspension parts havebeen modified, replaced, or extensively repairedshall be tested statically or dynamically by orunder the direction ofa qualified inspector, and arecord of the test should be kept. A designated orauthorized person shall determine ifrepairs madeto a hoist are extensive and require a rated loadtestor are routine maintenance and require only anoperational test. The applied test load shall not beless than 100 percent ofthe rated capacity ofthehoist or more than 125 percent ofthe ratedcapacity ofthe hoist, unless otherwiserecommended by the manufacturer or a qualifiedperson. The replacement ofload chain isspecifically excluded from this hoist load test;however, a functional test ofthe hoist should bemade in accordance with Section 8.3.1.2 or 8.3.1.3("Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists" and "ManuallyLever-Operated Hoists," respectively), prior toputting the hoist back in service.8-13Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)8.4 MAINTENANCEa. A preventive maintenance program shall beestablished and be based on the hoistmanufacturer's recommendations.b. Replacement parts shall be at least equal tothe original manufacturer's specifications.Chapter 8Hoists 8-14


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)8.5 OPERATIONa. The following shall apply to all personnelinvolved in hoist operations.b. At the initial stage ofthe planning process,an appointed person shall classify each lift intoone ofthe DOE-specified categories (ordinary,critical, or preengineered production).8.5.1Conduct of Operatora. Do not engage in any practice that willdivert your attention while engaged in operatingthe hoist.b. Do not operate equipment ifyou arephysically or mentally unfit.c. Familiarize yourself with the equipment andits proper care. Ifadjustments or repairs arenecessary or any damage is known or suspected,report it promptly to the appointed person. Notifythe next operator ofthe problem upon changingshifts. Correct deficiencies before resumingnormal operation.d. Test all controls before beginning a shift. Ifany controls do not operate properly, adjust orrepair them before beginning operations.e. Operators are responsible for thoseoperations under their direct control. Wheneverthere is doubt as to safety, consult withresponsible management before handling the load.f. Do not operate a hoist that bears anout-of-order sign or is otherwise taggedout-of-service.g. Ifthere is a tag, sign, or lock on electrlc- orair-powered equipment, do not energize theequipment until the tag, sign, or lock is removedby the person who placed it there or by anauthorized person.h. Do not close the main line disconnect deviceon powered equipment until you are certain thatno one is on or adjacent to the hoist or carrier.8.5.2 Size of LoadKnow the weight ofthe load and do not load thehoist beyond the rated capacity, except asprovided for in Section 8.3, "Testing."8.5.3 Attaching the Loada. The supporting structure or anchoringmeans shall have a load rating at least equal tothat ofthe hoist.b. Use hoists only in areas that will allow youto be clear ofthe load.c. Do not wrap the hoist rope or chain aroundthe load.d. Attach the load to the hook using slings orother approved devices.e. Do not use chain or wire rope as a groundfor welding.f. Do not touch a welding electrode to thechain, wire rope, or any other part ofthe hoist ormonorail system.g. Operate hand-chain-operated hoists withhand power only and with no more than oneoperator per hand chain.h. Do not use a lever extension ("cheater") onmanual-lever-operated hoists.i. Properly seat the slings or other approveddevices in the saddle ofthe hook before carryingout hoisting operations.8.5.4 Moving the Loada. Take care in hoisting to be certain that:1. Hoist ropes or chains are not kinked ortwisted.2. The load does not contact anyobstructions.3. Multiple-part ropes or chains are nottwisted around each other.b. Before starting to hoist, ensure that the ropeor chain is properly seated on the drum, sheaves,or sprockets.c. Before starting the hoist, be certain that allpersonnel are clear of the equipment.8-15Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)d. Do not operate hoists until the hook ispositioned above the center ofgravity ofthe load,except when specifically authorized by anappointed person who has determined that thecomponents ofthe hoist and its mounting will notbe overstressed.e. Do not move or lift a load more than a fewinches until it is well balanced in a sling or liftingdevice.f. Do not lift, lower, or travel the hoist whileanyone is on the load or hook.g. Avoid carrying loads above personnel.h. Test the brakes each time a loadapproaching the rated capacity is handled byraising the loadjust enough to clear the floor orsupports and checking for brake action. Continuethe lift only after you are sure that the brakingsystem is operating properly.i. Do not lower a loaded wire-rope hoist drumbeyond the point where less than two full wraps ofwire rope remain on the drum.j. Inch the hoist into engagement with a load,and avoid unnecessary stops and starts.k. Do not perfonn side pulls with hoists exceptas specifically authorized by a qualified person.1. Ifpower goes off during operation ofcab-operated equipment, immediately place allcontrollers in the OFF position. Before reuse,check operating motions for proper direction.m. Do not leave a suspended load unattendedunless specific precautions have been institutedand are in place.n. Tag lines should be used as required toguide, snub, or otherwise control the load.o. Take signals from only one person using thestandard hand signals shown in Chapter 7,"Overhead and Gantry Cranes." Obey a STOPsignal regardless ofwho gives it.p. Lift the hoist load block above head level forstorage when the equipment is not in use.8.5.5Hoist-Limit Switcha. At the beginning ofa shift, test theupper-limit switch ofeach hoist under no loadconditions. Ifthe hoist has a lower-limit switch,test it with no load before lowering any load thatcould bring the lower-limit switch into operation.Exercise extreme care; inch the block into thelimit switch or run in at slow speed. Ifthe limitswitch does not operate properly, notify thedesignated person immediately.b. Ifa lift is in progress during a shift change,this testing requirement is considered to have beensatisfied for the completion ofthat lift. However,test the limit switch again before the next lift.c. Never use the hoist-limit switch that controlsthe upper limit oftravel of the load block as anoperating control.8.5.6Ordinary Liftsa. Hoisting and rigging operations for ordinarylifts require a designated leader. The designatedleader shall be present at the lift site during theentire lifting operation. Ifthe lift is being made byonly one person, that person assumes allresponsibilities ofthe designated leader.b. Leadership designation may be by writteninstructions, specific verbal instructions for theparticularjob, or clearly defmed responsibilitieswithin the crew's organizational structure.c. The designated leader's responsibility shallinclude the following:1. Ensure that personnel involvedunderstand how the lift is to be made.2. Ensure that the weight ofthe load isdetermined, that proper equipment and accessoriesare selected, and that rated capacity is notexceeded.3. Survey the lift site forhazardous/unsafe conditions.4. Ensure that equipment is properly setup and positioned.5. Ensure that a signaler is assigned, ifrequired, and is identified to the operator.6. Direct the lifting operation to ensurethat the job is done safely and efficiently.7. Stop thejob when any potentiallyunsafe condition is recognized.Chapter 8Hoists 8-16


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)8. Direct operations ifan accident orinjury occurs.d. The operator or other designated personshall visually examine the hoist in accordance withthe requirements for a daily inspection describedin Section 8.2, "Inspections."e. A qualified person shall examine anydeficiencies and determine whether they constitutea hazard. Correct these deficiencies before .operating the hoist.f. Load lines shall be checked after strain isput on them, before the load is lifted clear oftheground. Ifnot plumb, the slings or equipmentshall be repositioned so that the lines are plumbbefore continuing.8.5.7 Critical LiftsSee Chapter 2, "Critical Lifts," for critical-liftrequirements.8-17Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Exhibit I is intended to be a sampleform only and is not mandatory.Any other form that accomplishesthe purpose is acceptable.Chapter 8Hoists8-18


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)EXHIBIT IPage 1 of2HOISTWAD TEST AND INSPECTIONINSPECTED BY_HOISTID# WCATION DATE _NOTES: 1. Load test prior to initial use, at 125% ofrated capacity, all new hoists or hoists in whichload-sustaining parts have been modified, repaired, or replaced. Test weights shall be accurate towithin -5%, +0% ofstipulated values. Load test at 100% ofrated capacityhoists with overloaddevices. Test the function of the overload device.2. Qualified inspector shall verify all steps as listed below.3. Craftsmen will initial all tests, work, and inspections completed below.1. Perform the annual periodic inspection. Check unit for proper operation.2. HAND-CHAIN-OPERAlEDHOISTS ONLY. Check brake mechanism for work glazed, orcontaminated disks, worn pawls, cams, or ratchets. OJ.eck for broken, corroded, or stretchedpawl springs. Repair as needed.3. ElECTRIC- AND AIR-POWERED HOISTS. Check:a. All functional operating mechanisms for misadjusunent interfering with proper operationb. Limit switches or devices for proper operationc. External evidence ofdamage or excessive wear ofload sprockets, idler sprockets, anddrums or sheavesd. External evidence ofwear on motor or load brakee. Electrical apparatus for signs ofpitting or any deterioration of visible controller contactsf. All anchorage or hoist suspensions.4. Set hoist up for load test and inspection. Where applicable, ensure that the load chart is legible.5. Perform load test using the required test weights (see Note 1) and appropriate slings. Measure alength ofthe load chain under tension; measure a length of 15 links. Ifwire rope is used,measure the diameter.IF HOIST IS EOUIPPED WITH A TROLlEY:1. Mount hoist on a monorail. .2. Rig test weight to load hook (see step 4 above).3. Perform load test moving weight along monorail. Observe hoist and trolley. Observeperformance ofall load-bearing components.4. Lower test weight to floor. Note performance ofhoist during lowering operation. Removerigging.8-19Chapter 8Hoists


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT I (continued)Page 2 of2HOISTLOAD TEST AND INSPECTIONAt the completion ofthe load test, inspect the following items.1. Visually inspect and remeasure the load chain and/or hoist rope after the load test. Check for deformed or brokenlinks, stretch, etc.2. Inspect load hook and suspension hook for bending or twisting.LOAD HOOK: PREVIOUS PRESENTQualified Inspector Verify Throat Opening _Qualified Inspector VerifyHookTwistSUSPENSION HOOK:Qualified Inspector Verify Throat Opening _Qualified Inspector VerifyHookTwistQualified inspector shall perform nondestructive tests on hookby visual examination, liquid penetrant examination, ormagnetic particle examination.Acceptance: No cracks, linear indications, laps, or seams.Hooks with more than 15% normal (new hook) throat opening shall be replaced. Hooks with more than 10 degree twistfrom the normal (new hook) plane ofthe hook shall be replaced. Hooks having more than 10% wear in the bowl sectionor 5% elongation ofthe shank shall be replaced. Lubricate hookbearing and latch pin as applicable.Establish three marks, A, B, and C, with a center punch. For ease in measuring, set distances on an even number ofinches.BEFORE LOAD TESTLength ABLength BCin.in.AFTER LOAD TESTLength ABLength BCin.in.Checkfor:1. Wear and deformation2. Cracks3. Signs of opening between Point A and Point B.Equipment OperatorActual Load Test lb Qualified Inspector VerifyLoad Test Date _Chapter 8Hoists 8-20


CHAPTER 9MOBILE CRANESDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)This chapter specifies operation, inspection, maintenance, and testing requirements for the use ofmobilecranes and implements the requirements ofASME B30.5 ("Mobile and Locomotive Cranes"). Onlyequipment built to appropriate design standards shall be used at DOE installations.9.1 GENER& ;........... 9-19.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19.1.2 :Load Limits. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. 9-19.1.3 :LoadRatingChart 9-19.1.4 :Load Hoist Brakes , . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . 9-59.1.5 Power-Controlled:Lowering. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . ... ... .. . . .. 9-59.1.6 Booms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59.1.7 Rerating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59.1.8 Maintenance History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59.1.9 Design Standards.. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 9-59.2 INSPECTIONS................................................................ 9-69.2.1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-69.2.2 Initial Inspection 9-69.2.3 Preoperational Check " . . . . . 9-69.2.4 Monthly Inspection 9-69.2.5 Frequent Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-69.2.6 Periodic Inspection 9-79.2.6.1 Cranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-79.2.6.2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Hose, Fittings, and Tubing 9-79.2.6.3 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pumps and Motors 9-89.2.6.4 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Valves 9-89.2.6.5 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Cylinders 9-89.2.6.6 Hydraulic Filters 9-89.2.6.7 WireRope 9-89.2.7 :Load HookslLoad Blocks 9-99.2.8 Cranes Not in Regular Use 9-109.3 TESTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-119.3.1 Operational Tests 9-119.3.2 Rated:Load Test 9-119.4 MAINTENANCE 9-129.4.1 Preventive Maintenance 9-129.4.2 MaintenanceProcedures 9-129.4.3 Wire-Rope Maintenance 9-129.5 OPERATION 9-139.5.1 Conduct ofOperator 9-139.5.1.1 Traveling the Machine 9-149-iChapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)9.5.29.5.39.5.49.5.59.5.69.5.79.5.89.5.99.5.109.5.1.2 Making Adjustments or Repairs 9-149.5.1.3 Ensuring Stability 9-149.5.1.4 Observing Boom-Length Precautions 9-15Operating Near Power Lines and Transmitter Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-159.5.2.1 Crane Operations De-Energized and Grounded ElectricalPower Lines 9-189.5.2.2 Power Lines Energized, Crane Operating Less Than ErectedlFullyExtended BoomLength Away FromProhibited Zone 9-189.5.2.3 Crane Operations are Within the Prohibited Zone and the Power Linesare Energized 9-189.5.2.4 Crane in Transit with no Load and BoomLowered 9-209.5.2.5 Crane Operations Near Transmitter Towers 9-20Hoist-Limit Switch 9-20Standard Hand Signals 9-20Identification ofSignalers 9-20Size ofLoad 9-23AttachingtheLoad 9-23Moving the Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-23Ordinary Lifts 9-26Critical Lifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-27Exhibit I Mobile Crane Load Test and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9-29Chapter 9Mobile Cranes9-ii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)9.1 GENERALThis chapter applies to commercial truck-mountedcranes; crawler cranes; locomotive cranes;wheel-mounted cranes, multiple control stations;wheel-mounted cranes, single control station; andany variation that retains the same fundamentalcharacteristics. These cranes have asuperstructure capable ofrotating 360 degreesmounted on a carrier and have boom raising andlowering capabilities.9.1.1Operators ofmobile cranes shall be trained andqualified as required in Chapter 6, "PersonnelQualification and Training."9.1.2OperatorTraining/QualificationLoad Limitsa. Since the load rating for mobile cranes maybe based on stability and hydraulic or structuralcompetence, load ratings established by themanufacturers shall not be exceeded in operationalapplication.b. No crane shall be loaded beyond its ratedcapacity, except for load test purposes asdescribed in Section 9.3, "Testing."c. When loads are to behandled that arelimited byhydraulic or structural competencerather than by stability, the appointed person shallensure that the weight of a load approaching ratedcapacity has been determined within -10 percent,+0 percent before it is lifted.9.1.3Load Rating Charta. A durable rating chart with legible lettersand figures shall beprovided with each crane andattached in a location accessible to the operatorwhile at the controls. See Table 9-1 for a sampleload rating chart. The data and information to beprovided on these charts shall include, but not belimited to, the following:1. A full and complete range ofmanufacturer's crane load ratings at all statedoperating radii, boom angles, work areas, and allstated boom lengths and configurations, jiblengths and angles (or offset), as well as alternateratings for use and nonuse ofoptional equipmenton the crane, such as outriggers and extracounterweights, that affect ratings.2. A work area chart for which capacitiesare listed in the load rating chart (see sample inFigure 9-1).3. Where ratings are limited bystructural, hydraulic, or factors other thanstability, the limitations shall be shown andemphasized on the rating charts.4. In areas where no load is to behandled, the work area figure and load rating chartshall state that information.5. Recommended reeving for the hoistlines shall be shown.b. In addition to the data required on the loadrating chart, the following information shall beshown either on the rating chart or in the operatingmanual:1. Recommended parts ofthe hoistreeving, and size and type ofrope for variouscrane loads.2. Recommended boom hoist reevingdiagram, where applicable; size, type, and lengthofrope.3. Tire pressure, where applicable.4. Cautionary or warning notes relative tolimitations on equipment and operatingprocedures, including indication ofthe least stabledirection.5. Position ofthe gantry andrequirements for intermediate boom suspension,where applicable.6. Instructions for boom erection andconditions under which the boom, orboom and jibcombinations, may beraised or lowered.7. Whether the hoist-holding mechanismis automatically controlled or manually controlled,whether free-fall is available, and whether anycombination ofthose exists.8. The maximum telescopic travel lengthofeach boom telescopic section.9. Whether sections are telescoped withpower or manually.9-1Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 9-1. Sample load rating chart.This table is an example of the type of load rating chart that should be included in each crane.M .anitowoc Mode13900 Liftcrane xtra- ea\y 8oomWorking 50' 60' 70' 80' 90' 100' 120' 140'radiusIbs.12 120000 12000014 111200 110800 10900016 104200 103600 102700 100000 9500018 97800 97400 97000 96600 92500 9000020 93200 92400 91600 90600 89600 86000 8300022 87800 86800 85800 84800 83800 82800 8000024 83400 81200 80300 79400 78700 77800 75200 6650026 75900 ID.ill! 74700 73900 73200 72600 70500 6310028 68100 67700 67300 66900 66400 65800 64000 5980030 61700 61300 60900 60500 60000 59400 58500 5640032 56500 56100 55700 55300 54800 54200 53300 5230034 52000 51600 51200 50800 50300 49700 48800 4780036 48100 47700 47300 46900 46400 45800 44900 4390038 44700 44300 43900 43500 43000 42400 41500 4050040 41700 41300 40900 40500 40000 39400 38500 3750042 39100 38700 38300 37900 37400 36800 35900 3490044 36800 36400 36000 35600 35100 34500 33600 3260046 34700 34300 33900 33500 33000 32400 31500 3050048 32900 32500 32100 31700 31200 30600 29700 2870050 31200 30800 30400 30000 29500 28900 28000 2700052 29300 28900 28500 28000 27400 26500 2550054 27900 27500 27100 26600 26000 25100 2410056 26500 26100 25700 25200 24600 23700 2270058 25300 24900 24500 24000 23400 22500 2150060 24200 23800 23400 22900 22300 21400 2040065, 21300 20900 20400 19800 18900 1790070 19300 18900 18400 17800 16900 1590075 17100 16600 16000 15100 14100BO 15700 15200 14600 13700 1270085 13900 13300 12400 1140090 12700 12100 11200 1020095 11 100 10200 9200100 10200 9300 8300110 6800 5600120 4500 3840NOTES:a. Above ratings are maximum recommended working loads. Loads between solid lines are computed at 75% oftipping load across treads; with machine on firm, level ground. Loads outside solid lines are limited by strength of boom.b. For booms 80 ft and longer, use cambered center section; for booms 100 ft and longer, use deep section inserts.EHChapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Carrier on outrigger's frontOutrigger behinafront wheels36Cf 1-+---11+-Carrier on outrigger's frontOutrigger behiriOfront wheelsNote: These lines determine the limiting position of anyload for operation within working areas indicated.Figure 9-1. Sample work area chart.9-3Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)r-1r.ilE3...e=:r-U~ :m~ front axle (bogie)Carrier on tires, ,36lf t1r--_.::l::o~itud=ina::=-I __-I'~__ 1~::"'-lI- _~ofcanier\•~ idler tumblerCrawler-type lowerNote: These lines determine the limiting position ofanyload for operation within working areas indicated.Figure 9-1. (continued).Chapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)10. The sequence and procedure forextending and retracting the telescopic boomsection.11. Maximum loads permitted during theactual boom-extending operation and any limitingconditions or cautions.12. Hydraulic relief valve settingsspecified by the manufacturer.9.1.4Load Hoist BrakesWhen power-operated brakes that have nocontinuous mechanical linkage between theactuating and braking means are used, anautomatic means shall be provided to set the braketo prevent the load from falling in event ofloss ofbrake-actuating power.9.1.5Power-ControlledLoweringA power-controlled lowering system shall beprovided and shall be capable ofhandling ratedloads and speeds as specified by the manufacturerof the crane.9.1.6Boomsa. Booms, boom sections, and jibs shall beclearly identified and shall be used only for thepurpose recommended by the manufacturer.b. Lattice booms shall meet the performancerequirements ofSAE J987, "Crane Structure,Method ofTest" (see Chapter 16, "References").9.1.7Reratinga. Cranes may be modified or rerated providingsuch modifications are analyzed thoroughly by aqualified engineer or manufacturer ofcranes.Such action must be approved by the cognizantsafety organization.b. When rerated, crawler, truck, andwheel-mounted cranes shall be tested inaccordance with SAE 1765, "CraneLoad StabilityTest Code."c. A rerating test report shall be readilyavailable.d. No cranes shall be rerated in excess ofthemanufacturer's original load ratings.9.1.8Maintenance HistoryThe maintenance history ofthe crane shallberetained throughout its service life.9.1.9Design Standardsa. Structural, mechanical, and electricalcomponents ofthe crane design shall meetaccepted crane design standards, such as PCSA-4,"Mobile Power Crane and Excavator Standardsand Hydraulic Crane Standards."b. The safety features and operation shallconform, at a minimum, to the provisions ofASME B30.5, "Mobile and Locomotive Cranes."9-5Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)9.2 INSPECTIONS9.2.1LGenerala. Equipment shall operate with a smooth,regular motion without any hesitation, abnormalvibration, binding, gross shimmy, or irregularity.There shall be no apparent damage, excessivewear, or deformation of any load-bearing part ofthe equipment. All safety devices, load indicators,boom angle and radius indicators, controls, andother operating parts ofthe equipment shall bechecked during each inspection and shall be ingood working order.b. Frequency notations as used in dates forfrequent and periodic inspections should bedefmed as follows:Daily--24 hours.2. Weekly--7 days.3. Monthly--31 days.4. Quarterly--92 days.5. Semi-annually--184 days.6. Yearly--365 days.c. Violations ofinspection periods may begranted on a case by case basis, provided there is apre-established site specific policy.9.2.2Prior to initial use, all new or modified cranesshall be inspected as required in Section 9.2.6,"Periodic Inspection," by a qualified inspector toensure compliance with the applicable provisionsofthis chapter. Dated and signed inspectionreports shall be kept on file and shall be readilyavailable.9.2.3Initial InspectionPreoperational Checka. Operators or other designated personnelshall visually inspect items such as the followingeach day or prior to use ifthe crane has not beenin regular service (records are not required):·1. All control mechanisms formaladjustment interfering with proper operation.2. Crane hooks and latches fordeformation, cracks, and wear.6. Anti-two-block, two-block warning,and two-block damage prevention systems forproper operation.7. Booms for damage or deformation ofstructural components.b. Operators or other designated personnelshall examine deficiencies and determine whetherthey constitute a safety hazard.9.2.4 Monthly Inspection1. Critical items such as brakes and cranehooks.9.2.53. Hydraulic systems for proper oil level.4. Lines, tanks, valves, pumps, and otherparts ofair or hydraulic systems for leakage.5. Hoist ropes for kinking, crushing,birdcaging, and corrosion.a. The operator or other designated personshall visually inspect the following items fordamage, wear, or other deficiency that mightreduce capacity or adversely effect the safety ofthe crane:2. Hoist ropes.b. Lower the hook block to its lowest positionand examine for any condition that could result inan appreciable loss ofstrength.c. Hooks for cracks, deformation, damage fromchemicals, latch engagement (ifprovided), andevidence ofheat damage.d. A hoist rope with any ofthe conditionsnoted in the replacement criteria in Section 9.2.6shall be removed from service and replaced.e. Signed and dated inspection records shall bekept on file and shall be readily available.f. Before the crane is returned to service,correct deficiencies that could reduce its capacityor adversely effect its safety.Frequent Inspectiona. Operators or other designated personnelshall visually inspect the crane at daily to monthlyintervals (records are not required).Chapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-6


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)b. These inspections shall, in addition to therequirements ofSection 9.2.3, "PreoperationalCheck," include the following:1. All control mechanisms formaladjustment, excessive wear, and contaminationby lubricants or other foreign matter that couldinterfere with proper operation.9.2.69.2.6.1 CranesInspect for:2. All safety devices for malfunction.3. Rope reeving for noncompliance withcrane manufacturer's recommendations.4. Electrical apparatus formalfunctioning, signs ofexcessive deterioration,and accumulation ofdirt or moisture.5. Tires for recommended inflationpressure.6. Boom sections for damaged,deformed, or missing structural members orparts.c. Operators or other designated personnelshall examine deficiencies and determine whethera more detailed inspection is required.Periodic Inspectiona. Complete inspections ofthe crane shall beperformed by a qualified inspector at 1- to12-month intervals, depending on the crane'sactivity, severity ofservice, and environmentb. The qualified inspector shall examinedeficiencies and determine whether they constitutea hazard.c. Dated and signed inspection records shall bekept on file and shall be readily available.d. A sample load test and inspection form isincluded as Exhibit I, which appears at the end ofthis chapter. This form is intended to be a sampleonly and is not intended to be mandatory.e. These inspections shall, in·addition to therequirements ofSections 9.2.4 , "MonthlyInspection," and 9.2.5, "Frequent Inspection,"include the following.a. Deformed, cracked, or corroded members inthe crane structure and entire boom.b. Loose bolts orrivets.c. Cracked or worn sheaves and drums.d. Hooks damaged from chemicals,deformation, or cracks, or having more than 15percent in excess ofnormal throat opening ormore than 10 degree twist from the plane oftheunbent hook (dye-penetrant, magnetic-particle, orother suitable crack-detecting inspections shouldbe performed at least once a year; see Chapter 13,''Load Hooks," for additional hook requirements).e. Worn, cracked, or distorted parts such aspins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, and lockingdevices.f. Excessive wear on brake and clutch systemparts, linings, pawls, and ratchets.g. Load, boom angle, and other operating aidsover their full ranges for any significantinaccuracies (if calibration is required, it shall bedone by a qualified person).h. Gasoline, diesel, electrical, or other powerplants for improper performance ornoncompliance with safety requirements.i. Radiators and oil coolers, for leakage,improper performance, or blockage of airpassages.j. Excessive wear ofchain drive sprockets andexcessive chain stretch.k. Steering, braking, and locking devices, formalfunctioning.I. Excessively worn or damaged tires.m. Rust on piston rods and control valves whencrane has been idle.9.2.6.2 HydraUlic and Pneumatic Hose,Fittings, and TubingInspect for:a. Evidence ofleakage at the surface oftheflexible hose or its junction with the metalcouplings.b. Blistering or abnormal deformation oftheouter covering of the hydraulic orpneumatic hose.c. Leakage at threaded or clamped joints thatcannot be eliminated by normal tightening orrecommended procedures.9-7Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)d. Evidence ofexcessive abrasion or scrubbingon the outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting(means shall be taken to eliminate the interface ofelements in contact or to otherwise protect thecomponents).9.2.6.3 Hydraulic and PneumaticPumps and MotorsInspect for:a. Loose bolts or fasteners.b. Leaks atjoints between sections.c. Shaft seal leaks.d. Unusual noises or vibration.e. Loss ofoperating speed.f. Excessive heating ofthe fluid.g. Loss ofpressure.9.2.6.4 Hydraulic and Pneumatic ValvesInspect for:a. Cracks in valve housing.b. Improper return ofspool to neutral position.c. Leaks at spools orjoints.d. Sticking spools.e. Failure ofrelief valves to attain correctpressure setting (relief valve pressures shall bechecked as specified by the manufacturer).9.2.6.5 Hydraulic and PneumaticCylindersInspect for:a. Drifting caused by fluid leaking across thepiston.b. Rod seal leakage.c. Leaks at welded joints.d. Scored, nicked, or dented cylinder rods.e. Dented case (barrel).f. Loose or deformed rod eyes or connectingjoints.9.2.6.6 Hydraulic FiltersEvidence ofrubber particles on the fJIter elementmay indicate deterioration ofthe hose, "0" ring,or other rubber components. Metal chips orpieces on the fJIter may denote failure in pumps,motors, or cylinders. Further checking will benecessary to determine the origin ofthe problembefore corrective action can be taken.9.2.6.7 Wire Ropea. A qualified inspector shall inspect wireropes at least annually. More frequent intervalsshall be determined by a qualified person and shallbe based on such factors as expected rope life asdetermined by severity ofenvironment, percentageofcapacity lifts, frequency rates ofoperation, andexposure to shock loads. The qualified inspectorshall carefully note any deterioration, such asdescribed below, that results in appreciable loss oforiginal strength and determine whether furtheruse ofthe rope constitutes an acceptable risk.This inspection shall include examination of theentire rope length without detaching it from thedrum.1. Reduction ofrope size below nominaldiameter, whether due to loss ofcore support,internal or external corrosion, or wear ofoutsidewires (see Table 9-2).2. Thenumber and distribution orconcentration ofbroken outside wires.3. Worn outside wires.4. Corroded or broken wires at endconnections.5. Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, orimproperly applied end connections.6. Kinking, crushing, cutting, orunstranding.Chapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-8


DOE-STD-!090-96 (Rev-!)Table 9-2. Maximum allowable ropereductions.Maximum allowablereductionRope diameter from nominal diameterup to 5/16 in. 1/64 in. (0.4 mm)(8 mm)Over 5/16 in. to1/2 in. (13 mm)Over 1/2 in. to3/4 in. (19 mm)Over 3/4 in. to1 1/8 in. (29 mm)Over 1 1/8 in. to1 1/2 in. (38 mm)1/32 in. (0.8 mm)3/64 in. (1.2 mm)1/16 in. (1.6 mm)3/32 in. (2.4 mm)b. The qualified inspector shall take care wheninspecting running rope where rapid deteriorationcould occur, such as in the following:1. Sections in contact with saddlesequalizer sheaves, or other sheaves where r~petravel is limited.2. Sections ofthe rope at or near terminalends where corroded or broken wires mayprotrude.c. The qualified inspector shall take care wheninspecting certain ropes such as the following:1. Rotation-resistant ropes, because oftheir higher susceptibility to damage. The internaldeterioration ofrotation-resistant ropes may notbe readily observable.2. Boom hoist ropes, because ofthedifficulties ofinspection and the important natureofthese ropes.d. No precise rules can be given fordetermining the exact time to replace wire ropebecause many factors are involved. Safety in this~espect depends largely on the use ofgoodJudgment by an appointed person in evaluatingremaining strength in a used rope, after allowancefor deterioration disclosed by inspection. Safetyofrope operation depends on this remainingstrength.e. Conditions such as the following shall besufficient reason for questioning wire-rope safetyand for considering replacement:1. Inrunning ropes, 6 randomlydistributed broken wires in one rope lay, or3 broken wires in one strand in one rope lay.2. In standing ropes, more than twobroken wires in one lay in sections beyond endconnections or more than one broken wire at anend connection.3. Inrotation resistant ropes, tworandomly distributed broken wires in six ropediameters or four randomly distributed brokenwires in thirty rope diameters.4. One outer wire broken at the point ofcontact with the core ofthe rope that has workedits way out of the rope structure and protrudes orloops out from the rope structure; additionalinspection ofthis part ofthe rope is required.5. Wear ofone-third the original diameterofoutside individual wires.6. Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or anyother damage resulting in distortion ofthe ropestructure.7. Evidence ofheat damage from anycause.8. Reduction from nominal diametergreater than the amounts listed in Table 9-2.f. All rope that has been idle for a month ormore due to shutdown or storage of a crane onwhich it is installed shall be inspected before it isplaced in service. This inspection shall be for alltypes ofdeterioration and shall be performed byan appointed person whose approval shall berequired before further use ofthe rope. A writtenand dated report of the rope condition shall befiled.g. In order to establish data as a basis forjudging the proper time for replacement, acontinuing inspection record shall be maintained.h. Replacement rope shall be the same size,grade, and construction as recommended by thecrane manufacturer, unless otherwiserecommended by a rope or crane manufacturer dueto actual working-condition requirements.i. Never use discarded wire rope for slings.9.2.7Load Hooks/Load BlocksLoad hooks/load blocks that have been changedout shall be inspected by a qualified inspector9-9Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)before returning the crane to service. Inspectionrecords shall be retained throughout the servicelife ofthe hook or load block and shall be readilyavailable.9.2.8 Cranes Not in RegularUsea. A crane that has been idle for 1 month ormore but less than 6 months shall be given aninspection according.to the requirements ofSection 9.2.5 before being placed in service.b. A crane that has been idle for more than 6months shall be given a complete inspectionaccording to the requirements ofSection 9.2.6before being placed in service.c. Standby cranes shall be inspected at leastsemiannually, according to the requirements ofSection 9.2.6. Cranes exposed to adverseenvironments should be inspected morefrequently.Chapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-10


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)9.3 TESTING9.3.1e. Travel mechanism.f. Safety devices.Operational TestsThe following shall be tested during an initial test:a. Load lifting and lowering mechanisms.b. Boomlifting and lowering mechanisms.c. Boom extension and retraction mechanism.d. Swinging mechanism.9.3.2Rated Load Testa Prior to initial use, all cranes in whichload-sustaining parts have been modified,replaced, or repaired shall be load-tested by aqualified inspector or under the direction ofthatinspector. A designated or authorizedperson shall determine ifrepairs made to a craneare extensive and require a rated load test, or ifrepairs are routine maintenance and require onlyoperational testing. The replacement ofrope isexcluded from this requirement. However, afunctional test ofthe crane under a normaloperating load should be made prior to putting itbackin service.b. Test weights shall not exceed 110 percent ofthe rated capacity and shall be accurate to within-5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulated values.NOTE: Load tests shall not be conducted inlocations where the lift meets the definition ofacritical lift (see Chapter 1: "Terminology andDefinitions").c. A written report shall be furnished by theinspector showing test procedures and confirmingthe adequacy ofrepairs or alterations. Testreports shall be kept on file and shall be readilyavailable to appointed personnel.9-11Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)9.4 MAINTENANCE9.4.1 Preventive Maintenance until all guards have been reinstalled, trapped aira A preventive maintenance program based onthe crane manufacturer's recommendations shouldbe established. Dated records should be madeavailable.b. Replacement parts shall be at least equal tothe original manufacturer's specifications.c. All moving parts ofthe crane for whichlubrication is specified shall be regularlylubricated. Lubricating systems should bechecked for proper delivery oflubricant.Operators and maintenance personnel shall followthe manufacturer's recommendations as to thepoints and frequency oflubrication, maintenanceoflubricant levels, and types oflubricant to beused.9.4.2Maintenance Proceduresa. Before starting adjustments or repairs on acrane, maintenance personnel shall take thefollowing precautions as applicable:1. Place the crane where it will cause theleast interference with other equipment oroperations in the area.2. Lower the lower load block to theground or otherwise secure it against dropping.3. Lower the boom to the ground, ifpossible, or otherwise secure it against dropping.4. Place all controls in the OFF positionand secure all operating features from inadvertentmotion by brakes, pawls, or other means.5. Ensure starting means are renderedinoperative.6. Stop the power plant or disconnect itat the power takeoff.7. Relieve hydraulic oil pressure from allhydraulic circuits before loosening or removinghydraulic components.b. Warning or out-of-order signs shall beplaced on the crane controls. Signs or flags shallbe removed only by authorized personnel.c. Mter adjustments and repairs have beenmade, the crane shall not be returned to serviceChapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-12has been removed from the hydraulic system,safety devices are reactivated, and maintenanceequipment is removed.d. For locomotive cranes:1. Employblueflag protection on eachside ofthe crane (except dead ends).2. Place derails not less than 50 it fromthe crane on each side (except dead ends).3. Allow only authorized personnel toremove warning signs, flags, and derails.9.4.3Wire-Rope MaintenancePersonnel using wire rope shall ensure proper careby doing the following:a. Store rope to prevent damage ordeterioration.b. Unreel or uncoil rope as recommended bythe rope manufacturer and with care to avoidkinking or inducing a twist.c. Before cutting a rope, place seizings on eachside ofthe place where the rope is to be cut toprevent unlaying ofthe strands. Flame-cuttingwire rope is prohibited.d. During installation, avoid dragging the ropein the dirt or around objects which will scrape,nick, crush, or induce sharp bends in it.e. Maintain rope in a well-lubricated conditionto reduce internal friction and to preventcorrosion. Ensure that lubricant applied as part ofa maintenance program is compatible with theoriginal lubricant. Consult the rope manufacturerwhen in doubt. Lubricant applied shall beofthetype that does not hinder visual inspection. Thosesections ofrope that operate over sheaves or areotherwise hidden during inspection andmaintenance procedures require special attentionwhen the rope is lubricated.f. When an operating rope shows greater wearat its ends than on the remainder, its life can beextended (in cases where a reduced rope length. isadequate) by cutting offthe worn end, thusshifting the wear to different areas ofthe rope.


