CPT International 02/2019

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EDITORIAL

It’s Showtime!

The quadrennial innovation cycle is over at last, so foundrymen

and their suppliers from all over the world will meet again in

Düsseldorf for the world’s largest international foundry trade fair

from 25 - 29 June 2019.

Robert Piterek

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de

As usual, the interest is enormous:

about 900 exhibitors will be showing

their products at GIFA. And

there will actually be a total of about

2,100 exhibitors at the four simultaneous

trade fairs GIFA, METEC, THERMPROCESS

and NEWCAST. 78,000 visitors are also

expected, more than half of whom are

travelling here from abroad.

If we check out the developments

that have taken place during the last

four years we note that digitalization

and additive manufacture have grown

out of their infancy. This year’s Düsseldorf

trade fairs are paying particular

attention to these two technological

trends, because the increasingly sophisticated

sensor technology in the foundries

is generating more and more data on

production processes. Digitalization thus

simplifies and refines, for example, the

charge make up. And the constant availability

of production data enables realtime

monitoring of all important parameters

– in die-casting foundries and in

core shops (more about this from P. 10),

but also in some iron and steel foundries.

The evaluation of production data with

the help of algorithms will, sooner or

later, also make the identification of

faults conceivable before they even arise.

In short: the reason why digitalization is

a constant subject of discussions in the

sector is plain to see: it offers enormous

potential for improving efficiency, transparency

and quality. And equally affects

all the sectors represented in the quartet

of trade fairs – from the foundry sector,

through the steel industry, to the thermo-process

technology sector.

Additive manufacture, on the other

hand, has already developed into a sensible

expansion of business for some casters,

particularly with low batch numbers.

Molds and patterns are the main

products printed. The extensive use of

3-D printers already pays in invest ment

casting – and considerably accelerates

the production of some components.

GIFA visitors will find out more about

this at the special Additive Manufacturing

exhibition in Hall 3, at the specialist

3-D Metal Printing Conference on 26

June or in this magazine in an article

about 3-D printing and art casting from

P. 68.

When it comes to the outcome of the

trade fairs GIFA President Heinz Nelissen

is optimistic. In an interview with CPT

(from P. 34), he says that he expects a

“veritable explosion of innovations”. In

addition to his assessments, CPT’s GIFA

Special offers an article about recycling

in the foundry sector, a Hall Plan and the

GIFA News which offer a foretaste of the

new developments that will define

foundry operation in the coming years.

Have a good read!

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 3


CONTENTS

FEATURES

6 INTERVIEW

Creating value for our customers –

with innovative solutions

In an Interview with CPT, Dr. Jens Müller, Global

Head of Innovation at ASK Chemicals, gives a brief

outlook on the upcoming GIFA fair and describes

the importance of innovation for ASK Chemicals.

10 COMPANY

The core shop of the future

It is intended to become a benchmark for the sector

regarding digitalization, efficiency and networking

of plants and machinery: the new high-tech

core shop Inacore in Lower Bavaria.

Robert Piterek

16 COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT

GIFA-SPECIAL

GIFA- and NEWCAST

president Nelissen

expects a „veritable

explosion of innovations.“

COMPANY

In a new joint venture

two engineering

companies evolve

from supplier to

manufacturer.

Aluminum structural castings: integrated

development of component and process

A structural component for the AUDI A8 was awarded

first prize in the Aluminium Die-Casting Competition

at EUROGUSS – the work behind an award.

Klaus Vollrath

20 ENGINEERING OF FOUNDRY PLANTS

Foundry planning undergoing digital change

Companies are required to adopt a sustainable

orien tation of all units – including digitalization –

to create a modern factory.

Axel Edlich, Robin Freitag, Frances Barchmann

24 CLEANING, FETTLING & FINISHING

Fire and flame for metal casting

and processing

An innovative metal foundry in Austria shows how

mass finishing can contribute towards achieving

the customer’s desired surface quality.

Gerhard Franz Roth

COMPONENT

DEVELOPMENT

At DGS Druckguss in

Switzerland the

development of component

and process is

taking place in an

inte grated process.

GIFA Special:

Latest assessments on the

course of the trade show –

Trade fair plan – GIFA News

for product overview.

4


CONTENTS

CLEANING, FETT LING &

FINISHING

Mass finishing at Schösswender

Werke.

28 SIMULATION

Realistic simulation of the combustion

of exothermic feeders

The companies Flow Science and GTP Schäfer have

jointly developed a realistic simulation model of the

combustion of exothermic feeder systems.

Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, Jörg Schäfer

33 SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

GIFA 2019 – „A veritable explosion

of innovations!

Interview with GIFA- and NEWCAST president

Heinz Nelissen on the value of the upcoming trade

fairs for exhibitors and visitors.

Tremendous potential – environmental, economic

and social sustainability in foundries

Foundries are one of the best examples of resource

efficiency and sustainability. Because castings implement

the recycling concept almost completely.

Carina Hendricks

Hall plan

GIFA-News

62 COATINGS

Multitasking: Coatings for centrifugal

casting

Innovative coatings formulated for centrifugal casting

help to avoid casting defects, influence mechanical

parameters and even serve as a forming medium.

Klaus Seeger, Ekaterina Potaturina

68 3-D-PRINTING

COATINGS

The range of centrifugal

casting applications

increases – so

does the importance

of coatings.

3-D printing systems evolutionize

traditional art casting

Art foundry Strassacker creates artistic works using

3-D printing systems by voxeljet.

Frederik von Saldern, Peter Mühlhäuser

COLUMNS

3 EDITORIAL

72 FAIRS AND CONGRESSES/AD INDEX

74 PREVIEW/IMPRINT

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 5


INTERVIEW

6


“Innovations are crucial for success and

growth on both the customer and supplier

side!“

When it comes to innovation Dr. Jens Müller is the suitable

person to talk to at ASK Chemicals. At the fair the

company presents several interesting new developments.

Creating value for our customers

– with innovative solutions

Dr. Jens Müller, Global Head of Innovation at ASK Chemicals, gives in conversation

with CPT a brief outlook on the upcoming GIFA fair in Düsseldorf and describes the

importance of innovation for ASK Chemicals and the role of customers in the

company‘s innovation process.

Photo: ASK Chemicals

GIFA 2019 is just around the corner

and we are all eager to see what the

foundry industry will be presenting at

the industry‘s most important exhibition.

What new solutions can we look

forward to at ASK Chemicals?

A highlight at GIFA 2019 will certainly

be our latest solutions for 3-D sand

printing. Here we will present some

exciting developments both in the field

of organic binders as well as inorganic

binders. We will also present our new

Exactpore 3-D filter technology.

As a leading supplier of environmentally

friendly and employee-friendly

solutions, we will present new products

for this area, such as our latest innovation

– the low-formaldehyde system – a

package solution consisting of binder,

additive and coating that complies with

the stricter formaldehyde limits in

exhaust gas flow that will come into

force at the beginning of 2020. Of

course, that‘s not all. Visitors to our

stand can look forward to further innovative

products that improve technical

and economic performance.

What is innovative for you?

New offers that create high value and

are sustainable are innovative. Knowledge

is translated into values such as

performance, environmental compatibility

or cost savings. Ultimately, customers

and suppliers benefit from this

together. The value for the customer is

that he becomes more competitive,

while the provider of innovative solutions

invests part of the value created

in generating knowledge and developing

further innovation. Innovations are

therefore crucial for success and

growth on both the customer and supplier

side. An innovative product or

business model does not have to be

perfect from the very first minute, but

it has to generate enthusiasm with customers,

surprise them and, at least in

some aspects, offer more than they

expected.

As you say, innovation transforms

knowledge into benefit and ultimately

into value. Can you put this into concrete

terms?

The easiest way to illustrate this is

probably to use examples – such as

cold box binders, which are now standard

in the industry. When Ashland

(then the parent company of ASK

Chemicals) invented this technology, its

knowledge of polyurethane chemistry

converged with the automotive foundries‘

need for fast and reproducible

processes to produce sand cores. Then,

technology push and market pull

forces came together, and our customers

and we at ASK Chemicals benefit

from this innovation until this day.

Another example is the Inotec inorganic

binder system invented by ASK.

The anticipation of stricter environmental

guidelines resulted in a market

pull that our researchers combined

with the possibilities of silicate chemistry.

Without a close cooperation with

our customers‘ innovative thinking and

acting, this development would not

have been possible. Today, both our

customers‘ employees and the environment

benefit from this innovation.

What is the innovation process at ASK

Chemicals like?

Our innovation process consists of

three phases: In the first step, the creative

phase, we develop new

approaches. This is done, for example,

through trend analyses and evaluation

of new topics in discussions with customers,

sales, technical service, R&D,

suppliers and other internal and external

partners. This is primarily about

effectiveness, or “doing the right

thing“. This is a very important step,

because it is basically about “discovering

problems that need to be solved“.

In the second step, idea and project

management, the core assumptions of

the innovation approach, i.e. the technology

and the business model, are

tested. This is then about efficiency, or

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 7


INTERVIEW

“doing it the right way“. The projects

that also survive this selection process

– and these are usually only a few –

then enter the 3rd phase, the market

launch. At the same time, we aim to

have sufficiently clarified all uncertainties

critical to success at this point in

time in order to be able to convince

our customers of the intrinsic value of

the innovation.

What role does the customer play in

the process described?

ASK Chemicals puts the customer at

the centre. As already mentioned

above, it is about solving a customer‘s

problem or arousing enthusiasm. We

often use the so-called lead-user

method. This means that we try to

involve particularly innovative customers,

with whom we usually have a very

good relationship of trust, in the innovation

process. Our customers not only

contribute to the honing of our ideas

and projects, but are also the essential

litmus test for the value we want to

generate with innovation. In concrete

terms, this can also be seen in the

example of the development of our

low-formaldehyde (LFS) technology.

The customer is confronted with a

problem, namely a tightening of limit

values for formaldehyde in the exhaust

gas flow from 2020 (deadline applies

to old plants), which triggers a process

as described above. Ideas for solving

the problem are generated, initial preliminary

tests carried out and optimised

in an iterative process between

laboratory, test foundry and customer

to such an extent that at the end a

product package was put together

which demonstrably reduces formaldehyde

emissions in the drying oven by

more than 70 %. And this is exactly

what I see as an essential task of innovation,

namely the solution of a customer

problem.

What are the value drivers that ASK

Chemicals has identified for its innovation

activities?

We focus on three core areas that are

particularly important for our customers:

In the “Performance“ area, we

develop products that simplify,

improve or accelerate foundry processes

and thus offer our customers

cost and competitive advantages. In

the “Environment” area, on the other

hand, we have a clear focus on products

that comply with the environmental

regulations and rules to be

expected in the future today without

compromising performance. In this

way, our customers can already now

make their processes and investments

fit for the future.

It has always been part of our philosophy

to work closely with our customers

so that foundries can achieve

optimum results with our products. This

would not be possible without service

as a core element of our business

model. This is why we are also placing a

very clear focus on innovation in the

third area “Services“. In doing so, we

are now increasingly relying on digital

possibilities that enable us to support

our customers even faster and more

competently.

Mr. Müller, thank you for the interview!

8


YXLON – QUALITY ASSURANCE

AND PROCESS OPTIMIZATION

WITH CT IN DIFFERENT FLAVORS

Live at

GIFA 2019

Booth 11F24

YXLON MU60 AE, the universal industrial X-ray and

CT inspection system was designed for a broad

range of applications for foundries in the aerospace

and automotive industries. Compliant with the current

standards such as DICONDE, ASTM, MAI and Nadcap,

and equipped with ADR (automatic defect recognition),

it is the perfect At-Line inspection system for large

castings. The live demonstrations of both 2-dimensional

radioscopy and 3-dimensional computed tomography

will probably impress visitors due to the size of the

cabinet and the parts that can be inspected.

Inline Computed Tomography is the next step toward Industry 4.0, gathering comprehensive data about every

single object in production for reliable product quality and continuous process optimization. Yxlon provides

CT-Inline solutions for individual customer requirements. Equipped with cutting-edge detector technology, mechanics

that keep up with every production cycle, and based on the proven analysis software from Microvista, Yxlon

CT-Inline will raise manufacturing processes to a new level. At the Gifa trade fair, the solution will be introduced to

the public.

YXLON FF35 CT, the high-resolution industrial CT system

for small and medium-sized parts, is presented in its

latest version. The system is designed as laboratory

device to achieve extremely precise inspection results

for a wide range of applications. Available in a single

or dual tube configuration, it is perfect for most diverse

parts inspection in the automotive, aviation, electronics,

and material science industries. Based on the award-winning

software platform Geminy, FF35 CT provides best

inspection results for specialists as well as unexperienced

users. A brand-new detector, additional trajectories and

live filters increase the spectrum of parts and optimize

image quality even more. With the metrology version,

accurate measurements of objects’ inner structures

can reliably be realized.

www.yxlon.com


COMPANY

Photos: Inacore

The new Inacore core shop in Ergoldsbach is intended to set standards and increase the

potentials of core production.

The core shop of the future

It is intended to become a benchmark for the sector regarding digitalization, efficiency

and network ing of plants and machinery: the new Inacore core shop, a joint venture

between Laempe Mössner Sinto and R. Scheuchl GmbH. To manufacture more than

1.5 million core packages for engine production at the BMW light-metal foundry in

Landshut during coming years production began a year ago. Now three-shift operation

has also started in the Lower Bavarian town of Ergoldsbach to further increase capacity.

Robert Piterek, Düsseldorf

At the official opening of the

works in Ergoldsbach in late

September 2018 it was announced

that in future up to two thousand

vehicles with engine blocks produced

using Inacore cores were to roll off

BMW’s assembly line every day. The

BMW light-metal foundry in Landshut

had already been using inorganically

bound cores from Inacore for the casting

molds to produce the 4-cylinder

gasoline engines of the 3 and 5 Series

since early 2018. Construction of the

state-of-the-art core shop, costing double-digit

millions of euros, was financed

by the partners and banks.

Tight time window for construction

of the works

The countdown to start production

began when construction of the works

was initiated in mid-2017 in the industrial

area of Ergoldsbach. The plan was

that the first samples would be ready in

December 2017, and that delivery of

10


the first cores would take place as early

as January 2018.

In logistical terms, the site was well

chosen – it is only 19 kilometers to the

BMW core depot, for whose cores Inacore

is responsible. And Ergoldsbach is a

commuter town with few production

sites of its own. So the new, up to now

only, industrial company there offered

new career prospects, which were

rapidly grasped. Numerous employees

signed their contracts with Inacore

before the core shop had even started

work – more than 30 personnel are now

employed at Inacore. The new company’s

administration and its Research &

Development Department are accommodated

at the joint-venture partners

Scheuchl, Ortenburg, and Laempe Mössner

Sinto, Barleben (both Germany).

Highly automated and networked

production

Six fully automatic high-tech Type

LHL30 core-shooting machines from

Laempe Mössner Sinto are used to

secure BMW’s supply of core packages,

consisting of nine individual cores each.

The Managing Directors and partners Andreas Mössner (left) and Udo Dinglreiter are

also Managing Directors of the family-run companies Laempe Mössner Sinto and

R. Scheuchl GmbH.

The machines are used to shoot cooling

jacket cores, central cores and balance

shaft cores, among other things. Tool

changes can be carried out within a

few minutes. After shooting, industrial

robots from ABB do the deburring,

before employees carry out the final

quality inspection of the cores and

place them in racks equipped with RFID

chips. The racks – and thus the batch

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 11


COMPANY

production parameters stored in the

RFID chips – form the interface between

production, climatized storage,

and the core depot at the BMW works.

The production cycles and the associated

data can be called up in real time

using a computer or tablet, and can be

compared with old data. This is the

finest side of digitalization, delighting

the Inacore partners and Managing

Directors Udo Dinglreiter and Andreas

Mössner, and spurring them on to

make bold plans: “We are working

with the Chair of Mathematics at the

University of Passau on a multi-parameter

system controlled by artificial intelligence

(AI). We are right at the start

here, our long-term objective, however,

is that the AI learns to derive conclusions

from the data and will ultimately

prevent defects,” ex plains Udo Dinglreiter,

and Andreas Mössner adds:

“Machine and plant constructors have

to take Industry 4.0 into their own

hands.” Other technical possibilities

such as augmented reality (i.e. the computer-supported

expansion of perception)

and virtual reality could one day

be used for maintenance and servicing.

Training of the employees began

after the joint company was founded in

April 2017, parallel to construction of

the works in the industrial area of

Ergoldsbach. Intensive training was

undertaken at BMW because the personnel

had no specific core shop experience

at all. Laempe Mössner Sinto had

already started working on digitalization

in collaboration with the Pragmatic

Industries start-up in January 2017.

In view of the short time window

until production started, the partners

followed the principle of ‘learning by

doing’. The declared aim was to build a

core shop as a sector benchmark, and

thus uncover hidden potentials. The

tools for this were to be the possibilities

of consistent digitalization offering

transparency, networking and traceability.

“It is still uncharted territory,”

admits Andreas Mössner.

But in addition to the technology-driven

aspiration, a great deal of

expertise is necessary. Scheuchl exploited

its many years of experience in the

construction of the works infrastructure,

the air-conditioning and the project

management, while Laempe used

theirs for the machinery – from the

core-shooting plant, through the sand

mixer, to the sand conveyor system. The

partners installed the necessary plants

in two halls, to start with. Hall 1 accommodates

production with the six

Fully automated core production:

industrial robots take over

practically all the work steps

carried out after core shooting.

A finished core leaves the

core-shooting machine, in front

of which a robot is already

waiting.

core-shooting machines and the manipulators.

Hall 2 has the climatized storage

plant and the server, the raw

material depot, and the two sand silos

from the company FAT, in Niederfischbach,

Germany. A third hall is being

planned.

IT security is essential with so much

high-tech, otherwise the system would

face the risk of Trojans, hacking or overloading

attacks initiated by cybercriminals.

The partners invested about

100,000 euros on data security for the

server, and for a doubly protected security

system. Regarding IT security, Udo

Dinglreiter and Andreas Mössner are

confident that the data is not so easy to

interpret.

Sustainable air-conditioning

technology

Climate control is the sticking point in

the production of inorganic cores, and

determines their durability and functional

capability. The two family-run

companies selected a sustainable

approach: they use the waste heat

from the compressors to drive the sorption

rotors that regulate the temperature

in the climatized room. “The cores

harden in the core-shooting machine

and are then put in the climatized

room that is air-conditioned by the

waste heat,” explains Udo Dinglreiter.

