CPT International 01/2019

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Foundry technology<br />

made in Germany!<br />

German foundries and their suppliers are resourceful when it comes<br />

to modernization. Evidently with success, because Germany is the<br />

­world’s fifth-largest producer of castings – and has been the uncontested<br />

world champion in productivity for years.<br />

Robert Piterek<br />

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de<br />

This newly designed issue of CP+T<br />

shows particularly clearly the<br />

answers that German engineers<br />

and molding material developers have<br />

found for the daily challenges facing<br />

foundries. The vibration technology<br />

expert Joest, for example, manufactures<br />

casting coolers and sells them worldwide.<br />

The interview with Managing<br />

Director Dr. Marcus Wirtz reveals the<br />

strategic considerations of the company,<br />

but also deals with the consequences<br />

of e-mobility and Industry 4.0<br />

(more on this from P. 6).<br />

The topics covered in other engineering-related<br />

articles range from a new<br />

thermal regeneration plant, through a<br />

shredder solution for aluminum rejects<br />

at the BMW works in Landshut and a<br />

process-integrated blasting plant, to an<br />

intelligent coating unit for automating<br />

coating preparation and inspections.<br />

The company report from P. 12<br />

provides a concrete view of a German<br />

foundry. The iron foundry Dinklage<br />

produces counterweights for forklifts.<br />

Business is booming, but the workforce<br />

at the company is insufficient – a problem<br />

that is affecting many foundries<br />

worldwide.<br />

Countries’ increasingly stringent<br />

environmental legislation in response to<br />

climate change and international treaties<br />

such as the Paris Agreement is forcing<br />

foundries and molding material<br />

developers to find new solutions<br />

regard­ing the composition of sand<br />

cores and molds. Inorganic substances<br />

have long played a role here. Now a<br />

new process accelerates the hardening<br />

of inorganic sand cores by means of<br />

electricity (more on this from P. 20)<br />

To assist in your orientation at the<br />

GIFA (at which about 1,000 exhibitors<br />

and 80,000 visitors are again expected)<br />

this issue also includes a GIFA Special.<br />

An article deals with Industry 4.0, the<br />

focus topic area of the trade fair. As<br />

GIFA and the quartet of technology<br />

trade fairs called “Bright World of<br />

Metals“ will offer a special show on<br />

additive manufacturing this year the<br />

Special also includes an article on this<br />

“key issue for future production<br />

engineering“. Visit GIFA and gain an<br />

insight into the current state-of-the-art<br />

of foundry technology – I am looking<br />

forward meeting your there!<br />

Have a good read!<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 3




Successful, even in uncertain times<br />

Joest is a specialist for vibration technology and<br />

2<strong>01</strong>9 becomes 100 years old – Interview with<br />

Managing Director Dr. Marcus Wirtz<br />

Michael Vehreschild<br />

12 COMPANY<br />

Full order books –<br />

but shortage of personnel<br />

The iron foundry Dinklage in the German federal<br />

state of Lower Saxony uses hand molding processes<br />

to cast counterweights for the forklift sector.<br />

Robert Piterek<br />


Process-integrated<br />

blast cleaning of die castings<br />

Die casting of aluminium is an extremely productive<br />

method for the manufacture of large-series<br />

parts which can be controlled at a high level.<br />

Klaus Vollrath<br />


Dr. Marcus Wirtz in<br />

conversation with<br />

CP+T reporter<br />

Vehreschild.<br />


A foundry in Lower<br />

Saxony casts counterweights<br />

for the booming<br />

forklift sector.<br />


Development of a new process for fast<br />

electrical hardening of inorganic sand cores<br />

The development of a new process for the hardening<br />

of inorganic sand cores aims at the faster and<br />

more cost-effective production of inorganic sand<br />

cores, Wolfram Bach, Eric Riedel<br />

Cover-Photo:<br />

Fritz Winter Eisengießerei GmbH & Co. KG,<br />

Albert-Schweitzer-Straße 15, 35260 Stadtallendorf,<br />

Germany info@fritzwinter.de<br />

www.fritzwinter.de/en<br />


The ICU is the next<br />

step in simplifying<br />

the coating application<br />

in the foundry<br />

industry.<br />

Fritz Winter is supplier of the global auto mo tive, commercial<br />

vehicle and hydraulic industry with sites in Germany,<br />

USA and China. The company develops and manufactures<br />

castings as well as complex system components.<br />





Blast cleaning of<br />

die castings.<br />


From waste to molding material<br />

Optimization of circulation for organically bound<br />

no-bake sands, Marco Cassens<br />

28 3-D-PRINTING<br />

Additive manufacturing –<br />

a plus for modern metal casting<br />

Many industrial manufacturers claim to be excited<br />

about metal additive manufacturing – a process that<br />

makes possible previously unmakeable shapes – but<br />

how many are actually doing anything about it?<br />

Andreas Bastian<br />

31 SPECIAL: GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9 – the future is digital<br />

“The Bright World of Metals” is focusing on digitalization<br />

and Industry 4.0 in 2<strong>01</strong>9, Gerd Krause<br />

Additive manufacturing: the key issue for<br />

production engineering in future<br />

“The Bright World of Metals“ is devoting a special<br />

show to the subject of additive manufacturing.<br />

Gerd Krause<br />


ICU – Intelligent Coating Unit<br />

By intelligent coating control, a great number of<br />

new automation applications become possible.<br />

Christoph Genzler<br />

48 RECYCLING<br />


Production of cylinder<br />

crankcases at the<br />

BMW Lightmetal<br />

foundry in Landshut.<br />

A new pre-shredder<br />

reduces srap.<br />

Pre-shredder in aluminium foundry reduces<br />

scrap<br />

Implementation of a sophisticated safety concept<br />

for the monitoring of container filling levels.<br />

Sophie Kesy<br />



40 GIFA NEWS<br />

50 NEWS IN BRIEF<br />



CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 5



“Naturally, our employees are central to our<br />

success. Everyone carries the foundry DNA in<br />

themselves.“<br />

Joest is a successful specialist in the field of vibration<br />

technology. The picture shows Dr. Marcus Wirtz in front<br />

of a dryer manufactured by Joest<br />

Successful, even in<br />

uncertain times<br />

100 years of Joest this year – Interview with Managing Director, Dr. Marcus Wirtz<br />

These are turbulent times – the Diesel<br />

emmission scandal, political shocks,<br />

e-mobility and Industry 4.0 challenge<br />

the foundries. Nevertheless, Joest continues<br />

to write its success story unabashed.<br />

Rising sales and employee<br />

figures show that the company is<br />

doing a lot right. Joest can confidently<br />

look forward to its 100th anniversary<br />

next year. How did the company from<br />

Duelmen achieve this? CP+T spoke to<br />

Joests Managing Director, Dr. Marcus<br />

Wirtz.<br />

Photo: Jöst<br />

Your company is successful in the market<br />

and boasts increasing sales and<br />

employee figures. You obviously did a<br />

lot of things right. In your opinion,<br />

what was decisive for this development?<br />

One of the key aspects of our success<br />

story is the history of the company.<br />

Joest celebrates its 100th anniversary<br />

next year. We have remained true to<br />

ourselves throughout the years. We<br />

have been manufacturing vibratory<br />

machines for a long time, but have<br />

remained open-minded and have added<br />

additional technologies to our portfolio.<br />

We have developed these consistently<br />

and made it possible for the company<br />

to continue to grow in a generic<br />

and organic way with new applications<br />

and technologies. Today we offer everything<br />

the market asks for – from small<br />

individual machines to large solutions.<br />

We fulfill the wishes of many foundries<br />

with complete solutions. We have<br />

developed ourselves in line with the<br />

customers and their needs. Listening<br />

On the road to success with Jöst: Managing Director Marcus Wirtz looks to the future with<br />

confidence<br />

and counseling is essential – and of<br />

course experience.<br />

What were the milestones in the<br />

development of Joest?<br />

To steadily strengthen its growth, Joest<br />

has made acquisitions that are optimally<br />

suited. In 1995, we acquired the<br />

Uhde-Schwingungstechnik. Herweg<br />

joined in 2002: In addition to the vibration<br />

technology, Joest now also offers<br />

weighing technology and special solutions.<br />

The conveying in vacuum was<br />

made possible. In 2006, Joest took over<br />

DIETERLE, a manufacturer of lifting and<br />

tipping equipment that transports, lifts,<br />

tilts, doses or decants bulk materials.<br />

DIETERLE GmbH & Co. KG merged with<br />

Joest GmbH + Co. KG early 2<strong>01</strong>8 and is<br />

no longer an independent company,<br />

but another strong Joest group brand.<br />

In this way, we have expanded and supplemented<br />

our portfolio, and now offer<br />

an even wider range of products.<br />

A company is only successful in a team.<br />

What is the role of your employees in<br />

the growth?<br />

Naturally, our employees are central to<br />

our success. We attach great importance<br />

to employing primarily foundry<br />

engineers in our foundry division or<br />

Photo: Michael Vehreschild<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 7


employees from the foundry sector.<br />

Everyone carries the foundry DNA in<br />

themselves. This allows for a completely<br />

different access to customers. Furthermore,<br />

Joest has a very good staff structure<br />

of older and younger employees,<br />

from experienced and talented employees.<br />

Today, having on-site contact is<br />

more important than ever in international<br />

business. We have a total of ten<br />

subsidiaries. At least one on each continent,<br />

where we also manufacture, have<br />

spare parts ready and employ<br />

engineers. A key success of the Joest<br />

group lies in the successful internationalization<br />

strategy of the last 20 years.<br />

Now we are present in different countries<br />

and keep a close eye on what each<br />

country needs. This global presence also<br />

makes it possible to balance a weakening<br />

market with a stronger one.<br />

Photo: Michael Vehreschild<br />

How does success translate into<br />

numbers?<br />

The success can be seen in the development<br />

of sales and employee figures.<br />

They rose by 10 to 15 % respectively in<br />

the past three years. Today, Joest has<br />

365 employees in Germany – 15 more<br />

than a year and a half ago. Sales worldwide<br />

rose to more than 90 million<br />

euros.<br />

On the 1st of November<br />

2<strong>01</strong>8 Joests new<br />

tech nical center started<br />

operation.<br />

Good numbers despite adversity – the<br />

Diesel emmission scandal also had an<br />

impact on the suppliers to the automotive<br />

industry. How did it impact Joest?<br />

Of course, the exhaust gas scandal has<br />

damaged the image of German mechanical<br />

engineering. At first there were<br />

irritations, projects were sometimes<br />

postponed. But there were reinvestments,<br />

the irritations are only insignificant.<br />

The scandal was so far not as significant<br />

as expected. We were able to<br />

balance the dent with other applications.<br />

Especially since the European<br />

foundries are becoming more and more<br />

international.<br />

Photo: Jöst<br />

What impact do growing expectations<br />

for efficiency and sustainability have<br />

on your business?<br />

We pay attention, for example, to efficiency<br />

in drive technology, which has<br />

always been one of our core competencies.<br />

An example: We have produced a<br />

large cast iron cooler – the largest vibrating<br />

machine in Europe – which is only<br />

powered by a 15 KW motor. We lower<br />

the energy consumption, even as the<br />

cast coolers get larger and larger. In<br />

addition, we at Joest naturally optimize<br />

our own production processes and production<br />

halls. The conversion to stateof-the-art<br />

technology, such as LED lighting<br />

and cold-beam heating systems,<br />

significantly saves on energy.<br />

How did you manage to meet the<br />

increasing demands?<br />

In fact, the requirements are becoming<br />

more and more complex – but we enjoy<br />

tackling them. To do this, we develop<br />

new processes and optimize machines,<br />

controls and plant technology. This<br />

applies for example to the core sand<br />

crushing. In order to meet high requirements,<br />

we have also steadily increased<br />

our development staff. We also offer a<br />

dual degree program, which we are significantly<br />

expanding for the different<br />

areas. In addition, we are preparing<br />

ourselves as a strong training company<br />

for the future. We currently have 35<br />

trainees – from the commercial sector<br />

to production. As customers increasingly<br />

demand a local presence, Joest<br />

founded another new company in<br />

Korea in 2<strong>01</strong>7. In China and Korea,<br />

there is a clear demand to produce<br />

locally, which we also live up to. We are<br />

well informed about different countries<br />

and we have a combination of local and<br />

international staff here.<br />

Business units usually do not all<br />

develop at the same pace. Which<br />

product portfolio for foundries shows<br />

a particularly strong growth at your<br />

company? What are the reasons?<br />

A current trend is that due to increasing<br />

demand, several brake disk foundries<br />

are investing in box form plants with<br />

horizontal division in order to produce<br />

the castings with a structure which is<br />

point symmetrical to its axis of rotation.<br />

The configuration of the molding boxes<br />


“The share of hybrid drives will rise significantly<br />

in the coming years. This requires<br />

about 25 to 30 % more weight in castings. “<br />

Investments are essential -<br />

that‘s what Jöst stands for.<br />

Michael Vehreschild (right)<br />

interviewed Dr.-Ing. Marcus<br />

Wirtz on the question of what<br />

makes Jöst so successful.<br />

Photo: Jöst<br />

is maximized; the performance of<br />

modern molding equipment is significant.<br />

This requires casting/sand separation<br />

plants in appropriate dimensions.<br />

In the production of engine blocks<br />

made of cast iron materials increasingly<br />

methods are used in which the casting<br />

has no direct contact with the wet casting<br />

sand, but rather is enclosed by an<br />

outer contour core structure to meet<br />

the accuracy and reproducibility,<br />

demanded by the required thin casting<br />

wall thicknesses of up to 2.5 mm. Such<br />

filigree castings require special unpacking<br />

procedures. This can not be managed<br />

with conventional separation channels.<br />

In the production of aluminum<br />

cylinder heads and several components<br />

for electric cars in gravity die casting,<br />

the cavities of the castings are mapped<br />

by built cores. For reasons of emission<br />

protection, increasingly inorganic binders<br />

are used for the production of<br />

these cores, replacing the traditional<br />

organic cold box process. It has been<br />

found, however, that the dust produced<br />

during the various post-coring process<br />

steps is significantly finer and partially<br />

respirable, i.e., penetrates into the<br />

alveoli. This considerably raises the<br />

demands placed on the plant technology<br />

with regard to dust-proofness and<br />

wear resistance. Since our concepts consistently<br />

reflect the indispensable feedback<br />

of customer experience, we have<br />

suitable solutions that meet these<br />

requirements.<br />

Which markets may come to the fore?<br />

We can see expansions in Mexico and<br />

Turkey. The automotive industry is growing,<br />

increasing the need for foundries.<br />

Especially since end users expect the<br />

foundry to be located nearby. In addition,<br />

there is an investment backlog in<br />

North America. Much of the production<br />

was shifted especially to China. Now a<br />

lot can come back. The political and<br />

financial problems and conflicts –<br />

recently in Turkey – as well as tweets<br />

from the US, however, can stop such<br />

developments overnight and lead to<br />

shifts to other countries. Therefore, our<br />

international presence is essential.<br />

E-mobility is thus coming increasingly<br />

into the spotlight. How do you rate this<br />

market?<br />

It will be a long time before there are<br />

no more combustion engines left. The<br />

demand for trucks is very high.<br />

Truck transport is increasing enormously<br />

and e-mobility is less important here<br />

and will not represent a solution for the<br />

foreseeable future. I consider the goals<br />

of e-mobility announced by politicians<br />

in Germany to be unrealistic. But I have<br />

the impression that this will calm down<br />

and they will come to their senses, to<br />

more realistic assessments and time frames.<br />

(Including combustion engine).<br />

This includes hydrogen propulsion and<br />

the classic internal combustion engine<br />

in other regions, where these are constantly<br />

optimized. To meet future requirements<br />

for fleet consumption<br />

The share of hybrid drives will rise<br />

significantly in the coming years. This<br />

requires about 25 to 30 % more weight<br />

in castings. According to expert estimates,<br />

this trend will continue until at least<br />

2035. If the share of pure electric<br />

vehicles increases gradually, the proportion<br />

of castings will decrease significantly,<br />

but many castings will be required<br />

for the charging infrastructure and<br />

the growing number of wind turbines.<br />

Could markets develop differently?<br />

In China, North America – and Africa in<br />

the long term – the demand for engines<br />

is immense, and the distances to be<br />

covered are even greater. The internal<br />

combustion engines will continue to<br />

play their part in this. But one thing is<br />

clear: E-mobility is a trend, the share of<br />

E-mobility will continue to grow. There<br />

will be a mix: in the urban area rather<br />

electric motors and hybrid technology<br />

(with internal combustion engine). This<br />

includes hydrogen propulsion and the<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 9


classic internal combustion engine in<br />

other regions, where these are constantly<br />

optimized. In order to meet<br />

future requirements for fleet consumption,<br />

the share of hybrid drives will<br />

increase significantly in the coming<br />

years. This requires about 25 to 30 %<br />

more weight in castings. According to<br />

expert estimates, this trend will continue<br />

until at least 2035. If the share of<br />

pure electric vehicles increases gradually,<br />

the proportion of castings will<br />

decrease significantly, but many castings<br />

will be required for the charging<br />

infrastructure and the growing number<br />

of wind turbines.<br />

Industry 4.0 is the future. How do you<br />

position yourself here?<br />

Industry 4.0 is a special opportunity, we<br />

are working intensively with it. We<br />

have already developed some solutions:<br />

Thus, we provide a clear allocation of<br />

data on the castings, bring together<br />

numerous parameters and allow tracing<br />

of data. For example, the customer<br />

knows where things are. The goal is to<br />

detect mistakes earlier and avoid them.<br />

It’s all about reporting of faults, avoidance<br />

of failures and preventive maintenance.<br />

Our vision is that you can tell<br />

why a casting error occurred. All data<br />

– such as temperature, speed, humidity,<br />

inventory and noise level – should be<br />

merged. An important example: The<br />

controllers we develop should not just<br />

control. We already have intelligent<br />

controls – the platform is there, so the<br />

hardware is there. Now let’s see how<br />

we use them, so that these controls can<br />

unfold their full potential. For this purpose,<br />

the controllers are additionally<br />

equipped with intelligent software. We<br />

want to offer both: normal and intelligent<br />

controls.<br />

Without innovations there is no further<br />

development of the company. With<br />

what strategy do you proceed here?<br />

The field of research and development<br />

is essential for us. That is why we work<br />

together with various universities, for<br />

example with the Technical University<br />

of Aachen and the University of Applied<br />

Sciences of Münster, Steinfurt department.<br />

We award master’s and doctoral<br />

theses. Furthermore, I am a member of<br />

the board of the VDMA trade association<br />

Metallurgy and Chairman of the<br />

Department of Mineral Processing.<br />

Here, global strategic issues are discussed.<br />

What investments did you use to accelerate<br />

the development of your company?<br />

We have been here in Dülmen since<br />

1990 and have since been constantly<br />

expanding by investing in new plants<br />

and production capacities such as halls.<br />

The floor area increased from 40,000 to<br />

approximately 65,000 square meters. An<br />

example: Eight years ago, we built a<br />

completely new blasting and painting<br />

plant using state-of-the-art technology.<br />

Since then we can perform all paint specifications<br />

up to the highest quality<br />

requirements in a flexible and timely<br />

manner. This is especially important<br />

when offering premium quality with<br />


The foundry business field at Joest offers machines and systems for green and<br />

no-bake sand molding systems. Companies in the steel and metallurgical<br />

industries are supplied with, among other things, hopper discharge chutes for<br />

supplement management, and alloying plants for the various melting processes<br />

in steelworks. In addition to metallurgy, the main business fields are primary<br />

raw materials, secondary raw materials/recycling, as well as chemistry<br />

and food.<br />

Vibration machines and systems for almost all industrial sectors are conceived,<br />

designed, produced and tested at the headquarters in Dülmen on a total<br />

surface area of about 65,000 m². The company, which considers itself an<br />

expert in bulk materials, has undergone strong growth in recent years. Several<br />

subsidiaries have been founded abroad: in South Korea (since 2<strong>01</strong>7), India,<br />