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)9.5 OPERATIONa. The following shall apply to all personnelinvolved in mobile crane operation.b. At the initial stage ofthe planning process,an appointed person shall classify each lift intoone of the DOE-specified lift categories (ordinary,critical, orpreengineered production).9.5.1Conduct of Operatora. Do not engage in any practice that willdivert your attention while operating the crane.b. Do not operate the craneifyou do not meetthe requirements contained in Chapter 6 orifyouare experiencing a condition resulting in reducedphysical or mental capabilities.c. Keep the operating area free ofwater, snow,ice, oil, and debris that could cause your hands orfeet to slip from the controls.d. Keep the operating cab windshields cleanand free ofanything that obstructs vision.Replace broken windows.e. Ensure proper functioning oftires, horn,lights, battery, controller, lift system (includingload-engaging means, chains, hoist rope, and limitswitches), brakes, and steering mechanisms. Ifatany time a lifting device is found to be in need ofrepair, is defective, or is in any way unsafe, reportit immediately to the designated authority and takethe unit out ofservice until it has been restored tosafe-operating condition or a determination hasbeen made by the responsible manager that thedeficiency will not adversely affect the safeoperation ofthe unit.f. When two or more cranes are used to lift oneload, one designated person shall be responsiblefor the operation. That person shall analyze theoperation and instruct all personnel involved in theproper positioning, rigging ofthe load, and themovements to be made. That person shall alsodetermine the necessity to reduce crane ratings,position ofload, boom location, ground support,and speed ofmovement.g. Determine that no one is working on thecrane or is close to it before starting the engine orbeginning to operate the crane.h. Barricade accessible areas within the swingradius ofthe rear ofthe rotating superstructure ofthe crane to prevent anyone from being struck orcrushed by the crane.i. Do not hoist two or more separately riggedloads in one lift, even though the combined load iswithin the crane's rated capacity.j. When fueling the crane, stop the engine(s)and ensure that smoking or open flames are notpennitted within 25 it of the fueling area.k Ensure that a 10BC or larger fireextinguisher is installed at all operator stations.Fire extinguishers shall be maintained in aserviceable condition.l. Do not store gasoline, acids, caustics, orcleaning solvents that emit toxic fumes inoperating cabs. Store fuel in safety cans in safelocations.In. Ensure that alternate egress routes are notlocked on mobile units with operating enclosures.n. Position the crane on a solid and levelfooting. It may benecessary in certain situationsto use heavy timber mats to build a good workingfoundation.o. When swiIiging the crane, watch out forcentrifugal force. Swing the crane slowly to avoidan outward swing ofthe load. Attach a tag-line tothe load ifnecessary to control the swing.p. Watch for boom kickback· Never operatewith the boom at a higher angle than shown on thecapacity charts.q. Use extreme caution when operating thecrane near workers in elevated areas.r. Use power lowering when lowering loads.When lowering heavy loads, keep the hoist brakeas reserve. Use a safety pawl on the boom-hoistdrum when not lowering.s. Avoid two-blocking, caused when the hookblock makes contact with boom-point sheaves. Acontinuing pull on the hoist lines can break therope or pull the boom back over the cab on sometypes ofbooms. On hydraulically telescopingbooms, be sure to play out the hoistline whenextending and spool in the hoist line whenretracting.9-13Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)t. Lock carrier air brakes ON when operating,and check the pressure ofthe air brakesfrequently.u. Watch out for the carrier-cab ontruck-mounted units when swinging the boom.Keep boomhigh enough to swing clear ofcab.9.5.1.1 Traveling the MachineWhen traveling the machine:aSecure the boom and hookblockb. Check bridges before crossing; make surethey will support the weight ofthe machine.c. Check river depths before fording.d. Check clearances under overpasses,overhead lines, or any overhead obstruction; whenside clearancesare tight, install a barrier or post alookout, and make certain there is sufficientclearance for tail swing.e. When traveling with a load, snub the load toprevent swaying ifpossible; never travel withnear-capacity loads.f. Never travel a rubber-tired unit with a loadover the side.g. On soft surfaces, always move with the loadbehind; it helps to raise the leading end ofthecrawlers and makes traveling safer.h. Always set swing brakes when the unit isidle or holding loads for a period oftime,especially on slopes; ifswinging during travel isnecessary, engage swing-jaw clutch beforereleasing brakes.i. Never back up until it is determined thateveryone is clear ofthe machine.j. Position the boom in the direction oftravelfor long moves.k Block treads when moving uphill; be surethey are blocked to prevent downhill movementbefore shifting steering clutches.1. Lock the turntable before traveling on ahighway. Use a house lock or swing brake, andlower boom into the rack to prevent swing.m When loading machine on the trailer, alwaysuse a ramp; ifa ramp is not available, useblocking to build one.9.5.1.2 Making Adjustments or RepairsaWhen making adjustments or repairs:1. Stop the machine.2. Lower the boom or secure it againstdropping.3. Neutralize all controls.4. Lock starter and remove ignition keyto make the machine inoperative.5. Displayproper warning signs oncontrols ofmachine.6. Keep hands, feet, and clothing awayfrom gears, ropes, drums, and sheaves.7. Never put hands on wire rope whenclimbing to the top of the cab.8. Use a bar or stick to guide wire ropeonto drums.9. Keep hands well away from the fandrive while engine is running.10. Safeguard the crane oiler; do notresume operation until a positive ALL CLEARsignal has been given.11. Replace all guards and shields beforeresuming operation.b. Place blocking or other adequate supportsunder the boom before beginning boomdisassembly operations. Never stand under or onthe boom during this workc. Before disconnecting oil lines, ifmachinehas hydraulic controls, be sure to place boom onthe ground or in the boom rest; then move thepedals and control levers to equalize pressureswithin the cylinders. Always release any airsupercharge on the hydraulic reservoir and shutoffthe engine (or declutch pumps) beforedisconnecting oil lines.d. Do not reach into hydraulic-boom holesunless the sections are securely anchored together.9.5.1.3 Ensuring Stabilitya Know the rated capacity ofthe crane and theweight ofthe load. A safe lift depends on manyfactors including boom length, boom angle, andChapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-14


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)load radius. Follow these requirements to avoidbuckling the boom or tipping:1. Know the radius ofthe load; the radiusis measured from center ofrotation, not from theboom foot pin.2. Always operate within the ratedcapacity ofthe machine.3. The gross capacity includes weight ofhook, block, and any material-handling devices,(i.e., slings, concrete bucket, magnet lifter, etc.);subtract the weight ofall these to fmd the trueweight (net capacity) the crane can handle safely.4. Ratings are based on operating themachine on fIrm, level ground; outriggers shouldbe properly extended and lowered beforeoperation.5. Avoid fast swings, hoists, or suddenbraking; these can cause overloads.6. Do not handle large, heavy loads instrong winds; the wind can catch the load andcreate an unstable condition.b. Test stability before lifting heavy loads.Check outrigger footing. Lift load slightly offtheground and stop. Check the machine formovement and check to be sure the brakes holdwith the load elevated.c. Never use machine stability to determinecapacity.d. Ifthere are any indications of tipping, themachine is already overloaded for that workingradius.e. Do not back crane away from the load whilecarrying a maximum load; this may cause thecrane to tip.f. Always use outriggers when making lifts(with pick-and-carry units), and never lift a loadforward ofthe front outriggers, unless allowed onmanufacturer's load chart.g. Lower outrigger jacks until the tires clear theground, and level the unit to reach the machine'sfull capacity. Recheck and, ifnecessary, resetoutriggers between heavy lifts.h. Always fully extend outrigger beams unlessotherwise specifIed on the manufacturer's loadcharts for the crane.9.5.1.4 Observing Boom-LengthPrecautionsa. Always use the shortest boom possible.b. Make only vertical lifts; never pull the loadsideways.c. Keep speed slow in lifting and loweringloads.d. Swing carefully and slowly, and avoid boomor jib "whipping"; check counterbalanceclearance.e. Do not let the load strike the boom oroutriggers.f. Allow maximum clearance between the hookblock and boom-point sheaves.g. Keep near-capacity loads as close to theground as possible.h. Avoid hitting anything with the boom; anengineering analysis shall be made before puttingthe crane back in service ifthis occurs.9.5.2 Operating Near PowerLines and TransmitterTowersIt is recognized that operating mobile craneswhere they can become electrifIed from electricpower lines is an extremely hazardous practice. Itis advisable to perform the work so there is nopossibility ofthe crane, load line, or loadbecoming a conductive path, (Figure 9-2).The following steps shall be taken to minimize thehazard ofelectrocution or serious injury as a resultofcontact between the energized power lines andthe crane, load line, or load:a. The (electric) Power MarketingAdministrations in DOE may deviate from therequirements ofTable 9-3, providing the work isdone according to line management-approvedprocedures that do not conflict with statutoryregulations or approved variances from theseregulations.b. Any overhead wire shall be considered to bean energized line unless and until the personowning the line or the electrical utility authoritiesindicate that it is not an energized line.9-15Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 9-2. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loadsoperating near electrical transmission lineChapter 9Mobile Cranes9-16


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 9-3. Safe workma distance from Dower mesoa. When operating near high-voltage power lines:rNormal voltage(phase to phase)Minimum requiredclearanceto 50 kV 10ft ~ 3.1 m~Over 50 to 200 kV 15 ft 4.6 mOver 200 to 350 kV 20 ft ( 6.1 m)Over 350 to 500 kV 25 ft ( 7.6 m)Over 500 to 750 kV 35ft ~10.7m~Over 750 to 1000 kV 45 ft 13.7 mb. While in transit with no load and boom or mast lowered:Normal voltage(phase to phase)Minimum requiredclearanceto 0.75 kV 4 ft (1.2 m)Over 0.75 to 50 kV 6 ft ~1.3 m~Over 50 to 345 kV 10 ft 3.5 mOver 345 to 700 kV 16 ft (4.9 m)Over 750 to 1000 kV 20 ft (6.1 m)9-17Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)c. Durable signs shall be installed at theoperator's station and on the outside ofthecrane,warning that electrocution or serious bodily injurymay occur unless a minimum clearance of 10 ft(3.1 m) is maintained between the crane or theload being handled and energized power lines.Greater clearances are required because ofhighervoltage as stated in Table 9-3. These signs shallbe revised but not removed when a localjurisdiction requires greater clearances.d. Exercise caution when working nearoverhead lines having long spans as they tend tomove laterally or vertically due to the wind, whichcould cause them to breach the safety zone.e. Cranes shall not be used to handlematerials stored under electric power lines unlessany combination ofthe boom, load, load line, ormachine component cannot enter the prohibitedzone.f. Crane operators shall not rely on thecoverings ofwires for their protection.9.5.2.1 Crane Operation NearDe-energized and GroundedElectric Power LinesThis is the preferred condition under which theoperation can be performed safely. The hazard ofinjury or death due to electrocution has beenremove. The following steps shall be taken toassure de-energization ofthe power lines hasoccurred:a. Thepower company or owner of thepower lines shall de-energize the lines.b. The lines shall be visibly grounded toavoid electrical feedback and appropriatelymarked at the job-site location.c. A qualified representative ofthe owner ofthe lines or a designated representative oftheelectrical utility shall be on site to verify that steps(a) and (b) have been completed and that the linesare not energized.9.5.2.2 Power Lines Energized, CraneOperating Less thanErected/Fully Extended BoomLength away from theProhibited Zone(see Figure 9-3)a. An on-site meeting between projectmanagement and a qualified representative of theowner ofthe lines or a designated representativeofthe electrical utility shall take place to establishthe procedures to safely complete the operations.b. The specified clearance between thepower lines and the crane, load line, and load shallbe maintained at all times as specified in Table 9­3.c. Load control, when required, shall utilizetag lines ofa non~conductive type.d. A designated signaler, whose soleresponsibility is to verify that the requiredclearance is maintained shall be in constantcontact with the crane operator.e. No one shall be permitted to touch thecrane or the load unless the designated signalerindicates it is safe to do so.f. Operation ofboom and load over electricpower lines is extremely dangerous, due toperception of distance and multiple contact pointsas viewed from the position of the operator and lorposition ofthe designated signaler. The operatorshould avoid operating the crane, with or withouta load, in this area.g. The horizontal and vertical distance ofmovement oflong span lines due to the wind shallbe added to the minimum clearance distance asspecified in Table 9-3. A qualified representativeof the the owner of the lines or a designatedrepresentative ofthe electrical utility shall beconsulted for specific distances.h. Devices such as ribbons, balls, etc.,should be attached by a qualified person to thepower lines to improve visibility, or equivalentmeans employed to aid in location oftheprohibited zone.9.5.2.3 Crane Operations are Within theProhibited Zone and the PowerLines are Energizeda. Before such operations take place, aqualified person together with a qualifiedrepresentative of the utility or an engineerqualified in power line transmission shall, aftervisiting the site, determine if this is the mostfeasible way to complete the operation, and setminimum required clearances and procedures forsafe operations. These operations shall be undertheir supervision.The following guidelines should be required:Chapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-18


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIFigure 9-3. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loadsoperating near electrical transmission line.IIIIIIIIIIIII9-19Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)1. Cranel10ad grounded to a neutral lineby the utility.2. Electrical system protective devicesthat automatically re-energize the circuit after apower line contact occurrence should be blockedor disengaged to inhibit this function.3. Insulated barriers, which are not a partofnor an attachment to the crane and which willnot allow contact between the energized electricpower lines and the crane, load lines, or load.4. Non-conductive barricades to restrictaccess to the crane work area.b. Load control, when required, shall utilizetag lines of a non-conductive type.c. A designated signaler, whose soleresponsibility is to verify that the clearancesestablished are maintained, shall be in constantcontact with the crane operator.d. The person responsible for the operationshall alert and warn the crane operator and allpersons working around or near the crane abouthazard ofelectrocution or serious injury andinstruct them on how to avoid the hazard.e. All non-essential personnel shall beremoved from the crane work area.f. No one shall be permitted to touch thecrane or the load unless the signaler indicates it issafe to do so.9.5.2.4 Crane in Transit With No Loadand Boom Lowered(see Figure 9-4)a. Cranes in transit with no load and boomlowered shall maintain clearance as specified inTable 9-3.b. A designated signaler shall be assigned toobserve the clearance and give warning before thecrane approaches the above limits.c. When planning transit ofthe crane, theeffect of speed and terrain on the boom and cranemovement shall be considered.9.5.2.5 Crane Operation NearTransmitter Towers(see Figure 9-5)a. Prior to work near transmitter towerswhere an electrical charge can be induced in theequipment or materials being handled, thetransmitter shall be deenergized or tests shall bemade to determine ifelectrical charge is inducedon the crane. The following precautions shall betaken when necessary to dissipate inducedvoltages:1. The equipment shall be provided withan electrical ground directly to the upper rotatingstructure supporting the boom.2. Ground jumper cables shall beattached to materials being handled by boomequipment when electrical charge is induced whileworking near energized transmitters; crews shallbe provided with nonconductive poles havinglarge alligator clips or other similar protection toattach the ground cable to the load.3. Combustible and flammable materialsshall be removed from the immediate area prior to.operations.9.5.3Hoist-Limit SwitchCheck all limit switches, ifsupplied, without aload on the hook at the beginning ofeach workshift or the first time the crane is used that shift.Inch each motion into its limit switch to ensurethat two-blocking does not occur during the test.Ifa lift is in progress during a shift change, thistesting requirement is considered to have beensatisfied for the completion ofthat lift However,test the limit switch again before the next lift.9.5.4 Standard Hand SignalsThe standard hand signals for DOE use shall be asspecified in the latest edition ofthe ASME B30standards for the particular type ofcrane or hoistbeing used (see Figure 9-6).9.5.5 Identification ofSignalersa. All personnel acting as signalers duringcrane operations shall be clearly identified to thecrane operator by the use ofthe following (one ormore, as required by the responsible manager):orange hardhat, orange gloves, and orange vest.This requirement may be waived by theresponsible manager when the lift is very closelycontrolled orpersonnel are required to wearspecial clothing for protection from a hazardousenvironment.Chapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-20


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 9-4. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loadsoperating near electrical transmission line.(See Table 9-3 for minimum radial distance of prohibited zone.)9-21Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII_ZONESEE'NIENFigure 9-5. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loadsoperating near electical transmission line.Chapter 9Mobile Cranes9-22


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)b. In those cases where the crane operatorcannot see the signaler, a second person (relaysignaler) shall be stationed where he or she cansee both the signaler and the crane operator andcan relay the signals to the operator. The relaysignaler shall also be clearly identified by theitems described in the previous paragraph.c. Where voice (direct or two-way radio)communication is used, the signaler shallcommunicate directly with the operator, notthrough a third person.d. The operator shall obey signals only fromthe designated signaler. Obey a STOP siena1 nomaYer who gives it.9.5.6Size of LoadThe crane shall not be loaded beyond its ratedcapacity, except for authorized testing describedin Section 9.3.9.5.7 Attaching the Loada. Ensure that the hoist rope is free from kinksor twists. Do not wrap the hoist rope around theload.b. Ensure that the load is attached to theload-block hook by means of slings or otherapproved devices.c. Take care to make certain that the slingclears all obstacles.9.5.8Moving the Loada. The appointed person directing the lift shallmake certain that the load is well secured andproperly balanced in the sling or lifting devicebefore it is lifted more than a few inches.b. Before starting to hoist, note the followingconditions:1. Hoist rope shall not be kinked.2. Multiple-part lines shall not be twistedaround each other.3. The hook shall be positioned above thecenter ofgravity ofthe load in such a manner as tominimize swinging when the load is lifted.4. Following any slack-rope condition, itshould be determined that the rope is properlyseated on the drum and in the sheaves.5. All personnel including the qualifiedrigger shall be clear ofthe load.c. During hoisting, take care to ensure that:1. There is no sudden acceleration ordeceleration of the moving load.2. Load does not contact anyobstructions. A "dry run" shall be conducted inareas where clearance is limited.d. Cranes sball not be used for side pulls,except when specifically authorized by adesignated person who has determined that thestability ofthe crane is not endangered and thatvarious parts ofthe crane will not be overstressed.e. Avoid carrying loads over people.f. Test the brakes each time a load approachingthe rated capacity is handled byraising the load afew inches and applying the brakes.g. Do not lower the load below the point whereless than two full wraps ofrope remain on thehoist drum.h. Do not leave your position at the controlswhile the load is suspended, unless required to doso by an approved emergency procedure.i. Work on suspended loads is prohibitedunder normal conditions. When the responsiblemanager decides that it is necessary to work on asuspended load, guidelines for ensuring safety ofthe work shall be established through consultationwith the appropriate safety organization.Suspended loads that must be worked on shall besecured against unwanted movement.j. Tag lines should be used as required toguide, snub, or otherwise control the load.9-23Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE·STD·I090·96 (Rev-I)HOIST. With forearm vertical,forefinger pointing up, move hand insmall horizontal circles.LOWER. With arm extendeddownward, forefinger pointing down,move hand in small horizontal circles.USE MAIN HOIST. Tap fist on head,then use re ular si nals.. -.-.- ,.-,..~~""/11USE WHIPLINE (Auxiliary Hoist). Tapelbow with one hand, then use regularsi nals.RAISE BOOM. Extend arm, fingersclosed, thumb ointin u ward.LOWERBOOM. Extend arm, fingersclosed, thumb ointin downward.MOVE SLOWLY. Use one hand togive any motion signal and place otherhand motionless above the handgMng the motion signal. (Hoist slowlyshown as exam Ie.jj'lA\'RAISE THE BOOM AND LOWERTHE LOAD. With arm extended,thumb pointing up, flex fingers in andout as long as load movement isdesired.LOWER THE BOOM AND RAISETHE LOAD. With arm extended,thumb pointing down, tlexfingers inand out as long as load movement isdesired.Figure 9-6. Standard hand signals for controlling mobile crane operation.Chapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-24


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EMERGENCY STOP. Both arrt\SSWING. Extend arm, point with finger STOP. Extend arm, palm down; move extended, palms down, move armsin direction of swin of boom. arm back and forth horizontal back and forth horizontal ...TRAVEL. Extend arm forward, handopen and slightly raised; makeushin motion in direction of travel.TRAVEL (80th Tracks). Use bothfists in front of body, making a circularmotion about each other, indicatingDOG EVERYTHING. Clasp hands in direction of travel, forward orfront of bod . backward for land cranes on .TRAVEL (One Side Track). Lock thetrack on side indicated by raised fist.Travel opposite track indicated bycircular motion of other fist, rotatedvertically in front of body (for landcranes on .RETRACT BOOM (TelescopingBooms). Hold both fists in front ofbody, thumbs pointing toward eachother.Figure 9-6. (continued).9-25Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)RETRACT 800M (TelescopingEXTEND 800M (Telescoping 800m). ~o~m). One-hand signal. HO.ld ,oneOne-hand signal. Hold one fist in front fISt In front of chest, thumb pOintingof chest, thumb ta in chest. outward and heel of fist tapping chest.a. The requirements of all precedingparagraphs in Section 9.5, "Operation," also shallapply to ordinary lifts.b. An appointed person shall classify each liftinto one ofthe DOE categories (ordinary, criticalorpreengineered production) before the lift isplanned.c. Hoisting and rigging operations for ordinarylifts require a designated leader who shall bepresent at the lift site during the entire liftingoperation. Ifthe lift is being made by only oneperson, that person assumes all responsibilities ofthe designated leader.d. Leadership designation may be by writteninstructions, specific verbal instructions for theparticularjob, or clearly defmed responsibilitieswithin the crew's organizational structure.Figure 9-6. (continued).9.5.9 Ordinary Lifts 4. Ensure that equipment is properly setup and positioned.5. Ensure that a signaler is assigned, ifrequired, and is identified to the operator.6. Direct the lifting operation to ensurethat the lift is completed safely and efficiently.7. Stop the job when any potentiallyunsafe condition is recognized.8. Direct operations ifan accident orinjury occurs.f. The designated leader shall inspect allcranes to ensure that they are still within theinspection interval.g. The designated leader shall inspect all liftingdevices to ensure that the rated capacity oftheseitems ofequipment will not be exceeded.e. The designated leader's responsibility shallinclude the following:1. Ensure that personnel involvedunderstand how the lift is to be made.2. Ensure that the weight of the load isdetermined, that proper equipment and accessoriesare selected, and that rated capacity is notexceeded.3. Survey the lift site for hazardous!unsafe conditions.h. The operator shall inspect for damage anddefects in accordance with Section 9.2.3, includingobservations during operation. A qualified personshall examine deficiencies and determine whetherthey constitute a hazard.i. Check hoist-limit switches, ifprovided,according to Section 9.5.3, "Hoist-Limit Switch."j. Ensure that basic operating instructions ofpower-operated equipment, together with charts,Chapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-26


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)tables, or diagrams showing the rated capacity,boom angle, swing, and stability data are posted inconvenient view ofthe operator.k. Check load lines after strain is put on thembut before the load is lifted clear ofthe ground; ifload lines are not plumb, reposition the slings orequipment so that the lines are plumb beforecontinuing.9.5.10 Critical LiftsSee Chapter 2, "Critical Lifts," for critical-liftrequirements.9-27Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Exhibit I is intended to be a sampleform only and is not mandatory.Any other form that accomplishesthe purpose is acceptable.Chapter 9Mobile Cranes9-28


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT IPage 1 of4MOBll.E CRANELOAD lEST AND INSPECTIONUCENSEOREQUIPMENTNO. MAKE DAlE _HOURMElER-ODOMEJER TOTAL.. , RAlED CAPAc:ITYC'!!·LOAD lEST INSPECTION REPORTThe following checklist identifies the items to be inspected prior to the load test. Any unusual conditions observedduring the inspection should be noted in the Remarks section. Equipment shall be inspected bymaintenance personnelprior to load test.NOTES: 1. Qualified inspector shall verify the inspection is completed.INO. I CRANE ITEM I DEFECT I OK INO. I CRANE ITEM I DEFECT ~1 lwireRope 13 iHoist Clutch Lining2 K:racked or Worn 14 Hoist Drum Brake BandsSheaves & Drums3 !Limit Switch 15 Open Gears(Anti-Two-Blocking)4 Boom 16 Boom Jibs(Where Applicable)5 Master Clutch NO. CARRIER ITEM DEFECT OK6 ~teering Clutches 1 Steering Gears and7 Hydraulic Pump 2 BrakesConnections(Service and Hand)8 Hydraulic Controls 3 Tires and Wheels9 Hydraulic Hoses 4 General Lubrication10 Mechanical Controls OPERATING lEST11 Drive Chains OVERAI.LCONDmON12 Swing Clutches2. Craftsmen shall initial and date all tests, work, and inspections completed below.REMARKS (Unusual conditions-noises, structural cracks, misalignment, etc.)SAFETY ITEMS: (Fire extinguisher, signs, guards, etc.)9·29Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT I (continued)Page 2 of4MOBIIE CRANE LOAD TEST AND FOlLQWUP CHECKSNOTES: 1. Craftsman shall initial all steps completed below.2. Qualified inspector shall verify all steps below.1. Set crane up for load test and inspection.2. Perform operations test without load to verify proper function of the following:ooooooLoad lifting and lowering mechanismsBoom lifting and lowering mechanismBoom extension and retraction mechanismsSwinging mechanismTravel mechanismSafety devices.3. Test loads shall not exceed 110% ofrated capacity. Refer to load chart for load test capacity atmaximum and minimum working radius. Check boom angle indicators for accuracy.4. Rig test weights to hook using appropriate slings.5. Hoist the test load a sufficient distance to ensure that the load is supported bythe crane and heldby the hoist brakes. Hold the load for 10 min or the time required to check all primaryload-bearing parts while under load without slippage, damage, or permanent deformation.6. At least once during the lifting portion ofthe hoisting cycle and once during the lowering cycle,power to the hoisting equipment shall be completely turned off. There shall be no slippage ofthe load or overheating ofthe brakes.7. Lower the load to approximately 2 in. off the ground to check for swing-roller operation andoutrigger stability. Slowly swing test load between outrigger locations.8. Move the load back to the original position and slowly lower to ground.9. At the completion ofthe load test, inspect the following:Visually inspect rope in accordance with Section 9.2.6.Chapter 9Mobile Cranes9-30


DOE-STD-!090-96 (Rev-!)EXHIBIT I (continued)Page 3 of4MOBll.E CRANE LOAD TEST AND FOll.OWUP CHECKSDEFECTIVE/OKBEFORE LOAD TESTa. Rope diameter: (Previous) (Present) _b. Wearc. Kinksd. Broken wiresVisually inspect therope drum for:e. Other signs ofdeterioration.a. Wearb. Deformationc. Deteriorationd. Have qualified inspector perform nondestructive tests on hook by visual examination. liquidpenetrant examination. or magnetic-particle examination. Acceptance: No cracks,linearindications, laps, or seams.Hooks with more than 15% normal (new hook) throat opening shall be replaced. Hooks with more than 10 degree twistfrom the normal (new hook) plane ofthe hook shall bereplaced. Hooks having more than 10% wear in the bowl sectionor 5% elongation ofthe shank shall be replaced. Lubricate hook bearing and latch pin, as applicable.Establish three marks, A, B, and C, with a center punch. For ease in measuring. set distances on an even number ofinches.Length ABLength BCin.in.AFTER LOAD TESTLength ABLength BCin.in.Check for:1. Wear and deformation2. Cracks and twisting3. Signs of opening between Point A and Point B.. 9-31Chapter 9Mobile Cranes


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT I (continued)Page 4 of4This information should be retained with the equipment.Record the following:MOBll.E CRANE LOAD lEST AND FOILOWUP CHECKSBLOCKWEIGHTlESTWEIGHTIbIbRADIUS/CEN1ER PIN TO LOADftPARTS LINEBOOMIENGTHquantityftLoad Test Inspection DateQualified InspectorOperated By___Chapter 9Mobile Cranes 9-32


CHAPTER 10FORKLIFT TRUCKSDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)This chapter specifies operation, inspection, testing, and maintenance requirements for forklift truckspowered by internal-combustion engines or electric motors and implements the requirements ofASME B56.1("Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks-Low Lift and High Lift Trucks") and B56.6 ("RoughTerrain Fork Lift Trucks"), and ANSIIUL 558 ("Internal-Combustion-Engine-Powered Industrial Trucks")and 583 ("Electric-Battery-Powered Industrial Trucks").10.1 GENERAl.. . 10-110.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification 10-110.1.2 Rated Capacity , , , 10-110.1.3 Marking , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. 10-110.1.4 Warning Devices 10-110.1.5 Attachments , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 10-110.1.6 Modifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-210.1.7 Overhead Doors 10-210.1.8 Fire Hazard Areas 10-210.1.9 Work Atmosphere 10-210.1.10 Electric-Battery-Operated Trucks 10-210.1.11 Internal-Combustion Trucks 10-210.1.12 Fork Arm ...................•....................................... 10-210.1.13 Design Standards '" " , 10-210.2 TYPE DESIGNATIONS AND AREAS OF USE 10-310.2.1 Type Designation . .. 10-310.2.1.1 Nonhazardous Locations .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . 10-310.2.1.2 Hazardous Locations. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-310.2.2 Specific Areas ofUse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 10-310.2.3 Forklift Truck Markers 10-410.2.4 Hazardous-Area Signs 10-410.3 INSPECTIONS............................................................... 10-710.3.1 Daily Preoperational Check............... 10-710.3.2 Periodic Inspection Requirements 10-710.4 TESTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-810.5 OPERATION................................................................. 10-910.5.1 Conduct ofOperator 10-910.5.2 Lifting ofPersonnel 10-1010.5.3 Standard Hand Signals " , 10-1110.5.4 Size ofLoad 10-11lO-iChapter 10Forklift Trucks


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)10.5.5 MovingtheLoad 10-1110.5.6 Ordinary Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-1110.5.7 Critical Lifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-11Exhibit I Forklift Load Test and Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-15Chapter 10Forklift TruckslO-ii


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)10.1 GE'NERAL10.1.1 Operator Training!QualificationOperators offorklift trucks shall be trained andqualified as described inChapter 6, "PersonnelQualification and Training."10.1.2 Rated Capacitya. Rated capacity is the maximum weight thetruck can transport and stack at a specified loadcenter and for a specified load elevation. Trucksshall not be used or tested above their ratedcapacities.b. Additional details are found inASMEB56.1.10.1.3 MarkingEvery truck shall have appended to it a durable,corrosion-resistant nameplate with the model orserial number and weight legibly inscribed. Theserial number shall also be stamped on the frame.The truck must be accepted by a recognizednational testing laboratory and the name-plateshall state that. The truck shall meet all othernameplate requirements of ASME B56.1.10.1.4 Warning Devicesa. Every truck shall be equipped with anoperator-controlled horn, whistle, gong, or othersound-producing devices(s).b. The using organization shall determine ifoperating conditions require the truck to beequipped with additional sound-producing orvisual (such as lights or blinkers) devices, and beresponsible for providing and maintaining suchdevices.NOTE: Backup or motion alarms that soundcontinuously may be warranted in special casesbut are generally less effective thanoperator-controlled devices.10.1.5 Attachmentsa. Ifthe forklift truck is equipped withfront-end attachments (other than factory-installedattachments), the rated capacity shall beestablished by the truck manufacturer at aspecified load center and for a specified loadelevation.b. Users shall ensure that the truck is marked toidentify the attachments and to show theapproximate weight of the truck/attachmentcombination and the capacity ofthe truck withattachments at maximum elevation with loadcentered laterally.c. The rated capacity ofthe front-endattachment/forklift truck combination shall not beexceeded.d. Every removable attachment (excluding forkextensions) shall have a durablecorrosion-resistant nameplate installed on it withthe following information legibly and permanentlyinscribed:1. Model number.2. Serial number (on hydraulicallyactuated attachments).3. Maximum hydraulic pressure (onhydraulically actuated attachments).4. Weight of attachment.5. Rated capacity of attachment.6. The following instruction (orequivalent):i. Capacity offorklifttruck/front-end attachmentcombination maybe less than thecapacity shown on attachment.Consult forklift truck nameplate.10-1Chapter 10Forklift Trucks


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)10.1.6 ModificationsModifications or additions that affect capacity orsafe operation shall not be performed withoutprior written approval from the forklift truckmanufacturer. Capacity, operation, andmaintenance instruction plates, tags, or decalsshall be changed accordingly.10.1.7 Overhead Guardsa. Users shall ensure that high lift rider trucks,including order picker trucks, are equipped withan overhead guard manufactured in accordancewith ASME B56.1, unless all ofthe followingconditions are met:1. Vertical movement ofthe liftingmechanism is restricted to 72 in. (1800 mm) orless from the ground.2. The truck will be operated only in anarea where:i. The bottom of the top tiered loadis not higher than 72 in. (1800mm) and the top is not more than120 in. (3000 mm) from theground where tiered.ii.Only stable (preferablyinterlocked, unitized orcontainerized) loads are handled.iii. There is protection against fallingobjects from adjacent high stackareas.3. The truck is marked to identify whereit can be operated.b. Rough terrain forklift trucks shall be fittedwith an overhead guard manufactured inaccordance with ASME B56.6.c. An overhead guard is intended to offerprotection to the operator from falling objects, butit cannot protect against every possible impact.Therefore, it should not be considered a substitutefor good judgement and care in load handling.10.1.8 Fire Hazard AreasPowered forklift trucks for operation in fire hazardareas shall be ofthe type recommended inANSIINFPA 505 ("Powered Industrial Trucks,Type Designation and Areas ofUse").10.1.9 Work AtmosphereThe operation offorklift trucks affects theconcentrations ofcarbon monoxide and oxygen inthe work location. Concentrations ofthesematerials in the work location must meet therequirements of29 CFR 1910, OccupationalSafety and Health Standards for General Industry.10.1.10 Electric-Battery­Operated TrucksUse ofelectric-battery-operated trucks is restrictedto those trucks that meet the requirements ofANSJIUL 583.10.1.11 Internal-CombustionTrucksUse ofinternal-combustion-powered forklifttrucks is restricted to those trucks that meet therequirements ofANSIIUL 558.10.1.12 Fork ArmFor forklift trucks purchased after December1984, each fork arm shall be clearly stamped withits rated capacity in an area readily visible and notsubject to wear. For example, the designation1500 x 24 means 1,500-lb (680-kg) capacity at24-in. (600-mm) load center.10.1.13 Design Standardsa. Structural, mechanical, and electricalcomponents shall meet all requirements ofASMEB56.1.b. The safety features and operation shallconform, at a minimum, to the provisions ofASMEB56.1.Chapter 10Forklift Trucks 10-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)10.2 TYPE DESIGNATIONS AND AREAS OF USE10.2.1 Type DesignationThe following system shall be used as a basis tochoose appropriate types ofpowered forklifttrucks for operation in nonhazardous andhazardous locations (see ANSJJNFPA 505).10.2.1.1 Nonhazardous LocationsNOTE: The following units are not suitable foruse in hazardous areas since they include onlyminimum safeguards against inherent fIre hazards.a. Type D Forklifts--diesel-powered unitshaving minimum acceptable safeguards againstinherent f11'e hazards.b. Type E Forklijis-electrically powered unitshaving minimum acceptable safeguards against"inherent f11'e and electrical shock hazards.c. Type G Forklifts-gasoline-powered unitshaving minimum acceptable safeguards againstinherent fIre hazards.d. Type LP Forklifts-liquefIed-petroleumgas-poweredunits having minimum acceptablesafeguards against inherent fIre hazards.e. Type GILP Forklifts-gasoline-orliquefIed-petroleum-gas-powered units havingminimum acceptable safeguards against inherentf11'e hazards.10.2.1.2 Hazardous LocationsNOTE: The following units are suitable for use inhazardous areas since they are equipped withadditional safeguards (Le., special exhaust, fuel, orelectrical systems) or other modifIcations againstinherent f11'e hazards.a. Type DS Forklifts-diesel-powered unitsthat are provided with all the requirements for thetype D units and that have additional safeguardsto the exhaust, fuel, and electrical systems.b. Type DYForklifts--diesel-powered unitsthat have all the safeguards ofthe type DS unitsexcept that they do not have any electricalequipment, including ignition; they are equippedwith temperature-limitation features.c. Type ES Forklifts-electrically poweredunits that are provided with all the requirementsfor the type E units and that have additionalsafeguards to the electrical system to preventemission ofhazardous sparks and to limit surfacetemperatures.d. Type EE Forklijts-electrically poweredunits that are provided with all the requirementsfor the typeE and ES units, and that also haveelectric motors and all other electrical equipmentcompletely enclosed.e. Type EX Forklifts-electrically poweredunits that differ from type E, ES, or BE units inthat the electrical fIttings and equipment aredesigned, constructed, and assembled so that theunits may be used in atmospheres containingspecifIcally named flammable vapors, dusts, and,under certain conditions, fIbers; type EX units arespecifIcally tested and classifIed for use in Class I,Group D, or for Class n, Group G locations asdefIned in NFPA 70, the National Electrical Code.f. Type GS Forklifts-gasoline-powered unitsthat, in addition to all the requirements for thetype G units, are provided with additionalsafeguards to the exhaust, fuel, and electricalsystems.g. Type GSILPS Forklifts-gasoline- orliquefIed-petroleum-gas-powered units that, inaddition to all the requirements for the type GILPunits, are provided with additional safeguards tothe exhaust, fuel, and electrical systems.h. Type LPS Forklijts-liquefIed-petroleumgas-poweredunits that, in addition to therequirements for the type LP units, are providedwith additional safeguards to the exhaust, fuel,and electrical systems.10.2.2 Specific Areas of Usea. The responsible industrial safetyorganization shall classify the atmosphere orlocation where the powered forklift is to be usedas being hazardous or nonhazardous. LocationclassifIcations are described as follows:10-3Chapter 10Forklift Trucks


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)1. Class I-locations in whichflammable gases or vapors are present or may bepresent in the air in quantities sufficient toproduce explosive or ignitable mixtures.2. Class II-locations that arehazardous because ofthe presence ofcombustibledust.3. Class III-locations where easilyignitable fibers or filings are present but are notlikely to be suspended in quantities sufficient toproduce ignitable mixtures. .4. Unclassified-locations notpossessing atmospheres defmed as Class I, IT, orilllocations.b. A qualified person shall select forklift trucksfor use in hazardous areas in accordance with therequirements ofANSIINFPA 505.10.2.3 Forklift Truck Markersa. Theuse ofproper equipment in hazardousareas is essential for the safety and protection ofpersonnel and property. Trucks approved for usein hazardous areas shall have the manufacturer'slabel or some other identifying mark indicatingapproval for the intended use by a recognizednational testing laboratory [e.g., UnderwritersLaboratories (UL) orFactory Mutual (FM)].b. Durable markers indicating the designationofthe type of truck for use in hazardous areasshall be applied to each side of the vehicle in avisible but protected area. These markers shall bedistinctive in shape, as indicated in Figure 10-1.10.2.4 Hazardous-Area SignsThe entrance to hazardous areas shall be postedwith a sign to identify the type offorklift truckpermitted. See Figure 10-2.Chapter 10Forklift Trucks 10-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)LPSGSDSESNOTE: The markers for EE, EX, and DY are 5 in.(12.7 cm) high. The rest are 4 in. (10 cm) square.The signs shall have black borders and letteringon a yellow background.Figure 10·1. Markers to identify type of industrial truck.10-5Chapter 10Forklift Trucks


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CAUTIONONLY TRUCKSMARKEDPERMIITED INTHIS AREANOTE: The minimum width of the sign is 11 in.(28 cm); the minimum height is 16 in. (40 cm).The sign shall have the word "caution" in yellowletters on a black background. The body of thesign shall have black letters on a yellowbackground. A marker identical to the one usedon the side of the truck as shown in Figure 10';'1,shall be installed on the sign.Figure 10-2. Building signs for posting at entrance to hazardous areas.Chapter 10Forklift Trucks10-6


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-i)10.3INSPECTIONS10.3.1 Daily PreoperationalCheckBefore operating the forklift, the operator shallcheck for proper condition ofthe following: hom,lights, battery, tire condition/inflation, brakes,steering mechanism, and operating controls. Ifatany time a forklift is in need ofrepair, is defective,or shows any condition that could affect its safety,the condition shall be reported immediately to the .designated authority. The unit shall be taken outofservice until it has been restored tosafe-operating condition.2. Carefully inspect all parts oflift andtilt mechanisms and frame members and maintainthem in a safe-operating condition.3. For special trucks or devices,designed and approved for operation inhazardousareas, ensure that the original, approvedsafe-operating features are preserved bymaintenance.10.3.2 Periodic InspectionRequirements 4. Check fuel systems for leaks and fora. Prior to initial use, all new, modified, orextensively repaired forklifts shall be inspected bya qualified inspector to ensure compliance withthe provisions ofthis chapter.b. A qualified inspector shall inspect forkliftswhen they are assigned to service and at least onceevery 6 months thereafter. A qualified inspectorshall nondestructively examine the forks, whenrequired by the manufacture, at 12-monthintervals. Inspection records shall be kept on fileand shall be readily available. A sample load testand inspection form is included as Exhibit I,which appears at the end ofthis chapter. Thisform is intended to be a sample only and is notintended to be mandatory.c. A qualified inspector shall perform thefollowing during periodic inspections:1. Inspect brakes, steering mechanisms,control mechanisms, warning devices, lights,governors, lift-overload devices, guards, andsafety devices regularly and maintain them in asafe-operating condition.the proper condition ofthe parts. Give specialconsideration in the case ofa fuel system leak.Take action to prevent use ofthe truck until theleak has been corrected.5. Inspect all hydraulic systems andmaintain them in conformance with good practice.Check tilt cylinders, valves, and other similarparts to ensure that drift or leakage has notdeveloped to the extent that it would create ahazard.6. Maintain capacity, operation safety,and maintenance-instruction plates, tags, or decalsinlegible condition.7. Inspect batteries, motors, controllers,limit switches, protective devices, electricalconductors, and connections and maintain them inconformance with good practice. Pay specialattention to the condition of electrical insulation.10-7Chapter 10Forklift Trucks


-- ----------------------------10.4 TESTINGDOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)a Prior to initial use, all forklifts in whichload-sustaining parts have been modified,replaced, or repaired shall be load-tested by aqualified inspector orunder the direction ofthatinspector.1. Test loads shall not exceed100 percent ofthe rated capacity.2. Test weights shall be accurate towithin -5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulated values.3. Load slippage shall not be greaterthan 3 in. vertically and 1 in. horizontally at thecylinder during a static test period of at least 10min. duration.4. A written report shall be furnished bythe inspector, showing test procedures andconfrrming the adequacy ofrepairs or alterations.Test reports shall be kept on file and readilyavailable to appointed personnel.b. Load tests shall not be conducted abovecritical items.Chapter 10Forklift Trucks 10-8


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)10.5 OPERATIONThe following shall apply to all personnelinvolved in forklift operations. At the initial stageofthe planning process, an appointed personshallclassify each lift into one ofthe DOE-specifiedcategories (ordinary, critical, or preengineeredproduction).10.5.1 Conduct of Operatora. Do not engage in any practice that will divertyour attention while operating the forklift.b. Do not operate the forklift when you arephysically or mentally incapacitated.c. Keep the operating area free ofwater, snow,ice, oil, and debris that could cause your hands orfeet to slip from the controls.d. Give special consideration to the properfunctioning of tires, horn, lights, battery, brakes,steering mechanisms, and operating controls. Ifatany time a forklift needs repair, is defective or inany way unsafe, report the matter immediately tothe designated authority. The unit shall be takenout ofservice until it has been restored tosafe-operating condition or a determination hasbeen made by the cognizant manager that thedeficiency will not adversely affect the safeoperation ofthe unit.e. Ensure that rigging loads from the tines offorklift trucks is performed according tosite-specific direction.f. Forklift truck operators shall do thefollowing:1. Before operation ofelectricallypowered machines, check location ofthe batteryplug for quick disconnection in case ofa shortcircuit.2. Avoid sudden stops.3. Face in the direction of travel, exceptas follows:i. For better vision with large loads,operate the truck in reverse gear.ii.When ascending ordescendinggrades in excess of5 percent,drive loaded rider trucks with theload upgrade.iii. Operate unloaded trucks on allgrades with the load-engagingmeans downgrade.4. Stop and sound the horn at all blindcorners and intersections and when going throughdoorways.5. Operate at safe speeds: in-plantbuildings, 5 mph; in-plant roads, 15 mphmaximum.6. Go around curves slowly.7. Use low gear or slowest speed whendescending ramps.8. Do not allow riders onforklift trucksunless the truck is built with passenger seating.9. Know the weight ofthe load and donot exceed the rated capacity ofthe truck.10. Consider both truck and load weightwhen traveling in areas where there arefloor-loading requirements.11. Watch overhead clearance; ifindoubt, measure.12. Keep clear ofedges ofloading docks.13. Watch rear-end swing.14. Before handling them, ensure thatstacks and loads are stable; block and lash them ifnecessary.15. Always spread the forks to suit theload width.16. Lower and raise the load slowly;make smooth, gradual stops.17. Lift and lower loads only while thevehicle is stopped.18. Use special care when high-tiering;return the lift to a vertical position before loweringthe load.19. Lift, lower, and carry loads with theupright vertical or tilted back-never forward; onall grades, the load and load-engaging means shallbe tilted back.10-9Chapter 10Forklift Trucks


