All You Need To Teach Comprehension 10+

You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

AGES<br />

<strong>10+</strong><br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong><br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong><br />

Reading with understanding<br />

Angela Ehmer

<strong>Comprehension</strong><br />

Ages 10<br />

Reading with understanding<br />

Angela Ehmer

This edition published in 2021 by<br />

Matilda Education Australia, an imprint<br />

of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd<br />

Level 1/274 Brunswick St<br />

Fitzroy, Victoria Australia 3065<br />

T: 1300 277 235<br />

E: customersupport@matildaed.com.au<br />

www.matildaeducation.com.au<br />

First edition published in 2009 by Macmillan Science and Education Australia Pty Ltd<br />

Copyright © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia 2009<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong><br />

ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />

Publisher: Sharon Dalgleish<br />

Managing editor: Polly Hennessy<br />

Project editor: Claire Linsdell<br />

Editor: Nina Paine<br />

Proofreader: Adriana Martinelli-Sciacca<br />

Design: Bob Seal<br />

Illustrations: Bob Seal<br />

Printed in by <br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25 24 23 22 21 20<br />

Copying of this work by educational institutions or teachers<br />

The purchasing educational institution and its staff, or the purchasing<br />

individual teacher, may only reproduce pages within this book in accordance<br />

with the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) and provided the<br />

educational institution (or body that administers it) has given a remuneration<br />

notice to the Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act.<br />

For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions, contact:<br />

Copyright Agency Limited<br />

Level 11, 66 GoulburnCastlereagh Street<br />

Sydney NSW 2000<br />

Telephone (02) 9394 7600<br />

Facsimile (02) 9394 7601<br />

Email info@copyright.com.au<br />

Reproduction and communication for other purposes<br />

Except as permitted under the Act (for example, any fair dealing for the<br />

purposes of study, research, criticism or review), no part of this book may be<br />

reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any<br />

form or by any means without prior written permission. <strong>All</strong> inquiries should be<br />

made to the publisher.

Contents<br />

<strong>All</strong> the <strong>Teach</strong>ing Tips <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong><br />

Exploring <strong>Comprehension</strong> 5<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Strategies 6<br />

Predict 6<br />

Connect 7<br />

Infer 7<br />

Question 8<br />

Visualise 8<br />

Determine Main Idea 9<br />

Synthesise 9<br />

Self-monitor 10<br />

Literature Circles and Book Clubs 10<br />

<strong>All</strong> the Rubrics and Resources <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong><br />

Assessment Rubrics 14<br />

Mini-Posters 22<br />

Book Club Roles 30<br />

<strong>All</strong> the Lesson Banks and Text Models <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong><br />

Preparing for Cyclones and Wild Storms 36<br />

Virtual Cafe 38<br />

Fright 40<br />

Almost Swallowed by a Shark 42<br />

The Missing Ticket 44<br />

Landmines 46<br />

Gruesome Rhymes: Jack and Jill 48<br />

The Greatest Eruption of <strong>All</strong> Time 50<br />

<strong>All</strong> the Worksheets and Task Cards <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong><br />

Worksheets 53<br />

Task Cards 73

<strong>All</strong> the<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>ing<br />

Tips<br />

<strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong><br />


Exploring <strong>Comprehension</strong><br />

C o m p r e h e n si o n is proble m solv i n g<br />

Many students can read words, but they struggle to comprehend. They may be skilled at decoding<br />

words, but lack strategies and thinking processes which enable them to understand texts. Ensuring<br />

that all students understand what they read and view is critical to their ongoing success at school<br />

and beyond.<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>ing for comprehension occurs every time we read or view a text. <strong>To</strong> comprehend, we take to<br />

the text our beliefs, perceptions, experiences and ability to problem solve. Without these, the text’s<br />

meaning or message may be lost. <strong>To</strong> comprehend, we must make links to and from the text to our<br />

experiences and ask ourselves questions about what we are reading or viewing. Comprehending is<br />

an ongoing process of assimilating new information into our existing understandings.<br />

I use the term ‘teaching for comprehension’ rather than ‘teaching comprehension’, because<br />

comprehension is a cognitive process involving the personal thoughts, ideas and experiences<br />

of a reader, and a repertoire of strategies or problem solving options which help him or her to<br />

understand and move beyond the author’s message. It is not a series of isolated skills to be learned<br />

and mastered. With every text read or viewed, a reader adds to his or her personal thoughts, ideas<br />

and experiences. Texts therefore contribute to shaping the people we become, and continuing to<br />

extend knowledge is an essential part of the comprehension process.<br />

As our experiences change, our understandings also change. For example, I first read <strong>To</strong> Kill a<br />

