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UJ #9 - Adventure in Peru

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PHOTOGRAPHIC REPORT

IN THE SANCTUARY: THE ROAD TO MACHU PICCHU

ADVENTURE

IN PERU

SPECIAL: INCA TRAIL



/1


INDEX

EXECUTIVE EDITOR ULTIMATE JOURNEYS

GERARDO SUGAY

CONTENT EDITOR

MARIA EUGENIA DE ALIAGA / KM CERO

DIEGO GUERRERO / LIMA TOURS

EDITOR

RODRIGO CABRERA / KM CERO

EDITION ASSISTANT

CAROLINA SAN ROMAN / KM CERO

COORDINATOR

GERALDYNE LONGORIA / KM CERO

ART DIRECTOR

KM CERO

12 INFOGRAPHS

SANDRA FLORIAN

IN

PHOTOGRAPHY EDITOR

CHRISTIAN DECLERCQ / KM CERO

GRAPHIC DESIGN

MIGUEL SANTAYA / SONIA ARAUJO

WRITTERS

JOANA CERVILLA

IÑIGO MANEIRO

PAOLA MIGLIO

DIEGO OLIVER

THE SANCTUARY

The road to Machu Picchu

TRANSLATION AND CORRECTION OF TEXT

PETER SPENCE

PHOTOGRAPHERS

ANA PAULA ALBIN

RODRIGO CABRERA

CHRISTIAN DECLERCQ

ZACARIAS DE UGARTE

DIEGO DEL RIO

IÑIGO MANEIRO

CARLOS CONAN MUÑIZ

DUILIO VELLUTINO

EDUARDO PEDRAZA

ARCHIVO ANDEAN LODGES

ARCHIVO INTU

ARCHIVO KM CERO

ARCHIVO LIMA TOURS

ARCHIVO PROGRAMA QHAPAQ ÑAN SEDE

NACIONAL DEL MINISTERIO DE CULTURA

24

THE INCA TRAIL:

EVERYTHING YOU

NEED TO KNOW

Info graph

38


INCA TRAIL

Special

46

INDEX

52 70

62

6/ Editorial

8/ Updates

12/ Photographic Report/

In the sanctuary

The road to Machu Picchu

24/ A modern pilgrimage

The Inca Trail experience

36/ Everything you need to know

Info graph

38/ Interview with Giancarlo

Marcone

Director of the Qhapaq Ñan

programme: “The road becomes

the axis to which tourist products

are attached”

46/ Continental Journey

A journey from the Pacific coast

to the heart of the Amazon jungle

52/ Trekking in Peru

Three trekking alternatives

through magnificent scenery

62/ Interview with Mario Ortiz de

Zevallos

Adventure tourism pioneer:

Peru has no end of options for

all tastes and an incomparable

combination of nature and

culture”

70/ Sacred mountain

A trek around the most important

mountain in traditional Andean

worship

78/ The Qoyllorit´i festivity

I am Peru

80/ Paths of adventure

A sample of the best outdoor

experiences in Peru

88/ Expat

90/ Agenda

80

/5


EDITORIAL

Dear reader:

Off the beaten Off the track beaten by the track old by Inca the bridge, old Inca in bridge, the Machu in the Picchu Machu Sanctuary. Picchu Sanctuary.

The Incas were known as adventurers and innovators who had no fear of building new roads. Because of

that and in sympathy with nature, they expanded their empire to an unimaginable extent. We at Lima Tours

were inspired by this adventurous people to enable travellers to come and enjoy the whole range of exciting

activities that our country offers, such as the astonishing and unconventional treks where mysterious beliefs are

revealed in the stones.

In this new edition of ULTIMATE JOURNEYS – Travel in Peru, we present some of the marvellous adventures our

country has to offer, as well as biodiversity and impressive scenery on the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu. This route

was created by the Incas and covers hundreds of kilometres throughout their empire, between the Andes, the

coast and the jungle, making an impressive network of roads all over their territory. We also include a fascinating

interview with Andreas Holland, an adventure tourism pioneer in Peru, who left his native London for our country,

in love with its scenery and its people.

The Inca Trail experience goes beyond its natural beauty and surroundings. The people with whom you share

this incredible challenge are a fundamental factor in your enjoyment of the trek over several days through majestic

surroundings. The local people acting as porters, guides and cooks, and the visitors brought together to

experience the trek, strengthen and motivate each other when fatigue and altitude demand the best of each one.

This makes the trip a very personal one, involving the energy of the apus and Pachamama, to meet a memorable

challenge: Machu Picchu.

Lima Tours, in the shape of its Pure Quest Adventures division, is the protagonist of all of these adventures.

Thanks to its extensive experience, we can offer an impressive range of Peruvian adventures anywhere in the

country. Adventure tourism in Peru is outstanding, and there are other no less famous treks, such as the Ausangate

trail: a demanding trek to the mountain most venerated by the people of Cusco, or to Mount Salkantay, the ruins

at Choquequirao and the Cordillera de Huayhuash. But the range of options is far from exhausted; we also have

sport fishing in the highlands, expeditions in kayak on majestic rivers and expeditions in 4x4 vehicles or mountain

bikes; examples proving that Peru is a perfect destination for adventure tourism and for discovering places that

otherwise you can only dream about.

Enjoy reading and learning!

Your friends from Lima Tours

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del Perú en un solo lugar

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UPDATES

UPDATES

AMANTICA LODGE

The island of Amantani in Lake Titicaca (Puno) now has a new hotel, the Amantica Lodge. It has

been built using local materials and techniques and is a response to the islanders’ desire to

attract a new type of tourist to spend the night on Amantani: luxury tourists. Amantica combines

a design that includes local elements with the highest quality rooms and installations. The

guests can share the experiences with local people, discover the history of the lake, see birds

and constellations, and enjoy high-quality gastronomy.

Nicolas Villaume

BUSINESS CREATIVITY AWARD

PromPeru received the Business Creativity Award 2015 in the Marketing and Sales category,

for its Y tú qué planes? programme (so what are you planning?). The central aim

of this programme is to promote domestic tourism in Peru, encourage trips to unfrequented

regions and facilitate better prices for package tours for those wanting to visit

the interior of the country.


Elias Mujica

AWARD FOR THE BEST WORLD TOURISM PROJECT

The British Guild of Travel Writers (BGTW) gave the Best Wider

World Tourism Project Award to the Tucume site museum,

located in the eponymous archaeological complex in Lambayeque.

This museum was reopened only recently after a refurbishment

programme carried out by Plan Copesco Nacional,

which required an investment of 11 million soles.

CONGRESS OF THE ORGANISATION OF WORLD HERITAGE CITIES

The 13th Congress of the Organisation of World Heritage Cities

took place from the 3rd to the 6th of November in the city of

Arequipa. Talks were given by specialists in heritage preservation,

urban development and other matters, over the course

of four days. More than 180 representatives from 55 member

countries of the General Assembly of the Organisation of World

Heritage Cities (OWHC).

Christian Declercq


UPDATES

MALI PERMANENT COLLECTION

Last September, Lima Museum of Art (MALI) re-inaugurated its permanent

collection of Peruvian art. The exhibition is housed on the second floor of the

Exhibition Palace and consists of 35 galleries containing more than 1200 works

of art including pre-Columbian items and colonial, modern and contemporary

works. The jewel of the collection, because of its size (3.5 by 4.3 metres) and

history, is a painting entitled the Funeral of Atahualpa, by Peruvian painter Luis

Montero.

MALI

POTENTIAL FOR ADVENTURE TOURISM

The Adventure Tourism Development Index (ATDI) catalogues

Peru as having the third greatest potential in South America for

adventure tourism, above Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. This is

principally because of the adventure sports infrastructure available

in Peru’s adventure tourism destinations.

Miguel Mejia


SIERRA DEL DIVISOR

In Mid November, the Peruvian government

created the Sierra del Divisor National Park,

located in the Iquitos and Ucayali jungle.

The park covers 1’354,485.10 hectares and

is an area of mountains of volcanic origin

containing impressive scenery and areas

where man has never interfered. Studies

show that it is one of the most ancient areas

of the Amazon basin, geologically speaking. It

contains endemic species of flora and fauna

and is a refuge for several wild animals, such

as the Bald-headed Uacari (Cacajocalvus)

and the Jaguar (Panthera onca).

Thomas Müller


IN THE SANCTUARY

IN THE SANCTUARY

The road to Machu Picchu

Christian Declercq


THE INCA TRAIL TO MACHU

PICCHU IS PART OF AN

ANDEAN ROAD NETWORK

CONSOLIDATED BY THE

INCAS. ON A FOUR-DAY

TREK VISITORS WITNESS

THE DRAMATIC AND

CHANGING GEOGRAPHY

AS THE ROAD CROSSES

NUMEROUS RAVINES AND

RIVERS FED BY GLACIAL

MELTWATER. ON THE WAY

THERE ARE NEARLY A DOZEN

ANCIENT SITES IN A GOOD

STATE OF PRESERVATION,

PARTICULARLY PATALLAQTA,

RUNKURAQAY, SAYACMARCA,

PHUYUPATAMARCA,

INTIPATA, WIÑAY WAYNA

AND INTIPUNKU.

By

Joana Cervilla

Terraces and canals at

Intipata, at 2,840 m.a.s.l.

Discovered in 1992 and

opened to the public in

1998.

/13


IN THE SANCTUARY

Christian Declercq

Before taking this mysterious road it is important to understand

how it was conceived by the Incas. In other words, to

have an idea that what we will find on the way to Machu

Picchu Historic Sanctuary, erected in the cloud forest of the

yungas, were not built by chance but were used for administrative

or religious purposes or storage, on a unified system that

helped the Inca Empire to function smoothly and efficiently.

Rodrigo Cabrera

Our starting point is that its organisation was based on aspects

that were multi-layered and complex; one of these was the dual

concept dividing the ancient Andean world into zones called

Hanan and Hurin. These asymmetric, opposite and complementary

halves took the physical shape of a division between

north and south, east and west, which governed space and social

organisation. To this we must add the theory of the system

of ceques or ley lines from Cusco, proposed by researcher Tom

Zuidema. The ceques were imaginary lines radiating out from

Coricancha (the Temple of the Sun, in the city of Cusco). Each

one of these lines defined the location of huacas or temples

outside Cusco. In total, the system of ceques divided the territory

into 328 huacas, whose roles were of a political, social and

religious order. Furthermore, as the Incas were an agrarian society,

these lines served to organise the provision of water through

canals, and to facilitate astronomical observation based on the

direction of the buildings erected on them.

The road system was implemented over the natural and artificial

terrain of Cusco to unify the religious, social and political organisation

of the Inca Empire, and to manage water use, the agricultural

year and astronomic observation.

Thus as well as the man-made marvels on what is more a pilgrimage

than a trek, we will find geographical wonders, waterfalls

and a world of endemic flora and fauna.


Christian Declercq

Previous page, above: The first day

takes you to Llaqtapata, Inca ruins

consisting of terraced fields, an

urban centre and ceremonial areas.

Previous page, below: One of the

protected species in the sanctuary

is the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

virginianus). It is also found in

Argentina, Chile and Bolivia.

Left: The highest point is Abra

Warmihuañusca (4,215 m.a.s.l.).

Right, below:

Tambo Runkuraqay.

In the background, the trail descends

from the pass, crosses the river and

ascends again to the next pass.

Christian Declercq

THE INCA TRAIL TO

MACHU PICCHU

PLANT SPECIES:

2,880

ENDEMIC

SPECIES:

SPECIES OF

ORCHIDS:

BIRD SPECIES:

(23.1% OF TOTAL

FOR PERU)

423

SPECIES OF

HUMMING BIRDS:

ENDEMIC SPECIES:

SPECIES OF MAMMALS:

(14.8% OF TOTAL

FOR PERU)

75

ENDEMIC SPECIES:

(15.3% OF TOTAL

FOR PERU)

33

23

SPECIES OF REPTILES:

(5.6% OF TOTAL

FOR PERU)

25

156

500

9

• Total length of the Inca Trail

(Qhapaq Ñan): More than 50,000

kilometres.

• Length of the Inca Trail to Machu

Picchu: 43 kilometres.

• Location: In the Cordillera

Vilcabamba.

• Location: In the Machu Picchu

Historic Sanctuary, a protected

area.

- Creation: 8th of January 1981.

- Surface area: 32,592 hectares.

- The area possesses 10

different life zones.

- Archaeological sites identified:

196.

• Principal mountains: Salkantay

(6,271 m.a.s.l.) and Veronica (5,760

m.a.s.l.).

• Principal river: Vilcanota.