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)20. To avoid injury, keep arms and legsinside the operator's area ofthe machine.21. Never travel with forks raised tounnecessary heights; approximately 4 to 6 in.above floor level is adequate.22. When loading trucks or trailers,ensure that the wheels are chocked and the brakesset; place loads in front end ofthe semitrailer onlyifthe tractor is attached or adequate trailer(railroad) jacks are in place.23. Inspect floors on trucks, boxcars,unfamiliar ramps, or platforms before startingoperation.24. Be sure bridge plates into trucks orfreight cars are sufficiently wide, strong, andsecure; portable and powered dockboards shall beconspicuously marked with carrying capacity.25. Never butt loads with forks or rearend oftruck.26. Remember that forklift trucks shouldnot be used as tow trucks unless a towing hitchapproved by the manufacturer is used.27. Stop engine before refueling.28. Use only approved explosion-prooflights to check gas-tank and battery-water levels;smoking is not permitted during this operation.29. Place forks flat on the floor when thetruck is parked.30. Tum ignition switch to OFF positionwhen leaving the machine.31. Always set brakes before leaving thetruck.32. Report evidence offaulty truckperformance.33. When exiting or leaving the truck,step down-do notjump.34. Report all accidents promptly to thesupervisor.35. Use guides and signalers as much aspossible; ifin doubt, check personally beforeproceeding; the f'mal responsibility for thehandling ofa truck remains with the driver.36. Never lift with one fork without anengineering analysis and approval.10.5.2 Lifting of PersonnelTake the following precautions wheneverpersonnel are elevated with a forklift truck:a. Use a lift platform manufactured for thepurpose oflifting personnel with a forklift truckthat meets the requirements ofASME B56.1.b. Ensure that a restraining means (handrails orchains) exists that is capable ofwithstanding aforce of200 lb in any direction; ifno restrainingmeans is provided, personnel on the platform shallwear a body harness with lanyard or decelerationdevice.c. When being supported by a forklift, thepersonnel platform shall be attached in such amanner that it cannot slide or bounce off the forks.d. The operator shall remain in the controlposition ofthe forklift truck or means shall beprovided whereby personnel on the platform canshut power offto the forklift truck.e. Overhead protection, as indicated necessaryby operating conditions, shall be provided.f. Means shall be provided to protect personnelfrom moving parts ofthe forklift truck thatpresent a hazard when the personnel platform is inthe normal working position.g. Do not transport personnel from one locationto another while they are on the work platform.h. Ensure that 4-in. (lO-cm) toe boards areprovided on the work platform.i. Whenever a truck (except for high-liftorder-picker trucks) is equipped with verticalhoisting controls elevatable with the liftingcarriage or forks, take the following additionalprecautions to protect personnel:1. Means shall be provided wherebypersonnel on the platform can shut offpower tothe truck.2. Means shall be provided to render .inoperative all operating controls, other than thoseon the elevating platform, when the controls onthe elevating platformhave been selected for use;only one location ofcontrols shall be capable ofbeing operatedat one time.Chapter 10Forklift Trucks 10-10


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)3. Emergency-lowering means availableat ground level should be provided; such meansshall be protected against misuse.10.5.3 Standard Hand Signalsa. Standard hand signals for use at DOElocations shall be as specified in the latest editionofthe ANSI standards for the particular forkliftbeing used (see Figure 10-3).b. The operator shall recognize signals onlyfrom the designated signaler. Obey a STOPsignal no matter who gives it.10.5.4 Size of Loada. Since the load rating for forklifts may bebased on stability or hydraulic or structuralcompetence, do not exceed the rated capacity inoperational application.b. Do not load forklifts beyond rated capacity.c. The designated person shall ensure that theweight ofa load approaching the rated capacity(combination ofweight and location ofthe centerofgravity) has been determined within -10percent, +0 percent before it is lifted.10.5.5 Moving the Loada. The nature ofthe terrain and the surface onwhich the truck is to operate are very importantfactors in the stability of the load-truck system.The designated person shall ensure that a propertruck has been selected to operate on the surfaceavailable. In general, small, three-wheeled trucksshould operate on smooth, hard surfaces only andare not suitable for outdoor workb. The designated person shall ensure that theload is well secured and properly balanced beforeit is lifted.c. During hoisting, ensure that:1.load.There is no sudden acceleration ofthe2. The load does not contact anyobstruction.10.5.6 Ordinary Liftsa. The requirements of all precedingparagraphs in Section 10.5, "Operation," shallalso apply to ordinary lifts.b. An appointed person shall classify each liftinto one ofthe DOE categories (ordinary, criticalorpreengineered production) before the lift isplanned.c. Hoisting and rigging operations for ordinarylifts require a designated leader who shall bepresent at the lift site during the entire liftingoperation. Ifthe lift is being made by only oneperson, that person assumes all responsibilities ofthe designated leader.d. Leadership designation may be by writteninstructions, specific verbal instructions for theparticular job, or clearly delmed responsibilitieswithin the crew's organizational structure.e.The designated leader's responsibility shallinclude the following:1. Ensure that personnel involvedunderstand how the lift is to be made.2. Ensure that the weight ofthe load isdetermined, that proper equipment and accessoriesare selected, and that rated capacity is notexceeded.3. Survey the lift site for hazardous!unsafe conditions.4. Ensure that equipment is properly setup and positioned.5. Ensure that a signaler is assigned, ifrequired, and is identified to the operator.6. Direct the lifting operation to ensurethat the job is done safely and efficiently.7. Stop the job when any potentiallyunsafe condition is recognized.8. Direct operations ifan accident orinjury occurs.10.5.7 Critical LiftsSee Chapter 2, "Critical Lifts," for critical-liftrequirements.10-11Chapter 10Forklift Trucks


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)RAISE THE TINES. With forearmvertical, forefinger pointing up, movehand in small horizontal circle.•- .:r-I A'LOWER THE TINES. With armextended, palm down, lower armverticaltTILT MAST FORWARD. With armextended, thumb down, lower armvertical .MOVE TINES IN DIRECTIONFINGER POINTS. With armextended, palm down, point forefinger DOG EVERYTHING. Clasp handsin direction of movement. in front of bod .STOP. Extend both arms, palmsdown.Figure 10-3. Standard hand signals for controlling forklift operation.Chapter 10Forklift Trucks 10-12


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Exhibit I is intended to be a sampleand is not mandatory.Any other form that accomplishesthe purpose is acceptable.10-13Chapter 10Forklift Trucks


-- -----------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)INTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 10Forklift Trucks10-14


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBITPage 1 of2FORKLlFT LOAD TEST AND INSPECTIONINSPECTED By EQUIPMENT NUMBER _INSPECTION: Forklifts shall be inspected when assigned to service and at least every 6 months thereafter.CRAFTSMANINITIALPrior to initial use, all new, modified, or extensively repaired forklifts shall be inspected.Craftsmen shall initial all tests, work, and inspections completed below.Qualified inspector shall verify inspection complete prior to load test.1. Ensure capacity, operation, and maintenance-instruction plates, tags, or decals arelegible.2. Check all hydraulic systems including tilt cylinders, valves, and other similar parts toensure "drift" has not developed.3. Check fuel system for leaks and condition ofparts. Special consideration shall be givenin the case ofa leak in the fuel system. Immediate action shall be taken to take theforklift out ofservice until the leak is corrected.4. Check all parts oflift and tilt mechanisms and frame members to ensure safe operatingconditions, such as, but not limited to, hoist chain for damage and excessive wear.5. Check for proper tire inflation (where applicable). Check that tires are secured properlyand are level with each other.6. Check batteries, motors, controllers, limit switches, protective devices, electricalconductors and connections, with special attention paid to the condition ofelectricalinsulation.7. Checkbrakes, steering mechanisms, warning devices, lights, governors, lift overloaddevices, guards, and safety devices.Qualified inspector shall use the criteriafor Items 8, 9, and 10 to perform visual examination, when requiredby the manufacture, liquid penetrant examination, or magnetic particle examination.Acceptance: No cracks, linear indications, laps, or seams.8. Check for forks being secured properly and level with each other.9. Nondestructive examination (NDE) inspector performs nondestructive test (NDT) onthe right angle joint ofthe fork once every 12 months.10. NDE inspector performs NDT on the load or stress-bearing welds that attach the tinesto the forklift once every 12 months.10-15Chapter 10Forklift Trucks


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT I (continued)Page20f2FORKLIFf LOAD TESTLOAD TESTNOTES: 1.Read all steps below prior to load test.2. Forklifts in which load-sustaining parts have been altered, replaced, or repaired shall be loadtested prior to initial use.3. Load test all forklifts at 100% rated capacity.OUALIFIED INSPECTOR: Shall verify all steps below.EQUIPMENT NUMBER EQUIPMENT OPERATOR _Qualified Inspector Verify (Load Test) Date _Weight_1. Set forklift on solid, level ground.2. Perform load test using the required weight (see Note 3).Static Test: Forklift trucks shall demonstrate ability to withstand the appropriate test load for aperiod of at least 10 min without permanent deformation or apparent damage. Load slippagefor this equipment shall not be greater than a maximum of3 in. vertically and 1 in. horizontallyat the cylinder.3. Check system for leaks while undergoing test.Chapter 10Forklift Trucks 10-16


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CHAPTER 11WIRE ROPE AND SLINGSThis chapter provides requirements for the fabrication and use ofwire rope and slings used in hoisting andrigging.11.1 GENERAl,................................................................... 11-111.2 WlR.E ROPE........................................... 11-411.2.1 Wire-Rope Lays , 11-411.2.2 Wire-Rope Cores 11-411.2.3 Wire Rope for General Purposes . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-511.2.3.1 6 x 19 Classification , . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. 11-511.2.3.2 6 x 37 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-511.2.4 Wire-Rope Inspections 11-511.2.5 Wire-Rope Maintenance 11-511.3 SLINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-811.3.1 General............................................................. 11-811.3.1.1 Load Angle Factor . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-811.3.1.2 Safe Load 11-811.3.1.3 Design Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 11-1011.3.1.4 Sling Care 11-1011.3.1.5 Sling Storage 11-1011.3.2 Wire-Rope Slings 11-1011.3.2.1 Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-1911.3.2.2 Proof-Testing , , 11-1911.3.2.3 Operation 11-1911.3.3 Alloy Steel-Chain Slings 11-2211.3.3.1 Pre-Use Inspections , .. , " 11-2311.3.3.2 Annual Inspections 11-2511.3.3.3 Proof-Testing 11-2511.3.3.4 Operation ,. 11-2511.3.4 Metal-Mesh Slings 11-2611.3.4.1 Inspections 11-2911.3.4.2 Proof-Testing '" 11-2911.3.4.3 Operation 11-2911.3.5 Synthetic-Web Slings 11-3011.3.5.1 Inspections 11-3211.3.5.2 Proof-Testing 11-3611.3.5.3 Operation 11-36Exhibit I Rigging Tackle Annual Inspection (Wire-Rope Slings) , 11-39Exhibit n Rigging Tackle Annual Inspection (Chain) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-41Exhibit ill Rigging Tackle Periodic Inspection (Synthetic-Web Slings) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-4311-iChapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)INTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 11Wire Rope and Slingsll-ii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)11.1 GENERALa. The information in this section providesguidance for safely handling lifted loads.Diagrams are used to illustrate hoisting andrigging principles and good and bad riggingpractices. This is not a rigging textbook; theinformation should be applied only by qualifiedriggers.b. Wire rope and slings that have beenirreversibly damaged or removed from serviceshall be made unusable for hoisting and riggingoperations before being discarded.c. Load tables are representative only and arenot exact for all materials or all manufacturers.d. Determine the weight ofthe load:1. From markings on the load.2. By weighing, ifthe load is still on atruck or railroad car.3. From drawings or otherdocumentation.4. By calculation, using the loaddimensions and the weights ofcommon materialsin Table 11-1.e. Determine the center ofgravity ofthe load asaccurately as possible:1. From drawings or otherdocumentation.2. From markings on the load.3. By calculation.f. Determine the best method to attach the loadand select the appropriate lifting devices (e.g.,wire-rope, steel-chain, metal-mesh, orsynthetic-web slings).g. Bending a wire rope over a fixed object suchas a pin or a shackle has an effect on the capacityoftherope: the outside wires and strands ofabend have to stretch farther and therefore take agreater percentage ofthe load.h. There is a convenient method for estimatingthe efficiency ofthe rope as it passes over thebend. This method uses the ratio (R) ofthediameter (D) ofthe object (sheave, pin, comer)about which the wire rope is being bent to thediameter Cd) ofthe rope. The efficiency ofthebend can then be estimated using the formulashown in Figure 11-1. Note that the efficiencydecreases quickly as the ratio ofthe diametersdecreases.i. Aside from efficiency, there are otherreasons to avoid sharp bends in wire rope,including physical damage to the rope, reductionof service life, and damage to the object aboutwhich the rope is bentj. When the ratio ofthe diameter ofthe bend tothe nominal rope diameter (DId ratio) is small, thestrength efficiency factor is lower than when theDid ratio is relatively large. Load tables do nottake into account such factors as abnormaltemperatures, excessive corrosion, and vibration.k Determine the appropriate ratings ofthedevice to be used, allowing for:1. The number ofsling legs-Note that asling leg completely doubled back on itselfconstitutes two sling legs.2. The angle between the horizontalsurface ofthe load and the sling leg-Thesmaller the angle, the smaller the lifting capacityofthe equipment.3. Wear-The reduction in strength ofthe equipment due to normal wear.11-1Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)Table 11-1. Weights of common materials.Name of metalweightweight(Ib/ft ) Name of material(Ib/ft )Aluminum 166 Bluestone 160Antimony 418 Brick, pressed 150Bismuth 613 Brick, common 125Brass, cast 504 Cement, Portland (packed) 100-120Brass, rolled 523 Cement, Portland (loose) 70-90Copper, cast 550 Cement, slag (packed) 80-100Copper, rolled 555 Cement, slag (loose) 55-75Gold, 24-carat 1,204 Chalk 156Iron, cast 450 Charcoal 15-34Iron, wrought 480 Cinder concrete 110Lead, commercial 712 Clay, ordinary 120-150Mercury, 60 degrees F 846 Coal, hard, solid 93.5Silver 655 Coal, hard, broken ·54Steel 490 Coal, soft, solid 84Tin, cast 458 Coal, soft, broken 54Uranium 1,163 Coke, loose 23-32Zinc 437 Concrete or stone 140-155Earth, rammed 90-100Name of wood Granite 165-170Gravel 117-125Ash 35 Lime, quick (ground loose) 53Beech 37 Limestone 170Birch 40 Marble 164Cedar 22 Plaster of paris (cast) 80Cherry 30 Sand 90-106Chestnut 26 Sandstone 151Cork 15 Shale 162Cypress 27 Slate 160-180Ebony 71 Terra-cotta 110Elm 30 Traprock 170Fir, Balsam 22 Water 65Hemlock 31Maple, Oak 62Pine, Poplar 30Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)50,....,rr---.,---r----y----r---,---.,---,;----,--.,--,6090100 L.-~-_.........--.J:_--~--L.-_--'I.o_---''"----'-----'---_'_---JRatio = Rdiameter of pin or sheave D----_.....:.-..:..-_-------=nominaldiameter of rope dFigure 11-1. Efficiency of wire rope when bent and statically loaded to destruction oversheaves and pins of various diameters.11-3Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)11.2 WIRE ROPE11.2.1 Wire-Rope LaysaIn a right-lay rope, the strands twist to theright around the core like a conventional screwthread; in a left-lay rope, the strands twist to theleft.b. A rope has a lang lay when the strands andthe individual wires have the same lay direction.When the strands and the wires have an oppositelay direction, the rope has a regular lay.c. A standard wire rope, unless otherwisestated, is understood to beright regular lay. Withfew exceptions, all wire rope is made right lay.Left-lay rope is a special-purpose rope.d. Figure 11-2 shows ropes with right and leftlays combined with regular and lang lays.e. Lay length is the lengthwise distancemeasured along a wire rope in which a strandmakes one complete revolution about therope'saxis.11.2.2 Wire-Rope Coresa. Wire rope consists ofmultistrand metalwires wrapped around a suitable core material.Wire-rope cores are carefully designed and mustbeprecisely manufactured to close tolerances toensure a perfect fit in the rope. The most commontypes ofcores include the following (see Figure11-3): .1. Fiber Core (FC) or Sisal Core-Sisalanna is the most common fiber that is used inthe manufacture ofwire-'rope cores. In smallerropes, cotton and jute are sometimes used for thecore.2. Independent Wire-Rope Core(IWRC)-The primary function ofthe core is toprovide adequate support for the strands. As thename implies, an IWRC is a separatesmall-diameter wire rope that is used as the corefor a larger wire rope. When severe crushing orflattening ofthe rope is encountered, an IWRC isusually specified.3. Strand Core-This type ofcore has a singlestrand used as the core. This type is generallyconfined to the smaller ropes as a substitute forIWRC. The strand core mayor may not have thesame cross section as the surrounding strands.Right Regular LayLeft Regular LayRight Lang LayLeft Lang LayFigure 11-2. Wire-rope lays.••Fiber or Sisal CoreIndependent Wire-Rope CoreStrand CoreFigure 11-3. Wire-rope cores.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)11.2.3 Wire Rope for GeneralPurposes11.2.3.1 6 x 19 Classificationa Most applications can use a rope from thisclassification; it is the most versatile ofall ropesmade. Figure 11-4 shows four varieties of 6 x 19wire ropes with FCs and IWRCs. Table 11-2provides breaking strengths for 6 x 19 wire ropeswith FC and IWRC cores.b. The principal types ofropes in thisclassification include:1. 6 x 19F-Themost popular andversatile of all wire ropes and the most flexible isthe 6 x 19F classification. This rope is consideredthe perfect compromise between maximumabrasion resistance and maximum flexibility.2. 6 x 16F-Slightlymore abrasionresistant than the 6 x 19F, the 6 x 16F makes anexcellent rope for small draglines and similar uses.The resistance to wear is gained by a slightsacrifice in flexibility.3. 6 x 19 Seale-The 6 x 19 Seale is arugged wire rope for applications involving heavywear. Car pullers often use this rope, and it iswidely used for slushers and drag scrapers.4. 6 x 19 Warrington-The alternatinglarge and small outer wires make this rope anall-around performer. The 6 x 19 Warrington isused for general-purpose hoisting, chum drills,and miscellaneous slings.11.2.3.2 6 x 37 Classificationa. When sheaves and drums are fairly smalland abrasive conditions are not severe, the ropesin this classification will show better performancethan the coarser 6 x 19 construction. Underconditions ofrepeated bending, they will outlast a6 x 19 rope; when abrasion is severe, the smallouter wires quickly show the effect. Figure 11-5shows three varieties of6 x 37 wire rope with FCand IWRC cores. Table 11-3 provides breakingstrengths for 6 x 37 wire ropes with FC andIWRCcores.b. The principal types ofropes in thisclassification include:1. 6 x 372-operation-A 6 x 372-operation strand has 18 outer wires. Thisconstruction is used on industrial equipment, forflexible slings, and in miscellaneous hoisting.2. 6 x 29F-A 6 x 29F is used forapplications requiring a flexible rope slightly moreresistant to wear than the 6 x 37 2-operation rope.3. 6 x 41-A 6 x 41 rope is used widelyfor ropes over I-in. diameter in the 6 x 37classification. .11.2.4 Wire-Rope InspectionsA qualified inspector shall inspect wire ropes atleast annually. Inspection requirements varydepending on what type ofequipment the wireropes are used on. Refer to other sections in thismanual, based on the equipment being used, forspecific inspection requirements.11.2.5 Wire-Rope MaintenancePersonnel using wire rope shall ensure proper careby doing the following:a. Store rope to prevent damage ordeterioration.b. Unreel or uncoil rope as recommended bythe rope manufacturer or a qualified person andwith care to avoid kinking or inducing a twist.c. Before cutting a rope, use some method toprevent unlaying ofthe strands. Hame-cuttingwire rope is prohibited.d. During installation, avoid dragging the ropein the dirt or around objects that will scrape, nick,crush, or induce sharp bends.e. Unless prohibited by other considerations,maintain rope in a well-lubricated condition. Theobject ofrope lubrication is to reduce internalfriction and to prevent corrosion. Ensure thatlubricant applied as a part ofa maintenanceprogram is compatible with the original lubricantand is also a type that does not hinder visualinspection. Those sections ofrope in contact withsheaves or otherwise hidden during inspection andmaintenance procedures require special attentionwhen lubricating rope.11-5Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


-~ --~---------------------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)FC 6x19F IWRC* *Fe 6x16F IWRC• •FC 6 x 19 Seale IWRCFC6 x 19 WarringtonIWRCFigure 11-4. 6 x 19 classification of wire rope.Table 11-2. Breaking strength of wire rope (6 x 19 classification).6 x 19 (FC) 6 x 19 (IWRC)Breaking strengthBreaking strengthRope in tons of 2.000 Ib Rope in tons of 2.000 Ibdiameter Weight Improved diameter Weight Improved(in.) (Ib per ft) Plow steel plow steel (in.) (Ib per ft) Plow steel plow steel3/16 0.06 1.3 1.5 3/16 0.07 1.4 1.61/4 0.10 2.4 2.7 1/4 0.11 2.6 2.95/16 0.16 3.8 4.1 5/16 0.18 4.1 4.43/8 0.23 5.4 6.0 3/8 0.25 5.8 6.57/16 0.31 7.0 8.0 7/16 0.34 7.5 8.6* 0.40 10.0 11.0 * 0.44 10.8 11.89/16 0.51 11.7 13.3 9/16 0.56 12.6 14.35/8 0.63 15.0 16.5 5/8 0.69 16.1 17.73/4 0.90 21.5 23.8 3/4 0.99 23.1 25.67/8 1.23 28.3 32.0 7/8 1.35 30.4 34.41 1.60 38.0 41.7 1 1.76 40.8 44.81 1/8 2.03 48.5 53.0 11/8 2.23 52.1 57.011/4 2.50 60.0 65.0 11/4 2.75 64.5 70.413/8 3.03 73.5 81.0 13/8 3.33 79.0 87.11* 3.60 88.5 96.0 1* 3.96 95.1 103.015/8 4.23 103.0 113.0 15/8 4.65 111.0 122.013/4 4.90 119.0 130.0 13/4 5.39 128.0 140.017/8 5.63 138.0 152.0 17/8 6.19 148.0 163.02 6.40 154.0 169.0 2 7.04 166.0 162.021/4 8.10 193.0 210.0 21/4 8.91 208.0 226.021h 10.00 235.0 260.0 21h 11.00 253.0 280.023/4 12.10 280.0 305.0 23/4 13.30 301.0 328.0Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-6


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)• •FCIWRC• •FC 6x29F I'NRC•FC 6x41 IWRCFigure 11-5. 6 x 37 classification of wire rope.Table 11-3. Breaking strength of wire rope (6 x 37 classification).6 x 37 (FC) 6x37 (IWRC)Breaking strengthBreaking strengthRope in tons of 2,000 Ib Rope in tons of 2,000 Ibdiameter Weight Improved diameter Weight Improved(in.) (lb per tt) Plow steel plow steel (in.) (Ib per tt) Plow steel plow steel1/4 0.10 2.2 2.5 1/4 0.11 2.4 2.75/16 0.16 3.8 4.0 5/16 0.18 4.1 4.33/8 0.22 5.0 5.5 3/8 0.24 5.4 5.97/16 0.30 6.9 7.5 7/16 0.33 7.4 8.1l'2 0.39 9.2 10.0 l'2 0.43 9.9 10.89/16 0.49 11.4 12.5 9/16 0.54 12.3 13.45/8 0.61 14.5 16.0 5/8 0.67 15.6 17.23/4 0.87 20.2 22.2 3/4 0.96 21.7 23.97/8 1.19 27.5 30.2 7/8 1.30 29.6 32.51 1.55 36.0 39.5 1 1.71 38.7 42.51 1/8 1.96 44.0 49.0 1 1/8 2.16 47.3 52.71 1/4 2.42 55.0 61.0 11/4 2.66 59.1 65.613/8 2.93 68.5 74.5 13/8 3.22 73.6 80.11l'2 3.49 82.0 90.0 1l'2 3.84 88.1 96.715/8 4.09 96.5 105.5 15/8 4.50 104.0 113.013/4 4.75 110.0 121.0 13/4 5.23 118.0 130.017/8 5.45 129.0 142.0 17/8 6.00 139.0 153.02 6.20 142.0 155.0 2 6.82 153.0 167.021/4 7.85 182.0 201.0 21/4 8.64 196.0 216.02l'2 9.69 225.0 245.0 2l'2 10.66 242.0 263.023/4 11.72 269.0 293.0 23/4 12.89 289.0 315.03 13.95 323.0 353.0 3 15.35 347.0 379.011-7Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)11.3 SLINGS11.3.1 Generala. Slings shall have a minimum design factorappropriate to the type ofmaterial as specified inthe appropriate section. Features that affect therated capacity of the sling and that shall beconsidered in calculating the design factor are:1. Nominal breaking strength ofmaterialfrom which it is constructed.2. Splicing or end-attachment efficiency.3. Number ofparts in the sling.4. Type ofhitch (e.g., straight pull,choker hitch, or baskethitch).5. Angle ofloading and load center ofgravity.6. Diameter ofcurvature around whichthe sling is bent.b. Published working loads for chain slings areusually based on 25-33 percent ofthe breakingstrength.c. The center ofgravity of an object is a pointaround which the entire weight may beconcentrated. To make a level lift, the crane hookorpoint ofsuspension must be directly above thispoint. While slight variations are usuallypermissible, ifthe crane hook is too far to one sideofthe center ofgravity, dangerous tilting willresult and should be corrected at once. For thisreason, when the center ofgravity is closer to onepoint of the sling attachment than to the other, theslings must be ofunequal length. Sling stressesand sling angles will also be unequal (seeFigure 11-6).d. Slings shall be secured or terminated at thecrane hook so that the sling does not reeve or slipthrough the hook. To attach the load, locate thecenter ofgravity, position the crane hook directlyabove the center ofgravity, and then rig the loadso that it will lift level and true.11.3.1.1 Load Angle Factora. The following is an example ofselecting asling using the load angle factors shown in Figure11-7.1. Load=1,000 lb.2. Sling=2-legged bridle.3. Angle with horizontal=45 degrees.4. Load angle factor from Figure 11-7 =1.414.b. Each ofthe two legs would lift 500 Ib ifavertical lift were made. However, there is a 45sling angle involved. Therefore, the 500-lb loadwould be multiplied by the load-angle factor in thechart, giving a total of7071b (500 lb x 1.414)tension in each sling leg. Each sling leg, therefore,must have a rated capacity ofat least 707 lb.11.3.1.2 Safe Loada. The rated capacity or working load limit(WIL) of a sling varies depending on the type ofhitch. The rated capacity tables in this sectionshow the applications for which the various safeloads apply when the slings are new. All ratingsare in pounds (lbs).b. Figures 11-8 and 11-9 provide informationfor determining the total rated capacity of3-legand 4-leg bridle slings. Select multiple-leg slingsso as not to introduce a working load in directtension in any leg greater than that permitted.Two legs should be considered to carry the loadbecause in normal lifting practice, the load will notbe uniformly distributed on all legs. Ifriggingtechniques, verified by a qualified rigger, ensurethat the load is evenly distributed then full use ofthree legs is allowed. Special rigging techniquesverified by a member of a qualified engineeringorganization shall be required to prove that a loadis evenly distributed over four or more sling legs.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-8


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)BalancedNote:Cl = CenterlineCG = Center of GravityCLI CGSome unbalanceCL ICGSevere unbalanceFigure 11-6. Balancing loads.Verticalsling angleTension2.8741bload (1,000 Ib)load on each sling 2.874tbLoad (1,000 Ib)load on each sling 500 Ibload (1,000 Ib)Load on each sling 1,000 Ibload (1,000 Ib)load on each sling 7071bSlin?Eangelo~dangleactor90° 1.00085° 1.004BO° 1.01575° 1.03570° 1.06465° 1.10460° 1.15555° 1.22150° 1.30545° 1.41440° 1.55535° 1.74230° 2.00025° 2.36420° 2.92415° 3.86110° 5.7475° 11.490Figure 11-7. Relationship of load angle and lifting efficiency.11-9Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)11.3.1.3 Design FactorIn general, a design factor of5:1 is maintainedthroughout this section. However, certain slingfittings, such as hooks (which will straightenwithout breaking) or links (which will deformbeyond usefulness before breaking) cannot beassigned a definite numerical design factor. Insuch cases, suitable safe loads are listed, based onwide experience and sound engineering practice.11.3.1.4 Sling CareProper care and usage are essential for maximumservice and safety. Wire-rope slings shall beprotected from sharp bends and cutting edges bymeans ofcomer saddles, burlap padding, or woodblocking. Overloading shall be avoided, as shallsudden dynamic loading that can build up amomentary overload sufficient to break: the sling.11.3.1.5 Sling StoragePersonnel using slings shall ensure that they arestored properly as follows:a. Slings should be stored in racks (preferablyvertical) and in designated locations when not inuse. Do not store slings in a location where theywill be subjected to mechanical damage, corrosiveaction, moisture, extreme heat, or kinking. Slingsmay require segregated storage as determined on acase-by-case basis.b. Before storage and periodically duringstorage, wipe slings clean to remove as much dirtand abrasive grit as possible and relubricate wirerope and chain slings to extend their useful life.Chains should not be lubricated when in use.c. Do not store metal-mesh slings in areaswhere the temperature exceeds 550 degrees F (288degrees C) or 200 degrees F (93 degrees C) ifelastomer covered.d. Do not store synthetic-web slings where thetemperature exceeds 200 degrees F (93 degreesC).11.3.2 Wire-Rope Slingsa. Ingeneral, wire-rope slings are made up of 6x 19 or 6 x 37 classification wire rope.Rotation-resistant wire rope shall not be used forwire-rope slings. Different kinds ofslings havebeen developed for specific purposes. These aredivided into different groups or types as follows:1. Endless-loop slings (grommetconstruction) and single-part slings withsingle-rope legs, double-rope legs, ormultiple-part rope legs.2. TWO-leg bridle slings with single-ropelegs, equalizing double-rope legs, or multiple-partrope legs.3. Three-leg bridle slings.4. Four-leg bridle slings.5. Special slings and combinations.b. The total load that can be safely lifted withslings depends on the rating ofthe slings and themanner in which they are attached to the load.Consult (load) Tables 11-4 through 11-9 andFigure 11-10.c. Braided slings are made by braiding ordinarywire ropes together, thus making them moreflexible than wire-rope slings. The size of abraided sling is determined by the diameter of onewire rope and the number ofropes in the crosssection ofthe sling.d. The design factor for wire-rope slings shallbe a minimum of5:1 based upon breakingstrength.e. When a wire rope sling is used in a chokerhitch, the normal angle formed in the rope body asit passes through the choking eye is 120 degreesor greater [do not confuse the choke angle with theangle ofinclination ofthe load (see Figure11-10)]. Rated load in load capacity Tables 11-4through 11-9 are for angles of 120 degrees orgreater. For smaller angles, reduce the rated loadto the percentages given in Figure 11-10.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11·10


DOE·STD·1090-96 (Rev-l)When legs are notof equal length, usesmaflest H/[ ratioNOTE: Load may be supportedon only 2 legs while 3rd legbalances it. Therefore, ther~uired SWL is determined bythe following:Total Rated Capacity = WLL(of single vertical hitch) x H/L x 2Figure 11-8. Determination of capacity---3-leg bridle sling.When legs are not of equal length,use smanest HlL ratio.NOTE: Load may be carried by only 2 legswhile other 2 legs balance it. Therefore.the required SWL is determined by the .following:Total Rated Capacity =WLL (of singlevertical hitch) x H/L x 2Figure 11-9. Determination of capacity-4-leg bridle sling.11-11Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 11-4. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.Hand tuck splice (IWRC) in pounds Design Factor =5:10 0Iit'1\: :; •_orhRllqs0 ~Basket orDia in inches Vertical Choker two leas Dia in inchesU 1\ *t_·rM>ltp ~ 11,*.. "'twol~ ~1/4 1,100 820 2,200 1,800 1,500 1,100 1/45/16 1,600 1,280 3.200 2,800 2,200 1,600 5/163/8 2,400 1,840 4,800 4,000 3,200 2,400 3/87/16 3,000 2,400 6,000 5,400 4,400 3,000 7/16*4,000 3,200 8,000 6,800 5,600 4,0009/16 5,000 4,000 10,000 8,600 7,000 5,000 9/165/8 6,000 5,000 12,000 10,400 8,400 6,000 5/83/4 8,400 7,200 16,800 14,600 11,800 8,400 3/47/8 11,000 9,600 22,000 19,200 15,600 11,000 7/81 14,000 12,600 28,000 24,000 20,000 14,000 111/8 18,000 15,800 36,000 32,000 26,000 18,000 11/8*11/4 22,000 19,400 44,000 36,000 30,000 22,000 *11/4*13/8 26,000 24,000 52,000 44,000 36,000 26,000 *13/8*1 * 32,000 28,000 64,000 52,000 42,000 32,000 *1 **15/8 36,000 32,000 72,000 62,000 50,000 36,000 *15/8*13/4 42.000 38,000 84,000 70,000 58,000 42,000 *13/4*2 56,000 48,000 112,000 92,000 74,000 58,000 *2*Notes:Wire RooeI6 x 19 and *6 x 37 IPS IWRC(CFR 1910.184/ANSI/ASME 830.9)(1) These values only apply when the Old ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches)o = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bentd = Diameter of rope(2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-12


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 11-5. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.Hand tuck splice (Fiber Core) in pounds Design Factor = 5:1Dia in inches(')oVerticalChokerI I~ ~~* I\~: j .U60' 6'---""1 I---"'~Basket ortwo legsDia in inches1/49807601,9601,7001,4009801/45/161,5001,2003,0402,6002,2001,50051163/82,2001,7004,4003,6003,0002,2003/87/162,8002,4005,6005,0004,0002,8007/163,6003,0007,2006,4005,2003,60091164,6003,8009,2008,0006,4004,6009/165185,6004,60011,2009,6008,0005,6005/83/47,8006,60015,60013,60011,0007,8003/47/810,4009,00020,80017,80014,60010,4007/813,40011,80026,80022,00018,80013,40011/816,80014,80033,60028,00024,00016,8001 118*11/420,00018,00040,00034,00028,00020,000*11/4*13/824,00022,00048,00042,00034,00024,000*13/830,00026,00060,00052,00042,00030,000*11h*15/834,00030,00068,00058,00048,00034,000*15/8*13/4.40,00034,00080,00070,00056,00040,000*13/452,00044,000104,000 90,000 74,00052,000*2Wire R0Pe/6 x 19 and *6 x 37 IPS FC(CFR 1910. 1841ANSIIASME 830.9)Notes:(1) These values only apply when the Old ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches)o=Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bentd =Diameter of rope(2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.11-13Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 11-6. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.Mechanical splice (IWRC) in pounds Design Factor = 5:1l) ~( )Ig+.!~Dia in inches Vertical Choker two leas Dia in inchesBasket or~30'_


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 11-7. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.8-part braided rope in pounds Design Factor = 5:1(Ji0~it•I/t s'.A./' '. l ) 45' •J\IBasket or tIlIll~ 11b ~) - ~Dia in inches Vertical Choker two legs Dia in inches~ "Basket or5/8 38,000 28.000 64,000 52.000 38,000 5/8314 54,000 40,000 92,000 76.000 54,000 3/47/8 72,000 54,000 124,000 102,000 72,000 7/81 94,000 70.000 162,000 132.000 94.000 1WireRope/6 x 19 IPS and *7 x 7 GaJvanized Aircraft Grade(CFR 1910. 184/ANSVASME 830.9)Notes:(1) These values only apply when the Old ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches)o = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bentd = Diameter of rope(2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees._...1Ioo1fgs*1/8 1.900 1,400 3,200 2,600 1,900 *1/8*3/16 4.200 3.000 7.200 5.800 4.200 *3/163/16 3,400 2,600 6,000 4.800 3,400 3/161/4 6.200 4.600 10,600 8.600 6.200 1/45/16 9.600 7.200 16.600 13,400 9.600 5/163/8 13.600 10.200 24.000 19,400 13,600 3/87/16 18.000 13,800 32.000 26.000 18,600 7/16*24,000 18,000 42.000 34.000 24,0009/16 30,000 22.000 52.000 42,000 30,000 9/16*11-15Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)Table 11-8. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.Cable laid grommet-hand tucked in pounds Design Factor =5:1"j ~A~ ~ ~ ~""""Basket orDia in inches Vertical Choker twoleQ 60deQrees 45deQrees 30 degrees Dia in inches*318 2,600 1,900 5,000 4,400 3,600 2,600 *3/8*9/16 5,600 4,200 11,200 9,800 8,000 5,600 *9/16*5/8 7,800 6,000 15,800 13,600 11,200 6,800 *5/83/4 10,200 7,600 20,000 17,600 14,400 10,200 3/415/16 15,800 11,800 32,000 28,000 22,000 15,800 15/1611/8 22,000 16,800 44,000 38,000 32,000 22,000 11/815/16 30,000 22,000 60,000 52,000 42,000 30,000 15/161~ 38,000 28,000 78,000 66,000 54,000 38,000 1~1 11/16 48,000 36,000 98,000 84,000 68,000 48,000 1 11/1617/8 60,000 44,000 120,000 104,000 84,000 60,000 17/821/4 84,000 62,000 168,000 146,000 118,000 84,000 21/425/8 112,000 84,000 224,000 194,000 158,000 112,000 25/83 144,000 108,000 286,000 248,000 202,000 144,000 3Notes:Wire Rope/*7 x 6 x 7 and 7 x 6 x 19/PS IWRC(1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 10 or greater (choker and basket hitches)o=Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bentd = Diameter of rope(2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.(CFR 1910. 184/ANSVASME 830.9)Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-16


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)Table 11-9. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.Strand laid grommet-hand tucked in pounds Design Factor =5:1"#~{) ~ A ~ ~Basket orDia in inches Vertical Choker twoleq 60 deorees 45deorees 3Odeorees Dia in inches~1/4 1,840 1,320 3,600 3,200 2,600 1,840 1/4318 4,000 3,000 8,000 7,000 5,800 4,000 3/8~ 7,000 5.200 14,000 12,200 10,000 7,000 ~518 10,800 8,000 22,000 18,800 15,200 10,800 5/83/4 15,200 11,400 30,000 26,000 22,000 15,200 3/4718 20,000 15,200 40,000 34,000 28.000 20,000 7/81 26,000 19,400 52,000 44,000 36,000 26,000 11 1/8 30,000 22,000 62,000 52,000 44,000 30,000 11/8*11/4 36,000 28,000 72,000 64,000 52,000 36,000 *11/4*13/8 44,000 32,000 88,000 76,000 62,000 44,000 *13/8*1 ~ 52,000 38,000 104,000 90,000 72,000 52,000 *1 }2*13/4 68,000 52,000 136,000 120,000 98,000 68,000 *13/4*2 88.000 66,000 176,000 152,000 124,000 88,000 *2Notes:Wire RODe17 x 19 and *7 x 37 IPS IWRC(1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 10 or greater (choker and basket hitches)o= Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bentd = Diameter of rope(2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.(CFR 1910. 1841ANSVASME 830.9)11-17Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Angle of choke I Rated capacity IWRCin deorees and FC rooe oercent **Over 120 10090-120 8760-89 7430-59 620-29 49**Percent of sling rated capacityin a choker hitchChoke angleof0 degreesProtectionLoadAngle of chokeAngle of inclinationFigure 11-10. Choker hitch rated capacity adjustment.Chapter 11Wire Rope anti Slings11-18