China, Australia, Brazil, South Africa, France, and in the USA. So, according to<br />

Joest, customers all over the world can exploit the company’s expertise with<br />

local support, production and service. Sales volumes and the number of<br />

employees are constantly rising. Joest has 365 employees in Germany, and<br />

more than 700 worldwide. Worldwide sales total more than 90 million euros.<br />

Joest will celebrate its 100-year history next year. The Managing Directors<br />

include Dr. Hans Moormann (also Managing Partner), Dr. Marcus Wirtz and Dr.<br />

Christoph Stephany.<br />

short delivery times. On November 1,<br />

the new technical center went into operation.<br />

We built this even larger. Here<br />

we can run tests with customers for all<br />

solutions as well as machines and prototypes<br />

offered by Joest. Over the past<br />

few years, we have invested a total of<br />

more than 10 million euros in our main<br />

site in Dülmen.<br />

Are there plans for further investment<br />

in the next few years?<br />

Yes, this includes, for example, the new<br />

machine technology of the flame cutting<br />

machine with integrated machining<br />

centers. We also employ welding<br />

robots to achieve productivity at a consistently<br />

high level of quality. As the<br />

world leader in vibration technology<br />

with manufacturing facilities on every<br />

continent, quality is our top priority, no<br />

matter where in the world customers<br />

buy from us. Therefore, we continue to<br />

focus on Germany and plan further<br />

expansions, especially for quality-critical<br />

parts and components.<br />

Investments are important, but also<br />

require qualified employees. How do<br />

you deal with the shortage of skilled<br />

workers?<br />

We must note that it is becoming more<br />

difficult to find trainees. This applies<br />

especially to the field of electrical<br />

engineering. Basically, we are working<br />

very actively to avoid a shortage of<br />

skilled workers. Thus, for example, we<br />

have a good network with associations<br />

and universities. And we can offer<br />

employees many benefits. We have<br />

very good transport connections. We<br />

are in close proximity to Münster as<br />

well as Duisburg, Dortmund and Dusseldorf<br />

– without having to renounce<br />

the advantages of inexpensive rural<br />

living. A great location advantage. The<br />

dual course of study that we offer is<br />

also very attractive. Young employees<br />

have many and good international<br />

opportunities for development. Out of<br />

consideration for the families, the fitters<br />

are still working in the factory.<br />

The employees assemble the machines<br />

here, but then accompany them to the<br />

construction site for final assembly. It<br />

is important for us not only to keep<br />

our employees, but to offer an attractive,<br />

motivating work environment<br />

with prospects. And this is confirmed<br />

by the fact that they want to stay<br />

here!<br />

The interview was conducted by<br />

Michael Vehreschild, Kleve.<br />


FOUNDRY –<br />


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Full order books –<br />

but shortage of personnel<br />

Melt on the march! Cupola<br />

furnaces replenish the molten<br />

iron in the iron foundry<br />

The iron foundry Dinklage in the German federal state of Lower Saxony uses hand molding<br />

processes to cast counterweights for the forklift sector. Business is booming, but the<br />

necessary capacity expansion is at risk because of a lack of personnel. Managing Director<br />

Björn Ploch wants to modernize and expand the works – with Swabian industriousness<br />

and good ideas.<br />

by Robert Piterek, Düsseldorf<br />

Photos: Andreas Bednareck<br />

Drive past special steel producer<br />

Stallkamp and axle manufacturer<br />

Gigant and you reach the Dinklage<br />

iron foundry in the industrial park<br />

of the small town of Dinklage (population<br />

12,800) in the Vechta district of<br />

Lower Saxony. The production hall,<br />

about 70 meters long, stands at right<br />

angles to the administration building,<br />

in front of which employees and visitors<br />

can park their cars. The works, which<br />

looks fairly inconspicuous from the outside,<br />

is an essential element in the production<br />

chain of a type of vehicle<br />

which, although an everyday sight in<br />

industry, is only ever seen on Germany’s<br />

roads firmly strapped to the back of a<br />

truck. The iron foundry is owned by the<br />

Frankfurt-based KION GROUP which<br />

also controls, among other companies,<br />

the major forklift producers Linde<br />

Material Handling and STILL. Components<br />

for excavators and mobile cranes<br />

are also produced here for Switzerland’s<br />

Liebherr group of companies. The<br />

owners of the iron foundry should be<br />

pleased about the extremely good<br />

orders situation. Managing Director<br />

Björn Ploch puts it succinctly: “The<br />

forklift market is booming!” Whereby<br />

his task is the foundry-based production<br />

of the counterweights – necessary for<br />

balancing the loads that the forklifts<br />

busily transport around the factories of<br />

the world – annual sales of which are in<br />

the high double-digit millions of euros.<br />



Managing Director<br />

Björn Ploch (left) ex ­<br />

plains the charging of<br />

the furnace to CP+T-<br />

Edi tor Robert Piterek<br />

– reasonably priced<br />

input material is becoming<br />

increasingly rare.<br />

Work is now in full<br />

swing in the foundry.<br />

Here, on the semi-automatic<br />

molding line.<br />

An older caster treats a mold with an<br />

alcohol-based coating. Almost 40 %<br />

of the workforce is over 55 years old.<br />

The workforce is too old<br />

The hand molding foundry is located in<br />

a region that has no foundry tradition<br />

and where the unemployment rate of<br />

2 % is nearing full employment. A poor<br />

starting point for a works that employs<br />

167 personnel (including agency workers<br />

and trainees) and whose workforce<br />

is gradually ageing too much. “The proportion<br />

of 55-year-olds in the workforce<br />

is currently 38 %,” according to Ploch.<br />

“This will catch us out badly in two or<br />

three years,” the Swabian adds gloomily.<br />

He comes from Königsbronn in the<br />

Swabian Alb region and started working<br />

at the Dinklage iron foundry in<br />

2<strong>01</strong>6.<br />

Ploch’s fascination regarding<br />

foundry work started at SHW in Königsbronn.<br />

Here he developed from a skilled<br />

worker to a master, before taking a<br />

commercial Chamber of Industry and<br />

Commerce course and then moving to<br />

Hasloch to be Works Manager for Kurtz,<br />

where he helped Managing Director<br />

Graziano Sammati expand the smart<br />

foundry. Ploch’s eyes light up when<br />

asked whether he would also set up<br />

Industry 4.0-based production in Dinklage<br />

if it were possible, though he<br />

avoids the comparison. “The technology<br />

and design at Kurtz were brilliant, but I<br />

think that the automated transport systems<br />

there are too susceptible to<br />

faults,” he recalls, and then ventures to<br />

transfer the vision of a smart foundry to<br />

his works: “I see what they have at<br />

Kurtz on rails here – and there would<br />

also have to be a manipulator.” But the<br />

necessary manpower would have to be<br />

recruited here before he could approach<br />

these tasks in concrete terms.<br />

Automatic preparation<br />

of coatings<br />

Some new developments, however,<br />

have been completed and are already<br />

improving the quality and expanding<br />

the capacity of the current 36,000 tonnes<br />

per year of production – because<br />

the order books for 2<strong>01</strong>8 and 2<strong>01</strong>9 are<br />

full to the brim. And the restless Swabian<br />

does not lack plans. Ploch and his<br />

team recently invested in an automatic<br />

coating preparation system from<br />

foundry supplier Foseco, Borken, to<br />

meet customers’ quality demands.<br />

“There was often a lot of mineralization<br />

in the shaft area. When we took<br />

measurements, we found that there<br />

was insufficient viscosity in our old coating<br />

tank. Our water-based dip therefore<br />

failed to provide the desired<br />

effect,” the Managing Director ex ­<br />

plains. “Our flood basin used to be<br />

manually mixed every morning,” he<br />

recalls. Ploch got the idea for the<br />

Foseco coating preparation system<br />

during a visit to the sister foundry run<br />

by Linde Material Handling in Weilbach,<br />

where an almost identical plant was<br />

already in operation. After a few modifications,<br />

the pool has also been providing<br />

optimally mixed coatings in Dinklage<br />

since January 2<strong>01</strong>8.<br />

Human sources of error are ruled<br />

out by the computer-controlled<br />

movement of the reddish brown liquid,<br />

which is gently stirred in the pool by a<br />

current and then applied to the core.<br />

The mineralization problem at Dinklage<br />

is now a thing of the past, and Ploch is<br />

happy to have a German partner for the<br />

coating. “The advantage of Foseco is its<br />

closeness. Other producers are located<br />

in Italy, and the reaction time is not<br />

quick enough. We have had two problems<br />

since the plant was installed.<br />

Foseco was here in four hours and provided<br />

immediate help, while also offe­<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 13


ring service,” stresses Ploch. According<br />

to Foseco, the advantage of the plant is<br />

cost reduction – thanks to a lower reject<br />

rate and less extra work – as well as<br />

increased productivity and optimized<br />

drying, with positive effects on the quality<br />

of the castings.<br />

An alcohol-based coating is not an<br />

alternative solution for Ploch. “On our<br />

casting line we still use alcohol coatings<br />

for the cope and drag boxes, but<br />

water-based for the cores. The disadvantage<br />

of the alcohol coating is that<br />

the surface of the binder bridges can be<br />

destroyed by the heat, resulting in loss<br />

of mold strength. Water-based coating<br />

is gentler, it does its job, evaporates and<br />

I can work on the core again after eight<br />

hours. There is also less smell.” The iron<br />

foundry uses no-bake furan resin sands<br />

with 20 % of new sand and 80 % of old<br />

sand for the cores.<br />

Ploch is a pragmatist through and<br />

through, and is totally involved with his<br />

job. He is prepared to put up with various<br />

hardships: he lives in Dinklage<br />

during the week, commuting to his wife<br />

and children in Heidenheim, 600 kilometers<br />

away, on weekends and for<br />

family celebrations. In addition to his<br />

profession and family, Ploch has two<br />

other passions: the German Premier<br />

League football club VfB Stuttgart and<br />

Thai boxing. He is also working on professionally<br />

rounding out his rise from<br />

foundry mechanic to Managing Director<br />

with an additional course he is taking in<br />

foundry technology at the German<br />

Foundrymen’s Association (VDG) Academy<br />

in Düsseldorf.<br />

The cope and drag boxes are<br />

put together on the closing<br />

machine, then the casting boxes<br />

are transported to the molding<br />

line opposite, where they are<br />

shot.<br />

The molding boxes are prepared<br />

for casting by workers with respirators.<br />

No-bake furan resin<br />

sand is used.<br />

Induction furnace tandem to<br />

replace cupola furnaces<br />

The replacement of the two cupola furnaces<br />

with induction furnaces is fully<br />

planned, but has not yet received final<br />

approval. Every hour, the cupola furnaces<br />

currently supply ten tonnes of melt<br />

of the alloy GJL 250, the only metal<br />

used at Dinklage. While one furnace is<br />

actively melting, the other receives<br />

maintenance – requiring manpower for<br />

which Ploch must maintain 3-shift operation.<br />

This melting system, especially<br />

suitable for serial casting, is now rarely<br />

found in Germany. Only about 60<br />

cupola furnaces are still operating in<br />

German foundries.<br />

The two cupola furnaces have a<br />

central position in the production hall<br />

in Dinklage. Water constantly flows<br />

over the outer shell and the refractory<br />

material of the melting furnaces to<br />

cool them. Ploch and his team have calculated<br />

that 2-shift operation could be<br />

reintroduced with induction furnaces.<br />

At the same time, although the overall<br />

electricity price is rising, the basic price<br />

for the iron foundry would actually fall<br />

as a result of the higher purchase<br />

quantity: 15 instead of 1.6 MW of electricity<br />

a month. There are, however,<br />

numerous other reasons for changing<br />

the melting technology. For one thing,<br />

there is the problem of the smell<br />

(which annoys residents in the immediate<br />

vicinity of the foundry), as well as<br />

difficulty procuring input material. As<br />

flexible as cupola furnaces are, reasonably<br />

priced input material – Grade 3a<br />

commercial casting scrap, consisting of<br />

old radiators and water pipes, up to<br />

now obtained from Poland, the former<br />

East German states and the Czech<br />

Republic – is becoming increasingly<br />

rare, leading to rising prices. A new<br />

induction furnace tandem would double<br />

melt performance while reducing<br />

the workload and eliminating the<br />

smell problem – arguments for the<br />

change that Ploch considers unbeatable.<br />

He estimates the costs for the furnaces,<br />

the periphery and installation at<br />

5 million euros.<br />

In order to equip the foundry for<br />

the future, Ploch also wants to install a<br />

sixth processing center with a 5-axis milling<br />

machine in the machining shop, as<br />

well as buy a molding sand mixer and a<br />

casting cooler. There should also be a<br />

cooling section for the castings, and<br />

drying furnaces for the cores. Solution<br />


The iron foundry was able to<br />

ensure mold stability with the<br />

fully automatic coating pools<br />

from Foseco.<br />

of the personnel shortage, however, is<br />

of fundamental importance for increasing<br />

yield with the help of the new<br />

technical equipment in the machining<br />

shop: “I currently have five machines<br />

but only four operators,” the Managing<br />

Director points out.<br />

Five processing centers<br />

are currently in operation<br />

– and there is<br />

already one operator<br />

too few. Machining is<br />

nevertheless to be<br />

expanded.<br />

A forklift counterweight<br />

with sprues and<br />

burrs in the fettling<br />

shop. Most of the work<br />

here is done by agency<br />

staff.<br />

The casters from the Swabian Alb<br />

Work in the production hall is now in<br />

full swing. Most of the space in the hall<br />

is taken up with the semi-automatic<br />

molding plant. Finished drag boxes containing<br />

cores for STILL counterweights<br />

are currently being transported to the<br />

closing machine, where the cope and<br />

drag boxes are automatically put<br />

together. The boxes are perfectly flush<br />

with one another and are then transported<br />

to the casting line opposite,<br />

where they are shot. 65 to 80 molds are<br />

thus filled with red-hot melt every day<br />

– the largest counterweights weigh six<br />

tonnes.<br />

To the left of the molding plant the<br />

drag boxes are prepared for casting,<br />

coated, provided with cores, and secured<br />

against the lifting force. An older<br />

employee is currently hooking a bulky<br />

core to a hall crane and can thus effortlessly<br />

transport it to the waiting drag<br />

box. Elsewhere in the foundry it also<br />

becomes clear that most of the workforce<br />

have already passed the height of<br />

their productive capacity.<br />

In order to get to grips with the personnel<br />

problem, Ploch first got in touch<br />

with his own contacts in the Swabian<br />

Alb. As in the case of his 56-year-old<br />

pattern constructor, who originally<br />

managed a family-run company in<br />

Aalen but had to give it up because he<br />

could not find a successor. Thanks to<br />

Ploch’s persuasive power, the man now<br />

works here in Dinklage.<br />

Trainee Mario Faiss also came to the<br />

small Lower Saxony town from the Swabian<br />

Alb to start his career. He is in his<br />

second year of training to become a<br />

foundry mechanic, and is being introduced<br />

to the profession in the works by<br />

trainer Fred Säwert. He completed his<br />

vocational college work in block lessons<br />

at the Wilhelm Maybach College (WMS)<br />

570 kilometers away in Stuttgart,<br />

although there is also a foundry academy<br />

in nearby Varel. “They do not,<br />

however, have a training foundry of<br />

their own, and that is important for<br />

me,” stresses Ploch, who also learned<br />

his trade at the WMS. “The Maybach<br />

College also explicitly trains casters –<br />

training is divided into pattern constructors<br />

and casters. That is different<br />

from a general vocational school, where<br />

the subject is only available as an elective,”<br />

he adds.<br />

The iron foundry pays for Mario’s<br />

apartment, in addition to his normal<br />

pay packet, in order to make his training<br />

more palatable. Ploch also sent the<br />

21-year-old to the STILL works in Ham­<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 15


Painted and unpainted<br />

counterweights<br />

are stored on the<br />

foundry grounds.<br />

burg shortly after he had signed his<br />

contract. “I wanted to show him that<br />

no forklifts can exist without counterweights,”<br />

says Ploch. The visit made an<br />

impression on Mario: “I was able to<br />

experience how the forklift is constructed<br />

around the counterweight in the<br />

factory,” he remembers. He was also<br />

impressed by the machines used. Marco<br />

now feels more at home in the north<br />

than in the south. He enjoys hanging<br />

out with friends, for whom he designed<br />

a very special present: a cast iron backside<br />

with ears! Trainer Säwert is already<br />

preparing himself to receive more<br />

trainees: he has been undergoing<br />

further education as a trainer at the<br />

German Foundrymen’s Association Academy<br />

since September.<br />

Trainer Fred Säwert (left) and trainee Mario Faiss. Faiss comes from the Swabian Alb,<br />