/15


IN THE SANCTUARY

Christian Declercq

Right: On the way to

Runkuraqay, the second

pass of the day (3,800

m.a.s.l.)

Below: Sayacmarca,

discovered in 1915 by Hiram

Bingham and located on a

cliff 3,575 m.a.s.l.

Christian Declercq

Christian Declercq


Christian Declercq

Christian Declercq

THE INCA TRAIL GIVES

US THE CHANCE

TO ADMIRE THE

COSMOVISION OF THE

INCAS: DIFFERENT

ECOSYSTEMS, THE

FLORA AND FAUNA

AND THE MANY

INCA MONUMENTS,

CULMINATING AT

MACHU PICCHU

Ministry of

Culture workers

clear the ruins of

Conchamarca, in

the middle of the

cloud forest.

/17


Rodrigo Cabrera

IN THE SANCTUARY


The ruins of Phuyupatamarca stand at the start of the cloud forest; the vegetation is denser and the climate is hotter and wet.

Following page: Discovered by Julio C. Tello, Wiñay Wayna is a complex of semicircular terraces close to Machu Picchu.

/19


Christian Declercq

/21


IN THE SANCTUARY

Rodrigo Cabrera

Stone stairs lead to Intipunku, the gate of the sun. The end of the trail, one kilometre from Machu Picchu.


xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Christian Declercq

/23


A MODERN PILGRIMAGE

A modern

pilgrimage

Trekking the Inca Trail


Rodrigo Cabrera

THE INCA TRAIL TO MACHU PICCHU

HAS BEEN NAMED AS ONE OF THE BEST

TRAILS IN THE WORLD BY NUMEROUS

PUBLICATIONS. FOLLOWING INCA ROADS

THROUGH THE EXOTIC GEOGRAPHY OF

CUSCO AND EXPLORING WELL-PRESERVED

RUINS IS AN EXPERIENCE LIKE FEW

OTHERS IN THE WORLD. DURING 2014,

175,000 PEOPLE TOOK THE TRAIL; A FIGURE

THAT SHOWS US THAT THE TRAIL IS MORE

POPULAR THAN EVER.

By

Diego Oliver

It is 5 o’clock in the morning. It is still before

dawn and it is very cold. The porters

call “hot water!”, to wake up the walkers, as

they leave a jug of water outside each tent.

Lanterns are lit. Mist covers the high jungle

hilltops of Wiñay Wayna, a complex of ruins

on the Inca Trail and the last stop on the great

trek to the citadel of Machu Picchu. The cook

is already making breakfast and the porters,

hardy men who hail mainly from the Andean

communities in the Sacred Valley, prepare to

strike camp before continuing to the citadel

built on the orders of Inca Pachacutec in the

14th Century.

Breakfast consists of hot drinks, fruit, oats,

bread and cheese. A hearty breakfast is necessary

before facing this long and complicated

route. The walk —of approximately 40

kilometres depending on the starting point—

begins with a descent down stone steps, lasting

three hours. You start to warm up after

only a few yards. The sky starts to turn blue

and the mist begins to dissipate. Machu Picchu

is not far away.

Every year more than

50,000 people from all over

the world come to walk

one of its most popular

treks.

/25


A MODERN PILGRIMAGE

Christian Declercq

Christian Declercq

Left: Starting point. The

trail starts at Piscacucho,

2,750 m.a.s.l.

Right: Canals at

Llaqtapata, next to the

trail.

Christian Declercq

We have had three gruelling days of climbing and

descending steep stone stairways and unpaved

tracks between 3,000 and 4,200 m.a.s.l. Nevertheless

it has been worth it. This trail is part of an enormous

network of roads amounting to approximately

50,000 kilometres, which once joined the remotest

parts of the continent to the city of Cusco and was

used to govern the empire. Information, armies and

workmen could be moved quickly around this network,

the central route of which is known as Qhapaq

Ñan, and the resources of the different parts of

their territory could be managed by the Incas.

Along the route are numerous ruined buildings, still

in an excellent state of preservation, that were used

for different purposes during the Inca Empire. Many

are small settlements hundreds of years old, located

in hard-to-reach places on hillsides, hilltops and

cliffs, which suddenly appear when the enshrouding

mist clears. The stone-paved road, complete

with irregular stairways, connects them all perfectly

through variations in altitude and difficult terrain.

The road starts in the Urubamba Valley, 82 kilometres

along the Quillabamba-Cusco railway line, at a

place called Piscacucho. From there it runs along

the left bank of the River Kusichaca as far as the

Llaqtapata ruins, which is thought to have been a

sort of resting place for groups heading to Machu

Picchu. The Vilcanota Mountains rise impressively

and the curve of the valley reminds us that thousands

of years ago a glacier passed this way. The

first camp site is at the village of Huayllabamba,

where walkers take hot tea to prepare them for the

chill of the night.

The second day starts very early. In contrast to

the first day, the trail now leads up a long, steep

stone stairway through cloud forest inhabited by

humming birds, other birds and spectacled bears,

which are difficult to spot but can appear when you

least expect them.“How much further?”, is a common

plea from hyperventilating walkers.“Not long

now”, say the guides, whose sense of distance is

certainly not like ours. The climb culminates at the

Warmihuañusca pass, 4,200 metres above sea level,

where your lungs seem smaller and your legs

weaker. Sparse vegetation is evidence of a lack of

oxygen, little grows except ichu, clumps of coarse

grass that are an essential part of the diet of llamas

and alpacas. When descending, you can see how

the land becomes greener. Queñual woods (Polylepis)

and flowers appear, together with humming

birds and as you approach the high jungle the scent

of herbs fills the air.

The trail is not easy. You have to be in good physical

condition, or have great strength of will. The third

day involves another climb as far as Runkuraqay


27


Christian Declercq

A MODERN PILGRIMAGE


Mount Huayllanay is visible to walkers on the ascent to the first mountain pass.

/29


A MODERN PILGRIMAGE

Above and below: Descent from Conchamarca to the campsite at Chakiqocha.

Opposite page: View from Phuyupatamarca. Alongside, the trail continues; with Intipata and part

of Machu Picchu in the background, behind which is the citadel.

Christian Declercq

Christian Declercq


Christian Declercq


A MODERN PILGRIMAGE

Above: The porters,

mostly from the village

of Huilloc, are enviably

fit. They take the

lead every day and

are responsible for

preparing the camp

site and meals.

Opposite page, left:

Wiñay Wayna is 3.3

kilometres from Machu

Picchu and is the last

archaeological site

on the route to the

sanctuary.

Opposite page, right:

Intipunku or the Gate

of the Sun, is the first

place from which you

can see the citadel.

Opposite page, below:

Temple of the Sacred

Stone.

Christian Declercq

pass, at 3,800 m.a.s.l., after a visit to the ruins of

the same name. And even if you leave first, the porters

soon catch up. While you are pacing yourself,

breathing in time with each step, the guides overtake

you easily, and instead of trainers they wear

rubber sandals called ojotas. Born and raised in the

Andes around Cusco, they are perfectly adapted to

the altitude and difficult trails of the zone. They carry

the tents, rucksacks and food, the gas bottle and

cooker, while you carry just your daysack.

They are the heroes of the trail and companions

with whom you develop a close relationship. The

majority come from highland communities in Urubamba

such as Huilloc, Soqma, Misminay or Pallta,

where Andean traditions are still maintained. Their

mother tongue is Quechua, the colours of their

clothes distinguish them from the people of other

places, and their main occupations are farming and

weaving of elaborate fabrics. The men can work as

porters on the Inca Trail and over the years have

established certain rules: the minimum tariff is 40

soles a day plus tips, and the law says that they

cannot carry more than 20 kilos.

The porters cover the second stage quickly because

they have to get to Wiñay Wayna before the

walkers, to set up the camp site. On the way, the

visitors have the opportunity to explore places such

as Sayacmarca and Phuyupatamarca, which is

probably the best-preserved site on the route and

includes stretches of stone-paved road beautifully

built into the mountain side and a tunnel through

the living rock. And finally, after descending a stone

stairway, you arrive at Wiñay Wayna.

Wiñay Wayna, as we have said, is the last stop before

Machu Picchu. The camps are set up on a large

flat area adjacent to Inca terraced fields and the

excitement of being close to one of the great marvels

of the world is shared by everyone. The site is

located at 2,650 m.a.s.l., the sun sets behind the

mountains and Wiñay Wayna, an astonishing settlement

that contains dozens of perfectly designed terraces,

is enveloped in the darkness. The tents are

lit by lanterns and the travellers enjoy a final meal.

The stars shine in the night sky. It is 8 o’clock in the

evening and time to get some sleep.

Getting up on the small hours is hard, but the end

of the trek is at hand. You dress, prepare your rucksack

and have breakfast, and then the porters arrive

one by one. It is an emotional moment. And then it

is time to get started. Machu Picchu is not far away.

The reason for the early start is to see the citadel at

dawn, when it is still partially covered by mist and

you can experience the mysticism of Andean culture.

The trail descends and encourages the walkers

to step out. And then, without realising it, you reach

Intipunku (Gate of the Sun), the entrance to the citadel.

Behind it, as if protected by the clouds, is the

world’s best-known Inca citadel: Machu Picchu.

THE PORTERS MOTHER

TONGUE IS QUECHUA, THE

COLOURS OF THEIR CLOTHES

DISTINGUISH THEM FROM

THE PEOPLE OF OTHER

PLACES, AND THEIR MAIN

OCCUPATIONS ARE FARMING

AND WEAVING

Christian Declercq


Christian Declercq

Rodrigo Cabrera

Christian Declercq

/33


A MODERN PILGRIMAGE

INCA TRAIL PROGRAMME

4D/3N

DAY 1 CUSCO-PISCACUCHO-HUAYLLABAMBA

- Pick up from hotel in Cusco.

- Arrival at Km. 82 - Piscacucho.

- Start of the trail.

- Stop for lunch (Tarayoc), 2,740 m.a.s.l.

- Set off again.

- Arrival at the camp site (Huayllabamba), 3,000 m.a.s.l.

- Dinner.

- Overnight at the Huayllabamba camp site.

DAY 2 HUAYLLABAMBA-WARMIHUAÑUSCA-PACAYMAYU

- The next section begins after breakfast.

- Arrival at Warmihuañusca pass.

- Arrival at the camp site in Pacaymayu, 3,575 m.a.s.l.

- Lunch.

- Dinner.

- Overnight.

DAY 3 PACAYMAYU-PHUYUPATAMARCA-WIÑAY WAYNA

- The next section begins after breakfast.

- Visit to Runkuraqay, Sayacmarca and, finally, Phuyupatamarca.

- Lunch on the Chakiqocha sector.

- Set off again.

- Arrival at the camp site at Wiñay Wayna, 2,700 m.a.s.l.

- Dinner.

- Overnight.

Christian Declercq

INCA TRAIL PROGRAMME

2D/1N

DAY 4 WIÑAY WAYNA-MACHU PICCHU-CUSCO

- The next section begins after breakfast.

- Arrival at Intipunku.

- Entrance to Machu Picchu and the start of the tour.

- Free time to visit Machu Picchu.

- Descent to Aguas Calientes.

- Train to Ollantaytambo, Cusco.

- Arrival at Ollantaytambo.

- Arrival in Cusco and transport to hotel.

Christian Declercq

DAY 1 CUSCO-MACHU PICCHU-AGUAS CALIENTES

- Pick up from hotel in Cusco.

- Transport to Ollantaytambo railway station.

- Train from Ollantaytambo to Km. 104.

- The start of the trail.

- Visit to Chachabamba.

- Visit Wiñay Wayna, 2,700 m.a.s.l.

- Lunch.

- Arrival at Intipunku, 2,730 m.a.s.l.

- Bus from Machu Picchu to Aguas Calientes.

- Dinner and overnight at a hotel in Aguas Calientes.

DAY 2 AGUAS CALIENTES-MACHU PICCHU-CUSCO

- Breakfast at your hotel.

- Bus to Machu Picchu.

- Arrival at Machu Picchu and start of tour.

- Train to Ollantaytambo, Cusco.

- Arrival at Ollantaytambo and transport to your hotel, if staying in

the Urubamba Valley.

- Arrival at Cusco and transport to your hotel if staying in Cusco.