In order to ensure transport from the

works to the BMW depot with an air

humidity of a few grams per cubic

meter, Inacore works with a special for-

12


After removal, a robot

deburrs the cores with

this tool.

External view of Inacore’s

works grounds:

only six months was

available for construction

and installation of

the equipment.

IT plays a decisive role

at Inacore. Not only in

the quality assurance

taking place here. Production

cycles and the

associated data can be

called up in real time

via computer or tablet

at any time.

Short-wave.

Also interested in really fast, rugged, light,

accurate, customised and inexpensive infrared

thermometers and cameras for non-contact

measurements between −50 °C to +3000 °C?

Visit www.optris.global

There’s no two ways about it:

our short wavelength infrared

cameras enable temperature

measurements of metal surfaces,

graphite or ceramics.

25.–29.06.2019

Visit us in hall 9,

stand A40

from

3150 €

warder who delivers the cores in airtight

trucks.

According to partner Andreas Mössner,

the decision to use sustainable climate

control technology was not taken

following purely economic points-ofview:

“We all have children, so sustainability

is the guard rail for an entrepreneurial

life. Where one can control

things, one does so; if it is also economical

then so much the better.”

2,000 core packages per day are currently

produced in Ergoldsbach, each

weighing 15 kilograms. 30 tonnes of

Innovative Infrared

Technology


COMPANY

sand is required every day – and it has

to be moved by pneumatic vessel conveyor:

from the sand silos to the sand

mixers which, as a result of the hall’s

infrastructure, had to be specially modified

so that they could stand on the

floor. Then the sand flows via more

pneumatic vessel conveyors to the

core-shooting machines in Hall 1. The

filling level of the silos will in future be

networked with the sand suppliers to

secure the sand supply to the silos at all

times. After hardening of the cores in

the core-shooting machines they are

transported to the climatized depot,

where nine different core types are stored

with the help of an ERP system.

Whereby expertise on the storability of

inorganic cores is also used and taken

into account when selecting the storage

spaces. In view of the sensitive climatizing

situation the depot at Inacore is

not only monitored by the company’s

own team – there is also real-time networking

with the BMW depot, resulting

in transparency on both sides, intended

to optimize production reliability and

collaboration.

The partners also consider quality

very important: they have invested

more than 200,000 euros in quality

assurance equipment. This includes a

laboratory core-shooting machine for

determining sand quality, the quality of

the mix, and core breaking strength, as

well as a measurement system by Zeiss,

Oberkochen, Germany, with which,

among other things, measurements are

carried out as proof provided by the

supplier for the customer. The sand

grain size is also determined in the

laboratory. The average grain size at

Inacore is 0.32 micrometers. There is

also a small furnace available for moisture

measurement.

Employee discussions in the production hall. More than 30 personnel are currently

working at Inacore.

Inacore to increase process

understanding

Production could start in Ergoldsbach

shortly before the sampling took place

in early December 2017. 30 core packages

were sent off to BMW punctually –

and they met the carmaker’s requirements.

The gambit had worked, and

machine and plant constructors

R. Scheuchl GmbH and Laempe Mössner

Sinto had become core-makers. The two

partners deliberately exceeded their traditional

business fields in machine and

plant construction in order to gain operator

expertise. “The demands have

increased; process understanding is

required nowadays. How can one plan

plants without understanding the

details?” asks Andreas Mössner, adding:

“We want to understand the daily activities,

and thus also improve the machines.”

Another motivation for the investment

by Laempe and Scheuchl, however,

was undoubtedly to win the order

from BMW. But the new company does

not want to be dependent on a single

OEM so it is currently acquiring more

customers for the high-tech core shop.

All those involved in the new company

are confident about its future

pros pects, as became clear during the

opening ceremony in September 2018.

The founders of R. Scheuchl GmbH

attended, alongside high-ranking guests

from the worlds of politics and commerce.

Finally, the BMW team was also

screened in the production hall. The

men in the BMW waistcoats were showing

solidarity with the Inacore team –

and were thus also celebrating an exemplary

collaboration between supplier

and customer.


www.inacore.de

14


FOUNDRY –

A PASSION FROM

OUR HEART.

DR. CHRISTIAN APPELT, GLOBAL BUSINESS MANAGER INORGANICS

“COURAGE AND

CREATIVITY FOR

INNOVATIVE

SOLUTIONS”

Emission-free binder systems for productive applications.

Meet us at GIFA 2019:

Hall 12, Booth A22

The development and implementation of emission-free binder systems in large-scale production

of metal castings is a key concern of modern foundries. Our product solutions surpass the

ecological and economic requirements of conventional and additive manufacturing processes.

With INOTEC TM and INOTEC TM 3D technology we are driving the most efficient and green

foundry applications today.

www.gifa.ask-chemicals.com

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 15


COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT

Photo: Audi AG

Die-cast components produced by DGS Druckguss Systeme from St. Gallen.

Aluminum structural castings:

integrated development

of component and process

The work behind a casting award

Klaus Vollrath, Aarwangen, Switzerland

On the occasion of the Euroguss

2018 trade fair in Nuremberg, on

15 January 2018, the German

Association of the Aluminium Industry

awarded first prize in the Aluminium

Die-Casting Competition to a casting

jointly developed by AUDI AG and DGS

Druckguss Systeme AG, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

The large and extremely

thin-walled structural element developed

for the new Audi A8 has a wall thickness

that is mostly only 1.8 - 2 mm, and it

there fore only weighs 3043 grams, despite

dimensions of 797 x 437 x 304 mm.

Just as interesting as the component itself,

however, is the development that lies

behind it, as a conversation with Markus

Heim, Key Account Manager, and Axel

Schmidt, Technology Manager at DGS,

reveals.

“What was special about the development

of the new component for the

Audi A8 was the integrated development

both of the product itself and the production

process, in close collaboration

with our customer Audi,” explains Markus

Heim, Key Account Manager at DGS

Druckguss Systeme. Audi took the decision

to approach this project together

with DGS at the end of 2015, after DGS

made an appropriate offer. The component

is a large but very thin-walled structural

casting that connects the C- and

D-pillars of the new Audi A8 (Model D5).

The structural element also redirects the

safety belt and supports the rear damper

strut via three threaded rings, as well as

accepts the parcel shelf, rear panel and

the hinge of the tailgate. Additional

requirements included as low a weight as

possible compared to the element previously

used, necessitating low wall thicknesses.

The prerequisite for this was the

use of a special high-strength alloy in

combination with a new heat treatment

process. Audi had already begun developing

this new type of alloy (AlSi10MnMgZnZr)

in 2011/2012. In addition to the

material, it was also essential to implement

an evolutionary modification of

the heat treatment process. Trials were

16


Photos: Klaus Vollrath

carried out in close collaboration with

DGS Druckguss Systeme, which invested

in the plant technology necessary for the

heat treatment.

The material, with a yield strength

(R p0.2

) of 180 - 210 MPa at elongation

values of > 7 %, is described in an internal

Group standard. The test program

for qualification of the component was

extremely extensive, ranging from the

die-casting of test panels for the usual

castability and strength experiments to

the production of real components for

test drives and the determination of

their suitability for the most varied of

joining processes – such as welding,

self-piercing riveting, flow-drilling

screws, gluing and MIG welding.

Development of the

casting process

“The process necessary for producing

thin-walled castings was also specially

developed for the new material,” adds

Axel Schmidt, Technology Manager at

DGS. Simulation programs were extensively

employed during development. This

not only involved the complex geometry/

strength testing as well as the design of

the casting system and mold temperature

control, but also the heat treatment

– because the component’s thin walls

make it highly susceptible to warpage.

Audi was able to make a considerable

contribution towards component tolerance

thanks to its pioneering work in

the field of warpage simulation.Where by

important target criteria were the determination

of the optimum course of the

temperature over time and the method

for storing the castings on special heat

treatment racks. In this connection, a

specific Audi test tool was created as a

thin-walled casting tool. The component

cast in the test tool already had dimensions

of 650 x 650 x 300 mm. The production

of smaller serial parts for the Audi

R8 was another preliminary step.

Advantages of the improved

component

“The main advantages of the newly

implemented component are, above all,

a weight reduction of 19 % and a 50 %

increase in strength (R p0.2

) compared to

the component with the same functions

used in the previous model,” explains

Markus Heim. This was achieved by

means of a weight-optimized design

with thinner walls using the new highstrength

and easy-flowing alloy in combination

with a T6 heat treatment. On the

The fully automated die-casting cell

with dosing furnace, extractor robot

and punch.

Each casting is already provided with an individual

data matrix code in the die-casting

cell, enabling access to all the data regarding

its process and quality parameters.

one hand, this requires a complex

stress-optimized wall thickness and rib

distribution and, on the other hand,

complicated optimization of the casting

process and the molding technology

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 17


COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT

employed. The latter point involves the

use of mold components with cooling

channels that are produced in a 3-D printing

process, and optimization of the

ejectors regarding their number, diameter

and positioning. This permitted a

15 % reduction in the average wall thickness,

which is only between 1.8 mm and

2.0 mm in large areas of the component.

Verified high-tech process chain

“A striking feature of the production

process is the complete traceability of

the entire quality history for each individual

casting,” reveals Axel Schmidt.

This starts as early as the casting cell,

where the component is laser-printed

with an individual data matrix code

after casting and deburring. This allows

allocation of all quality-relevant process

and test parameters throughout the

entire process chain right up to the

packaging and dispatch data. The code

is scanned-in before each process step

and inspected for completeness and

matching of the specifications. The next

processing step is only approved when

the computer confirms that everything

is in order so far. After the stamping

process, the components pass through

the above-mentioned T6 heat treatment

on special racks that prevent any

warpage, and are then polished and

aligned. All further transport processes

also take place in special racks, which

also carry a data matrix code. The code

of each individual casting is scanned

during insertion and allocated to the

rack. This complete traceability concept

was implemented internationally with

Audi – also in the DGS works in the

Czech Republic and China.

Robot processing cells

“Processing takes place in two completely

enclosed robot cells that are mirrored

for reasons of redundancy,” says

Heim. The components are pushed into

the cells on the racks before being individually

removed by the robot. First there

is an inspection, during which the data

matrix code is scanned-in and the correct

heat-treatment state is checked with the

help of a special eddy current process to

determine electrical conductivity. Threaded

inserts are placed in the tap holes

after mechanical processing. Whereby

appropriate inspection processes ensure

that the slugs required for screwing-in

are also reliably removed after the subsequent

breaking off. This prevents any

delay, which could cause difficulties

during subsequent processes. After completion

of the processing, the robot

A view of the fully automatic

cell for processing

the casting, including

insertion of the thread

inserts.

After the casting has

been put down, the

screen delivers all the

data for assessing component

warpage.

18


Left: Fully automatic

plant for heat-treating

the deburred castings.

On the left, the

special racks that are

designed to prevent

warpage.

Right: The castings in

their racks pass

through numerous

pools in the wash and

passivation plant.

Electric driverless

forklifts automatically

transport full and

empty racks for the

castings from station

to station.

replaces the part on the rack – which is

then transported to a fully automatic

wash and passivation line with successive

baths. Some internal transport within the

foundry is carried out by electric driverless

forklifts that drive backwards and

forwards between the stations without

collisions. The final step of the process

chain is the packaging line where employees

manually insert the parts into

Audi-specific transport con tainers. Scanning

of the data matrix code again ensures

that only ‘in order’ parts are

dispatched, and that each part is precisely

allocated to its transport container.

Swiss reliability during

the development and supply

of castings

“This project underlines that we can

ensure a reliable worldwide supply of

high-tech die-cast components for our

partners in the automotive industry,”

sums up Axel Schmidt. In addition to the

jointly implemented component and process

development, DGS also largely designed

and implemented the necessary

plant technology itself. One thus proves

oneself to be a competent partner who

can be trusted with the highly reliable

supply of high-tech components on a

worldwide basis. Naturally, DGS also had

to, and could, take into account the price

expectations of the customer during this

project, otherwise the collaboration

would never have been possible. He is, of

course, particularly pleased that this

development was awarded first prize in

the die-casting competition at Euroguss

trade fair in 2018. This is also an incentive

for proving that European companies

still have plenty of inventive spirit

and technical perfection for successfully

asserting themselves in worldwide competition

on demanding markets.

www.dgs-druckguss.com

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 19


ENGINEERING OF FOUNDRY PLANTS

Photo: Hörmann Rawema

Foundry planning

undergoing digital change

Digital factory planning is an increasingly

important element for modern

production companies.

The demands made of products, processes and technologies are constantly rising in this

era of digitalization, and require companies to adopt a sustainable orientation of all

units to create a modern factory. The focus is on a general acceleration and parallelization

of processes in planning, implementation and operation.

Axel Edlich, Robin Freitag, Frances Barchmann, Chemnitz

The varied and high demands

made of today’s products and

their industrial production inevitably

necessitate structural changes

with in factories.

Megatrends change the factory

of the future

A few so-called megatrends have

developed regarding how to create the

required conditions in foundry and corporate

planning.

Digitalization along the value stream

Systems such as sensors, robots and

virtual reality can become useful

(Figure 1) as a result of digitalization.

These technical solutions can be combined

and holistically represented in a

model with the help of a digital twin.

The networking of systems in the wake

of digitalization allows, for example,

the constant monitoring of machine

and plant states, and the provision of

warnings before potential breakdowns.

Robots are working increasingly

closely with humans within production

or logistics – increasing quality

and efficiency.

Light construction

Light construction is one of the key

technologies of the future because, in

addition to weighing less, such products

also offer improved properties. In this

connection, the conservation of resources

and material has an important status.

So not only are the materials undergoing

constant further development,

20


ut also the design, joining and production

technologies.

Automation

Production processes and information

technologies interact closely with one

another nowadays. Products, production

plants and operating materials can

be networked with one another due to

their automation – and thus react more

intelligently and faster to improve processes

in real time. This reduces operating

costs and counteracts the shortage

of skilled labor. Lean, flexible and sustainable

production is vital for

safeguard ing future competitiveness.

New business models and market

participants

The digital transformation is subjecting

companies to more rapid change than

has ever been experienced before.

Whereby rigid corporate structures

must be disrupted and transformed.

New business models should be universally

coordinated and aligned upon the

digital changes, while reflecting a company’s

core competences.

In the global information age, information

and knowledge are available

rapidly anywhere and at any time.

There is thus global competition for

Figure 1: The use of a digital twin can

support the work of employees in factories

with, for example, sensors, robots

and virtual reality.

products, processes and services, as well

as resources. Individual customer-specific

products are increasingly forcing

themselves into the spotlight, so it is

important to create innovative products

and services. But factors such as the

alignment of the entire value creation

chain, and the search for cooperating

partners and additional competences,

involve important fundamental decisions

that must be made.

Changes in skills profiles and

personnel requirements

The requirements for personnel and

their skill sets will change a lot in

future. Companies increasingly require

skilled employees with a comprehensive

knowledge of IT, as well as an awareness

of process, production and logistical

structures. Specialists will be needed

with a deep understanding of planning

and the implementation of complex

interactive data-based work processes.

The digital transformation will therefore

not only lead to employees being

supported by machines and robots, but

also to new jobs with new qualification

requirements.

All these megatrends have profound

effects on the development of products

and processes within the factory. The

upcoming changes should be exploited

as opportunities to fundamentally

shape the company of the future and

thus meet new paradigms. From the

factory planner’s point-of-view, the

planning methods will remain the same

– only the content, structures and markets

will be different. Whereby the

objective will be to plan the factory of

the future in such a way that it operates

highly efficiently, its products and processes

are self-monitoring, short delivery

times can be guaranteed, and production

waste and rejects are reduced

to a minimum.

Digitalized processes in the

foundry

Corporate processes are continuously

being permeated by the technologies of

digitalization – so the cycles of production

factories are also changing. New

technologies must be integrated into

the company’s own solutions in order to

cope with this change. Whereby the

existing value creation chain, and all

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 21


ENGINEERING OF FOUNDRY PLANTS

Figure 2: The simulation model of a

production plant.

the processes within it, must be expanded

and adapted to achieve the goal of

an efficient factory. In this regard, it is

also vital to constantly keep up with all

the new and relevant developments

and, if necessary, implement them. The

following tendencies can be seen in

individual corporate processes:

Sales

The age of digitalization opens up new

possibilities for sales because the focus

is on individual customer requirements.

Central data management plays a major

role in core tasks – such as the registration

of enquiries, costing, and the preparation

of offers – by centrally and

digitally administrating all the important

customer and product data, and

enabling consistency of the information.

It is therefore possible to offer

customers tailor-made solutions whose

details are adapted to their specific

needs. The use of product lifecycle

management systems also provides

further advantages.

Material procurement and storage

The monitoring of warehouse capacities

and stocks, as well as the associated

material planning and procurement,

can change fundamentally and also

affects supplier management. Material

lists can, for example, be generated

using existing 3-D models of the components

and variants. An intelligent and

automated stock monitoring and ordering

system shortens delivery times and

procurement processes. Fully automated

storage systems and automated guided

vehicles are increasingly being

used, saving space and time – and thus

costs.

Production

Digitalization enables the automation

of many production processes, the comprehensive

tracing of products, and the

allocation of certain post-processing

steps. More and more processes will in

future be monitored and evaluated via

sensor or radio-frequency identification

(RFID). Errors and defects can be more

rapidly detected and corrected by

means of monitoring during production,

with the aim of minimizing production

problems and downtimes.

Interdisciplinary processes

In addition to the core processes of molding,

melting, casting and machining,

there are interdisciplinary processes

that are positively influenced by digitalization.

These include, for example,

pattern construction and storage, an

area that is subject to high customer

requirements. Storage and transport

can be supported by automated logistics

and intelligent component tracing

in order to increase process transparency.

The state-oriented maintenance

(condition monitoring) of plant technology

is also being used increasingly in

foundries. It is very important to be

able to predict a breakdown before it

happens – damaging the plant technology

and causing long downtimes – particularly

with automated processes and

interlinked plants.

Work preparation

Pattern designs are created during work

preparation, followed by material

requirements planning and, on this

basis, process planning including

machine utilization. The use of new

technologies such as planning in 3-D,

simulation tools (Figure 2) and virtual

reality allows process and value stream

analyses to be carried out before initial

operation. This enables an examination

of work stations and their safety, as

well as comprehensive planning and

documentation, to be carried out

before implementation.

Figure 3: A three-phase model is

used in factory planning.