Mockingbird at high school, and at the time it helped me decontextualise the world; it introduced<br />

things beyond my own experience and helped shape my perceptions of the world. Thirty years later<br />

I read it again. This time I had my experiences and memories that continue to shape and reshape my<br />

understandings of life. I pondered Harper Lee’s powerful words and knew that the meaning of these<br />

words and this text would stay with me always. I imagined what it would have been like to bear<br />

witness to these events, placing myself as best I could in all the characters’ shoes. I wondered about<br />

their lives, their feelings and how I would feel and act in their situations. As I did this, I was better<br />

able to interpret their actions and views. Adjusting my thinking throughout this text was vital to my<br />

comprehension.<br />

With this in mind, we must consider the diversity of learners within classrooms. Some students bring<br />

to a text a rich array of experiences, language, books and general knowledge. They have many<br />

experiences upon which to draw and many sources to connect to and from the text. Others do not<br />

have the same bank of experiences to anchor their knowledge. We must provide the anchors all<br />

students need for problem solving to occur.<br />

T each i n g for co m p r e h e n si o n<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> is a complex process for teachers of reading. We can all read a text and take away<br />

a literal interpretation of the author’s message, but deeper comprehension occurs when the reader<br />

moves beyond this level of understanding to assimilate the text into his or her own thinking. Only<br />

then can higher levels of comprehension occur, and texts become more memorable and more<br />

meaningful to the reader.<br />

We must teach students to think about their thinking; to strategise the best way to understand<br />

what is read and viewed. Students must learn to activate prior knowledge before reading, as<br />

recalling what you already know provides an anchor for new information. On imaginary texts,<br />

recalling similar themes, plots, text types and characters provides something familiar to anchor<br />

new experiences. On non-literary texts, recalling information about the topic, text type and theme<br />

provides an anchor for new information. Re-reading is also an important part of comprehending<br />

texts and building fluency and success.<br />

We must teach for a range of problem solving strategies, using them flexibly and together on all<br />

texts for deep and successful comprehension. <strong>Comprehension</strong> strategies should never be used in<br />

isolation, as no one strategy on its own will enable a reader to fully understand a text.<br />


P r e d i ct<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Strategies<br />

The comprehension strategies or ways to think about texts are to:<br />

@ Predict<br />

@ Connect<br />

@ Infer<br />

@ Question<br />

@ Visualise<br />

@ Determine main idea<br />

The tricky part can be strategising which way of thinking about the text<br />

will best promote comprehension. The problem solving process requires<br />

readers to ask themselves questions like:<br />

How could I think about this to understand it better?<br />

How can I look at this another way to understand it better?<br />

How do I need to change my thinking to understand it better?<br />

@ Synthesise<br />

@ Self-monitor<br />

Because comprehending is an active process, it occurs before, during and after reading. Students<br />

must understand that comprehending begins before the actual reading of words and continues<br />

after reading as they continue to think about the message of the text. During reading the mind<br />

is actively predicting and modifying, visualising, making connections, asking questions, making<br />

inferences, locating important ideas or information, synthesising what is read with prior knowledge<br />

and checking when understanding is lost or unclear.<br />

The summary tables below can be used as a guide to the strategies. Use the prompts and<br />

terminology listed here so you and your students have a common language to think and talk about<br />

reading. The mini-posters (BLMs 9 to 16) could be used as lesson starters or as further prompts or<br />

reminders to students if displayed around the classroom.<br />

There is also an assessment rubic for each strategy (BLMs 1 to 8). Each one has space to add criteria<br />

of your own. Because the rubic is structured as a continuum, you can see where your students are<br />

headed and select goals or learning experiences for that list of criteria.<br />

Strategy<br />

description<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>er prompts<br />

Student thinks<br />

@ Occurs when readers make predictions before, during and after reading, based on<br />

what they know and what they have read.<br />

@ Proficient readers confirm and reject predictions as they read, and modify their<br />

predictions based on new information from the text.<br />

What do you think this will be about?<br />

What do you expect this section of the book will be about?<br />

What do you expect to learn from this?<br />

What does the title, heading or picture suggest this might be about?<br />

What do you think will happen next?<br />

Since . . . happened, what do you expect will happen next?<br />

What do you think is likely to happen?<br />

What is likely to happen based on what has already occurred and what you know?<br />