35


37


INTERVIEW

Giancarlo

Marcone

Director of the Qhapaq Ñan programme

By

Rodrigo Cabrera

Photos

Programa Qhapaq Ñan

Sede Nacional del

Ministerio de Cultura

THE QHAPAQ ÑAN PROGRAMME STARTED IN 2001 AND WAS THE RESPONSIBILITY

OF WHAT IS NOW THE MINISTRY OF CULTURE. MOST OF THE WORK THAT WENT

INTO THIS PROJECT INVOLVED THE IDENTIFICATION, RESEARCH, RECORDING,

CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION OF THE NETWORK OF INCA ROADS THAT

STILL EXISTS IN PERU. WE TALK TO ARCHAEOLOGIST GIANCARLO MARCONE, THE

CURRENT DIRECTOR OF THE QHAPAQ ÑAN PROGRAMME, ABOUT WHAT IT MEANS

TO MANAGE THIS VAST CULTURAL LEGACY, PART OF PERU'S AND THE WORLD'S

HERITAGE AND AN IMMENSE TOURIST ATTRACTION FOR LOVERS OF TREKKING.

What is the culture ministry’s view of managing

the Inca roads making up Qhapaq

Ñan?

The roads criss-cross the entire country; it keeps us in

contact with all of Peru and, therefore, should be at the service

of the whole country. We’re working to create a product

that can be used -by the public that is, and in the most inclusive

way possible. We want a product for everyone who

uses the road. From the original users, people who live

near it and use it every day, who should not be disturbed

by tourist use, to adventure tourists and those visitors who

want to walk it just for fun.

How is its tourist use designed?

We want to generate multiple destinations with different levels

on the route. This is where the concept of a cultural

itinerary arises. The road becomes the axis to which tourist

products are attached; the road is not the attraction as

such, but the way in which the story is told. For example,

on the Jauja-Pachacamac stretch the strategy is to gather

what this section of the road tells us; initiatives, eco-tourist

museums, cycle routes and so forth already exist. The idea

is that the cultural itinerary defined by the road includes

different cultural manifestations. This is what the project is

aiming for: revealing the different voices and stories that

exist along the road.

Christian Declercq


Trail on the hillside. Retaining walls at Chontay near Lima, one of the best preserved parts of the Jauja-Pachacamac stretch.

/39


INTERVIEW

Right: Pilgrims Way

in the sanctuary of

Pachacamac (Lima).

Where the Qhapaq

Ñan from the coast

and the highlands

converge.

Left: Elevated

section of the

road from Cusco

to Desaguadero

alongside Lake

Titicaca.

THE CASE FILE FOR

QHAPAQ ÑAN AS

A CANDIDATE FOR

A UNESCO WORLD

HERITAGE SITE

WAS SUBMITTED

IN 2013. THE CASE

WAS MADE BY THE

SIX COUNTRIES

THROUGH WHICH THE

ROAD PASSES: PERU,

COLOMBIA, ECUADOR,

CHILE, BOLIVIA AND

ARGENTINA

The programme is organised into sections and

it is clearly impossible to work on them all at the

same time; so which have priority?

We are giving priority to the three main stretches

that were part of the UNESCO nomination; these

do not include the sections in Cusco, which are independently

managed: the Aypate-Las Pirqas-Las

Limas section, from the province of Ayabaca in Piura,

to the border with Ecuador, which is managed

as a bi-national project; the Huanucopampa-Huamachuco

section, part of the original royal road, the

true Qhapaq Ñan, between La Libertad, Ancash and

Huanuco.

Have you seen the first results of this experience

with tourism yet?

Yes, there’s one zone where we’re seeing the first

small products: Huaycan de Cieneguilla, on the Jauja-Pachacamac

section. This product is aimed specifically

at Peruvian visitors; we want people in Lima to

get out of the city of a Sunday and visit two or three

points on the Inca Trail, such as Huaycan de Cieneguilla

and the Chontay area, where we have refurbished

two hundred metres of road. For the moment

this is just a symbolic effort, but it gives an advantage

to Cieneguilla, a destination on the outskirts of Lima

suitable for family activities out of doors.

What does finished product mean to you?

Something that has the minimum amount of infrastructure

for receiving visitors: an information centre, toilets

and a route that can be covered. The rest can be added

as required. The other way round won’t work, I can’t invest

a lot of money without being sure that there will be

sufficient demand. Investing gradually starts generating

a cash flow; when the cash flow starts then other services

will start to appear and the investment will increase.

What are the main challenges to the Qhapaq Ñan

project?

Encouraging tourism with interventions that make it

sustainable implies a balance between visitors to the

road and local people. It’s complicated, but we have to

seek the proper way to intervene, with local people taking

part in the management of the road. We also need

to be aware that the State does not get involved in the

tourism industry; therefore our projects should be designed

to produce some form of business platform that

makes them sustainable.

Another important challenge is to prevent ownership of

the road ending up with it. Such a strategy can often

be a good defence mechanism, but it can also kill the

projects by allowing them to stagnate in time. We don’t

want it to be just a tourist attraction; we want it to continue

as a working road.


Do academics find it so difficult to understand

the coexistence of the different opinions that are

beginning to form about the road? You have the

visions of the walker, the local resident and now

the tour guide and tour operator…

It’s a difficult subject, but it is just the first step in participatory

management. The first thing is to accept that we,

as a ministry, are not the owners of the site nor do we

have the only solution, rather we are facilitators. From

that viewpoint, our mission is to encourage discussion.

We have to give them some space because there is

always a story, and it has to be as close to reality as

possible. It should be true, you should be able to see

and walk it, and in this sense the road is the ideal environment.

The narratives give this sense of progression,

continuity and integration, and that is exactly the general

idea of cultural itineraries.

TWO FURTHER SECTIONS ARE BEING GIVEN PRIORITY: VILCASHUAMAN-PISCO,

WHICH RUNS FROM AYACUCHO TO THE COAST AT ICA, AND THE CUSCO-

PUERTO INCA SECTION, WHICH STARTS IN CUSCO, ENDS ON THE COAST NEAR

AREQUIPA AND ALSO PASSES CLOSE TO LAKE TOTOCACA IN PUNO

Above: Paved stretch of the road in Pomata,

Puno on the banks of Lake Titicaca. The road

is still used daily by local people.

Right: In addition to the roads and

archaeological sites, the Unesco World

Heritage declaration includes examples

of intangible heritage such as dances and

traditional fiestas.


INTERVIEW

Right: The Ushnu

at Huanucopampa.

This is a ceremonial

platform in the centre

of the citadel.

Below: This sector

of the road between

Huanucopampa and

Huamachuco is paved

and its retaining walls

are well preserved.

THE UNESCO

DECLARATION IS A

COMPROMISE RATHER

THAN A PRIZE, LIKE

A CERTIFICATION

THAT DEMANDS

CERTAIN STANDARDS,

AND THE FIRST OF

THESE IS PLANNED

MANAGEMENT

What impact has the UNESCO declaration had?

It has had impacts at different levels. One of the most

obvious is the increase in the number of “world heritage

sites”. Before the UNESCO declaration there were

11 sites in Peru and now, including Qhapaq Ñan, there

are 82 world heritage sites.

Presence is another indicator. Thanks to this declaration,

the Qhapaq Ñan project gives the Ministry of

Culture a national presence but at a local scale; something

that is difficult for the public sector to achieve.

The other, related, impact involves experience and

knowledge. We have made a test laboratory out of

heritage management. To do so we have covered the

whole country, we are in contact with people of every

type, with all sorts of legal landholdings (urban, rural,

private, communal, public, etc.), and this has enabled

us to define land management by applying concepts

such as public use, social use and landscape.

What benefits have you derived from your work

on the classic road to Machu Picchu?

The reality in Cusco is very different from ours, the


monumental nature of the road and the pressure on it

mean that the effort is directed at creating alternatives

to a destination on the point of collapse. At national level,

however, we have to create destinations.

What is most attractive about Qhapaq Ñan?

The road itself is not important, it is rather where it goes

and who uses it on a daily basis. Thus the scenery

through which the road passes is extremely interesting.

For example, what attracts foreigners is the landscape,

working communities and travelling on a road that is still

in use today. Peruvians are more interested in learning

about the grandeur of the Inca Road, the science of the

past and the feats achieved by the Inca engineers.

The suspension bridge

at Q’eswachaka, built

by the Incas, is the

only one of its type that

survives today, thanks

to the conservation

work carried out

by neighbouring

communities.

/43


INTERVIEW

“THERE IS A LOT TO

BE DONE NOT ONLY

BY THE MINISTRY

OF CULTURE AND

MINISTRY OF FOREIGN

TRADE AND TOURISM;

REGIONAL AND LOCAL

GOVERNMENTS ARE

ALSO RESPONSIBLE

FOR LAND USE

ASPECTS”

What sections do you think have potential for international

tourism?

Principally the section from Huanucopampa to Huamachuco.

We can see visitors in this zone; not many,

but there are small suppliers offering places to stay, for

example. Trekkers share information on where to stay,

where to eat, etc. It’s a section that attracts Europeans. It

also contains different sites, treks, scenery and people.

There are sites and tourist attractions in the area, such

as Chavin and even Huaraz. It’s a long stretch, but the

idea is to create a macro-itinerary out of the whole section,

and micro-itineraries as components of it.

Above: Panoramic view

of Acllawasi de Aypate,

a temple that dates from

the Inca period. Province

of Ayabaca, Piura.

Left: View of Mount

Pariacaca, a sacred place

at one of the highest parts

of the Jauja-Pachacamac

section.


O x y g e n E n h a n c e d T o u r i n g

“The oxygen enriched cabin is effective in preventing altitude sickness.

Passengers will feel great cruising even this high across the highplateau”.

says onboard medical advisor Dr. Dante Valdivia

Cima Clinic in Cuzco

"La cabina enriquecida con oxígeno es eficaz para prevenir el mal de altura. Los pasajeros

pueden estar seguros de sentirse bien incluso en las zonas más altas del Altiplano".

comentó el médico asesor a bordo Dr. Dante Valdivia

Clínica Cima en Cuzco

Alleviates altitude sickness symptoms including shortness of breath, headaches, fatigue and nausea.

Alivia los síntomas de altitud como la dificultad en la respiración, dolores de cabeza, fatiga y náuseas.

A higher concentration of oxygen will provide a more relaxing journey.

Una mayor concentración de oxigeno ayudará al pasajero en tener un viaje más placentero

Oxygen departure valve

Válvulas de salida de oxígeno

Driver Panel

12v o 24v Solenoid Valve

Válvulas de 12v o 24v

40sch Flowmeter

Flujometro de 40sch

Oxygen Cylinders

Cilindros de Oxígeno

40psi Pressure regulator

Regulador de presión de 40psi

Low pressure Oxygen line under bus

Línea de Oxigeno de baja presión debajo del bus

The additional Oxygen in BusO2, creates a special

environment 1000m / 3280 ft lower than the actual altitude

El oxígeno adicional en el Bus, crea un ambiente

especial 1000m más abajo que la altura real.

For more information, please contact your Lima Tours

Specialist or write us to: inbound@limatours.com.pe

www.limatours.com.pe

Para más información, favor contáctese con su especialista

de Lima Tours o escribanos a: inbound@limatours.com.pe

/45


CONTINENTAL JOURNEY

Continental Journey

From the Pacific Ocean to the Amazon jungle

START AND FINISH ON THE

COAST. THE ROAD LINKS THE

PACIFIC WITH THE ATLANTIC

CROSSING THE HEART OF

SOUTH AMERICA IT IS MORE

THAN 5,000 KILOMETRES

LONG, OF WHICH 1,413

ARE IN PERU: THE MOST

DIVERSE, VARIED AND

CHALLENGING. ITS NAME:

THE SOUTHERN INTER-

OCEAN HIGHWAY.

Text

Iñigo Maneiro

Highland road at the

so-called Cuesta del

Borracho (Drunkard's Hill).

This stretch of the road is

the start of the ascent to

Puquio.

Christian Declercq

We start in the Peruvian desert, a place full

of diversity and good cebiche: San Juan

de Marcona. After crossing the desert plain

where the Nascas displayed their knowledge of irrigation,

architecture and art, and a visit to the town

of Nasca, we start on a steep ascent to another

plain, this time covered with ichu and four thousand

metres above sea level. The Pampa Galeras National

Reserve, which is home to the largest population

of vicuñas in the world.

After driving some 25 kilometres across the reserve,

we descend towards Puquio. We can see deep

canyons where the vegetation, at a lower altitude, is

different. This is the first place since we left Nasca

where we eat a good breakfast, at the farm belonging

to professor Daumet. We have a long high road

ahead of us: the chilly plains of Negro Mayo. Before

then, about kilometres from Puquio, we passed

the turn-off to Andamarca and the Sondondo Valley,

where large numbers of condors can be seen, as

well as ancient terraced fields and stone-built archaeological

sites.