Säwert from East Frisia. More trainees are to be recruited to ensure sufficient personnel<br />

cover.<br />

The e-forklift is on the way<br />

The necessary generational change at<br />

the works comes at a time when the<br />

forklift sector is also in transition.<br />

e-forklifts are increasingly asserting<br />

themselves in factories all over the<br />

world. This also affects the design of<br />

the counterweights. “The weights are<br />

becoming lighter because the battery of<br />

the e-forklift also adds weight,” explains<br />

Ploch. The battery is located in the<br />

middle of the forklift, while the counterweight<br />

is at the back. Ribs have been<br />

integrated into the structure of the<br />

counterweight in order to reduce its<br />

weight.<br />

Crossing the yard, in which two-anda-half<br />

thousand tonnes of charging<br />

material is stored, one reaches the paint<br />

shop, which rounds out the value-creation<br />

of the counterweights and turns<br />

the iron foundry into a ‘system supplier’.<br />

This is where the finished red and<br />

orange counterweights are arranged in<br />

rows, ready for dispatch to Linde and<br />

STILL, where they are installed on diesel<br />

or e-forklifts that will continue to be<br />

required in factory and dispatch logistics<br />

for the foreseeable future. The<br />

struggle to fill vacancies in the region<br />

will remain challenging. Bonus payments<br />

have already been made for procuring<br />

new personnel. The companies<br />

neighboring the iron foundry, Stallkamp<br />

and Gigant, have also poached<br />

one or other urgently required worker<br />

from Ploch. Trainee Mario Faiss will, in<br />

future, help Björn Ploch by recruiting<br />

secondary school-leavers starting their<br />

professional lives, and perhaps the iron<br />

foundry will also succeed in getting an<br />

agency worker to commit themselves<br />

with a fixed contract. There is certainly<br />

enough work in Dinklage – three people<br />

could immediately start work at the<br />

machining shop, and another two or<br />

three for the melting operation in the<br />

foundry. And in order not to lose sight<br />

of Industry 4.0, Ploch also needs IT<br />

experts with foundry knowledge to set<br />

up an ERP system in the medium term<br />

– so that the future also comes to Dinklage<br />

soon!<br />

www.eisengiesserei-dinklage.de<br />



Process-integrated<br />

blast cleaning of die castings<br />

At ae group shift housings for<br />

automatic transmissions are cast<br />

on casting line 2 and then blasted.<br />

Die casting of aluminium is an extremely productive method for the manufacture of<br />

large-series components which can be controlled at a high level. In order to achieve<br />

a maximum degree of reliability and quality, casting lines at the ae group in Gerstungen<br />

are laid out to ensure that as many process steps as possible are linked and fully automated,<br />

thus dispensing with manual interventions. A blasting concept was therefore<br />

realized with parts lying flat on conveyor belts and being treated in a continuous process.<br />

This eliminates the unavoidable manual suspension and removal tasks associated<br />

with hanger-type blast machines.<br />

Klaus Vollrath, Aarwangen, Switzerland<br />

Photos: Klaus Vollrath<br />

We supply the automotive<br />

industry with our die-cast<br />

aluminium parts and face the<br />

toughest international competition in<br />

this respect”, says Tino Kunkel, manager<br />

of one of the production lines at the ae<br />

foundry in Gerstungen. Automation of<br />

as many processes as possible is the<br />

recipe employed here for lowering costs<br />

and, simultaneously, enhancing quality.<br />

The fundamental maxim governing the<br />

complete process chain is that castings<br />

should only be physically touched by<br />

hand where absolutely necessary. Operation<br />

of die-casting machinery<br />

(cold-chamber machines with die clamping<br />

forces ranging from 12,500 to<br />

14,000 kN) and its peripheral units is<br />

completely automated. Castings which<br />

have already been deburred on the<br />

die-casting machines are fed onto a<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 17


Discharge side of one<br />

of the shot blast<br />

machines installed at<br />

ae in Gerstungen.<br />

Casting line 2 encompasses<br />

seven<br />

cold-chamber die-casting<br />

machines for aluminium<br />

in the final<br />

expansion stage.<br />

Castings which have already been deburred on the<br />

die-casting machines are fed onto a common conveyor<br />

route at half the height of the facility where<br />

they are forwarded to fine blanking.<br />

common conveyor route at half the<br />

height of the facility where they then<br />

travel on for fine blanking. The process<br />

continues into the next hall where the<br />

parts are first blasted for cleaning and<br />

surface pretreatment before being forwarded<br />

to laser systems by conveyor<br />

belt where they each receive an individual<br />

QR code and are packaged. Very<br />

strict quality criteria apply along the<br />

entire process chain, which is why every<br />

step is carefully monitored and documented.<br />

Similarly strict criteria apply to the<br />

machines employed. These must be<br />

designed or modified and installed so<br />

that they correspond to the process<br />

management and quality philosophy of<br />

the company. In addition to reliable<br />

engineering, human dependability and<br />

the support and service of manufacturers<br />

also play a significant role. Immediate<br />

assistance is expected where problems<br />

arise.<br />

Fully automated continuous<br />

shot blast machines<br />

The ae group opted for AGTOS Type BS<br />

08-05-3.6-08-11.0 machines for cleaning<br />

and surface preparation of castings<br />

from casting line 2 in Gerstungen. Use<br />

of a hanger-type blast machine was<br />

dispensed with, given that relatively<br />

flat, strongly structured parts with a<br />

large surface (but not bulky geometries)<br />

are mainly involved, such as shift<br />

housings for automatic transmissions.<br />

This also had the advantage of permitting<br />

selection of a direct continuous<br />

process without manual interventions.<br />

The solution chosen involves the continuous<br />

transportation of the parts<br />

through the plant with the aid of a<br />

wide-meshed wire conveyor belt. They<br />

are blasted with special abrasive from<br />

above and below during this with the<br />

aid of a total of eight shot blasting turbines,<br />

ensuring all-round cleaning and<br />

surface treatment.<br />

The belt is divided into two tracks<br />

through a central “guide rail” consisting<br />

of plates, meaning that two different,<br />

but typical components (e.g. the<br />

upper and lower parts of a shift<br />

housing) can be processed simultaneously.<br />

As the parts only have minor<br />

indentations, residual abrasive material<br />

can be removed with comparative ease<br />

through a blower unit in the blast<br />

machine outlet.<br />

Treatment of abrasive ensures<br />

stable process parameters<br />

When it comes to treatment of castings<br />

through shot blasting, the condition of<br />

the abrasive employed plays a significant<br />

role. This moves continually in a<br />

cycle, whereby its consistency and composition<br />

are altered during use through<br />

two main interfering factors. These are<br />

soiling of the abrasive through fine<br />

non-metallic and metallic dust and dirt<br />

particles and contamination through<br />

flash and flakes parted during the blasting<br />

process. The abrasive moving in<br />

the cycle therefore needs to be carefully<br />

treated during each passage to<br />

maintain the consistency of its composition<br />

with regard to granular size and<br />

impurities within narrow limits. This<br />

occurs during the return of the abrasive<br />

from the machine abrasive collection<br />

hopper trough to the storage bunker<br />

located on top. Transportation is realized<br />

via a bucket elevator. On reaching<br />

the top, the abrasive passes through a<br />

screening section to remove coarse<br />

impurities such as flash and flakes. This<br />

is followed by wind sifting which sorts<br />

out dirt and dust particles and the<br />

finest abrasive fragments (so-called<br />


The castings receive an individual<br />

laser marking following the shot blasting<br />

process.<br />

fines). The abrasive cleaned in this manner<br />

is conveyed to the storage bunker<br />

for the blasting turbines.<br />

Support from the machine<br />

manufacturer<br />

As aluminium is a comparatively soft<br />

material, it can be damaged by excessively<br />

hard blasting. It was therefore<br />

important to evaluate the effect of the<br />

machines prior to deciding on their<br />

purchase. AGTOS was more than willing<br />

to conduct these preliminary trials<br />

on its own machinery. Initial blasting<br />

trials were first conducted on an<br />

AGTOS machine in Emsdetten with<br />

four turbines. Following the positive<br />

results of these tests, further trials<br />

were conducted on a large machine<br />

with eight turbines at the AGTOS plant<br />

in Konin, Poland. This machine was of<br />

the same design as the model being<br />

offered. Notable features here were a<br />

modification of the blasting turbine<br />

layout to optimize the effect of the<br />

blasting abrasive. A special abrasive<br />

consisting of non-ferrous metals which<br />

wide-meshed wire conveyor also facilitates<br />

blasting of the castings from below.<br />

was recommended by AGTOS was also<br />

used during the trials. Flakes from<br />

burrs were removed with this and the<br />

surface of the components roughened<br />

slightly while maintaining the smoothness<br />

of the bore holes which had been<br />

already punched.<br />

Engineering, consulting and<br />

service satisfaction<br />

In addition to the quality of the machines<br />

themselves, consultation and service<br />

competence proved significant criteria<br />

in the decision to purchase the<br />

machinery. The former was favourably<br />

evaluated during the prior test phase,<br />

and the ae group had already gained<br />

positive experience at an earlier stage<br />

of the reliability of AGTOS engineering<br />

and service. Shot blast machines are<br />

exposed to extremely severe stress<br />

during use, meaning that breakdowns<br />

are practically unavoidable. Fortunately,<br />

the response speed of the manufacturer‘s<br />

service department and proactive<br />

maintenance realized in advance<br />

mean that extremely few faults have<br />

been encountered during machine<br />

operation. Following an initial procurement<br />

in 2<strong>01</strong>3 and in the following<br />

years, this operating record now led to<br />

the installation of two further systems.<br />

www.agtos.de<br />

www.ae-group.de<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 19


Photo: Soplain<br />

Inorganically bound sand cores with different graphite contents, which influences the thermal conductivity of the sand binder mixture and<br />

thus the hardening times.<br />

Development of a new process<br />

for fast electrical hardening of<br />

inorganic sand cores<br />

Inorganics are becoming increasingly important for the production of sand cores. The<br />

development of a new process for the hardening of inorganic sand cores by means of<br />

electricity aims at the faster and more cost-effective production of inorganic sand cores.<br />

Further advantages such as low energy consumption and homogeneous hardening are<br />

promising.<br />

Wolfram Bach, Welsleben, and Eric Riedel, Magdeburg<br />

Introduction<br />

The use of cores is indispensable for the<br />

foundry industry. Complex, internal and<br />

thin-walled geometries as well as indentations<br />

are not possible without lost<br />

cores. Thus, they pave the way for innovative<br />

casting technology solutions in<br />

order to meet the high demands placed<br />

on modern castings today and in the<br />

future. Core production is therefore of<br />

great importance in terms of variety,<br />

complexity and surface quality. Core<br />

shooting in cold box or hot box processes<br />

has been established for many<br />

years. The cold box process, on one<br />

hand, is characterized by the fact that<br />

the sand cores are hardened in nonheated<br />

boxes by a compressed air amine<br />

mist gassing. The required binder for<br />

cold box usually consists of a two-component<br />

system consisting of phenolic<br />

resin and polyisocyanate. The hot box<br />

process, on the other hand, usually uses<br />

moist bound molding materials, which<br />

are completely hardened in the core box<br />

by absorbing the stored heat energy.<br />

Despite the extensive use and high<br />

productivity of core shooting, many<br />

companies are working on further and<br />

new developments in the field of core<br />

production. One of the most important<br />

developments at present is certainly the<br />

additive manufacturing or the colloquial<br />

3-D printing of lost cores. A development,<br />

which is advanced among others<br />

by ExOne, Voxeljet, the BMW AG or<br />

Bosch Rexroth, in order to name only<br />

some companies, and which shows<br />

again that the Additive Manufacturing<br />

procedures are versatile applicable and<br />

are becoming increasingly important.<br />

The motivation behind this develop-<br />


3<br />

1<br />

5<br />

6<br />

4<br />

7<br />

7<br />

12<br />

6<br />

11<br />

10<br />

9<br />

8<br />

5<br />

4<br />

2<br />

4<br />

3<br />

1 Upper mould box half<br />

2 Lower mould box half<br />

3 Mounting plate (electrically isolated)<br />

4 Isolation plate<br />

9<br />

5 Electrodes (arranged parallel)<br />

6 Mould material (electrically conductive)<br />

7 Mould cacity<br />

8 Sand-binder mixture / Core<br />

9 Control of voltage<br />

10 Square<br />

11 Isolation screw<br />

12 Alignment bolt<br />

3<br />

Graphics: University of Magdeburg<br />

Figure 1: Schematic illustration of the core box design (left) with detailed illustration of the fastening of the mold material in the mold box.<br />

ment is a reduction in fixed costs, since,<br />

e.g., the production of the necessary<br />

core boxes and tools, the purchase of<br />

which usually only pays off with large<br />

quantities, is no longer necessary or the<br />

production of small batch sizes at large<br />

series costs. Thus, 3-D printing of lost<br />

cores opens up new possibilities with<br />

regard to complexity, individuality and<br />

quality of the models in small and<br />

medium series production, e.g. for manufacturing<br />

of prototypes.<br />

Nevertheless, the manufacturing<br />

processes are too time-consuming for<br />

mass production, especially for larger<br />

geometries, and will remain so for the<br />

foreseeable future. In addition to Additive<br />

Manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing<br />

is at the top of the agenda of<br />

the local and global foundries, not least<br />

due to increasingly stringent political<br />

restrictions on behalf of the EU and the<br />

federal government(s).<br />

The introduction of inorganic binder<br />

systems, such as the Inotec binder system<br />

developed by ASK Chemicals, Hilden, or<br />

the Cordis binder system developed by<br />

Hüttenes Albertus, Düsseldorf, has<br />

already led to great success in reducing<br />

pollutant emissions in recent years. However,<br />

ongoing cost pressure and the<br />

ongoing need for new innovations are<br />

constantly prompting the industry to<br />

make further developments in this area<br />

so that foundries can remain competitive<br />

in the future.<br />

With „Advanced Core Solutions“<br />

(ACS) project, Soplain GmbH, Welsleben,<br />

aims to meet this demand and further<br />

increase the importance of inorganic<br />

binder systems. With the<br />

implementation of a new patent<br />

(DE102<strong>01</strong>7217098) for the production<br />

of lost cores and molds, a process is<br />

under development that adheres to the<br />

basic principle of core shooting and<br />

builds on the existing inorganic binders,<br />

but pursues a new approach to hardening<br />

inorganic sand cores. That way, the<br />

new process strives to be both more<br />

efficient and more environmentally<br />

friendly than previous processes.<br />

Process description<br />

The new process is based on the consideration<br />

that the permanent mold and<br />

sand-binder mixture should have<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 21


Graphics: Soplain<br />

Electrical resistance [kΩ]<br />

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3<br />

120<br />

100<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

Electrical resistance [kΩ]<br />

approximately the same electrical conductivity<br />

at optimum working temperature.<br />

Thus, by applying an electrical<br />

voltage, the same level of electrical current<br />

is able to flow in each area of the<br />

tool and the sand-binder mixture. The<br />

result is a homogeneous electrical<br />

energy distribution. The heating resulting<br />

from the electrical power finally<br />

hardens the sand-binder mixture homogeneous.<br />

As with conventional core shooting<br />

methods, this requires a permanent<br />

mold or core box consisting of several<br />

components. As shown in Figure 1, at<br />

least a two-part mold initially consists<br />

of just as many electrically isolated<br />

plates which serve to accommodate the<br />

individual components. On each mounting<br />

plate is the isolation plate mounted<br />

which then contains the electrodes. The<br />

electrodes will provide the electric current<br />

into the actual, electrically conductive<br />

mold.<br />

The individual components of the<br />

core boxes are connected to the mounting<br />

plate by means of electrically<br />

non-conductive screws and brackets.<br />

Power [W]<br />

Figure 2: Qualitative curve shape for the determination of the characteristic curves of mold/<br />

binder power and electrical resistance.<br />

hot<br />

hot<br />

cold<br />

does not harden<br />

Without adjustment of the specific<br />

electrical resistance<br />

hot<br />

hot<br />

hot<br />

hardens<br />

With adjustment of the specific<br />

electrical resistance<br />

Figure 3: Impact of the electrical properties of the permanent mold and sand-binder mixture<br />

on the hardening process.<br />

t [s]<br />

The individual molds for the sand cores<br />

are assembled by means of a quick-release<br />

system, which enables the permanent<br />

molds to be changed quickly. For<br />

process monitoring, the mold boxes are<br />

equipped with temperature sensors in<br />

order to prevent possible overheating<br />

above the intended temperature range<br />

as specified for the binder. For industrial<br />

use, holes for non-conductive ejection<br />

bolts are provided in the entire tool<br />

(mounting and isolation plate, permanent<br />

mold) to remove the hardened<br />

cores quickly. The selection of a suitable<br />

electrically conductive material for the<br />

permanent mold is made taking the<br />

optimum working temperature of the<br />

sand-binder mixture into account.<br />

Experimental procedure<br />

The efficiency of the processes is highly<br />

depending on the alignment of the<br />

conductivity of the mold material to the<br />

sand-binder mixture. A series of measurements<br />

were carried out to determine<br />

the electrical conductivity of sandbinder<br />

mixtures and various mold<br />

materials to identify the specific temperature<br />

and electrical conductivity<br />

behavior.<br />

In order to determine different<br />

sand-binder mixtures, the different mixtures<br />

where filled into a sample mold,<br />

which was compacted according to real<br />

application conditions. Measuring<br />

devices were attached to the electrical<br />

components of the core boxes to measure<br />

the current and voltage as well as<br />

the temperatures generated at the electrodes.<br />

A constant voltage was then<br />

applied to the electrodes, causing the<br />

specific electrical resistance of the mixture<br />

to change as a function of temperature.<br />

By doing so, the optimal electrical<br />

conductivity could be determined<br />

per material. The optimal electrical conductivity<br />

is defined by allowing the<br />

maximum energy to be conveyed into<br />

the sand-binder mixture per second.<br />

This point is defined by the lowest electrical<br />

resistance. Figure 2 shows the typical<br />

course of both characteristic values<br />

of such a series of measurements.<br />

The typical course can be divided<br />

into three characteristic phases: The<br />

first phase is the formation of charge<br />

carriers, in which the resistance drops<br />

steeply within a very short time (1 to<br />

2 s) after the voltage has been applied.<br />

In the second phase, a distinctly flattened<br />

electrical resistance is now apparent,<br />

accompanied by a continuous<br />

increase in the electrical power present<br />

in the sample. The electrical power is<br />

transformed into heat inside the<br />

sample. Above 100 °C (212 °F) the<br />

evaporation of water begins and charge<br />

carriers from the binder system are<br />

removed from sample. The consequence<br />

is a significant decline in performance<br />

and thus an increase in electrical<br />

resistance follows in phase 3. The optimal<br />

choice of electrical conductivity is<br />

defined by the minimum resistance, as<br />

the maximum power can be applied<br />

(shown in Figure 2 by the red circle).<br />

The specific electrical conductivity of<br />

the sample depends on the desired<br />

sand-binder mixture and can be influenced<br />

by the variation of the additives<br />

and/or the change of the percentage<br />

components. During the trials, the tested<br />

binders required temperatures between<br />

150 °C (302 °F) and 200 °C<br />

(392 °F) to harden. A specific tested<br />

sand-binder mixture had a specific electrical<br />

resistance of approx. 25 Ωm at a<br />

temperature of ~100 °C (212 °F)<br />

-130 °C(266 °F).<br />

Based on the temperature-resistance<br />

curves and the specific electrical resistance<br />

of the sand-binder mixture, a suit-<br />


able material for the permanent mold<br />

of the cores to be produced could be<br />

determined. Based on the optimal specific<br />

resistance of the selected sandbinder<br />

mixture, the mold-material<br />

should have a specific resistance of<br />

approx. 25 Ωm at approx. 170 °C<br />

(338 °F) and follow the temperatureresistance<br />

curve of the mixture as far as<br />

possible. Otherwise, if the resistivity of<br />

the permanent mold is too low, the<br />

mold may heat up but the molding<br />

material/binder mixture does not<br />

harden efficiently, as Figure 3 illustrates.<br />

Within the framework of the test<br />

series, various silicon carbide compositions<br />

with a variation of additives of the<br />

ceramic mixtures proved to be suitable;<br />

the final selected ceramic has a specific<br />

electrical resistance of approx. 30 Ωm at<br />

a temperature of 180 °C and is suitable<br />

as a material for permanent molds<br />

under consideration of all necessary prerequisites.<br />

The use of less compatible<br />

materials can lead to longer hardening<br />

times. For possible industrial use in<br />

foundries, criteria for the robustness of<br />

the material were defined in addition to<br />

the aspects of electrical compatibility. A<br />

suitable material must also have good<br />

long-term properties with regard to<br />

breaking strength, surface roughness,<br />

thermal expansion and thermal conductivity.<br />

Depending on the final process also<br />

optimal temperature ranges below the<br />

150-200 °C are possible as sufficient<br />

heat energy can be generated already<br />

as of 100 °C. In this case the electrical<br />

conductivity can be chosen based on a<br />

temperature range between 100 °C to<br />

105 °C.<br />

Integration into the production<br />

process<br />

In a production environment for sand<br />

core manufacturing, the process can be<br />

divided into three basic phases:<br />

warm-up (A), operation (B) and cooling<br />

phases (C). During warm-up phase (A),<br />

the two halves (or more parts) of the<br />

molding box are brought together to<br />

form a closed circuit. The amount of<br />

energy required for the heating process<br />

is supplied by the electrical current.<br />

During the warm-up phase the sandbinder<br />

mixture can be shot into the<br />

mold to validate that sufficient heat is<br />

available and that uniform curing of<br />

the core is possible.<br />

Once the molding material has<br />

reached the required operating temperature<br />

for hardening the binder then<br />

the optimum specific resistance of the<br />

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It’s time again in Düsseldorf,<br />

from 25 - 29 June 2<strong>01</strong>9: the foundry<br />

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We look forward to your press releases and<br />