What do I think this is about?<br />

The cover makes me think this will be about . . .<br />

After looking through the text, I think I’ll learn about . . .<br />

After looking through the text, I think the story is about . . .<br />


C o n n ect<br />

Strategy<br />

description<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>er prompts<br />

@ Occurs when readers make connections to and from the text to:<br />

—themselves<br />

—other texts<br />

—the world.<br />

Does this remind you of anything that has happened to you?<br />

How does your connection help you to better understand this text?<br />

Does this remind you of anything you’ve read or viewed?<br />

How does it help you to use what you know about one text to understand another?<br />

Does this remind you of anything in your community or world?<br />

How does your knowledge of the world help you to understand what you are<br />

reading or viewing?<br />

Student thinks<br />

What do I already know about this?<br />

Does this remind me of something?<br />

Has this happened to me or anyone I know?<br />

Have I read or viewed anything like this before?<br />

Do I know anyone like this character?<br />

Do I know of other things like this in the world?<br />

I n f e r<br />

Strategy<br />

description<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>er prompts<br />

Student thinks<br />

@ Occurs when readers use what they know and have read to draw conclusions.<br />

@ Assisted inferences are those made when authors imply or leave clues for readers.<br />

@ Unassisted inferences are those made when there are no clues from the author.<br />

What does the author want you to understand?<br />

Can you take an idea from this and add to it?<br />

Can you infer more than what is written?<br />

Is the author implying something, but not stating it?<br />

What are the possible consequences of this?<br />

What could this word/phrase/sentence mean?<br />

Read that part again and think about it.<br />

How else could this be solved?<br />

<strong>To</strong> understand some ideas, you need to read between the lines. That means to read<br />

what the author has written, and then use what you know to think more about it.<br />

I can locate the clues left by the author.<br />

I think the author wants me to understand . . .<br />

I can add to this idea.<br />

I can understand more than what has been stated.<br />

I think the author is implying . . .<br />

I think the author means . . .<br />

I think the consequences of this might be . . .<br />

I think this word/phrase/sentence could mean . . . I’ll read that part again and<br />

think about it.<br />


Q u est i o n<br />

Strategy<br />

description<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>er prompts<br />

Student thinks<br />

@ Occurs when readers ask themselves questions before, during and after reading,<br />

based on what they know and what they have read.<br />

@ Proficient readers question things that link to the text, but may not be answered<br />

in the text. They question their own understanding, but they also query what they<br />

are reading.<br />

What questions do you have before/during/after reading?<br />

As you read, jot down any questions you have.<br />

What else do you want to know about this?<br />

Are there things you are wondering about?<br />

Is there anything you don’t understand?<br />

Is there anything you need clarified?<br />

What questions would you like to ask the author?<br />

Why do you think . . . ?<br />

Who? What? When? Where? Why?<br />

What does the author want me to know?<br />

Why is this happening?<br />

Why did this character . . . ?<br />

What might happen if . . . ?<br />

Do I understand this?<br />

What does this saying mean?<br />

This makes me wonder about . . .<br />

V i s uali s e<br />

Strategy<br />

description<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>er prompts<br />

Student thinks<br />

@ Occurs when readers make mental pictures or imagine what is happening in the<br />

text.<br />

Can you make a picture in your mind?<br />

What can you see in your head as you read this part?<br />

Can you imagine it as a movie in your head?<br />

Imagine what that looks like, sounds like and feels like.<br />

Can you imagine what it would be like to be in . . . (character’s) situation?<br />

Can you imagine being there?<br />

Put yourself in that situation.<br />

What do the words help you to see/hear/feel/smell/taste?<br />

How does building a picture in your mind help you to understand and remember<br />

what is happening?<br />

I can imagine it happening.<br />

I can . . .<br />

@ see that happening<br />

@ imagine that smell<br />

@ recall a taste like that<br />

@ imagine how that feels<br />

@ hear that sound<br />

@ smell it.<br />

I can imagine it playing like a movie.<br />


D et e r m i n e mai n idea<br />

Strategy<br />

description<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>er prompts<br />

Student thinks<br />

@ Occurs when readers are able to identify the important ideas in the text.<br />

@ In narrative texts, readers can place important events in sequence to accurately<br />

support text meaning.<br />

@ In information texts, readers can identify the main ideas and the supporting facts.<br />