Christian Declercq

Christian Declercq

PLATEAUX AND VALLEYS

Negro Mayo is an extensive plateau some 4,200 metres

above sea level. It contains lakes that are home

to many species of Andean birds, including flocks of

flamingoes that settle here after their long migratory

flight. There are also communities of herders looking

after their flocks of alpaca and sheep. The petrified forest

of Huanca Huanca, consisting of conical rock formations

just 200 metres from the highway, is the start

of another steep descent in to the Chalhuanca valley,

in Apurimac.

You can stay overnight in Chalhuanca if you want to

have enough time to enjoy the cultural and natural diversity

of this long trip to the full. Chalhuanca is the half

way point between Nasca and Cusco, it is warm and

there are several places to stay. The next day we continue

on the way to Abancay, but first we go to Yacca

to see the old hacienda and enjoy the country food,

as well as another diversion to the colonial bridge at

Pachachaca. Abancay has an excellent climate and

an old tradition of immigration from Italy, hence the

popularity of home-made pasta among local families.

This has produced a particular type of regional cuisine,

which you can try in the city.

Leaving Abancay we begin a long climb within sight of

the impressive Mount Ampay. Then through the pass

and into the extensive and beautiful Curahuasi valley.

We take the turn-off to Cachora, which takes us to

Choquequirao and an interesting archaeological site:

Saywite, just off the road. Curahuasi produces the

best aniseed and linseed in Peru; you can buy them

from stalls along the road.

We will follow the River Apurimac as far as the bridge

at Cunyac, on the boundary with the Department of

Cusco. In the warm Limatambo valley we visit the ruins

at Tarawasi, the plains of Anta and take the turn-off to

Urubamba. Cusco awaits with a festive and cosmopolitan

atmosphere, as well as its extraordinary historic

and archaeological riches. This is where you can

spend a second night before continuing to the jungle.

Our route continues on the road to Puno. It includes

the beautiful churches on the Andean Baroque Trail:

Left: Contrast to other

Andean camelids, vicuñas

and guanacos are not

domesticated. Pampa

Galeras Barbara d’Achille

National Reserve is their

largest refuge in Peru.

Right: Petrified forest of

Huanca Huanca in Negro

Mayo, 4,200 m.a.s.l.

Ernesto Benavides

Christian Declercq

Left: During the colonial period, the Yacca estate

was one of the best sugar producers in the area.

The old hacienda can be visited today.

Right: Inca stone at Saywite, bearing more than

200 carved images, was probably the centre of a

water cult. It is 2.30 metres high and 4 metres in

diameter.

/47


CONTINENTAL JOURNEY

IGLESIAWASICHAY, AT

THE JESUIT CHURCH AT

MARCAPATA (BETWEEN

CUSCO AND PUERTO

MALDONADO). ITS

PURPOSE IS TO PROVIDE

NEW THATCH FOR THE

CHURCH ROOF EVERY

FOUR YEARS; BUT THE

TRADITION DATES

BACK TO PRE-HISPANIC

TIMES. IT LASTS 7 DAYS

AND PEOPLE FROM TEN

COMMUNITIES TAKE PART

Iñigo Maneiro

Iñigo Maneiro

Andahuaylillas, Huaroy Canincunca, which are worth

stopping to see. Urcos, together with the last church

mentioned, marks the end of the fourth stage of the

Southern Inter-Ocean Highway. The turn-off to Madre

de Dios and Brazil is just beyond it.

We start the climb to Abra Cuyuni, which provides impressive

views of the mountains and River Vilcanota.

Crossing the pass at 4,185 metres above sea level,

brings us to the Ocongate valley, from which we can

see Mount Ausangate, the highest peak in Cusco. The

Cuyuni roadhouse belonging to the concessionaire

responsible for maintaining the highway, is an excellent

place to stop for a coffee or coca-leaf tea, or to try the

local cheese. The road takes us the length of the valley,

with its small communities of farmers and herders. If

necessary, Ocongate is a good place to stay at the

Ausangate roadhouse, before the next stop in Quincemil.

The route then climbs to Abra Pirhuayani, at 4,735

metres above sea level the highest point on the whole

journey.

There follows a long descent into the Amazon jungle

through an infinity of different types of scenery. We

pass Marcapata with its adobe church, Inambari where

the road from Puno joins this one, and Quincemil, the

mid-point of this stretch of the Inter-Ocean Highway,

before stopping for the night at La Casona. Quincemil

is surrounded by cloud forest, rich in orchids and birds.

Our journey continues as far as Puerto Maldonado. We

continue to descend and the jungle becomes more

exuberant, until we reach the capital of the Department

of Madre de Dios. There are many lodges to choose

from close to the rivers, where we can experience different

aspects of biodiversity. We cross the longest

bridge in Peru and continue to Iñapari, passing small

villages of farmers who also survive from hunting, fishing

and gathering. We are in the heart of the jungle full

of enormous chestnut trees, which can only be found

in this part of the world, on the frontier between Peru,

Brazil and Bolivia.

Left: The highest point on the journey; from here the trail

descends towards the high jungle.

Opposite page: Quincemil, in the district of Camanti, is one

of the rainiest places on the planet and, thanks to that, one

of the most biodiverse.


IÑANPARI

AIRPORT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE

STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4

STAGE 5 STAGE 6

STAGE 7

PUERTO

MALDONADO

PLANCHON

to lima

ANDAHUAYLAS

AMPAY NATIONAL

SANCTUARY

SAYWITE

MOLLEPATA

ABANCAY

CUSCO

ANTA

OROPESA

ANDAHUAYLILLAS

URCOS

OCONGATE

MARCAPATA

QUINCEMIL

INAMBARI

TAMBOPATA

NATIONAL RESERVE

ICA

ANDAMARCA

PUQUIO

CHALHUANCA

to puno

NASCA

PAMPA GALERAS

BARBARA DE ACHILLE

NATIONAL RESERVE

SAN JUAN

DE MARCONA PORT

to arequipa

pacific

ocean

Iñigo Maneiro

Iñigo Maneiro

For more information

www.survial.com.pe

www.nazcacusco.com

www.iirsasur.com.pe

/49


Hike, Bike & Eat

through Croatia

Hike, bike and kayak the Croatian landscape,

and taste the best local food and wine Croatia

has to offer with a tantalising gastronomy tour!

We not only

understand but embrace

our destinations’ vibrant cultures, diverse

landscapes, traditions & climates!

For more infomation about how our collection of specialised travel

inbound operators can expertly craft adventure travel services visit us at

PureQuest.com or email at info@PureQuest.com

ACTIVI

TY

LEVEL

DAY

1

- ZAGREB

- Hands-on culinary course

DAY 2 - ZAGREB / ZAGORJE

- Fish & food market guided tour

- Štrukli cooking & wine tasting

- Hike through the Zagorje hills

- Traditional Zagorje village meal

DAY 3 - GORSKI KOTAR

- Hands-on foraging tips in Gorski

Kotar

- Tree planting

- Cycling through local villages

- Cooking demonstration of local

surprise specialties

DAY

4

- UČKAČ

- 2 hour hike of the Učka Nature Park

- ATV tour and wine-tasting in Istria

DAY 5 - OPATIJA

- Exploring Veliki Brijun Island by bike

- Cooking class in Opatija

DAY 6 - PAKLENICA

- Hiking, Paklenica National Park

- Visit Nin Saltworks Park

DAY 7 - ZADAR

- Prosciutto sampling

- Biking through the National Park Krka

DAY 8 - SPLIT

- Split gastro tour

- Pelješac wine & oyster tastings

DAY 9 - DUBROVNIK

- Sea kayaking along the Adriatic coast

- Cooking class & dinner, Konavle

ACTIVITY LEVEL

ALTITUDE:

max 3200 metres

Explore China’s icons, and yet to be

discovered treasures. Learn traditional Chinese

skills and gain new photography expertise!

China Multi-Sport

from the Great Wall to the Tiger Leaping Gorge

DAY

1

- BEIJING - Visit Chinese Imperial Palace

- Visit the Hutongs

- Visit local family to learn kite-making

DAY

5 - JIUZHAIGOU - Hike Jiuzhaigou National Park

- Small workshop on landscape

photography

- Visit Leshan Mountain

- Walk Jinli Street for a night

photography seminar

- Visit Tibetan museum

DAY 2 - GREAT WALL

- Hike the Mutianyu section

- Visit the Summer Palace

DAY 3 - XI´AN

- Visit the Terracotta Warriors

- Bike the Xi’an City Wall

- Visit Muslim Quarter

- Dumpling banquet

DAY 4 - JIUZHAIGOU

- Visit a Tibetan family for dinner

DAY 6 - SONGPAN

- Horseback ride through

Songpan countryside

DAY 7 - CHENGDU

- Visit a local park to sample a

typical Chengdu weekend

- Watch a Sichuan Opera

DAY 8 - CHENGDU

- Volunteer at the Panda

Breeding Centre

DAY 9 - LIJIANG

- Early morning Taichi practice

DAY 10/11

- TIGER LEAPING GORGE TREK

DAY 12 - SHAXI

- Visit Shaxi Ancient Town

- Visit Shibaoshan Grottoes

DAY 13 - DALI

- Visit local Dali villages

- Tour the lakeside by bike


51


TREKKING IN PERU


Zacarias de Ugarte

A SELECTION OF THE

BEST WALKS AVAILABLE

IN PERU. THESE ROUTES,

WHICH INVOLVE BETWEEN

FIVE AND EIGHT HOURS

WALKING EACH DAY,

COMBINE PHYSICAL

EFFORT AND ADVENTURE

WITH UNSPOILED

NATURE, COMMUNITIES

WITH ANCIENT

CULTURAL TRADITIONS

AND BEAUTIFUL

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

REMAINS.

By

Iñigo Maneiro

Trekking in

Peru

Three alternative routes

The Salkantay option is

considered one of the

world's most spectacular

treks.

/53


TREKKING IN PERU

Ana Paula Albin

BASIC EQUIPMENT

- SMALL BACKPACK

- HEADLAMP

- TREKKING SHOES

- WARM AND

WATERPROOF JACKET

- THERMAL T-SHIRTS

- CAP AND SUN

GLASSES

- SUNSCREEN

Ana Paula Albin

Ana Paula Albin

SALKANTAY:

THE GREAT DESCENT

Salkantay is the second highest mountain in Cusco,

and its name, salqa, means wild. It is an impressive

snow-covered peak and at 6,271 metres, it is visible

throughout the first day of the trek. It is a long way off

but looks close enough to touch during the gentle

ascent to Salkantaypampa (4,100 m.a.s.l. ), site of the

first camp.

This comes after leaving Cusco on the Southern Inter-Ocean

Highway towards Abancay and the coast,

crossing the plains of Anta, breadbasket of the Imperial

City. You then reach the warmth of the River

Apurimac valley and Limatambo. There is fruit, and

archaeological sites such as Tarawasi and haciendas

dating from the 16th Century. For example, Sondor

and Mollepata. This is the start of the route from

Salkantay, although some go as far as Soraypampa

before starting the trek.

On the first night even the sky is closer. The camp site

is on a rocky plateau surrounded by snow-capped

mountains; it is spacious and adequately protected.

The peaks loom among the stars and the universe

of constellations forming part of Andean cosmology

can be seen. The following day brings five hours of

walking and the 4,600-metre Salkantaycasa pass. On

the way up, the ichu grass is replaced by black rock

formations and more and more snow.

Through the pass seems like another world – a parallel

universe. Mountains that stretch to the horizon,

ever lower, greener and more exuberant. This is the

start of the Amazon basin. The Salkantay trek takes

in part of the geographic area of the Machu Picchu

Historic Sanctuary and the Choquequirao Regional

Conservation Area. Three great routes leading

into the jungle. Salkantay is the most direct, a long

descent through a large number of different ecosystems.

There are lodges and camp sites as the trail

descends from snow to the heat of the forest, at the

Cocalmayo thermal springs and the ziplines at Santa

Teresa.

Then ichu gives way to orchids and heliconias. From

a multitude of birds to the spectacled bear and

Cock-of-the-Rocks. From the white of the snow to

the green of the vegetation. And between these extremes,

the pygmy forest and high jungle. For that

reason, and also because it covers a section of the

Inca Trail, National Geographic Adventure Travel considers

this one of the world’s twenty five best hikes.

And waiting for us at the end: adventures on the rivers

and forest canopy, access from the west to Machu

Picchu or the rail station to Aguas Calientes, 11

kilometres further on, from which to ascend to the

historic city. Deity and lord of the Inca universe.