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e-mail address: redaktion@bdguss.de<br />

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Contact: Robert Piterek<br />

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de<br />

Tel.: +49 (0)211 6871-358<br />

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at the 14th GIFA international foundry trade fair with<br />

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the editorial staff at CP+T will report on innovations, new products<br />

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sand-binder mixture is achieved and the<br />

operation phase (B) can begin. After<br />

emptying the test material from the<br />

permanent mold cavity(s), the two<br />

halves (or more parts) of the core box<br />

are closed again and the sand-binder<br />

mixture is shot into the mold, as in conventional<br />

processes. Once the shooting<br />

process is finished the curing/hardening<br />

process can start. Due to the almost<br />

equally specific resistances, the electrical<br />

current flows homogeneously<br />

through the sand core. The sand-binder<br />

mixture thus quickly reaches a temperature<br />

of between 100 and 130 °C. The<br />

evaporation of the water during the<br />

hardening process leads, as described<br />

above, to a reduction of the free charge<br />

carriers, which in turn leads to an<br />

increase in the specific resistance in the<br />

mixture and a decrease in the electrical<br />

current flow within the sand core. Any<br />

potentially required residual heat for<br />

complete hardening of the core can be<br />

supplied to the sand-binder mixture via<br />

the mold, as in previous processes.<br />

In concrete terms: If a sand-binder<br />

mixture with a required operating temperature<br />

of 170 °C is shot into the mold<br />

at a temperature of 20 °C, approx. 2/3<br />

of the required 150 °C is achieved by<br />

resistance-induced heating and the<br />

remaining part is supplied from the<br />

mold via heat transfer to the sand core.<br />

After hardening, the molding boxes are<br />

opened as in existing processes, the<br />

sand core removed and the next cycle<br />

initiated. For cooling phase (C), the<br />

empty core box halves are then simply<br />

moved apart and remain in this position<br />

to cool down.<br />

Advantages of the new method<br />

Multiple advantages have been identified<br />

during the course of the preliminary<br />

investigations. The potential for the new<br />

technology is expected to reduce cost<br />

and energy consumption by 33 % while<br />

increasing the speed to manufacturer<br />

the sand cores. Additional quality benefits<br />

are expected from the fact of the<br />

homogeneous sand core hardening/curing<br />

that prevents a shell formation. Furthermore<br />

can the new process improve<br />

the quality defect cost as each individual<br />

sand core can be analyses based on temperature<br />

increase, energy consumption<br />

and time. The application of six sigma<br />

approach then allows to provide a quality<br />

assessment during the curing process<br />

with the possibilities to mark or remove<br />

sand cores that deviate the from the<br />

standard process. New sand core applications<br />

are possible as much bigger sand<br />


cores could be formed efficiently as the<br />

center of the cores are also cured fully.<br />

Various inorganic binders typically used<br />

in industry have also been successfully<br />

tested so that completely new formulations<br />

are not necessary and existing<br />

binder systems can be used.<br />

The core box molds can use various<br />

materials such as silicon carbide ceramics.<br />

Ceramic molds offer a longer life<br />

cycle due to reduced wear and tear<br />

driven. Furthermore could external heat<br />

generators be eliminated as the heat is<br />

generated directly inside the sand core.<br />

A side benefits will be that family core<br />

boxes with multiple cavities would<br />

allow the replacement of individual<br />

defect cavity molds in less then 3 minutes<br />

by using quick change system.<br />

The strongest benefits versus conventional<br />

processes are foreseen for<br />

large sand cores and sand cores with a<br />

high annual volume.<br />

In direct comparison with conventional<br />

processes, the new process is all<br />

in all showing significant cost saving<br />

potentials. The savings are essentially<br />

the result of two circumstances: Firstly,<br />

the direct use of electrical current,<br />

which does not have to be converted<br />

into heat externally, results in up to<br />

33 % higher energy efficiency compared<br />

with conventional processes. On<br />

the other hand, cycle time savings of up<br />

to 30 % of the time are expected,<br />

whereby the annual operating costs can<br />

be massively reduced.<br />

Outlook<br />

There is a high potential for this new<br />

process to sustainably increase efficiency<br />

in the production of lost cores.<br />

The basic feasibility studies as well as<br />

the testing on a prototype scale have<br />

been completed and preparations are<br />

completed for testing under near-series<br />

conditions with real-cast sand cores. The<br />

aim of the qualifications are to demonstrate<br />

the benefits at mass production<br />

scale and to allow a meaningful comparison<br />

with current processes. In this<br />

context new foundry partners are constantly<br />

wanted to assess the benefits of<br />

the new process.<br />

www.advanced-core-solutions.com<br />

Wolfram Bach, inventor of the process,<br />

“Advanced Core Solutions”(ACS) ,<br />

Soplain GmbH, Welsleben, Germany,<br />

and Eric Riedel, University Magdeburg,<br />

Institute of Process Technology and<br />

Quality Management, Department of<br />

Casting and Forming, Germany<br />

from<br />

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<strong>01</strong>.04.-05.04.2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

Visit us in hall 11,<br />

stand A61.

Thermal regeneration plant in operation in a German foundry.<br />

From waste to molding material<br />

Optimization of circulation for organically bound no-bake sands<br />

Marco Cassens, Niederfischbach<br />

Photos: FAT<br />

Is used sand a questionable hazardous<br />

waste or a usable raw material? How<br />

do new sand and landfill costs<br />

develop? Are there ways to regenerate<br />

used sand and how much waste can be<br />

expected? Is there a gentle regeneration<br />

process that hardly changes the<br />

molding material properties? And can<br />

such a process become a worthwhile<br />

investment for foundries through good<br />

results and moderate energy consumption?<br />

Foundry operators will have to deal<br />

with these questions more intensively in<br />

the future.<br />

FAT‘s thermal reclamation plant<br />

– a solution approach<br />

After mechanical reclamation, the molding<br />

material must be recycled with as<br />

consistent a quality as possible. For this<br />

purpose, it is often necessary to dispose<br />

of a part of the sand, at a high price and<br />

enrich the resulting „gap“ with new<br />

sand. If the internal sand circulation is<br />

now supplemented by the thermal<br />

regeneration plants „own new sand”,<br />

the disposal costs for used sand, as well<br />

as procurement costs for new sand, can<br />

be reduced by up to 95 %. Due to its<br />

compact and modular design, the thermal<br />

regeneration plant can be integrated<br />

into any existing plant concept<br />

and is designed for continuous operation<br />

without additional operating personnel.<br />

In recent years, concepts for<br />

used sand based on organic binding<br />

agents such as furan, cold box, pep set,<br />

croning or alpha set have been implemented.<br />

For test purposes, FAT has installed a<br />

thermal regeneration plant with a capacity<br />

of 0,5 t/h at their headquarters in Niederfischbach.<br />

Here, cold resin sands can<br />

be thermally regenerated by the customer<br />

on a trial basis and then analyzed.<br />



Focal point furnace bottom<br />

The quality of the sand is heavily reliant<br />

on the air-gas mixture. The pore burner<br />

system developed by FAT, Niederfischbach,<br />

Germany, ensures an even and<br />

continuous thin layer of sand to flow on<br />

the fluidization bottom of the combustion<br />

chamber.<br />

In the furnace, each individual grain<br />

of sand is continually in the flame and<br />

therefore treated optimally. A „flame<br />

carpet“ on the furnace floor ensures<br />

particularly good combustion of the<br />

binding agents and constant quality of<br />

the sand batches. This means that even<br />

finer grains can be regenerated very<br />

well. In a following unit, the hot sand is<br />

simultaneously cooled and dedusted. In<br />

order to reduce gas consumption, the<br />

thermal energy of the hot sand is partially<br />

recovered during cooling and<br />

returned to the process.<br />

Thermal reclaimed sand<br />

After thermal treatment, the organic<br />

binder shells are nearly completely<br />

burnt. In addition, there is the geometric<br />

change of the individual grains<br />

after the thermal treatment. Above a<br />

temperature of 573 °C, the quartz leap<br />

ensures a reversible change in volume.<br />

Not only residual binders but also corners<br />

and edges flake off the grain. As a<br />

result, thermal reclaimed quartz grains<br />

have a specifically smaller surface area<br />

than many new sands and thus have a<br />

reducing effect on binder consumption.<br />

The thermal reclamation plant leads<br />

to effective waste reduction with moderate<br />

energy consumption and can<br />

therefore be regarded as a contribution<br />

to environmental protection and<br />

resource conservation.<br />

Especially viewed against the background<br />

of economic considerations,<br />

this solution is becoming more and<br />

more interesting for operators. Payback<br />

times of 1.5 to 2.5 years are realistic.<br />

With increasing plant size and sand<br />

throughput, this value decreases<br />

accordingly.<br />

An outlook on future<br />

application possibilities<br />

In addition to the recycling of used<br />

sand, the disposal of filter dusts is also<br />

becoming more and more important in<br />

many companies. The reasons are the<br />

same as for the problem of used sand.<br />

FAT‘s thermal reclamation plant is<br />

also a solution here. Filter dust from<br />

Thermal reclamation plant in France.<br />

no-bake plants can be used as an energy<br />

source for combustion in the furnace.<br />

To analyze the behaviour of the dust<br />

during operation of the reclamation<br />

plant, the FAT test plant was extended<br />

by a dosing unit. A defined amount of<br />

dust was added to the used sand in the<br />

combustion chamber.<br />

Results are promising, because<br />

during the thermal treatment in the<br />

furnace, the loss on ignition of the<br />

dust could be reduced by ~50 % and<br />

the gas consumption could also be<br />

reduced because of the energy of the<br />

residual binder in the dust. Due to the<br />

fine sand content in the dust, which<br />

leaves the plant with the thermal<br />

reclaim, the amount of dust could also<br />

be halved.<br />

Advantage over mechanical<br />

reclamation<br />

The organic load in the resulting filter<br />

dust of the thermal regeneration plant<br />

is as follows: ~1 to 2 % of the sand circulation<br />

volume and therefore explicitly<br />

below the high loaded dust content of<br />

approx. 5 to 15 %, which occurs during<br />

purely mechanical regeneration.<br />

www.f-a-t.de/en<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 27

This aircraft seat frame made of magnesium, which author<br />

Andreas Bastian is balancing on a finger, weighs 56 % less than<br />

the predecessor model made of aluminum. It was realized in<br />

collaboration with the US investment casting foundry Aristo Cast.<br />

Additive manufacturing –<br />

a plus for modern metal casting<br />

Many industrial manufacturers claim to be excited about metal additive manufacturing<br />

– a process that makes possible previously unmakeable shapes – but how many are<br />

actually doing anything about it?<br />

by Andreas Bastian, San Rafael, USA<br />

Photo: Autodesk<br />

Aside from some early adopters,<br />

many industrial manufacturers<br />

are simply waiting, watching to<br />

see if or when additive-manufacturing<br />

technology matures. You might be one<br />

of them. To be fair, there are several<br />

reasons why manufacturers are sticking<br />

with traditional manufacturing techniques,<br />

such as metal casting, rather<br />

than diving into metal additive manufacturing.<br />

First, there are typically fewer than a<br />

dozen widely available materials in use<br />

for metal additive whereas metal casting<br />

can use hundreds of different alloys<br />

– and it’s really easy to use new custom<br />

materials, even for a single part in a<br />

high-volume project. Second, casting<br />

works for enormous parts while metal<br />

printers generally restrict you to breadbox-size<br />

objects or smaller. Expense and<br />

time are the third factor: Direct metal<br />

laser sintering (DMLS) machines cost a<br />

great deal, and they require a lot of<br />

steps postprocessing, usually including<br />

some sort of hot isostatic pressing and<br />

removal of support structures from the<br />

build plate.<br />

Finally, casting is a well-understood,<br />

qualified process that’s been around for<br />

millennia. You don’t have to recertify<br />

the process, which is extremely time<br />

consuming and expensive.<br />


3-D-PRINTING<br />

Fortunately, relying on casting does<br />

not have to preclude any manufacturer<br />

from using the advanced geometries of<br />

generative design or from getting<br />

started with additive manufacturing. In<br />

fact, modern metal-casting techniques<br />

can provide a pathway to those technologies.<br />

Unlike typical metal-3-D-printing<br />

processes, in which shape and material<br />

are defined at the same time, metal<br />

casting separates defining shape and<br />

material into two discrete steps.<br />

Building on this idea lets you benefit<br />

from a trifecta of technology: Using<br />

generative design and digital optimization<br />

can generate high-performance<br />

geometries in the computer realm; nonmetal<br />

additive manufacturing brings<br />

that shape into the physical space as a<br />

mold; and modern casting methods<br />

finalize that shape using the right metal<br />

for the job.<br />

This approach gives industrial manufacturers<br />

an entry point into both generative<br />

design and additive manufacturing,<br />

which will only become bigger<br />

players in the future. And in the present,<br />

manufacturers can benefit from casting<br />

metal pieces from the 3-D-printed molds<br />

– shapes previously unachievable.<br />

Such a process can (and already does<br />

in some cases) benefit businesses for<br />

which lightweighting is concern, such as<br />

in the automotive and aerospace industries.<br />

It’s also great for creating custom<br />

objects, like new knees and replacement<br />

hips for medical-implant companies.<br />

As an example of this tritechnology<br />

production, earlier this year, my colleague<br />

Andy Harris from Autodesk, San<br />

Raphael, USA, and I made an ultralightweight<br />

aircraft seat frame using lattice<br />

optimization, 3-D printing, and investment<br />

casting. We chose to make the seat<br />

Figure 1: The pattern<br />

produced in the<br />

3-D printer has an<br />

extremely filigree<br />

structure. To obtain<br />

the mold, the pattern<br />

is coated with<br />

ceramic and is melted<br />

away afterwards.<br />

frame out of magnesium because it<br />

weighs 35 % less than conventional aluminum<br />

for seat frames, and it has a<br />

higher strength-to-weight ratio. Current<br />

metal-additive printers cannot print<br />

magnesium, so we turned to one of the<br />

few foundries in North America that<br />

pours magnesium, Michigan’s Aristo Cast.<br />

The Aristo Cast team printed the seat<br />

frame in plastic, made the pattern, covered<br />

the pattern in ceramic (Figure 1),<br />

melted away the plastic, and poured<br />

magnesium into the ceramic mold to<br />

make the final seat frame (Figure 2).<br />

Benefit from your molding material preparation.<br />

Take new opportunities and gain both greater flexibility and benchmark-setting quality for your cast parts.<br />

Increase energy efficiency while conserving resources. Perfect your processes and be ready for automated molding material preparation.<br />

EIRICH makes all this possible. Take the next step and visit us at GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9 in hall 17 / A38.<br />