22


Potential solutions in foundry

planning

Different demands are made along the

value creation chain at all the above-mentioned

areas. When these are

implemented, a linear unstructured production

flow can be transformed into a

circular networked production site. This

makes new demands of factory and

production planning, to which factory

planners such as Hörmann Rawema

Engineering & Consulting GmbH react

by using a variety of tools and methods

(Figure 3). 3D laser scanning, material

flow simulation and virtual commissioning

are used here, for example. As a

result, a variety of planning variants can

be examined in a short time, significantly

increasing planning security. For

customers this means a considerably

lower level of risk in implementation,

and the prevention of potential follow-up

costs. In addition, the visualization

and dynamic representation of processes

increase the comprehensibility

and transparency of the planning solution.

The methodical, structured and

holistic approach towards planning is

intended to ensure the provision of

solutions that are as sustainable and

efficient as possible, and that meet the

aspirations of future factories in the

context of global competition.

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in industry, focusing on production

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Robin Freitag, Project Manager,

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Hörmann Rawema Engineering &

Consulting GmbH, Chemnitz

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CLEANING; FETTLING & FINISHING

Photo: Thomas Topf

Successful technological partnership: Leopold Haubenberger,

Sales and Project Manager at Rösler (left) with

Martin Gaugusch, Project Coordinator Vibratory Finishing

at Schösswender, beside the pilot plant for vibratory

finishing.

Fire and flame for

metal casting and processing

An innovative metal foundry in Austria’s northernmost town shows how mass finishing

can contribute towards achieving the customer’s desired surface quality in the 21st century

– with a lot of initiative and a committed technology partner.

Gerhard Franz Roth, Vienna, Austria

The Litschau town council in the

Gmünd district is famous for

being the northernmost town in

Austria and a forest health resort. The

path between tottering rocks, thick

forest and idyllic hills leads directly to

S. Schösswender Werke. The company

has proved that one can make the transition

from down-to-earth metal casters

to internationally renowned cast-iron

technicians for aluminum and copper

alloys. Founded in 1959 – specializing in

metal door fittings, locking plates and

door handles – the company and its 68

employees has developed into a specialist

for industrial castings and cast components

for the rail vehicle industry

worldwide. This is demonstrated by its

well-known customers and its orders

from the USA, Asia and Europe.

From small quantities to serial

production

Schösswender expanded gradually:

after concentrating on small quantities,

the first CNC machine was purchased

twenty years ago. Today the

24


foundry is busy working with eight

CNC machines and ten melting furnaces.

Mass finishing technology is used

to deburr castings, initially with two

plants from Tauss that have been successfully

doing their job for fifty years

– and are still doing it. “We commissioned

Rösler Oberflächentechnik to

modernise the plants,” Martin Gaugusch,

Project Coordinator Mass

Finishing at Schösswender, recalls his

first contact with the subsequent technology

partner. “And then we gave

Rösler an order to build us a completely

new mass finishing plant for aluminum

alloy castings.” And this resulted

in a very innovative, but also

personal, business relationship between

Martin Gaugusch and Leopold

Haubenberger, his Sales and Project

Manager at the Rösler branch in

Vienna. The specialists in surface technology

are headquartered in Bad Staffelstein

in Franconia, Germany.

It’s simply better when it’s

personal

How did the cooperation come about?

Leopold Haubenberger puts it down to

competence: “We are the number one

worldwide for mass finishing plants.”

Robert Halke, Team Leader for Marketing

at Rösler, adds: “Customers are sold

a process, not the machine.” And

Schösswender was looking for just such

a partner for the new mass finishing

plant, stresses Gaugusch: “At Rösler

everything comes from a single source,

they buil d whatever the customer

needs.” In addition to examining the

existing plants, Rösler set up a complete

pilot plant for Schösswender that met

its customer’s personal wishes. “The

results of the trial clinched the sale,”

Halke sums up the strong argument in

favor of cooperation. “One always has

to test vibratory finishing in reality, not

just on paper.” They also offer a wide

range of grinding bodies, the be all and

end all of vibratory finishing. “We have

a portfolio that includes 8,000 grinding

bodies,” says Haubenberger, not

without pride, “and we find what fits

economically and technologically.” Even

the peripheral equipment and conveyor

belts come from Rösler. They have been

developing grinding bodies for more

Greater than the sum of its parts

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CLEANING; FETTLING & FINISHING

than 60 years, with geometries that

now range from 0.5 to 60 mm.

From the trial to the purchase

The new R425/4600DA continuous-flow

vibratory grinding plant from Rösler has

been in successful operation at Schösswender

since January 2018 in a completely

enclosed sound-insulating cabin,

with care and maintenance constantly

available from the producer. “The two

companies have been working together

for twelve years now,” Gaugusch praises

S. SCHÖSSWENDER WERKE

As one of Austria’s leading metal casting

and processing companies,

Schösswender sets worldwide standards

for high-quality cast-iron

developments and solutions – from

batch size one to mass production;

through design consulting, casting

simulation, the hardening of aluminum,

and X-ray inspection; to prototype

construction and surface treatment.

The company, based in

Litschau, focuses on the rail sector,

responsible for more than half of the

company’s sales.

www.schoesswender-metallguss.at

the partner company. “Leopold Haubenberger

comes round within a few days of

receiving a message.” Further development

of the consumables, as well as the

water supply and output, are the main

topics that are discussed again and

again. “The plant must be well set up in

process terms – then it covers the costs,”

adds Robert Halke from a marketing

point-of-view. “The topic of waste water

is also important, both ecologically and

economically.” In continuous flow systems,

after CNC machining vibratory

finishing frees the cast aluminum components

of burrs and structures that are

not part of the component. “The plant is

currently running in one-shift operation

but we could use two-shift operation,”

Gaugusch stresses the capacity reserves.

“Due to intensive automation, one

employee is sufficient to operate the

plant.” Only slots and the insides of

threads are still manually deburred, but

all the exterior burrs are removed

mechanically with the grinding bodies.

Worldwide focus on railway

vehicles

The R425/4600DA is fully automatic: the

parts are inserted and, depending on

the casting material, vibratory finishing

takes place using plastic grinding

Including regular support from the producer:

the new continuous flow vibratory

grinding plant has been in successful

operation in a completely enclosed

sound-insulating cabin at Schösswender

since January 2018.

Even the peripheral equipment and conveyor

belts come from Rösler. They have been

developing grinding bodies for more than 60

years, with geometries that now range from

0.5 to 60 mm.

bodies, water is added containing a

chemical treatment agent (so-called

‘compound’), and the finished parts are

transported out again dry and deburred.

“In the sound-absorbing enclosure,

26


the mass finishing system can deburr

components of all shapes with sizes of

up to 20 x 20 x 20 cm³, mainly made of

aluminum alloys for railway vehicles,”

Leopold Haubenberger emphasizes the

flexibility benefits of the plant from

Rösler. Above all mountings and bearing

blocks for doors, but also parts for

brakes and emergency actuation on

trains and trams, are deburred here.

“For instance for subway trains in many

major cities worldwide,” Martin Gaugusch

provides an example. The optimum

process adjustment can be seen

from the consumption of grinding

bodies: “We only need 75 kg of grinding

bodies per month now,” calculates

Patrick Eggenberger, responsible for the

vibratory finishing machine. “The parameters

are individually set for each

deburring process, for example bearing

components on train doors.” Whereby

the throughput time and input cycle of

the parts are determined, i.e. how long

the machine should run for. The throughput

time varies between 10 and 20

minutes, depending on the part. “For

small parts, for example, input can also

take place every few seconds,” Martin

Gaugusch knows from experience.

“Parts that are still visible after installation

need a longer throughput time

because they require more accurate

deburring – for aesthetic reasons and a

nice feel.”


www.rosler.com

After vibratory finishing of the aluminum

components, the grinding bodies are

transported upwards again via a conveyor

channel and returned to the circulatory

system.

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CASTING PLANT AND TECHNOLOGY

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CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 27


SIMULATION

Photo: GTP Schäfer/Flow Science Deutschland

Course of the burning process in exothermic feeder sleeves. Comparison between reality and the simulation.

Realistic simulation of the combustion

of exothermic feeders

Exothermic feeder sleeves are increasingly being used in iron casting and are now the

most commonly used type of feeder system. Simulations have hitherto only described

exothermic feeders using simple analogous models that use the release of a defined

energy over the entire volume. The companies Flow Science and GTP Schäfer have jointly

developed a model that enables realistic simulation of the combustion of exothermic

feeder systems. With the help of casting trials it has been possible to show that the deviations

of the simulation results from the test results lie within the range of measurement

accuracy.

Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, Rottenburg, and Jörg Schäfer, Grevenbroich

The use of feeders is generally unavoidable

in gravity casting, but

often represents a conflict for

designers: the dimensions and number

of feeders should be large enough to

reliably prevent shrinkage cavities, but

the feeder weight should be minimized

to reduce energy and processing costs,

as well as recycled material, as far as

possible. The rising complexity of castings

further increases development

demands. Highly exothermic feeder systems

have become increasingly important

because they are more space-saving

and efficient than traditional natural

sand feeders.

Feeder systems can be divided into

two types: with insulating or exothermic

feeder materials. In the case of insulation

feeders, the solidification time of

the melt in the feeder is lengthened by

means of a feeder body whose thermal

conductivity is considerably lower than

that of the mold material. The melt thus

remains liquid for longer and is available

to the junction to compensate for

shrinkage. Reduction of the size of the

feeder can be achieved by using an exothermic

cap material. As a result, there

is an exothermic reaction of the cap

material when the ignition temperature

has been exceeded. The melt is warmed

by the heat that is released and thus

remains liquid for longer [1]. Exothermic

feeder systems are therefore very efficient,

and can supply the casting with

liquid melt for longer with less volume.

Whereas the simple formulae of geometric

modulus calculations were used

in the past, casters can now exploit casting

simulations that can predict the

thermic module and solidification mor-

28


State of the art

Exothermic feeder materials contain,

among other things, aluminum and iron

oxide. These react strongly exothermically

because the aluminum has a higher

affinity to oxygen than iron does.

Aluminum oxide and iron are produced

when iron oxide and aluminum react,

generating a lot of heat (aluminothermy,

or the Goldschmidt Process).

Fe 2

O 3

+ 2Al → Al 2

O 3

+ 2Fe (1)

Figure 1: Test setup to examine the burning behavior of exothermic feeder materials.

Photo: GTP Schäfer/Flow Science Deutschland

phology, among other things, and are

thus helpful for feeder design. Simulations

are an effective tool for finding

efficient solutions, particularly regarding

the selection and dimensioning of

appropriate feeders. The growing

demands made of digital design and the

use of casting simulations have been

addressed again and again, and the

methods have meanwhile become a

fixed component of most development

processes in foundries. The numerical

description of natural and insulating

feeder systems is accurate, and

dependable results can be achieved. The

models for using exothermic feeder systems,

however, have so far been unable

to predict processes accurately enough,

leading to over-dimensioning of the

feeder in practice – and thus to uneconomical

solutions. The motivation to

depict the burning behavior of exothermic

feeder materials as accurately as

possible in simulation programs is high

because exothermic feeders are now the

most commonly used feeder variant in

iron casting. The model developed

jointly by GTP Schäfer, Grevenbroich,

and Flow Science, Rottenburg (both

Germany) now makes it possible, for the

first time, to accurately describe the burning

behavior of the feeder cap, i.e. the

chronological and spatial course of the

release of energy in the cap.

This reaction only gets going above a

particular ignition temperature – which

the feeder material reaches as a result

of the melt filling the mold. In most

feeder systems the exothermic material

burns radially outwards from within the

feeder. The burning time depends on

the feeder sleeve geometry and the

specific combustion speed of the material.

There is constant development of

further variants and combinations of

feeders, for example hybrid feeders like

the Eco series from GTP Schäfer, consisting

of a combination of insulating and

exothermic materials.

Exothermic feeder systems have up

to now only been simply depicted in

simulation programs, with the entire

sleeve volume being assigned an energy

content that is constantly released

during a defined burning time. It is

already difficult enough for users to

determine the energy content, but it is

even more difficult to define a burning

time because, as previously explained,

this depends on the feeder geometry.

This simplified form of modelling can

potentially lead to major deviations of

the simulation results from reality – and

consequently to over-dimensioning of

the feeder. The fact that the material

properties also vary in the unburnt and

burnt states has hitherto not been

taken into account in foundry simulations.

Photos: Flow Science Deutschland

Figure 2: Simulation of the burning behavior of exothermic test bodies.

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 29


SIMULATION

Figure 3: Positions of the thermocouples in the real casting trials.

Temperature [°C]

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

Standard deviaon TE1

Standard deviaon TE2

Standard deviaon TE3

Standard deviaon TE4

Standard deviaon TE5

Simulaon TE1

Simulaon TE2

Simulaon TE3

Simulaon TE4

Simulaon TE5

0

350 550 750 950 1150 1350 1550 1750 1950 2150

Time, s

Figure 4: Comparison of measured temperature curves with the simulation results.

Figure 5: Representation of the burning behavior of exothermic feeder sleeves: Left: Start of

the exothermic reaction, Middle: Combustion of the exothermic feeder, Right: ‘Afterglow’ of

the feeder material.

Experimental investigations

GTP Schäfer started by carrying out

measurements of the thermo-physical

properties in order to obtain data on

exothermic feeder materials. Whereby a

sample with a defined energy per time

unit was heated and the material properties

continuously determined. One

difficulty during these measurements

was the high level of dynamism caused

by the exothermic reaction. As soon as

the ignition temperature is reached, the

material burns up autonomously – and

no longer follows the temperature of

the measurement system. So it was only

possible to reliably determine the material

properties in the unburnt state

during these experiments. Therefore

the combustion behavior and material

properties during and after burning

were initially inaccurate or unknown.

So it was necessary to examine the

burning behavior with more precision.

For this purpose, an experimental setup

similar to that in the German Foundrymen’s

Association (VDG) Specification

P81 on the testing of exothermic materials

[2] was selected (Figure 1). Two test

pieces (D = 50 mm, H = 50 mm) were

made for the experiment using exothermic

material, and one was placed on

top of the other. The lower test piece

was ignited and the burning behavior

of the two samples investigated. This

setup allowed good observation and

understanding of the progress of the

combustion process. Then the chronological

and spatial course of the burning

behavior was compared with the simulation

model (Figure 2).

Real casting trials in furan sand

molds were then carried out after the

investigation of the burning behavior

of the test bodies. The effort required

for these experiments turned out to be

considerably greater than anticipated.

But it was shown that the burning

behavior of feeders within sand molds

differs substantially from that in ambient

air. This difference can be explained

by the fact that only a limited amount

of oxygen is available for the exothermic

material within a sand mold. During

the casting experiments, exothermic

feeder sleeve in a furan sand mold were

filled with melt and the temperature

curves were determined. For this purpose,

separate thermocouples were

positioned in the exothermic material,

the molding sand, and the melt in order

to determine the temperature changes.

One thermocouple was placed within

the melt in the feeder. Two more were

located in the sleeve, and two in the

30


Figure 6: GTP Schäfer feeder database within the Flow 3D Cast software.

molding sand (Figure 3). The sleeve was

filled with molten GJS 400 iron for the

measurements.

The measurements were carried out

repeatedly to provide high reproducibility

and temperature curves that would

be as conclusive as possible. The tests

were repeated with three different cap

sizes with a thermal module of 0.95 cm,

GIFA 2019

Hall 16

Booth F11

- NEW MONITORING SYSTEM

THOR V4.0

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 31


SIMULATION

Figure 7: Casting clusters with different feeder sleeves: left: Insulating feeder material,

right: Exothermic feeder material.

1.5 cm and 2.7 cm. They were intended

to include as many different factors as

possible (e.g. differing measurement

positions, materials or densities) and the

simulation model was examined with a

large geometric bandwidth. Standard

deviations were calculated from the

recorded temperature curves and compared

with the measurement values of

the simulation results (Figure 4).

It was possible to show that the

temperature curves of the simulation

results mostly lay within the calculated

standard deviations. It could therefore

be derived that the deviations of the

temperature curves between the simulation

and the experimental results

were within the measurement accuracies

and, furthermore, that the implemented

model of exothermic feeder

sleeve behavior was accurately represented.

The new model

The Flow 3D Cast model is intended to

reflect reality as precisely as possible.

Therefore the feeder is not treated as a

complete exothermic volume that

behaves identically everywhere, but

instead each cell of the computational

grid is treated separately. The exothermic

reaction is triggered as soon as a

grid cell of the feeder reaches the ignition

temperature, and heat is released

according to a calculated function. The

temperature of the cells increases and

heats the neighboring cells as in a

chain reaction, so that they also reach

their ignition temperature. In this way

a realistic combustion behavior is

shown within the feeder sleeve. After

the exothermic reaction has taken

place, the properties of the feeder

material change and there is then an

insulating effect. The material properties

of the feeder sleeves for each cell

were also adapted to the level of combustion

in the simulation. Thus the

thermo-physical properties of the

unburnt and burnt material vary,

having a further effect on temperature

distribution during the combustion of

the exothermic material. The different

stages of the combustion process are

shown in Figure 5. The feeder insert

starts the exothermic reaction when

the melt has raised the material to

above the ignition temperature. Then

the material burns autonomously and

releases heat that warms the melt.

After the exothermic reaction has finished,

there is an ‘afterglow’ as a result

of the insulating properties. The high

temperature of the exothermic reaction

can therefore be retained, and the

feeder can supply liquid melt to the

casting for a long time.

A major added value compared to

previous definitions is that a material,

all of whose parameters are known, can

be laid down in the database with

general validity. Unknown values, such

as the burning time of the entire sleeve,

come up autonomously during simulation.

A feeder database from GTP Schäfer

has been implemented in the Flow 3D

Cast software (Figure 6). The database

contains feeder data on exothermic and

insulating feeder sleeves. It is possible

to select and position a suitable feeder

with just a few mouse-clicks. The correct

feeder for a casting can therefore be

selected rapidly and efficiently on the

basis of a modulus calculation, and its

effect examined.

Validation

A case study in which an insulating feeder

is used is shown in Figure 7. A

porosity analysis shows that the feeder

can only just compensate for the shrinkage

of the component. As a result of

the high solidification time, insulating

feeders cannot maintain the melt at a

high temperature sufficiently long, and

a critical secondary cavity forms in the

gate area. Although the defect is located

within the feeder it is nevertheless

very unstable, as fluctuations in the

process parameters (such as the chemical

composition of the casting material,

or the casting temperature) lead to

shifts in the porosities in the component

and thus to rejection. There are

therefore some defective components

despite the process parameters being

within the tolerances. Exothermic feeders

were selected and dimensioned

using the new simulation model in

order to find a robust and efficient

solution. It can clearly be seen that

there is now no formation of

secondary cavities, i.e. there is sufficient

liquid melt available to compactly

fill the component before solidification

is complete. As a result of the more

efficient mode of action a smaller feeder

body – with 30 % less melt volume

– can be selected, preventing unnecessary

recycling material. It was possible

to achieve a robust solution with the

feeders used as they do not behave

sensitively to process-related fluctuations,

and reliably prevent imperfections

within the component.