55


TREKKING IN PERU

Gihan Tubbeh

FROM DECEMBER TO

APRIL IS THE COOL

SEASON, WITH RAIN

THAT CAN FALL AS SNOW

ABOVE 4,500 METRES.

ON THE OTHER HAND THE

DRY SEASON RUNS FROM

APRIL TO DECEMBER,

WITH OCCASIONAL

SHOWERS, AND STRONGER

SUNSHINE AND SHARP

COLD SPELLS BETWEEN

JUNE AND SEPTEMBER

Gihan Tubbeh

CHOQUEQUIRAO:

THE ROAD TO THE JUNGLE

This route crosses the foothills of Mount Salkantay,

in a drier and warmer environment defined by the

river Apurimac and its deep canyons. The trail leads

to a huge, beautiful and important archaeological

site: Choquequirao, and then on to the Amazon basin;

it includes steep climbs and descents, but at

a lower altitude. The most popular starting point is

at Cachora, reached from the Southern Inter-Ocean

Highway at the turn-off located near Curahuasi and

Saywite.

Curahuasi, a wide and vivid-green valley, produces

the best anise in Peru, and at harvest time the scent

of aniseed pervades the whole area. Saywite, on the

other hand, is an archaeological site consisting of

terraces, stairs, open spaces and a rock, which is

the principal point of interest. An important place in

the Inca world and in an excellent location, the site

has no buildings, just this rock. It bears carvings

of some of the characteristic flora and fauna of the

country’s three regions: the coast, highlands and

the jungle. These regions are connected by delicately

carved channels along which chicha or blood

flowed during rituals performed by the Incas.

The first person to mention Choquequirao was the

Peruvian explorer Juan Arias Diaz Topete in 1710;

thereafter, for the whole of the 19th Century and the

Zacarias de Ugarte

first few decades of the 20th, it was the destination

for several expeditions led by Peruvians and Europeans,

who travelled the routes now offered by

the Country’s tour operators. Its construction was

apparently ordered by Inca Pachacutec in the mid

15th Century, to contain the rebellious Chancas from

Apurimac, Ayacucho and Huancavelica, or as an access

and link to the jungle. One of the pioneers in

opening up this route to tourism is explorer and businessman

Alfredo Ferreyros, who cleared the paths

to the ruins by hand in 1975.

It is 32 kilometres from Cachora, which can be covered

in four days, camping overnight. You frequently

see condors, which like to soar over the magical

canyons of the Department of Apurimac. The whole

route is at a lower altitude than other mountain or

Inca treks. The lowest camp is at 1,930 m.a.s.l. at

Chiquisca, and the highest is at Choquequirao, at

3,035 metres.

You can continue the trek to Vilcabamba or Santa

Teresa, where you can enjoy the thermal springs

or the zip lines before entering Machu Picchu from

the west, or you can even go as far as Ausangate.

A longer trip, designed by Ferreyros, between the

most emblematic mountains of Cusco, which takes

twenty one days.


Christian Declercq

/57


TREKKING IN PERU

Eduardo Pedraza

Eduardo Pedraza

Luis Yupanqui

ACLIMATIZATION AND

ALTITUDE SICKNESS

- DO VERY LITTLE

PHYSICAL EXERCISE

ON THE FIRST DAY AT A

HIGH ALTITUDE.

- EAT LESS AND MORE

OFTEN DURING THE

DAY.

- DRINK PLENTY OF

LIQUID.

- DRINK COCA LEAF TEA

AND INFUSIONS OF

MUÑA.

HUAYHUASH:

THE HIGHEST MOUNTAINS

The Cordillera Blanca, in the central highlands in the

Department of Ancash, is the main destination for lovers

of adventure, because of the number of mountains

—several of them over 6,000 metres— glaciers

and treks. This range contains Peru’s two highest

mountains, Huascaran (6,746 metres) and Yerupaja

(6,617 metres), as well as the most beautiful mountain

in the world according to the magazine Alpinismus

(1966): Mount Alpamayo (5,947 metres).

One of the best-known routes is that of the Huayhuash

Range, a demanding trek that crosses high and beautiful

terrain and takes twelve days. The main access

is from Huaraz, from which you travel to Cuartelwain,

the starting point for the trek, in the Cordillera Blanca

range; but some trips also start from the town of Huanuco.

The Cordillera is a mountain chain 30 kilometres

long, which is the source of several rivers that flow into

the Atlantic and others that join the River Marañon and

flow through the Amazon basin; it contains extensive

forests of queuñas, the tree that grows at the highest

altitude in the world, while its glaciers feed nearly fifty

lakes, where some tour operators offer fishing trips.

For all of these reasons the Cordillera Huayhuash has

been declared a Protected Zone within Peru’s system

of natural protected areas.

For the Huayhuash experience, where the average altitude

on the trail and at camp is 4 metres and the

maximum (the Cuyoc pass) is 5,010, you must be in

excellent physical shape and spend some days acclimatising

in Huaraz or Huanuco. The tour operators

also offer shorter treks from four to eight days duration,

for those who do not want to cover the complete circuit

of 120 kilometres, as well as other experiences in

Huayhuash, starting in the highlands north of Lima,

Ancash and Huanuco itself.

During the walk you cross nine mountains passes at

altitudes of 4,300 to 5,010 metres, as well as the Siula

Grande glacier. You spend the night in the Cutatambo

valley and alongside lakes and thermal springs such

as those at Viconga. You also visit communities of shepherds

near the tourist trail, whose members act as

guides, porters and cooks. You will share their lives,

food and medicinal herbs, handcrafted textiles and

cosmovision, all of which originate in the remote past.


59


TREKKING IN PERU

SALKANTAY PROGRAMME

5D/4N

DAY 1 CUSCO-CHALLACANCHA-SORAYPAMPA

- You will be collected from your chosen hotel.

- Visit to the Tarawasi ruins.

- Coffee break in Mollepata and transport to Challacancha.

- Trek from Challacancha to Soraypampa.

- Lunch in Soraypampa.

- Trek to Lake Humantay and return to Soraypampa.

- Dinner and camping at Soraypampa.

DAY 2 SORAYPAMPA-WAYRACMACHAY-ANDENES

- Breakfast at the camp site.

- Trek to Salkantay Pass (highest point: 4,638 m.a.s.l.).

- Descent to Wayracmachay.

- Lunch at Wayracmachay.

- Descen to Andenes.

- Dinner and camping at Andenes.

DAY 3 ANDENES-LUCMABAMBA

- Breakfast at the camp site.

- Walk in the Santa Teresa Valley.

- Picnic at Lluscamayo.

- Trek (1 hour) and transport to the start of the Inca Trail to Llaqtapata

then continue walking to the camp site at Lucmabamba.

- Coffee demonstration and tasting by a local family.

- Dinner and camping at Lucmabamba.

DAY 4 LUCMABAMBA-LLAQTAPATA-AGUAS

CALIENTES

- Breakfast at the camp site.

- Trek to Llaqtapata Pass.

- Visit to the ruins at Llaqtapata.

- Lunch with a panoramic view of the Sacred Valley and Machu Picchu.

- Descent to the River Aobamba and walk to Hidroelectrica train station.

- Train to Aguas Calientes.

- Dinner and overnight stay at your chosen hotel.

DAY 5 AGUAS CALIENTES-MACHU PICCHU-CUSCO

- Breakfast at your chosen hotel.

- Tour of Machu Picchu.

- Lunch at the chosen restaurant.

- Train from Aguas Calientes to Ollantaytambo.

- Transport from Ollantaytambo to your chosen hotel in Cusco.

CUSCO-SALKANTAY PROGRAMME

7D/6N

DAY 1 CUSCO-CHALLACANCHA-SOYROCOCHA

- You will be picked up from your hotel in Cusco.

- Visit toTarawasi and Limatambo.

- Stop at Mollepata for a cup of coffee.

- Walk starts at Challacancha.

- Lunch at Salkantaypampa.

- Set off again and arrival at Soyrococha.

- Dinner.

- Overnight.

DAY 2 SOYROCOCHA-ABRA SALKANTAY- ANDENES

- Breakfast.

- Walk from Soyrococha to the Salkantay pass.

- Descent to Wayracmachay.

- Lunch.

- Set off again as far as the bank of the River Salkantay.

- Reach Andenes.

- Dinner.

- Overnight.

DAY 3 ANDENES-LUCMABAMBA

- Breakfast.

- Walk continues along the bank of the River Santa Teresa.

- Lunch en route.

- Set off again.

- Arrival at Lucmabamba.

- Dinner.

- Overnight.

DAY 4 LUCMABAMBA-LLAQTAPATA-AGUAS CALIENTES

- Breakfast.

- Walk to Llaqtapata.

- Lunch at a small vantage point overlooking Llaqtapata.

- Descent to Aobamba.

- Arrival at Hidroelectrica train station; board train for Aguas Calientes.

- Overnight in Aguas Calientes.

DAY 5 AGUAS CALIENTES-MACHU PICCHU-SACRED VALLEY

- Breakfast at your hotel.

- You will be picked up from your hotel for a visit to Machu Picchu.

- Free time for lunch.

- Train from Aguas Calientes to Ollantaytambo.

- Transport to your hotel in the Sacred Valley.

- Overnight in the Sacred Valley.

DAY 6 OLLANTAYTAMBO-PISAC

- Breakfast at your hotel.

- Full day in Ollantaytambo and Pisac.

- Overnight in the Sacred Valley.

DAY 7 SACRED VALLEY-CUSCO

- Breakfast at your hotel.

- Via ferrata.

- Sacred Valley-Cusco.

- Transport to the airport.


CHOQUEQUIRAO PROGRAMME 4D/3N

DAY 1 CUSCO-CACHORA-SANTA ROSA

- Transfer from Cusco to Cachora.

- Trek from Cachora to the vantage point at Capuliyoc.

- The walk continues as far as Playa Rosalina.

- Lunch at Playa Rosalina.

- Walk continues to Santa Rosa.

- Dinner and camping at Santa Rosa.

DAY 2 SANTA ROSA-MARANPATA-CHOQUEQUIRAO

- Breakfast at the camp site.

- Uphill walk as far as Maranpata.

- Lunch at Maranpata.

- Walk to Choquequirao.

- Visit and tour of the ruins at Choquequirao.

- Dinner and camping at Choquequirao.

DAY 3 CHOQUEQUIRAO-SANTA ROSA-PLAYA ROSALINA

- Breakfast at the camp site.

- Second walk around Choquequirao.

- Walk back to Santa Rosa.

- Lunch at SantaRosa.

- Descent to Playa Rosalina.

- Dinner and camping at Playa Rosalina.

DAY 4 PLAYA ROSALINA-CACHORA-CUSCO

- Breakfast at the camp site.

- Walk to the vantage point at Capuliyoc.

- Lunch at Capuliyoc.

- Walk to Cachora.

- Transport from Cachora to your chosen hotel in Cusco.

HUAYHUASH PROGRAMME 9D/8N

DAY 1 HUARAZ

- Transfer from bus station to hotel in

Huaraz.

- Overnight.

DAY 2 HUARAZ-HUANUCOPAMPA-

CONOC

- Transfer from Huaraz to Conococha.

- Transfer from Conococha to Huanucopampa

archaeological site and visit to the

complex.

- Visit to the Conoc hotsprings.

- Arrival to the camping.

- Overnight.

DAY 3 C0NOC-QUEROPALCA-

CARHUACOCHA

- Transfer to Queropalca.

- Walk to Punta Cacanan ( 4,700 m.a.s.l.).

- Ascent to Carhuac pass (4,650 m.a.s.l.)

and descent to Carhuacocha lake (4,138

m.a.s.l.).

- Overnight at camping near Carhuacocha

lake.

DAY 4 CARHUACOCHA-MITUCOCHA

- After breakfast, start walking.

- Return to Carhuac pass and descent to

Mitucocha lake.

- Arrival to camping near Mitucocha lake.

- Overnight.

DAY 5 MITUCOCHA-KANANPUNTA-

RONDOY

- After breakfast, start walking.

- Arrival to Kananpunta pass (4,700 m.a.s.l.).

- Camping at Rondoy.

- Overnight.

DAY 6 RONDOY-SAMBUNYA-

JAHUACOCHA

- After breakfast, start walking.

- Ascent to Sambunya pass (4,750 m.a.s.l.)

view of the mountains Rondoy (6,094

m.a.s.l.), Yarupaja (6,634 m.a.s.l.) and Rasac

(6,017 m.a.s.l.)

- Descent to Jahuacocha lake.

- Camping near Jahuacocha lake

(4,050 m.a.s.l.)