3-D-PRINTING<br />

Figure 2: Casting of<br />

investment casting<br />

molds at Aristo Cast<br />

in Almont, Michigan,<br />

USA. Via inter locking<br />

of casting and<br />

3-D-printing the<br />

manufacturing process<br />

took only two<br />

days.<br />

Figure 3: An aircraft<br />

seat frame made by a<br />

combination of generative<br />

design, additive<br />

manufacturing and<br />

metal casting.<br />

Due to its material and latticed<br />

design, the resulting seat frame weighs<br />

56 % less than typical current models<br />

(Figure 3). That weight reduction could<br />

save 100,000 US dollars (around<br />

87,000 euros) in fuel for a single year of<br />

615-seat Airbus A380 flights or 200 million<br />

US dollars (174 million euros) over<br />

the 20-year life of a fleet of 100 A380s.<br />

It would also translate to a footprint-reducing<br />

140,000-plus fewer tons of carbon<br />

in the atmosphere.<br />

It’s true that many foundries don’t<br />

want anything to do with shapes that<br />

look too foreign or too complicated,<br />

because production work – versus lower-margin<br />

prototyping work – is what<br />

keeps the lights on at their facilities.<br />

Forward-thinking Aristo Cast, however,<br />

has used 3-D-printing technology for at<br />

least 20 years and tests every new technology<br />

that comes online.<br />

Dispelling the casting myth that you<br />

have to wait 18 months for parts, Aristo<br />

Cast can turn parts around in as little as<br />

two days – which is even faster than<br />

metal printing in many cases. Aristo Cast<br />

specializes in investment casting, in<br />

which you make the object you want in<br />

one material, and then through a sacrificial<br />

molding process, you end up with<br />

the object in a material of your choice.<br />

Investment casting can produce<br />

extremely high-fidelity details, down to<br />

submillimeter features. If you leave a<br />

thumbprint on your pattern, that thumbprint<br />

will show up in your final piece.<br />

Another casting technology, sand<br />

casting, produces metal parts from sand<br />

molds, which can be 3-D printed. Sand<br />

casting doesn’t produce as fine of features,<br />

but it can make much larger parts<br />

than metal additive or investment casting:<br />

parts that can weigh tens of thousands<br />

of pounds and measure tens of<br />

feet.<br />

Many foundries are finding that into<br />

high quantities of production, additive<br />

is more cost-effective than tooling for<br />

some complex geometries, particularly<br />

in sand casting. But at the end of the<br />

day, once the industry gets over the<br />

hype of using additive for additive’s<br />

sake, it has to be cheaper or somehow<br />

provide more value than traditional<br />

manufacturing technologies if it’s to see<br />

widespread adoption.<br />

Taking one step toward making that<br />

a reality, 3-D Hubs just launched a service<br />

that makes it really easy to get<br />

metal parts quickly and cheaply by combining<br />

additive manufacturing and<br />

metal casting. 3-D Hubs manages the<br />

entire process of printing the mold,<br />

transferring it to the foundry, and getting<br />

it cast. It’s printing on extrusion-based<br />

FDM printers, but with a<br />

material developed specifically for the<br />

casting process that can be vaporsmoothed<br />

to eliminate layer lines (a lingering<br />

concern).<br />

Services like 3-D Hubs are a great<br />

way to introduce design engineers to<br />

designing for additive. But whether you<br />

go with a third party or do your own<br />

experimentation, the important thing is<br />

to just give the technology a shot. With<br />

casting, the benefits of additive manufacturing,<br />

generative design, and shape<br />

optimization are all within reach.<br />

Andreas Bastian is an engineer and<br />

designer interested in the blurring line<br />

between materiality and design by developing<br />

and applying cutting-edge additive-manufacturing<br />

technologies. Currently<br />

a principal research scientist at Autodesk,<br />

he studies both novel and established additive-manufacturing<br />

technologies and their<br />

role in the near future.<br />

First publication on www.autodesk.com/<br />

redshift on December 5, 2<strong>01</strong>7<br />

<br />

www.autodesk.com<br />



Special<br />

GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

Part 1: Opportunities provided by new<br />

technologies<br />

GIFA<br />




SPECIAL: GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

<strong>International</strong> meeting place for the foundry industry:<br />

Around 2,000 exhibitors will be present at the GIFA,<br />

METEC, THERMPROCESS and NEWCAST trade fairs this<br />

June. The number of visitors could exceed the 80,000<br />

mark in 2<strong>01</strong>9 (Photo: Messe Düsseldorf).<br />

GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9 – The<br />

future is digital<br />

First-hand experience of the digital future no longer<br />

requires a visit to Silicon Valley. More and more companies<br />

are realizing that within the quartet of technology<br />


new and exciting topics are being addressed! “The Bright<br />

World of Metals” is focusing on digitalization and Industry<br />

4.0 in 2<strong>01</strong>9.<br />

Gerd Krause, Düsseldorf<br />

Photo: Andreas Bednareck<br />

Heinz Nelissen, GIFA and NEWCAST President and Managing Director of Vesuvius GmbH,<br />

Foseco Foundry Division, Borken, is confident about the digitization in the foundry industry:<br />

„Foundries are well-versed in dealing with data-driven business models,“ he says.<br />

Photo: Messe Düsseldorf<br />

Digital transformation and Industry<br />

4.0 are among the major topics<br />

of the future in the metallurgy<br />

industries. Increasingly<br />

sophisticated sensor technology is providing<br />

more and more data from the<br />

production process in foundries and<br />

steel mills. Every cast slab and every<br />

rolled steel strip requires thousands of<br />

items of data. Even a comparatively<br />

smaller steel mill like Saarstahl’s at the<br />

Völklingen site produces more than 100<br />

terabytes of process data a year with<br />

around two and a half million tons of<br />

steel products – a data volume corresponding<br />

to the contents of around 30<br />

million telephone directories.<br />

It is no longer simply the accuracy of<br />

the data that is the basis for information<br />

but the sheer volume as well. Evaluating<br />

data, recognizing patterns and<br />

obtaining information is no longer pos-<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 33

SPECIAL: GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

Photo: Andreas Bednareck<br />

sible with conventional IT methods. As<br />

big data analysis, artificial intelligence<br />

and networked cloud systems are<br />

replacing the data centres and relational<br />

databases of the past, the digital<br />

monitoring of machines and systems<br />

reduces maintenance costs, increases<br />

efficiency and has the potential to optimize<br />

products. Cloud technologies, with<br />

their storage volumes that are subject<br />

to hardly any limits, can serve to make<br />

it possible to generate more revenue<br />

from operational product and machine<br />

data with new services.<br />

Metallurgical plant manufacturers<br />

such as the SMS group, Düsseldorf,<br />

hope that digital services will compensate<br />

them for the weakening of their<br />

core business due to worldwide overcapacities<br />

in steel. Steel manufacturers<br />

and foundries link purchasing, sales,<br />

production and logistics in a cost-saving<br />

manner with hardware-based IT application<br />

of Industry 4.0. The development<br />

of digital channels puts the customer at<br />

the heart of the business.<br />

For Essen-based steel and industrial<br />

group ThyssenKrupp, the interlinked<br />

steel factory with a digital channel to<br />

the customer has already been<br />

achieved. The Industry 4.0 hot rolling<br />

mill Hoesch Hohenlimburg in Hagen is<br />

interlinked with the precursor material<br />

supplier Hüttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann<br />

(HKM) in Duisburg. The steel<br />

slabs are cast in Duisburg, then rolled<br />

in Hagen into medium-wide strip,<br />

which is then processed by sheet metal<br />

processors into components for the<br />

automotive industry. Even during the<br />

process, customers can use a PC, smartphone<br />

or tablet PC to determine when<br />

his steel strip goes into production and<br />

make changes to material properties<br />

such as sheet thickness and width at<br />

short notice.<br />

Impression of GIFA<br />

2<strong>01</strong>5, which had<br />

excellent exhibitor<br />

and visitor numbers.<br />

In addition, the<br />

internationality of<br />

the metal fairs quartet<br />

„Bright World of<br />

Metals“ was larger<br />

than ever with 56%<br />

of visitors and 51%<br />

of exhibitors.<br />

Casters in the data stream<br />

Generating process knowledge from<br />

data with the support of Big Data and<br />

implementing solutions in Industry 4.0 is<br />

also on the agenda of aluminium and<br />

iron casters. Solutions such as process<br />

optimization through coupling of the<br />

casting process simulation with datadriven<br />

process models are in demand – a<br />

research approach that Magma of<br />

Aachen, a company specializing in simulation<br />

software, is pursuing in the IProguss<br />

research project. Intelligent energy<br />

and resource efficiency is always an<br />

issue, especially for a process-related<br />

energy-intensive company such as an<br />

iron foundry. Professor Dierk Hartmann,<br />

Kempten University is working on an<br />

optimized solution for the Adam Hönig<br />

iron foundry. The foundry uses barcodes<br />

that are scanned by employees on their<br />

smartphones and transferred to a database.<br />

In this way, new process parameters<br />

can be added to the production<br />

areas and the production process can be<br />

tracked. The aim is to improve energy<br />

and resource efficiency by reducing<br />

overproduction of liquid metal<br />

“Foundries are experienced in dealing<br />

with data-driven business models”,<br />

says Heinz Nelissen, President of GIFA<br />

2<strong>01</strong>9 and NEWCAST as well as Managing<br />

Director of Vesuvius GmbH, Foseco<br />

Foundry Division in Borken. Approaches<br />

related to machine-to-machine communication,<br />

automation and robot use,<br />

computer-aided technologies, and<br />

product and process development will<br />

therefore also be a focus at GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9.<br />

How Industry 4.0 can look in practice<br />

can be seen at Karl Casper Guss in Pforzheim.<br />

The foundry produces a wide<br />

range of hand-molded parts with unit<br />

weights from 100 kg up to 9.5 t. In<br />

order to be able to react quickly to<br />

changing customer requirements while<br />

guaranteeing high production reliability<br />

and quality at the same time, Casper<br />

Guss relies on an integrated Industry 4.0<br />

solution with three pillars:<br />

1. Interlinking of all operating equipment<br />

2. Planning and control of processes<br />

with 100 % traceability through the<br />

ERP system<br />

3. As an interface to the extranet, a<br />

web portal that gives customers<br />

access to production information.<br />

Linking of all systems from end to end<br />

makes it possible to plan individual<br />

orders directly, as Managing Director<br />

Felix Casper describes. The ERP system<br />

automatically checks feasibility upon<br />

receipt of the order, thus ensuring a high<br />

level of adherence to delivery dates.<br />

Feedback from all production steps<br />

improves throughput and increases quality.<br />

Using the web portal, customers can<br />

call up production information on their<br />

orders from the extranet and directly<br />

enter additions as well as changes to<br />

dates or quantities. “Interlinking of the<br />

customer systems with our own systems<br />

leads to faster and more reliable processing<br />

of orders”, summarizes Casper.<br />

Opportunity of digitalization –<br />

danger of disruption<br />

The digitalization of production creates<br />

a dynamic ecosystem. The potential<br />

opens up opportunities for new competitors<br />

from the start-up scene to offer<br />

new services in order to make estab-<br />

Prof. Dierk Hartmann from HS Kempten supported<br />

the foundry Adam Hönig in digitization.<br />

Barcodes are in use there, which are<br />

scanned from employees by smartphone and<br />

transmitted to a database.<br />

Photo: Andreas Bednareck<br />


lished companies vulnerable – even to<br />

the point of disrupting existing customer-supplier<br />

relationships.<br />

“Digitalization and disruption are<br />

affecting every company and every<br />

industry”, says Philipp Depiereux,<br />

founder and CEO of Etventure from<br />

Berlin. The only difference is the speed<br />

of change. “What the publishing and<br />

music industries have already painfully<br />

experienced may also affect steel mills<br />

and foundries in the future.” This was<br />

also demonstrated by examples from<br />

other rather traditional sectors such as<br />

the heating industry. In this case,<br />

start-up Thermondo used a good, digital<br />

offer to insert itself between the<br />

end user and established providers in a<br />

very brief time and is today the largest<br />

installer of heating systems in Germany.<br />

Depiereux, who together with Etventure<br />

advised not only plant manufacturer<br />

SMS but also steel trader Klöckner<br />

and assisted in establishing a digital<br />

business model with a start-up in Berlin,<br />

is certain of the following: “Steel mills<br />

and foundries need to be aware of one<br />

thing: Everything that can be digitalized<br />

will eventually be digitalized. They have<br />

to ask themselves whether they want to<br />

Karl Casper Guss data<br />

protection coordinator<br />

Jens Trentini in the<br />

server room of the<br />

iron foundry. The<br />

foundry focuses on<br />

the networking of all<br />

facilities, 100 %<br />

tracea bility via ERP<br />

system and a web<br />

portal as an interface<br />

to the extranet, which<br />

gives customers access<br />

to manufacturing<br />

information.<br />

stand by and watch this change or<br />

whether they would rather take action<br />

themselves before a digital player<br />

attacks their core business”, warns<br />

Depiereux. The digital expert also has<br />

good advice for established companies:<br />

“Above all, they need to understand<br />

what these large digital players and<br />

start-ups do differently and make these<br />

success factors their own.”<br />

It is not convincing to Depiereux<br />

that steel manufacturers and foundries,<br />

forges and rolling mills, as classic representatives<br />

of the old economy with<br />

their heavy and bulky products, appear<br />

at first glance to be less willing to<br />

embrace the new business models of<br />

digital transformation. “Selling a steel<br />

slab digitally is of course more complex<br />

than doing the same with a book. But<br />

that doesn’t mean that it can’t succeed<br />

and that someone will inevitably do it<br />

at some point.”<br />

www.tbwom.com<br />

Photo: Andreas Bednareck<br />

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CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 35

SPECIAL: GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />


The possibilities offered by 3-D printing for production technology<br />

are demonstrated by the complexity of this art print. It was printed<br />

by the foundry Christenguss from the Swiss town of Bergdietikon,<br />

where a 3-D printer is in operation since two years. The print has<br />

1.35 billion individual surfaces and was temporarily exhibited in the<br />

Centre Pompidou in Paris<br />

Additive manufacturing: the key<br />

issue for production engineering<br />

in future<br />

Additive manufacturing is the key issue for production engineering in future. Conventional<br />

manufacturing technologies are being supplemented to an ever increasing extent<br />

by three-dimensional printing, which is already in successful operation in many sophisticated<br />

fields like the medical engineering, automotive and aerospace industries. The<br />

foundry, steel and aluminium industries have also recognized the potential of 3-D printing.<br />

For this reason, the four Düsseldorf trade fairs GIFA, METEC, THERMPROCESS,<br />

NEWCAST 2<strong>01</strong>9 (25. to 29. June 2<strong>01</strong>9) are devoting a special show of its own to the subject<br />

of “additive manufacturing”.<br />

Gerd Krause, Düsseldorf<br />

Photos: Christenguss<br />

A<br />

look under the bonnet of the<br />

demonstration vehicle shows<br />

the potential that industrial 3-D<br />

printing has for the automotive industry:<br />

few components but with more<br />

functions and considerably less weight.<br />

The new crash-proof front end structure<br />

of the old VW Caddy, which<br />

weighs 34 kg, is made from the<br />

extremely strong and tough high-performance<br />

alloy Scalmalloy from the Airbus<br />

subsidiary APWorks using a 3-D<br />

printer supplied by the German company<br />

EOS. The 3iprint project that was<br />

carried out under the leadership of the<br />

development service provider csi won<br />

the “German Innovation Award 2<strong>01</strong>8”<br />

in mid-June. The aim of the Caddy concept<br />

is to indicate what is technologically<br />

possible in automotive production<br />

using new design methods and new<br />

materials with the help of additive<br />

manufacturing. Three-dimensional<br />

manufacturing processes, which is the<br />

general term used for the various additive<br />

production technologies with all<br />

the different kinds of 3-D printing systems,<br />

are where the future lies. Additive<br />

manufacturing with plastics, metals<br />

and ceramics is already an essential feature<br />

of industrial production today.<br />

Almost 40 % of the German companies<br />

surveyed in 2<strong>01</strong>6 already used 3-D<br />

printing, as the consulting firm Ernst &<br />

Young determined. The potential in all<br />

the different fields is tremendous. 3-D<br />

printing with concrete could revolutionize<br />

the construction industry, while<br />

the bioprinting of living tissue is<br />

already possible – and even the printing<br />

of human organs is an issue that is<br />

the subject of serious research. 3-D<br />

printing is creating new opportunities<br />

for the metal industries from aluminium<br />

and steel to titanium and special<br />

materials – whether foundries and steel<br />

mills or forging and sheet processing<br />

companies are involved. With 3-D printers,<br />

structures are produced layer by<br />

layer on the basis of digital design<br />

data. Material is only used where it is<br />

needed. Additive technologies have<br />

their strengths where conventional<br />

manufacturing processes like casting,<br />

milling or forging reach their limits. 3-D<br />

printing gives designers unlimited geometric<br />

freedom. Complex components<br />

with a bionic structure and integrated<br />

functions can, for example, be produced<br />

with varying wall thicknesses,<br />

cavities and honeycomb structures –<br />

like the heavy-duty, lightweight metal,<br />

automotive structure from the 3iprint<br />

project. The production of small<br />

batches and even of individual components<br />

is economically viable with 3-D<br />

printing too. Die casting molds or forming<br />

tools are not needed, which can<br />

quickly lead to tool cost savings of sev-<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 37