Summary

Simulations always merely approach

reality. The models used for the simulation

should, however, be capable of sufficiently

accurately describing the physical

effects of importance to the

objectives of the simulation so that the

correct conclusions for practical use can

be drawn from the simulation results.

This is now the case, for the first time,

for the design of exothermic feeders

thanks to the new model that has been

implemented in Flow 3D Cast. The new

approach of comparing temperature

measurement values from casting trials

with simulation results ensures a high

level of accuracy for the use of exothermic

feeders. www.gtp-schaefer.com


www.flow3d.de

Malte Leonhard & Dr. Matthias Todte,

Flow Science Deutschland GmbH, Rottenburg,

and Jörg Schäfer, GTP Schäfer

GmbH, Grevenbroich.

Literature:

www.cpt-international.com

32


CASTING

Special

GIFA 2019

Part 2: Opportunities provided by new

technologies

GIFA

Special

Photo: Fotolia


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019/INTERVIEW

34


“Germany is a trade fair country with a high

level of quality. GIFA is high quality because

all foundry decision-makers attend!“

It‘s always about products: GIFA-President

Heinz Nelissen, Managing Director of

Vesuvius, in the local company in Borken

“A veritable explosion

of innovations”

Heinz Nelissen is expecting a “veritable explosion of innovations” at the trade-fair

quartet of GIFA, METEC, THERMPROCESS and NEWCAST (GMTN, also known as the

Bright World of Metals). The President of GIFA and NEWCAST explains in an interview

what makes the trade fair so enormously valuable for exhibitors and visitors, and how

the sector can attract new talent.

Photo: BDG/Vogt

Let’s start with what is, in effect, a

never-ending topical subject: what is

your view about Brexit?

One has to say that the elemental anxiety

that economic life as we know it

will collapse completely is long past.

This will evidently not happen. How

Brexit is developing, however, is

annoying because it is simply unnerving.

One would have wished to have

had a concrete and dependable date.

The twenty-ninth of March has passed

– and now? I hope for a reasonable

settlement and the prevention of

customs duties.

Big plans: Heinz Nelissen (middle) shows CPT editors Robert Piterek (left) and Martin Vogt,

what is planned for the trade fair quartet.

At least GIFA has a concrete date at

the end of June. What can you tell us

about it?

GIFA and NEWCAST seamlessly pick up

from their successful predecessors in

2015. Both trade fairs are superbly

booked up; the world market leaders

are represented, as are the SMEs. Overall,

at all four trade fairs of the quartet,

the Bright World of Metals will

again break the threshold of 2,000

exhibitors: more than 2,100 companies

are expected from all over the world.

The international range of visitors is

correspondingly large: we expect – not

least thanks to our extensive marketing

measures – about 78,000 visitors

from Europe and overseas.

The economy is deteriorating. Could it

affect this year’s GIFA?

The exhibitors have largely completed

their planning for the trade fair, the

stands have been firmly booked, and

the innovations intended for GIFA have

been developed and made suitable for

trade fair presentation in collaboration

with the customers. We come from two

years of excellent production figures,

from a clear boom phase. We had several

thriving years in the non-ferrous

and iron foundries. Now we face a

Photos: Martin Scheidtmann, BDG/Vogt

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 35


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019/INTERVIEW

sharp dip in the economy. This will not

blow us casters away. Particularly now

it is important to ask oneself the question:

how do I, as a businessman,

handle the coming years? And GIFA is

coming at just the right time.

In what way?

There is a lot going on regarding digitalization.

The high tempo of digitalization

opens up new possibilities for

automating production. Plant constructors

are exploiting this and will be presenting

innovative solutions. So GIFA is

focusing on this, among other things.

The trade fair offers a wide-ranging

framework program of specialist conferences.

How important are they?

The specialist framework program,

with its range of international congresses,

symposia, forums and special

events, really is extremely important

and, indeed, is unique worldwide.

Whether additive manufacturing,

metallurgical topics, trends in the steel

sector, current aspects in thermo-processing

technology, or innovations in

energy and resource efficiency – the

entire spectrum of foundry technology,

cast products, metallurgy and thermo-processing

technology is covered.

Some specialist events are having their

premieres, for example the two-day

expert forum on thermal energy storage,

the specialist conference on 3-D

printing with metals, and the special

events on additive manufacturing or

digitalization & climate protection.

Digitalization is quite advanced and

will lead to innovative solutions that

will be presented at the trade fair.

Numerous congresses and presentations

help build up networks and shed

light on innovative topics.

Is the impression misleading, or has

the automotive sector – with its e-vehicles

– really made the most progress

since our conversation last autumn?

That is my perception too. There really

has been some movement in the field

of e-mobility in recent months. One

has to differentiate between commercial

vehicles and cars. Regarding commercial

vehicles, particularly for overland

transport, work is still continuing

with conventional fuel-powered drives,

while package services in the cities,

inner city traffic, and buses are increasingly

electrically powered.

What you describe is a market that is

becoming even more differentiated.

What does this mean for the sector?

I think it is good that cast products will

continue to be used for all types of drives

and vehicles. Both conventional

vehicles and e-vehicles need cast products,

but very different ones of

course. And the casters have to position

themselves appropriately for this.

And so parts are being constructed,

particularly in the non-ferrous field –

battery housings and structural elements,

for example.

And what can a caster of classic engine

components do now?

They will have to think about what to

do, because the machine park may not

be suitable for e-mobility components.

Then one could either concentrate

more on the commercial vehicle seg-

36


ment – which will continue to produce trucks with combustion

engines – or look for new sectors. Specialization will be

decisive.

Back to GIFA. The Bright World of Metals, as well as the

German Foundry Association (BDG) and the German Foundrymen’s

Association (VDG), have announced a youth program

like that at the last trade fair. The ‘Gießzeit’ (Casting

Time) competition is about casting a clock face. Many youth

groups are again expected to attend the trade fair. What’s

your take on this?

We know how much the future of foundry work depends on

finding new personnel –one of the priorities in the BDG’s

Mission Statement – and the Association has already organized

a lot of events. The VDG has even defined finding new

personnel as a statutory task. So a significant proportion of

the trade fair presence of both the BDG and VDG is dedicated

to this topic. Numerous groups of schoolkids will get to

know about careers in foundries during their visit to the

trade fair, and especially at the school foundry in Hall 13.

Castings will also be produced here. This is a strong argument

for the career, because the casting produced gives a

tangible meaning to the whole thing. Groups of schoolchildren

can mold and cast the clock face of a classroom clock this

year. The best ones will receive prizes. Such a youth program

is indispensable for demonstrating the profession’s fascination.

And the competition spurs the young people on. I can

only encourage the foundries to participate in the excursions

to the trade fair in Düsseldorf organized by the

Metals4You Initiative. After all, we are expecting more than

500 potential new foundrymen and -women every day!

What youth recruitment activities of your own can we

expect at the trade fair?

We are using part of our stand as a Career Corner this year.

It will be run by our personnel department and trainees,

outlining to some extent the aim of the stand concept. The

personnel department will provide relevant information on

the site and the company, while the trainees will present

interesting projects from their training. We are also inviting

our partner school and participating in Metals4You. The

concept is designed to win over young people for technical

professions before they take their final decisions on their

career orientation.

What do you think GIFA contributes to the sector?

The entire range of casting products will be presented at

NEWCAST. METEC and THERMPROZESS are the leading international

trade fairs for metallurgy and thermo-processing

technology. GIFA takes place in its proven 4-year cycle. So

the world’s best will be presented there. The major suppliers

have coordinated their development programs to this trade

fair rhythm, so we can expect a veritable explosion of innovations.

SEIATSU

FlASk MOUldING MACHINES

ANd MOUldING lINES

The requirements placed on cast parts, in particular dimen sional

accuracy, repeatability, surface quality and the constantly high

demands on the mouldability of the most complex models

requires the maximum in mould quality, which is facilitated by

the different HWS moulding processes. The following methods

are available:

• SEIATSU airflow squeeze moulding process

• SEIATSU.plus (model-side pressing)

• SEIATSU aeration technology ACE

Available moulding machines that utilise the aforementioned

processes include not only fully-automatic high performance

moulding machines, but also simple series moulding machines

for manual and semi-manual operation.

25.-29.06.2019

Visit us!

Hall 17, Booth B20/d20

What is your closing message for the sector?

Germany is a trade fair country – and with an extremely

high level of quality in worldwide comparisons. GIFA is also

high-quality, because all the decision-makers in the global

foundry sector are at GIFA. This is an excellent opportunity

for networking, also internationally. The proportion of international

visitors is nowhere near as high at comparable specialist

trade fairs as it is in Düsseldorf. Make sure you don’t

miss this opportunity!

www.gifa.com

HEINRICH WAGNER SINTO

Maschinenfabrik GmbH

SINTOKOGIO GROUP

www.sinto.com

Bahnhofstr.101 · 57334 Bad Laasphe, Germany

Phone +49 2752 / 907 0 · Fax +49 2752 / 907 280

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019

www.wagner-sinto.de

37


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

Photo: Andreas Bednareck

Foundries use scrap as a raw material for production

Tremendous potential – environmental,

economic and social

sustainability in foundries

Foundries are one of the best examples of resource efficiency and sustainability.

Because castings implement the recycling concept almost completely.

Carina Hendricks, Kleve

Sustainability and resource

efficiency

This energy-intensive industry has, in

addition, always had a strong commitment

to the objectives of sustainability

and resource efficiency. Innovations in

the product and process simulation field

make it possible nowadays to manufacture

cast components that satisfy the

requirements of economically and

environmentally sound lightweight

structure production. Cesare Troglio,

Technology and Innovation Division

Manager at the German Foundry Association

(BDG), thinks that there are

numerous significant ways to take

account of the demands for sustainability

and resource minimization in product

development, in production and

during product life: “Cast components

embody the basic idea behind the eco-

Metals label outstandingly well.”

With the latter, the four Düsseldorf

metallurgy trade fairs GIFA, METEC,

THERMPROCESS and NEWCAST emphasize

the importance of resource and

energy efficiency, climate protection

and innovative processes and products.

Exhibitors who present products, solutions

or process operations relating to at

least one of these areas will once again

be highlighted particularly strongly

in Düsseldorf in June 2019 (25th to

29th of June). “The USP of the four

trade fairs GIFA, METEC, THERMPRO-

CESS and NEWCAST is their coverage of

almost the entire market – so sustainability

is an issue that cannot be left

out”, explains Friedrich Kehrer, Global

Portfolio Director Metals and Flow

Technology at Messe Düsseldorf GmbH.

Visitors to the event can inform them-

38


selves about what the exhibitors are

presenting at ecoMetals via a special

brochure about this subject as well as

online. There will also be guided tours

– known as ecoTrails – specifically for all

visitors who are interested.

A number of exhibitors are allowed

to display the ecoMetals label in this

context. Because many foundries are

investing in manufacturing processes,

are increasing vertical integration and

are reducing resource consumption on

an ongoing basis. One major feature of

this process – and the driving force

behind it – is the digitization of production.

This is creating enormous opportunities

not only to improve one’s competitive

position but also to implement

sustainable strategies.

Saving time and money

Simulation and, to an increasing extent,

3-D printing are making it possible not

merely to produce highly complex parts

but also to replace the energy-/resource-intensive

and time-consuming trial

and error method. The Leipzig team

from GF Casting Solutions came to this

conclusion too. Series production of sand

cores by 3-D printing started here in the

summer of 2018. “The foundations for

With the 3-D printer, the Leipzig location has become an innovation center.

this were laid as long as two years ago”,

reports Matthias Heinrich, Director of GF

Casting Solutions Leipzig GmbH.

As part of the corporate strategy for

2020, the Leipzig location succeeded in

persuading the division management to

invest in a 3-D series printer for sand

cores by presenting a convincing concept.

As a result, the location now acts

not just as an innovation centre and

supplier of prototypes to all the other

foundries in the GF Division; it also

manufactures in series. Heinrich explains:

“The cold-curing phenolic 3-D

printer in Leipzig is the second of its

kind in Germany and the first one in the

Photo: GF Casting Solutions

RUDOLF UHLEN GmbH

Face protection for every application

Rudolf Uhlen GmbH is a manufacturer of personal protective

equipment (PPE) for face protection. Especially for the steel

and foundry industry we provide special solutions in the field

of IR-protection. We produce:

Ÿ Visor Carriers

Ÿ Gold-coated visors

Ÿ Mesh visors

Ÿ PC-visors

Ÿ Bochumer Brillen

Ÿ Flip-up goggles

PRODUCTIVITY IN 3D

3D- PRINTED CAST SOLUTIONS

Düsseldorf 2019

Hall 10 - C18

RUDOLF UHLEN GmbH Telefon: (02129) 1444

Am Höfgen 13 - 42781 Haan Telefax: (02129) 59980

www.aschua-uhlen.de info@aschua-uhlen.de

CREATE COMPLEX COMPONENTS

Innovative 3D printing solutions for sand &

investment casting using common casting

materials, where all light and heavy metals that

are castable and of series-production quality

can be processed. Complex geometric shapes

can be created with speed and precision.

voxeljet AG

Paul-Lenz-Straße 1a 86316 Friedberg Germany

info@ voxeljet.com

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 39


FILTECH

October 22 – 24, 2019

Cologne – Germany

The Filtration Event

www.Filtech.de

SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

ASK Chemicals uses

its own technical

center to increase

the effectiveness of

the products, thus

providing users with

added value such as:

lower resource consumption.

Photo: ASK Chemicals

Platform

for your

success

Targeted

Solutions

for the

Casting

Industry

Your Contact: Suzanne Abetz

E-mail: info@filtech.de

40

Phone: +49 (0)2132 93 57 60

country that is being used in series production”.

The advantages for customers: considerable

time and money is saved in the

production of prototypes and spare

parts. In addition to this, process reliability

is increased by the elimination of

core assembly, while designers are enthusiastic

about the unlimited design

potential. There are many different

application areas for the castings, which

weigh between 100 and 1,000 kg. Heinrich

lists them: “They are used in lorries,

construction equipment, agriculture and

forestry management, solar farms and

wind turbines, rolling stock, machine

manufacturing in general and hydraulics,

our new product segment”. BDG

executive Troglio summarizes: “Such

technologies can help to save a great

deal of time and energy when tooling is

being built, particularly where prototypes

and short series are concerned”.

Products with greater impact

The progress that has been made with

organic bonding agents and the use of

inorganic bonding agents of the kind

developed by, for example, foundry

supplier ASK Chemicals, Hilden, Germany,

also improves environmental performance.

Dr. Jens Müller, Research and

Development Manager at ASK Chemicals,

explains: “We are focusing primarily

on increasing the impact of our products

and on generating added value

for our customers, as – for example –

material input can be decreased and

the total potential emissions can be

reduced as a consequence.”

The company has succeeded in

developing the first unmarked phenolic

resin in the world for the cold box process

in iron casting. A hazardous product

is therefore not needed in this process.

Müller adds: “There are other

advantages apart from the environmental

benefits: The particularly high reactivity

of this new system makes it possible

to reduce bonding agent and catalyst

volumes in many cases.”

Inorganic bonding systems are becoming

increasingly important in aluminium

casting. ASK Chemicals is also

noticing greater awareness of sustainable

products. Müller thinks that “this is

certainly driven by the fact that the

general conditions in Europe particularly

have become more demanding

due to the implementation of relevant

regulations” and is therefore delighted

that product developments for protection

of the environment are successful

above and beyond this too: “Initially,

no-one really believed that the technology

of inorganic bonding systems

would replace conventional processes.

This may be attributable to the fact that

there are technological and economic

benefits in addition to the original

environmental aspect. Now it is an established

feature in lightweight metal

permanent casting.“

Environmental, economic, social Sustainability

cannot, after all, always be

considered solely at the environmental

level. Elke Radtke, who is responsible

for environmental protection as well as

occupational health and safety at BDG,

also thinks that “sustainability involves

economic and social action too. As an

association, we provide information

about the regulations that affect the

foundry industry. Our observation is

that legal regulations designed to protect

the environment often fail in particular

to take social and economic factors

into sufficient account. Wherever

appropriate, small and medium-sized

companies especially also need to be

able to adapt processes and take advantage

of new technologies. Because operations

that are not economic lead in

the long run to failure, which in turn

jeopardizes jobs. That is not sustainable

at the social level.”


HÜTTENTAG 2019

Get-Together of the steel industry

Thursday, 7 November 2019

Motto: STEEL — Traditional material and hightech

product

FOLLOW

TRADITION,

SHAPE THE

FUTURE!

09:00 — 17:30

Lecture programme with company exhibition

starting 18:00 "Hüttenabend"

Get-Together and Networking

Venue: Messe Essen

Messeplatz 1 | 45131 Essen, Germany

Information at:

www.homeofsteel.de/huettentag

Organizer:

SAVE THE DATE

7 NOVEMBER 2019

Photo: worldsteel / Gregor Schläger


Halls

10–13

15–17

Halls

3 + 4 + 5

Halls

9 + 10

Halls

13 + 14

P1

P2

Entrance North

MERKUR

SPIEL-ARENA

5

9

3

4

17

CCD Süd

CCD Ost/CCD Süd

Congresses

Entrance South II/

GIFA MAIN TOPICS

Grafik: messe-duesseldorf

42

Entrance South

Hall 13

Additive manufacturing

Hall 12

Gating and feeding

Hall 15-17

Moulding, pattern and core ma


The Bright World of Metals

With the international claim "The Bright World of Metals"

Messe Düsseldorf summarizes the technology fair quartet of

GIFA, METEC, THERMPROCESS and NEWCAST. Thanks to

the largest number of exhibitors and hall space, GIFA will be

the focal point of the fair. GIFA and NEWCAST meet in Hall 13.

Visit us in Hall 13, Stand C30!

CASTING

PLANT AND TECHNOLOGY

INTERNATIONAL

10

18

11

12

13

16

15

14

CCD Ost

Hall 17

P4

Entrance East

king

Hall 12

Chemical materials for foundries

Hall 11

Die casting and peripheral equipment

Hall 15-17

Foundry machines and foundry plants

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 43


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

MAGMA

“The Digital Foundry Process”

At GIFA 2019, MAGMA

GmbH presents a new

generation of trendsetting

solutions for virtual

casting, tooling

and process optimization.