- Overnight.

DAY 7 JAHUACOCHA-SOLTECOCHA

- Breakfast.

- Excursion aroud Jahuacocha and Soltecocha

lake.

- Lunch.

- Return to camping at Jahuacocha lake.

- Overnight.

DAY 8 JAHUACOCHA-LLAMAC-

HUARAZ

- After breakfast, start walking.

- Route towards Pampa Llamac

(4,300 m.a.s.l.). On the road forest of queñuales

are seen.

- Descent to Llamac village (3,300 m.a.s.l.).

- Transfer to Chiquian (3,400 m.a.s.l.).

- Transfer from Chiquian to Huaraz.

- Overnight.

DAY 9 HUARAZ-LIMA

- Breakfast.

- Transfer from hotel to bus station in

Huaraz.

/61


INTERVIEW

ONE OF THE PIONEERING

PROPONENTS OF

THE MANU NATIONAL

PARK, AS WELL AS

ADVENTURE TOURISM

AND ECOTOURISM IN

PERU. AN INVETERATE

TRAVELLER, HIS LIFE HAS

BEEN ONE OF CONTINUAL

EXPLORATION THAT,

OVER MORE THAN FORTY

YEARS, HAS TAUGHT HIM

ABOUT NATURE RESERVES,

ARCHAEOLOGY AND

ROUTES IN SOUTHERN AND

NORTHERN PERU.

By

Carolina San Roman

Photos

Mario Ortiz de Zevallos

Mario has lived in Quincemil for two

years, in the middle of the cloud

forest, 4 hours by car from Cusco.


Mario Ortiz de Zevallos

Businessman and tourism consultant

/63


INTERVIEW

Above and below:

The River Araza,

in the district of

Camanti, is where

Mario spends

much of his time.

You have always been involved in the world

of tourism and adventure tourism in particular.

Tell us about your experiences.

I started working in adventure tourism at the end of

the nineteen seventies. More precisely, between 1976

and 1977. But I had been used to adventure for many

years previously; I had been to the Colca Canyon,

Puno and Cusco, tourist destinations associated with

adventure, together with other Peruvians and foreigners

at the start of this activity. I first went to Cusco

when I was 13 years old and the first time I took the

Inca Trail was in 1972; there were no other walkers

except me on the trail and it was an unbeatable experience.

When did your interest in adventure and nature

become your livelihood?

At the end of the nineteen seventies I began to organise

trips with a group of friends who were starting

out in the tourism business; and little by little I

became involved. I joined up with Hugo Pepper to

form a company called Expediciones Manu, the first

to organise trips to the Manu National Park. It was a

true adventure in those days; we took mainly English,

American and German tourists; the two of us organised

everything: guides, camping, etc...

How did you get the idea to operate in Manu National

Park when nobody knew about it?

Hugo went there and was so impressed he insisted

that I go to see the place as well. We were astonished

and decided that we had to organise trips there.


Christian Declercq

It was in the early years of the park —which was created

in 1976—, there were no visitors and few restrictions

on access, but getting there was difficult. The

furthest we could go with tourists was the biology

post at Cocha Cashu. The visitors were impressed by

the experience.

In addition to the trips you organised to Manu,

what other options did you offer?

We started with treks in Cusco and -very interesting

at that time: excursions on horseback. We were the

first to do that. Then we thought that for following the

tourists mountain bikes would be a good idea; we

imported the first batch of mountain bikes into Peru.

Our expeditions left Cusco for different destinations,

such as the upper reaches of Manu National Park’s

buffer zone and the ruins near Cusco, including the

Urubamba Valley.

At the beginning of the nineteen nineties you

changed course somewhat. What happened?

The company was making good progress, we always

had incoming tourists; but by the middle of the

eighties, terrorism was affecting it severely, the situation

became untenable and we closed down; I moved

to Arequipa. There, I made use of all the knowledge

I had acquired about bicycles; I opened a distributor

for the Trek brand. I promoted mountain biking and

organised excursions and competitions.

Then you went back. How did you go back to

your roots?

Tourism in Peru recovered after 1995, so at the end

of that decade I decided to go back to Cusco and

started to develop tourism products with a rural theme.

Firstly I got involved in an American government

programme to develop new tourism businesses in

the Vilcabamba area. I was responsible for a number

of feasibility studies for the project, working closely

with local people.

“I also worked with funds from Swiss aid on an institutional

development project (Destination Management

Organisations) in the departments of Arequipa,

Apurimac, Cusco, Madre de Dios, Moquegua and

Tacna. In Colca we developed a project to restore a

Yanque church in

the Colca Valley.

"WE BECAME THE

FIRST ONES TO

ORGANISE TRIPS

TO THE MANU

NATIONAL PARK.

IT WAS A TRUE

ADVENTURE IN

THOSE DAYS"

/65


INTERVIEW

"THE AREA IN QUESTION

IS PART OF THE FUTURE

VILCABAMBA-AMBORO

BIOLOGY CORRIDOR.

IT IS LOCATED ON THE

EASTERN FOOTHILLS OF

THE URUBAMBA RANGE,

IN THE AUSANGATE

SECTOR"

Left: The grey-breasted

mountain toucan (Andigena

hypoglauca), one of the 680

species of birds identified in

the zone.

Right: View of the River

Madre de Dios, Manu

National Park.

small section of a Pre-Inca road between the villages

of Coporaque and Yanque. Thanks to this project, it

is now possible to walk a segment of this road in two

hours, and it links two archaeological sites and their

respective villages”.

Now you are living in Cusco. What new projects

are you working on there?

A short while ago I was working with the owner of a

farm between Puno and Cusco, evaluating the possibility

of including his property into the tourist route.

The farm is called Queque Norte and is in Kunurana

alto, Puno, at 4,000 m.a.s.l. Five rooms in a beautiful

country house; an excellent alternative for lunch on

the route, and to stay the night, with a visit to the farm.

The most impressive thing is how they have achieved

high dairy production at such an altitude. The owner

is known as one of the best highland cattle ranchers

in the world.

Forty years have passed since you organised

the first expeditions to Manu National Park, and

now you’re exploring another little-known zone

with great potential: Quincemil in the district of

Camanti.

Yes, my partner Alfredo Ferreyros G. and I are trying

to obtain a concession for conservation there. We

have asked for about 50,000 hectares between 750

and 4,000 m.a.s.l., including a wide range of ecosystems

and diverse flora and fauna, probably among

the highest on the planet, as well as being beautiful

and easy to get to. The area in question is part of the

future Vilcabamba-Amboro biology corridor. It is located

on the eastern foothills of the Urubamba range,

in the Ausangate sector, where the Andes fall most

steeply towards the tropical forest.

“We have carried out several studies to evaluate its

potential. One, on adventure activities in the zone,

which is perfect for rafting, mountain biking, rock

climbing, canyoning and fishing. Another on the tourism

potential for those interested in natural history.

Another study, carried out by scientists, demonstrates

the zone’s impressive diversity. For example, 360

species of butterflies alone were identified in just two

months, together with 680 species of birds and 199

species of orchids. In this project we are aided by

the Association for the Conservation of the Amazon

Basin (ACCA)”.


67


PUERTO ENTREVISTA MALDONADO-

RAINFOREST

PROGRAMME

4D/3N

DAY 1 PUERTO MALDONADO-REFUGIO

AMAZONAS

- Arrival and reception by your guide.

- Transport from the airport to the office in Puerto

Maldonado.

- Transport from the Puerto Maldonado office to the

port of Tambopata.

- Transport by boat from Tambopata to Refugio Amazonas.

- Lunch (box lunch).

- Dinner.

- Expedition in search of alligators.

- Overnight stay at Refugio Amazonas

DAY 2 REFUGIO AMAZONAS-TAMBOPATA

NATURE RESERVE

- Breakfast.

- Visit to the lake.

- Lunch.

- Visit to a local farm.

- Ethnobotany tour

- Dinner.

- Presentation about the Tambopata Nature Reserve.

- Overnight stay at Refugio Amazonas.

You also have your own land in Quincemil. Are you thinking of using

it for tourism in any way?

Yes, I’m working on a tended camp project, that is, a campsite for those who

want to experience camping and nature without having to carry a tent or sleeping

bag. I will have ten tents, a cooking and eating area and fully equipped

bathrooms. Apart from that, I’m making a kitchen garden to produce organic

vegetables, fruit and mushrooms. Everything grows here! My idea is to concentrate

on growing native mushrooms.

“The biodiversity of this area is impressive. On my land you can see mammals

such as tapirs, anteaters, sajinos, martas and armadillos; they all use it, the

important thing is not to them”.

How do you see Peru as an adventure tourism destination?

I see it as a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for travellers, wherever they go.

There are innumerable options for all tastes; from crossing the desert on a

pre-Hispanic road, to climbing the most spectacular mountains in the world.

After the Himalayas, the world’s highest peaks are here, in the Andes. Furthermore,

Peru has an incomparable combination of nature and culture; that is

difficult to find anywhere else.

Which activity attracts most adventure tourists to Peru and which has

the greatest potential for growth?

In first place is trekking, then mountain biking; there is much more to be done

in this sector. Cyclists are impressed by the variety of routes we have.

“Thanks to roads such as the Southern Inter-Ocean Highway, new adventurers

are emerging: bikers. Groups come to Peru from Brazil, go on to Chile

and end up in Patagonia or cross Argentina to Uruguay and Paraguay. This

is a new segment and we have to take advantage of it. In the high season

twenty or thirty motorbikes traverse the highway every day”.

DAY 3 REFUGIO AMAZONAS

- Breakfast.

- Visit to a salt lick to see parrots and other birds.

- Lunch.

- Visit to chestnut wood and chestnut gatherers.

- Visit to a salt lick used by mammals.

- Dinner.

- Night-time ramble.

- Overnight stay at Refugio Amazonas.

DAY 4 REFUGIO AMAZONAS-TAMBOPATA-

PUERTO MALDONADOO

- Breakfast.

- Transport by boat from Refugio Amazonas to the

port of Tambopata.

- Transport from Tambopata to the office in Puerto

Maldonado.

- Transport from the Puerto Maldonado office to the

airport.


69


SACRED MOUNTAIN

Difficult, high and spectacular, three

well-chosen words to describe the

trek around Ausangate, the most

important mountain in the Andean cult

of mountain worship followed in Cusco.

If you're seeking these three variables,

culture and even comforts on the

journey, then look no further.

Eduardo Pedraza

By

Diego Oliver

“I’m from Cusco”, says photographer Diego Nishiyama,

“and Ausangate, as the tutelary deity and

protector of Cusco, has always been a part of our

lives. To have grown up with the mountain on the

horizon with its white cape, is something you appreciate

fully when you can finally walk among its

foothills and feel its majesty”.

Ausangate is not just any mountain. It is a god,

an apu, a being that gives life and is also capable

of taking it. It is the source of water to irrigate the

fields, enabling Andean communities to grow and

harvest food crops and so live in this area for many

generations. Trekking to Ausangate is to experience

the essence of Andean culture, to walk on sacred

soil and to understand the fundamental role it

has in native local beliefs.

It is also a challenge requiring great physical stamina,

amid some extraordinary scenery. It is much

more demanding than the Inca Trail, the most popular

trek in Cusco, and passes through much

more difficult terrain. For comparison purposes,

the highest pas on the Inca Trail is 4,200 m.a.s.l.,

while that on Ausangate is 5,200 m.a.s.l. The route

passes turquoise lakes, glaciers, glacial valleys,

moraines and snow-covered peaks that make up

the extraordinary scenery of the mountains and

Andean plateaus.

Shepherds from the

communities of Ausangate

accompany pilgrims on

their route round the

mountain.


Sacred mountain

Touching heaven on Mount Ausangate

/71


SACRED MOUNTAIN

Right: This route demands

excellent physical fitness,

because its average

altitude is 4,600 m.a.s.l. for

that reason three days of

acclimatisation in Cusco

are recommended.

Below: The services of the

four lodges are first class.

Comfortable rooms and

good food.

Diego del Rio

Christian Declercq

Andean Lodges

The most popular trek lasts five days and four nights,

and Andean Lodges offers an outstanding option.

The company has built four lodges on the route,

at an average altitude of 4,683 m.a.s.l. The lodges,

which have different view of Ausangate, have rooms

for sixteen people, private bathrooms with hot water,

and feather duvets; providing comfort for exhausted

walkers. They have been built to harmonise with their

surroundings, following the aesthetics of local architecture.