SPECIAL: GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

Complex sand mold from the 3-D printer.<br />

eral tens of thousands of euros. Individualized<br />

components, prototypes and<br />

spare parts that are rarely needed are<br />

therefore considered to be the domains<br />

of additive manufacturing. 3-D printing<br />

is not, however, the universal “assault<br />

weapon” for attacking the bastions of<br />

established production engineering.<br />

The manufacturing expert Franz-Josef<br />

Wöstmann from the Fraunhofer Institute<br />

IFAM in Bremen says: “Additive<br />

manufacturing is a supplement not a<br />

substitute.” 3-D printing reaches its limits<br />

at the latest where large product<br />

quantities can be made economically<br />

with conventional manufacturing processes.<br />

This is primarily the case in the<br />

high-volume segment of the automotive<br />

industry. Additive manufacturing<br />

with metal is not productive enough<br />

for mass production in series at the<br />

present time. Dr. Stefan Geisler, former<br />

Innovation Manager at KSM Casting<br />

Group in Hildesheim, is certain: “3-D<br />

printing will be increasing for premium<br />

vehicles and for a limited number of<br />

components, but it will not succeed in<br />

replacing foundries.” He is convinced<br />

that the quantities needed in the volume<br />

market cannot be reached even<br />

with the faster layering speeds possible,<br />

for example, using additive manufacturing<br />

with wire. Geisler points out:<br />

“What is often forgotten is that additive<br />

manufacturing cannot overcome<br />

the laws of physics either. In the final<br />

analysis, all that are involved there too<br />

are processes: melting and cooling.<br />

There are limits to the speed at which<br />

this is possible.” In addition to this, the<br />

printed articles need to be machined<br />

into finished functional components.<br />

Another definite disadvantage of additive<br />

manufacturing with metal is the<br />

high energy consumption involved.<br />

Dr Wolfram Volk, Professor of Metal<br />

Forming and Casting at Munich Technical<br />

University, calculates that about<br />

twice as much energy as in conventional<br />

casting is required for the laser<br />

melting of metal, from powder production<br />

to the finished component. Additive<br />

processes are becoming an increasingly<br />

common element of existing<br />

process chains. How additive manufacturing<br />

and machining can be combined<br />

to carry out comprehensive, hybrid processing<br />

in a single machining centre is<br />

demonstrated by, for example, the<br />

machine tool manufacturers DMG Mori<br />

and Hermle. World market leader DMG<br />

Mori supplements laser metal deposition<br />

by subsequent machining in the<br />

form of turning and milling. Its competitor<br />

Hermle extends a multiaxis<br />

machining centre by a thermal spraying<br />

process using its MPA (metal powder<br />

application) technology, in which metal<br />

powder is applied in layers to produce<br />

a soundly built component. The Berlin<br />

Printed sand mold<br />

for a cylinder head<br />

from MAN.<br />

company Gefertec is looking to increase<br />

manufacturing speed in the additive<br />

processing of metals. The 5-axis lines<br />

produced by the expert for additive<br />

manufacturing technologies weld wire<br />

in layers by the electric arc process. The<br />

workpieces produced in this way have<br />

outlines that are very close to the final<br />

shape, which reduces the time and<br />

tooling operations required for subsequent<br />

machining.<br />

Foundry: direct and indirect additive<br />

manufacturing processes<br />

The foundry industry can benefit from<br />

additive processes in several different<br />

ways. Direct additive manufacturing<br />

processes give foundries the opportunity<br />

to include individual parts or parts<br />

that are needed in small quantities in<br />

their product portfolio too. In the case<br />

of indirect processes, on the other<br />

hand, they use additive technologies to<br />

produce molds and cores out of sand as<br />

well as models out of plastic. Hybrid<br />

technologies involving a combination<br />

of conventional casting and additive<br />

manufacturing processes have further<br />

potential. In order to take greater<br />

advantage of the potential that aluminium<br />

has to produce lightweight<br />

structures in automotive manufacturing,<br />

the aluminium producer Trimet<br />

from Essen is working on the development<br />

of a hybrid process chain to link<br />

die casting and additive manufacturing.<br />

The approach adopted in the context<br />

of the joint “CastAutoGen” project specifically<br />

involves the incorporation of<br />

3-D printed structures in a die cast component.<br />

German industry holds a prominent<br />

position among the producers of additive<br />

manufacturing systems, as the BDI<br />

(Federation of German Industries) concludes<br />

in a position paper. The country’s<br />

market share is about 70 % with powder<br />

bed systems. The world leaders<br />

Photo: Messe Düsseldorf<br />


among 3-D printing manufacturers<br />

include Concept Laser (metal), EOS<br />

(metal and plastic), SLM Solutions<br />

(metal) and Voxeljet. Voxeljet has specialized<br />

in foundries and markets 3-D<br />

printers for the production of sand<br />

molds and cores as well as of plastic<br />

models for investment casting by the<br />

lostwax process. In order to produce a<br />

casting, what are needed are a mold<br />

and the appropriate cores to form the<br />

cavities in the component that is being<br />

cast. In classic sand casting, the molds<br />

and cores are made from quartz sand,<br />

which is strengthened by a special<br />

bonding agent. While fully automatic<br />

molding machines and automatic core<br />

shooting machines are standard features<br />

at modern foundries for the mass<br />

production of car engines, for example,<br />

it is rarely an economic solution to use<br />

automatic equipment for prototypes<br />

and small batches. 3-D printing is an<br />

increasingly common alternative here.<br />

Sand molds and cores of any complexity<br />

are manufactured from the CAD dataset<br />

via a layering process. Toolless manufacturing<br />

of this kind provides high<br />

flexibility as regards numbers, design<br />

and versions and permits the production<br />

in exactly reproducible quality of<br />

complex molds and cores with practically<br />

any geometry. Voxeljet talks about<br />

cost savings of up to 75 % in the 3-D<br />

printing of molds and cores made from<br />

sand for small batches. The printing of<br />

sand molds and cores is a highly suitable<br />

option for development operations.<br />

The iron foundry Düker with locations<br />

in Karlstadt and Laufach, for<br />

example, does not use models any more<br />

in the casting it carries out for customers.<br />

The CAD dataset is all that is<br />

needed to produce the sand molds that<br />

are manufactured additively. As a<br />

result, new products can be implemented<br />

in castings from computer files<br />

within a short time and can then be<br />

machined for trial purposes. Geometric<br />

adaptations are simple to carry out and<br />

recasting is then possible once the<br />

design data have been changed and<br />

another mold has been printed. Düker<br />

reports that development time is<br />

reduced significantly by this process. It<br />

is apparently standard procedure to<br />

produce initial samples within a few<br />

weeks, for which months are needed in<br />

the series process. Die casting with reusable<br />

molds made from tool steel benefit<br />

from 3-D printing too. “Additive manufacturing<br />

is creating tremendous opportunities<br />

for die casting companies”, as<br />

Dr. Ioannis Ioannides, CEO of die casting<br />



With annual production of 550,000 t, the Swedish company Häganäs considers<br />

itself to be the biggest manufacturer of metal powder in the world. Metal<br />

powders made from stainless and tool steel, nickel and cobalt alloys are produced<br />

for use in the standard metallic additive manufacturing processes, such<br />

as binder jetting, laser deposition welding and selective laser melting. Since<br />

the additive manufacturing operations of the German powder manufacturer<br />

H.C. Starck were taken over, the product portfolio has also included such technology<br />

metals as molybdenum, tantalum, niobium and tungsten. Market<br />

researchers like the 3-D printing experts at SmarTech Publishing are certain<br />

that aluminium alloys have a successful future ahead of them. AlSi10Mg is<br />

considered to be one of the materials that is used most frequently for additive<br />

manufacturing today – from prototypes to series production. Special aluminium<br />

alloys for additive manufacturing, like the scandium-aluminium alloy<br />

Scalmalloy, are very strong and as light as aluminium, while they match the<br />

stretch properties of titanium – although they are very expensive.<br />

Aluminium manufacturers like the Russian company Rosal, the main producer<br />

of the precious alloy element scandium, are therefore working on new<br />

materials for 3-D printing involving a less expensive alloy formulation. Traditional<br />

names from the German and European metals industry can be found on<br />

the powder metals market. The Austrian company voestalpine produces the<br />

necessary powder metals at its stainless steel subsidiaries Böhler in Austria and<br />

Uddeholm in Sweden. Companies like Deutsche Edelstahlwerke, which claims<br />

to be world market leader for high-alloy stainless steel and nickel-based alloys,<br />

and the long-established stainless steel and special metals company Heraeus<br />

also manufacture metal powders. The steel forging company Rosswag discovered<br />

the market for itself four years ago and produces its steel powders itself<br />

from forging residue of its 400 different alloys. Last year, Rosswag also<br />

announced that it was co-operating with the 3-D printer manufacturer SLM<br />

Solutions and the stainless steel recycling company Cronimet on the development<br />

of special and high-performance alloys for additive manufacturing applications.<br />

machine manufacturer Oskar Frech,<br />

Schorndorf, who is both Board Chairman<br />

of the VDMA foundry machine<br />

trade association and a member of the<br />

board of the VDMA additive manufacturing<br />

task force, stresses in an interview<br />

with the foundry magazine<br />

GIESSEREI, sister magazine of CP+T. For<br />

example, Frech uses 3-D printing to produce<br />

a complex key component for its<br />

low-sprue FGS tool technology that<br />

economizes on recycled material (e.g.<br />

aluminium or magnesium). The mold<br />

plays a key role in the die casting process.<br />

It is important that the castings<br />

solidify as quickly as possible. The process<br />

time for a component can be shortened<br />

by faster cooling, while the quality<br />

of the casting is improved at the<br />

same time too. This depends on adequate<br />

heat removal in the casting mold,<br />

which is traditionally achieved via cooling<br />

holes. Due to process constraints,<br />

however, there are limits to how close<br />

to the shaping surface that cooling<br />

holes can be produced. Additive manufacturing<br />

can help here, because cooling<br />

close to the surface is possible even<br />

in critical areas of the mold thanks to<br />

the tremendous amount of design freedom<br />

the process provides.<br />

Special additive manufacturing<br />

show at GMTN 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

Messe Düsseldorf is supplementing the<br />

metallurgical trade fairs GIFA, METEC,<br />


are being held from 25. to 29. June<br />

2<strong>01</strong>9, by a special additive manufacturing<br />

show. Exhibitors from all over the<br />

world will be presenting new developments<br />

about additive processes on the<br />

GIFA site. Other participants are software<br />

companies, which will be highlighting<br />

solutions from 3-D visualization<br />

and modelling to data processing, as<br />

well as metal powder suppliers and producers<br />

of machines, equipment and<br />

processes for additive processing and<br />

subsequent machining.<br />

www.tbwom.com<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 39

SPECIAL: GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />


Exactpore 3-D filter generation<br />

With its innovative<br />

Exactpore 3-D filters,<br />

ASK Chemicals, Hilden,<br />

offers investment casters<br />

as well as iron and<br />

steel foundries new<br />

and more efficient filtration options for<br />

the highest casting quality. Thanks to<br />

their particularly sophisticated and well<br />

thought-through design, Exactpore 3-D<br />

filters provide the highest structural<br />

integrity and thus safety and efficiency<br />

in use.<br />

Metal purity is one of the most<br />

important requirements in the foundry<br />

industry. Best practice in the field of<br />

molten metal filtration is the use of sintered<br />

ceramic foam filters. But the<br />

structure of the filter foams in particular<br />

means that this form of filtration<br />

also has its limits. During the ceramic<br />

coating and sintering process, tiny particles<br />

may form inside the filter structure,<br />

which are only slightly sintered with the<br />

base material. Flow through the filter<br />

can cause these particles to detach,<br />

which impairs the purity of the melt<br />

and can lead to inclusions in the casting.<br />

The superior structural integrity of<br />

Exactpore 3-D filters ensures the<br />

absence of loose particles and thus prevents<br />

the contamination of the melt by<br />

so-called filter bits and time-consuming<br />

reworking.<br />

A further key advantage of the new<br />

filter generation is its higher flow<br />

capacity. Due to the uniformity of the<br />

pore design and the structurally consistent<br />

geometry, the flow capacity of the<br />

Exactpore 3-D filters is significantly<br />

higher than sintered ceramic foam filters<br />

with the same filter and pore size<br />

and thus offers foundries an opportunity<br />

to further increase manufacturing<br />

productivity.<br />

The uniformity of the pore design<br />

and the structural integrity of the new<br />

filters also significantly reduces turbulence<br />

compared to conventional solutions<br />

and greatly protects against reoxidation<br />

caused by entrained air. In fact,<br />

hardly any impurities get into the mold,<br />

which leads to less reworking, improved<br />

surface quality and lower rejection rates<br />

and ultimately increases profitability.<br />

„Finally, our new filters are manufactured<br />

in such a way that the design<br />

possibilities are virtually limitless,“ adds<br />

Bob Gage, Market Manager Filters at<br />

ASK Chemicals, as a further advantage<br />

of the new Exactpore 3-D filter generation.<br />

„With our new filters there are<br />

almost no limitations as to what we can<br />

offer our customers in terms of pore<br />

design: We can produce almost any<br />

pore size – even unconventional ones<br />

– in order to guarantee the best possible<br />

filter quality with constant flow<br />

properties“.<br />

Hall 12, Stand A22<br />

www.ask-chemicals.com<br />

FOSECO<br />

Feeding and Filtration for Aluminium Foundries<br />

The methoding area<br />

will highlight the optimal<br />

use of foam filters,<br />

die coating and feeding<br />

systems in sand and<br />

gravity die casting<br />

applications. Applications will be<br />

shown for aluminium and copper base<br />

castings demonstrating excellent yield<br />

combined with improved casting quality.<br />

Foseco, Borken, will launch the Feedex<br />

NF1 range of exothermic feeders<br />

designed for aluminium applications.<br />

The sleeve material is highly exothermic,<br />

provides a quick ignition and has a<br />

high strength and due to its excellent<br />

feeding performance, manual application<br />

of exothermic powders is avoided<br />

thereby reducing emissions.<br />

The new range of Dycote Safeguard<br />

products are nano-ceramic top coatings<br />

to be applied on top of the existing<br />

insulating Dycote base coating to<br />

increase the lifetime up to 300 %<br />

(depending on application).<br />

The longevity of a die coating is<br />

essential for the die casting process.<br />

Foseco’s latest Feedex NF1 feeding technology for aluminium foundries.<br />

The longer lifetime leads to reduced<br />

interruptions for touch-up and therefore<br />

increased productivity. Finally, new<br />

case studies of a filter and sleeve combination<br />

with conventional running<br />

and gating systems used in high quality,<br />

technically demanding applications will<br />

be displayed.<br />

All relevant exhibits will feature simulations<br />

using the most recent version<br />

of the Foseco Pro Module for Magmasoft.<br />

Hall 12, Stand A<strong>01</strong> + A02<br />

www.foseco.com<br />

Photo: Foseco<br />



Demonstration of “Complete Connected Foundry”<br />

Photo: Norican Group<br />

“GIFA provides the opportunity to interact,<br />

share latest technical thinking and discuss<br />

emerging needs”, stresses Peter Holm Larson,<br />

President Parts Formation, Norican Group.<br />

Delegates attending<br />

GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9 will, for the<br />

first time in the show’s<br />

history, find Norican<br />

Group, Herlev, Denmark,<br />

and its 4 technologies:<br />

DISA, Italpresse Gauss, StrikoWestofen<br />

and Wheelabrator,<br />

exhibiting the “Complete Connected<br />

Foundry” powered by Norican Digital<br />

– for both die casting and green sand<br />

foundries.<br />

The range of innovation, technology<br />

and expertise across Norican covers<br />

every aspect of foundry operations,<br />

from melting, dosing and green sand<br />

molding, through to die casting, surface<br />

preparation and finishing.<br />

With a complete focus on metal<br />

forming and preparation technologies,<br />

and with the additional proposition of<br />

being able to connect machinery, services<br />

and processes using dedicated data<br />

gathering hardware, and sophisticated<br />

IoT software solutions – powered by<br />

Norican Digital, Peter Holm Larson –<br />

President, Parts Formation, Norican<br />

Group – believes this will be an incredibly<br />

important show for the organisation.<br />

“GIFA provides the perfect opportunity<br />

for our industry to interact, share<br />

latest technical thinking and discuss<br />

emerging needs – for example around<br />

aluminium and new materials. We will<br />

be displaying innovation to deliver<br />

results addressing three fundamental<br />

themes; how to boost foundry productivity,<br />

optimize quality and control<br />

resources in line with current manufacturing<br />

demands”, commented Larson.<br />

“As Norican these are conversations<br />

we can have, and customer needs we<br />

can meet, as a single provider with a<br />

unique end-to-end knowledge of<br />

foundry processes and deeper insight<br />

into the market forces impacting on our<br />

customer base. Our presence at GIFA<br />

2<strong>01</strong>9, even down to a new stand location,<br />

is geared towards demonstrating<br />

this capability mix and our commitment<br />

to using that platform to deliver practical<br />

solutions that make a real difference.”<br />

Larson continued: “DISA, Italpresse<br />

Gauss, StrikoWestofen and Wheelabrator<br />

have successfully built long-standing,<br />

trusted partnerships with foundry<br />

customers based on answering needs<br />

efficiently, innovatively and effectively.<br />

Many of those customers will be attending<br />

GIFA expecting to hear about the<br />

latest ways their specific solution provider<br />

can help tackle an individual challenge<br />

or attain a particular production<br />

goal. And they will.”<br />

“But what they will also receive is<br />

additional value that can only come<br />

from a complete foundry picture – from<br />

seeing how all parts of the puzzle fit<br />

together to offer maximum benefit. In<br />

that respect what Norican provides is a<br />

joined-up offering that is greater than<br />

the sum of its parts, borne of our focus<br />

on metal forming and enhancement. To<br />

be able to take this proposition to GIFA<br />

for the first time is a hugely exciting<br />

prospect.”<br />

In addition to showcasing innovations<br />

in metal casting, green sand molding,<br />

die casting, shot blasting/peening<br />

equipment and services – both physically<br />

on stand and using state-of-the-art<br />

displays - Norican will be delivering a<br />

range of technical lectures and workshops<br />

geared at helping customers<br />

address challenges and maximize<br />

opportunities at every point of their<br />

foundry process.<br />

Subjects to be covered during on-stand<br />

sessions and as part of the official GIFA<br />

lecture programme, can be summarized<br />

under the following categories:<br />

> Data-driven foundries – how to<br />

acquire, monitor, analyse data from<br />

every point in the foundry process to<br />

boost productivity and quality now,<br />

and capitalise on IIoT solutions in<br />

the future as part of Industry 4.0.<br />

> Achieving productivity, quality and<br />

resource improvements – how<br />

foundries of all sizes and types can<br />

use new innovation and/or upgrade<br />

existing solutions to be more sustainable,<br />

energy efficient, productive<br />

and profitable.<br />

Hall11, stand A74 – A78<br />

www.noricangroup.com.<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 41

SPECIAL: GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

FOSECO<br />

Crucibles for Non-Ferrous Foundries<br />

Foseco, Borken, offers a<br />

complete range of silicon<br />

carbide and clay<br />

graphite crucibles,<br />

retorts and other specialized<br />

shapes for use<br />

in fuel fired, induction and electric resistance<br />

furnaces and new crucibles with a<br />

Thermacoat external coating layer<br />

offering enhanced insulation and<br />

reduced power consumption in induction<br />

furnace applications.<br />

In the Non Ferrous metal transfer<br />

area Enertek ZnO will be featured highlighting<br />

the energy and cost saving<br />

potential in melting and metal processing<br />

furnace applications.<br />

Hall 12, Stand A<strong>01</strong> + A02<br />

www.foseco.com<br />

Enertek ZnO Crucibles.<br />

Photo: Foseco<br />


Miratec-Technology for Turbocharger Casting<br />

To meet increasingly<br />

stringent carbon regulations,<br />

a rethinking of<br />

drive concepts is<br />

required for the longterm.<br />

Until e-mobility<br />

can be used across the board, however,<br />

“conventional“ drive technology will be<br />

further downsized in conjunction with<br />

ever more powerful turbocharger technology<br />

in order to be able to satisfy the<br />

aforementioned requirements. To withstand<br />

higher exhaust gas temperatures,<br />

f. e., turbocharger components are now<br />

cast in steel, a process which places new<br />

demands on coating technology.<br />

In steel casting, it is state-of-the-art to<br />

use zirconium-containing coatings, due<br />

mainly to the good refractory properties<br />

of zirconium. However, against the background<br />

of the rising zirconium prices, it<br />

makes sense to consider new solutions.<br />

ASK Chemicals Research & Development,<br />

Hilden, has developed a new coating<br />

technology for turbocharger series<br />

casting, not only to meet the new<br />

requirement profile for turbocharger<br />

component casting, but also as a<br />

response to rising zirconium prices.<br />

Miratec TC is a zirconium-free coating<br />

technology, which nevertheless performs<br />

with excellent thermal stability. The technology<br />

gives the user more independence<br />

from rising raw material prices<br />

while benefiting from a product that is<br />

in no way inferior to the performance of<br />

zirconium coatings. Due to the significantly<br />

lower density of the zirconium-free<br />

coating compared to zirconium-containing<br />

products, the Miratec TC<br />

series has a wider range. In other words,<br />

in addition to independence from high<br />

raw material prices, Miratec TC technology<br />

also provides the user with an<br />

extremely efficient coating solution. The<br />

new technology shows good suspension<br />

behavior in the dipping plant and<br />

adapted (short) cycle times in the application.<br />

Relatively short drying times are<br />

typical for the products. Thanks to consistent<br />

further development, series applications<br />

show a significant reduction in gas<br />

and surface defects as well as safety in<br />

achieving the required surface values.<br />

„It is our task as a partner and supplier<br />

to offer our customers sustainable<br />

solutions. This includes solutions for new<br />

materials, but also products that are viable<br />

against the background of constantly<br />

rising raw material prices. Of course, ASK<br />

Chemicals always keeps an eye on the<br />

efficiency of the solution,“ sums up<br />

Christian Koch, Technical Product Manager<br />

for coatings. Hall 12, Stand A22<br />

www.ask-chemicals.com<br />

Graphics: ASK<br />


The new technical journal<br />



steel production<br />

application technology<br />

innovation + management<br />

processing<br />




Photo: Foseco<br />

An Intelligent Coating Unit is the next step in simplifying the coating application in the foundry industry and automating the application<br />