DOE-STD-!090-96 (Rev-!)11.3.2.1 Inspectionsa. Wire-rope sling users shall visually inspectall slings each day they are used or prior to useifthe sling has not been in regular service (recordsare not required). In addition, a periodicinspection (with records) shall be made at leastannually by a qualified inspector. More frequentintervals should be established ifnecessary asdetermined by a qualified person based on:1. Frequency ofsling use.2. Severity ofservice conditions.3. Nature oflifts being made.4. Experience gained on the service lifeof slings used in similar circumstances.b. Users shall carefully note any deteriorationthat could result in an appreciable loss oforiginalstrength and determine whether further use ofthesling would constitute a safety hazard.c. A sample annual inspection form is includedas Exhibit I at the end ofthis section. This form isintended to be a sample only and is not intended tobe mandatory.d. Inspection records shall be readily available.e. Slings shall be immediately removed fromservice ifany ofthe following conditions arepresent:1. Ten randomly distributed broken wiresin one rope lay or five broken wires in one strandin one rope lay.2. Wear or scraping of one-third theoriginal diameter ofthe outside individual wire.3. Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or anyother damage resulting in distortion of the ropestructure.4. Evidence ofheat damage.5. End attachments that are cracked,deformed, or worn.6. Corrosion ofthe rope or endattachments.f. Hooks shall be inspected according toChapter 12, "Rigging Accessories."11.3.2.2 Proof-Testinga. All swaged and poured socket slingassemblies shall be certified as having beenproof-tested. All other sling assemblies shall beproof- tested when specified by the purchaser.b. As a minimum, the proofload shall be equalto the rated capacity but shall not exceed:1. 125 percent ofthe vertical ratedcapacity for single-leg, hand-tucked slings.2. 200 percent ofthe vertical ratedcapacity for mechanical-splice single-leg slingsand endless slings.c. The proof- load for multiple-leg bridle slingsshall be applied to the individual legs and shall beeither 200 percent for mechanical splice or 125percent for hand-tucked splice, times the verticalrated capacity of a single-leg sling. Master linksto which multiple-leg slings are connected shall beproof-loaded to 200 percent times the forceapplied by the combined legs.d. Welded end attachments shall not be usedunless proof-tested at 2 times rated capacity priorto initial use.e. Test loads described above shall be accurateto within -5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulatedvalues. A written letter ofcertification by themanufacturer or a pull test witnessed and certifiedin writing by a qualified person is acceptable.11.3.2.3 OperationThe following shall apply to all personnel who usewire-rope slings:a. Ordinary Lifts1. Start and stop slowly; sudden startsand stops dramatically increase the stresses inhoist ropes and slings. Lift slowly until the load issuspended to minimize swinging.2. Loads shall be set on blocks. Do notpull a sling from under a load that is resting on thesling.3. Ensure that wire-rope slings areprotected against weather, chemicals, solvents,and high temperatures.4. Permanently remove from servicefiber-core rope slings that have been exposed to11-19Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)temperatures in excess of 180 degrees F (82degrees C).5. Obtain the manufacturer's writtenapproval for use ofwire rope slings of any gradeat temperatures between 400 degrees F (204degrees C) and -60 degrees F (-51 degrees C).6. Extremely low temperatures (less thanodegrees F) may cause brittle fractures. Underthese conditions, sudden loading should beavoided and the rope should be carefully observedwhile the load is being applied.7. Do not use knotted slings.8. Do not use single-leg wire-rope slingsunless proper precautions are taken to preventsuspended loads from rotating.9. Secure each leg ofa wire-rope sling atthe hook to prevent reeving ofthe sling throughthe hook.10. Do not make a complete turn of wirerope around the crane hook.11. Use protector pads or blocking atsharp comers.12. Avoid handling hot material withwire-rope slings.13. Use shackles or adjustable chokerhooks when making choker hitches.14. Store slings on racks away frommoisture and acids when not in use.15. Ensure that damaged wire-rope slingsare rendered unusable, removed from service,discarded, and replaced with new slings.16. Before use and before storage, checkwire-rope slings for:i. Broken or cut wires or strands.ii.iii.iv.Rust or corrosion.Kinks.Broken seizing wire.v. Damage to swaged fittings.vi.Other signs ofdamage or abuse.17. The capacity ofwire-rope slings isderated by the manufacturer by applying theefficiency factors such as those given in Figure11-11.18. Do not use wire-rope clips to fabricatewire-rope slings except where the application ofslings prevents the use ofprefabricated slings orwhere the specific application is designed by aqualified person. Slings made with wire rope clipsshould notbe used as a choker hitch (see Figures11-12 and 11-13).19. When wire-rope clips are used, therating ofthe sling must be derated to 80 percent ofthe wire-rope rating to allow for the inefficiency ofthe clips.20. Double-saddle clips or fist-grip clips(Figure 11-14) may be used to make upgeneral-purpose slings provided the sling isderated to 95 percent ofwire-rope capacity.21. Follow the requirements of29 CPR1926.251, Table H-20 or the manufacturer'srecommendation (whichever offers the greaterprotection) for the number ofclips required,correct spacing, and torque. After the initial loadis applied to the rope, retighten the clip nuts to therecommended torque to compensate for anydecrease in rope diameter caused by the load.Rope clip nuts should be retightened to therecommended torque periodically to compensatefor further decrease in rope diameter during usage.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-20


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 11-11. Wire-rope fastenings.Efficiencies of wire rope fittings or fasteningsin percentages of strength of rope:Open type2§J &Closed typeSwaged socket. ••• • •••• • • . • • • . •• 1()()O/OClips(number of clips varies with size ofrope)••.•••..•..••••••••••..•.••..•,. 7s-a


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)7. Locate sling eyes so that:i. Adequate clearance is maintainedbetween the attached slings andother parts or surfaces ofthecomponent or equipment.Figure 11-14. Double-saddle clips(drop-forged steel, galvanized).22. As a minimum, mark wire-rope slingswith the rated capacity and inspection due date.This information maybe stenciled or stamped on ametal tag affixed to the sling. (Stenciling orstamping on the swages ofa sling eye is notrecommended.)23. Slings made ofrope with 6 x 19 and6 x 37 construction and cable-laid slings shallhave a minimum clear length ofrope 10 times therope diameter between splices, sleeves, or endfittings.24. Braided slings shall have a minimumclear length ofrope 40 times the component(individual) rope diameter between the loops orend fittings.25. Grommets and endless slings shallhave a minimum circumferential length of96 times the body diameter ofthe grommet orendless sling.b. Critical Lifts1. All provisions ofparagraph 11.3.2.3.a,"OrdinaryLifts," also shall apply to critical lifts.2. Wire-rope sling eyes with thimblesshall be made with a thimble having a ratio ofthimble diameter (D) to rope diameter (d) of3 ormore (DId greater than or equal 3).3. Do not use wedge sockets or wire-ropeclips on slings used for critical lifts.4. Ensure that working loads ofwire-ropeslings do not exceed their rated capacities.5. Do not splice slings together.6. Use thimble eyes for slings to bejoined end-to-endii.iii.iv.There is no interference with thefunctioning ofhoisting, rigging,or handling equipment.Maximum accessibility to the eyeis maintained.Attached slings can convergeover the center ofgravity ofthelift.v. Proper stability canbemaintained during lifting andpositioning ofthe item at theinstallation site.vi.The planeofthe slinging eye iscoincident with the plane ofthesling underloaded conditionswithin ±5 degrees.vii. Sling angles are not less than 45degrees with the horizontal.8. In addition to marking requirementslisted for ordinary lifts, other items may need to bemarked as determined on a case-by-case basis,such as the reach, type, weight ofthe slingassembly, and rated capacity.11.3.3 Alloy Steel-Chain Slingsa. This section applies to slings made fromgrade 80 alloy chain manufactured and tested inaccordance with National Association ofChainManufacturers welded steel chainspecifications-1990. Ifchain other than this isused, it shall be used in accordance with herecommendations ofthe chain manufacturer.b. Alloy Steel-chain slings differ fromwire-rope slings in that components using wire arereplaced by link chain. Other sling componentsare similar. Chain slings are more rugged andflexible, but less shock resistant than wire-rope orbraided slings. The size is measured by the linkstock.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-22


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)c. Two basic types with many variations areused: basket type and hook type. An example ofeach is shown in Figure 11-15. .Double-basket typeHook typeFigure 11-15. Types of chain slings.d. Alloy-steel-chain slings shall not be heatedabove 1,000 degrees F (537 degrees C) after beingreceived from the manufacturer.e. When exposed to service temperatures inexcess of600 degrees F (315 degrees C), reduceworking load limits in accordance with the chainmanufacturer's recommendations.f. Extremely low temperatures (less than 0degrees F) may cause brittle fractures. Underthese conditions, sudden loading should beavoided and the load should be lifted a very shortdistance while the chains are carefully inspected.g. The design factor for steel-chain slings shallbe a minimum of4:1 based upon breakingstrength.h. Chains should be stored in racks or indesignated locations when not in use. Chainsshould never be stored in damp or dirty places, norinplaces exposed to the weather. For long-termstorage, they should receive a coating ofoil. Theends ofall empty chains should be hooked ontothe hoist hook or bull ring.i. Chains should not be lubricated when in usebecause this might make them dangerous tohandle. Chains should be cleaned periodically toremove abrasive grit and to facilitate inspection.j. The total load that can be lifted safely withsteel-chain slings depends on the manner by whichthe slings are attached to the load. Ifall legs ofasteel-chain sling are hooked back into the masterlink, the safe-load capacity ofthe whole sling maybe increased by 100 percent ifthe capacity ofthemaster link is not exceeded.k. The safe-load level of any chain sling is afunction ofthree basic factors: size and numberoflegs, condition ofcham and other components,and sling angle between legs and horizontal.Table 11-10 shows safe loads in pounds per legwhich can be carried by various chain-slingarrangements. Note the effect ofvery low hookheight and wide leg spreads.11.3.3.1 Pre-Use InspectionsSteel-chain sling users shall visually inspect allslings before they are used as follows:a. Conduct a link-by-link inspection for thefollowing defects: bent links, stretched links,cracks in any section oflink, scores, abrasions,heat damage, or markings tending to weaken thelinks. Reject ifdiscovered.b. Check rings and hooks for distortion, cracksin weld areas, corrosion, and scores, heat damage,or markings tending to weaken the links. Reject ifdiscovered.c. Perform inspection on an individual-linkbasis. Ifany link does not hinge freely with theadjoining link, remove the assembly from service.d. Remove from service assemblies withdeformed master links or coupling links.e. Remove from service assemblies ifhookshave been opened more than 15 percent ofthenormal throat opening measured at the narrowestpoint or twisted more than 10 degrees from theplane ofthe unbent hook.f. Do not straighten deformed hooks or otherattachments on the job. Assemblies with suchdefects shall be reconditioned by the manufactureror discarded.g. Remove from service assemblies withcracked hooks or other end attachments;assemblies with such defects shall bereconditioned or repaired prior to return to service.11-23Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


-------------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 11-10. Alloy steel chain slings in pounds Design Factor =4:1nA ~~~60° 45° 30°Size in inches Single Leg Two Legs Two Legs Two Legs Size in inches9/32 3,500 6,100 4,900 3,500 9/323/8 7,100 12,300 10,000 7,100 3/8~ 12,000 20,800 17,000 12,000 ~5/8 18,100 31,300 25,600 18,100 5/83/4 28,300 49,000 40,000 28,300 3/47/8 34,200 59,200 48,400 34,200 7/81 47,700 82,600 67,400 47,700 111/4 72,300 125,200 102,200 72,500 11/4Notes:(CFR 1910. 1841ANSf/ASME 830.9)(1) Other grades of proof tested steel chain include Proof Coil (Grade 28), Hi-Test (Grade 43) Chain and Transport (Grade 70) Chain.These grades are not recommended for overhead lifting and therefore are not covered in the applicable standards.(2) Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading between the inclined leg and the horizontal plane of the load.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-24


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)11.3.3.2 Annual Inspectionsa. A sample annual inspection form is includedas Exhibit II at the end ofthis section. This formis intended to be a sample only and is not intendedto be mandatory.b. Annual inspections shall be conducted by aqualified inspector. In addition to criteria for dailyinspections, the qualified inspector shall do thefollowing for annual inspections:1. Hang chain in a vertical position, ifpracticable, for preliminary inspection. Chainshould hang reasonably straight iflinks are notdistorted.2. Accurately measure the reach (insideofcrane ring to inside ofhook) under no loadwhen new and at each inspection, and keep arecord ofincrease in length; an increase in lengthmay be due to stretch (sign of overload or wear).3. Check for localized stretch and wear.Lift each link from its seat and visually inspect forgrooving. Ifgrooving is noticed, verify stockdiameter oflink to be within the minimum safedimensions in the table below. Reject chain ifitdoes not meet the requirements in the table.4. Remove the assembly from service ifwear at any point ofany chain link exceeds thatshown in Table 11-11.5. Round out sharp transverse nicks bygrinding. Ifthe minimum dimensions are reducedbelow those values specified in Table 11-11,remove the assembly from. service.Table 11-11. Maximum allowable wearof chains.Chain size(in.)1/43/8~5/83/47/811-1/4Maximumallowable wear(in.)3/645/647/649/6410/6411/6412/6416/646. Check for evidence ofheat damage.11.3.3.3 Proof-Testinga. Single-leg and endless alloy-steel chainslings shall be certified as having beenproof-tested to 200 percent ofthe rated capacityprior to initial use.b. The proofload for multiple-leg bridle slingsshall be applied to the individual legs and shall be200 percent ofthe vertical rated capacity ofasingle-leg sling. Master links to whichmultiple-leg slings are connected shall beproof-loaded to 200 percent multiplied by theforce applied by the combined legs.c. Test loads shall be accurate to within-5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulated values. Eithercertification by the manufacturer or a pull testcertified by a qualified person is acceptable.11.3.3.4 Operationa. The following shall apply to all personnelwho use steel-chain slings:1. Do not set a load on a sling or pull asling from under a load. Place wooden blocks orother supports under the load to provide sufficientclearance for the chain.2. Shorten chain slings byhooking backinto the chain, into the master link, or with grabhooks. Do not shorten by knotting, twisting,bolting, or inserting the tip ofthe hook into a link.3. Do not hammer a chain to force it intoposition.4. Protect chain slings from sharp comersthat might bend the links. Use a suitable pad toprevent gouging orbending ofthe chain links, aswell as possible scarring ofthe load.5. When making choker hitches withchain slings, always face the hook opening out andaway from the pull of the sling so that the hookswill not slip out when slack is taken out ofthesling.6. Check steel-chain slings for:i. Nicks, cracks, gouges, and wear.NOTE: For other sizes, consult chain orsling manufacturer.ii.Bending, stretching, or shearingoflinks.11-25Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


-_.._-----~------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)iii.Bends or distortions in hooks.ii.Manufacturer's grade.iv.Rust and corrosion.v. Uneven lengths when sling legsare hanging free.iii.iv.Rated load and angle on whichthe rating is based.Reach.vi.Evidence ofheat damage.v. Number oflegs.7. Do not weld orperform local repairson chain slings. All defective chain slings shouldbe returned, through a formal procedure, to themanufacturer for examination, repair, andrecertification.8. Avoid sudden loading ofchain slings.9. Maintain latches on hooks in goodcondition.10. Ifa chain sling does not look safe, donot use it. Do not assume that a chain sling is safebecause it looks new; look for stretched links. Ifin doubt, check with the supervisor.11. Do not carry loads on the point or tipofahook.12. Avoid unbalanced loads.13. Do not use homemade links, makeshiftfasteners formed from bolts, rods, and the like, orother nonstandard attachments.14. Do not use makeshift orfield-fabricated hooks on steel-chain slings.15. Hook the ends ofall empty chain ontothe hoist hook or bull ring..16. Ensure that steel-chain slings used inDOE-controlled areas are marked, at a minimum,with:i. Size.vi.vii.Sling manufacturer.Inspection due date.17. This information maybe stenciled orstamped on a metal tag or tags affixed to the sling.18. Where slings have more than one leg,ensure that the tag is affixed to the master linle19. Ensure that the working load does notexceed the rated capacity ofthe sling.11.3.4 Metal-Mesh Slingsa. Metal-mesh slings (Figure 11-16) shall beclassified with the designations shown inTable 11-12, based on types ofduty and materialclassification.Table 11-12. Metal-mesh slingdesignations.Tyoe Classification DesignationHeavy duty Carbon steel 35-C8Stainless steel 35-8SMedium dUty Carbon steel 43-CSStainless steel 43-88Light dUty Carbon steel 59-C8Stainless steel 59-SSb. The carbon steel used in metal-mesh slingsshall be processed to produce the requiredmechanical properties.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-26


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Female handleFlIbrIcthlckne..(~li!JB)-LTCcossroda~~ Metal~meShSpirals welded Ofbrazed to crossrOdsFigure 11-16. Typical metal-mesh sling.c. The material used for stainless-steelmetal-mesh slings shall conform, at least, to theAmerican Iron and Steel Institute standards forType-302 or Type-304 stainless steel. Othermaterials may be used. When metal-mesh slingsare produced from such materials, however, thesling manufacturer should be consulted forspecific data.d. The handle shall be designed to ensure:1. At least the same rated capacity as thefabric.2. No visible permanent deformationafter proof-testing.e. The fabric and handles shall be so joinedthat:1. The rated capacity ofthe sling is notreduced.2. The load is evenly distributed acrossthe width ofthe fabric.3. Sharp edges do not damage the fabric.f. Metal-mesh slings may be painted, plated,impregnated with elastomers such as neoprene orpolyvinyl chloride (PVC), or otherwise suitablycoated. The coating shall not diminish the ratedcapacity of a sling.g. The design factor for metal-mesh slings shallbe a minimum of5:1 based upon breakingstrength.h. Metal~mesh slings shall not be used to liftloads greater than the rated capacity, properlyderated for other than straight-pull configurations(Table 11-13).i. Except for elastomer-impregnated slings, allmetal-mesh slings covered by this section may beused without derating in a temperature range from-20 degrees F (-29 degrees C) to 550 degrees F(288 degrees C).j. All metal-mesh slings covered by thissection and impregnated with PVC or neopreneshall be used only in a temperature range from 0degrees F (-18 degrees C) to 200 degrees F (93degrees C).k For operation at temperatures outside theseranges or for other impregnations, consult themanufacturer for specific data.11-27Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 11-13. Load capacity of carbon and stainless-steel metal-mesh slings in poundsoeSlgn Factor = 5: 11! U ~ ~60° 45° 30°Basket or Basket or Basket or Basket orSling width(in.) Vertical or choker two legs two legs two legs two legs Sling width(in.)Heaw duty 1O-ga 35 spiralslft of mesh width2 1,500 3,000 2,600 2,100 1,500 23 2,700 5,400 4,700 3,800 2,700 34 4,000 8,000 6,900 5,600 4,000 46 6,000 12,000 10,400 8,400 6,000 68 8,000 16,000 13,800 11,300 8,000 810 10,000 20,000 17,000 14,100 10,000 1012 12,000 24,000 20,700 16,900 12,000 1214 14,000 28,000 24,200 19,700 14,000 1416 16,000 32,000 27,700 22,600 16,000 16Medium duty 12-ga43 spiralslft of mesh width2 1,350 2,700 2,300 1,900 1,400 23 2,000 4,000 3,500 2,800 2,000 34 2,700 5,400 4,700 3,800 2,700 46 4,500 9,000 7,800 6,400 4,500 68 6,000 12,000 10,400 8,500 6,000 810 7,500 15,000 13,000 10,600 7,500 1012 9,000 18,000 15,600 12,700 9,000 1214 10,500 21,000 18,200 14,800 10,500 1416 12,000 24,000 20,800 17,000 12,000 16Ught duty 14-ga59 spiralslft of mesh width2 900 1,800 1,600 1,300 900 23 1,400 2,800 2,400 2,000 1,400 34 2,000 4,000 3,500 2,800 2,000 46 3,000 6,000 5,200 4,200 3,000 68 4,000 8,000 6,900 5,700 4,000 810 5,000 10,000 8,600 7,100 5,000 1012 6,000 12,000 10,400 8,500 6,000 1214 7,000 14,000 12,100 9,900 7,000 1416 8,000 16,000 13,900 11,300 8,000 16(CFR 1910. 1841ANSVASME 830.9)Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-28


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)11.3.4.1 Inspectionsa. Users ofmetal-mesh sling shall visuallyinspect all metal-mesh slings before each use.b. Annual inspections shall be made by aqualified inspector, and inspection records shall bekept on file and be readily available.c. Metal-mesh slings shall be removed fromservice ifany ofthe following defects are present:1. A broken weld or brazedjoint alongthe sling edge.2. A broken wire in any part ofthe mesh.3. Reduction in wire diameter of25 percent due to abrasion or 15 percent due tocorrosion.4. Lack offlexibility due to distortion ofthe mesh.5. Distortion ofthe female handle so thedepth of the slot is increased by more than 10percent.6. Distortion ofeither end fitting so thewidth ofthe eye opening is decreased by morethan 10 percent.7. A 15 percent reduction ofthe originalcross-sectional area ofmetal at any point around ahandle eye.8. Any distortion or twisting ofeither endfitting out ofits plane.9. Cracked end fitting.10. Evidence ofheat damage.11.3.4.2 Proof-Testinga. Metal-mesh slings shall be certified ashaving been proof-tested to 200 percent of theirrated capacity prior to initial use.b. Coated slings shall be proof-tested prior tobeing coated.c. Test loads shall be accurate to within-5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. Eithercertification by the manufacturer or a pull testcertified by a qualified person is acceptable.11.3.4.3 Operationa. The following shall apply to all personnelwho use metal-mesh slings:1. Ensure that the weight ofthe load iswithin the rated capacity ofthe sling.2. Ensure that metal-mesh slings havesuitable characteristics and rated capacity for theload and environment.b. Metal-mesh slings should be long enough toprovide the maximum practical angle between thesling leg and the horizontal (minimum practicalangle at the crane hookifvertical angles are used).c. Do not shorten metal-mesh slings withknots, bolts, or other unapproved methods.d. Do not use damaged slings.e. Securely hitch metal-mesh slings to the load.f. Ensure that sharp comers are padded.g. Keep hands and fmgers outofthe areabetween the sling and the load.h. Ensure that all personnel stand clear ofthesuspended load.i. Avoid shock loading.j. Do not pull metal-mesh slings from under aload when the load is resting on the sling.k. Do not store metal-mesh slings in an areawhere they will be subjected to mechanicaldamage or corrosive action.1. Avoid twisting and kinking ofthe legs.m. In a choker hitch, ensure that metal-meshslings are long enough so that the female handlechokes freely on the mesh, never on the handle.n. In a choker hitch, ensure that the load isbalanced. When this cannot be done, consult themanufacturer for a derating factor or for othermeans ofhandling this type ofload.o. In a basket hitch, ensure that the load isbalanced to prevent slippage.p. Do not use metal-mesh slings in which thespirals are locked or are without free articulation.11-29Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE·STD·I090·96 (Rev-I)q. Never hammer a sling to straighten a spiralor cross rod or to force a spiral into position.r. Metal-mesh slings used in pairs should beattached to a spreader beam.s. Ensure that all metal-mesh slings have apermanently affixed metal identification tag ortags containing the following information:1. Manufacturer's name or trademark.2. Rated load in vertical, basket, andchoker hitches.3. Inspection due date.11.3.5 Synthetic-Web Slingsa. Synthetic web shall possess the followingqualities:1. Be ofsufficient strength to meet thesling manufacturer's requirements.2. Have uniform thickness and width.3. Have selvage edges and not be splitfrom its woven width.b. The thread used in the manufacture of asynthetic-web sling shall be ofthe same type ofmaterial as the web.c. Fittings shall be:1. Of sufficient strength to sustain twicethe rated capacity without permanent deformation.2. Of a minimum breaking strength equalto that ofthe sling.3. Free ofall sharp edges that would inany way damage the mesh.d. The stitching in all load-bearing splices shallbeofsufficient strength to maintain the slingdesign factor.e. Synthetic-web slings may be coated withelastomers or other suitable material that willprovide characteristics such as abrasionresistance, sealing ofpores, and increasedcoefficient offriction.f. The design factor for synthetic-web slingsshall be a minimum of5:1 based upon breakingstrength.g. Rated.capacities are affected by the type ofhitch used and by the angle from the vertical whenused as multilegged slings or in basket hitches.The sling manufacturer shall supply data on theseeffects.h. Synthetic-web slings are available in anumber ofconfigurations as follows (see Figure11-17):1. Endless or Grommet Sling-Bothends ofone piece ofwebbing are lapped and sewnto form a continuous piece. They can be used asvertical hitches, bridle hitches, in chokerarrangements, or as basket slings. Because loadcontact points can be shifted with every lift, wearis evenly distributed and sling life is extended.2. Standard Eye and Eye-Webbing isassembled and sewn to form a flat-body sling withan eye at each end and the eye openings in thesame plane as the sling body. The eyes may eitherbe full web width or may be tapered by beingfolded and sewn to a width narrower than thewebbing width.3. Twisted Eye-An eye-and-eye typethat has twisted terminations at both ends. Theeye openings are at 90 degrees to the plane ofthesling body. This configuration is also availablewith either full-width or tapered eyes.i. In place of the sewn eyes, synthetic-webslings are also available with metal end fittings(see Figure 11-18). The most common aretriangle and choker hardware. Combinationhardware consists ofa triangle for one end ofthesling and a triangle/rectangle choker attachmentfor the other end. With this arrangement, bothchoker and basket hitches, as well as straighthitches, may be rigged. They help reduce wear inthe sling eyes and thus lengthen sling life.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-30


~o~~~-~::~:-~-:-~_....----~DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)o§e::~-_.----~..__..• _". 01,__E:::1~_..--..--·a ..•.---.. _..-._.- :=3---.-..,,- ----------· ...------_:::::--1TaperedeyesEndless or grommet slingsStandard eye-and-eye slings.,....I"~'""'"',' '":-:" "-,'" '',' ,,'",'"'" '"Twisted-eye slingsFigure 11-17, Synthetic-web sling types,11-31Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)j. Despite their inherent toughness,synthetic-web slings canbe cut byrepeated usearound sharp-cornered objects. They eventuallyshow signs of abrasion when they are repeatedlyused to hoist rough-surfaced products. There are,however, protective devices offered by most slingmanufacturers that minimize these effects (seeFigure 11-19). Other protective devices include:1. Buffer strips ofleather, nylon, or othermaterials that are sewn on the body ofa slingprotect against wear. Leather pads are the mostresistant to wear and cutting, but are subject toweathering and gradual deterioration. They arenot recommended in lengths over 6 ft due to thedifferent stretching characteristics ofleather andwebbing. On the other hand, nylon-web wearpads are more resistant to weathering, oils, grease,and most alkalis; and they stretch in the same ratioas the sling body.2. Edgeguards consist ofstrips ofwebbing or leather sewn around each edge ofthesling. This is necessary for certain applicationswhere the sling edges are subject to damage.3. Sleeve- or sliding-tube-type wear padsare available for slings used to handle materialhaving sharp edges. They can be positioned onthe sling where required, do not move when thesling stretches, adjust to the load, and cover bothsides ofthe sling.4. Reinforcing strips that double or triplethe eye's thickness and greatly increase its life andsafety can be sewn into the sling eyes.5. Coatings can be applied to provideadded resistance to abrasion and chemicaldamage. These treatments also increase thecoefficient offriction, affording a better grip whenloads with slippery surfaces are to behandled.These coatings can bebrightly colored for safetyor load-rating purposes.6. Cotton-faced nylon webbing can beused for hoisting rough-surfaced material.k. The synthetic-web sling capacities listed inTables 11-14 and 11-15 are approximate only andare based on nylon webbing having breakingstrengths between 6,000 and 9,000 lb/in. ofwebbing width. The capacities are also based on a5:1 design factor and assume that the end fittingsare of adequate strength.1. Although safe working loads for bridlehitches in the choker or double-basketconfiguration are provided, they should be usedonly with extreme caution because, as the slingangle decreases, one edge ofthe web will take allthe load, producing a risk oftearing (see Figure11-20).m. Synthetic-web slings, other than thosedescribed in this section [Le., polyester round andkevlar fiber (yam) slings], shall be used inaccordance with the sling manufacturer'srecommendation.n. Conventional three-strand natural orsynthetic fiber rope slings are NOT recommendedfor lifting service and should be used only ifconventional sling types are not suitable for aunique application. The requirements ofASMEB30.9 ("Slings"), Section 9-4, and 29 CFR191O.184(h) shall be followed.CAUTION: Tiedown and/or ratchet strap shallnot be used as synthetic-web slings. Onlysynthetic-web slings constructed from webbingapproved for sling construction by themanufacturer or other qualified person shall beused at DOE locations.11.3.5.1 Inspectionsa. Users ofsynthetic-web sling shall visuallyinspect all slings before each use.b. Annual inspection shall be made by aqualified inspector, and inspection records shall bekept on file and readily available.c. When it is necessary to use a nylon orpolyester sling in a radiation area, the responsiblemanager shall ensure that radiation exposure doesnot exceed 100,000 rad during the life ofthe sling.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-32


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)~-.----,I)~ Choker end fittingcC--I)Triangle end fittingsFigure 11-18. Metal end fittings.REGULAR. This is the type of edgeprotection that is sewn on to givefixed protection at expected wearpoints. They can be sewn anywhereon the sling, at any length on oneside, or on both sides.EDGEGUARD. A strip of webbing orleather is sewn around each edge ofthesling. This is necessary for certain applicationswhere the sling edges are subjectto damage.SLEEVE. Sometimes called sleeve or sliding-tube typewear pads, these pads are ideal for handling material withsharp edges because the sleeve does not move when thesling stretches and adjusts to the load. Sleeves cover bothsides of the sling and can be shifted to points of expectedmaximum wear.Figure 11-19. Web and edge protectors.11-33Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 11-14. Load capacity of synthetic web slings in pounds Design Factor =5:1(eye and eye, twisted eye, triangle fittings, choker fittings)".,Yj~ ~: ... :~ u~~ ~ ~width Basket or widthWeb,!; :"Ig ~i. ., ,. i(in.) Vertical Choker two leas (in.)Nvlon Sinale Ply Web Slinas (6,000 Iblin. material)1 1,200 900 2,400 2,080 1,700 1,200 12 2,400 1,800 4,800 4,160 3,400 2,400 23 3,600 2,700 7,200 6,240 5,100 3,600 34 4,800 3,600 9,600 8,300 6,800 4,800 45 6,000 4,500 12,000 10,400 8,500 6,000 56 7,200 5,400 14,400 12,500 10,200 7,200 6Nvlon Double Plv Web Slinas (6,000 Iblin. material)1 2,400 1,800 4,800 5,600 3,400 2,400 12 4,800 3,600 9,600 8,320 6,800 4,800 23 7,200 5,400 14,400 12,480 10,200 7,200 34 9,600 7,200 19,200 16,600 13,600 9,600 45 12,000 9,000 24,000 20,800 17,000 12,000 56 14,400 10,800 28,800 25,000 20,400 14,400 6Web(CFR 1910. 1841ANSVASME 830.9)(1) For an endless sling with vertical hitch carrying a load of such size as to throw the legs more than 5 deg. off vertical use rated loaddata for eye and eye sling, basket hitch and corresponding leg angles.(2) Follow manufacturer's capacities, they vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.(3) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-34


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 11-15. Load capacity of synthetic web slings in pounds Design Factor = 5:1(eye and eye, twisted eye, triangle fittings, choker fittings)~ ~ u ~i. ,I~ ~width Basket or widthWeb.~ l~'""'!{):;(in.) Vertical Choker two legs (in.)Nylon Single Ply Web Slings (9.000 Ib/in. material)1 1600 1.280 3,200 2.nO 2,260 1,600 12 3.200 2.560 6,400 5.540 4,520 3.200 23 4.800 3.840 9,600 8.320 6.780 4,800 34 6.400 5,120 12,800 11,090 9,040 6,400 45 8,000 6,400 16,000 13,860 11,300 8,000 56 9,600 7,680 19.200 16,640 13,560 9,600 6Nylon Double Ply Web Slinas 19,000 Iblin. materiall1 3,200 2.560 6,400 5.540 4,520 3,200 12 6,400 5,120 12,800 11,090 9,040 6,400 23 8.880 7.100 17,760 15,390 12,540 8.880 34 11,520 9,210 23,040 19,660 16,270 11,520 45 14,000 11,200 28,000 24,260 19,n5 14,000 56 16,320 13.050 32,640 28,280 23,050 16,320 6(2) Follow manufacturer's capacities, they vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.Web(CFR 1910. 184/ANSI/ASME 830.9)(1) For an endless sling with vertical hitch carrying a load of such size as to throw the legs more than 5 deg. off vertical use rated loaddatafor eye and eye sling, basket hitch and corresponding leg angles.(3) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.11-35Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE·STD·1090-96 (Rev-1)certification by the manufacturer or a pull testcertified by a qualified person is acceptable.11.3.5.3 OperationThe following shall apply to all personnel who usesynthetic-web slings:a. Determine the weight ofthe load.l...-_I!.!..!ft;,'2 sling angle is too,u:Iow=-----,the webcan tear here.Figure 11-20. Effect of low sling angle.d. Slings shall be removed from service ifanyofthe following defects are visible:1. Acid or caustic burns.2. Melting or charring ofany part ofthesurface.3. Snags, punctures, tears, or cuts.4. Broken or worn stitches.5. Wear or elongation exceeding theamount recOmmended bymanufacturers.6. Distortion offittings.A sample periodic inspection form is included asExhibit III at the end ofthis section. This form isintended to be a sample only and is not intended tobe mandatory.11.3.5.2 Proof-Testinga. When specified by the purchaser, webslings ofall types shall be certified as having beenproof-tested prior to initial use.1. The proofload for single-leg slingsand endless slings shall be 200 percent ofthevertical rated capacity.2. The proofload for multiple-leg bridleslings shall be applied to the individual legs andshall be 200 percent of the vertical rated capacityofa single-leg sling. Master links to whichmultiple-leg slings are connected shall beproof-loaded to 200 percent times the forceapplied by the combined legs.b. Test loads shall be accurate to within-5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulated values. Eitherb. Select a sling having suitable characteristicsfor the type ofload, hitch, and environment.c. Ensure that slings with end fittings that areused in a choker hitch have sufficient length sothat the choking action is on the body of the sling.d. In slings used in a basket hitch, balance theload to prevent slippage.e. Do not drag slings across the floor or overany abrasive surface.f. Do not twist or tie slings into knots.g. Protect slings from being cut by sharpcomers, sharp edges, and highly abrasive surfaces.h. Do not pull slings from under loads when aload is resting on a sling.i. Do not use synthetic-web slings to lift loadsin excess of the rated capacity, properly deratedfor other than straight-pull configuration.j. Store synthetic-web slings to preventmechanical or chemical damage.k. Do not use nylon slings where acidconditions exist.1. Do not use polyester and polypropyleneslings where caustic conditions exist.m. Do not use polyester and nylon slings attemperatures in excess of 180 degrees F (82degrees C), nor polypropylene slings at greaterthan 200 degrees F (93 degrees C).n. Do not use aluminum fittings where acid orcaustic fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids arepresent.o. Ensure that each sling is permanentlymarked to show:1. Name or trademark ofmanufacturer.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-36


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)2. Manufacturer's code or stock number.3. Rated capacity for types ofhitchesused.4. Type ofsynthetic-web material.NOTE: Slings may be marked with a serialnumber or other identifying number that can beused to determine capacity in situations where itbecomes impossible to mark the sling as describedabove due to security classification ofthe loads tobe lifted or for other valid reasons approved by theresponsible manager.p. Ensure that synthetic-web slings are markedwith the inspection due date. This infonnationmay be stenciled or stamped on a metal tagaffixed to the sling.11-37Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Exhibits I through III are intended to besample fonns only and are not mandatory.Any other form that accomplishesthe purpose is acceptable.Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings11-38


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT IPage 1 of!RIGGING TACKLE ANNUAL INSPECTION(WIRE-ROPE SLINGS)INSPECTORINSPECTION DATE.NOTES: 1. Qualified inspector shall witness and verify all steps below.INSPECTION2. Proof-test to 200% ofrated capacity to certify new equipment procured withoutmanufacturer's certification. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5%, +0% ofthestipulated values.Wire rope shall be immediately removed from service ifany ofthe following conditions are present:1. Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or five broken wires in onestrand in one rope lay.2. Wear or scraping of 1/3 the original diameter ofthe outside individual wire.3. Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of thewire-rope structure.4. Heat damage.5. Cracked, deformed, or worn end attachments.6. Hooks that are cracked or opened more than 15% ofnormal throat opening measured atthe narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook.7. Corrosion ofthe rope or end attachments.Size: (Length, Diameter, Etc.)_Capacity (SWL)_Actual Load TestlbREMARKS_Qualified inspector shall inspect hook by visual examination, liquid penetrant examination, or magneticparticle examination.Acceptance: No cracks, linear indications, laps, or seams.NDT INSPECTION OF HOOKSIRINGS, ETC._QUALlFlEDINSPECTOR DATE _11-39Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)lNTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 11Wire Rope and Slings11-40


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)EXHIBIT IIPage 1 of2RIGGING TACKLE ANNUAL INSPECTION(CHAIN)INSPECTORINSPECTION DATENOTES: 1. Qualified inspector shall witness and verify all steps below.INSPECTION2. Proof-test to 200% ofrated capacity to certify new equipment procured withoutmanufacturer's certification. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5%, + 0% ofthestipulated values.1. Hang chain in a vertical position, ifpractical, for preliminary inspection. Chain shouldhang reasonably straightiflinks are not distorted.2. Accurately measure the reach (inside ofcrane ring to inside ofhook) under no loadwhen new and at each inspection, and keep a record ofincrease in length.3. Check for localized stretch and wear. Lift each link from its seat and visually inspectfor grooving. Ifgrooving is noticed, verify stock diameter oflinks to be within theminimum safe dimension in the table below.4. Sharp transverse nicks should be rounded out by grinding.5. Check for evidence ofheat damage.Chain slings shall be inunediately removed from service if any ofthe following conditions are present:a. Cracked or deformed master links, coupling links, etc.b. Hooks that are cracked or opened more than 15% ofnormal throat opening measured at thenarrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane ofthe unbent hook.c. Wear at any point of any chain link exceeding that shown in the table below.Table 11-11. Maximum allowable wear at any point of link.MaximumChain sizeallowable wear


------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT" (continued)Page 2 of2RIGGING TACKLE ANNUAL INSPECTION(CHAIN)Size & Length Actual Load Test Capacity (SWL) _Remarks ....,....- _Qualified inspector shall inspect hookby visual examination, liquid penetrant examination, or magneticparticle examination.Nondestructive test inspection ofhooks/rings, etc._QUALIFIEDINSPECTOR DATE _Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings 11-42


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)EXHIBIT IIIPage 1 of 1RIGGING TACKLE PERIODIC INSPECTION(SYNTHETIC-WEB SLINGS)INSPECTORINSPECTION DATENOTES: 1. Proof test to 200% ofrated capacity to certify new equipment procured withoutmanufacturer's certification. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5%, + 0% ofthestipulated values.2. Qualified inspector shall witness all steps below.Synthetic-web slings shall be immediately removed from service ifany ofthe following conditions are presentthat would give doubt to the integrity ofthe sling:aAcid or caustic burnsb. Melting or charring ofany part ofthe sling surfacec. Snags, punctures, tears, or cutsd. Broken or worn stitchese. Distortion offittingsf. Wear or elongation exceeding manufacturer's recommendation.TYPE: Web Sling ....,...- _SIZE: (Length, Diameter, Etc.) Capacity (SWL) _REMARKS:_QUALIFIED INSPECTOR DATE _11-43Chapter 11Wire Rope and Slings


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)INTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 11Wire Rope and Slings11-44