Services, including meals, are the responsibility of

members of neighbouring communities, giving them

closer links to the traditions of the local population. At

this altitude farming is unviable, so local people have

large flocks of llamas and alpacas, which are moved

along ancient tracks. “Most people living nearby are

herdsmen, the community of Ausangate and its inhabitants

being one of only three societies of this type

in the world. The others are the Sami, reindeer herders

in northern Norway and the Masai, who herd

cattle on the plains around Mount Kilimanjaro”, says

Nishiyama.

The trek starts in the district of Checacupe with a

visit to a colonial-era church built on Inca foundations.

The church contains paintings and murals of

the Cuzqueña School, as well as the oldest image of

the Immaculate Conception in Cusco and probably

the Americas. The route then takes you to Chillca, in

Uyuni Pampa, where the first lodge is located. Local

musicians welcome you at 4,368 m.a.s.l., with a view

of Mount Jatun Jampa in the background.

The next day you continue through the glacial valley

of Phinaya, accompanied by thousands of alpacas

and llamas. The route passes the Pjachaj falls, and

after lunch you continue climbing through an area of

moraines, glaciers and lakes. A caravan of llamas carried

your equipment as far as Machurracay Tambo,

the second lodge. This one is 4,815 metres above

sea level and, according to the company, is the highest

in the world. This is where the mountaineers

start there ascent of the peak, and the lodge acts as

a sort of base camp.

“We would say that the normal route is ‘fairly difficult’

(AD)”, says Richard Hidalgo, a Peruvian mountaineer

who has conquered numerous peaks in the Andes

and 5 of the 14 mountains in the world over 8,000

metres. “You have a gradient of 60º to 75º some 200

metres long, which takes you to a huge plateau. De-

Andean Lodges


pending on the year and season, the snow could be

“sugar” type, which is too soft and hinders climbing

to the point that sometimes you can’t reach the summit”.

The third day takes you to Palomichayoc pass at

5,200 m.a.s.l., with some spectacular panoramic

views, followed by a descent alongside the glacier

to Ausangate Cocha. The day ends at Anantapata

Tambo, in the upper reaches of Alcatauri Canyon and

the third lodge, which is the only one built using the

community’s own funds; further proof that tourism

can be sustainable.

Next day includes another mountain pass followed

by a trek to Lake Kayrawiri, surrounded by mountains

and with a spectacular view of the valley. Here the mineral

composition of the hills turns them into a classical

multi-coloured postcard view of the trek. On the

trek to Huampococha Tambo you will see hundreds

of geese, who nest in the slopes of Antay, the craggy

rock formations of the apu Labrayani. The final day

takes you across the Anta pass followed by a descent

to the point where you are taken back to Cusco.

In the words of Eduardo Pedraza, mountaineer and

former commercial manager of Lima Tours, the Ausangate

trail is “for those seeking a serious mountain

trek”. “What makes it special”, adds Pedraza, “is that

you walk with the llamas that carry the equipment,

which is how the ancient Andean people travelled.

You walk for more than six hours a day and at one

point climb to over 5,000 metres above sea level.

Few people have been up to such an altitude. But

although you suffer somewhat, the spectacular scenery

is more than worth it. It’s an epic trek, world

class, for people who love mountains and are fit”.

“The Andean Lodges project and this route changed

my view of life”, adds Nishiyama. “I came to

understand that the apu is our father and as such

we should love, respect and protect him when necessary.

The spirituality you feel walking through the

glacial valleys, conquering the mountain passes and

Andean Lodges

Above: Mount Ausangate

(6,371 m.a.s.l.) is one of

the highest in southern

Peru and a favourite of

experienced climbers.

Below: Mount Yauricunca

(4,985 m.a.s.l.) offers some

of the best scenery on the

route. The coloured soil

is the result of its mineral

composition.

Andean Lodges

/73


Christian Declercq

SACRED MOUNTAIN


Ausangate provides water and food for the local communities' herds of alpaca and llama. Herding is one of the principal

economic activities at this altitude (more than 3,800 m.a.s.l.)

/75


AUSANGATE

PROGRAMME

5D/4N

DAY 1 LIMA-CUSCO

- Transfer from chosen hotel to Checacupe.

- Visit to the colonial church.

- Uphill walk to the Pitumarca Valley.

- Picnic lunch at Molino Viejo.

- Walk from Molino Viejo to Chillca Tambo.

- Dinner and overnight stay at Chillca Tambo.

DAY 2 CHILLCA-MACHURACAY

- Breakfast at the tambo.

- Walk from the Pampa Uyuni Valley as far as Lake

Paloma.

- Picnic lunch at Lake Paloma or Cochajasa.

- Walk from Lake Paloma to Machuracay Tambo, at the

foot of Mount Ausangate.

- Dinner and overnight stay at Machuracay Tambo.

DAY 3 MACHURACAY-ANANTAPATA

- Breakfast at the tambo.

- Ascent to Palomichayoc Pass.

- Descent to Lake Ausangatecocha.

- Picnic lunch at Astanapata de Ausangate.

- Walk to Anantapata Tambo.

- Dinner and overnight stay at Anantapata Tambo.

Christian Declercq

Puna, the vegetation of the Andean plateau is the dominant ecosystem in this area. The

climate is cold and dry, vegetation is scarce and the beautiful lakes are fed by meltwater.

seeing the flora and fauna makes you appreciate this with every step we take”.

“For me, the highlight of the trek is crossing passes at more than 5,000 metres

above sea level, and above all the colours you see on the route, from the white

of the perpetual snow to the copper colour of the hills”, explains Hidalgo.

The trek around Ausangate is a more solitary route compared to the Inca Trail.

There aren’t many tourists and this produces a closer bond with the surrounding

countryside. Trekking round the most important apu in Cusco generates a

sensation of awe. Its size gives us a new perspective of things and will certainly

give you a better understanding of life in one of the most extreme environments

in the Peruvian Andes.

DAY 4 ANANTAPATA-HUAMPOCOCHA

- Breakfast at the tambo.

- Walk from Anantapata to Huampococha, passing

through the Surini Pass, Yauricunca, the mountain of

colours, and Puruaucas.

- Lunch at Pampa de Anta Grande.

- Trek around Nevado del Inca as far as Huampococha

Tambo.

- Dinner and overnight stay at Huampococha Tambo.

Jeremy Cornejo

DAY 5 HUAMPOCOCHA-CUSCO

- Breakfast at Huampococha Tambo.

- Ascent to Anta Pass.

- Descent to the Pitumarca Valley.

- Picnic lunch at Congomire.

- Transport to Cusco.

Photos: Andean Lodges

The local flora and fauna are diverse despite the altitude. The yellow-billed teal

(Anas flavirostris) and Andean fox (Lycalopex culpaeus andinus).


77


79


Diego del Rio

PATHS OF ADVENTURE


THE CONTINUAL INCREASE

IN TOURISM MEANS THAT

PERU NOW OFFERS MANY

ALTERNATIVES FOR ADVENTURE

SPORTS. NOT EVERYONE IS

LOOKING FOR THE SAME THING,

AND THIS HAS LED TO A NUMBER

OF DIFFERENT AND INTERESTING

OPTIONS OUTSIDE OF THE

TRADITIONAL TOURIST ROUTES.

MANY OF THE PLANS ARE WELL

THOUGHT OUT AND STRUCTURED;

FURTHERMORE, THEY ARE

PROPERLY MANAGED, WITH

PRIORITY GIVEN TO THE SAFETY

OF PARTICIPANTS. FROM VIAS

FERRATAS IN OLLANTAYTAMBO

TO SPORT FISHING IN HUANCAYA,

THESE ARE SOME OF THE MOST

IMPORTANT AND UNUSUAL

ACTIVITIES YOU CAN ENJOY IN

PERU.

By

Paola Miglio

PATHS OF

ADVENTURE

Guide to outdoor sports

Llaullipata forest in the city

of Cusco is full of potential

for mountain biking and

downhill cycling.

/81


PATHS OF ADVENTURE

Above: Lakes at Lares, a paradise for

sports fishermen.

Below: Impressive waterfalls and lakes in

Nor Yauyos Cochas Reserve. This natural

reserve is perfect for water sports such

as kayaking, sports fishing and paddle

boarding.

WHILE SOME

EAT WHAT THEY

CATCH, THERE

ARE AGENCIES

THAT PROMOTE

CATCH AND

RELEASE TO NOT

AFFECT THE LOCAL

ENVIRONMENT

Gabriel Gygax

SPORT FISHING

Sport fishing is expanding in this country. Not only on the north coast, where it has been

practiced for a long time, but in Cusco (the highlands), where fly fishing is popular on certain

lakes. Packages are available that include activities on Lake Ausangate, in the province of

Lares and even on the River Vilcanota, where you can fish for golden trout, rainbow trout,

brown trout and even sardines. Closer to Lima, in Huancaya — province of Yauyos — some

interesting programmes are available that include lakes Huallhua, Las Rosas, Ashincuy and

Quillcay. What should you take on these excursions? Well, light cotton t-shirts, both longsleeved

and short-sleeved, lightweight trousers, shorts and a cap; sun block and insect

repellent, trainers, camera (video or still), pocket torch and personal medicines. In addition

to everything else necessary for the journey, some agencies also include fishing gear for

beginners; ask beforehand. An important point: while some eat what they catch, other

agencies promote catch and release, so as not to affect the local environment. If you want

this option then ask before you go. Either way, it is important to respect the minimum size

regulations: they are obligatory.

Rafael Cornejo

THE SECRET TRAIL AND SLEEPING IN THE AIR

This is hard work - it’s tiring. But it’s worth it. We know from our own experience: it is an

assisted climb, with steel staples hammered into a 400 metre rock wall. A steel wire rope

secures climbers for the whole of the climb. It takes about four hours any anyone who is

reasonably fit can do it. We only recommend that you don’t eat much before the climb. The

descent is by zipline. The total length of two thousand metres is divided into six sections,

each more exciting than the last. The final section is covered by rappelling. There is no age

limit for this activity. More important is enthusiasm and comfortable clothing that does not

affect your agility. Ah, and the same guys who run the via ferrata (www.naturavive.com) have

implemented a sky lodge up on the mountain: transparent suspended capsules for up to

eight people, with rooms where you can pass the night looking at the stars. Not suitable for

those with a fear of heights.


IMPORTANT

If you are going kayaking you need to

choose a level of difficulty that suits

your possibilities, physical condition and

experience. These are the official standards

(Source: Guide to Cusco Region

by Rafo León, Editorial Planeta). The

agencies should provide a safety boat

to accompany every expedition.

• Level I-II. Rapids that offer some excitement

but are easy and with little

risk.

• Level III-IV. Exciting and with a certain

degree of risk.

• Level V. High risk - for experts only.

• Level VI. Extreme risk: No serious

company should offer this level to

travellers who are not specialists.

Carlos Conan Muñiz

EXPEDITION BY KAYAK

Kayak expeditions on the rivers of Cusco are well known. Today though, let us suggest three alternatives

that could give you a different view of the rest of the country. For example, near to Lima let

us return to Huancaya and the Nor Yauyos Scenic Reserve, six hours by road from Lima, where

trips are available on several lakes, including Valley of the Rapids (with its colonial-era bridge) that

continually challenge explorers. You may also see Lakes Atao and Mayo, and descend the Cabracancha

rapids. More practice: San Jose Cove, a hidden paradise in Quilca, on the Arequipa

coast, where just getting there is an adventure. Paddle in a calm sea and visit the caves and many

unusual rock formations in the area. You will need a couple of days for this trip: in this case, location

is everything; the kayaking is a bonus. Finally, for the more adventurous there are assisted but very

safe programmes on the Colca, in the Cotahuasi Canyon (Arequipa) and on the River Apurimac.

Check the rapid classification on the table included here

WHAT CLOTHES TO WEAR AND WHAT TO

TAKE ON A KAYAKING EXPEDITION

Lycra or nylon shirt (not cotton), swimming

costume or shorts (lycra, synthetic fibre),

trainers or special Lycra shoes, sunglasses

with straps, sunblock, insect repellent, camera

with waterproof cover; safety equipment,

though this is generally provided by

the agency.

Duilio Vellutino

Above: Adventure in the

water. The River Apurimac

is a favoured destination

for lovers of canoeing and

kayaking.

Left: Kayak expeditions,

in which travellers paddle

by day and rest in the

afternoon on the peaceful

beaches at Quilca, on the

Arequipa coast.

/83


PATHS OF ADVENTURE

Right and Below: The

Sacred Valley offers all

kinds of adventure, from

the risky to a gentle stroll

in the fields.