In Hall 12 at Booth A19/20, the

company will demonstrate how Autonomous

Engineering is replacing conventional

casting process simulation. Magmasoft

autonomous engineering

supports casting design, robust process

layout and optimized casting evaluation

even before the first part is produced.

By making use of the fully integrated

capabilities of virtual Design of Experiments

and genetic optimization, Magmasoft

easily and reliably finds the best

solutions – from the first casting design

to improvement of a running production

layout. As a world premiere, visitors

will experience Autonomous Engineering

live in 4-D in a captivating

Holo-Theater performance.

MAGMA has been developing powerful

solutions for digitizing foundry

processes for over 30 years. With the

“Virtual Core Shooting Machine”, the

company showcases an innovative

Industry 4.0 application together with

leading industry partners. A direct coupling

between process simulation, core

box design, molding material and core

shooting machine enables the real-time

optimization of the complete core

shooting system for the first time.

With the “Virtual Die Casting Die”,

MAGMA demonstrates how to simultaneously

realize and reliably evaluate a

robust tooling design and an optimized

production window simultaneously within

the shortest possible time for high

pressure die casting processes. Moreover,

the company introduces numerous

new capabilities for virtual optimization

of all casting processes and alloys, heat

treatment and the complete core production

process. In cooperation with

leading partners from the supplying

industry, new developments for digitizing

molding materials and for quantitative

prediction of core distortion,

degradation behavior of binder systems

and core gas related defects during the

casting process will be presented.

Through new solutions, accessing databases

for feeding system components in

Magmasoft has become even easier.

MAGMAinteract, the new and innovative

visualization program for

Foundrymen’s Playground 2.0 – playfully learn how to optimize casting designs with the

MAGMAacademy

Magma soft results, supports communication

internally within a company as

well as a fast exchange of information

with both customers and suppliers.

Using real castings as examples,

MAGMA will interactively show how

easy it is to use information from

Magma soft with MAGMAinteract. The

MAGMAacademy will present its offering

of comprehensive opportunities

for further education for foundrymen,

casting designers and casting consumers.

The “Foundrymen’s Playground

2.0” will playfully show how easy it is

to virtually optimize casting designs

today. Here, visitors can interactively

run their own simulations in a virtual

test field, while simultaneously pursuing

different quality and cost-related

objectives. As part of a competition

against Magmasoft autonomous

engineering, visitors will lay out their

own casting on an electronic drawing

board in just a few minutes.

MAGMA will also be presenting its

innovative solutions for process optimization

in continuous and ingot casting

at its own booth at METEC (Hall 4,

Stand E 29). Here, too, the company will

showcase state-of-the-art solutions for

the virtual optimization of conflicting

objectives regarding productivity and

quality, as well as for establishing

robust process windows.

With its Student Camp, MAGMA

once more shows its commitment to

recruiting young professionals for the

foundry industry. The young visitors will

be shown in a fun and playful manner

how interesting and innovative the

foundry world is.

Be inspired by the fascinating world of

“Magmasoft - The Digital Foundry Process”!

Hall 12, Stand A19/20

www.magmasoft.de/en

Photo: Magma

44


FOSECO

Non ferrous melt shop

Insural multi-part and

highly insulating

dosing furnace linings

for aluminium foundries

combine energy

savings with long-service

life and resistance to oxide

build-up.

The use of energy efficient dosing

furnaces in aluminium foundries is seen

by many as the best available technology

today. Foseco is now able to supply

a new multi-part and highly insulating

lining made of Insural which is delivered

ready to install. Installation can

be achieved in 3 days with no ongoing

hydrogen issues and due to a totally dry

installation process no sintering of the

lining is necessary. Energy saving can be

as high as 17 %.

Hall 12 – Stand A1 + A2

www.foseco.com

Insural dosing furance lining for aluminium foundries

FOTOS AND GRAPHICS: FOSECO

Competence in

Shot Blast Technology

We offer a complete service in surface preparation technology,

not just as machine designers and manufacturers.

Our emphasis is on providing reliable service on:

• Wear and Spare Parts

• Repair and (remote) maintenance

• Inspection and process advice

• Machine upgrades and performance

enhancement

• Upgraded used machines

Please see us at GIFA,

Düsseldorf, June 25-29,

hall 16, stand A39

AGTOS

Gesellschaft für technische Oberflächensysteme mbH

Gutenbergstraße 14 · D-48282 Emsdetten

Tel. +49(0)2572 96026-0 · info@agtos.de

www.agtos.com

157-01/19-4c-GB

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 45


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

Graphics: ASK Chemicals

ASK CHEMICALS, MAGMA

Material database for predicting binder

decomposition and core gases

Prediction of the time dependent

penetration of core

gases into the melt for different

mold materials (left) and

visualized defect risk within

the casting

MAGMA GmbH,

Aachen, Germany ,specialist

in virtual optimization

of casting processes,

and ASK

Chemicals GmbH,

Hilden (both Germany) one of the

world‘s leading suppliers of foundry

chemicals and consumables, are involved

in a joint development project on binder

decomposition in sand cores and associated

gas formation. The aim is to provide

the Magmasoft users with validated

data on quantitative prediction of process-relevant

effects for ASK products.

With a new database, joint customers

should be even better supported in the

interpretation of the venting behavior

of sand cores and the prediction of core

gas-related casting defects.

During the casting process, gases

form and expand in cores and molds

amongst others due to the decomposition

of binder components and other

volatile components. This is closely

related to the basic sand binder mixture

used and its compaction as well as its

specific gas permeability. Different volumes

of gas are produced at different

times depending on the type and quantity

of the volatile components, the

thermal exposure and the respective

decomposition behavior. Relatively high

gas pressures at the interface to the

melt can result in gas inclusions in the

casting. In the cases of complex cores or

even core packages, it is difficult in

practice to determine if core gases are

the cause of defects due to the numerous

and diverse influencing factors.

Newly developed simulation models

in Magmasoft virtually depict gas formation,

gas flow, and venting through core

prints or the penetration into the melt.

This functionality enables accurate prediction

of the risk of defects due to gases

from cores and molds. The availability of

practical quantitative data already

during simulation-based design of castings

and cores therefore contributes significantly

to the prevention of defects.

ASK Chemicals and MAGMA have

agreed on a collaboration as part of a

development project to quantify the

decomposition behavior and gas formation

of different ASK binder systems. To

this end, ASK Chemicals will carry out

extensive research in their laboratories

and Technical Center. Respective laws of

decomposition behavior and resulting

gas formation will be quantitatively

determined for different binder systems

and heating characteristics. Product-dependent

kinetic models will be derived

from these data that will make the formation

of gas volumes and the resulting

effects in Magmasoft quantitatively

predictable.

“For MAGMA, this project is an

important step in the direction of

‚robust process design for casting technology‘.

The possibility of systematically

avoiding core gas-related casting

defects through quantitative consideration

of different ASK binder systems

already at the project planning stage

represents a significant benefit for our

customers,“ confirms Dr.-Ing. Jörg C.

Sturm, Managing Director of MAGMA

GmbH. “We are pleased to have gained

a competent development partner with

ASK Chemicals, who are interested in

quantifying the behavior of their binder

systems during casting.“

“With the possibility to predict the

behavior of our products with any core

geometries during casting, we can support

our customers in a more targeted

manner. Comprehensive customer service

therefore already has the highest

priority for us in the planning stage of

production processes,“ confirms Jörg

Brotzki, Executive Vice President Europe

at ASK Chemicals. „The user-friendly

integration of our data in Magmasoft is

thus decisive for the quality of planning.“

Both partners will present the first

results of the joint development project

at the GIFA trade fair. The collaboration

is designed for the long-term.

Hall 12 Stand A19/20, Hall 4, Stand

E29 and Hall 12, Stand A22

www.ask-chemicals.com

ww.magmasoft.de/en

46


IMERYS

Kersand and Durandal –

the right alternative

to chromite sands

Two sands by Imerys, Paris, France, Kersand

(AFS 60) & Durandal 60 (AFS 50) now used

by sand casting foundries, appear to fulfill

requirements in terms of refractoriness

and thermal expansion, as well as in terms

of supplying, and price condition stability.

Those two products are similar, made with natural minerals

with intrinsic high refractoriness and low thermal expansion.

In addition, they are respirable crystalline silica free,

and this over the several sand loops. The two sands are

performing in all steel alloys, cast iron & copper alloy

foundries and are compatible with all type of binding systems

(organic & Inorganic), and furthermore, generate no

low melting temperature point when mixed with silica

sand.

In a two years time period, chromite price FOB South

Africa more than doubled from initial price. This clearly

shows the high volatility of the chromite market price. This

is not surprising, considering that all South African producers

are primarily in the ferrochrome business producing

metallurgical grade, with non-metallurgical grades being

produced as a by-product.

Special sand, even if used in lower volume compared to

silica sand (for instance 10 %), can represent roughly 50 %

of the expenses when it is compared to silica sand, resin

and coating cost.

New types of special sands were developed over the

past 10 years, in order to improve the performance and

compensate the high price volatility associated with the

traditional chromite sand. Durandal D60 and Kersand are

two natural mineral products which have been designed

specifically to reduce casting defects and are respectively

produced in South Africa & France. European sourcing is an

important advantage considering logistic delivery delays as

well as geopolitics stability situation.

Chromite is heavy and will need 40 % more in weight

to fill the same volume of cores compared to Kersand and

Durandal 60. This is a key point regarding sand consumption.

Indeed, loose bulk density is around 1,6 for Kersand

and Durandal 60 whereas chromite sand lies at 2,7. This difference

leads to immediate savings of 40 % of sand

consumption for a constant volume of core produced.

Both, Kersand and Durandal 60 show linear and low

expansion with temperature compared to silica which exhibits

the well know transition quartz a to b at about 573 °C.

Anti-veining properties have been proven in numbers of

foundries, in tough casting conditions for Kersand and

Durandal 60 products. Iron casting has been performed

with chromite, silica sand, Durandal 60, and a mix of

Durandal 60 and silica sand cores with alkaline phenolic

resin. Results show sand fusion defect when silica is used,

and clean casting for chromite and Durandal 60. Furthermore,

under those casting conditions it is demonstrated

that a mix 50 %/50 % Durandal 60 and silica still leads to

clean casting. Hall 12, Stand C 34


www.imerys.com

A CENTURY

OF FOUNDRY

EXPERIENCE

GIFA 2019

Hall 17 Booth 18A

We have tailored solutions for your

casting application – worldwide.

Individual machines or complete systems.

100 years of experience in vibrating technology.


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

Fotos and Graphics: Foseco

Schematic setting of Foseco’s automated treatment technology Smartt.

FOSECO

Non ferrous metal treatment

In recent years, a number

of new features

and technologies have

been added to the

Foseco FDU and MTS

equipment range – the

state of the art in technology for the

automated treatment of an aluminium

melt. Smartt software offers various

programs for rotary degassing and the

operator simply defines a melt quality

after treatment. Smartt predicts the

best treatment practice based on ambient

conditions, melt temperature,

rotor design and alloy composition.

The treatment parameters are automatically

transferred into the FDU

MTS.

In conjunction with innovative rotor

designs Foseco guarantees a constant

quality level and reliable results. Smartt

not only controls degassing but

together with forming gas any defined

hydrogen level can be reached. A customised

report system records all parameters.

The chemical grain refiner in granulated

form can be added through the

automated Metal Treatment Station.

This grain refiner offers many advantages

such as improved melt fluidity

during casting, reduced inclusion level

and better mechanical properties. The

dross remaining after the treatment is

low in metal which additionally saves

costs. The dosing equipment uses a gravimetric

load cell to ensure highest

dosing precision for best metallurgical

results as well as repeatability and traceability.

Shaft and rotor design are continuously

improved to offer high efficiency

in degassing at long service life.

Hall 12, Stand A1 + A2

www.foseco.com

ASK CHEMICALS

New binder-additive-coating system for compliance

with formaldehyde limits

German foundries are

faced with the challenge

of reducing

formaldehyde emissions

in the exhaust

gas flow of their existing

plants from 20 mg/m 3 (mass concentration)

to 5 mg/m 3 by February

2020 at the latest. At GIFA 2019, ASK

Chemicals, Hilden, Germany, will present

a specially designed binderadditive-coat

ing package that allows

foundries to comply with this new

limit value without investing in additional

secondary measures.

ASK Chemicals has developed a new

concept to provide foundries with a

solution that greatly reduces the formaldehyde

emissions by more than 70 %

and does not require investment in

washers or RTO (i.e. regenerative thermal

oxidation).

Analyses have shown that, in particular,

the exhaust gas flow from coating

drying furnaces plays a special role in

the reduction of formaldehyde emissions.

Cores produced in the cold box

process have residual amounts of formaldehyde

per se, but can, in conjunction

with an additive and coating, emit additional

formaldehyde, especially at temperatures

around 150 °C, so that the

limit of 5 mg/m 3 is easily exceeded.

The newly developed low-formaldehyde

system (LFS) from ASK Chemicals is

a specially designed package of binder,

additive and coating that, due to its

design, develops only a very low basicload

and thus a greatly reduced formal-

48


dehyde potential. Furthermore, the

new system absorbs released formaldehyde,

so that the first users of this technology

have the ability to undercut the

5 mg/m 3 limit.

“I am convinced that we offer users

real added value with this new system.

With the application of the Ecocure

BLUE LFS binder, Miratec LFS coating

and VEINO LFS additive tailored to the

specific requirements, the LF system

meets the legal formaldehyde limits

with pinpoint accuracy. This is a clear

advantage for foundries that do not

want to invest in secondary equipment

at this time“, says Frank Lenzen, Technical

Product Manager at ASK Chemicals,

summarizing the benefits of the new

system.

Hall 12, Stand A22

www.ask-chemicals.com

Low formaldehyde system

Photo: ASK Chemicals

WALTHER TROWAL

Compact continuous feed shot blast machine

for small, delicate castings

At the GIFA 2019 exhibition

Walther Trowal,

Haan, Germany, introduces

the compact

troughed belt continuous

shot blast system

THM 300/1 to the public. This machine

was especially developed for processing

high volumes of small, delicate work

pieces. The new design combines the

small footprint of batch machines with

the advantages of continuous feed

operation and, thus, helps streamline

and speed up the blast cleaning processes

for small castings.

Walther Trowal developed the THM

300/1 specifically for small, delicate or

thin-walled cast work pieces like, for

example, aluminum or zinc die-castings

with diagonal dimensions of between

20 and 150 mm (about 0.8 to 6.0”).

Work pieces can range from components

for toys (model cars and trains),

furniture parts, components for the

computer industry and even small automotive

parts.

For the first time a shot blast

machine for processing small work

pieces is available with the footprint of

a batch tumble belt machine that permits,

however, continuous feed operation.

Compared to the smallest THM

machines supplied to date by Walther

Trowal, the THM 300/1 design is considerably

more compact: It requires an

area of only 1,4 × 2,7 m (5 x 9 feet) and

can, therefore, be easily integrated into

existing production lines.

With this new machine concept Walther

Trowal meets the demands of customers

in the foundry industry, who

want to integrate their blast cleaning

operations seamlessly into already existing

manufacturing lines.

The troughed belt work piece transport

system Walther Trowal is utilizing

for its continuous shot blast machines is

gently moving the work pieces through

the machine in a spiral motion. This

ensures that all work piece surface

areas are equally exposed to the blast

media stream.

Meik Seidler, sales manager at Walther

Trowal, recognizes a significant

trend towards continuous shot blasting:

“The THM continuous feed machines

with their unique troughed belt work

piece transport system are more and

more displacing the conventional batch

tumble belt machines. Our customers

integrate the THM systems into linked

manufacturing processes allowing them

to significantly simplify the work piece

handling. The work pieces are continuously

fed into the machine at preset

cycle times determined by the actual

production volume. Intermediate transport

operations from one process stage

to the next, as well as intermediate

storage, are completely eliminated.”

For the new blast system Walther

Trowal is using the newly developed

Photo: Walther Trowal

The compact troughed belt continuous shot

blast system THM 300/1 combines the small

footprint of batch machines with the advantages

of continuous feed operation

WTY turbines with curved throwing

blades. Compared to conventional blast

turbines they generate a substantially

higher throwing speed. This increases

the impact energy of the blast media on

the work pieces, which in turn helps

reduce the processing times.

A communication processor allows

integrating the shot blasting operation

into higher-level process controls.

Explosion protected dust collectors

ensure safe operation in line with prevailing

explosion prevention standards.

Hall 15, Stand D 15

www.walther-trowal.de

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 49


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

Graphics: Elkem

ELKEM

New foundry products takes casting

iron to the next level

Elkem’s stand at GIFA 2019.

From 25 until 29 June

foundry products by

Elkem, Oslo, Norway,

will be present at GIFA,

the world’s leading

trade fair for casting

technology, in Düsseldorf, Germany.

There, Elkem will highlight its all-round

competence to improve the metallurgical

iron foundry process.

GIFA is the international exhibition

for foundry, foundry products and

foundry technology and one of the

world‘s largest and most comprehensive

fairs of this kind. The focus of

GIFA is on foundry equipment, raw

materials and supplies, die-casting

technology, foundry chemicals, suppliers

and processing technology. This

exhibition provides an excellent stage

for Elkem Foundry Products to highlight

its capabilities and most current

innovations.

Elkem Foundry Products has evolved

to being an all-round solution provider

for the metallurgy of iron foundries,

supporting its customers globally with

highly specialized alloys and excellent

advice, which results in premium castings.

Elkem innovates constantly and

supports its customers with new, digital

and automated solutions for analysis

and alloy dosing.

One of these solutions is the new

Dynamic Dosing System, which enables

foundries to precisely and automatically

calculate, dose and position the treatment

alloys into a dedicated pocket in

the treatment ladle, for high quality

ductile iron production.

This customized equipment calculates

the alloy addition rates based on the

chemical analysis of the iron and other

important parameters before and after

each treatment. This self-learning

equipment stabilizes and documents

the treatment process, reduces cycle

time, improves the iron quality and

avoids human error.

Another example of Elkem’s improvements

is Elkem’s EPIC, an important

process control tool based on thermal

analysis of cast irons. The EPIC system

provides real-time information on the

condition of cast iron that can be used

at any point in the liquid state production

process. EPIC enables the foundry

to acquire, record and evaluate a considerable

amount of relevant data, which

helps to improve the castings.