almost maintenance-free.<br />

ICU – Intelligent Coating Unit<br />

Today, automation of coating control and preparation is an established process in<br />

many foundries. Since the introduction of density measurement and automatic<br />

online-monitoring by Foseco, Borken, in 2008 substantial developments have taken<br />

place leading to significant improvements of the measurement method and equipment<br />

functionality. By intelligent control, a great number of new automation applications<br />

become possible.<br />

Christoph Genzler, Hengel, the Netherlands<br />

Automated Coating Control<br />

There are two widely adopted techniques<br />

for measuring coating density;<br />

by a pressure differential or by volume/<br />

mass determination. The current methods<br />

of achieving this have some disadvantages,<br />

e.g. the use of measuring sensors<br />

with moving parts that require<br />

thorough and regular cleaning to<br />

ensure consistency of operation or to<br />

accept delays/ inaccuracies in density<br />

measurement due to external influences<br />

such as machine vibration<br />

To overcome these issues a new<br />

design philosophy has been adopted:<br />

There should be as few moving parts<br />

installed as possible, the unit’s components<br />

should be designed as maintenance-free<br />

wherever possible, the<br />

achieved measuring accuracy and speed<br />

should surpass current technology, it<br />

should be possible to integrate the<br />

measuring ‘intelligence’ directly into<br />

other applications, e.g. dip tanks, flooding<br />

or spraying units without having to<br />

invest in a centralized preparation unit.<br />

Furthermore, the unit should be compact<br />

and sturdy in order to withstand<br />

the rough foundry environment.<br />


Figure 1: The pressure<br />

sensors are designed<br />

for a long service life.<br />

Over 170 installed machines<br />

Implementation:<br />

When considering the equation for the pressure in a liquid:<br />

p=ρgh<br />

Where:<br />

p = pressure in a liquid ρ = density of the liquid<br />

g = gravity at surface of liquid h = column height of liquid<br />

It follows that if you measure the pressure at two different<br />

heights, the formula can be rearranged for density, so that:<br />

ρ=Δp/g*Δh<br />

One can recognize that the density is related in a linear way<br />

to the measured pressure difference [5].<br />

Example: The pressures in a tank of coating are measured at<br />

two fixed depths, and a difference be-tween the two pressures<br />

is recorded at 0.50 bar. After adding 100 litres of water<br />

to the tank the pressure difference decreases to 0.25 bar. It<br />

follows that since all other factors have remained con-stant, a<br />

halving of the pressure difference is due to the overall density<br />

of the liquid in the tank reduc-ing by 50 %. Note that the<br />

coating and water will need to be mixed to achieve a homogenous<br />

density.<br />

The ICU consists of a coating homogenisation tank, in<br />

which the pressure probes (Figure 1) are incorporated into<br />

the surface of the tank and do not limit the effectiveness of<br />

the mixing unit. The PLC control (Programmable Logic Controller)<br />

continuously monitors the density of the coating,<br />

automatically adding water or undiluted coating to maintain<br />

the required density at all times. The control unit also controls<br />

the mixer timing and speed to ensure homogeneity of<br />

the coating. From this tank coating is supplied to one or more<br />

coating application stations for use, excess coating is returned<br />

to the tank via a filter configuration for re-checking and<br />

homogenization.<br />

The pressure probes are extremely robust with a guaranteed<br />

life time/ warranty of up to 10 years. They also allow the<br />

ICU to monitor each measurement automatically and provide<br />

the possibility to determine any sedimentation tendency of<br />

the coating. Until today this has not been possible with other<br />

units and provides significant benefit. When considering a<br />

possible contamination by bacteria in a water coating it is<br />

important to understand that this will not result in any<br />

change of the density. The coating will change, however,<br />

regarding its properties like matt time, flow length and sedimenta-tion<br />

tendency which will affect indirectly the structure<br />

of the layer - a parameter which must be kept constant<br />

unconditionally [1]. By measuring sedimentation rate it is possible<br />

to monitor rheological changes in the coating and affect<br />

appropriate action.<br />

Welcome to the market leader<br />

of 3D core & mold printing<br />

Visit us at GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

from 25-29 June in Duesseldorf<br />

15/A11 • gifa.de<br />

ExOne GmbH<br />

Daimlerstr. 22 • 86368 Gersthofen<br />

+49 821 650 630 • europe@exone.com


Figure 3:<br />

Integrated timer for<br />

container connection.<br />

Figure 2: Optionally, the system is equipped with a<br />

UV water treatment.<br />

Figure 4: The density measurement technology<br />

of the ICU can be integrated directly<br />

into the dip tank.<br />

It is also advisable and possible to<br />

integrate within a pressure sensor a<br />

coating temperature monitor-ing programme<br />

for registering at least critical<br />

product temperatures and fluctuations<br />

that may cause concern [3].<br />

The advantages are: Optimized<br />

processing of diluted coating, continuous<br />

monitoring and recording of coating<br />

density, automatic dosage of coating<br />

or dilutant to maintain density,<br />

coating application (applied layer<br />

thickness) is more consistent and predictable<br />

and reduction of maintenance<br />

down-time<br />

Measurement accuracy<br />

The self-control and calibration is<br />

affected by means of a third sensor<br />

enabling comparison of three separate<br />

differential pressures (top-bottom;<br />

top-middle; middle-bottom) and which<br />

thereby not only monitors the homogeneity<br />

in the vessel but also displays<br />

simultaneously a possible increased sedimentation<br />

tendency.<br />

The pressure sensors which are used are<br />

also employed, for example, in sludge<br />

conveyance and fracking. This means<br />

that they are very robust and designed<br />

for long service life. There is no need<br />

for moving the sensors for cleaning as<br />

they are maintenance-free. It is now<br />

possible to achieve a measurement<br />

accuracy enabling a max. tolerance of<br />

0.1 % of the desired value. For example,<br />

a range from 1.1498 to 1.522, when the<br />

desired density value is 1.1510.<br />

Operation<br />

During filling or returning of the coating,<br />

turbulence may introduce air inclusions<br />

and, thereby, undesirable foaming.<br />

In the ICU this is prevented by a<br />

novel filling technique.<br />

Another weak point of existing<br />

plants the shear forces, which due to<br />

stirring or pumping act negatively on<br />

the coating by effecting the balanced<br />

rheological properties of the product. A<br />

shear force, which is too high (for<br />

example due to circulation in a measuring<br />

tank) can change the character and<br />

behaviour of the coating completely.<br />

The newly developed propeller<br />

geometry enables the ICU, to minimize<br />

this shear load by employing extremely<br />

low revolutions (10 - 30 rpm), whilst still<br />

ensuring a homogeneous product.<br />


By means of UV disinfection treatment<br />

(Figure 2) the water used for dilution<br />

can be disinfected without using<br />

any chemicals. This results in longer service<br />

life of the coating and, simultaneously,<br />

less waste.<br />

Historically, additions of undiluted<br />

coating have been left to the user and<br />

it could happen that non-homogeneous<br />

coating additions have a negative influence<br />

on the automatic preparation process.<br />

This was taken in consideration<br />

when the ICU was designed: By means<br />

of an integrated timer control (Figure 3)<br />

the supply containers can be connected<br />

directly to the ICU, homogenised and<br />

used, thereby preventing any overmixing.<br />

Subsequent to the container<br />

change homogenisation of raw coating<br />

is started automatically.<br />

Coating Cleanliness<br />

Molding/core sand is a significant<br />

source of contamination. Sand inclusions<br />

in the coating layer can cause<br />

inclusions in the casting surface, which<br />

quite often can result in a scrap casting.<br />

To avoid this, the ICU is fitted with a<br />

double-filter system which not only<br />

removes these contaminants, but which<br />

also can be exchanged without interruption<br />

to production.<br />

Integrated Application Systems<br />

Many users do not need a central<br />

preparation plant but are employing<br />

stationary units like dipping tanks or<br />

flow coat stations. In such a case, as per<br />

example at Eisengießerei Dinklage, Dinklage,<br />

Germany, the intelligence of the<br />

ICU can be integrated directly within<br />

the dip tank (Figure 4, read company<br />

report from page 12).<br />

Coating monitoring by means of ICU<br />

intelligence is influencing the coating<br />

directly in the combined dipping/ flooding<br />

basin. The consumed volume is<br />

filled up automatically from a connected<br />

coating container. The accurate<br />

and fast determination of the density<br />

enables the ICU to quantify the<br />

required volumes of raw coating or<br />

respectively dilution medium in advance<br />

and replenishment can take place without<br />

delay.<br />

Profitability analysis<br />

Profitability analysis for an exemplary<br />

foundry:<br />

> In the core shop there are 5 dipping<br />

tanks of which 3 are by manual<br />

operation and 2 are fitted with<br />

robots.<br />

> Historically a dipping tank cleaning<br />

cycle of 2 times per month is undertaken,<br />

giving rise to a coating waste<br />

amount of 86.4 t/year (24 cleaning<br />

operations per year).<br />

> By employing the ICU, it became<br />

possible to reduce the cleaning cycle<br />

to once per quarter, resulting in a<br />

saving of 64.8 tonnes of coating.<br />

> With waste disposal costs of 0.8<br />

euros/kg, it is possible to save<br />

directly 51,840 euros/year.<br />

> The diluted coating has a cost of<br />

0.30 euros/kg. Therefore, in this case<br />

(64,800kg times 0.3) 19,440 euros/<br />

year less coating costs occur.<br />

In addition to the direct coating costs,<br />

the foundry benefitted from improved<br />

casting quality. The foundry has a<br />

capacity of 54,000 tonnes per year and<br />

produces 16,000 t of a component having<br />

a defect rate of +- 5 %. The costs for<br />

removing this defect are 0.15 euros/kg.<br />

By using the ICU, it was possible to<br />

reduce coating-related defects by<br />

2.5 %. This equates to a quality related<br />

saving of (16million kg times 2.5 %<br />

times 0.15) 60,000 euros per year.<br />

The use of the ICU was thus paid off<br />

in the first year with 131,280 euros.<br />

Summary<br />

An Intelligent Coating Unit is the next<br />

step to streamline coating handling in<br />

the foundry industry and for nearly<br />

maintenance-free automation.<br />

In view of the increasing demands in<br />

foundries regarding process-reliability<br />

also process-reliable coating handling is<br />

needed, as this has a substantial influence<br />

on casting quality.<br />

The authors would like to thank the<br />

iron foundry Dinklage, in particular<br />

Björn Ploch, for the valuable and trustful<br />

cooperation. Thanks are also due to<br />

the firm of Schipper/STS at Almelo, particularly<br />

Messrs. B. Jannink, K. Smidt<br />

and M. Wolters, for the joint development<br />

of the ICU. Further thanks go to<br />

the Foseco team for their great support.<br />

References:<br />

www.cpt-international.com<br />

www.foseco.com<br />

Christoph Genzler on<br />

the Intelligent Coating<br />

Unit<br />

https://t1p.de/i22e<br />

NEW<br />

multiPulse<br />

160 °C.<br />

Hall 11 / H73

Pre-shredder in aluminium<br />

foundry reduces scrap<br />

Implementation of a sophisticated safety concept for the monitoring of<br />

container filling levels in the light alloy foundry of BMW.<br />

Production of cylinder crankcases in Landshut.<br />

Sophie Kesy, Munich<br />

Photo: BMW<br />

At the BMW Group‘s plant in<br />

Landshut all scrap products such<br />

as punching waste and sprue systems<br />

are recycled and then remelted<br />

(Figure 1). For this purpose, the die-cast<br />

parts were previously collected in containers<br />

without being shredded and<br />

were removed from the basement of<br />

the foundry with considerable use of<br />

manpower. In the course of a renewal of<br />

the casting cells in the foundry hall, the<br />

work processes were optimized and<br />

more efficient processes set up. Erdwich<br />

Zerkleinerungs-Systeme GmbH, Igling,<br />

was awarded the contract to design a<br />

plant that enabled the collection and<br />

shredding of the foundry‘s aluminium<br />

waste directly from the press. For this<br />

task, the recycling expert adapted the<br />

RM 1350 pre-shredder to the local conditions.<br />

Onsite shredding means that<br />

the containers with scrap parts and<br />

punching waste have to be transported<br />

far less frequently to a large container,<br />

which contributes to a significant<br />

increase in operating efficiency. In cooperation<br />

with the technical department<br />

of the BMW Group, Erdwich also developed<br />

a sophisticated safety system for<br />

monitoring the condition of the<br />

machine.<br />

The light alloy foundry at the BMW<br />

Group plant in Landshut is one of the<br />

most modern foundries in the world.<br />

Every year, around five million aluminium<br />

casting components, such as engine<br />

components or structural components<br />

for the vehicle body, are produced here<br />

using five different casting processes,<br />

with a total weight of 84,000 tons. As in<br />

all areas of the company, the aluminium<br />

foundry works with maximum efficiency<br />

in order to keep the scrap rate as low as<br />

possible. In the past, the regularly occurring<br />

scrap was collected in containers<br />

without being shredded, removed from<br />

the basement and then returned to the<br />

melting process. The cast aluminium<br />

parts had dimensions of up to 2,000 x<br />

1,400 mm and therefore took up a lot of<br />

space in the collection containers. This,<br />

in turn, meant that the containers had<br />

to be emptied frequently, which<br />

required a great deal of time and man-<br />



Figure 1: During the production<br />

of cast aluminium parts,<br />

scrap is produced which is<br />

melted down again. Previously,<br />

these parts were collected<br />

in containers without<br />

being shredded and required<br />

so much space that the containers<br />

had to be emptied<br />

constantly.<br />

Photos: Erdwich Zerkleinerungs-Systeme<br />

Figure 2: The scrap parts such<br />

as punching waste and sprue<br />

systems fall directly from the<br />

press into the hopper of the<br />

shredding plant and then into<br />

containers. These are regularly<br />

emptied into a large container<br />

and then transported to the<br />

smelter.<br />

Figure 3: The intermediate shredding systems<br />

allowed the volume of die-cast<br />

parts to be reduced by some 50 to 60 %.<br />

As a result, the containers have to be<br />

emptied far less frequently, which results<br />

in significantly lower time and manpower<br />

requirements.<br />

power. In the course of reconstruction<br />

measures in the foundry hall, during<br />

which the casting cells were replaced<br />

one after the other, it was planned to<br />

optimize the recycling process.<br />

New plant achieves significant<br />

increase in efficiency<br />

Erdwich Zerkleinerungs-Systeme GmbH<br />

from Igling in Upper Bavaria, which has<br />

decades of experience in the construction<br />

of recycling plants, got the order to<br />

plan and commission the metal shredder.<br />

This was particularly beneficial for<br />

the project in Landshut, as Richard<br />

Adelwarth, project manager at Erdwich<br />

Zerkleinerungs-Systeme GmbH, reports:<br />

„When we visited the site, it quickly<br />

became clear that the solution required<br />

in the tender would not have the<br />

desired effect. We therefore carried out<br />

many trials and consulted another company<br />

in the industry, with whom we<br />

regularly work on larger projects in<br />

order to be able to offer an optimum<br />

solution.” Erdwich finally made a<br />

machine available with which a typical<br />

production process was executed.<br />

The recycling experts designed a<br />

machine based on the RM 1350<br />

pre-shredder. This machine is characterized<br />

by fast and easy maintenance, long<br />

service life, optimum shredding and<br />

high throughput. To date, seven systems<br />

with soundproof enclosures have<br />

been installed for the eight casting cells<br />

and punch presses in the plant. „Loading<br />

takes place in free fall, that means<br />

the molds, which are to be returned to<br />

the melting process, now fall from the<br />

pressing plant directly into the hopper<br />

of the pre-shredder and then into a<br />

container measuring 1,400 x 1,400 x<br />

900 mm,“ explains Adelwarth<br />

(Figure 2). When the container is full, it<br />

is transported outside, emptied into a<br />

large container; and this in turn is<br />

brought to the smelter. The shredding<br />

process has reduced the volume of cast<br />

parts by 50 to 60 %, which means that<br />

the disposal containers have to be emptied<br />

far less frequently and thus require<br />

less time and manpower.<br />

Sophisticated safety system<br />

developed together with BMW<br />

The pre-shredders were adapted to the<br />

special conditions prevailing on site.<br />

The drives of the machines, for example,<br />

had to be mounted on one side<br />

instead of the usual two. The reason for<br />

this was the columns of the building,<br />

which were located in the area of the<br />

installation site and therefore required<br />

a narrower design. In addition, the<br />

crushing tools themselves and their<br />

arrangement within the cutting chamber<br />

were adapted to the local conditions.<br />

Over and above this, the standard<br />

version of the RM 1350 already has a<br />

safety system. This includes a PLC control<br />

system (Programmable Logic Controller)<br />

with automatic reverse and cutout<br />

control, so that the machine is<br />

protected from damage in the event of<br />

overload or bulky solid parts. In addition,<br />

each shaft is equipped with an<br />

energy-optimized frequency converter,<br />

which ensures that the two cutting gear<br />

shafts are driven separately. This<br />

enables optimum adaptation to the<br />

shredding process. Together with the<br />

technical department of the BMW<br />

Group, the safety system was extended<br />

by new features. „Both the filling level<br />

of the removal box located in the basement<br />

and the monitoring of the shredder<br />

itself are now displayed transparently,<br />

so that a quick response can be<br />

made if necessary,“ explains Adelwarth.<br />

Further optimization potential<br />

available<br />

As soon as all casting cells have been<br />

replaced, a conveyor belt system could<br />

be installed in a further expansion stage<br />

in order to further optimize the disposal<br />

process. Thereby, the shredded rejects<br />

would no longer to be collected in containers<br />

that have to be removed and<br />

emptied by hand – instead, the rejects<br />

would be transported directly into the<br />

large container via a conveyor belt. In<br />

this way, scrap products and punching<br />

waste from all casting cells can be disposed<br />

of simultaneously and without<br />

additional logistical effort (Figure 3). For<br />

the current expansion stage, all necessary<br />

alterations were quickly implemented<br />

so that Erdwich was able to<br />

meet the requirements placed on the<br />

machines. As a result, the work processes<br />

were considerably accelerated.<br />

www.erdwich.com<br />

www.bmwgroup-werke.com/<br />

landshut/en<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 49

NEWS<br />


10th anniversary of foundry pilot plant<br />

ASK Chemicals celebrated the 10th anniversary of its foundry pilot plant together with customers,<br />