Diego del Rio

MOUNTAIN BIKING

Lima, Cusco and Ancash possess the ideal geography for mountain biking, as well as adequate and secure

infrastructure. Two types are carried out here: downhill and cross country. For the first we earnestly recommend

that you have some biking experience, especially if the routes are steep and difficult. Cross country is usually

gentler and more agreeable; perfect for those who prefer scenery and tranquillity. The ascents and descents

are not too steep and may even be asphalt or unpaved track. In Cusco, for example, there are beautiful routes

in Maras-Moray, Chinchero and the Sacred Valley, where you cross green fields and countryside that is only

accessible by bike or on foot. The views are spectacular. However if you are an expert at the sport, try downhill,

which includes descents, jumps and natural obstacles. The descent to the Maras salt pans for example, where

the intensity of this sport becomes apparent. In Cusco you can also go biking in Ollantaytambo, Chinchero, Huayllabamba,

Patacancha, Lares and Calca. The most popular route for experts is the Malaga pass (4,200 m.a.s.l.)

to Ollantaytambo (2,800 m.a.s.l.)

IMPORTANT

DATA

• Beginners. Routes

with gentle

gradients and firm

ground.

• Some experience.

Moderate gradients

and a certain level

of risk.

• Experts. Steep

gradients, loose

ground, risk and

high altitudes.

There are also routes in Lima, of different degrees of difficulty and in different zones. Choose between quiet city

routes beside the sea or ride to the floral village of Antioquia, through Cieneguilla, where the houses are painted

in different colours and the road also takes you through Santo Domingo de los Olleros to the tuna plantations

at Chilca; a comprehensive route taking in coast and highlands. Other routes run south, through the ceremonial

centre of Pachacamac, Calango and Azpitia where the crayfish come from, and Lunahuana for the pisco. Other

more demanding routes take you to the sacred Marcahuasi and even to the oldest city in the world: Caral north

of Lima. Finally, if you are going north, Ancash offers sea and mountains on the way: from the mysterious and

little-frequented beaches of Casma to the snowy peaks of Huascaran National Park. It is also possible to visit the

ruins at Chavin de Huantar, as well as the sacred Llanganuco lakes.

Diego del Rio


Carlos Conan Muñiz

Carlos Conan Muñiz

EXCURSIONS IN 4X4

We’re off to the central jungle. Yes, that marvellous

zone of permanent sun and exotic foliage. Surrounded

by mountains covered with brilliant and exotic

flowers, and land perfect for farming and livestock.

This is where the jungle meets the highlands, and travelling

by car shows clearly the change in altitude, the

microclimates and the country’s diversity. From here

you can reach the Tyrolean towns of Oxapampa, Pozuzo

and Villa Rica, see waterfalls and caves, and follow

a trail through the coffee growing areas that have

been producing this crop for more than 130 years.

Coffee was first brought here by the Spanish, and

coffee growing was reactivated at the beginning of

the 18th Century by European immigrants. According

to Karissa Becerra in Cafe de las Nubes del Peru,

that the central jungle is perfect for growing special

varieties; the area produces around 27% of all coffee

grown in Peru.

But transport is the first priority. Travel agencies usually

include everything in the package: Pick-ups, guide

and lodgings. They also choose routes to include

places where you can experience things first hand.

In the case of coffee for example, the final destination

is usually Villa Rica, where one of the most important

varieties is grown. This area has also gained prestige

in recent years, as it produces some of the best and

tastiest coffee in the country. But before Villa Rica,

two other towns on the route are worth a visit: San

Ramon and La Merced. Here, certain farms still belong

to the descendents of original Italian immigrants

growing the same fruit as in times past; they take in

guests who help in the harvest and experience much

more than just their hosts’ excellent hospitality. Lima

to Villa Rica is 367 kilometres and the journey takes

approximately seven and a half hours. The road is

surfaces as far as Reither Bridge and in perfect condition

(95%), except for small sections that are unsurfaced

and under repair.

367 KM FROM LIMA TO VILLA RICA

COFFE IS GROWN IN THE AREA SINCE

130 YEARS

HERE IS PRODUCED

27% OF PERUVIAN COFFE

Fernando Criollo

Above: Endless adventure

by 4x4. The central

jungle offers innumerable

activities such as

abseiling, walks to see

waterfalls, mountain biking

and others.

Below: Lush vegetation

dominates the landscape.

/85


PATHS OF ADVENTURE

BIKING HALF DAY: THE BEST DOWNHILL

Level

Duration

Location

Season

Departures

ITINERARY:

: Gentle exercise, no previous experience needed; there

are more advanced alternatives.

: 3 hours approximately, 2 hours riding time.

: Outskirts of Cusco.

: All year round.

: Every day.

Transport from your hotel in Cusco to Yuncaypata.

Start of downhill and flat route, visits to a number of communities.

Visit to Inkilltambo and the ruins at Choquequirao.

The route continues to Rumiwasi and ends at Las Salineras, San Sebastian.

Return to the hotel.

HALF DAY BIKING IN THE SACRED

VALLEY: PISAC-CALCA OR CALCA

HUAYLLABAMBA

Level : Moderate adventure, you should be in good physical condition.

Duration : 4 hours. Around 2½ hours riding time.

Location : Pisac-Taray-Calca or Calca-Hurquillos to Huayllabamba.

Season : All year round.

Departures : Every day throughout the year.

ITINERARY:

You will be collected from your hotel in Cusco.

Bike route through Taray Calca.

Return to Cusco.

FULL DAY BIKING: MORAY AND

MARAS SALT PANS

Level

Duration

Location

Season

Departures

: Easy to moderate. Cross country off road.

: 7 hours. Almost 4 hours riding time.

: Moray-Maras-Pichingo to-Urubamba.

: All year round. A rainproof jacket is necessary from

December to March.

: Every day, throughout the year.

ITINERARY:

Transport from your hotel in Cusco to Cruzpata, on the Maras plateau.

Start of your biking adventure.

Optional visit to Moray, where you can take a picnic.

Arrival at Maras salt pans and visit.

Return to your hotel.

HALF DAY RAFTING

Level : Class II, III rafting.

Duration : 2 hours on the river.

Location : Sacred Valley of the Incas, Cusco.

Description : Great views and gentle exercise, no

previous experience required.

Departures : Every day of the year.

ITINERARY:

Transport to the River Pachar.

Supply of equipment and safety talk.

Brief practice on the river.

Start of the excursion, views of the mountains and

ancient ruins, Ollantaytambo and its terraced fields.

Traverse level II and III and end at El Resbaladero,

powerful class III rapids.

Leave the river and visit the village of Cachiccata.

End of service.

FULL DAY RAFTING:

VILCANOTA CLASS 3-4

Level : Moderate to challenging, class 3-4.

Duration : 7 hours, 2½ hours on the river, approximately.

Location : South of Cusco: Chuquicahuana or

Cusipata sectors.

Season : All year round, between November and

April rafting on level 4 - 4+ rapids.

Departures : Daily.

ITINERARY:

8:30 a.m., transport from your hotel in Cusco to Chuquicahuana

(1½ hours).

Supply of equipment and safety talk.

11 kilometre traverse of class III and IV rapids.

Picnicontheriverbank.

Return to Cusco.


LIMA-PARACAS PROGRAMME

4D/3N

DAY 1 LIMA

- You will be collected from your hotel in Lima.

- Bicycle tour along the Costa Verde promenade.

- Visit to the Circuito Magico del Agua water park.

- Overnight at your chosen hotel in Lima.

DAY 3 PARACAS-NASCA LINES

- Transport from the Hotel to Pisco Airport.

- Overflying the Nasca Lines.

- Return to your Hotel.

- Afternoon free.

- Overnight at the chosen hotel in Paracas.

DAY 2 LIMA-PARACAS

- Transport from your hotel to the bus station.

- Bus from Lima to Paracas.

- Half day tour to the Ballestas Islands.

- Half day tour in dune buggies. You can also try

sandboarding.

- Overnight at the chosen hotel in Paracas.

DAY 4 PARACAS-LIMA

- Transport from your hotel to the bus station.

- Bus to Lima.

- Paragliding on the Costa Verde.

- Transport to the airport to catch your next

flight.

Carlos Ibarra

*DUNE BUGGIES (ICA)

Off-road tour in the Ica desert by dune buggy. These

vehicles are built to reach difficult places. When you

reach the summit of the dunes you can try sandboarding.

*FULL DAY DUNE BUGGIES PARACAS

Desert excursion by dune buggy. The trip lasts

an hour and the driver is an expert at climbing

the most exciting sand dunes.

Christian Declercq

/87


EXPAT

Andreas

Holland

"MY LOVE OF THE ANDES AND OF THE OPEN AIR WERE WHAT CONVINCED ME TO WORK

IN THIS SECTOR".

Andreas Holland

Where were you born and where have

you lived?

I was born in England, but when I was 2 I

went with my family to live in Paraguay. We

went back to England when I was 12 years

old. In 1979, when I was 27, I left England

again, with my partner Rachel and our first

child Quino, who was 2, to go back-packing

for six months in Peru, Brazil, Paraguay and

Bolivia. We travelled around Peru and just

stayed. We also lived for a short time in Australia

and now alternate between Peru and

Catalonia.

Why Ollantaytambo?

It’s unique, beautiful and its people are marvellous.

How did you decide to work in the adventure

tourism sector, and particularly

trekking?

My love of the Andes and of the open air

were what convinced me to work in this

sector. It has always been a challenge,

training my collaborators and developing

new routes; that’s what makes it so

interesting.

By

Carolina San Roman

What did you do before you travelled to

South America?

My first job was as a mathematics teacher

in a London secondary school.

Why did you decide to move to Peru?

I fell in love with the country and its people,

and I decided to move here because I wanted

to explore the Peruvian and Bolivian

Andes.

How did you become interested in tourism?

Once I was in Peru, with a growing family,

I looked for a way of making a living and

at the same time indulging my passion

for Andean history and culture, the Andes

themselves and my interest in showing the

wonders of my adopted country to the rest

of the world.

Where in Peru have you lived?

I’ve lived in Ollantaytambo and in Cusco.

What is your favourite trek, and why?

An eighteen-day route across the whole of

the Vilcabamba Range. You visit Huancacalle,

Ñusta Hispana with its fabulous Yuraq

Rumi, Choquetecarpo, Q’elcamachay, Mayuyoc,

Pacchar — where you rest for a day

and enjoy a pachamanca — Batea Paquisha,

Lasuñayoq, Collpa, Huayraqmachay, Ichupata,

Jaime-Pablopata, Chusquiñay, Anccascocha,

Chancachuco and Ollantaytambo. Just pronouncing

those names makes me want to go

back!

What makes Peru an interesting destination

for adventure?

Peru’s the perfect country for adventure; it

has some of the world’s most impressive

mountains and thousands of kilometres of

routes for trekking. Its rivers are tremendous

and unforgettable and its three regions,

Coast, Highlands and Jungle, make

it simply uniquely enchanting.


89


AGENDA

AGENDA

NATIONAL MARINERA DANCE CHAMPIONSHIP

The National Marinera Championship takes place

from the 17th to the 30th of January in the city of Trujillo.

This event, which has been held since 1960, is one

of the country’s major folklore festivals. Hundreds of

Peruvian and foreign couples take part in the festival.

ANNIVERSARY OF LIMA

Peru’s capital celebrates its 481st birthday on the

18th of January. The celebration lasts for a whole

week. There are parades, concerts and food fairs

in the historic centre of the city.

MARTIN CHAMBI AT MALI

Lima Museum of Art (MALI) is mounting a retrospective

exhibition dedicated to renowned Peruvian photographer

Martin Chambi (1891-1973). The exhibition

contains around four hundred works —photographs

and documents— and is the largest selection of

works from that era ever seen in Peru; it includes a

group of late photographs that have never been exhibited

before.

THE ROLLING STONES IN LIMA

One of the world’s greatest rock bands will give

their first concert in Lima, as part of their Ole Tour.

Apart from Peru, the band will play in another six

Latin American countries. The concert will be held

on Saturday the 6th of March in the Estadio Monumental

and tickets will be on sale at Teleticket

outlets in Wong and Metro supermarkets.

VIRGEN DE LA CANDELARIA

Our Lady of the Candles (Virgen de la Candelaria), a

traditional religious festival declared Intangible Cultural

Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, is celebrated

from the 31st of January to the 8th of February. The

most outstanding part of the festivities is the colourful

dance competition and grand parade, during which

all the dancers parade in disguise through the streets

of the city as far as the sanctuary of the image.

MALI


4/01/16 12:12


Caratula Lima Tours ING mtro.indd 2

A morning hike, where no one has been before, in the central highlands of Peru.

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