What are the important things from this text?<br />

What are the key ideas?<br />

What are the main ideas that the author wants you to remember?<br />

Can you find the supporting details for this idea?<br />

What did the author tell you about this idea?<br />

Can you put the main ideas in an order that makes sense?<br />

Can you summarise what this is about?<br />

When I retell, the sequence is important.<br />

I understand the order of events.<br />

The main ideas are in an order that helps me to understand.<br />

The most important information is . . .<br />

The key points are . . .<br />

I can find some facts about the main ideas.<br />

The things I need to learn or remember about this are . . .<br />

I can sum this up by saying . . .<br />

The blurb on the back cover could say . . .<br />

S yn t h esi s e<br />

Strategy<br />

description<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>er prompts<br />

Student thinks<br />

@ Occurs when readers integrate what they know with new information from the text.<br />

@ Proficient readers understand that they know more after reading than they<br />

knew before. They integrate prior knowledge with support material from the text<br />

(pictures, captions, diagrams, maps, tables, glossary, etc) and the running words.<br />

What do you already know about this? What do you expect to learn from a text<br />

like this?<br />

What features does this book have to help you to understand it?<br />

What other parts of this book might help you to understand?<br />

Remember to look at the pictures and other supports before you start reading.<br />

What do you know now that you didn’t know before?<br />

As you read, remember to add new information to what you already know.<br />

How has your thinking changed since you read this?<br />

Does the new information match what you already know?<br />

I start by thinking about what I already know.<br />

I can add to what I know by looking at the pictures and reading the words.<br />

I can use what I know to help me to understand new things.<br />

As I read, I need to combine new information with what I already know.<br />

Does this information seem accurate or correct? Have I read about, seen or heard<br />

things that agree or disagree with this?<br />

When I have finished reading, I know more.<br />

After reading, I think about what I have read and what I have learned.<br />


S e lf-mon ito r<br />

Strategy<br />

description<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>er prompts<br />

Student thinks<br />

@ Occurs when readers check their understanding of the text as they read.<br />

@ Proficient readers use strategies to check that what they are reading makes sense.<br />

They know how to adjust their thinking in order to better understand the text.<br />

Does that make sense to you?<br />

Re-read that part and remember that . . .<br />

Read like you’re talking so that it makes more sense.<br />

Read that part again and slow it down. Think about what it means.<br />

Do you know what that phrase means? It might help to remember . . .<br />

What are your options for thinking about that?<br />

Does that word have small parts that carry meaning?<br />

How could you think about that differently?<br />

Does this make sense?<br />

This doesn’t seem right.<br />

I’ll re-read that.<br />

I’ll check for the key words.<br />

I’ll scan it to check.<br />

I should slow my reading down to pay closer attention.<br />

I’ll speed my reading up so that the text makes more sense.<br />

I’ll try saying this word different ways until it sounds right and makes sense.<br />

Do I know what this word means?<br />

I can look for parts within this word to understand what it means.<br />

How else could I think about this?<br />

Literature Circles and Book Clubs<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>ing for comprehension relies on conversation and collaboration. Group discussions facilitated<br />

during reading sessions enable teachers to support students as they try to comprehend more<br />

difficult texts. <strong>Teach</strong>ers should therefore provide students with opportunities to talk about their<br />

learning and explain their thinking, as this is an essential part of promoting comprehension.<br />

Students must be able to build on the responses of others in order to engage in discourse, share<br />

ideas, develop understandings of differing points of view and learn about the solving strategies<br />

used by others.<br />

Small group discussions around texts are an important part of instructional approaches like guided<br />

reading, literature circles and book clubs. Engaging students this way consolidates, enhances and<br />

challenges their thinking. Literature circles, or focused book clubs, are a fun and engaging way to<br />

promote comprehension.<br />

A literature circle (or book club with clear instructional goals) is an instructional approach aimed<br />

at increasing reader enjoyment, deepening comprehension and engaging students in purposeful<br />

conversations around texts. The meeting is a time to discuss the text, revisit sections of the text as<br />

required, and negotiate the reading for the next meeting.<br />

When attending a book club meeting, group members must have completed reading the section<br />

of the text agreed to, as well as a short role task to assist them with the discussion. The focus of a<br />

book club is on the discussion generated by the task, rather than the actual task itself.<br />