partners and employees.<br />

Together with customers, partners and<br />

employees ASK Chemicals, Hilden, celebrated<br />

the 10th anniversary of its<br />

foundry pilot plant at the company<br />

headquarters on the 14th and 15th February<br />

2<strong>01</strong>9. The festivities were rounded<br />

off by a lecture colloquium held the following<br />

day, at which representatives<br />

from the academic world as well as customers,<br />

partners and employees of ASK<br />

Chemicals gave lectures that focused on<br />

the importance of networking for innovation<br />

and success.<br />

As the first foundry supplier, ASK<br />

Chemicals opened an efficient pilot<br />

plant in Hilden more than 10 years ago,<br />

which today is an essential part of the<br />

company‘s product development activities.<br />

From the outset, ASK Chemicals‘<br />

management placed great emphasis on<br />

technical services and continuously pursued<br />

the development and expansion of<br />

its pilot plant at the company‘s headquarters.<br />

The establishment of the<br />

foundry pilot plant enables ASK Chemicals<br />

to close the gap between product<br />

development and customer application<br />

quickly and efficiently. By simulating<br />

the customer process in the pilot plant,<br />

the Hilden-based company is able to<br />

implement the right solution for the<br />

customer with only a few iteration<br />

loops. Over the past 10 years, ASK<br />

Chemicals has continuously invested to<br />

provide its customers with value-added<br />

products and solutions. The most recent<br />

investment is the 3-D printing laboratory<br />

set up two years ago for the application-oriented<br />

development of inorganic<br />

and organic binders for 3-D sand<br />

printing.<br />

In addition to its core functions, the<br />

pilot plant also plays a central role in<br />

the development of prototypes for<br />

innovation projects – such as the further<br />

development of Inotec technology<br />

– on which ASK Chemicals works<br />

together with selected customers. In<br />

this way, the performance spectrum of<br />

current developments can flow directly<br />

into the customer process without customers<br />

having to take on a high investment<br />

risk with regard to machine technology.<br />

The celebrations at ASK Chemicals<br />

were held under the motto „Networking,<br />

Innovation, Passion“ – key ingredients<br />

for being successful according to<br />

Jörg Brotzki, Executive Vice President.<br />

„The network concept, the qualification<br />

of our teams and their passion for the<br />

field of casting are key success factors<br />

when it comes to developing innovative<br />

and value-adding solutions for our customers.<br />

We recognized this early on<br />

and have been relying on this recipe for<br />

success for more than ten years, in<br />

which the pilot plant plays a central<br />

role.“ www.ask-chemicals.com<br />

Photo: Vogt/BDG<br />


High quality sand core curing<br />

Sand cores are building the backbone<br />

of the foundry business to deliver constantly<br />

improving foundry products. The<br />

sand core requirements stretch from<br />

high dimensional accuracy to easy core<br />

removal while at the same time demanding<br />

the lowest possible cost. Sand core<br />

quality plays an important role as quality<br />

defects of sand cores usually results<br />

in defects of final foundry products.<br />

All these requirements are driven to<br />

ensure the highest possible quality for<br />

the final foundry product at the lowest<br />

price. All inorganic sand core manufacturing<br />

processes offer various parameters<br />

to adjust the sand core quality.<br />

The parameters can be grouped into 5<br />

main critical steps during the manufacturing<br />

process:<br />

1. Sand core & core box design<br />

2. shooting process<br />

3. Curing process<br />

4. Handling & Storage<br />

5. Application<br />

All processes have a direct impact on<br />

the quality of the sand cores. The key<br />

difference is that the curing process<br />

(Step 3.) has the biggest operational<br />

impact on the individual sand core quality<br />

while all other process parameters<br />

are designed upfront and to ensure reliable<br />

quality.<br />

The main reason why the curing process<br />

is so critical is that it requires heat<br />

application to the individual sand core<br />

to ensure sufficient sand core strength.<br />

Heat application processes are difficult<br />

to control, especially if heat is generated<br />

externally and conveyed into the<br />

core box.<br />


The common heat applications in<br />

the core box are the use of thermo oil<br />

and heating rod while additional heat<br />

energy is applied to the core via heated<br />

air while removing humidity.<br />

The key problem remains: sand<br />

(cores) heat conductivity is terrible. As<br />

a consequence the core box is operated<br />

with excessive heat to increase the<br />

heat transfer into the sand core with<br />

the aim to reduce the cycle time. This<br />

approach has limitations as the sand<br />

binders have a maximum temperature<br />

to avoid damaging the chemical binder.<br />

The „Advanced Core Solutions­<br />

“(ACS) project has patented a new process<br />

that generates the heat directly<br />

inside the sand core. This process uses<br />

the electrical conductivity of the inorganic<br />

binders. Heat is generated by<br />

applying electrical current to the sand<br />

core.<br />

The core box design is very simple<br />

as it mainly contains the core box, electrodes<br />

and isolation layer as visible on<br />

the picture below. The obvious benefits<br />

of reduced energy consumption<br />

Individual measurement of energy consumption<br />

with ACS technology.<br />

and better sand core quality due to<br />

homogeneous curing of the full sand<br />

core are enriched by the underlying<br />

possibilities to control the quality per<br />

individual sand core.<br />

The flow of electrical current<br />

through the sand core is at ever millisecond<br />

controlled and documented. This<br />

allows to measure the energy<br />

consumption, temperature and time<br />

per individual sand core even in larger<br />

core boxes with multiple cavities.<br />

Furthermore can the quality data<br />

be linked to each sand core and used<br />

Photo: ACS<br />

for life cycle tracking. This enables<br />

future insights by applying big data<br />

analysis by connecting the results to<br />

final foundry product quality.<br />

The true potential comes in play if<br />

the individual sand core results are<br />

compared to all previously manufactured<br />

sand cores.<br />

Using the Six Sigma concepts allows<br />

now to detect any major variation versus<br />

previous results and sand cores can<br />

be marked for additional inspections<br />

or removal. This decreases quality<br />

defects early in the manufacturing process<br />

to reduce additional losses later in<br />

the manufacturing steps and at the<br />

same time increasing the output capacity.<br />

The technology especially becomes<br />

interesting for large sand cores or sand<br />

cores with high annual volume. The<br />

estimated benefits reach up to 30%<br />

faster curing processes without shell<br />

formation and at the same time reduce<br />

33% energy consumption due to elimination<br />

of external heat generation.<br />

https://advanced-core-solutions.de<br />

KNOW<br />

YOUR<br />

SAND.<br />





More foundries around the world<br />

choose Simpson Analytics for their<br />

sand lab than any other<br />

technology. Consisting of over 85<br />

instruments,<br />

Simpson Analytics is:<br />

• More flexible to different<br />

standards<br />

• More accurate<br />

• More repeatable<br />

• Easier to use<br />

• More durable<br />

• Easier to calibrate<br />

Simpson Analytics, including all<br />

of the former +GF+ products, is<br />

supported by our global service<br />

network, based in the USA,<br />

Germany and India, for spare<br />

parts, repair and calibration.<br />



HALL 17<br />

STAND B60<br />

Simpson Technologies (Deutschland) GmbH<br />

Roitzheimer Strasse 180, 53879, Euskirchen, Germany

NEWS<br />


Heiko Lickfett elected Secretary General<br />

Heiko Lickfett succeeds Max Schumacher<br />

as Secretary General of CAEF, The<br />

European Foundry Association, as of<br />

<strong>01</strong>.<strong>01</strong>.2<strong>01</strong>9. The CAEF is the umbrella<br />

organization of the national European<br />

foundry associations. The organization,<br />

founded in 1953, has 22 European<br />

member states and works to promote<br />

the economic, technical, legal and social<br />

interests of the European foundry<br />

industry.<br />

Heiko Lickfett and Max Schumacher<br />

are from the German Foundry Association<br />

(BDG) based in Düsseldorf. Lickfett<br />

is also head of the Economics Department<br />

of BDG, while Schumacher is the<br />

association’s Managing Director. Heiko<br />

Lickfett studied economics and political<br />

science, starting his career as an economic<br />

advisor at the German Steel Federation<br />

followed by his position as economist<br />

at the Association of German<br />

Foundries (DGV) in 1991 – which was<br />

later to become BDG. He has also been<br />

active in CAEF in various functions for<br />

more than a decade.<br />

The start of the year was also marked<br />

by the relaunch of the CAEF’s internet<br />

presence. The umbrella organization’s<br />

completely redesigned website at<br />

www.caef.eu offers comprehensive<br />

information in English on the Association<br />

and its organizational structure as<br />

well as on foundry technology and its<br />

applications, statistical data, a dedicated<br />

members’ access page, and a download<br />

area (e. g. for general contractual conditions).<br />

A picture database for media<br />

representatives is also in preparation.<br />

www.caef.eu<br />

Heiko Lickfett (left) succeeds Max Schumacher as Secretary General of CAEF.<br />

Photo: BDG<br />


New casting process developed<br />

The joint venture between Rheinmetall<br />

Automotive, Düsseldorf, and China‘s<br />

HUAYU Automotive Systems has developed<br />

a production process that is particularly<br />

suitable for highly complex<br />

engine block geometries and electric<br />

motor housings.<br />

The joint venture between Rheinmetall<br />

Automotive and Huayu from<br />

China has developed a process for production<br />

at the new Chinese plant in<br />

Guangde that is particularly suitable<br />

for complex engine block designs and<br />

electric motor housings. At KS Hyayu‘s<br />

test foundry in Neckarsulm, the process<br />

was brought to series production.<br />

According to their own statements, the<br />

specialists are combining the advantages<br />

of different casting processes.<br />

With the new low-pressure sand<br />

casting, weight savings of around 3-5<br />

% could be achieved with less material<br />

input. In addition, casting can be carried<br />

out in comparatively short cycle<br />

times. The new process is initially to be<br />

used for a four-cylinder in-line engine<br />

with an overmolded cast iron liner. The<br />

liners used are cast a few millimeters<br />

over the cylinder head to avoid the<br />

milling cutter having to move through<br />

different materials during subsequent<br />

machining. This design would not be<br />

possible in classic low-pressure gravity<br />

die casting.<br />

For Head of Development, Dr. Christian<br />

Klimesch, the process is no longer<br />


completely new territory, „since the<br />

same process is already being used at<br />

the Chinese plant in Guangde to manufacture<br />

the electric motor housings of a<br />

battery-powered car for the Chinese<br />

market.“ This development also originated<br />

at Neckarsulm and was subsequently<br />

transferred to the site located<br />

some 300 km west of Shanghai.<br />

The exacting tolerances placed on<br />

the positioning of the liners in the sand<br />

proved to be one of the challenges in<br />

the progressing of the process for<br />

engine block manufacture. They need<br />

to be heated in the fully assembled<br />

core package after they have been centered<br />

exactly between the some 22<br />

sand cores of the package when cold.<br />

Chill castings are likewise required<br />

in the area of the bearing bulkhead<br />

most stressed during subsequent<br />

engine operation. Since cooling is not<br />

active as in permanent-mold casting,<br />

the required heat extraction must be<br />

controlled by the mass of the chill castings.<br />

In this way, very high material<br />

properties (tensile strength and yield<br />

Rheinmetall and Huayu have developed a<br />

new low-pressure sand casting process.<br />

strength) are achieved with simultaneously<br />

increased elongation. This is<br />

exactly what engine builders want for<br />

today‘s highly stressed engine generations.<br />

The great advantage of this process<br />

is to allow the design engineer maximum<br />

design flexibility with undercut<br />

geometries and all shapes of channels.<br />

Photo: Rheinmetall Automotive<br />

In addition, less material has to be used<br />

and weight savings of between 3 and<br />

5 % can be achieved. Due to the<br />

extremely low heat conduction of sand,<br />

lower wall thicknesses can also be<br />

obtained with the same filling speed<br />

and melt temperature compared to<br />

permanent-mold casting.<br />

Another advantage is that low-pressure<br />

sand casting is a very robust process<br />

with comparatively few variables<br />

providing matters such as the connection<br />

of the core package to the filling<br />

are under control. Klimesch quotes:<br />

„This is where our many years of experience<br />

and our leading position in<br />

low-pressure casting come into play.<br />

Once you‘ve set the appropriate parameters,<br />

it‘s like pretzel baking.“ And as<br />

the clock shows, it is also similarly productive,<br />

because instead of a cycle time<br />

of up to eight minutes as with<br />

low-pressure permanent-mold casting,<br />

for example, the new process requires a<br />

maximum of a quarter of this time.<br />

www.rheinmetall-automotive.com<br />

HA GROUP<br />

Strengthening of market position in India<br />

Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke<br />

GmbH (HA), Düsseldorf, announced it<br />

has increased its stake in its longstanding<br />

Indian joint venture Gargi Hüttenes-Albertus<br />

Private Limited (Gargi HA)<br />

from 40 % to 74 %. HA´s co-shareholder<br />

in Gargi HA, the Kapur family, will<br />

remain a strong minority shareholder<br />

with 26%. The Kapur family will continue<br />

to be active in the management of<br />

Gargi HA.<br />

Gargi HA has been a joint venture<br />

between the Kapur family and HA since<br />

1988. The partnership of Gargi HA and<br />

HA has set itself the goal of being the<br />

most reliable and inventive partner to<br />

all foundries in the Indian Subcontinent<br />

with all products and services that are<br />

required for advanced and efficient casting<br />

processes.<br />

Gargi HA serves the Indian foundry<br />

industry with tailor made resins and<br />

coatings. The state-of-the art manufacturing<br />

plants are located at Nerul and<br />

Khopoli in Western India. The highly<br />

skilled technical team of the company<br />

continues to improve products and services<br />

in order to meet increasing quality<br />

requirements of their customers.<br />

With the increase in share the<br />

General Management of HA Group<br />

implements an important strategic step<br />

since India is the world´s second biggest<br />

foundry market with more than<br />

50 % growth in the past ten years.<br />

“Our strategy is to strengthen our presence<br />

in India in order to further<br />

expand our group‘s market share in<br />

the region”, says Dr. Carsten Kuhlgatz.<br />

Christoph Koch comments: “We<br />

strongly expect further growth for our<br />

company, especially by fully integrating<br />

Gargi HA into the HA Group, which is<br />

known globally for its state-of-the-art<br />

technology.”<br />

The combination of Gargi HA’s excellent<br />

network and knowledge of the<br />

local market on the one side and the<br />

backing by leading technologies of the<br />

global player HA on the other side,<br />

makes the company the most competent<br />

partner of foundries in India. Supported<br />

by the HA Group’s modern R&D<br />

centers and the recently built HA Center<br />

of Competence the company is ready<br />

for the future - with advanced foundry<br />

chemical products and services for every<br />

stage of the casting process.<br />

“We have always highly respected<br />

our partners of HA in Germany for their<br />

values, their technological competency<br />

and their vision to help foundries all<br />

over the world to be successful and<br />

competitive”, says Vinod Kapur, Executive<br />

Chairman of Gargi HA. Vinod Kapur<br />

as well as Managing Director Vicky<br />

Kapur are now to handing over the leadership<br />

of Gargi HA to the new generation:<br />

Both Gaurav Kapur as well as<br />

Varun Kapur are assuming broader<br />

management responsibilities, whereas<br />

Vinod und Vicky Kapur will further provide<br />

their experience and advice in the<br />

Gargi HA Board.<br />

Gaurav Kapur is looking forward to<br />

the strengthened partnership with HA<br />

and to assuming new responsibilities:<br />

“The friendship and togetherness with<br />

our partners of HA has been determining<br />

my whole life”, he says. “Although<br />

we have different cultures, we share<br />

same values and objectives and a sincere<br />

mutual trust. I am proud to be part<br />

of the HA family and I am eager to do<br />

my best to successfully shape our common<br />

future.”<br />

www.gargi-india.com<br />

CASTING PLANT & TECHNOLOGY 1/2<strong>01</strong>9 53


Fairs and Congresses<br />

Aluminium Two Thousand<br />

April, 9-13, 2<strong>01</strong>9, Treviso, Italy<br />

www.aluminium2000.com<br />

Castexpo 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

April, 27-30, 2<strong>01</strong>9, Atlanta, USA<br />

www.afsinc.org/tradeshows/castexpo-2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

Hannover Messe<br />

May, 1-5, 2<strong>01</strong>9, Hanover, Germany<br />

www.hannovermesse.de<br />

Innovations in Die Casting<br />

May, 13-15, 2<strong>01</strong>9, Nowy Adamów, Lodz, Poland<br />

https://diecasting.foundry-conferece.com/en<br />

Litmash 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

May, 14-17, 2<strong>01</strong>9, Moscow, Russia<br />

www.litmash-russia.com<br />

18th <strong>International</strong> Foundrymen Conference<br />

May, 15-17, 2<strong>01</strong>9, Sisak, Croatia<br />

www.simet.hr/~foundry<br />

20th <strong>International</strong> Die Casting, Foundry &<br />

Industrial Furnace Exhibition<br />

June, 13-15, 2<strong>01</strong>9, Pazhou, Guangzhou, China<br />

www.julang.com.cn/english/yazhu/index.asp<br />

Advertisers‘ Index<br />

Admar Group Ocala, FL/USA 23<br />

AGTOS Gesellschaft für technische Oberflächensysteme<br />

mbH, Emsdetten/Germany 35<br />

ASK Chemicals GmbH, Hilden/Germany 11<br />

DVS Media GmbH, Düsseldorf/Germany 43<br />

ExOne GmbH, Gersthofen/Germany 45<br />

Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke GmbH<br />

Düsseldorf/GermanyBC<br />

Kjellberg Vertrieb GmbH,<br />

Finsterwalde/Germany21<br />

Maschinenfabrik Gustav Eirich GmbH & Co KG<br />

Hardheim/Germany29<br />

Messe Düsseldorf GmbH, Düsseldorf/Germany<br />

IFC<br />

O.M.LER S.r.l., Bra (CN)/Italy 41<br />

Optris GmbH, Berlin/Germany 25<br />

Regloplas AG, St. Gallen/Switzerland 47<br />

Simpson Technologies GmbH,<br />

Euskirchen/Germany51<br />

GIFA 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

June, 25-29, 2<strong>01</strong>9, Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

www.gifa.com<br />


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