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CHAPTER 12RIGGING ACCESSORIESThis chapter provides requirements for rigging accessories used in hoisting and rigging-shackles, eyebolts,rings, wire-rope clips, turnbuckles, rigging hooks, and load-indicating devices.12.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-112.1.1 Inspections , , . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. 12-112.1.2 Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-312.1.3 Good and Bad Rigging Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-312.2 RIGGING HOOKS 12-6122.1 Design.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . 12-612.2.2 Marking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-612.2.3 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-612.2.4 Load LiInits 12.,612.2.5 Inspections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 12-612.2.5.1 Initial Inspection 12-612.2.5.2 Daily Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-612.2.5.3 Frequent Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-612.2.5.4 Periodic Inspection 12-812.2.6 Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-812.2.7 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-812.2.8 Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-812.3 SHACKLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-912.4 EYEBOLTS 12-1112.5 TURNBUCKLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-1412.6 LINKS AND RINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-1612.7 METAL-PLATE CLAMPS 12-1812.8 LOAD-INDICATING DEVICES 12-19Exhibit I Rigging, Tackle, Accessories Load Test and Inspection (Hooks, Shackles,Rings, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-2112-iChapter 12Rigging Accessories


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)INTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 12Rigging Accessories12-ii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)12.1 GENERALa The information presented in this chapterprovides guidance for safely handling lifted loads.Diagrams are used to illustrate hoisting andrigging principles and good and bad riggingpractices. This is not a rigging textbook; theinformation should be applied only by qualifiedriggers.b. Rigging accessories that have been damagedor removed from service shall be made unusablefor hoisting and rigging operations before beingdiscarded.c. Load tables are representative only and arenot exact for all materials or all manufacturers.d. Determine the weight ofthe load:1. From markings on the load.2. By weighing, ifthe load is still on thetruck or railroad car.3. From drawings or otherdocumentation.4. By calculation, using the loaddimensions and the weights ofcornmon materialsin Table 12-1.e. Determine the center of gravity ofthe load asaccurately as possible:1. From drawings or otherdocumentation.2. From markings on the load.3. Bycalculation.f. Determine the best method to attach the loadand select the lifting devices (e.g., eyebolts orshackles).12.1.1 Inspectionsa. The operator or other designated personshall visually inspect rigging accessories at thebeginning ofeach work shift or prior to use forthe following (records not required):3. Cracks.4. Nicks and gouges.5. Distortion such as bending or twisting.6. Evidence ofheat damage from anycause.b. A designated person shall determine whetherconditions found during the inspection constitute ahazard and whether a more detailed inspection isrequired.c. Rigging accessories having any ofthefollowing conditions shall be removed fromservice:1. Cracks.2. Distortion or deformation exceeding15 percent ofnew conditions.3. Any sign ofincipient failure in shearfor shackle pins.4. Wear exceeding 10 percent oforiginaldimensions.5. Excessive corrosion.6. Shackles not marked according toSection 12.3, "Shackles."7. Heat damage.d. A designated person shall performnondestructive examinations according toapplicable ASTM standards when needed by theresponsible line manager or that person'sauthorized representative.e. A sample load test and inspection form isincluded as Exhibit I at the end ofthis chapter.This form is a sample only and is not intended tobe mandatory.1. Wear.2. Corrosion.12-1Chapter 12Rigging Accessories


----------------------------------------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 12-1. Weights of common materials.WeightweightName of metal (Ib/tr) Name of material (Iblft )Aluminum 166 Bluestone 160Antimony 418 Brick, pressed 150Bismuth 613 Brick, common 125Brass, cast 504 Cement, Portland (packed) 100-120Brass, rolled 523 Cement, Portland (loose) 70-90Copper, cast 550 Cement, slag (packed) 80-100Copper, rolled 555 Cement, slag (loose) 55-75Gold, 24-carat 1,204 Chalk 156Iron, cast 450 Charcoal 15-34Iron, wrought 480 Cinder concrete 110Lead, commercial 712 Clay, ordinary 120-150Mercury, 60 degrees F 846 Coal, hard, solid 93.5Silver 655 Coal, hard, broken 54Steel 490 Coal, 50ft, solid 84Tin, cast 458 Coal, soft, broken 54Uranium 1,163 Coke, loose 23-32Zinc 437 Concrete or stone 140-155Earth, rammed 90-100Name of wood Granite 165-170Gravel 117-125Ash 35 Lime, quick (ground loose) 53Beech 37 Limestone 170Birch 40 Marble 164Cedar 22 Plaster of paris (cast) 80Cherry 30 Sand 90-106Chestnut 26 Sandstone 151Cork 15 Shale 162Cypress 27 Slate 160-180Ebony 71 Terra-cotta 110Elm 30 Traprock 170Fir, Balsam 22 Water 65Hemlock 31Maple, Oak 62Pine, Poplar 30Chapter 12Rigging Accessories 12-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)12.1.2 Testinga. Tackle assemblies, handling fixtures, andrigging accessories for critical-lift service shallhave an initial proof-load test of2 times the ratedcapacity. Ifproof-testing cannot be verified, thetackle shall be proof-tested before being used tomake a critical lift.b. Tackle assemblies, handling fixtures, andrigging accessories shall be tested as a unit whenpractical. When necessary, parts ofsuchassemblies may be tested individually with theapproval ofthe inspector.c. Test loads shall be accurate to within-5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulated values.d. All parts showing damage or permanentdeformation as a result ofload-testing shall bereplaced. Replacement parts shall be load-testedin accordance with this paragraph. Discardedparts shall be destroyed.e. Multileg lift assemblies shall be load-testedbased on any two legs sharing the entire load.Attach legs not undergoing test in a manner toensure that load stability is not lost during the test.f. Dynamometers and load cells shall be testedand calibrated at least once a year and whenspecified in the critical lift procedure before beingused to make a critical lift. This also applies ifthey have not been used in the previous 6 months.All calibrated devices shall have a tag affixedindicating date ofcalibration, by whom they werecalibrated, and the date that the next calibration isdue.12.1.3 Good and Bad RiggingPracticesFigure 12-1 illustrates some good and bad riggingpractices.12-3Chapter 12Rigging Accessories


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Good and Bad Rigging PracticesUse of ChokersHook SlingsGood­Hooks areturned outGood - No cutting action onrunning linesBad­HookopeningsareturnedinBad-Bolt onrunning linecan worklooseBad­Because ofcuttingaction of eyesplice onrunning lineDouble slings shall be usedwhen hoisting two or morepieces of material over12 ft longSuspending Needle Beamsor ScaffoldsRight - Load over 12 ft longGood­Sharp comerspaddedBad­Steel cancut rope..., ii :Wrong - Load over 12 ft longFigure 12-1. Good and bad rigging practices.Chapter 12Rigging Accessories 12-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Good and Bad Rigging PracticesEyeboltsHoisting Structural SteelGood­Use spaceblockS andpad cornersBad-Can bendflanges andcut ropeGood practice-verticallift on eyeboltEye SplicesGood practice - Note use ofthimble in eye spliceGood practice - Use ofthimble in eye splice@@l: ~ IS>Bad practice - Wire r0ce.e knotwith clip. Efficiency 50 Yo orlessptBad practice - lifting on eyeboltsfrom an angle reducessafe loads as much as 90%Bad practice - Thimble shouldbe used to increase strengthof eye and reduce wear on ropeFigure 12-1. (continued).12-5Chapter 12Rigging Accessories


12.2 RIGGING HOOKSDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)12.2.1 Designa. Hook design shall meet generally acceptedhook design standards and be compatible with therequirements ofASME B30.1O, Chapter 10-2,"Hook-Miscellaneous" (see Chapter 13, "LoadHooks," for equipment load hook requirements.)b. Latch-equipped hooks shall beused 1.Ullessthe application makes the use ofthe latchimpractical or unnecessary.12.2.2 MarkingThe manufacturer's identification shall be forged,cast, or die-stamped on a low-stress andnonwearing area ofthe hook.12.2.3 Constructiona. The hook material shall have sufficientductility to permanently deform before failure atthe temperature at which the hook will be used.b. Rated capacities for hooks shall equal orexceed the rated capacity ofthe chain, wire rope,or other suspension members to which they areattached.12.2.4 Load LimitsA hook shall not be loaded beyond its ratedcapacity, except as is necessary to conform to therequirements for load testing ofthe sling orhardware to which it is attached. See Table 12-2for hook capacity.12.2.5 Inspections12.2.5.1 Initial Inspectiona. A qualified inspector shall inspect all newand repaired hooks prior to initial use to ensurecompliance with the applicable provisions ofASME B30.1O Section 10-2.2. Dated and signedinspection records shall be kept on me and shallbe readily available.ofthis section.12.2.5.2 Daily Inspectiona. The operator or other designated personshall visually inspect hooks daily or prior to firstuse, ifthe hook is not in regular service, for thefollowing (records are not required):1. Cracks, nicks, gouges.2. Deformation.3. Damage from chemicals.4. Damage, engagement, or malfunctionoflatch (ifprovided).5. Evidence ofheat damage.b. A designated person shall examinedeficiencies and determine whether they constitutea safety hazard and whether a more detailedinspection is required.12.2.5.3 Frequent Inspectiona. The operator or other designated personnelshall visually inspect the hook at the followingintervals (records are not required):1. Normal service-monthly.2. Heavy service-weekly to monthly.3. Severe service-daily to weekly.b. Hook service is defmed as follows:1. Normal service-operation at less than85 percent ofrated capacity except for isolatedinstances.b. Inspection procedure and recordkeepingrequirements for hooks in regular service shall bedetennined by the kind ofequipment in which theyare used. When such requirements for hooks arestated in standards for the specific equipment,they shall take precedence over the requirementsChapter 12Rigging Accessories 12-6


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)Table 12-2. Strength of standard sling hooks.AStandard Inside diameter Throathook of lf~} A op


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)2. Heavy service--peration at 85 to 100percent ofrated capacity as a regular specifiedprocedure.3. Severe service--peration at heavyservice coupled with abnormal operatingconditions.c. These inspections shall, in addition to therequirements ofSection 12.2.5.2, "DailyInspections," include the following:1. Wear.2. Hook attachment and securing means.d. A designated person shall examinedeficiencies and determine whether a moredetailed inspection is required.12.2.5.4 Periodic Inspectiona. A qualified inspector shall perform acomplete inspection at the following intervals:1. Normal service-yearly.2. Heavy service-semiannually.3. Severe service-quarterly.b. A qualified inspector shall examinedeficiencies and determine whether they constitutea safety hazard.c. The inspection shall include therequirements ofSection 12.2.5.3, "FrequentInspection."d. Hooks shall receive a nondestructiveexamination according to applicable ASTMstandards annually.e. Hooks having any of the followingconditions shall be removed from service untilrepaired or replaced:1. Deformation-Any bending ortwisting exceeding 10 degrees (or asrecommended by the manufacturer) from the planeofthe unbent hook2. Throat opening-Any distortioncausing an increase in throat opening exceeding15 percent (or as recommended by themanufacturer).3. Wear-Any wear exceeding10 percent (or as recommended by themanufacturer) ofthe original section dimension ofthe hook or its load pin.4. Cracks.f. Ifa latch is provided and it becomesinoperative because ofwear or deformation orfails to fully bridge the throat opening, the hookshall be removed from service until the device hasbeen repaired or replaced and the throat openinghas been determined not to exceed 15 percent (oras recommended by the manufacturer).g. Dated and signed inspection records shall bekept on file and shall be readily available.12.2.6 Testinga. Hooks not attached to slings or other liftinghardware shall be proof tested to 200 percent ofthe rated capacity prior to initial use. The testload shall be accurate to within -5 percent, +0percent ofstipulated values.b. No performance testing ofhooks shall berequired, except as is necessary to conform to therequirements for the slings or rigging hardware ofwhich they are a part.12.2.7 Maintenancea. A designated person shall repair cracks,nicks, and gouges by grinding longitudinally,following the contour ofthe hook, provided thatno dimension is reduced more than 10 percent ofits original value (or as recommended by themanufacturer).b. All other repairs shall be performed by themanufacturer.12.2.8 OperationThe following shall apply to rigging hook users:a. Determine that the load or force requireddoes not exceed the rated capacity of the hook'sassembly, especially when considering specialconditions such as choking or grabbing.b. Avoid shock loading.c. Keep hands, fingers, and body from gettingbetween the hook and the load.Chapter 12Rigging Accessories 12-8


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)12.3 SHACKLESa. Shackles are made ofdrop-forged steel bentinto shape. They are strong, closed attachmentsthat will not come unhooked. The size is specifiedby the diameter ofthe body. Avoid side pulls onthe shackle body.b. Shackle pins should fit free without binding.Do not substitute a bolt for the shackle pin.Figure 12-2 shows shackles and providesexamples ofgood and bad practices andinspection points.c. Each shackle body shall be permanently andlegibly marked by the manufacturer. Raised orstamped letters on the side ofthe bow shall beused to show:1. Manufacturer's name or trademark.2. Size.3. Rated capacity.d. Shackles that are not properly marked shallbe permanently removed from service.e. When shackles are used at load angles otherthan 90 degrees, the safe-load rating shall bereduced accordingly.12-9Chapter 12Rigging Accessories


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Typical shacklesReplacing shackle pinsNever replace a shacklepin with a boltScrew pinanchor shackleRound pinanchor shacklesafety typeanchor shackleScrew pin Round pinchain shackle chain shackleShackle inspection areassafety typechain shackleCheck for wearThe load will bend the bolt'-"~_______Check for wear andstraightnessCheck that pin Isalways seated~.Check that shackle Is notopening upEccentric shackle loads00 not use screw pin shackles if the pincan roll under ioad and unscrewPacklngsHookPoor ractlceNever allow shackleto be pulled at anangle - the .egswill open upGood PracticePack the pinwith washersto centralize theshackleFigure 12-2. Shackles.Chapter 12Rigging Accessories 12-10


DOE·STD·I090-96 (Rev-I)12.4 EYEBOLTSa. Eyebolts used for hoisting shall be fabricatedfrom forged carbon or alloy steel.b. Eyebolts shall have a minimum design factorof5:1. The vertical safe-working load shall beforged, stamped, or inscribed into each eyebolt bythe manufacturer or the owner. A permanentlyattached metal tag bearing the same informationmay also be used.c. Eyebolts shall have Class n fit and have aminimum ofone-and-one-half diameters threadengagement. Nuts on through-eyebolts shall beself-locking or shall be secured with lock wires orother suitable means to prevent loosening.d. The following shall apply to eyebolt users:e. Use shouldered eyebolts for all applications,except where it is not possible due to theconfiguration ofthe item to be lifted. See Figure12-3. When unshouldered eyebolts are used, donot use nuts, washers, and drilled plates to makeshouldered eyebolts.f. Do not use wire-type or welded eyebolts inDOE-lifting operations.g. Ensure shoulders seat snugly against thesurface on which they bear.h. Spacers may be used, ifnecessary, to ensureproper seating ofthe eyebolt. Use a flat spacer nothicker than 1/16 ofthe outside diameter andapproximately the same diameter as the maximumaxis of the eyebolt shoulder with the smallestinside diameter that will fit the eyebolt shank.i. Spot-face or slightly counterbore the surfaceofthe item to which the eyebolt is fastened to theminimum depth needed for cleanup of the surfaceand complete bearing ofthe shoulder or spacer onthe bearing surface.j. Carefully inspect each eyebolt before use.Visually inspect the hole to ensure that there hasbeen no deformation. Check the condition ofthethreads in the hole to ensure that the eyebolt willsecure and the shoulder can be brought downsnug. Destroy eyebolts that are cracked, bent, orhave damaged threads.k. Ensure that the shank ofthe eyebolt is notundercut and is smoothly radiused into the planeofthe shoulder or the contour of the ring fornonshouldered eyebolts.l. When more than one eyebolt is used inconjunction with multiple-leg rigging, spreaderbars, lifting yokes, or lifting beams should be usedto eliminate angular lifting. However, wherespreaders, yokes, or beams cannot be used,eyebolts may be used for angular lifting, providedthat the limiting conditions in Table 12-3 areconsidered. An angular lift is any lift in which thelifting force is applied at any angle to thecenterline ofthe shank ofthe eyebolt.m. Where nonshouldered eyebolts must be usedfor a critical lift, ensure that an engineeringanalysis ofthe loading and load vectors is madeand approved before use. Minimize the anglebetween the sling and the eyebolt axis. In no caseshall the eyebolt loading exceed the values shownin Table 12-3.12-11Chapter 12Rigging Accessories


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)• Shouldered • UnshoulderedUnsafe(bent)Unsafe(no shoulderand open hook)• Safe(Shoulder isseated snuglyagainst surface)• Unsafe(Shoulder is notseated snuglyagainst surface)Figure 12-3. Eyebolts.Chapter 12Rigging Accessories12-12


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 12- 3. Safe Ioad"109 0 f eyeb0 ItS.VERT7S'fSEYEBOLTS- Shoulder Type Only- Forged Carbon SteelI/


12.5 TURNBUCKLESDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)a. Turnbuckles may be used in sling systemsprovided that they are engineered, designed, andapproved as a part ofthe sling system. Approvedturnbuckles shall be marked and identified for usewith the sling set for which they were designedand shall be load-tested as part of the sling set.Before each use, turnbuckles shall be inspected fordamage. Damaged threads, jamb nuts, or bentframe members make the unit unsuitable for use.b. Jamb nuts or locking devices must betightened or locked before making lifts withturnbuckles. See Figure 12-4 for safe workingload information and turnbuckle inspection areas.c. Turnbuckles shall be fabricated from forgedalloy steel and shall have a minimum design factorofS:!.d. Turnbuckles used in applications where thereis vibration shall be secured to the frame withlocks, pins, or wires to prevent turning orloosening.Chapter 12Rigging Accessories 12-14


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Turnbuckle Inspection Areas~fur~~reooso ' Check for~Checkfor.cracks and bendsthread damage. and bent rods?"< Check for cracks~~!:_;t::===::l~~;t::~and deformation&-~Check for threaddamage and bent rods~forcracksandbendS. Check for threaddamage and bent rodsEndfitting,stockdiameter(in.)Turnbuckles•Weldless Construction• Forged Alloy SteelSafe working loadSWLof(SWL) of anyany turnbucklecombination of jawhaving aend fittings, eye endhook endfittings, and stubfittingend fittings(Ib)(Ib)1/4 500 4005/16 800 7003/8 1,200 1,0001/2 2,200 1,5005/8 3,500 2,2503/4 5,200 3.0007/8 7,200 4,0001 10,000 5,00011/4 15,200 5,00011/2 21,400 7,50013/4 28,000 -3 37,000 -21/2 60,000 23/4 75,000 -TurnbucklesTurnbuckle and fittings~hU"'.'d~Jaw and Jaw combinationIIEyeJawStubHook(has reducedcapacity)Figure 12-4. Turnbuckles.12·15Chapter12Rigging Accessories


12.6 LINKS AND RINGSDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Links and rings are usually designed andmanufactured as a part ofthe lifting hardware fora specific purpose, such as the peaklinkonmultiple-leg slings. However, the rings andlinks may also be found on the load-attachmentend ofslings. Figure 12-5 shows typical rings andlinks. Table 12-4 provides safe loads for weldlessrings and links.Ring andthimbleLink andthimbleLink andclosedsocketLink andshort linkand thimbleShort linkand thimbleFigure 12-5. Rings and links.Chapter 12Rigging Accessories 12-16


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 12-4. Safe loads for weldless rings and links.oRINGSDimensions Est. wt., Safe load,Diam., stock Diam., inside each single pull(in.) (in.) (Ib) (Ib)"7/8 4 23/4 7,2007/8 51/2 31/2 5,6001 4 3 5/8 10,8001 1/8 6 61/2 10,4001 1/4 5 7 17,0001 3/8 6 10 19,000SUNGUNKSDiam., Length, Inside Inside Est. wt. Safe load,stock inside width, width, per 100 single pUll(in.) (in.) small end large end (Ib) -(Ib)3/8 21/2 3/8 1 1/4 23 1,8001/2 3 1/2 1 5/8 50 3,200*5/8 3 3/4 1 1/4 21/2 110 4,200*3/4 41/2 1 1/2 3 190 6,000*7/8 51/4 1 3/4 31/2 285 8,300*1 6 2 4 430 10,8001 1/4 6 1 1/4 33/4 700 22,000*1 3/8 81/4 23/4 51/2 1125 20,500*Sizes of sling links denoted by the asterisk are new and have the largerinside dimensions needed for 2-leg slings.oEND LINKSDiam., Inside Inside Est. wt. Suggestedstock length width per 100 safe loads(in.) (in~) (in.) (lb) (Ib)5/16 1 3/4 1/2 14 2,5003/8 1 7/8 9/16 21 3,8001/2 23/8 3/4 48 6,5005/8 31/4 1 92 9,3003/4 31/2 1 1/8 137 14,0007/8 51/8 2 275 12,0001 51/8 2 360 17,0001 1/4 67/16 21/4 700 28,0001 3/8 7 3/4 2 3/4 1000 30,00012-17Chapter 12Rigging Accessories


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)12.7 METAL-PLATE CLAMPSa. Metal-plate clamps are designed specificallyfor lifting metal plates. They may also be used forlifting fiber sheets. Their grip or hold isdetermined by the weight or pull ofthe load.b. The following applies to users ofmetal-plateclamps:c. The plate shall be inserted all the way intothe clamp to obtain a good grip. Ensure properorientation ofthe clamp. See Figure 12-6.d. Plate clamps are suitable for handling onlyone plate at a time.e. Avoid side pulls on plate clamps.f. Check plate clamps for wear in the jaws andfor loose, worn, or broken parts.g. Ensure that the rated capacity ofeach plateclamp is stamped on its body.SafeUnsafeFigure 12-6. Metal-plateclamps.Chapter 12Rigging Accessories 12-18


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)12.8 LOAD-INDICATING DEVICESa. Load-indicating devices are not required inroutine operations where loads ofknown andessentially consistent weight are to behandled.Rather, load-indicating devices are required foruse with loads ofuncertain weight that could bewithin 90-100 percent ofthe rated capacity oftheequipment or maximum working load ofany partofthe tackle. Use load-indicating devices wherethe equipment! tackle configuration could result inbinding or friction ofthe load that could cause agreater stress in the hoist or tackle than wouldresult from the apparent hook load.b. The accuracy ofload-indicating devices shalldepend on the requirements ofthe load systemplanned and shall not restrict the systemrequirements; an accuracy of2 percent offull-scale reading within 10-70 percent ofinstrument range is recommended. The deviceshould be selected so that the estimated hook loadlies between 10 and 70 percent ofthe instrumentrange.c. Dynamometers commonly have designfactors ofless than 5:1. Any combination wherethe safety {actor ofthe dynamometer times thecapacity ofthe dynamometer divided by the loadequals 5 is acceptable.d. When dynamometers are used asload-bearing parts ofrigging, they must beconstructed to provide a measure ofsafety andreliability equal to that ofthe associated rigging,or a safety device must be installed to preventdropping the load in the event ofa failure.12-19Chapter 12Rigging Accessories


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Exhibit I is intended to be a sampleform only and is not mandatory.Any other form that accomplishesthe purpose is acceptable.Chapter 12Rigging Accessories12-20


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)EXHIBIT IPage 1 of1RIGGING, TACKIE, ACCESSORIES LOAD 1EST AND INSPECTIONmooKS, SHACKLES, RINGS, ETC.)INSPECTORINSPECTION DA1E .NOTES: 1. Prooftest to 200% ofrated capacity for critical lift service to certify new equipment procured withoutmanufacturer's certification. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5%, +0% ofthe stipulated values.2. Qualified inspector shall witness all steps below.3. Accept/reject data should be to manufacturer's specifications. Hooks, shackles, rings, and the like,shall be removed from service and discarded ifany ofthe following conditions are present that wouldcause doubt oftheintegrity ofthe accessories:A. Corrosion, damage, or undue wearB. Cracks, twists, or significant change in openings(1) 15% more than normal opening(2) 10% twist more than normal from the plane ofthe unbent hook(3) 10% wear(4) 5% elongation ofthe hook shankC. Heat damage.4. Shackles, rings, etc.A. Wear, corrosion, spreading, and deformation(1) 15% deformation oftheir new condition(2) Shackle pins-any sign ofincipient failure in shear.TypeTested toSerial Numbers_Size Rated Capacity (SWL) __Qualified inspector shall perform a nondestructive test byvisual examination, liquid penetrant examination, or magneticparticle examination.Acceptance: No cracks, linear indications, laps, or seams.QUALlFIEDlNSPECTORVERIFY DA1E _12-21Chapter 12Rigging Accessories


---------------------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)INTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 12Rigging Accessories 12-22


CHAPTER 13LOAD HOOKSDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)This chapter provides safety standards for the inspection, testing, and maintenance ofload hooks installed oncranes or hoists and implements the requirements ofASME B30.1O, Chapter 10-1, "Hooks:' See Chapter 12,"Rigging Accessories," for rigging hook requirements.13.1 GENERAL.................... 13-113.1.1 Marking ~ '" .. ,. . . 13-113.1.2 Attachments. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . 13-113.1.3 I...oadLimits.... 13-113.1.4 HookStandards '..... 13-113.2 INSPECTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-213.2.1 Hook Service 13-213.2.2 Initial Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-213.2.3 Daily Inspection '.' . . . . . . . . 13-213.2.4 FrequentInspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-213.2.5 Periodic Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-213.3 TESTING.......................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-413.4 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-613.4.1 NOT Requirements 13-613.4.2 NDT Records 13-613.4.3 NOT Methods 13-613.4.4 Acceptance Criteria 13-613.4.5 Discontinuity Removal. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-613.5 MAlNfENANCE........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-813.6 OPERATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13-913-iChapter 13Load Hooks


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)INTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 13Load Hooks13-ii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)13.1 GENERAL13.1.1 MarkingThe manufacturer's identification shall be forged,cast, or die-stamped on a low-stress andnonwearing area ofthe hook.13.1.2 Attachmentsa. Hoisting hooks shall be fitted with a latch tobridge the throat opening to prevent the accidentalrelease ofslings or attachments. Hooks withoutlatches may be used in special applications wherethe latch would interfere with the proper use of thehook, providing that (1) the use ofthe hook isrestricted to the application for which it isapproved, and (2) in questionable cases,concurrence is obtained from the appropriatesafety organization.b. Ifa handle or latch support whose designrequires heat-treating is welded to the hook,welding shall be done prior to final heat-treating.13.1.3 Load LimitsHooks shall not be loaded beyond rated capacityexcept during load tests of the equipment ofwhichthey are a part.13.1.4 Hook Standardsa. Hook design shall meet generally acceptedhook design standards and be compatible with therequirements ofASME B30.10.b. The hook material shall have sufficientductility to permanently defonn before failure atthe ambient temperatures at which the hook willbe used.c. When a latch is provided, it shall bedesigned to retain such items as slings under slackconditions. The latch is not intended to supportthe load.d. The bearing surfaces ofnew hooks shall bethe arc ofa circle. Gauge points, or hook gauges,for measuring spread after load testing should beprovided.e. Field-fabricated hooks shall meet therequirements ofthis section and shall be approvedby the cognizant engineering and safetyorganizations.13-1Chapter 13Load Hooks


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)13.2 INSPECTIONS13.2.1 Hook ServiceHook service is defmed as follows:a Nonnal service-operation at less than85 percent ofrated capacity except for isolatedinstances.b. Heavy service-operation at 85 to100 percent ofrated capacity as a regularspecified procedure.c. Severe service-operation at heavy servicecoupled with abnormal operating conditions, (Le.,extreme temperatures, corrosive atmospheres,etc.)13.2.2 Initial Inspectiona. Prior to initial use, all new and repairedhooks shall be inspected by a qualified inspectorto ensure their compliance with the applicableprovisions ofASME B30.1O Section 10-1.2.Dated and signed inspection records shall be kepton file and shall be readily available.b. Inspection procedure and recordkeepingrequirements for hooks in regular service shall begoverned by requirements for the kind ofequipment in which they are used. When suchrequirements are stated in standards for thespecific equipment, they shall take precedenceover the requirements of this section.13.2.3 Daily Inspectiona. Operators or other designated personnelshall visually inspect hooks for deficiencies suchas the following each day or prior to use ifthehook has not been in regular service (records arenot required):1. Cracks, nicks, and gouges.2. Deformation.3. Damage from chemicals.4. Latch engagement, damage to ormalfunction oflatch (ifprovided).5. Evidence ofheat damage.b. A designated person shall examinedeficiencies and detennine whether they constitutea safety hazard and whether a more detailedinspection is required.13.2.4 Frequent Inspectiona. Operators or other designated personnelshall visually inspect the hook at the followingintervals (records are not required) :1. Normal service-monthly.2. Heavy service-weekly to monthly.3. Severe service-daily to weekly.b. These inspections shall, in addition to therequirements ofSection 13.2.3, "DailyInspection," include the following:1. Wear.2. Hook attachment and securing means.c. A designated person shall examinedeficiencies and detennine whether they constitutea safety hazard and whether a more detailedinspection is required.13.2.5 Periodic Inspectiona. A qualified inspector shall perform acomplete inspection at the following intervals:1. Nonnal service-yearly.2. Heavy service-semiannually.3. Severe service-quarterly.b. A designated person shall examinedeficiencies and determine whether they constitutea safety hazard.c. The inspection shall include therequirements ofSection 13.2.4, "FrequentInspection."d. Hooks shall receive a nondestructive test(NDT) according to Section 13.4, "NondestructiveTesting."e. Hooks having any of the followingconditions shall be removed from service untilChapter 13Load Hooks 13-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)repaired or replaced:1. Deformation-Any bending ortwisting exceeding lOE(or as recommended bythe manufacturer) from the plane ofthe unbenthook.2. Throat opening-Any distortioncausing an increase in throat opening exceeding15 percent (or as recommended by themanufacturer).3. Wear-Any wear exceeding10 percent (or as recommended by themanufacturer) ofthe original section dimension ofthe hook or its load pin.4. Cracks.5. Ifa latch is provided and it becomesinoperative because ofwear or deformation orfails to fully bridge the throat opening, the hookshall beremoved from service until the device hasbeen repaired or replaced and the throat openinghas been assessed as described above.f. Ifhooks are painted, a visual inspectionshould take the coating into consideration.Surface variations can disclose evidence ofheavyor severe service. The surface condition may callfor stripping the paint in such instances.g. Dated and signed inspection records shall bekept on file and shall be readily available.h. A sample load test and inspection form isincluded as Exhibit I in Chapter 12, "RiggingAccessories." This form is intended to be a sampleonly and is not intended to be mandatory.13-3Chapter 13Load Hooks


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)13.3 TESTINGa. Eachhook of 150-ton capacity or greater anda prototype ofeach hook design ofless thanISO-ton capacity shall be proof-tested by themanufacturer in accordance with Table 13-1.b. When prooftests are used, the hooks shallwithstand the proofload application withoutpermanent deformation when the load is appliedfor a minimum of 15 sec. This condition isconsidered satisfied ifthe permanent increase inthe throat opening does not exceed 0.5 percent or0.01 in. (0.25 rom), whichever is greater.c. For a duplex (sister) hook having a pin eye,the proofload for the eye shall be in accordancewith Table 13-1. Theproofload shall be sharedequally between the two prongs ofa sister hook,unless the hook is designed for unbalancedloading.d. Hooks that havebeen proof-tested shall beinspected by the magnetic-particle method inaccordance with ASTM E-709 ("StandardPractice for Magnetic Particle Examination") andshall show no cracks, inclusions, or other relevantdiscrepancies; castings shall be evaluated inaccordance with ASTM E-165 ("StandardPractice for Liquid Penetrant InspectionMethod.")e. No performance testing ofhooks shall berequired, except as is necessary to conform to therequirements for the equipment ofwhich they areapart.Chapter 13LoadHooks 13-4


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)Table 13-1. Proof test load.Rated load,Proof load (minimum),tons % tons(2,000Ib) kg rated load (2,000Ib) kg0.50 453.6 200 1 907.21 907.2 200 2 1,814.45 4,536 200 10 9,07210 9,072 200 20 18,14415 13,608 200 30 27,21620 18,144 200 40 36,28825 22,680 200 50 45,36030 27,216 200 60 54,43235 31,752 200 70 63,50440 36,288 200 80 72,57645 40,824 200 0 81,64850 45,360 200 100 90,72060 54,432 193 116 105,23575 68,040 183 137 124,286100 90,720 166 166 150,595125 113,400 150 188 170,554150 136,080 133 200 181,440175 158,760 133 233 211,378200 181,440 133 266 241,315250 226,800 133 333 302,098300 272,160 133 399 361,973350 317,520 133 465 421,848400 362,880 133 532 482,630450 408,240 133 598 542,506500 453,600 133 665 603,288Above 500 453,600 133Note: 1 ton (short, 2,000 Ib) =907,2 kgFor hooks with load ratings not shown above, use the next lower load rating for determining the percent ofrated load to be applied.13-5Chapter 13Load Hooks


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)13.4 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) _13.4.1 NDT Requirementsa. For crane and hoist hooks of 10-ton ratedcapacity or greater that are assigned to heavy orsevere service, a qualified inspector shall performan NDT at the following intervals:1. Heavy service: annually.2. Severe service: semiannually.b. A designated person or a qualified inspectorshall perform an NDT for other hooks whendeemed necessary for site-specific reasons.c. Ifvisual examination reveals a surfaceintersecting discontinuity (Le., stress or fatiguecracks), a twist, increased throat opening, or anyother defect, an NDT shall be performed toevaluate the hook further, regardless ofits ratedcapacity or service classification.13.4.2 NOT RecordsDated and signed NDT records, traceable to thehook by a serial number or other identifier, shallbe kept on ftle as long as the hook remains inservice and shall be readily available to appointedpersonnel.13.4.3 NDT Methodsa. Use magnetic-particle testing orliquid-penetrant testing methods to inspect forsurface intersecting discontinuities.b. A qualified inspector or designated personshall perform NDTs in accordance with thefollowing ASTM standards:1. ASTM E-709.2. ASTME-165.c. For magnetic-particle testing, a coil, yoke, orwet technique should be used to eliminate thepossibility ofprod burns or arc strikes.d. Perform an NOT with the hook in placeunless conditions indicate that disassembly forthread or shank inspection is necessary.13.4.4 Acceptance CriteriaA designated person shall document and resolvethe following relevant indications:a. Arc strikes (welding or electrical).b. Surface intersecting discontinuities 0.25 in.long or longer.13.4.5 Discontinuity Removala. Two directions ofdiscontinuity, "P" and"T," are shown on Figures 13-1 and 13-2.Discontinuity "P" parallels the contour ofthehook, is considered nonserious, and does notrequire removal. Discontinuity "T," on the otherhand, is transverse to the contour of the hook andis more serious; when occurring in zones B, C, orD, discontinuity "T' may reduce the longevity ofthe hook.b. Discontinuities may be removed by grindinglongitudinally following the contour ofthe hook toproduce a smooth, gently undulating surface. Inzones B and D, such grinding shall not reduce theoriginal hook dimension by more than 10 percent.Such a reduction will not affect the working loadlimit rating or the ultimate load rating ofthe hook.In zone C, grinding shall not reduce the originaldimension by more than 5 percent.c. Under normal and proper application, zoneA is an unstressed zone. Therefore, it is notrequired that discontinuities in that zone beground out.d. The hook shall be reexamined by performingan NOT after grinding to verify removal ofrelevant discontinuities.Chapter 13Load Hooks 13-6


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Zone} Two-thirds-------~~~~_} One-thirdFigure 13-1. Shank hook.ZoneFigure 13-2. Eye hook.13-7Chapter 13Load Hooks


-------------------------------~--13.5 MAINTENANCEDOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)a. A hook latch that is inoperative or missingshall be replaced.b. A hook with a latch that does not bridge thethroat opening shall beremoved from service untilthe latch is replaced or repaired and the hook isexamined for deformation with special attention tothe throat opening. .c. A designated person shall repair cracks,nicks, and gouges by grinding longitudinally,following the contour ofthe hook, provided nodimension is reduced more than 10 percent (or asrecommended by the manufacturer) ofits originalvalue.d. All other repairs shall be performed by themanufacturer or a qualified person.Chapter 13Load Hooks 13-8


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)13.6 OPERATIONHook users shall do the following:a. Determine that the weight ofthe load to belifted does not exceed the load rating ofthe hook.b. Avoid shock loading.c. Center the load in the base (bowl or saddle)ofthe hook to prevent point loading ofthe hook.d. Do not usehooks in such a manner as toplace a side- or backload on the hook.e. When using a device to bridge the throatopening ofthe hook, ensure that no portion oftheload is carried by the bridging device.f. Keep hands and fmgers from between thehook and the load.g. Load duplex (sister) hooks equally on bothsides, unless the hook is specifically designed forsingle loading.h. Do not load the pinhole in duplex (sister)hooks beyond the rated load ofthe hook.13-9Chapter 13Load Hooks


-------------------------------------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)INTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 13Load Hooks 13-10


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)CHAPTER 14BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICESThis chapter provides the requirements for below-the-hook lifting devices used in hoisting and rigging, suchas spreader bars, lifting yokes, and lift fixtures. This section implements the requirements ofASME B30.20,"Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices."14.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-114.2STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL LIFTING DEVICES .14.2.1 DesignlFabrication , , ..14.2.2 Marking .14.2.3 ModificationlR.erating .14.2.4 Guarding .14.2.5 Inspections , .14.2.5.1 Initial Inspection .14.2.5.2 Frequent Inspection .14.2.5.3 Periodic Inspection .14.2.6 Testing .14.2.6.1 Operational Test .14.2.714.2.814.2.914.2.6.2 Rated Load Test .Maintenance .Training/Qualification .Operation .14-214-214-214-214-214-214-214-214-514-514-514-514-614-614-614.314.4VACUUM LIFTING DEVICES .14.3.1 DesignlFabrication , ..14.3.2 Marking .14.3.3 Installation .14.3.4 Inspections .14.3.4.1 Initial Inspection .14.3.4.2 Frequent Inspection .14.3.4.3 Periodic Inspection ..14.3.5 Testing .14.3.5.1 Operational Test .14.3.614.3.714.3.814.3.5.2 Rated Load Test .Maintenance .Training/Qualification .Operation " .MAG~TS,CLOSE-PRO~Y-OPERATED .14.4.1 DesignlFabrication .14.4.2 Marking .14.4.2.1 Rated Load (Capacity) .14.4.2.2 Controls .14.4.3 Installation .. ; .14.4.4 Inspections .14.4.4.1 Initial Inspection .14.4.4.2 Frequent Inspection .14-714-714-714-914-914-914-914-914-1014-1014-1014-1014-1014-1114-1214-1214-1214-1214-1214-1214-1414-1414-1414-iChapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)14.4.4.3 Periodic Inspection 14-1414.4.5 Testing 14-1414.4.5.1 Operational Test 14-1414.4.5.2 Rated Load Test 14-1514.4.6 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-1514.4.7 Training/Qualification 14-1514.4.8 Operation 14-1614.4.8.1 External-PoweredElectromagnets 14-1614.4.8.2 Battery-OperatedElectromagnets 14-1614.4.8.3 Electrically Controlled Permanent Magnets 14-1614.4.8.4 Manually Controlled Permanent Magnets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-1614.5 ~(}~TS,REM011E-OP~Tlll) .14.5.1 DesignlFabrication .14.5.2 Marking .14.5.3 Installation .14.5.4 Inspections .14.5.4.1 Initiat'lnspection .14.5.4.2 FrequentInspection .14.5.4.3 Periodic Inspection .14.5.5 Testing .14.5.614.5.714.5.814.5.5.1 Operational Test .Maintenance .Training/Qualification .Operation .14-1714-1714-1714-1714-1714-1714-1714-1714-1914-1914-1914-1914-20Exhibit I Lifting Bars and Spreaders Load Test and Inspection 14-22Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices14-ii


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.1 GENERALa. Special lifting devices for shippingcontainers weighing to,OOO lb or more that areused for radioactive materials are governed byANSI N14.6 ["Standard for Special LiftingDevices for Shipping Containers Weighingto,OOO Pounds (4,500 kg) or More for NuclearMaterials."]b. Below-the-hook lifting devices are arrangedin the following groups because ofthe diversity oftypes:2. Vacuum lifting devices.3. Close-proximity-operated magnets.4. Remote-operated magnets.c. Slings and rigging accessories that may becomponents in a below-the-hook lifting device arecovered in Chapters 11 and 12 ("Wire Rope andSlings" and "Rigging Accessories," respectively)ofthis manual.1. Structural and mechanical liftingdevices..14-1Chapter 14Below-the-HookLifting Devices