Increased efficiency in alloy treatment

not only results in increased process

stability for Elkem’s customers, but

it also leads to less consumption and

emissions, supporting Elkem’s focus on

sustainability.

Hall 13, Stand C 50

www.elkem.com

50


BÜRKERT

Modular platform for heating and cooling

in metal processing

Exact temperature control

is a critical factor

in many industrial

metal and plastic processing

sequences. In

these scenarios, the

requirements regarding temperature

control can vary substantially depending

on the production conditions.

However, what is always required are

solutions that guarantee one-hundredpercent

repeatability wherever possible

to ensure high product quality.

They must also be simple to integrate

and capable of being extended or converted

as required.

The modular temperature control

platform developed by Bürkert Fluid

Control Systems, Ingelfingen, Germany,

which permits seamless adjustment to

suit the most varied processes, was designed

precisely with these requirements

in mind. It is based on a broad range of

electromotive and pneumatic valves as

well as various measurement principles,

e.g. for coolant flows (ultrasound and

paddle wheel), air quantities (thermal

sensor) as well as pressure and temperature.

Supplied as a custom assembled

complete system, the temperature control

can then easily be integrated into

the most diverse applications.

Thanks to the modular design, individual

valve clusters can easily be realized,

as can multi-channel media distribution

systems or complete media

cabinets – always adapted to meet individual

requirements. The user avoids

the need to install piping between individual

valves and dead spaces are

reduced thanks to the compact design.

In contrast to discrete assembly solutions,

this allows the valve block to be

placed close to the tool. Since the very

compact design also reduces the

heat-radiating surfaces, energy efficiency

improves accordingly. The service-friendly

structure also makes it

easier to replace individual components.

Orbital welding seams and

high-temperature graphite seals that

can also withstand extreme temperature

differences guarantee leak-free

operation.

The Bürkert EDIP (Efficient Device

Integration Platform) can be used to

connect the temperature control to all

standard bus systems; the wiring complexity

is reduced, start-up and parameterization

are simple. Depending on the

tool and process, temperatures can be

specified, the flow control set automatically,

or a constant pressure maintained.

Once parameters have been stored,

they can be restored at any time. All

things considered, the temperature control

processes are reliably repeatable

which boosts product quality and eliminates

waste.

Hall 10, Stand A74

www.buerkert.de

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 51


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

Photo: Gemco

GEMCO

Since 1978, complete foundry solutions

Turnkey greenfield foundry realization in Mexico.

GEMCO, Eindhoven,

The Netherlands, a

family owned business

for more than 40 years

with worldwide experience

in the foundry

industry offers foundry solutions for

iron, steel, aluminum and all other castable

metals.

Topics as Industry 4.0, IOT, 3-D Printing,

Automation, Sustainable development

and Environmental impact are

increasingly important. Quality equipment

is important but only part of the

solution. The added value that GEMCO

provides is related to how this equipment

is incorporated into the complete

production facility, making sure no bottlenecks

will occur, making sure that

supporting systems are adequately designed;

making sure that equipment

maintenance can be carried out with

easy access and in right conditions. And

making sure the design is appreciated

by the workers with regard to

movement, lighting, noise and dust.

Since last GIFA, GEMCO has completed

turnkey foundry projects for among

other, Linde (DE), Brembo (PL, MX),

MFA (FR) and Rassini (MX). Projects concerned

modernization and/or capacity

expansion or new greenfield foundry

realizations. Projects currently in course

or close to completion include new

foundries and modernization projects in

North America, Europe, Russia and

China.

The company’s track record includes the

realization of over 100 Greenfield and

Brownfield foundries worldwide. An

extensive global network of foundry

experts covers all foundry disciplines

and provides a complete range of services

that encompass:

> Design and Feasibilities of Greenfield

& Brownfield Projects (for justification

and development of investment)

> Realization (turnkey), ranging from

customized engineering projects to

large multimillion investments

> Strategic Information (Market information,

Technical Due Diligence,

M&A, Competitor Analysis)

> Process Know-how (based in

expert-network)

Gemco is an independent company and

makes use of the latest technology and

engineering tools such as 3-D design

and Foundry Logistics Simulation,

emphasizing on Efficiency, Energy and

Environment. Clients can be found

among international key-players in the

automotive and truck industry, mining,

dredging, oil & gas, rail, heavy machinery,

wind energy and many other business

sectors. GEMCO operates from

offices in The Netherlands, Germany,

China, Mexico and Russia.

Hall 16, Stand C12

www.gemco.nl

52


Photo: Foseco

Foseco’s new, patented Feedex VAK feeding technology

will be presented with best in class application examples.

FOSECO

Feeding systems for iron

and steel foundries

The application of feeder sleeves is a major

factor in reducing metal remelt and fettling

costs in foundry customers. By working in

close partnership with foundries, Foseco

continues to deliver tailored solutions for

specific applications and develop new process

technologies. In this year’s exhibition, we will showcase

several new developments that advance the capabilities of

the foundryman in optimising casting yield, minimising

defects and reducing production costs.

The new range of Feedek VAK spot feeders will be presented

through a variety of ductile iron castings. This patented

development provides an improved feeder neck pass-through

on the most critical feeding applications.

The development of Feedex SCK (Sleeve Construction Kit)

feeders opens up the application of spot feeding to the jobbing

iron and steel sector where the modular product range

enables our customers to optimise both casting yield and fettling

costs on large steel and iron castings.

All relevant exhibits will feature simulations using the

most recent version of the Foseco Pro Module for Magmasoft.


www.foseco.com

Hall 12 – Stand A1 + A2

CLARIANT

Catch LE+ Technology’s

foundry successes

LE+ Technology for green sand casting makes a big difference

to operations. Why? Because it ticks the boxes for enhancing

eco-credentials, lowering total cost of ownership and ensuring

high precision casting. And it’s proving its value where it

matters – in foundries. Latest updates on how Clariant’s Low

Emission+ Technology is delivering on its promises will will be

presented at the media “Meet & Greet” on June 27th at

8 a.m. at the Clariant booth.

Hall 12, Stand C 13

www.clariant.com

QualiMaster AT1

Step by Step to the Ideal

Molding Material Quality

Molding material always exactly as required

Individual solutions

Preventive molding material controlling

Choose your own individual solution. This new generation of the quality system has a modular structure.

Compaction, shear strength, deformability, springback, gas permeability – you decide which values you consider important

for improved casting quality and stable automated processes. QualiMaster AT1 Eco, Profi or ProfiPlus provide

a reporting tool for stand-alone operation and a web interface for mobile viewing.

Find out more about our new inline tester. Visit us at GIFA 2019 in Hall 17/ A38.

www.eirich.com


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

ASK CHEMICALS

Optimizing Environmental Protection and Occupational

Health and Safety, Increasing Productivity

Protecting the environment

and employees

from emissions: This is

one of the biggest challenges

currently in the

foundry industry. ASK

Chemicals, Hilden, Germany, uses its

innovative product portfolio to help

customers produce sustainably – with

additional advantages for economic

efficiency and quality. Foundries can

therefore meet stringent regulatory

requirements, without having to make

big investments in additional filter and

exhaust systems.

ASK Chemicals helps to improve

environmental protection and occupational

health and safety and optimized

economic efficiency by developing

more powerful and environmentally-friendly

solutions. Innovative technology

platforms, such as Ecocure Blue

and Inotec, as well as product packages,

such as the Low Formaldehyde

System (LFS), offer answers to typical

challenges of the foundry industry

regarding emissions.

ASK’s sustainability approach is to

reduce the emissions of phenol, formaldehyde,

VOC and aromatic hydrocarbons

(BTX) and to increase the effect of

its products. “Innovative and more sustainable

products ensure the competitiveness

of a company in the long

term,” emphasizes Dr. Jens Müller,

Global Head of Research & Development

at ASK. “Countries in East Asia,

especially China, are also increasingly

investing in innovative processes and

sustainable products.”

The patented inorganic binder technology

is currently the optimum in

terms of environmental protection. The

Inotec procedure for aluminum casting

developed by the Hilden company is

characterized by an impressive environmental

balance and increased productivity

in production processes. It is completely

free of emissions. No additional

measures are required to filter or treat

the exhaust air.

Together with the development

partners from the automotive industry,

ASK Chemicals is working on making it

possible to use inorganic binders as a

forward-looking technology in the

future for iron and steel casting on an

industrial scale.

Innovations for greater sustainability in the foundry industry.

Increased regulatory requirements

– such as the amendment to the TA Luft

(Clean Air Guidelines) – concern, for

example, formaldehyde emissions in the

exhaust air of foundries. In Germany,

these must be reduced to a quarter by

no later than February 2020.

ASK Chemicals is supporting its customers

here with the Low Formaldehyde

System (LFS). This is a package of

Ecocure Blue LFS binder, Miratec LFS

coating and Veino LFS additive specially

tailored to the respective requirements.

Users can therefore precisely comply

with the new emissions limits and

improve occupational health and safety

without having to invest in secondary

measures, such as scrubbers or RTOs.

The new Ecocure Blue, which combines

efficiency with a significant reduction

in emissions, stands for the holistic

approach of product innovations at ASK

Chemicals. With the phenolic resin Ecocure

Blue, ASK Chemicals has introduced

the first label-free, Cold Box part

1 component in the history of binder

chemistry. It saves up to 66 % of BTX

emissions and reduces the required

amount of binder by up to 22 %.

Given this success, ASK Chemicals

has expanded the Ecocure Blue families:

Ecocure Blue is now called Ecocure Blue

Pure, and there is also Ecocure Blue

Ultra, which contains even less formaldehyde

than Ecocure Blue Pure. The

product family is complemented by Ecocure

Blue Ice, which can withstand storage

at temperatures as low as -18 °C.

Modern foundries are increasingly

relying on the Pep Set process due to

the processing properties, the better

casting results and higher productivity.

ASK Chemicals has recognized this

trend and is now presenting a new solution

at GIFA for reducing phenol emissions

in the PU No-Bake process: The

new generation of the self-curing Pep

Set binder system on a polyurethane

basis – Pep Set Silver.

This is characterized by a particularly

low proportion of environmentally-friendly

monomers, especially phenol.

In practical applications, it is shown that

the phenol concentrations in the regenerate

are significantly reduced with the

help of Pep Set Silver. In addition to

advantages for the environment, this

also means a clear plus for economic

efficiency, because the landfill costs are

also reduced. In addition, employees as

well as residents in adjacent residential

areas will appreciate the use of the new

technology due to the reduced smoke

pollution.

Hall 12, Stand A22

www.ask-chemicals.com

Photo: ASK Chemicals

54


IDECO

Hydrogen Analysis in

Aluminum Melt

The company IDECO GmbH, situated in

Bocholt, Germany, is the exclusive distributor

for the HYCAL series in Central Europe, India

and China.

The HYCAL series is a

brand of devices for

measuring the hydrogen

content of liquid

aluminum and aluminum

alloy melts.

Even at very low concentrations, it is

possible to analyze and adjust the

hydrogen content quickly and precisely

during both the melting and casting

processes to meet the highest possible

material requirements. The company

IDECO GmbH, situated in Bocholt, Germany,

is the exclusive distributor for

the HYCAL series in Central Europe,

India and China.

IDECO is expanding their product

range by adding a second measuring

device for hydrogen analysis in aluminum

melts. In addition to the classical

procedure of “first bubble” measurement

and the Density Index systems

for determining the overall potential

pore behavior (H2 and oxides) of a

melt, the devices from the company

EMC Ltd. offer the possibility of analyzing

the hydrogen content directly in

the liquid melt. A sensor based on a

new ceramic material (CaZrO3-In) can

be introduced directly into the melt at

any point during the entire melting

and casting process. It produces a

potentiality measurement of the H2

ion concentration as compared to a

standard concentration contained within

the probe.

The aviation and automotive industries

set high standards of material

requirements for the aluminum industry.

HYCAL devices eliminate the subjective

judgment factor from the classification

of pore behavior and, with

their great precision, make it possible

to maintain a pre-defined range of

hydrogen concentration, even as low

as 0,05 ml/100 g, for example. The continuous

online monitoring allows for

the feasibility of finding a variable

optimum end point for the melting

process. By continuing measurement

during the casting process, one can

further assure that no external factors

have changed the hydrogen concentration,

which results in reduced quality.

For overall quality control, all measurements

during the entire process

are digitally saved and made available

to a databank network.

Particularly for the casting process

with its high standards of material

quality, the use of the HYCAL series for

hydrogen analysis has proven to be

especially economical. The HYCAL Mini

is comparable in cost to classical measuring

devices. The variable additional

investment for the insertion probe

with a capacity of 20 hours of accumulated

data may be compensated by a

commensurate rise in the material

quality of the product.

“HYCAL 1000” is the panel mounted

hydrogen analysis unit featuring

great flexibility for different control

processes. A portable analysis unit with

the identical internal components may

be fitted variably to different production

conditions. It has an internal gas

tank, a storage battery, along with

extensive software. Both devices are

suited for foundries producing large

quantities of top quality cast aluminum

products.

“HYCAL Mini” is a small portable

system for the direct analysis of hydrogen

concentration. It includes the analysis

unit, the HYCAL measurement

probe with adapter, a connection cable

and PC based software for processing

and storage of the measurement data.

Hall 11, Stand C56

www.ideco-gmbh.de

Photo: Ideco

NEW

multiPuls

160 °C

Hall 11H73


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

DISA

Premieres of game-changing foundry innovations

for Zero Defect Manufacturing

At GIFA 2019, DISA,

Taastrup, Denmark,

will reveal three radical

new digitally-driven

innovations that move

foundries closer to

Zero Defect Manufacturing (ZDM). Inspired

by DISA’s unmatched experience

in helping customers continuously

improve casting quality, these cutting-edge

ZDM solutions – the novel

Trace and Guidance (TAG) concept, the

patent-pending Mold Accuracy Controller

(MAC) and the upgraded Monitizer

– open the door to a new era of

scrap elimination.

Visitors to the DISA section of the

Norican Group stand will have hands-on

access to both hardware and digital

models so they can see for themselves

how process data, real-time analysis and

forensic quality control combine to help

trace and eliminate scrap. “Finding the

root cause of scrap can be extremely

difficult,” says Per Larsen, Portfolio and

Innovation Manager at DISA. “The total

quality-related costs across foundries

and casting users can represent up to

10 % of the casting price.”

For the first time ever, foundries can

gain full traceability with DISA’s ingenious

new Trace and Guidance (TAG)

concept. TAG adds a unique ID number

to each casting to provide the missing

link between individual scrapped castings

and their process parameters like

sand compressibility, shot pressure and

pouring temperature. TAG tracking

also paves the way for advanced

machine-learning-based analysis of

scrap causes.

“TAG tracking promises to be a

major game changer for our industry,

helping drive down quality-related costs

to previously unseen levels,” says Larsen.

“GIFA visitors will be able to

explore the patent-pending TAG design

for themselves in the demonstration

area on our stand and sign up for exclusive

news as this exciting concept is

developed further.”

The trailblazing Mold Accuracy Controller

(MAC) forms the second plank of

DISA’s ZDM strategy. The MAC alerts

operators to mold mismatches and gaps

– causing scrap, rework and damaging

melt run-through – before the mold is

DISA CIM (Computer Integrated Modules), featuring a completely new suite of data analysis

and alerting tools

poured. At GIFA 2019, visitors to the

DISA stand can test drive the MAC using

a Disamatic Digital Twin (a digital simulation

of a molding machine). They can

change the virtual machine’s settings

via a Disamatic D3 control panel and

immediately see how those changes

affect mold quality.

“Delegates can inspect a full-size

MAC on the stand, then use the Digital

Twin to virtually test how the MAC

monitors the molding machine’s output

and helps spot any developing problems,”

explains Larsen. “They will get a

real feel for how operators are kept

fully informed and can react to quality

issues seconds after they first appear

and, most importantly, before pouring

the molds.”

The MAC will be released at GIFA as

a retrofit option for Disamatic machines

with Automatic Mold Conveyors, helping

more customers wave goodbye to

scrap.

GIFA also sees the release of Monitizer

| CIM, DISA’s third ZDM solution.

This is the next generation of DISA CIM

(Computer Integrated Modules), featuring

a completely new suite of data

analysis and alerting tools.

As the digital platform which collects

and shares data between your

foundry equipment, Monitizer keeps

processes synchronized and delivers a

full digital view of real-time and historic

foundry data. Monitizer | CLOUD from

Norican Group extends the platform,

using IIoT technology to collect, monitor,

and analyse complete foundry data

from one or multiple global foundry

sites.

“With the Disamatic Digital Twin,

MAC, TAG, and Monitizer, visitors can

see how DISA’s disruptive digital innovations

make it possible to “dive into the

data” to troubleshoot problems, optimize

critical foundry processes and take

major steps towards zero scrap,” states

Larsen.

During on-stand sessions and within

the official GIFA lecture programme,

DISA experts will discuss how its ZDM

solutions enable the data-driven

foundry and help improve productivity,

quality and resource utilization.

Hall 11, stand A74-A78

www.disagroup.com

Photo: Disa

56


FOSECO

Filtration for iron and steel foundries

The demand for improved

casting integrity

and performance continues,

often associated

with the need to

reduce casting weight.

The benefits provided by molten metal

filters are increasingly valuable to casting

producers and their customers in

achieving these goals.

In addition to enhancements to the

range of Sedex and Stelex filters that

offer foundries enhanced choice and

performance characteristics in filter

application, Foseco will be launching a

new filter technology for large, high

value steel castings.

The Hollotex shroud filtration

system combines the

known benefits of Stelex filters

with a fused silica shroud.

This innovative technology

provides a method of protecting

the molten steel as it is

poured from a bottom pour

ladle into the mould and casting

cavity. Aspiration of air is

eliminated reducing re-oxidation

inclusions and enhancing

the performance of the integral

filters. An application case

study will detail the major

improvements that this process

can facilitate in the production

and quality of highly

specified castings.

Recent developments in

the Sedex and Stelex product

portfolios offer foundries

increasing choice in filter products.

The attributes of these

products will be compared so

the user can understand the

associated benefits and select

the correct filter type for

their casting needs.

Foseco will be showing

many case studies demonstrating

the benefits provided by

applying Sedex and Stelex filters

to a variety of iron and

steel castings. These will be

complemented by Magmasoft

simulations which model the

molten metal flow control and

turbulence reduction that are

vital to achieving high finished

casting quality.