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.2 STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL LIFTINGDEVICESa. Structural and mechanical lifting devices areoften one-of-a-kind designs. Typical devicesinclude:1. Load-supporting lifting devices(Figure 14-1).2. Friction-type pressure gripping liftingdevices (Figure 14-2).3. Indentation-type gripping liftingdevices (Figure 14-3).4. Cask lift fIxtures (Figure 14-4).14.2.1 Design/FabricationStructural and mechanical lifting devices shall bedesigned and fabricated according to theprovisions ofASME B30.20, 20-1.2.2.14.2.2 Markinga The rated capacity ofeach lifting deviceshall be marked on the main structure where it isvisible and legible. Ifthe lifting device comprisesseveral items, each detachable from the assembly,each lifting device shall be marked with its ratedcapacity. At a minimum, a nameplate, name tag,or other permanent marker shall be afftxeddisplaying the following data:1. Manufacturer's name (contractor'sname iffabricated onsite).2. Lifting device weight (if over 100 lb).3. Serial number (if applicable).4. Rated capacity.b. A rerated lifting device shall be relabeledwith the new rated capacity.c. Cases may exist where a lifting devicecannot be marked with its rated capacity andweight~ This may be due to the securityclassification ofthe load to be lifted or otherreasons approved by the responsible manager. Inthese cases, the lifting device shall be marked withan identification number, and its documentationshall describe both its rated capacity and weight.14.2.3 Modification/Reratinga. Structural and mechanical lifting devicesmay be modified or rerated if the changes areanalyzed by a qualifted engineer or themanufacturer ofthe lifting device.b. Rerated or modifIed lift ftxtures shall beload-tested as described in Section 14.2.6.2,"RatedLoad Test," below.14.2.4 GuardingExposed moving parts or pinch points, such asgearing, chain drives, and rotating shafts, that maybe a hazard to personnel during lifting operationsshall be guarded.14.2.5 Inspections14.2.5.1 Initial InspectionPrior to their initial use, a qualifIed inspector shallinspect all new, modified, or repaired liftingdevices to ensure compliance with Section14.2.5.3, "Periodic Inspection:'14.2.5.2 Frequent Inspectiona. The operator or other designated personshall visually inspect each lifting device at thebeginning ofeach shift or prior to use, ifit has notbeen in regular service, for the following items orconditions (records are not required):1. Structural deformation, cracks, orexcessive wear on any part.2. Loose or missing guards, fasteners,covers, stops, or nameplates.3. All operating mechanisms andautomatic hold-and-release mechanisms formisadjustments interfering with operation.4. The operator or designated person shallcarefully examine any defIciencies and determinewhether they constitute a hazard. Deficienciesnoted during the inspection shall be correctedbefore the lifting device is used.Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-2


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)Balanced palletLifting beam (spreader beam)..Telescoping coil grabCoil lifting hook beamFigure 14-1. Load-supporting lifting devices.Roll grab, core gripBar TongMotor-driven roll grab. end gripVertical Axis Coil GrabFigure 14-2. Friction-type pressure gripping lifting devices.14-3Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


.----------------------------------------~-DOE-STD-i090-96 (Rev-i)Automatic Ingot Tong (2 point) Automatic Slab Tong (4 point)Figure 14-3. Indentation-type gripping lifting deviceFigure 14-4. Typical cask lift fixture.Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices14-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.2.5.3 Periodic Inspectiona. A qualified inspector shall perform acomplete inspection at the following intervals:1. Normal service-yearly. Inspectequipment at site ofuse.2. Heavy service-semiannually. Inspectequipment at site ofuse unless external conditionsindicate that disassembly should be done to permitdetailed inspection.3. Severe service-quarterly. Inspectequipment at site ofuse unless external conditionsindicate that disassembly should be done to permitdetailed inspection.4. Special or infrequent service-asrecommended by a qualified person before thefirst such use and as directed by the qualifiedperson for any subsequent uses.b. Lifting device service is defmed as follows:1. Normal~peration with variousweights within the rated load limit, or uniformloads less than 65 percent ofrated load.2. Heavy~peration within the ratedload limit that exceeds normal service.3. Severe~peration at normal or heavyservice under abnormal operating conditions.c. This inspection shall include the items listedin Section 14.2.5.2, "Frequent Inspection," inaddition to the following:1. Loose bolts or fasteners.2. Cracked or worn gears, pulleys,sheaves, sprockets, bearings, chains, and belts.3. Excessive wear offriction pads,linkages, and other mechanical parts.4. Excessive wear at hoist-attachingpoints and load-support shackles or pins.5. External evidence ofdamage to motorsor controls.d. A qualified inspector shall inspect fixturesnot in regular use according to periodic inspectionrequirements before placing them in service.e. Dated reports ofeach periodic inspectionshall be prepared. They shall be kept on file andshall be readily available. A sample load test andinspection form is included as Exhibit I at the endofthis section. This form is intended to be asample only and is not intended to be mandatory.14.2.6 Testing14.2.6.1 Operational TestNOTE: Special lifting devices for shippingcontainers weighing 10,000 lb or more that areused for radioactive materials must be tested inaccordance with ANSI NI4.6.a. Modified orrepaired lifting devices shall betested before initial use to ensure compliance withthe requirements ofthis section (test reports kepton file). Testing shall include the following:1. Lifting devices with moving parts shallbe tested to confirm that the lifting device operatesin accordance with manufacturer's instructions.2. Lifting devices with manually operatedor automatic latches shall be tested to verify thatthe latches operate in accordance withmanufacturer's instructions.14.2.6.2 Rated Load Testa. All new, altered, modified, or repaired liftingdevices shall be tested and inspected before use.The results ofthe test and inspection shall bedocumented in the equipment history file.b. The rated capacity shall not be more than 80percent ofthe maximum load sustained during thetest. Test loads shall not be more than 125percent ofthe rated capacity unless otherwiserecommended by the manufacturer.c. The rated load test shall consist ofthefollowing:1. Hoist the test load a sufficient distanceto ensure that it is supported by the lifting device,or apply the required load if the test is made usinga testing machine. Personnel shall remain clear ofsuspended loads.2. Visually inspect the lifting device fordeformation, cracks, or other defects after the loadtest is completed.14-5Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.2.7 Maintenancea. A preventive maintenance program shouldbe established and be based on recommendationsmade by the lifting device manufacturer or aqualified person.b. Replacement parts shall be equivalent to theoriginal specifications.14.2.8 Training/Qualificationa. Below-the-hook lifting device operators shallbe trained and qualified as required in Chapter 6,"Personnel Qualification and Training." At aminimum, instruction should include thefollowing:1. Application ofthe lifting device to theload and adjustments to the device, if any, thatadapt it to various sizes or kinds ofloads.2. Any special operations or precautions.3. Condition ofthe load itselfrequiredfor operation ofthe lifting device such as balance,degree oforder ofstacked loads, surfacecleanliness, bending, and load thickness.4. Procedure for storage oflifting deviceto protect it from damage.5. Instructions for not exceeding the ratedcapacity ofthe lifting device or the capacity ofthehoisting equipment by the combined weight of theload, the lifting device, and the rigging.b. Operators shall demonstrate the ability andcompetence to operate the lifting device asinstructed before assuming responsibility forusing it.14.2.9 Operationa. Only the following personnel shall operatestructural and mechanical lifting devices:1. Qualified operators or riggers.2. Trainees under the direct supervisionof a qualified operator.3. Maintenance and test personnel, whenit is necessary in the performance oftheir duties.4. Inspectors oflifting devices.b. The following shall apply to all personnelwho operate structural and mechanical liftingdevices:1. Observe the condition ofthe liftingdevice before use and during operation. Ifyouobserve a defect that affects the continued safe useofthe lifting device, remove it from service.2. Place any attached load on the floor orground and, after use, properly store the liftingdevice before leaving.3. Before they are used on each shift, testthe lifting device controls. IT any controls do notoperate properly, adjust or repair them beforeoperations begin.4. Do not load the lifting device in excessofits rated capacity (except for test loads) orhandle any load for which itis not designed.5. Apply the lifting device to the load inaccordance with established procedures.6. Before lifting, ensure thatlifting-device ropes or chains are not kinked andmultiple-part lines are not interwoven.7. Ensure that the load is correctlydistributed for the lifting device being used.8. Do not use the lifting device for sidepulls or sliding the load unless specificallyauthorized by a qualified person orby anapproved procedure.9. Do not use a lifting device that istagged "Danger-Do Not Operate" or otherwisedesignated as nonfunctional.10. Do not remove "Danger-Do NotOperate" tags from lifting devices without theapproval ofthe person who placed them or anauthorized person.11. Store the lifting device in a dry, insidelocation when not in use.12. Ensure that markings or tags are notremoved or defaced. Replace missing or defacedmarkings or tags. .Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-6


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)14.3 VACUUM LIFTING DEVICESTypical power-operated and mechanicallyoperated vacuum lifting and manipulating devicesare shown in Figures 14-5 and 14-6. This sectiondoes not cover devices used to handle porousmaterials, which requires special design andconstruction.14.3.1 Design/FabricationPower- and mechanically operated vacuum liftingdevices shall be designed and fabricated accordingto the provisions ofASME B30.20, 20-2.2.2.14.3.2 Markinga. The rated capacity, maximum width andlength, and minimum thickness ofload shall bemarked on the main structure where it is visibleand legible.b. Individual pads or groups ofpads, controlledby shutoffvalves, shall be marked with the ratedcapacity ofeach pad or group ofpads.c. At a minimum, a nameplate, name tag, orother permanent marker shall be affixed to eachlifter displaying the following data:1. Manufacturer's name.2. Model number or unit identification.3. Weight oflifting-device.4. Electric power (when applicable).5. Pressure and volume of compressed air(when applicable).6. Rated capacity.d. Manual shutoffvalves on individual pads orgroups ofpads shall be marked to show operatingposition.e. Cases may exist where a lifting devicecannot be marked with its rated capacity andweight. This may be due to the securityclassification ofthe load to be lifted or otherreasons approved by the responsible manager. Inthese cases, the lifting device shall be marked withan identification number, and its documentationshall contain both its rated capacity and weight.f. A label or labels shall be affixed to eachvacuum lifting device in a readable position thatdisplays the word "WARNING" or other legenddesigned to bring the label to the attention oftheoperator. The label shall also contain informationcautioning against:1. Exceeding the rated capacity or liftingloads not specified in the manufacturer'sinstruction manual.2. Operating a damaged ormalfunctioning unit or a unit with missing parts.3. Operating when vacuum indicatorsshow insufficient vacuum.4. Operating the unit when vacuum padsare not spaced for equal loading.5. Incorrect positioning ofthe liftingdevice on the load.6. Lifting people.7. Moving loads above people.8. Removing/obscuring warning labels.9. Operating the lifting device when therated capacity, lifting-device weight, or safetymarkings are missing (except in cases where thedevice cannot, for security or other reasons, bemarked).10. Making alterations or modifications tothe lifting device.11. Lifting loads higher than necessaryand leaving suspended loads unattended.g. A label shall be affixed to each unit thatdirects the user to consult the manufacturer'smanual if the size or shape ofthe unit prohibitsthe inclusion ofthe above markings.14-7Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)Four-pad powered vacuum lifting deviceFour-pad powered vacuum liftingdevice manipulatorFigure 14-5. Powered vacuum lifting devices.Two-pad mechanical vacuum lifting deviceSingle-pad mechanicalvacuum lifting deviceMultiple-pad mechanical vacuum lifting deviceFigure 14-6. Mechanical vacumm lifting devices.Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices14-8


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.3.3 Installationa. Vacuum lifting devices shall be assembledand installed in accordance with themanufacturer's instructions.b. The power supply to the vacuum liftingdevice shall be the same as that shown on thenameplate and shall be connected to the line sideofthe crane disconnect or to an independentcircuit.c. The user shall check for correct rotation ofall pumps.14.3.4 Inspections14.3.4.1 Initial InspectionPrior to their initial use, a qualified inspector shallinspect all new or repaired vacuum lifting devicesto ensure their compliance with Section 14.3.4.3,"Periodic Inspection."14.3.4.2 Frequent Inspectiona. The operator or other designated personshall inspect each vacuum lifting device at thebeginning ofeach shift or prior to use, ifithas notbeen in regular service.b. The inspection shall be for the following(records are not required):1. Deformation, cracks, and excessivewear ofload-bearing parts.2. Adequate vacuum generator output.3. Cuts, tears, excessive wear, andforeign particles at vacuum pad seal rings.4. Leakage, cuts, kinks, and collapsedareas ofvacuum lines/connections.5. Leaks or damage to the vacuumreservoir.6. Failure ofthe entire vacuum system tofunction properly by attaching a nonporous, ~leantest plate to the vacuum pads and then stoppmgthe vacuum source. Vacuum levels in the systemshall not decrease by more than the manufacturer'sspecified rate.14.3.4.3 Periodic Inspectiona. A qualified inspector shall perfonn acomplete inspection at the following intervals:1. Normal service-yearly. Inspectequipment at site ofuse.2. Heavy service-semiannually. Inspectequipment at site ofuse unless external condition~indicate that disassembly should be done to penrutdetailed inspection.3. Severe service-quarterly. Inspectequipment at site ofuse unless external condition~indicate that disassembly should be done to pemntdetailed inspection.4. Special or infrequent service-asrecommended by a qualified person before thefirst use and as directed by the qualified person forany subsequent occurrences.b. Lifting device service is defined as follows:1. Normal-peration with variousweights within the rated load limit, or unifonnloads less than 65 percent ofrated load.2. Heavy-peration within the ratedload limit that exceeds nonnal service.3. Severe-peration undernormal orheavy service with abnormal operating conditions.c. This inspection shall include thoseconditions or items specified in Section 14.3.4.2,"Frequent Inspection," in addition to thefollowing:1. External evidence oflooseness, wear,deformation, cracking, or corrosion.2. External evidence ofdamage tosupporting structure, motors, controls, and otherauxiliary components.3. Presence ofwarning label required bySection 14.3.2, "Marking."d. A qualified inspector shall ~sp~t.flXture~not in regular use according to penodlc mspectlOnrequirements before placing them in service.e. Dated inspection reports shall be preparedfor each inspection. Inspection records shall bekept on file and shall be readily available.14-9Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.3.5 Testing14.3.5.1 Operational Testa. All new, reinstalled, modified, or repairedvacuum lifting IlXtures shall be tested prior to use.Tests shall be performed by a qualified inspectoror under the direction ofthat inspector to ensurecompliance with the requirements ofthis section.Dated reports shall be kept on file.b. Testing shall include the following:1. Seals and connections shall be testedfor leaks by attaching a nonporous, clean test plateto the vacuum pads and then stopping the vacuumsource. Vacuum level in the system shall notdecrease by more than the rate specified by themanufacturer.2. Test indicator lights, gauges, horns,bells, pointers, or other warning devices andvacuum level indicators for proper operation.14.3.5.2 Rated Load Testa. All new, reinstalled, repaired, or modifiedvacuum lifting devices shall be tested andinspected before use. Tests and inspections shallbe performed by a qualified inspector or under thedirection ofthat inspector. Test and inspectionresults shall be documented and kept on flle.b. The rated capacity shall not be more than 80percent of the maximum load sustained during thetest. Test loads shall not be more than 125percent ofthe rated capacity unless otherwiserecommended by the manufacturer.c. The rated load test shall consist ofthefollowing steps at a minimum:1. Attach pads to the designated testload.2. Raise the test load a minimum distanceto ensure that it is supported by the vacuum liftingdevice, and hold it for 2 min.3. Remain clear of the suspended load.4. Lower and release the load.5. Visually inspect the vacuum liftingdevice for defects and correct any deficienciesprior to returning the device to service.14.3.6 Maintenancea. A preventive maintenance program shouldbe established and be based on recommendationsmade by the vacuum lifting device manufactureror a qualified person.b. Replacement parts shall be equivalent to theoriginal specifications.c. The vacuum generator, vacuum pads, sealingrings, mufflers, and fllters shouldbe maintainedand cleaned according to the manufacturer'sspecifications.14.3.7 Training/Qualificationa. Vacuum lifting device operators shall betrained and qualified as specified in Chapter 6,"Personnel Qualification and Training." At aminimum, instruction should include the following(as applicable):1. Application ofthe lifting device to theload and adjustments ofthe device, ifany, thatadapt it to various sizes or kinds ofloads.2. Any special operations or precautions.3. Condition ofthe load itselfrequiredfor operation ofthe lifting device such as balance,degree oforder of stacked loads, surfacecleanliness, bending, and load thickness.4. Procedure for storage oflifting deviceto protect it from damage.5. Instructions for not exceeding the ratedcapacity ofthe lifting device or the capacity of thehoisting equipment by the combined weight oftheload, the lifting device, and the rigging.6. Charging ofthe battery (ifrequired).7. The purpose ofindicators, meters, oralarms on the vacuum lifting device.8. The proper attachment of adaptors tovacuum lifting devices for handling ofspecialloads.b. Users shall demonstrate the ability andcompetence to operate the lifting device asinstructed before assuming responsibility forusing it.Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-10


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.3.8 Operationa Only the following personnel shall operatevacuum lifting devices:1. Qualified operators or riggers.2. Trainees under the direct supervisionofa qualified operator.3. Maintenance and test personnel, whenit is necessary in the performance oftheir duties.4. Inspectors oflifting devices.b. The following shall apply to all personnelwho operate vacuum lifting devices:1. Before starting the lift, verify that the"vacuum on" indicator has reached the requiredlevel. Also, verify that the vacuum lifting devicehas been correctly applied and a stable vacuumlevel exists by lifting the load a few inches andobserving conditions.2. Observe the condition ofthe liftingdevice before use and during operation. Ifyouobserve a defect that affects the continued safe useofthe lifting device, remove it from service.3. Place any attached load on the floor orground and, after use, properly store the liftingdevice before leaving.4. Before they are used on a shift, test thelifting device controls. Ifany do not operateproperly, adjust or repair them before operationsbegin.5. Do not load the lifting device in excessofits rated capacity (except for test loads) orhandle any load for which it is not designed.6. Apply the lifting device to the load inaccordance with established procedures.7. Before lifting, ensure thatlifting-device ropes or chains are not kinked andmultiple-part lines are not interwoven.8. Ensure that the load is correctlydistributed for the lifting device being used.9. Do not use the lifting device for sidepulls or sliding the load unless specificallyauthorized by a qualified person or by anapproved procedure.10. Warn all personnel in the vicinity ofthe lifting device and place the load on the floor orground, ifpossible to do so, ifelectrical powergoes off while a load is being lifted.11. Do not leave your position at thecontrols.12. Do not use a lifting device that istagged "Danger-Do Not Operate" or otherwisedesignated as nonfunctional.13. Do not remove "Danger-Do NotOperate" tags from lifting devices without theapproval ofthe person who placed them or anauthorized person.14. Store the lifting device in a dry, insidelocation when not in use.15. Ensure that markings or tags are notremoved or defaced. Replace missing or defacedmarkings or tags.14-11Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.4 MAGNETS, CLOSE-PROXIMITY-OPERATEDClose-proximity-operated magnetic lifting devicesare used for single- or multiple-steel-piecehandling operations in which the operator ofthemagnet is required to manually guide the loadduring its movement They are also used insituations where remotely operated magnets areoperated close to people. Typicalclose-proximity-operated magnetic lifting devicesare shown inFigure 14-7.14.4.1 Design/FabricationClose-proximity-operated magnetic lifting devicesshall be designed and fabricated in accordancewith the provisions ofASME B30.20, 20-3.2.2and 20-3.2.3.14.4.2 Markinga. At a minimum, a nameplate, name tag, orother permanent marker shall be affIXed to eachlifting magnet, and shall display the followingdata:1. Manufacturer's name, or ifthe magnethas been repaired or modified, the name andaddress ofthe repairer/modifier.2. Model or unit identification.3. Weight.4. Duty cycle, ifapplicable.5. Cold current6. Rated capacity.b. Also, battery-powered and external-poweredlifting electromagnets and electrically controlledpermanent-magnet lifting magnets shall bemarked with:1. The voltage ofthe battery or primarypower supply.2. The cold current or watts at 68 degreesF (20 degrees C) and rated voltage.c. Cases may exist where a lifting devicecannot be marked with its rated capacity andweight. This may be due to the securityclassification ofthe load to be lifted or otherreasons approved by the responsible manager. Inthese cases, the lifting device shall be marked withan identification number, and its documentationshall contain both its rated capacity and weight.d. A label or labels shall be affixed to eachlifting magnet in a readable position that displaysthe word "CAUTION" or other legend designed tobring the label to the attention ofthe operator.The label shall also contain informationcautioning against:1. Operating when the battery capacity isinadequate.2. Exceeding magnet duty cycle anddisconnecting the magnet with the power on (forexternally powered electromagnets).3. Operating ifthe internal controlfunction indicator, where applicable, does notindicate a complete cycle (on electricallycontrolled permanent magnets).4. Operating with the control handle notfully in the "Lift" position (on manually controlledpermanent magnets).14.4.2.1 Rated load (Capacity)a. General-application magnets shall includethe rated load (capacity) ofthe magnet on thelifting magnet or on a tag attached to it Thiscapacity rating shall refer to the instructionmanual for information relating to decreases inrating due to the load surface condition, thickness,percentage ofcontact with magnet, temperature,metallurgical composition, and deflection.b. Specified-application magnets shall includethe application load (capacity) ofthe magnet onthe lifting magnet or on a tag attached to it. Thiscapacity rating shall refer to the specific loads forwhich it applies.14.4.2.2 ControlsThe position ofthe control switch or handle ofalifting magnet shall be marked with "Lift," "Off,"and "Drop," or equivalent terms indicating themode ofoperation ofthe lifting magnet.14.4.3 Installationa. Close-proxirnity-operated magnetic liftingdevices shall be installed according to themanufacturer's recommendations.b. Users shall ensure that:Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-12


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)C1ose-proximity-operatedlifting electromagnetC1ose-proximity-operatedelectrically controlledpermanent magnetC1ose-proximity-operatedmanually controlledpermanent magnetFigure 14-7. Close-proximity-operated magnetic lifting devices.14-13Chapter 14Below-tke-Hook Lifting Devices


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)1. External power input is the correctvoltage and amperage.2. Power conductors and controls are ofadequate rating and are insulated or otherwiseprotected against accidental interruption ordamage.14.4.4 Inspections14.4.4.1 Initial InspectionPrior to their initial use, a qualified inspector shallinspect all new, modified, orrepaired liftingmagnets to ensure compliance with Section14.4.4.3, "Periodic Inspection."14.4.4.2 Frequent Inspectiona. The operator or other designated personshall visually inspect each magnetic lifting deviceat the beginning ofeach shift orprior to use, ifithas not been in regular service.b. The inspection shall be for the following(records are not required):1. Lifting magnet face for freedom fromforeign materials and for smoothness.2. Lifting bailor sling suspension forproper condition.3. Control handle for proper conditionand operation.4. Current indicator, where applicable,for proper condition and operation.5. Labels, markings, and indicators ormeters for legibility.6. Electrical conductors, if applicable, forloose connections, continuity, corrosion, anddamage to insulation.7. Batteryfor correct electrolyte level andlack ofcorrosion ofbattery posts or connectors, ifapplicable.14.4.4.3 Periodic Inspectiona. A qualified inspector shall perform acomplete inspection with the equipment in place atthe following intervals:1. Normal service-yearly.3. Severe service-quarterly.b. Lifting device service is defmed as:1. Normal-operation with variousweights within the rated load limit. or uniformloads less than 65 percent ofrated load.2. Heavy-operation within the ratedload limit that exceeds normal service.3. Severe-operation under normal orheavy service with abnormal operating conditions.c: This inspection shall include those itemsspecified in Section 14.4.4.2, "FrequentInspection," in addition to the following:1. Deformation, wear, and corrosion ofall members, fasteners, locks, switches, warninglabels, and lifting parts.2. Operation and condition of electricalcomponents (Le., meters, indicators, and alarms).3. Magnet coil tested for ohmic/groundreadings and readings compared to manufacturer'sstandards.d. A qualified inspector shall inspect a liftingmagnet that has been idle for 1 month or moreaccording to periodic inspection requirementsbefore placing it in service.e. Dated inspection reports shall be preparedfor each inspection. Inspection records shall bekept on file and shall be readily available.14.4.5 Testing14.4.5.1 Operational Testa. All new, modified, or repaired liftingmagnets shall be tested prior to their initial use.Tests shall beperformed by a qualified inspectoror under the direction ofthat inspector. Datedreports shall be kept on file.b. Testing shall include the following:1. A check to ensure that the liftingmagnet contains no visible defects.2. A check for proper operation ofallelectrical protective equipment. meters, indicators,alarms, etc.2. Heavy service-yearly.Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-14


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-!)14.4.5.2 Rated Load Testa. All new, modified, orrepaired liftingmagnets shall be tested and inspected beforeinitial use. Tests and inspections shall beperformed by a qualified inspector or under thedirection ofthat inspector. Test and inspectionresults shall be documented and kept on file.b. General-application magnets are required tosatisfy the rated breakaway-force test. Thebreakaway force measured in this test must exceedthe rated load (capacity) by a factor ofat least 2.c. Specified-application magnets are requiredto comply with the application breakaway-forcetest The breakaway forces measured in this testmust exceed the specified application load(capacity) by a factor of at least 2.d. The rated breakaway-force test shallestablish the breakaway force required tovertically remove the lifting magnet from alow-carbon rolled-steel plate ofthe minimumthickness stated by the magnet manufacturer. Theportion of this- plate in contact with the magnetshall have a 125-flin. (3.2 x 10- 3 mm) finish andbe flat within 0.002 in.lft (0.05 mm1m), but notexceeding 0.005 in. (0.127 mm) total. The fulloperating face ofthe lifting magnet shall be incontact with the steel plate, which shall bebetween 60 degrees F (15 degrees C) and 120degrees F (50 degrees C). Battery-operatedelectromagnets and external-powered liftingelectromagnets shall be operated at themanufacturer's recommended current.e. The application breakaway-force test shallestablish the application breakaway forces of thelifting magnet under the variety ofloadingconditions for which the magnet is specified. Thedetails ofthis test should be supplied by themanufacturer ofthe lifting magnet.14.4.6 Maintenancea. A preventive maintenance program shouldbe established and be based on recommendationsmade by the manufacturer or a qualified person.b. Replacement parts shall be equivalent to theoriginal specifications.c. Before adjustment and repairs are started ona lifting magnet or its controls, maintenancepersonnel shall take the following precautions:1. Ensure that all sources ofmagnetpower are disconnected and locked out, taggedout, or flagged.2. Ensure that a magnet removed forrepair is tagged as defective.d. Only qualified personnel shall work onequipment when adjustments and tests arerequired.e. Mer adjustments and repairs have beenmade, the lifting magnet shall not bereturned toservice until it has been inspected according toSection 14.4.4.3.f. Dated records ofrepairs and replacementsshould be available.g. Maintenance personnel shall ensure that anydefective condition disclosed by the inspection iscorrected before operation ofthe lifting magnet isresumed. Repairs shall be done only bydesignated persons.14.4.7 Training/Qualificationa. Magnetic lifting device operators shall betrained and qualified as specified in Chapter 6,"Personnel Qualification and Training." At aminimum, instruction should include thefollowing:1. Application ofthe lifting device to theload and adjustments ofthe device, ifany, thatadapt it to various sizes or kinds ofloads.2. Any special operations or precautions.3. Condition ofthe load itselfrequiredfor operation of the lifting device such as balance,degree of order ofstacked loads, surfacecleanliness, bending, and load thickness.4. Procedure for storage oflifting deviceto protect it from damage.5. Instructions for not exceeding the ratedcapacity ofthe lifting device or the capacity of thehoisting equipment by the combined weight oftheload, the lifting device, and the rigging.6. Charging ofthe lifting magnet battery(ifrequired).7. The purpose ofindicators, meters, oralarms on the lifting magnet.8. The proper attachment of adaptors tolifting magnets for handling ofspecial loads.b. Operators shall demonstrate the ability andcompetence to operate the lifting device as14-15Chapter 14Below-tile-HookLifting Devices


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)instructed before assuming responsibility forusing it.14.4.8 Operationa. Only the following qualified personnel shalloperate lifting devices:1. Designated persons.2. Trainees under the direct supervisionof a designated person.3. Maintenance and test personnel, whenit is necessary in the performance oftheir duties.4. Inspectors oflifting devices.b. The following shall apply to personnel whouse close-proximity-operated magnets:1. Place any attached load on the floor orground and, after use, properly store the liftingdevice before leaving it.2. Before they are used during a shift,test all controls. Ifany do not operate properly,adjust or repair them before operations begin.3. Do not load the lifting device in excessofits rated capacity or handle any load for whichit is not designed.4. Apply the lifting device to the load inaccordance with established procedures.5. Before lifting, ensure thatlifting-device ropes or chains are not kinked andthat multiple-part lines are not interwoven.6. Ensure that the load is correctlydistributed for the lifting device being used.7. Ensure that the temperature of the loaddoes not exceed the maximum allowable limits ofthe lifting device.8. Do not use the lifting device for sidepulls or sliding the load unless specificallyauthorized by a qualified person.9. Keep the lifting magnet face and themagnet contact area Clean.10. Ensure that the load to be lifted iswithin the magnet's rated capacity or applicationcapacity and lifting equipment rated capacity.11. Observe all meters and indicators onthe lifting magnet to confIrm proper operationprior to making a lift.12. Before starting the lift, lift the load afew inches to establish that it is securely attachedto the magnet.13. Do not use a lifting magnet that istagged "Danger-Do Not Operate" or otherwisedesignated as nonfunctional.14. Do not remove "Danger-Do NotOperate" tags from magnetic lifting deviceswithout the approval ofthe person who placedthem or an authorized person.15. Store the lifting device in a dry, insidelocation when not in use.14.4.8.1 External-PoweredElectromagnetsBefore raising the load more than 2 in. (50 nun),ensure that any adjustable input control isswitched to the "FUlLPOWER" or "FUlL ON"position and remains in this position until the loadis removed from the magnet.14.4.8.2 Battery-OperatedElectromagnetsa. Before lifting, confIrm that the deviceindicating correct current flow remains stable for aminimum of5 sec.b. For a lift ofextended duration, observe thedevice indicating correct current flow every 5 min.c. Open the ventilation lid before charging thebattery.d. Before raising the load more than 2 in. (50nun), ensure that any adjustable input control isswitched to the "FUlLPOWER" or "FUlL ON"position and remains in this position until the loadis removed.14.4.8.3 Electrically ControlledPermanent MagnetsBefore raising the load, check the internal controlfunction indicator, where applicable, to confIrmproper operation ofthe lifting magnet.14.4.8.4 Manually Controlled PermanentMagnetsBefore raising the load, confIrm that the controlhandle is in the "LIFT" or "ON" position and thecontrol handle latch is operating.Chapter 14Below-tke-Hook Lifting Devices 14-16


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)14.5 MAGNETS, REMOTE-OPERATEDTypical remote-operated magnetic lifting devicesare shown in Figure 14-8.14.5.1 Design/FabricationRemote-operated magnetic lifting devices shall bedesigned and fabricated in accordance with theprovisions ofASME B30.20, 20-4.2.2.14.5.2 Markinga. At a minimum, all new lifting magnets shallbe provided with a nameplate, name tag, or otherpermanent marker displaying the followinginformation:1. Manufacturer's name and address, or ifthe magnet has been repaired or modified, thename and address ofthe repairer/modifier.2. Manufacturer's model or unitidentification.3. Weight.4. Duty cycle, if applicable.5. Cold current.b. Cases may exist where a lifting devicecannot be marked with its rated capacity andweight. This may be due to the securityclassification ofthe load to be lifted or otherreasons approved by the responsible manager. illthese cases, the lifting device shall be marked withan identification number, and its documentationshall contain both its rated capacity and weight.14.5.3 Installationa. Remote-operated magnets shall be installedaccording to the manufacturer's recommendations.b. Operators shall ensure that:1. External power input is ofthe correctvoltage and amperage.2. Power conductors and controls are ofadequate rating and are insulated or otherwiseprotected against accidental interruption ordamage.14.5.4 Inspections14.5.4.1 Initial InspectionPrior to their initial use, a qualified inspector shallinspect all new, modified, or repaired liftingmagnets to ensure compliance with Section14.5.4.3, "Periodic Inspection."14.5.4.2 Frequent Inspectiona. The operator or other designated personnelshall visually inspect each magnetic lifting deviceat the beginning ofeach shift or prior to use, ifithas not been in regular service.b. The inspection shall be for the following(records are not required):1. Lifting magnet face for smoothness orpresence offoreign materials, if applicable.2. Magnet suspension system.3. All visible electrical conductors(without disassembly).14.5.4.3 periodic Inspectiona. A qualified inspector shall perform acomplete inspection ofthe lifting device with theequipment in place at the following intervals:1. Normal service-yearly.2. Heavy service-quarterly.3. Severe service-quarterly.Chapter 1414-17 Below-the-HookLifting Devices


- ---------------------------------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Remote-operated liftingelectromagnet -- circularRemote-operated liftingBectromagnet -- rectangularFigure 14-8. Remote-operated magnetic lifting devices.Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-18


DOE-STD·I090·96 (Rev-I)4. Special or infrequent service-asauthorized by a qualified person before the ftrstuse and as directed by the qualifted person for anysubsequent occurrences.b. Lifting device service is defmed as follows:1. Normal-operation with variousweights within the rated load limit, or uniformloads less than 65 percent ofrated load.2. Heavy-operation within the ratedload limit that exceeds normal service.3. Severe-operation under normal orheavy service with abnormal operating conditions.c. This inspection shall include those itemsspecifted in Section 14.5.4.2, "FrequentInspection," in addition to the following:1. Deformation, wear, and corrosion ofall members, fasteners, and lifting parts.2. Proper operation and condition ofelectrical components.3. Magnetic coil tested for ohmidgroundreadings and compared to manufacturer'sstandards.d. Dated inspection reports shall be preparedfor each inspection. Inspection records shall bekept on fIle and shall be readily available.14.5.5 Testing14.5.5.1 Operational Testa. All new, modifted, orrepaired liftingmagnets shall be tested prior to initial use. Testsshall be performed by a qualifted inspector orunder the direction ofthat inspector. Datedreports shall be kept on ftle.b. Testing shall include the following:1. A check for proper operation ofallelectrical equipment.2. A visual inspection ofthe liftingmagnet for visible defects.14.5.6 Maintenancea. A preventive maintenance program shouldbe established and be based on therecommendations ofthe manufacturer or aqualifted person.b. Replacement parts shall be equivalent tooriginal speciftcations.c. Before maintenance is started on a liftingmagnet or controls, maintenance personnel shalltake the following precautions:1. Ensure that all sources ofmagnetpower are disconnected and locked out, taggedout, or flagged.2. Ensure that a magnet removed forrepair is tagged as defective.d. Only qualifted personnel shall work onequipment when maintenance and tests arerequired.e. After repairs have been made, the liftingmagnet shall not be returned to service until it hasbeen inspected according to Section 14.5.4.3.f. Dated records ofrepairs and replacementsshould be available.g. Any defective condition disclosed by theinspection shall be corrected before the liftingmagnet is returned to service.14.5.7 Training/Qualificationa. Operators shall be trained and qualifted asspecifted in Chapter 6, "Personnel Qualiftcationand Training." At a minimum, instruction shouldinclude the following:1. Application ofthe lifting device to theload and adjustments ofthe device, ifany, thatadapt it to various sizes or kinds ofloads.2. Any special operations or precautions.3. Condition of the load itselfrequiredfor operation ofthe lifting device, such as balance,degree of order ofstacked loads, surfacecleanliness, bending, and load thickness.4. Procedure for storage ofthe liftingdevice to protect it from damage.5. Instructions for not exceeding the ratedcapacity ofthe lifting device or the capacity of thehoisting equipment by the combined weight of theload, the lifting device, and the rigging.14-19Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)6. Charging of the lifting magnet battery(ifrequired).7. Thepurpose ofindicators, meters, oralarms on the lifting magnet.8. The proper attachment ofadaptors tolifting magnets for handling ofspecial loads.b. Operators shall demonstrate the ability andcompetence to operate the lifting device asinstructed before assuming responsibility forusing it.14.5.8 Operationa. Only the following qualified personnel shalloperate lifting devices:1. Designated persons.2. Trainees under the direct supervisionofa designated person.3. Maintenance and test personnel, whenit is necessary in the performance oftheir duties.4. Inspectors oflifting devices.b. The following shall apply to all personnelwho operate remote-operated magnets:1. Place any attached load on the floor orground and, after use, properly store the liftingdevice before leaving it.3. Do not load the lifting device in excessofits rated capacity orhandle any load for whichit is not designed.4. Apply the lifting device to the load inaccordance with established procedures.5. Before lifting, ensure thatlifting-device ropes or chains are not kinked andthat multiple-part lines are not interwoven.6. Ensure that the load is correctlydistributed for the lifting device being used.7. Ensure that the temperature ofthe loaddoes not exceed the maximum allowable limits ofthe lifting device.8. Do not use the lifting device for sidepulls or sliding the load unless specificallyauthorized by a qualified person.9. Do not use a lifting magnet that istagged "Danger-Do Not Operate" or otherwisedesignated as nonfunctional.10. Do not remove "Danger-Do NotOperate" tags without the approval of the personwho placed them or an authorized person.11. Store the lifting device in a designatedlocation when not in use.2. Before they are used during a shift,test all controls. Ifany do not operate properly,adjust or repair them before operations begin.Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-20


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Exhibit I is intended to be a sampleform only and is not mandatory.Any other form that accomplishesthe purpose is acceptable.14-21Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


DOE-STD-!090-96 (Rev-!)EXHIBIT IPage 1 of 1LIFTING BARS AND SPREADERS LOAD lEST AND INSPECTIONINSPECTORINSPECTIONDAlENOTES: 1. Proof-test to 200% ofrated capacity for critical lift service. The test load shall be accurate to within-5%, +0% ofstipulated values.2. Qualified inspector shall witness all steps below.INSPECTIONlifting bars and spreaders shall be checked for signs ofincipient failure in bending and shall be replaced ifpermanentlybent more than 1/2 in. in 10 fi or twisted more than 5 degrees out ofthe original plan. Hook attachment welds shall beexamined for cracks and signs offailure in tension.Qualified inspector shall perform test by visual examination, liquid-penetrant examination, or magnetic-particleexami~ation.Acceptance: No cracks, linear indication, laps, or seams.STATIC lEST: Hold weight for 10 min and visually inspect for deformation.Type_Size_Rated Capacity (SWL)lbActual Load TestlbSerial Number_Qualified Inspector Verify (Load Test)_Remarks_Chapter 14Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-22


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CHAPTER 15CONSTRUCTION HOISTING ANDRIGGING EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTSThis chapter outlines the requirements for the safe use ofhoisting and rigging equipment on constructionprojects at DOE installations.15.1 GENERAl.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-115.2 DEFINITIONS... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-215.315.4PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS .15.3.1 Qualified Operators ofMobile Cranes .15.3.2 Qualified Operators ofForkliftTrucks .15.3.3 Qualified Riggers .15.3.4 Person-in-Charge (PIC) .15.3.5 DesignatedLeader '" .INSPECTION AND TESTING .15.4.1 General .15.4.2 Mobile CraneslBoom Trucks-Inspection .15.4.2.1 Initial Inspection .15.4.2.2 Preoperational Check .15.4.2.3 Monthly Inspection .15.4.2.4 Frequent Inspection .15.4.2.5 Periodic Inspection .15.4.2.5.1 Cranes .15.4.2.5.2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pumps .15.4.2.5.3 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Valves .15.4.2.5.4 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Cylinders .15.4.2.5.5 Hydraulic Filters ..15.4.2.5.6 Wire Ropes .15.4.2.5.7 Load HookslLoad Blocks .15.4.315.4.415.4.515.4.615.4.2.6 Cranes Not in Regular Use .Mobile CraneslBoom Trucks-Testing .Forklift Trucks-Inspection .Forklift Trucks-Testing .Slings-Inspection ; .15.4.6.1 WireRope .15.4.6.2 Synthetic Web Slings .15.4.6.3 Alloy Steel Chain .15.4.7 Slings-Testing .15.4.7.1 WireRope .15.4.7.2 SyntheticWebSlings .15.4.7.3 AlloySteeIChain .15.4.8 Rigging Accessories-Inspection .15.4.9 Rigging Accessories-Testing .15-715-715-815-815-815-815-915-915-915-915-915-915-1015-1015-1015-1115-1115-1115-1115-1115-1215-1315-1315-1315-1415-1415-1415-1415-1415-1515-1515-1515-1615-1615-1615-iChapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


-------------------~----------------------DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)15.5 OPERATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-17·15.5.1 Conduct of Operator 15-1715.5.2 Mobile CraneslBoom Trucks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-1815.5.2.1 Attaching the Load 15-2115.5.2.2 Moving the Load 15-2115.5.2.3 Traveling the Machine 15-2215.5.2.4 Operating Near Power Lines and Transmission Towers 15-2215.5.2.4.1 Crane Operations Near De-engerized andGrounded Electrical Power Lines 15-2315.5.2.4.2 Power Lines Energized. Crane Operating Lessthan ErectedlFully Extended BoomLength awayfrom the Prohibited Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-2715.5.2.4.3 Crane Operations are within the Prohibited Zoneand the Power Lines are Energized 15-2715.5.2.4.4 Crane in Transit with No Load and Boom Lowered .,. 15-2715.5.2.4.5 Crane Operations Near Transmitter Towers 15-2715.5.2.5 Ordinary Lifts 15-2715.5.2.6 Critical Lifts 15-3015.5.2.7 Lifting PersoIlllel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-3015.5.3 Forklift Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-3315.5.3.1 Operating the Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-3415.5.3.2 Moving the Load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-3515.5.3.3 Ordinary Lifts 15-3515.5.3.4 Critical Lifts 15-3715.5.3.5 Lifting Personnel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15-37Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment RequirementslS-ii


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)15.1 GENERALThe versatility ofhoisting and rigging equipmentmakes it extremely useful on constructionprojects. Improper and unsafe use, however, canresult in serious accidents.This chapter is designed for use as a stand-alonedocument and may be used as part oftheprocurement process. It outlines minimumrequirements for the safe use ofhoisting andrigging equipment on construction projects atDOE installations.15-1Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE·STD·I090-96 (Rev-I)15.2 DEFINITIONSAPPO'NTED: Assigned specific responsibilitiesby the employer or the employer's representative.AUTHORIZED: Assigned by a duly constitutedadministrative or regulatory authority to perform aspecific function.CRANE, MOBILE: For the purposes ofthischapter, mobile cranes are defmed aswheel-mounted cranes, truck cranes, and crawlercranes.undetectable damage that couldjeopardize futureoperation or the safety ofthe facility; or (c) resultin significant release ofradioactivity or otherundesirable material. Critical items may includepumps, heat exchangers, piping subassemblies,other primary-system components, fuelassemblies, large radiation-shielded shippingcasks, or other items which require special care inhandling because of size, weight, installation inclose-tolerance receptors, fragility, extremesusceptibility to damage, or other unusual factors.ooA wheel-mounted crane consists ofarotating structure with power plant,operating machinery, and boom, mounted ona base or platform equipped with axles andrubber-tired wheels for travel. The base isusually propelled by an enginein thesuperstructure, but it may be equipped witha separate engine controlled from thesuperstructure (see Figures 15-1, 15-2,15-3,15-4,15-5,15-6,15-7,15-9,and15-10).A truck-mounted crane consists of arotating superstructure with power plant thatoperates machinery and boom, mounted onan automotive truck equipped with a powerplant for travel. Commercial truck-mountedcranes are included in this category (seeFigures 15-3, 15-5, 15-6, 15-7, 15-9, and15-10).CRITICAL SERVICE: The use ofequipment oraccessories for hoisting, rigging, orhandlingcritical items.DESIGNATED: Selected or assigned by theemployer or the employer's representative as beingqualified to perform specific duties.DESIGNATED LEADER: "An individualassigned responsibility for hoisting and riggingactivities requiring more than one person".FORKLIFT TRUCK: A high-lift self-loadingtruck equipped with load carriage and forks fortransporting and tiering loads (see Figure 15-11).LIFT, CRITICAL: Lifting ofparts, components,assemblies,or other items designated as critical bythe responsible management because the effect ofdropping, upset, or collision ofthem could:oA crawler crane consists ofa rotatingsuperstructure with power plant, operatingmachinery and boom, mounted on a baseequipped with crawler treads for travel (seeFigures 15-2 and 15-8).CRITICAL ITEM: A part, assembly, component,or piece ofequipment designated ascritical by theresponsible management, because its dropping,upset, or collision could: (a) cause damage thatwould result in schedule delay; (b) causeooooCause significant work delayCause undetectable damage resulting infuture operational or safety problemsResult in significant release ofradioactivityor other undesirable conditionsPresent a potentially unacceptable risk ofpersonnel injury or property damage.Note: In the text, use of the imperative voice (as in "Ensure that the load is balanced") or of the term "shall" refers tomandatory actions, whereas the term "should" refers to recommended actions.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-2


DOE-STD-1090·96 (Rev-l)Figure 15-1. Wheel-mounted crane(single control station).Figure 15-2. Crawler crane..'• .-. .•a-.. .Figure 15-3. Wheel-mounted crane(Multiple control station).Figure 15-4. Locomotive crane.15-3Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


General note for Figures 15-5 through 15-10:DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)The boom may have a base boom structure ofsections (upper and lower) between or beyond which additionalsections maybe added to increase its length, or it may consist ofa base boomfrom which one or more boomextensions are telescoped for additional length. These illustrations show some types.Operator'sstation(fixed)Figure 15-5. Wheel-mountedcrane - telescoping boom(Single control station).Figure 15-6. Wheel-mountedcrane - telescoping boom(Single control station).Figure 15-7. Wheel-mountedcrane - telescoping boom(Muliple control station).Figure 15-8. Crawler crane - telescoping boom.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements15-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 15-9. Comercial truck-mountedcrane - telescoping boom.Figure 15-10. Comerical truck-mountedcrane - nontelescoping boom.Figure 15-11. High-lift truck, counterbalanced truck,Cantilever trUCk, rider trUCk, fortlift truck.15-5Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)LIFT, ORDINARY: Any lift not designated as acritical lift.PERSON-1N-eHARGE (PIC): The manager orother responsible person (other than theequipment operator) mown to be qualified andappointed to be responsible for the safe handlingoferiticalloads and for the safe handling ofnoncritical loads in, around, or above spaces inwhich critical items are located.QUALIFIED: A person, who, bypossession ofarecognized degree or certificate, or byprofessionalstanding, or who, by extensive knowledge,training, and experience, has successfullydemonstrated an ability and competence to solveproblems relating to the subject matter and work.QUALIFIED ENGINEER/QUALIFIEDENGINEERING ORGANIZATION: Anengineer or engineering organization whosecompetence in evaluation ofthe type ofequipmentin question has been demonstrated to thesatisfaction of the responsible manager.QUALIFIED INSPECTOR: One whosecompetence is recognized by the authority havingjurisdiction and whose qualification to performspecific inspection activities has been determined,verified, and attested to in writing.QUALIFIED OPERATOR: One whoseCompetence to operate equipment safely andeffectively (including the abilityto accurately spotand control loads) can be demonstrated to andaccepted byresponsible management.QUALIFIED RIGGER: One whose competencein this skill has been demonstrated by experienceaccepted as satisfactoryby the responsiblemanager.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-6


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)15.3 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS15.3.1 Qualified Operators ofMobile Cranes 'a. Only qualified personnel or trainees, underthe direct supervision ofqualified personnel, whomeet the following physical qualifications andrequirements shall be allowed to operate mobilecranes:1. Be at least 18 years of age.2. Understand spoken and writtenEnglish.3. Have vision ofat least 20/30 Snellenin one eye, and 20/50 in the other, with or withoutcorrective lenses.4. Be able to distinguish colors,regardless ofposition, ifcolor differentialsrequired for operation.5. Have adequate hearing, with orwithout a hearing aid, for a specific operation.6. Have physical strength, coordination,and sufficient reaction speed to meet the demandsofequipment operation.7. Show no evidence ofphysical defectsor ofemotional instability that couldbe a hazardto themselves or others, or which, in the opinionof the examiner, could interfere with their safeperformance; such evidence may be sufficient .cause for disqualification. In these cases, medIcaljudgments and test may be required.8. Show no evidence ofbeing subject toseizures or loss ofphysical control; such evidenceshall be sufficient reason for disqualification.Medical examinations may be required todetermine these conditions.9. Have normal depth perception, field ofvision, manual dexterity, coordination, and notendencies to dizziness or similar potentiallyhazardous characteristics.10. Have no detectable or known diseaseor physical restriction that would render themincapable of safely operating equipment. Whereany deficiency of an upper or lower extremityexist, the acceptability ofa candidate shall be thedecision ofthe supervisor, after consulting withthe designated physician.11. Shall successfully pass with a negativeresult, a substance abuse test. The level oftestingwill be detennined by the standard practice for theindustry where the crane is employed and this testshall be conf'rrmed by a recognized laboratoryservice.12. Operator physical examinations shallbe required every three years or more frequently ifsupervision deems itnecessary.b. Prior to allowing mobile crane operations atDOE installations, the construction manager shallimplement a program or ensure that theconstruction contractor has an acceptable programto evaluate crane operator qualifications. Thisprogram shall include written testing to evaluateoperator knowledge and performance .("hands-on") testing to evaluate operator skills.These tests shall include, but not be limited toapplicable elements ofthe following:1. Pre-use crane inspection.2. The crane's specifications, operator'smanual, charts (e.g., load charts, work areacharts), instrumentation, controls, operator aids,and operating characteristics.3. Operating procedures underemergency conditions.4. Set-up, shut-down and parking ofthecrane.5. Crane attachments (e.g., jibs, boomextensions, heavy lift equipment).6. Configurations and loading effects onthe crane.7. Standards, rules and regulations (e.g.,hand signals, distances for working aroundelectrical power lines).8. Rigging practices.9. Personnel lifting procedures.NOTE: The means ofdetermining operatorqualifications shall be included in the contractdocuments. Contract documents shall also includerequirements for maintenance oftesting records.15-7Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-1090~96 (Rev-l)Consideration should be given to local, state, orfederal crane operator licensing requirementswithin the workjurisdiction as well as certificationprograms administered byrecognized privateorganizations.15.3.2 Qualified Operators ofForklift Trucksa. Physical qualifications shall be based onspecific job requirements.b. Operators shall be required by the employerto pass a practical operating skill evaluation.Qualification shall be limited to the type offorkliftfor which the operator is being evaluated.c. The actual or simulated operation shallenable operators to demonstrate basic knowledgeand skills at a level that ensures the safety ofpersonnel and equipment.15.3.3 Qualified RiggersQualified riggers shall meet the followingrequirements:a. Be at least 18 years ofage.b. Understand spoken and written English.c. Have basic knowledge and understanding ofequipment-operating characteristics, capabilities,and limitations. Understand rigging principles asapplied to the jobfor which they are to bequalified.d. Demonstrate to appropriate managementpersonnel skill in using rigging principles.e. Befree ofany detectable or known diseaseor physical restriction that would render themincapable ofsafe operation or rigging duties.Where any loss or loss offunction of an upper orlower extremity exists, the acceptability ofthecandidate shall be the decision ofthe supervisor,after consulting with the designated physician.f. Have normal depth perception, field ofvision, reaction time, manual dexterity, andcoordination.15.3.4 Person-in-Charge (PIC)The PIC shall have the necessary knowledge andexperience ofthe specific type ofequipment andthe hazards ofcritical lifts to direct the safecompletion ofthe operation. The PIC shallunderstand the rules and procedures implementedat the site to ensure that the following arecompleted:aNecessary administrative requirements.b. Personnel assignments and responsibilities.c. Selection ofproper equipmentltools.d. Recognition and control ofhazardous orunsafe conditions.e. Job efficiency and safety.f. Critical-lift documentation.In addition, the PIC shall:a. Direct operations in the case of an accident.b. Exercise authority to start and stop workactivities.15.3.5 Designated LeaderThe designated leader shall have sufficientknowledge and experience to accomplish thefollowing responsibilities:a. Ensure that the personnel involved havereceived proper and current training andqualification for the procedure.b. Ensure that the equipment and accessoriesspecified in the procedure are available.c. Survey the lift site for hazardous or unsafeconditions.d. Ensure that equipment is properly set up andpositioned.e. Ensure that a signaler is assigned, ifrequired, and is identified to the operator.f. Direct the lifting operation to ensure that thejob is done safely and efficiently.g. Stop the job when any potentially unsafecondition is recognized.h. Direct operations if an accident or injuryoccurs.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-8


DOE-STD-l090-96 (Rev-l)15.4 INSPECTION AND TESTING15.4.1 Generala. Only equipment that has been built tonationally recognized manufacturers' standardsshall be used at DOE installations. Existingequipment shall be brought to an acceptable levelofcompliance as determined by the constructionmanagement contractor. In some instances, therequirements ofthis section exceed those ofthereferences and in such instances the requirementsofthis section shall prevail.b. Prior to being used at a DOE installation,mobile craneslboom trucks/forklift trucks shall beinspected and approved for operation byappropriate construction management contractorpersonnel or those having overall responsibilityfor ordinary hoisting operations.c. Equipment with deficiencies that may affectthe safety ofthe operation shall not be allowed tooperate at DOE installations. No repairs,modifications, or additions that affect the capacityor safe operation ofthe equipment shall be madeby the contractor without the manufacturer'swritten approval.d. Mobile cranes, boom trucks, and forkliftsthat have left the control ofthe constructionmanagement contractor and are then returned shallbe reinspected prior to making a critical lift.15.4.2 Mobile Cranes/BoomTrucks-Inspection15.4.2.1 Initial InspectionPrior to initially being used, all new, repaired, ormodified cranes shall be inspected by a qualifiedinspector to ensure their compliance with theapplicable provisions ofthis section. Dated andsigned inspection reports shall be kept on file andshall bereadily available.15.4.2.2 Preoperational Checka. Operators or other designated personnelshall visually inspect items such as the followingeach day or prior to useifthe crane has not beenin regular service (records are not required):2. Crane hooks and latcheS fordeformation, cracks, and wear.3. Hydraulic systems for proper oil level.4. Lines, tanks, valves, pumps, and otherparts ofair orhydraulic systems for leakage.5. Hoist ropes for kinking, crushing,birdcaging, and corrosion.6. All anti-two-block, two-blockwarning, and two-block damage preventionsystems for proper operation.b. The operator or other designated personshall examine deficiencies and determine whetherthey constitute a safety hazard.15.4.2.3 Monthly Inspectiona. The operator or other designated personshall visually inspect the following items fordamage, wear, or other deficiency that mightreduce capacity or adversely effect the safety ofthe crane:1. Critical items such as brakes and cranehooks.2. Hoist ropes.b. Lower the hook block to its lowest positionand examine it for any condition that could resultin an appreciable loss of strength.c. Hooks for cracks, deformation, damagefrom chemicals, latch engagement (ifprovided),and evidence ofheat damage.d. A hoist rope with any of the conditionsnoted in the replacement criteria inSection 15.4.2.6 shall be removed from serviceand replaced.e. Signed and dated inspection records shall bekept on file and shall be readily available.f. Before the crane is returned to service,correct deficiencies that could reduce its capacityor adversely effect its safety.1. All control mechanisms formaladjustment interfering with proper operation.15-9Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)15.4.2.4 Frequent Inspectiona. The operator or other designated personshall visually inspect the crane at daily to monthlyintervals (records not required). These inspectionsshall, in addition to the requirements of Section15.4.2.2, "DailyInspection," include thefollowing:1. All control mechanisms formaladjustment, excessive wear, or contaminationby lubricants or other foreign matter interferingwith proper operation.2. All safety devices for malfunction.3. Rope reeving for noncompliance withcrane manufacturer's recommendations.4. Electrical apparatus formalfunctioning, signs ofpotentially harmfuldeterioration, and accumulation ofdirt ormoisture.5. Tires for recommended inflationpressure.6. Boom sections for structural integrity.b. The operator or other designated personshall examine deficiencies and determine whethera more detailed inspection is required.15.4.2.5 Periodic Inspectiona. Complete inspections of the crane shall beperformed by a qualified inspector at 1- to12-month intervals, depending on its activity,severity ofservice, and environment.b. The qualified inspector shall do thefollowing during periodic inspections:1. Examine deficiencies and detenninewhether they constitute a: hazard.2. Keep dated and signed inspectionrecords on file and readily available.c~ These inspections, in addition to therequirements of Sections 15.4.2.3, "MonthlyInspection" and 15.4.2.4, "Frequent Inspection,"shall include the following:15.4.2.5.1 Cranes. Inspect for:a. Deformed, cracked, or corroded members inthe crane structure and the entire boom.b. Loose bolts or rivets.c. Cracked or worn sheaves and drums.d. Hooks damaged from chemicals,deformation, or cracks, orhaving more than 15percent in excess ofnormal throat opening ormore than 10 degrees twist from the plane oftheunbent hook. (Dye-penetrant, magnetic-particle,or other suitable crack-detecting inspectionsshould be performed at least once a year. SeeChapter 13 for additional hook requirements.)e. Worn, cracked, or distorted parts such aspins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, and lockingdevices.f. Excessive wear on brake and clutch systemparts, linings, pawls, and ratchets.g. Load, boom angle, and other indicators overtheir full ranges for any significant inaccuracies.h. Gasoline, diesel, electrical, or other powerplants for improper performance ornoncompliance with safety requirements.i. Radiators and oil coolers for leakage,improper performance, or blockage of airpassages.j. Excessive wear ofchain drive sprockets andexcessive chain stretch.k.. Travel steering, braking, and lockingdevices, for malfunctioning.1. Excessively worn or damaged tires.m. Rust on piston rods and control valves whencrane has been idle.n. Inspect hydraulic and pneumatic hose,fittings, and tubing for:1. Evidence ofleakage at the surface ofthe flexible hose or its junctions with the metalcouplings.2. Blistering or deformation oftheouter covering ofthe hydraulic orpneumatichose.3. Leakage at threaded or clampedjoints that cannotbe eliminated bynormaltightening or recommended procedures.4.Evidence ofexcessive abrasion orChapter 15Construction HOisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-10


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)scrubbing on the outer surface ofa hose, rigidtube, or fitting (means shall be taken to eliminatethe interface ofelements in contact or otherwiseprotect the components).15.4.2.5.2 Hydraulic andPneumaticPumps. Inspect for:a. Loose bolts or fasteners.b. Leaks atjoints between sections.c. Shaft sea11eaks.dUnusual noises or vibration.e. Loss ofoperating speed.f. Excessive heating ofthe fluid.g..Loss ofpressure.15.4.2.5.3 Hydraulic and PneumaticValves. Inspect for:a. Cracks in valve housing.b. Improper return ofspool to neutral position.c. Leaks at spools orjoints.d. Sticking spools.e. Failure ofreliefvalves to attain correctpressure setting (relief valve pressures shall bechecked as specified by the manufacturer).15.4.2.5.4 Hydraulic and PneumaticCylinders. Inspect for:a. Drifting caused by fluid leaking across theposition.b. Rod seal leakage.c. Leaks at welded joints.d. Scored, nicked, or dented cylinder rods.e. Dented case (barrel).f. Loose or deformed rod eyes or connectingjoints.15.4.2.5.5 Hydraulic Filters.Inspect hydraulic filters for evidence ofrubberparticles on the filter element that may indicatehose, "0" ring, or other rubber-componentdeterioration. Metal chips or pieces on the filtermay denote failure in pumps, motors, or cylinders.Further checking will be necessary to determinethe origin ofthe problem before corrective actioncanbe taken.15.4.2.5.6 Wire Ropes.a. A qualified inspector shall inspect all wireropes at least annually. More frequent intervalsshall be as determined by a qualified person andshall be based on such factors as expected ropelife as determined by severity ofenvironment,percentage ofcapacity lifts, frequency rates ofoperation, and exposure to shock loads. Thequalified inspector shall carefully note anydeterioration, such as described below, that resultsin appreciable loss oforiginal strength anddetermine whether further use ofthe ropeconstitutes an acceptable risk. This inspectionshall include examination of the entire rope lengthwithout detaching it from the drum.1. Reduction ofrope size belownominal diameter, whether due to loss ofcoresupport, internal or external corrosion, or wear ofoutside wires (see Table 15-1).2. A number ofbroken outside wiresand the distribution or concentration of suchbroken wires.3.Worn outside wires.Table 15-1. Maximum allowablerope reductions.Maximum allowablereductionRope diameter from nominal diameterUp to 5/16 in. 1/64 in. (D.4 mm)(8 mm)Over 5/16 in. to1/2 in. (13 mm)Over 1/2 in. to3/4 in. (19 mm)Over 3/4 in. to1 1/8 in. (29 mm)Over 1 1/8 in. to1 1/2 in. (38 mm)1/32 in. (D.8 mm)3/64 in. (1.2 mm)1/16 in. (1.6 mm)3/32 in. (2.4 mm)15-11Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)4. Corroded or broken wires at endconnections.5. Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, orimproperly applied end connections.6. Kinking, crushing, cutting, orunstranding.b. The qualified inspector shall take care wheninspecting running rope where rapid deteriorationcould occur, such as in the following:1. Sections in contact with saddles,equalizer sheaves, or other sheaves where ropetravel is limited.2. Sections ofthe rope at or near terminalends where corroded or broken wires mayprotrude.c. The qualified inspector shall take care wheninspecting certain ropes such as the following:1. Rotation-resistant ropes, because oftheir higher susceptibility to damage. The internaldeterioration ofrotation-resistant ropes may notbe readily observable.2. Boomhoist ropes, because ofthedifficulty ofinspection and the important nature ofthese ropes.d· No precise rules can begiven fordetermining the exact time to replace wire ropebecause many variables are involved. Safety inthis respect depends largely on the use ofgoodjudgment by an appointed person in evaluatingremaining strength in a used rope, after allowancefor deterioration disclosed by inspection. Safetyofrope operation depends on this remainingstrength.e. Conditions such as the following shall besufficient reason for questioning rope safety andconsidering replacement:1. In running ropes, six randomlydistributed broken wires in one rope lay, or threebroken wires in one strand in one rope lay.2. In standing ropes, more than twobroken wires in one lay in sections beyond endconnections or more than one broken wire at anend connection.3. In rotation resistant ropes, tworandomly distributed broken wires in six ropediameters or four randomly distributed brokenwires in thirty rope diameters.4. One outer wire broken at the point ofcontact with the core ofthe rope that has workedits way out ofthe rope structure and protrudes orloops out from the rope structure; additionalinspection ofthis section is required.5. Wear ofone-third the original diameterofoutside individual wires.6. Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or anyother damage resulting in distortion ofthe ropestructure.7. Evidence ofheat damage from anycause.8. Reduction from nominal diametergreater than those listed in Table 15-1.f. All rope thathas been idle for a month ormore due to shutdown or storage of a crane onwhich it is installed shall be inspected before it isplaced in service. This inspection shall be for alltypes of deterioration and shall be performed byan appointed person whose approval shall berequired before further use ofthe rope. A writtenand dated report ofthe rope condition shall befiled.g. To establish data as a basis for judging theproper time for replacement, maintain acontinuing inspection record covering the pointsofdeterioration listed above.h. Ensure that replacement rope is the samesize, grade, and construction as recommended bythe crane manufacturer, unless otherwiserecommended by a rope or crane manufacturer dueto actual working condition requirements.i. Never use discarded rope for slings.15.4.2.5.7 Load Hooks/Load Blocks.Load hookslload blocks that have beenchanged-out shall be inspected by a qualifiedinspector before the crane is returned to service.Inspection records shall be retained throughout theservice life ofthe hook or load block and shall bereadily available.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-12


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)15.4.2.6 Cranes Not in Regular Usea. A crane that has been idle for 1 month orlonger but less than 6 months shall be given aninspection according to requirements ofSection 15.4.2.4, "Frequent Inspection;' before itis placed in service.b. A crane that has been idle for more than 6months shall be given a complete inspectionaccording to the requirements ofSection 15.4.2.5,"Periodic Inspection;' before it is placed inservice.c. Standby cranes shall be inspected at leastsemiannually, according to the requirements ofSection 15.4.2.5. Cranes exposed to adverseenvironments should be inspected morefrequently.15.4.3 Mobile Cranes/BoomTruckS-Testinga. Prior to their initial use, all cranes in whichload-sustaining parts have been modifted,replaced, or repaired shall be load-tested by aqualifted inspector or under the direction ofthatinspector. The replacement ofrope is excludedfrom this requirement. However, a functional testofthe crane under a normal operating load shouldbe made before the crane is put back in service.b. Test weights shall not exceed 110 percent ofthe rated capacity and shall be accurate to within-5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulated values.c. The inspector shall furnish a written reportshowing test procedures and conftnning theadequacy ofrepairs or alterations. Test reportsshall bekept on file and shall be readily availableto appointed personnel.d. Thefollowing shall also be tested asapplicable during initial testing:1. Load lifting and lowering mechanisms.2. Boom lifting and loweringmechanisms.3. Boom extension and retractionmechanism.4. Swinging mechanism.5. Travel mechanism.6. Safety devices.Load tests shall not be conducted in locationswhere the lift meets the deftnition ofcritical liftgiven in Section 15.2, "DefInitions."15.4.4 Forklift Trucks­Inspectiona. Prior to initial use, all new, modifted, orextensively repaired forklifts shall be inspected bya qualified inspector to ensure compliance withthe provisions ofthis section.b. Operators or other designated personnelshall regularly inspect the items listed in thefollowing paragraphs.1. Inspect brakes, steering mechanisms,control mechanisms, warning devices, lights,governors,1ift-overload devices, guards, andsafety devices regularly and maintain them in asafe-operating condition.2. Carefully and regularly inspect allparts oflift and tilt mechanisms and framemembers and maintain them in a safe-operatingcondition.3. For special trucks or devices that aredesigned and approved for operation in hazardousareas, ensure that the original, approvedsafe-operating features are preserved bymaintenance.4. Check fuel systems for leaks and forthe condition ofthe parts. Give specialconsideration in case ofa leak in the fuel system.Take action to prevent use ofthe truck until theleakhas been corrected.5. Inspect all hydraulic systems andmaintain them in conformance with good practice.Check tilt cylinders, valves, and other similarparts to ensure that drift or leakage has notdeveloped to the extent that it would create ahazard.6. Maintain instruction plates forcapacity, operation, and maintenance in legiblecondition.7. Inspect batteries, motors, controllers,limit switches, protective devices, electricalconductors, and connections and maintain them inconformance with good practice. Pay special15-13Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)attention to the condition ofelectrical insulation.15.4.5 Forklift Trucks-Testinga. Prior to their initial use, all forklifts in whichload-sustaining parts have been modified,replaced, or repaired shall be load-tested by aqualified inspector or under the direction ofthatinspector.1. Test loads shall not exceed100 percent ofthe rated capacity.2. Test weights shall be accurate towithin -5 percent. +0 percent ofstipulated values.3. Load slippage shall not be greater than3 in. vertically and 1 in. horizontally at thecylinder during a static test of at least 10 minduration.4. Load-test records shall be maintainedand shall be made available for examination bythe construction management contractor.b. A load test shall not be conducted inlocations such that the lift meets the definition ofcritical lift in Section 15.2.15.4.6 Slings-Inspection15.4.6.1 Wire Ropea. Users or other designated personnel shallvisually inspect all wire-rope slings each day priorto use, carefully noting any deterioration thatcould result in an appreciable loss of originalstrength and determining whether further use ofthe sling would constitute a safety hazard.b. Slings shall be immediately removed fromservice ifany ofthe following conditions arepresent:1. Ten randomly distributed broken wiresin one rope lay, or five broken wires in one strandin one rope lay.2. Wear or scraping ofone-third theoriginal diameter ofoutside individual wires.3. Kinking. crushing, birdcaging. or anyother damage resulting in distortion ofthe ropestructure.4. Evidence ofheat damage from anycause.5. End attachments that are cracked.deformed. or worn.6. Hooks thathave been opened morethan 15 percent ofthe normal throat openingmeasured at the narrowest point or twisted morethan 10 degrees from the plane of the unbenthook.7. Corrosion ofthe rope or endattachments.15.4.6.2 Synthetic Web Slingsa. Users or other designated personnel shallvisually inspect all synthetic-web slings each dayprior to use. carefully noting any deterioration thatcould result in an appreciable loss oforiginalstrength and determining whether further use ofthe sling would constitute a safetyhazard.CAUTION: Tiedown and/or ratchet straps shallnot be used as synthetic-web slings. Onlysynthetic-web slings constructed from webbingapproved for sling construction by themanufacturer or other qualified person shall beused at DOE locations.b. A synthetic-web sling shall be removed fromservice ifany ofthe following defects are visible:1. Acid or caustic burns.2. Melting or charring ofany part ofthesurface.3. Snags, punctures. tears. or cuts.4. Broken or worn stitches.5. Wear or elongation exceeding theamount recommended by manufacturers.6. Distortion offittings.c. For other apparent defects that cause doubtas to the strength ofthe sling, refer to themanufacturer for determination ofwhethercontinued use would constitute a safety hazard.15.4.6.3 Alloy Steel Chaina. Users or other designated personnel shallvisually inspect all steel-chain slings each daybefore they are used as follows:Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-14


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)1. Conduct a link-by-link inspection forthe following defects: bent or stretched links,cracks in any section oflink, scores, or abrasionstending to weaken the rings or hooks. Reject ifdiscovered.2. Check rings and hooks for distortion,cracks in weld areas, corrosion, scores, orabrasions tending to weaken the ring or hooks.Reject ifdiscovered.3. Perform inspection on anindividual-link basis. Ifany link does not hingefreely with the adjoining link, remove theassembly from service.b. Remove from service assemblies withdeformed master links or coupling links.c. Remove from service assemblies ifhookshave been opened more than 15 percent ofthenormal throat opening measured at the narrowestpoint or twisted more than 10 degrees from theplane ofthe unbent hook.d. Do not straighten deformed hooks or otherattachments on the job. Assemblies with suchdefects shall be reconditioned by themanufacturer.e. Remove from service assemblies withcracked hooks or other end attachments;assemblies with repairable defects shall bereconditioned or repaired prior to being returnedto service.f. Ifwear exceeds the values shown in Table15-2, remove the assembly from service.Table 15-2. Maximum allowable we~rat any point of link.Chain size(in.)1/43/81/25/83/47/811-1/4Maximumallowable wear(in.)3/645/647/649/6410/6411/6412/6416/64NOTE: For other sizes, consult chain orsling manufacturer.15.4.7 Slings-Testing15.4.7.1 Wire Ropea. All swaged and poured socket slingassemblies shall be certified as having beenproof-tested. All other sling assemblies shall beproof-tested when specified by the purchaser.b. As a minimum, the proofload shall be equalto the rated capacitybut shall not exceed:1.. 125 percent ofthe vertical ratedcapacity for single-leg, hand-tucked slings.2. 200 percent ofthe vertical ratedcapacity for mechanical-splice single-leg slingsand endless slings.c. The proofload for multiple-leg bridle slingsshall be applied to the individual legs and shall beeither 200 percent for mechanical-spliced or 125percent for hand-tucked splice times the verticalrated capacity of a single-leg sling. Master linksto which multiple-leg slings are connected shall beproof-loaded to 200 percent times the forceapplied by the combined legs.d. Welded end attachments shall not be usedunless proof-tested at 2 times the rated capacityprior to initial use.e. Test loads described above shall be accurateto within -5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulatedvalues. A written letter ofcertification by themanufacturer or a pull test witnessed and certifiedin writing by a qualified person is acceptable.15.4.7.2 Synthetic Web Slingsa. When specified by the purchaser, web slingsof all types shall be certified as having beenproof-tested prior to initial use.1. The proofload for single-leg slingsand endless slings shall be 200 percent ofthevertical rated capacity prior.2. The proofload for multiple-leg bridleslings shall be applied to the individual legs andshall be 200 percent ofthe vertical rated capacityofa single-leg sling. Masterlinks to whichmultiple-leg slings are connected shall beproof-loaded to 200 percent times the forceapplied by the combined legs.15-15Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)b. Test loads shall be accurate to within-5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. Eithercertification by the manufacturer or a pull testcertified by a qualified person is acceptable.15.4.7.3 Alloy Steel Chaina. Single-leg and endless alloy-steel chainslings shall be certified as having beenproof-tested to 200 percent ofthe rated capacityprior to initial use.b. The proofload for multiple-leg bridle slingsshall be applied to the individual legs and shall be200 percent ofthe vertical rated capacity of asingle-leg sling. Master links to whichmultiple-leg slings are connected shall beproof-loaded to 200 percent multiplied by theforce applied by the combined legs.c. Test loads shall be accurate to within-5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulated values. Eithercertification by the manufacturer or a pull testcertified by a qualified person is acceptable.15.4.8 Rigging Accessories­Inspectiona. Users or other designated personnel shallinspect shackles, rings, eyebolts, lifting bars,rigging assemblies, and hooks at the beginning ofeach shift in which they are to be used, as follows:1. Inspect shackles, rings, and similaritems for wear, corrosion, spreading, anddeformation. Replace them ifdeformationexceeds 15 percent oftheir new condition.Replace shackle pins ifthey show any sign offailure in shear.2. Inspect lifting bars and spreaders forsigns offailure in bending; replace ifpermanentlybent more than 1/2 in. in 10 ft or iftwisted morethan 5 degrees out ofthe original plane. Examinehook-attachment welds for cracks and signs offailure in tension.3. Hooks having any ofthe followingdeficiencies shall be removed from service untilrepaired or replaced:i. Cracks.ii.Wear exceeding 10 percent oftheoriginal dimension.iii. A bend or twist exceeding 10degrees from the plane of theunbent hook.iv.Increase in throat openingexceeding 15 percent from thenew condition.4. Ifa latch is provided and it becomesinoperative because ofwear or deformation orfails to fully bridge the throat opening, remove thehook from service until the latch has been repairedor replaced.NOTE: Ifhooks are painted, a visual inspectionshould take the coating into consideration.Surface variations can disclose evidence ofheavyor severe service. In such instances, the surfacecondition may call for stripping the paint.15.4.9 Rigging Accessories­Testinga. Tackle assemblies, handling IlXtures, andrigging accessories for critical-lift service shallhave an initial proof-load test of2 times the ratedcapacity. The tackle shall be proof-tested prior tomaking a critical lift ifproof-testing cannot beverified.b. Tackle assemblies, handling IlXtures, andrigging accessories that have been modified orextensively repaired shall be proof-tested again to2 times the rated capacity prior to making acritical lift.c. Test loads shall be accurate to within-5 percent, +0 percent ofstipulated values.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-16


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)15.5 OPERATIONThe following shall apply to all personnelinvolved in construction hoisting and riggingoperations.a. An appointed person shall classify each liftinto oneofthe DOE categories (ordinary orcritical), prior to planning the lift.b. A lift shall be designated as a critical lift ifcollision, upset, or dropping could result in anyone ofthe following:1. Damage that would result inunacceptable delay to schedule or other significantprogram impact such as loss ofvital data.2. Significant release ofradioactive orother hazardous material or other undesirableconditions.3. Unacceptable risk ofpersonnel injuryor significant adverse health impact (onsite oroffsite).4. Undetectable damage that wouldjeopardize future operations or the safety of afacility.c. A lift should also be designated as critical ifthe load requires exceptional care in handlingbecause ofsize, weight, close-toleranceinstallation, high susceptibility to damage, orother unusual factors.15.5.1 Conduct of Operatora. Ensure proper functioning oftires, horns,lights, batteries, controllers, lift systems(including load-engaging means, limit switches,etc.), brakes, and steering mechanisms. Ifat anytime a lifting device is found to be defective or inany way unsafe, report it immediately toappropriate management and take the unit out ofservice until it has been restored to safe-operatingcondition or a determination has been made by theconstruction management contractor that thedeficiency will not adversely affect the operationofthe unit.b. The safety ofpersonnel and equipment is thefirst priority. Report or correct any unsafecondition immediately.c. Ifthe operator's visibility is impaired bydust, darlmess, snow, fog, or rain, strictsupervision ofthe operation must be exercised,and ifnecessary, the equipment shall bewithdrawn from service.d. Be alert while operating and always keepyour eye on the load. Ifyour attention must bedirected elsewhere, discontinue operation first.Keep a signaler in full view ifyou cannot see theload at all times.e. Never operate the machine or allow anyoneto operate it unless that person is thoroughlyfamiliar with the machine, its operation, andproper care.f. Be a good housekeeper. Keep the work areafree ofoil, grease, rags, buckets, barrels, and otherhazards. Keep loose parts in a tool box. Use onlynonflammable solutions for cleaning. Be sureshoe soles are clean and dry before operatingbrakes.g. Replace all missing or broken guards andpanels.h. Never tamper with safety devices.i. Have a fire extinguisher on hand and knowhow to use it. Be sure that it is checked regularly(at least monthly) to ensure it is in proper workingorder.j. Check the motion controls for properfunctioning at the start ofeach ~hift or prior to useifthe crane has not been in regular service.Ie. Make certain that no one is working on orclose to the machine before starting the engine orbeginning to move. Accessible areas within theswing radius ofthe rear ofthe rotatingsuperstructure of the crane, either permanently ortemporarily mounted, shall be barricaded in such amanner as to prevent an employee from beingstruck or crushed by the crane.l. Use caution when refueling. Stop theengine; do not permit smoking within 25 ft; neverrefuel near an open flame. Keep metal funnels incontact with the filler tube to prevent static spark.Turn offthe heater before fueling.m. Use both hands to mount and dismount.Never get on or offa moving machine, and neverjump off, even ifthe machine is stationary.n. Hand signals from only one person shall beobeyed. However, obey a STOP signal15-17Chapter 15.Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-!090-96 (Rev-!)regardless Q/wh Q gives it. Use the standardsignals shown in Figure 15-12.o. Many machines have ratings limited byfactors other than machine stability. Never exceedthe rated capacity.p. Make a dry run in conimed areas to helpdetermine the safest way to operate under existingconditions.q. Check loads before moving them. First,determine the load weight and check it against thecapacity chart. Be sure the load is well securedand the hoist ropes are not kinked. Ensure that thehoist ropes are vertical and avoid sudden startsand stops.15.5.2 Mobile CraneslBoomTrucksa. Never use signs oftipping to determine if aload is within a crane's capacity. Operating by the"seat ofthe pants" is an unacceptable practice.b. Know the rated capacity ofthe crane. A safelift depends on boom length, boom angle, andworking radius. Follow these suggestions to avoidstructural failure or tipping:1. Know the radius ofthe load.Remember that the radius is measured from centerofrotation, not from the boom foot pins.2. Always operate within the ratedcapacity ofthe machine.3. Subtract the weight ofhooks, blocks,and any other material-handling devices (slings,shackles, spreader bars, etc.) from the grosscapacity ofthe crane to determine ifthe load canbe lifted safely.4. Load chart ratings are based onoperating the machine on firm, level ground.Outriggers shall be fully extended and lowered sothat all wheels are clear ofthe ground, unlessotherwise specified on the manufacturer loadcharts for the crane. Otherwise, "on rubber" loadcharts shall be used.5. Avoid rapid changes in velocity whilehoisting, swinging, or lowering the load; these cancause overloads when operating at or near thecrane's capacity.6. Do not lift large, heavy loads in strongwinds. Wind loading can be critical depending onboom length, boom angle, bulkiness ofthe load,wind direction, and wind velocity.7. In the absence ofcrane manufacturer'sinstructions regarding maximum wind speeds foroperation, any wind speed in excess of25 mp~shall bereason to remove the crane from SerVJ.ce.c. Always use the shortest boom possible, andobserve these precautions with any boomlength:1. Make only vertical lifts. Never pullthe load sideways.2. Keep speed slow in lifting, lowering,and stopping loads.3. Do not let the load strike the boom oroutriggers and never allow a crane boom to hit ortouch any structure. (Boom contact could dent orbend the lower boom chords and may cause a totalboom collapse.) Boom contact with any objectshall require an engineering evaluation prior toputting the crane back in service. Damage to thecrane sustained during operation shall be repairedaccording to manufacturer's specifications usingcertified welders. A reinspection or load test isrequired after repairs are complete, as is arecertification by the construction managementcontractor at the subcontractor's expenseindicating that the unit can return to service.4. Allow maximum clearance betweenthe hook block and boompoint sheaves.5. Keep near-eapacity loads as close to theground as possible.d. Rotate the crane slowly to avoid an outwardswing ofthe load. Attach a tag line to the load tocontrol the swing.e. Keep the boom high enough to swing clearofthe cab when rotating the crane ontruck-mounted units.f. Watch for boom kickback. Never operatewith the boom at a higher angle than shown on thecapacity chart.g. Avoid "two-blocking," which is caused whenthe hookblock collides with boom-point sheaves.Continuous pull on hoist ropes can break theropes or might pull the boom over the cab. Onhydraulically telescoping boo~, be sure to. playout the hoist rope when extendmg and reel m thehoist rope when retracting.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-18