Hall 12 – Stand A1 + A2

www.foseco.com

Photo: Foseco

Hollotex shrould

application for large

steel castings will be

highlighted at the

Foseco stand at GIFA

2019

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 57


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

MAGMA

Prediction of hot distortion of sand cores

MAGMA GmbH,

Aachen, specialist for

the virtual optimization

of foundry processes,

and HA, Düsseldorf

(both Germany), as a

supplier of foundry chemicals, have

joined forces in a long-term cooperation

to quantitatively describe the hot

distortion of sand cores. Together, they

intend to develop and provide digital

core data for foundries. Visitors at GIFA

2019 have the chance to see the concrete

steps being taken at the stands of

the two cooperation partners.

Increasing demands on the dimensional

tolerances of castings are especially

critical for thin-walled sections,

where even small deformations of sand

cores can be critical for maintaining the

required wall thicknesses and component

geometry. The deformation of a

sand core is dependent on its thermal

expansion and the position of the corresponding

core marks. For long thinwalled

cores, buoyancy forces of the

metal on the core play an additional

important role. In the case of organic

binders, even low buoyancy forces can

lead to time-dependent deformation of

the core due to creep effects in the

binder resin.

In order minimize the deformation

of sand cores, their thermal and

mechanical behavior during casting

must be understood. With this knowledge,

simulation programs can be used

to predict how the core sand will

behave during the casting process, particularly

at high temperatures.

MAGMA has implemented a numerical

model in Magmasoft in which the

core sand is treated as a porous medium,

and both the pressure and temperature

dependence of the core strength is considered.

Time-dependent core deformation

due to binder softening and decomposition

are additionally taken into

account through creep models. The

effects on the core of e.g. buoyancy

Core distortion during casting is a complex interaction between thermal, mechanical and

time-dependent influencing factors

forces during casting are also calculated.

The cooperation between HA and

MAGMA is aimed at quantifying the

thermo-mechanical behavior of different

molding materials during casting

for the primary HA binder systems.

MAGMA has developed a methodology

to characterize the material

behavior of cores using standard samples.

HA is using this systematic

approach in carrying out extensive

investigations at its Center of Competence

for both organic and inorganic

HA binder systems and different sand

types. These data will be used to generate

product-dependent data sets, to

make both the time and temperature

dependent behavior of core distortion

quantitatively predictable in Magmasoft.

The results are being validated

through in-situ measurements at the

HA technical center in Baddeckenstedt,

Germany, using optical measurement

methods to quantify the deformation

of sand cores as a function of

time during solidification.

“The aim of our cooperation is to

provide users of Magmasoft with validated

data for the quantitative prediction

of core distortion for HA products,“

confirms Dr.-Ing. Jörg C. Sturm,

a Managing Director of MAGMA. “With

this new database, our joint customers

will be supported even better in the layout

of their core and casting designs.“

“We have a great interest in quantifying

the behavior of our binder systems

during casting,“ says Amine Serghini,

member of HA‘s Executive Board

responsible for Sales and Marketing.

“The cooperation with MAGMA in this

area will enable us to offer our customers

another important added benefit.”

At GIFA, both partners will present

the first results of the joint development

project, which is planned as a

long-term cooperation.

HA at GIFA: Hall 12, Stand C50

MAGMA at GIFA: Hall 12, Stand A19/20

www.magmasoft.de/en

www.huettenes-albertus.com/en/

Photo: MAGMA

58


WHEELABRATOR

A new wheel, advanced

simulation technology and

equipment evolutions

Surface preparation

specialist Wheelabrator,

a Norican technology,

will be showcasing

a suite of new

blast machines and

solutions at GIFA 2019, evolved and

improved to meet emerging customer

requirements and industry trends.

A host of updates and extensions

to existing equipment ranges has

been developed particularly with aluminium

applications in mind – fitting

in with the brand’s new stand location

in the aluminium hall (Hall 11) at

GIFA, as part of the Norican Group

presence.

The Wheelabrator line-up for GIFA

includes:

> a new heavy-duty Universal blast

wheel

> a deep dive into the very latest

blast simulation technology

> numerous machine innovations

Visitors to the Norican stand will also

be able to learn about the latest digital

developments, for Wheelabrator

equipment and beyond, with experts

from Norican Digital on hand to share

the latest thinking.

Wheelabrator’s new blast wheel

for foundry applications will be unveiled

at GIFA. Representing the latest

innovations and proven technologies

from across the company’s global

blast wheel range, the new Universal

wheel has been refined in rigorous

testing over the past 12 months. It

will offer a new level of performance

and productivity for foundry blast

operations.

Simulation of blast processes can

speed up development of new machines

and even inform the design process

of the produced part – by testing

buildability early on.

Working with leading manufacturers,

namely in Automotive, as well as

simulation specialists, Wheelabrator

has been advancing blast simulation

technology to enable the design of

ever more complex parts and associated

processes, particularly those with

intricate internal surface areas.

At GIFA, Wheelabrator will show

what is possible in blast simulation,

including how advanced simulation

techniques save time and money

during part and process design – a key

advantage in today’s ever faster product

development cycles.

Also on show will be the latest

machine developments soft-launched

in recent months. They include extensions

to and variations on existing

ranges, which have been adapted to

anticipate evolving customer requirements.

They are:

> The SPH-2-3/8, a new compact

blast machine designed specifically

for aluminium applications. Based

on Wheelabrator’s trusted batchtype

spinner-hanger wheel blast

concept, the new machine excels

at descaling, deburring/deflashing

and cleaning of a variety of aluminium

parts. Optimising the

machine for this application enabled

the design team to also reduce

its price significantly.

> The LBS 1000, a lighter version of

the LBS mesh belt shot blast

machine range. The mesh belt concept

allows the efficient blasting

of parts from all sides within a

relatively compact space and

without tumbling. It offers pitless

installation and a more ergonomic

loading height. Like the new SPH,

it is suited particularly to the processing

of aluminium parts.

> A new range of wire mesh belt

shot blast machines for medium-duty

applications. The new

CMS machine sits between Wheelabrator’s

light LBS for nonfoundry

and the high capacity

CMC range for heavy duty foundry

applications. The CMS wire mesh

belt machine completes Wheelabrator’s

mesh belt machine offering.

Mesh belt machines are perfect for

applications where parts are too

big or too delicate for the tumblast

processes.

Hall 11, Stand A74-A78

www.noricangroup.com/gifa

FONDAREX

MODULAR

GIFA 11 / D41

new


SPECIAL: GIFA 2019

ZPF GMBH

New furnace plant enables simultaneous melting

of aluminium chips and ingots

Due to the different

shapes of ingots, return

material and aluminium

chips, different furnace

types were previously

required for

melting the respective material. However,

separate plants for the different

types of material do not pay off for die

casting foundries with too low volumes

of aluminium chips or return material,

so that only ingots are molten down.

ZPF GmbH, Siegelsbach, Germany, have

now developed a melting furnace

which is qualified for melting down aluminium

chips as well as recycling material

and ingots – a sustainable utilization

of the system is thus always

ensured. The plant is equipped with an

automatic charging system and is able

to melt up to 500 kg raw material per

hour, for example 250 kg aluminium

chips and 250 kg ingots. The new melting

furnace technology will be presented

for the very first time at this

year‘s GIFA with an exhibit.

Production by-products such as scrap

material and runner systems or even

aluminium chips are usually collected

and recycled externally in most foundries,

as they cannot be returned directly

to the melting process for economic

reasons. This results in high costs for

storage and transport, and the logistical

effort should not be underestimated.

“Until now, our aluminium melting furnaces

were only designed for charging

with unmixed material; a material mix

of ingots and recirculation aluminium

parts was previously only possible to a

limited extent due to the desired

boundary parameters such as melting

loss and melting rate“, reports Sven-

Olaf Sauke, head of R & D at ZPF GmbH.

“For some foundries, a pure chip furnace

is uneconomic, since the metal-cutting

share in the cast product is often

too low.“ ZPF has taken this market

need as an opportunity to develop a

new technology for melting furnaces

enabling the simultaneous melting of

chips, ingots or return material while still

keeping the melting loss values at an

extremely low level. This offers companies

greater flexibility in the recycling

process and new opportunities to optimize

the melting process.

For an optimal constructive design

“Since there are two different shapes in the case of chips and ingots, we first had to

choose the main variant“, reports Sven-Olaf Sauke, head of R & D at ZPF GmbH. “For our

prototype, we opted for chips as the main material and designed the furnace as a heel

melter (Graphics: ZPF GmbH).

of the new furnace, simulations were

used in the course of development to

be able to assess the basic system

behaviour. In addition, power and

exhaust gas measurements were carried

out under foundry conditions which

were used to determine the functional

parameters. “The decisive factor for us

was the optimum melting of the metal

and the required temperature control

in the furnace,“ explains Sauke. “In

addition to energy consumption,

numerous other factors that strongly

influence the melting result play a role

here in a modern furnace system - for

example the quality of the raw material

and the melting loss. For practical

implementation, ZPF analysed the data

collected and determined the parameters

required for simultaneous melting

of chips and other aluminium materials.

Based on these results, a prototype with

the new technology was implemented.

The melting furnace has dimensions

of 575 cm x 380 cm x 445 cm (L x W x H)

at an empty weight of approximately

28 tons. It is dimensioned for a maximum

throughput of 500 kg/h in total.

The furnace system is extended by an

automatic charging unit. This modular

unit is designed in such a way that different

types of material can be loaded

according to customer requirements.

“For the simultaneous melting of different

material forms in one furnace,

the first step is to determine the leading

material variant,“ Sauke says. “For our

prototype, we opted for aluminium

chips as the main material and therefore

designed the furnace as a heel melter.

As a result, the chips can be molten

down in combination with return material,

return wheels or ingots“. Which

variant is added to the chips can be

selected by the operator. The only

important thing is to pay attention to

the optimum quantity ratio between

chips and secondary material in order to

achieve optimum melting performance.

The new system will be presented at

this year‘s GIFA in Düsseldorf. “We will

be demonstrating the new system technology

using a furnace at our trade fair

stand. This gives us the opportunity to

present the innovations to interested

users in a detailed and practical manner,“

explains Sauke. Hall 10, Stand F59

www.zpf-gmbh.de

60


GIFA 2019

hall 16 / C11

Torque motors – here on an Eirich Intensive

Mixer R28 – are an energy saving alternative to

asynchronous motors.

EIRICH

Molding Material as

an Opportunity

As a specialist in the

processing of clay-bonded

molding materials,

Eirich, Hardheim, Germany,

enables foundries

to meet ever-increasing

demands. The molding

material holds opportunities for improving

the casting quality. A preparation

system from Eirich achieves higher

energy efficiency. Optimized and automated

processes enable the autonomous

preparation of molding material.

They are the basis for the Industrial

Internet of Things (IIoT). At GIFA 2019,

visitors can gather information about

groundbreaking EIRICH technology,

from which every founder can benefit.

The highlights and exhibits presented

at the fair include a QualiMaster AT1

of the new generation and an Intensive

Mixer R28 with torque motors.

The QualiMaster AT1 system is well

known and proven as the heart of quality

assurance in molding material preparation.

The new generation of modular

design is available as Eco, Profi or

ProfiPlus version. In the Eco version, the

inline tester is equipped with a compactability

measuring unit. A reporting tool

facilitates using it as a stand-alone unit.

The Profi version additionally measures

compactability and shear strength with

deformability. Completely new possibilities

are now available with the Quali-

Master AT1 ProfiPlus: For the first time,

the inline tester also measures springback

and gas permeability. Due to its

modular design, the AT1 Eco can be

upgraded to the AT1 Profi or AT1 ProfiPlus

at any time Eirich mixers equipped

with torque motors as direct drives

achieve a new level of energy efficiency.

Energy savings of up to 25 % are a realistic

prospect. These motors also have

the advantages of lower maintenance

requirements and reduced noise emissions.

Torque motors are not just a good

option for new Eirich mixers; they can

also be retrofitted to Eirich mixers in

operation without any problems. Another

highlight expected at the fair is the

prototype of an Evactherm mixer in a

new small size.

Hall 17, Stand A 38

www.eirich.de

Pneumatic conveying

technology

For dry, free-flowing, abrasive and

abrasion-sensitive material

Core sand preparation

technology

For organic and inorganic processes,

turn-key systems including sand,

binder and additive dosing and

core sand distribution

Reclamation technology

Reclamation systems for

no-bake sand and core sand,

CLUSTREG® for inorganically

bonded core sands

Shockwave Technology

CERABITE ®

Clean Castings

for the efficient removal

of residual sand and coatings

out of complex castings

KLEIN Anlagenbau AG

KLEIN Stoßwellentechnik GmbH

a subsidiary of KLEIN Anlagenbau AG

Obere Hommeswiese 53-57

57258 Freudenberg | Germany

Phone +49 27 34 | 501 301

info@klein-group.eu

www.klein-ag.de

www.stosswellentechnik.de

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 61


COATINGS

Multitasking: Coatings for

centrifugal casting

As the range of centrifugal casting applications increases, so does the importance of

coatings. In the past, coatings were mainly used as a separating layer between the mold

and the casting part, whereas today they are designed to meet very specific requirements:

Innovative coatings formulated for centrifugal casting help to avoid casting

defects, influence mechanical parameters and even serve as a forming medium to allow

the creation of special surface structures.

Klaus Seeger, Ekaterina Potaturina, Düsseldorf

The centrifugal casting process

Centrifugal casting was first used in the

middle of the 19th century by the British

engineer and inventor Sir Henry

Bessemer to produce rotationally symmetrical

parts. In centrifugal casting,

the melt is poured into a metal mold

which rotates around its central axis at

high speed. The centrifugal forces

acting on it press the melt against the

mold wall and produce a very pure and

highly densified composite. The metal

solidifies as the mold rotates – with the

advantage that a cavity-free casting in

the form of a cylindrical (hollow) body

is produced without the use of feeders.

The inner geometry of the mold determines

the outer contour of the casting,

62


act the casting and extends the life of

the mold.

Avoiding casting defects

Casting defects such as inclusions, gas or

reaction defects, which cannot be completely

eliminated simply by changing

the process parameters, are a significant

problem in the centrifugal casting process.

As the metallic permanent mold is

impermeable to gas during centrifugal

casting, the mold coating plays an

important “gas management” role. In

order to avoid gas defects such as pinholes,

the coating must have a certain

porosity and be able to absorb the

decomposition gases produced.

By targeted optimisation of the

composition and structure of the coating,

casting defects can be effectively

avoided. If, for example, organic components

are replaced with inorganic

ones, or calcined raw materials are

used, the loss on ignition and thus the

risk of gas defects is reduced. Selecting

raw materials with low reactivity also

helps reduce the risk of reaction errors

(Figure 3).

In centrifugal casting castings can be

manufactured without voids, where you

can dispense with the use of feeders.

Photo: ??

Figure 1: The mold is coated using a spray

lance.

coatings for centrifugal casting make it

possible to achieve clearly defined properties

and advantages. The various

functions that a centrifugal casting coating

can perform are described below

and illustrated using practical application

examples (Figure 2).

Coatings as separating agents

The coating can be applied by

sprinkling a dry powder into the rotating

mold. An alternative frequently

used process involves applying the coating

by spraying a coating dispersion

into the mold.. The coating’s primary

task is to achieve a separating effect

between mold and melt. Powder coatings

can, for example, consist of a mixture

of ferrosilicon, graphite, quartz

dust, bentonite or diatomaceous earth .

The addition of water and a dispersion

agent makes it possible to paint or

spray the coating. The uniform coating

of the mold wall makes it easier to ext-

Insulating effect

The insulating effect of the coating is

an important factor in the composition

formation and the hardness profile. It

regulates the heat transfer from the

molten metal to the mold, thus contributing

to the control of solidification

and the casting structure.

The insulating properties depend on

the one hand on the composition of the

coating, and on the other hand, on the

layer thickness on the mold. Both para-

the quantity of metal supplied determines

the wall thickness.

In horizontal casting, the melt is

poured into a lying mold. In the case of

particularly long castings or during continuous

centrifugal casting, the runner

can be moved during the casting process

(Figure 1). In vertical casting, the

casting takes place in a mold with a vertically

rotating axis. Vertical casting can

be used to produce conical or spherical

outer contours. The rotational speed is

often significantly slower than with

horizontal casting.

In centrifugal casting, the mold is

usually lined with a ceramic protective

layer, the so-called coating. Since the

development of the centrifugal casting

process, the demands placed on the casting

parts and, at the same time, the

functions to be met by the coating have

continuously increased. Today, modern

Figure 2: Several molds can be arranged in a casting carousel to produce large numbers of

castings.

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 63


COATINGS

Figure 3: A coating with good

gas permeability helps to

avoid gas-related casting

defects such as “dents” (left)

or “pinholes” (right)

Figure 4: High-quality

centrifugal casting products

after finishing.

Figure 5: Castings

before further processing.

meters have a significant impact on the

cooling rate of the melt and consequently

the mechanical properties of

the casting. These, in turn, are a crucial

component of customer requirements.

Particularly with thin-walled pipes, insulating

properties need to be specifically

adjusted in order to achieve maximum

workability.

The selection of suitable raw materials

has an impact on thermal conductivity,

but also on factors such as chemical

reactivity, fire resistance, hardness and

application properties of the coating.

The grain size distribution is also

important: a fine grain size has many

grain boundaries and thus slows down

heat transfer. A large grain size, on the

other hand, creates more cavities between

the individual grains, which also

leads to an insulating effect.

Solids content, viscosity and rheological

properties must be balanced in

such a way that, on the one hand, the

desired layer thickness is achieved

while, at the same time, the coating is

easy to spray on and allows an even

application. Since the coating is a dispersion

that may sediment out during

storage, appropriate preparation is

required before application. Before use,

the coating is adjusted to the desired

processing viscosity by determining the

density or efflux time.

Controlling surface textures

Since most castings are machined after

production, there are no special requirements

regarding the roughness of the

casting surface for many applications.

For certain applications, the shape and

height of any roughness are clearly

defined. This applies, for example, to

grey cast iron wastewater pipes: during

their manufacture, the aim is to achieve

smooth cast surfaces. Although this

requirement has no direct influence on

the functionality of the casting, some

foundries regard it as an externally

visible quality criterion with which they

want to score points with their customers.

There are, however, also customer

specifications that require the production

of rough surface textures: For cylinder

liners, a rough surface with a precisely

defined surface structure is

expressly desired (Figures 4 and 5).

Cylinder liners can be pressed into

engine blocks. It is also possible to cast

the liners into the engine block after

machining. With the further development

of casting processes and coatings,

it is now possible to produce defined

surface structures that enable the liners

to be cast directly into the engine block.

The molten metal flows around the

structured surface, filling in recesses

and undercuts so that the engine block

and liner materials form an extremely

strong and resilient bond.

The aim of this process is to obtain a

rough surface structure during casting

so that the outside of the cylinder liner

does not require any further processing.

The depth and shape of the structure

can be determined according to customer

specifications. Hedgehog or mushroom-shaped

elevations are possible,

as are structures with undercuts. The

structure depths vary between 0.3 and

1.1 mm, depending on customer requirements.

The structures with undercuts

can only be processed in pressure die

casting, while the liners with hedgehog

or mushroom structure can be processed

in conventional gravity die casting.

In addition to the special configuration

of certain machine parameters, the

coating plays a decisive role in achieving

these surface structures. It can therefore

be said that the coating acts as a

forming factor (molding material).

A modern coating for the production

of structured cylinder liners is composed

of special refractory materials

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COATINGS

Figure 6: Schematic illustration of the Leidenfrost effect.

Figure 7: The formation of different structures is controlled, among other things, by the

coating.

Figure 8: When drawing the tubes, the coating should adhere to the cast part and be completely

removed.

with defined grain sizes and shapes,

water, binder, dispersion agent and surfactants

to control surface tension.

Figure 6 shows the various processes

that occur when an aqueous coating is

sprayed onto the hot centrifugal casting

mold. If drops of the coating hit the

mold, the coating is accelerated by the

rotary motion of the mold and pressed

against the hot mold as a result of the

centrifugal forces. The water in the coating

immediately begins to boil. Leidenfrost

effects cause gas layers or gas bubbles

to form. As the coating dries,

channels form in the coating. Figure 7

illustrates the concept of forming different

structures from the gas bubbles.

Depending on the coating composition,

the centrifugal forces and the mold

temperature, different channels are formed,

which in turn lead to different

surface structures during casting.

Additional coating requirements

In addition to the functions of coating

for centrifugal casting described above,

there are a number of additional, application-specific

requirements: A key characteristic

with regard to the process

steps is, for example, extraction behaviour:

When the tube is extracted from

the mold after solidification, the coating

should adhere to the casting and,

ideally, be completely removed from

the mold with the casting (Figure 8).

In terms of cleanliness in the workplace,

it is also desirable that a contiguous

layer of the coating remains on

the casting, and that it is as dust-free as

possible (Figure 9). If the next process

step involves blasting, the coating

should be easy to remove – in case of a

textured surface it may also need to be

removed from the undercuts. For health

and safety reasons, the coating must

not contain crystalline quartz.

Consistent quality is crucial

In order to gain a competitive advantage,

many foundries strive to increase

the productivity of their processes and/

or improve the quality of their castings.

This leads to ever narrower process

windows, with the risk that even the

smallest defects can cause major disruption.

Coatings must also meet these

more demanding requirements. It is

therefore becoming increasingly

important to use stable coating products

of uniform quality. Foundries

need products with consistent properties

in terms of composition, viscosity

and application behaviour. However,

natural raw materials are typically used

66


Figure 9: A continuous layer of coating remains on the casting, which minimizes dust.

Figure 10: The uniformity of the defined surface

structure is checked during the quality

inspection.

in the production of coatings, and these

can vary in their quality. Comprehensive

quality testing of the raw materials

enables deviations from specified properties

to be detected at an early stage.

In addition, regular process checks

should be carried out using suitable

measuring methods. In structural casting,

the uniformity of the surface structure

desired by the customer is also an

integral component of the quality

assurance process (Figure 10).

Innovation potential for foundries

and coating suppliers

From the automotive to the chemical

and paper industries; from pipes to

rolls to cylinder liners: when it comes

to the production of rotationally symmetrical

components, centrifugal casting

is a proven, technically sophisticated

casting process with enormous

application and innovation potential.

For foundries, it is well worth consulting

an experienced coating supplier at

an early stage in the development process

of any new centrifugal casting

applications. The foundry specialists

and chemists at Hüttenes-Albertus are

always happy to take on new challenges.

Since there is often no “off-theshelf”

product for special applications,

we develop and test solutions step by

step together with our customers –

from initial testing all the way through

to series production readiness.

www.huettenes-albertus.com

Dr. Klaus Seeger, Head of Research and

Development Coatings, Dr. Ekaterina

Potaturina, Product Manager Coatings,

Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke

GmbH

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CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 67

FAT Förder- und Anlagentechnik GmbH · D-57572 Niederfischbach · Tel. +49 (0) 27 34/5 09-0 · fat.info@f-a-t.de · www.f-a-t.de


3-D-PRINTING

68


The Kinetic Assembly Structure reflects the materialization

of a train of thought. The lines form an infinite

loop. voxeljet printed the models of the complex

sculpture in several parts.

The stool „Infiniala“ by designer

Sergej Ehret: Future of Sculpture.

With voxeljet 3-D printing systems,

even the most complex

sculptures that would have been

impossible using traditional molding

techniques can be realized.

3-D printing systems evolutionize

traditional art casting

Art foundry Strassacker creates artistic works using 3-D printing systems by voxeljet

Frederik von Saldern, Friedberg; Peter Mühlhäuser, Süßen

Photos: Voxeljet

Strassacker, one of the oldest and

largest art foundries in Europe, is

modernizing art casting with 3-D

printing from voxeljet, Friedberg, Germany.

The printing technology is used

to create investment casting patterns

and increases the artists’ freedom of

design. Artworks which previously could

not be produced using traditional molding

techniques can now be printed

directly in the form of a casting pattern.

Have you heard of The Bambi

Award? The German Media and Television

Prize, which is awarded annually to

people with visions and for outstanding

achievements? The award winners

include world stars such as Christoph

Waltz, Samuel L. Jackson and Kate

Winslet. But far less known is the company

that produces the coveted bronze

deer: the family owned company Strassacker

from Süßen near Stuttgart. Since

it was founded in 1919, the company

has evolved from the manufacture of

pasta machines and everyday objects to

the production of numerous precious

artworks. The company has made a

name for itself especially in the art

industry and is now a well-known

player. Their customers include world

renowned contemporary artists, who

rely on the Strassackers’ specialist expertise.

Digital model creation at Strassacker

While traditional production

methods have characterized the creation

of works of art to date, today there

The Strassacker foundry can offer customers both manual and digital manufacturing

processes. If necessary, even both can be combined. Like here at a part of the sculpture

KAS by Simon Mühlhäußer.

are new possibilities for the design of

art. One that clearly pushes the

boundaries of what is possible is 3-D

printing. Industrial 3-D printing systems

can be used to print models made from

acrylic glass (PMMA) or casting molds

made from silica sand. These are then

handled by casters in the same way as

traditional wax patterns or sand casting

molds. Strassacker recognized the

potential of 3-D printing early on. For

more than 15 years, the company has

been working with printed patterns –

including printed plastic patterns from

voxeljet. During this time, the family

business has been able to build up a

wealth of experience that it is sharing

with its customers.

This means that customers can either

send in their completed CAD data sets

to Strassacker, where they will be processed

in the company’s in-house digital

workshop, or customers can approach

Strassacker with their project plans and

allow the specialists in the 3-D modelling

department to advise them. „There

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 69


3-D-PRINTING

are hardly any limits to the ideas, but

you still need to develop them yourself,“

says Peter Mühlhäußer, product

line manager at Strassacker. “The same

way you have to know where the application

of technology makes sense and

where it doesn’t. Our technicians, designers

and 3-D modelling experts are the

right people to talk to, in order to

define the right technological execution.”

Strassacker can offer its customers

both manual and digital manufacturing

processes. If required, they can even

combine the two together in a hybrid

approach.

Examples

“Wachsende Steine” (“Growing Stones”)

by Timm Ulrichs. A stone, in its

natural form, was used as the initial

model. At Strassacker it was 3-D

scanned, digitized, scaled to the desired

size and then printed in several parts by

voxeljet. The larger stones, made from

several individually printed PMMA

parts, were manually assembled and

then prepared for casting by hand. The

PMMA models were cast like conventional

wax models and then individually

patinated by hand. Finally, the bronze

casts were airbrushed to look like the

natural model and painted by hand.

Another project are the bronze

reconstructions of the “Boxer at Rest”

and the “Hellenistic Prince” sculptures

by Prof. Dr. Vinzenz Brinkmann, which

were originally handmade between the

4th and 1st centuries BC and rediscovered

on the Quirinal in Rome in 1885.

The original sculptures were

3-D-scanned, digitized and printed as

PMMA patterns by voxeljet in their service

center in Friedberg, Bavaria. Finally,

the patterns were cast by Strassacker,

chiselled by hand, partially restored and

patinated. The finishing touches were

made by experts at the Liebieghaus

sculpture museum in Frankfurt.

Unpacking of the PMMA part,

which is then dipped into ceramic

and burnt out.

Printed and wax-infiltrated

PMMA part “KAS”.

Two other more current examples of

the collaboration between Strassacker

and voxeljet can be seen in the sculpture

“KAS”, an in-house project by

artist Peter Simon Mühlhäußer, and the

sculpture “Infiniala” by designer Sergej

Ehret.

“KAS” stands for “Kinetic Assembly

Structure” and reflects the materialization

of a digital thought process. This

also served as inspiration for the seat

„Infiniala“. A closer look at the numerous

contours of the seat reveals that

the lines always form an endless loop.

„KAS“ and „Infiniala“ show the

unique possibilities in the realization of

3-D printing gives

artists the opportunity

to make

fantastic changes.

For this reason,

3-D printing is

already firmly

established in the

repertoire of

sculptural artists

and will gain

further market

share.

ABOUT STRASSACKER

Ernst Strassacker GmbH & Co. KG was founded in Süßen, Germany, in 1919,

and today is one of the world’s leading manufacturers in artistic casting.

Since 2001, Edith Strassacker has been at the head of the family business in

its fourth generation. Their workshop creates ambitions sculptures, modern

architectural elements, sacred art and large-scale sculptures for public spaces.

Various processes are used, including the lost wax process and ceramic, fire

clay, vacuum and sand casting. The main focus is on preserving and encouraging

craftwork skills. Their customer base includes renowned artists, designers

and architects from all over the world. The company employs around 300

people at the headquarters in Süßen and their French branch in Heimsbrunn.

They also have sales offices in the USA and Saudi Arabia.

highly complex, digitally created works

of art.

The complex nested geometries can

only be realized by the use of additive

processes, such as binder jetting from

voxeljet. It would be impossible to produce

these casting models using conventional

molding processes.

70


Production of a 3-D pattern and

its advantages

Strassacker uses voxeljet‘s 3-D printing

service to produce, among other things,

positive and tooling less patterns for

bronze casting. In order to achieve this,

they send the 3-D data set of an artwork

to the voxeljet service center in

Friedberg near Augsburg. Here, the

CAD data is checked and further uploaded

into the VX1000 3-D printing system.

In the subsequent Binder-Jetting

process, the recoater moves over the

1,000 x 600 x 500 millimetre building

platform and spreads a 150 micrometre

thin layer of the plastic polymethyl methacrylate

(PMMA). Then, the print head

bonds the PMMA with a binder through

polymerisation wherever the artwork is

to be created. After each of these two

steps, the building platform is lowered

by one layer thickness and the recoater

and print head process the next layer.

This process produces the CAD data

layer by layer with a resolution of up to

600 dpi.

Once the print is finished, voxeljet

employees remove the model from the

The elaborate interlaced geometries

can only be realized

through the use of additive

processes, such as the voxeljet

binder jetting. Making a cast

blank with conventional

molding techniques would

be impossible.

The production of complex

model geometries is now

easily possible. Even the

gating system can be printed.

job box, remove unbound plastic powder

which can be reused 100 %,

infiltrate the components with wax to

further smoothen the surface and send

the positive pattern to Strassacker. 3 to

5 days after the placed order the pattern

is on-site at Strassacker and ready

for further processing.

The casting process at Strassacker

can then take its regular course. With a

significant advantage: no silicone negative

mold has to be created. The supplied

PMMA pattern can then be

immersed directly in ceramic to build a

shell and burnt out in the furnace at

700 °C. The PMMA material burns out

without leaving any residue, leaving

just the ceramic mold, into which the

liquid metal can then be poured.

In combination with 3-D printing,

the investment casting process opens up

completely new design possibilities.

Complex geometries that would have

been unthinkable in the past are now

possible in the near future. Added to

that, the gating system can also be printed

directly. This saves time and delivers

consistent casting results.

Chiselling and patination

Once the casting process has been completed,

the chiselling and patinating

work begins. A service that Strassacker

customers particularly appreciate. In

intensive cooperation with the artist, the

final appearance of an artwork is created

mutually. With custom-made tools,

the chisellers precisely carve out intricate

shapes and structures. Multi-piece cast

parts are joined by a specially developed

welding process without any visible

welds on the finished work of art. The

Bambi also gets its highly polished surface

here. Last but not least, the patinater

gives the work its colour by anticipating

the natural oxidation process using

chemical reactions. A high level of craftsmanship

and expertise is required to create

the subtlest of nuances in colour.

The future of sculpting

Nobody can exactly say, what the future

holds for the art of sculpting. But

change is clearly audible. There are

already a significant number of

open-minded artists using new, digital

technologies. This change will be of particular

benefit when it comes to conceptualizing

new artistic works. It allows

drafts to be drawn up and developed

using a computer in cases where manual

shaping techniques would be insufficient.

Innovative artists are constantly

striving to shift boundaries and develop

something new. The path they take to

achieve their vision is not the priority.

Decisive is the transformation into reality.

3-D printing gives artists the opportunity

to truly innovate. This is why 3-D

printing has already become firmly established

in sculptors’ repertoires and will

continue to gain market share.

It could also be conceivable that in

the distant future the model pre-acceptance

could take place using Virtual Reality

glasses. This would allow customers

to view the finished artwork in size,

colour and shape in three-dimensional

space before it actually is fabricated.

Peter Mühlhäußer is certain: “This would

be a practical relief that could solve

many problems in advance. It continues

expanding the dynamic creative dialogue

between artist and craftsman.”

Until then, it remains to be seen

what new, unique, 3-D-printed projects

will emerge at Strassacker in the near

future with the help of Binder Jetting

from voxeljet. One thing is for sure:

next time you get to see another Bambi

Award celebration, you’ll certainly

know, where the Bambi originated.

www.voxeljet.com

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 2/2019 71


INTERNATIONAL FAIRS AND CONGRESSES

Fairs and Congresses

20th International Die Casting, Foundry & Industrial

Furnace Exhibition

June, 13-15, 2019, Pazhou, Guangzhou, China

www.julang.com.cn/english/yazhu/index.asp

GIFA, METEC, THERMPROCESS, NEWCAST

June, 25-29, 2019, Düsseldorf, Germany

www.gifa.com

China Diecasting 2019

July, 17-19, 2019, Shanghai, China

www.diecastexpo.cn/en

11th International Exhibition of Steel, Metallurgy, Foundry,

Machinery and related Industries

September, 1-4, 2019, Isfahan, Iran

https://bit.ly/2MrZT1P

FENAF 2019 – Latin American Foundry Fair

September, 17-20, 2019, São Paulo, Brazil

https://bit.ly/2MrZT1P

WFO Technical Forum and 59th IFC

September, 18-20, 2019, Portoroz, Slovenia

www.drusto-livarjev.si

International Conference of Metals, Ceramics and Composites

September, 25-27, 2019, Varna, Bulgaria

https://mcc.foundry-conference.com

International Foundry Congress & Exhibition (IFCE-2020)

November (3rd Week), 2019, Lahore, Pakistan

www.pfa.org.pk/info/8th-IFCE/587/0

72

Advertisers‘ Index

Admar Group, Ocala FL/USA 23

AGTOS Gesellschaft für technische

Oberflächensysteme mbH, Emsdetten/Germany 41

ASK Chemicals GmbH, Hilden/Germany 15

ASTI - Gießereigeräte GmbH, Sinsheim/Germany 19

DISA Industries A/S, Taastrup/Denmark 25

DVS Media GmbH, Düsseldorf/Germany Inside Front

Cover, Inside Back Cover, 40

Euromac srl, Marano Vicentino (VI)/Italy 47

ExOne GmbH, Gersthofen/Germany Front Cover

FAT Förder- und Anlagentechnik GmbH,

Niederfischbach/Germany 63

Filtech Exhibitions Germany GmbH & Co. KG,

Meerbusch/Germany 40

FONDAREX SA, St. Légier/Switzerland 55

Hitachi High-Tech Analytical Science GmbH,

Uedem/Germany 61

Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke GmbH,

Düsseldorf/Germany

Back Cover

Jasper Gesellschaft für Energiewirtschaft und

Kybernetik mbH, Geseke/Germany 8

JÖST GmbH & Co. KG, Dülmen/Germany 43

KLEIN Anlagenbau AG, Freudenberg/Germany 57

KÜNKEL WAGNER Germany GmbH,

Alfeld/Germany 53

Luoyang Hongfeng Abrasives Co., Ltd.,

Luoyang/PR China 14

Maschinenfabrik Gustav Eirich GmbH & Co KG,

Hardheim/Germany 49

O.M.LER S.r.l. Bra, (CN)/Italy 31

Optris GmbH, Berlin/Germany 13

regloplas AG, St. Gallen/Switzerland 51

RUMP Strahlanlagen GmbH & Co. KG,

Salzkotten/Germany 31

Rudolf Uhlen GmbH, Haan/Germany 39

Heinrich Wagner Sinto Maschinenfabrik GmbH,

Bad Laasphe/Germany 37

voxeljet AG, Friedberg/Germany 39

YXLON International GmbH, Hamburg/Germany 9


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PREVIEW/IMPRINT

A group of foundymen is waiting

for the end of the tapping on the

cupola of Gießerei Stolle in Bonn-

Beuel. Deliveries and services for

worldwide investment projects

make up a considerable part of

sales.

Photo: Andreas Bednareck

Preview of the next issue

Selection of topics:

R. Piterek: The foundry as project partner

The iron foundry Gießerei Stolle is successfully involved in the casting of special machines – the range of services not only

includes the casting and machining, but the complete project planning.

D. Sauerwald: Recycling – certainly safely!

The GreCon spark extinguishing system sees to a safe production at Siegfried Jacob Metal Works, which has been specializing

in metal recycling for more than six decades.

B. Pinto et al.: Thermally-efficient crucibles: Fundamentals, modelling and applications for energy savings

Since melting and holding metal in crucibles accounts for a large portion of energy demand in foundries, recent advancements

in crucible technologies resulting from these studies could significantly impact cost-efficiency and carbon footprint.

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