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)HOIST. With forearm vertical,forefinger pointing up, move hand insmaO horizontal circles.LOWER. With arm extendeddownward, forefinger pointing down,move hand in small horizontal circles.USE MAIN HOIST. Tap fist on head,then use re ular si nals......... ,-~,. .I',1 ""'USE WHIPLINE (Auxmary Hoist). Tapelbow with one hand, then use regularsi nals.LOWER BOOM. Extend arm, fingersclosed, thumb ointin downward.MOVE SLOWLY. Use one hand togive any motion signal and place otherhand motionless above hand givingthe motion signal. (Hoist slowly shownasexam Ie.LOWER THE BOOM AND RAISETHE LOAD. With arm extended,thumb pointing down, flex fingers inand out as long as load movement isdesired.Figure 15-12. Standard hand signals for controlling crane operation.15-19Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1)EMERGENCY STOP. Extend bothSWING. Extend arm, point with finger STOP. Extend arm, palm down; move arms, palms down, and move armsin direction of swin of boom. arm back and forth horizontal . back and forth horizontal .TRAVEL. Extend arm forward, handopen and slightly raised; makeushin motion in direction of travel.TRAVEL (Both Tracks). Use bothfists in front of body, making a circularmotion about each other, indicatingDOG EVERYTHING. Clasp hands in direction of travel, forward orfront of bod . backward for land cranes on .TRAVEL (One Side Track). Lock thetrack on side indicated by raised fist.Travel opposite track indicated bycircular motion of other fist, rotatedvertically in front of body (for landcranes on .RETRACT BOOM (TelescopingBooms). Hold both fists in front ofbody, thumbs pointing toward eachother.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-20


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)RETRACT 800M (TelescopingEXTEND 800M (Telescoping 800m). Boom). One-hand signal. One fist inOne-hand signal. One fist in front of front of chest with thumb pointingchest with thumb t in chest. outward and heel of fist ta in chest.Figure 15-12. (continued).15.5.2.1 Attaching the Loada. Ensure that the hoist rope is free ofkinks ortwists and is not wrapped around the load.b. Attach the load to the load-block hook withslings or other approved devices.c. Make certain that the sling clears allobstacles.15.5.2.2 Moving the LoadaBefore moving the load, make certain that itis well secured and properly balanced in the slingor lifting device before lifting it more than a fewinches.b. Before starting to hoist, note the followingconditions:1. Multiple-part lines shall not be twistedaround each other.2. The hook shall be positioned over theload in such a manner as to prevent swingingwhen the load is lifted.3. Ifthere is a slack-rope condition,determine that the rope is properly seated on thedrum and is in the sheaves.c. Test stability before lifting heavy loads.Check outrigger footing. Lift load slightly offtheground and stop. Check the machine formovement and check to be sure the brakes areholding. Never use machine stability to determinecapacity. Ifthere are any indications oftipping,the machine is already overloaded for that workingradius.d. Do not use cranes for side pulls except whenspecifically authorized by a designated personwho has determined that the stability ofthe craneis not endangered and that the parts ofthe cranewill not be overstressed.e. Do not hoist, lower, or travel while anyone ison the load or hook, except as noted in Section15.5.2.6, "Lifting Personnel."f. Do not move loads above people.g. Test the brakes each time a load approachingthe rated capacity is handled byraising the load afew inches and applying the brakes.h. Power down when lowering loads. Whenlowering heavy loads, keep the hoist brakes asreserve. Use a safety pawl on the boom-hoistdrum when not lowering.i. Do not lower the load below the point whereless than two full wraps ofrope remain on thehoist drum.j. Do not leave your position at the controlswhile the load is suspended unless required to do15-21Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)so by an approved emergency procedure.k. Work on suspended loads is prohibitedunder normal conditions. When the responsiblemanager decides that is necessary to work onsuspended load, guidelines for ensuring safety ofthe work shall be established through consultationwith the appropriate safety organization.Suspended loads that must be worked on shall besecured against unwanted movement.1. Tag lines should be used as required toguide, snub or otherwise control the load.15.5.2.3 Traveling the Machinea. Secure the boom and hookblock.b. Check bridges before crossing; make surethey will support the weight ofthe machine.c. Check river depths before fording.d. Check clearances under overpasses,overhead lines, or any overhead obstruction.When side clearances are tight, post a lookout andbe sure there is clearance for tail swing.e. When traveling with a load, snub the load toprevent swaying ifpossible. Never travel withnear-capacity loads.f. Never travel a rubber-tired unit with a loadover the side.g. On soft surfaces, always move with the loadbehind; this helps to raise the leading end ofthetracks and makes traveling safer.h. Always set swing brakes when the unit isidle or holding loads for a period oftime,especially on slopes. Ifswinging dUring travel isnecessary, engage the swing-jaw clutch beforereleasing brakes.i. Never back up until everyone is clear ofthemachine, and use a signaler when backup alarmsare not provided.j. Avoid tipping bynever backing the cranewhile carrying a maximum load.k. For long moves, position the boom in thedirection oftravel.1. Block treads when moving uphill to preventdownhill movement before shifting steeringclutches.m. Lock the turntable prior to highway travel.Use a house lock or swing brake, and lower boominto the rack to prevent swing.n. When loading machine on the trailer, alwaysuse a ramp; ifa ramp is not available, useblocking to build one.o. Be familiar with the equipment and itsproper care. Ifadjustments or repairs arenecessary, promptly report this to the appropriatelevel ofmanagement.p. Test all controls at the start of a new shift. Ifany controls fail to operate properly, adjust orrepair them before operations are begun.q. Block under the boom before disassembling.Never stand on or under the boom during thiswork.r. Before disconnecting oil lines, ifmachinehas hydraulic controls, be sure to place the boomon the ground or in the boom rest, then move thepedals and control levers to equalize pressureswithin the cylinders. Always release any airsupercharge on the hydraulic reservoir and shutoffthe engine (or declutch pumps) beforedisconnecting oil lines.s. Do not reach into hydraulic-boom holesunless the sections are securely anchored together.15.5.2.4 Operating Near Power Lines andTransmission TowersIt is recognized that operating mobile craneswhere they can become electrified from electricpower lines is an extremely hazardous practice. Itis advisable to perform the work so there is nopossibility ofthe crane, load line, or loadbecoming a conductive path, (Figure 15-13).The following steps shall be taken to minimize thehazard ofelectrocution or serious injury as a resultofcontact between the energized power lines andthe crane, load line, or load:a. The (electric) Power MarketingAdministrations inDOE may deviate from therequirements ofTable 15-3, providing the work isdone according to line management-approvedprocedures that do not conflict with statutoryregulations or approved variances from theseregulations.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-22


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)b. Any overhead wire shall be considered to be Ian energized line unless and until the person Iowning the line or the electrical utility authorities Iindicate that it is not an energized line.IIc. Durable signs shall be installed at the Ioperator's station and on the outside ofthe crane, Iwarning that electrocution or serious bodily injury Imay occur unless a minimum clearance of 10 it ((3.1 m) is maintained between the crane or the Iload being handled and energized power lines. IGreater clearances are required because ofhigher Ivoltage as stated in Table 15-3. These signs shall Ibe revised but not removed when a localIjurisdiction requires greater clearances.IId. Exercise caution when working near Ioverhead lines having long spans as they tend to Imove laterally or vertically due to the wind, which Icould cause them to breach the safety zone. IIe.. Cranes shall not be used to handle materials Istored under electric power lines unless any Icombination ofthe boom, load, load line, or Imachine component cannot enter the prohibited Izone.IIf. Crane operators shall not rely on the Icoverings ofwires for their protection.II15.5.2.4.1 Crane Operation Near Deenergizedand GroundedElectric Power LinesThis is the preferred condition under which theoperation can be performed safely. The hazard ofinjury or death due to electrocution has beenremove. Thefollowing steps shall be taken toassure de-energization ofthe power lines hasoccurred:a. The power company or owner ofthe powerlines shall de-energize the lines.b. The lines shall be visibly grounded to avoidelectrical feedback and appropriately marked atthe job-site location.c. A qualified representative ofthe owner ofthe lines or a designated representative oftheelectrical utility shall be on site to verify that steps(a) and (b) have been completed and that the linesare not energized.15.5.2.4.2 Power Lines Energized, CraneOperating Less thanErected/Fully Extended BoomLength away from theProhibitedZone(see Figure 15-14)a. An on-site meeting between projectmanagement and a qualified representative oftheowner ofthe lines or a designated representativeofthe electrical utility shall take place to establishthe procedures to safely complete the operations.b. The specified clearance between the powerlines and the crane, load line, and load shall bemaintained at all times as specified in Table 15-3.c. Load control, when required, shall utilize taglines of a non-conductive type. .signaler indicates it is safe to do so.d. Operation ofboom and load over electricpower lines is extremely dangerous, duee. A designated signaler, whose soleresponsibility is to verify that the requiredclearance is maintained shall be in constantcontact with the crane operator.f. No one shall be permitted to touch the crane Ior the load unless the designated to perception of Idistance and multiple contact points as viewed Ifrom the position ofthe operator and lor position Iofthe designated signaler. The operator should Iavoid operating the crane, with or without a load, Iin this area.IIg. The horizontal and vertical distance of rmovement oflong span lines due to the wind shallbe added to the minimum clearance distance asspecified in Table 15-3. A qualifiedrepresentative of the the owner ofthe lines or adesignated representative ofthe electrical utilityshall be consulted for specific distances.h. Devices such as ribbons, balls, etc., should Ibe attached by a qualified person to the power Ilines to improve visibility, or equivalent means Iemployed to aid in location ofthe prohibited zone. IIIIIIJIIIIIJI15-23Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 15-13. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loadsoperating near electrical transmission lineChapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-24


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Table 15-3. Safe working distance from power lines.a. When operatinQ near hiQh-voltaQe power lines:Normal voltage(phase to phase)Minimum requiredclearanceto 50 kV 10ft (3.1 m)Over 50 to 200kV 15ft (4.6m)Over 200 to 350 kV 20ft ( 6.1 m)Over 350 to 500 kV 25 ft ( 7.6 m)Over 500 to 750 kV 35ft (10.7m)Over 750 to 1000 kV 45 ft (13.7 m)b. While in transit with no load and boom or mast lowered:Normal voltage(phase to phase)Minimum requiredclearanceto 0.75 kV 4 ft (1.2 m)Over 0.75 to 50 kV 6 ft (1.3 m)Over 50 to 345 kV 10ft (3.5m)Over 345 to 700kV 16ft (4.9m)Over 750 to 1000 kV 20 ft (6.1 m)15-25Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements .


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 15-14. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loadsoperating near electrical transmission line.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-26


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)15.5.2.4.3 Crane Operations are Withinthe ProhibitedZone and thePower Lines are Energizeda. Before such operations take place, aqualified person together with a qualifiedrepresentative ofthe utility or an engineerqualified in power line transmission shall, aftervisiting the site, determine ifthis is the mostfeasible way to complete the operation, and setminimum required clearances and procedures forsafe operations. These operations shall be undertheir supervision.The following guidelines should be required:1. Cranelload grounded to a neutral lineby the utility.2. Electrical system protective devicesthat automatically re-energize the circuit after apower line contact occurrence should beblockedor disengaged to inhibit this function.3. Insulated barriers, which are not a partofnor an attachment to the crane and which willnot allow contact between the energized electricpower lines and the crane, load lines, or load.4. Non-conductive barricades to restrictaccess to the crane work areab. Load control, when required, shall utilize taglines ofa non-conductive type.c. A designated signaler, whose soleresponsibility is to verify that the clearancesestablished are maintained, shall be in constantcontact with the crane operator.d. The person responsible for the operationshall alert and warn the crane operator and allpersons working around or near the crane abouthazard ofelectrocution or serious injury andinstruct them on how to avoid the hazard.e. All non-essential personnel shall be removedfrom the crane work area.f. No one shall be permitted to touch the craneor the load unless the signaler indicates it is safeto do so.15.5.2.4.4 Crane in Transit With No Loadand Boom Lowered(see Figure 15-15)a. Cranes in transit with no load and boomlowered shall maintain clearance as specified inTable 15-3.b. A designated signaler shall be assigned toobserve the clearance and give warning before thecrane approaches the above limits.c. When planning transit ofthe crane, the effectof speed and terrain on the boom and cranemovement shall be considered.15.5.2.4.5 Crane Operation NearTransmitter Towers(see Figure 15-16)a. Prior to work near transmitter towers wherean electrical charge can be induced in theequipment or materials being handled, thetransmitter shall be deenergized or tests shall bemade to determine ifelectrical charge is inducedon the crane. The following precautions shall betaken when necessary to dissipate inducedvoltages:1. The equipment shall be provided withan electrical ground directly to the upper rotatingstructure supporting the boom.2. Ground jumper cables shall beattached to materials being handled byboomequipment when electrical charge is induced whileworking near energized transmitters; crews shallbe provided with nonconduetive poles havinglarge alligator clips or other similar protection toattach the ground cable to the load.3. Combustible and flammable materialsshall be removed from the immediate area prior tooperations.15.5.2.5 Ordinary Liftsa. An appointed person shall classify each liftinto one of the DOE categories (ordinary orcritical) prior to planning the lift.b. Hoisting and rigging operations for ordinarylifts require a designated leader who shall bepresent at the lift site during the entire liftingoperation. Ifthe lift is being made by only oneperson, that person assumes all responsibilities ofthe designated leader.c. Leadership designation may be by writteninstructions, specific verbal instructions for theparticular job, or clearly defmedresponsibilities within the crew's organizationalstructure.d. The designated leader's responsibility shall15-27Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Figure 15-15. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loadsoperating near electrical transmission line.(See Table 15-3 for minimum radial distance of prohibited zone.)Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-28


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)PROlt8IIED ZONIiSEE TABlE 9-3Figure 15-16. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loadsoperating near electical transmission line.15-29Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)include the following:1. Ensure that personnel involvedunderstand how the lift is to be made.2. Ensure that the weight ofthe load isdetermined. that proper equipment and accessoriesare selected. and that rated capacity is notexceeded.3. Survey the lift site forhazardous/unsafe conditions.4. Ensure that equipment is properly setup and positioned.5. Ensure that a signaler is assigned. ifrequired. and is identified to the operator.i. Identification and rated capacityofslings, lifting bars, riggingaccessories. and below-the-hooklifting devices.ii.iii.iv.Load-indicating devices.Load vectors.Lifting points.v. Sling angles.vi.vii.Boom and swing angles.Methods of attachment.viii. Crane orientations.6. Direct the lifting operation to ensurethat the lift is completed safely and efficiently.ix.Other factors affectingequipment capacity.7. Stop the job when any potentiallyunsafe condition is recognized.8. Direct operations if an accident orinjury occurs.e. The designated leader shall inspect all cranesto ensure that they are still within the inspectioninterval.f. The designated leader shall inspect all liftingdevices to ensure that the rated capacity oftheseitems ofequipment will not be exceeded.15.5.2.6 Critical Liftsa. The operating organization shall appoint aperson-in-charge (PIC) ofthe lifting operation.This person shall meet the definitions ofappointed. designated. and qualified. as describedin Section 15.2. "Definitions:'b. The PIC shall ensure that a pre-job plan isprepared that defmes the operation and shallinclude the following:1. Identification ofthe items to bemoved. the weight. dimensions. center ofgravity.and the presence ofhazardous or toxic materials.2. Identification ofcranes to be used bytype and rated capacity.3. Rigging sketches that include (asapplicable):4. Operating procedures and specialinstructions to operators including riggingprecautions and safety measures to be followed asapplicable.c. Only experienced operators who have beentrained and qualified to operate the specificequipment to be used shall be assigned to makethe lift.d. Only designated, qualified signalers shallgive signals to the operator. However. obey aSTOP signal at all times no matter who gives thesienal.e. The responsible manager or designee shallreview and approve the procedure and riggingsketches before the lift is made.15.5.2.7 Lifting Personnela. Do not lift, lower, swing, or travel the craneor forklift while a worker is on the hook. load,personnel platform. boom. or personnel-liftingdevice attached to the crane hoist rope. boom. ortines except as described in the paragraphs below.b. The person specifically responsible for theoverall work function to be performed shalldetermine that there is no practical alternativemachine or equipment to perform the work, suchas a ladder. scaffold. stairway. aerial lift, orpersonnel hoist. Ifa determination is made thatlifting by crane or forklift is required. theconstruction management contractor shall beChapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-30


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)notified and will approve the requirement beforethe lift is made.c. Use onlypersonnel platforms that arespecificallydesigned and constructed for thepurpose of suspending personnel according to thefollowing:1. The personnel platform shall bedesigned by a qualified person competent instructural design, and all welding ofthe platformshall be performed by a qualified welder familiarwith the weld grades, types, and material specifiedin the design.2. The platform shall be limited tocarrying six persons.3. The personnel platform and riggingshall be capable ofsupporting, without failure, atleast five time the maximum intended load.4. The platform shall bear a platespecifying its empty weight and the maximumnumber ofpersons and weight for which it israted.5. The platform shall have perimeterprotection consisting ofa top rail approximately45 in. (115 em) high, a toeboard at least 4 in.(10 cm) high, and a midrail approximatelyhalf-way between the top rail and the toeboard.6. A grab rail shall beprovided inside thepersonnel platform to minimize hand exposure.7. The sides ofthe platform shall beenclosed from the toeboard to the midrail withsolid construction or expanded metal havingopenings no greater than 1/2 in. (1.27 em).8. Ifaccess doors are installed, they shallopen only to the interior ofthe platform. Accessdoors shall be equipped with a device to restrainthem from opening unintentionally.9. The personnel platform shall haveoverhead protection when there is an overheadhazard.10. Sufficient headroom shall be providedto allow employees to stand upright in theplatform.11. Rough edges exposed to contact byemployees shall be surfaced (ground smooth) toprevent injury.12. The platform shall be easilyidentifiable byhigh-visibility color or marking.13. All welding procedures and weldingoperator qualifications shall be in accordance withANSIJAWS Dl.1 when welding is to beperformed on load-sustaining members. Wherespecial steels or other materials are used, themanufacturer shall provide welding procedures.Welds shall be inspected by a qualified inspector.14. When being supported by a crane, theplatform shall be attached to the hoist rope by ahook ofa type that canbe closed and locked,eliminating the hook throat opening.Alternatively, an alloy steel anchor shackle with abolt, nut, and retaining pin may beused.15. All eyes in wire-rope slings shall befabricated with thimbles, and rigging accessoriesfor attaching the personnel platform to hoist linesshall not be used for any other purpose when nothoisting personnel.16. The suspension system shall minimizeinclination of the personnel platform due to themovement ofpersonnel on the personnel platform.d. At each newjob site (and at least annUally)prior to hoisting personnel, the personnelplatform, rigging, and hook block shall beproof-tested by a qualified inspector to twice thepersonnel platform's rated capacitybyholding itsuspended for 5 min with the test load suitablydistributed on the personnel platform. Afterproof-testing, any deficiencies revealed byinspection, or by the prooftest, shall be corrected,and another prooftest conducted. Anymodification to the personnel platform or riggingshall require retesting.e. Prior to the trial lift, a meeting shall be heldwith the designated leader, qualified operator,signaler, persons to be lifted, and the personresponsible for overall worksite safety to plan andreview procedures to be followed. Procedures forentering and leaving the personnel platform orother device and the points at which persons willenter and leave the device shall be reviewed.f. Prior to lifting personnel and after the prooftest, the qualified operator and signaler shallconduct a trial lift with the personnel platformloaded to at least the anticipated load.g. The trial lift shall be made from ground level(or any other location where employees will enter15-31Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)the platform) to eachlocation at which theplatform is to behoisted and positioned. Thedesignated leader and the operator shall determinethat:1. Crane (mobile) footing is adequate.2. System controls and safety devices areactivated and functioning properly.3. No interferences exist.4. Configuration necessary to reach worklocations will allow the crane to remain under 50percent ofrated capacity.NOTE: Materials and tools to beused during theaetuallift, ifsecured to prevent displacement, canbe in the platformfor the test lift.NOTE: A single trial lift may be performed for alllocations to be reached from a single setupposition.h. The trial lift shall be repeated prior tohoisting employees whenever:1. The crane (mobile) travels or is movedand set up in a new location or returned to apreviously used location.2. The lift route is changed, unless theoperator determines that the safety ofthe hoistedpersonnel is not affected.i. A visual inspection ofthe crane, rigging, andpersonnel platform shall be conducted by aqualified inspector immediately after the trial lift,prior to lifting personnel. Any defects found thatcreate a safety hazard shall be corrected prior tohoisting personnel.j. Mter the trial lift and just before hoistingpersonnel, the platform shall be lifted a few inchesand inspected to ensure that it is secure andproperly balanced. Personnel shall not be hoistedunless the following conditions exist:1. Hoist ropes are free ofkinks.2. Multiple-part lines are not twistedaround each other.3. The primary attachment is centeredover the platform.4. Ropes are properly seated on drumsand sheaves.k. These special procedures shall be followedwhen lifting personnel:1. The crane shall be inspected dailyprior to lifting personnel, in accordance with therequirements for frequent inspections for the typeofequipment being used.2. Thelifting and supporting shall bemade under controlled conditions and under thedirection ofa designated leader. A qualifiedsignaler shall be appointed.3. Prior to each working shift, thepersonnel lift platform and rigging shall beinspected.4. Communications between the craneoperator, signaler, and persons being lifted shallbe maintained throughout the lift.5. The employees being hoisted, moved,or positioned shall remain in continuous sight of,and in direct communication with, the operator orsignaler. In situations where direct visual contactwith the operator is not possible and the use ofasignaler would create a hazard for that person,direct communication alone (such as two-wayradio) may be used.6. Tag lines shall be used unless their usecreates an unsafe condition.7. The crane shall be operated so thatlowering will be power-controlled (no free-fall).8. When welding is done bypersonnelfrom the platform or basket, the electrode holdersshall be protected from contact with metalcomponents ofthe personnel platform orbasket.9. Employees working from a platformshall wear body belts/harnesses with lanyardsattached to the lower load block or overhaul ball,or to a structural member within the platform thatis capable ofsupporting a fall impact. Whenworking above water, the requirements of29 CFR1926.106 (Occupational Safety and HealthRegulations for Construction) shall also apply.10. The operator shall remain at thecontrols when the personnel platform is occupied.11. Movement ofthe personnel platformshall be done in a slow, controlled, cautiousChapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-32


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)manner with no sudden movements ofit or thecrane. the lifting or lowering speed shall notexceed 100 ftlmin (30 m1min).12. The total weight ofthe lifted load(including personnel) shall not exceed 50 percentofthe crane rating under the planned conditions ofuse.13. Suspended personnel platforms shallbe used only for personnel, their tools, andsufficient materials to do their work:. They shouldnot be used for transporting bulkmaterials.14. Personnel shall keep all parts oftheirbodies inside the suspended personnel platformduring raising, lowering, and positioning to avoidpinch points. Personnel shall not stand on or workfrom the top rail, midraU, or toeboard of thesuspended personnel platform.15. Ifthe personnel platform cannot belanded, it should be tied to the structure beforepersonnel get offor on.16. Personnel platforms should not beused in winds greater than 15 mph (25 kmIh),electric storms, snow, ice, sleet, or other adverseweather conditions that could affect the safety ofpersonnel.17. After the personnel platform ispositioned, all brakes and locks on the lift craneshall be set before personnel perfonn any work:.18. Cranes and derricks withvariable-angle booms shall be equipped with aboom-angle indicator that is readily visible to theoperator.19. Cranes with telescoping booms shallbe equipped with a device to indicate clearly to theoperator, at all times, the boom's extended length,or an accurate determination ofthe load radius tobe used during the lift shall be made prior tohoisting personnel.20. A positive-acting device shall be usedthat prevents contact between the load block oroverhaul ball and the boom tip (anti-two-blockingdevice), or a system shall be used that deactivatesthe hoisting action before damage occurs in theevent ofa two-blocking situation (two-blockdamage-prevention feature).21. The crane shall be uniformly levelwithin 1 percent oflevel grade and located on firmfooting.22. Cranes shall not travel while personnelare on a personnel platform or in the basket.23. Cranes with outriggers shall have theoutriggers fully extended and blocked.15.5.3 Forklift Trucksa. Know the rated capacity ofthe forklift andalways operate within that capacity. Since theload rating for forklifts maybe based on stabilityor hydraulic/structural competence, the ratedcapacity shall not be exceeded in operationalapplication. Signs oftipping shall never be usedto determine ifa load is within the forklift'scapacity.b. Before operating electric-powered machines,check location ofthe batteryplug for quickdisconnection in case of a short circuit.c. Ensure that battery recharging andmaintenance takes place in designated areas wheresmoking, sparks, or open flames are prohibited.Wear eye protection, rubber glOVes, and rubberaprons. Whenever battery maintenance isperformed, any area ofthe body affected bycontact with battery electrolyte shall be flushedwith water immediately and all acid spills must becleaned up at once.d. Ensure that fueling ofinternal-combustionpoweredforklift trucks takes place in designatedareas. The vehicle engine must be turned off andsmoking, sparks, or open flames shall beprohibited.e. Handling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuelpresents a unique hazard. Therefore, to avoidinjury while refueling with LPG fuel, preciselyfollow the refueling procedure in the operator'smanual for the vehicle.f. The operation ofinternalcombustion-powered forklift trucks in corrfmedspaces shall be prohibited unless specialprecautions are followed to preclude the buildupofcarbon monoxide gas above prescribed levels.g. Only qualified operators shall be permittedto operate forklift trucks. No one shall operate theequipment other than the person to whom it isassigned.15-33Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)h. Report and correct any apparent mechanicaldeficiencies before operating the forklift truck.15.5.3.1 Operating the Unita. Forklift truck operators shall do thefollowing:1. Before operation ofelectricallypowered machines, check location ofthe batteryplug for quick disconnection in case of a shortcircuit.2. Avoid sudden stops.3. Face in the direction oftravel, exceptas follows:i. For better vision with large loads,operate the truck in reverse gear.ii.iii.When ascending or descendinggrades in excess of5 percent,drive loaded rider trucks with theload upgrade.Operate unloaded trucks on allgrades with the load-engagingmeans downgrade.4. Stop and sound the hom at all blindcomers and intersections and when going throughdoorways.5. Operate as safe speeds: in-plantbuildings,S mph; in-plant roads, 15 mphmaximum.6. Go around curves slowly.7. Use low gear or slowest speed whendescending ramps.8. Do not allow riders on forklift trucksunless the truck is built with passenger seating.9. Know the weight of the load and donot exceed the rated capacity ofthe truck.10. Consider both truck and load weightwhen traveling in areas where there arefloor-loading requirements.11. Watch overhead clearance; ifin doubt,measure.12. Keep clear ofedges ofloading docks.13. Watch rear-end swing.14. Before handling them, ensure thatstacks and loads are stable; block and lash themifnecessary.15. Always spread the forks to suit theload width.16. Lower and raise the load slowly; makesmooth, gradual stops.17. Lift and lower loads only while thevehicle is stopped.18. Use special care when high-tiering;return the lift to a vertical position before loweringthe load.19. Lift, lower, and carry loads with theupright vertical or tilted back-never forward; onall grades, the load and load-engaging means shallbe tilted back.20. To avoid injury, keep arms and legsinside the operator's area ofthe machine.21. Never travel with forks raised tounnecessary heights; approximately 4 to 6 in.above floor level is adequate.22. When loading trucks or trailers, ensurethat the wheels are chocked and the brakes set;place loads in front end ofthe semitrailer only ifthe tractor is attached or adequate trailer (railroad)jacks are in place.23. Inspect floors on trucks, boxcars,unfamiliar ramps, or platforms before startingoperation.24. Be sure bridge plates into trucks orfreight cars are sufficiently wide, strong, andsecure; portable and powered dockboards shall beconspicuously marked with carrying capacity.25. Never butt loads with forks or rear endoftruck.26. Remember that forklift trucks shouldnot be used as tow trucks unless a towing hitchapproved by the manufacturer is used.27. Stop engine before refueling.28. Use only approved explosion-prooflights to check gas-tank and battery-water levels;Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-34


DOE-STD-!090-96 (Rev-!)smoking is notpermitted during this operation.29. Place forks flat on the floor when thetruck is parked30. Turn ignition switch to OFF positionwhen leaving the machine.31. Always set brakes before leaving thetruck32. Report evidence offaulty truck.performance.33. When exiting or leaving the truck, stepdown-do notjump.34. Report all accidents promptly to thesupervisor.35. Use guides and signalers as much aspossible; ifin doubt, check personally beforeproceeding; the final responsibility for thehandling ofa truck remains with the driver.36. Never lift with one fork without anengineering analysis and approval.37. Do not use the lifting forks as apersonnel elevator unless an approvedpersonnel platform securely attached to the forksis used (see Section 15.5.3.5, "LiftingPersonnel").38. The final responsibility for thehandling ofa truck remains with the driver. Useguides and signalers as much as possible.Standard signals shall be specified in the latestedition ofapplicable ASME B.56.1 codes andstandards. Signals most commonly used areshown in Figure 15-17.11.5.3.2 Moving the Loada. The nature of the terrain and the surface onwhich the truck is to operate are very importantfactors in the stability offorklift-truck systems.The designated person shall ensure that a propertruck has been selected to operate on the surfaceavailable. In general, small, three-wheeled trucksshould operate on smooth, hard surfaces only andare not suitable for outdoor workb. The designated person shall ensure that theload is well secured and properly balanced beforeit is lifted.c. During hoisting, ensure that:1. There is no sudden acceleration oftheload.2. The load does not contact anyobstruction.15.5.3.3 Ordinary Liftsa. An appointed person shall classify each liftinto one ofthe DOE categories (ordinary orcritical) before the lift is planned.b. Hoisting and rigging operations for ordinarylifts require a designated leader who shall bepresent at the lift site during the entire liftingoperation. Ifthe lift is being made by only oneperson, that person assumes all responsibilities ofthe designated leader.c. Leadership designation may be by writteninstructions, specific verbal instructions for theparticular job, or clearly defmed responsibilitieswithin the crew's organizational structure.d. The designated leader's responsibility shallinclude thefollowing:1. Ensure that personnel involvedunderstand how the lift is to be made.2. Ensure that the weight of the load isdetermined, that proper equipment and accessoriesare selected, and that rated capacity is notexceeded.3. Survey the lift site forhazardous/unsafe conditions.15-35Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-!090-96 (Rev-!)fRAISE THE TINES. With forearmvertical, forefinger pointing up, movehand in small horizontal circle.LOWER THE TINES. With armextended, palm down, lower armverticalTILT MAST BACK. With forearmvertical, thumb extended, jerk thumbover shoulder.TILT MAST FORWARD. With armextended, thumb down, lower armvertical .MOVE TINES IN DIRECTIONFINGER POINTS. With armextended, palm down, point forefinger DOG EVERYTHING. Clasp handsin direction of movement. in front of bod .STOP. Extend both arms, palmsdown.Figure 15-17. Standard hand signals for controlling forklift operation.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-36


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)4. Ensure that equipment is properly setup and positioned.5. Ensure that a signaler is assigned, ifrequired, and is identified to the operator.6. Direct the lifting operation to ensurethat the lift is completed safely and efficiently.7. Stop the job when any potentiallyunsafe condition is recognized.8. Direct operations if an accident orinjury occurs.15.5.3.4 Critical liftsa. The operating organization shall appoint onePIC ofthe lifting operation. This person shallmeet the definitions of appointed, designated, andqualified, as described in Section 15.2,"Definitions."b. The PIC shall ensure that a pre-job plan isprepared that defmes the operation and shallinclude the following:1. Identification ofthe items to bemoved, the weight, dimensions, center ofgravity,and the presence ofhazardous or toxic materials.2. Identification offorklifts to be used bytype and rated capacity.3. Rigging sketches that include (asapplicable):i. Identification and rated slings,lifting bars, rigging accessories,and below-the-hook liftingdevices.ii.iii.iv.Load-indicating devices.Load vectors.Lifting points.v. Sling angles.vi.vii.Boom and swing angles.Methods of attachment.viii. Forklift orientations.ix.Other factors affectingequipment capacity.4. Operating procedures and specialinstructions to operators including riggingprecautions and safety measures to be followed asapplicable.c. Only experienced operators who have beentrained and qualified to operate the specificequipment to be used shall be assigned to makethe lift.d. Only designated, qualified signalers shallgive signals to the operator. However. obO'STOP signal at all times no matter who gives the~e. The responsible manager or designee shallreview and approve the procedure and riggingsketches before the lift is made.15.5.3.5 Lifting of PersonnelTake the following precautions wheneverpersonnel are elevated with a forklift truck:a. Use a lift platform manufactured for thepurpose oflifting personnel with a forklift truckthat meets the requirements ofASME B56.1.b. Ensure that a restraining means (handrails orchains) exists that is capable ofwithstanding aforce of200 pounds in any direction; ifnorestraining means is provided, personnel on theplatform shall wear a body harness with lanyard ordeceleration device.c. When being supported by a forklift, thepersonnel platform shall be attached in such amanner that it cannot slide or bounce offthe forks.d. The operator shall remain in the controlposition ofthe forklift truck or means shall beprovided whereby personnel on the platform canshut power offto the forklift truck.e. Overhead protection, as indicated necessaryby operating conditions, shall be provided.f. Means shall be provided to protect personnelfrom moving parts ofthe forklift truck thatpresent a hazard when the personnel platform is inthe normal working position.g. Do not transport personnel from one locationto another while they are on the work platform.15-37Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)h. Provide 4-in. (lO-cm) toeboards on the workplatform.i. Whenever a truck (except for high-liftorder-picker trucks) is equipped with verticalhoisting controls elevatable with the liftingcarriage or forks, take the following additionalprecautions to protect personnel:1. Means shall be provided wherebypersonnel on the platform can shut offpower tothe truck.2. . Means shall be provided to renderinoperative all operating controls, other than thoseon the elevating platform, when the controls onthe elevating platform have been selected for use;only one location ofcontrols shall be capable ofbeing operated at one time.3. Emergency lowering means availableat ground level should be provided; such means,when provided, shall be protected against misuse.Chapter 15Construction Hoisting and RiggingEquipment Requirements 15-38


CHAPTER 16REFERENCESAmerican Institute of SteelConstructionAISC Specifications for the design, fabrication,and erection ofstructural steel for buildings.DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Underhung Cranes.ASME B30.12-1992, Handling Loads Suspendedfrom Rotorcraft.ASME B30.14-1991, Side Boom Tractors.American Iron and SteelInstituteAISI Standards for Type-302 or Type-304stainless steel.American NationalStandards InstituteANSI AlO.28-1990, Work Platforms SuspendedFrom Cranes or Derricks.ANSI AI0.18-1983, Floor and Wall Openings,Railings and Toe Boards.ASME B30.2-1990, Overhead and Gantry Cranes(Top-Running Bridge, Single orMultiple Girder,Top-Running Trolley Hoist).B30.2a - 1991B30.2b - 1992ASME B30.5-1994, Mobile and LocomotiveCranes.ASME B30.6-1990, Derricks.B30.6a - 1991B30.6b - 1992B30.6c - 1993B30.6d - 1994ASME B30.7-1994, Base-Mounted Drum Hoists.ASME B30.9-1990, Slings.B30.9a - 1991B30.9b -1992ASME B30.10-1993, Hooks.ASME B30.11-1993, Monorail Systems andB30.14a -1992B30.14b - 1993ASME B30.16-1993, Overhead Hoists(Underhung).B30.16a - 1994ASME B30.17-1992, Overhead and GantryCranes (Top Running Bridge, Single Girder,Underhung Hoist).B30.17a - 1993ASME B30.20-1993, Below-The-HookLiftingDevices.B30.20a - 1987B30.20b - 1988B30.20c - 1989B30.20d - 1990ASME B30.21-1989 Manually Lever OperatedHoists.B30.21a - 1990B30.21b - 1992B30.21c - 1992B30.21d - 1993ASME B30.22-1993, Articulating Boom Cranes.ASME B56.1-1993 Safety Standard for PoweredIndustrial Trucks-Low Lift and High LiftTrucks.ASME B56.5-1993, Guided Industrial Vehicles.ASME B56.6-1993, Rough Terrain Fork LiftTrucks.B56.6a - 1988B56.6b - 199016-1Chapter 16References


DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-l)ASME B56.7, Industrial Crane Trucks.Special Notice 6-88ASME B56.11.4-1992, Forks and Fork Carriersfor Powered Industrial ForkLift Trucks, HookType.ANSIIASTM Specification A391, Specificationfor Alloy Steel Chain.ANSIIASTM SpecificationE-165, StandardPractice for Liquid Penetrant Inspection Method.ANSIIASTM Specification E-709, StandardPractice for Magnetic Particle Examination.ANSIIAWS DI4.1-1994, Specificationfor Welding ofIndustrial and MillCranes and Other Material Handling Equipment.ASME HST-IM-1989, Performance Standard forElectric Chain Hoists.ASME HST-2M-1989, Performance Standard forHand Chain Manually Operated Chain Hoists.ANSIIASME HST-3M-199l, PerformanceStandard for Manually Lever Operated ChainHoists.ANSIIASME HST-4M-199l, PerformanceStandard for Electric Wire Rope Hoists.ANSIIASME HST-5M-199l, PerformanceStandard for Air Chain Hoists.ANSIIASME HST-6M-1986, PerformanceStandard for Air Wire Rope Hoists.ANSI MH 27.1-1981, Specifications forUnderhung Cranes and Monorail Systems.ANSI NI4.6-1993, Standard for Special LiftingDevices for Shipping Containers Weighing ..10,000 Pounds (4500 kg) or More for NuclearMaterials.ANSIIASME NQA-I-1989, Quality AssuranceProgram Requirements for Nuclear Facilities.ASME NOG-I-1989, Rules for Construction ofOverhead and Gantry Cranes (Top RunningBridge, Multiple Girder)la-1990Ib -1992American Society forNondestructive TestingRecommended Practice No. ASNT-TC-IA.American Welding SocietyANSIIAWS Dl.l-1994 Structural WeldingCode-Steel.Crane Manufacturers·Association of AmericaCMAA No. 70-1994, Specification for ElectricOverhead Traveling Cranes.CMAA No. 74-1987, Specification for TopRunning and Under Running, Single Girder,Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes.Department of EnergyDOE 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety,and Health Protection Standards.Change 3 - 9-20-91Department of Labor29 CPR 1910, Occupational Safety and HealthStandards for General Industry.29 CPR 1926, Occupational Safety and HealthRegulations for Construction.Department ofTransportation49 CPR 391.41, Physical Qualification forDrivers.National Fire ProtectionAssociationANSIINFPA 505-1987, Powered IndustrialTrucks, Type Designation and Areas ofUse.NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.Chapter 16References 16-2


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)Power Crane and ShovelAssociationPCSA-4, Mobile Power Crane and ExcavatorStandards and Hydraulic Crane Standards.Society of AutomotiveEngineersSAE J376-85, Load-Indicating Devices in LiftingCrane Service.SAE 1765-1990, Crane Load Stability Test Code.SAE J874-1986, Center of Gravity Test Code.SAE J987-1985, Crane Structure, Method of Test.Underwriters' LaboratoriesUL 558-1991, Internal-Combustion-Engine­Powered Industrial Trucks.UL 583-1991, Electric-Battery-Powered IndustrialTrucks.16-3Chapter 16References


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)INTENTIONALLY BLANKChapter 16References16-4


DOE-STD-I090-96 (Rev-I)CONCLUDING MATERIALReview Activity:preparing Activity:DOEOPField OfficesCHOOE-EH-51EH 10EMNVRWORProject Number:SAFT-0034ERRLSRNational LaboratoriesFERMILABINELORNLArea OfficesAmarillo Area OfficePrinceton Area Office

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