The tasks are intended to prompt and stimulate students to reflect on their reading, and to then use<br />

this reflection to guide the book club discussion. It is the authentic conversation, ongoing reflection<br />

during discussion and sharing of viewpoints that challenges thinking and creates a deeper level of<br />


synthesis and understanding, both during and after the reading of the text.<br />

There are many options and models for running a book club; there are also no hard and fast rules.<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>ers running literature circles and book clubs will frequently adapt and modify a model to suit<br />

their particular situation. The key point is that when a book club is relaxed but focused, friendly and<br />

safe, when it provides a forum to openly discuss texts and is engaging for all participants, it works.<br />

O r g an i si n g groups<br />

Book clubs are best suited to heterogeneous or mixed ability groups of students. That is, each small<br />

group (of roughly six members) is comprised of students of varying reading ability. Some students<br />

may be high level readers, while others reading the same text may be lower level readers. Of<br />

course, the difficulty of negotiating book choice is that some students may choose a text that is too<br />

difficult for them. In these situations, we must find a way for each student to access the text. Some<br />

ways around this are to:<br />

@ engage support people coming to the classroom to read the text aloud while the student listens<br />

(read aloud reading), or read the text aloud while the student follows along with his or her eyes<br />

(shared reading)<br />

@ allow some students to take the text home so that it can be read aloud to them<br />

@ buddy a high level reader with a low level reader, so that the better reader reads to the other<br />

student (read aloud reading), or reads aloud while the other follows along using his or her own<br />

copy of the text (shared reading).<br />

T h e be n e f its of bo o k clu bs<br />

Aside from building deeper comprehension of texts and generating high levels of student talk, there<br />

are many other benefits to using a book club. These include:<br />

@ helping students to develop an appreciation for, and a love of, literature<br />

@ helping students to connect texts with their own lives<br />

@ exposing students to a range of texts and text types<br />

@ building conversational skills in students<br />

@ building leadership skills in students<br />

@ exposing students to diverse ways of thinking<br />

@ building an acceptance in students of the views of others<br />

@ promoting turn taking in students<br />

@ helping students to develop the ability to work collaboratively and cooperatively<br />

@ helping students to develop confidence<br />

@ providing opportunities for students to examine more complex texts than they might be able to<br />

read on their own<br />

@ enabling lower level readers to choose what they would like to read, rather than being assigned<br />

texts that they can read<br />

@ prompting students for reflection, review and synthesis.<br />


H ow to ru n a bo o k clu b<br />

<strong>You</strong> need:<br />

@ small groups of students (about six)<br />

@ multiple copies of texts (literary and non-literary texts are suitable)<br />

@ a selection of roles to support comprehension and discussion (see pages 30 to 34)<br />

Step 1: Choosing texts<br />

1 Introduce a selection of texts (five or six) to students.<br />

2 Distribute the texts so students can preview them.<br />

3 Have students write their name and first three preferences on a piece of paper.<br />

4 Collect these and sort students into workable groups. Attempt to meet students’ preferences.<br />

5 Explain the groups and distribute the texts (each student will require his or her own copy).<br />

Step 2: Preparing for the meeting<br />

1 Select the roles you want to use (see BLMs 17 to 21).<br />

2 Set up a roster (a meeting schedule for each group); once a week, or more regularly if desired.<br />

3 Have students sit in a circle with their group to discuss how much of the text they will read before<br />

their meeting. Encourage students to be conservative, as they must also complete a short task for<br />

the meeting.<br />

4 Introduce the role tasks and assign a different task to each student in a group. Explain that the<br />

book and the role task must be brought to each meeting.<br />

5 <strong>All</strong>ow time for students to complete the reading and the role task. This may become one of the<br />

independent learning tasks you use to support your reading program.<br />

Step 3: Timetabling the meeting<br />

<strong>You</strong> may decide, at least initially, to use your guided reading time to schedule the meetings. This<br />

allows you to be involved in every group meeting while students develop increased independence<br />

and control of the book club. Once students are able to implement a book club successfully, guided<br />

reading groups can resume. <strong>All</strong> book club meetings can then occur at the same time each week.<br />

Step 4: The meeting<br />

Assume the director’s role (to model and demonstrate) for a number of meetings and then assign<br />

this to a student. Once a student takes on the role, you should become an independent observer,<br />

providing support only if required.<br />

1 Welcome the group to the circle.<br />

2 Introduce the text.<br />

3 Invite each person to explain his or her role (until roles are well understood) and share his or her<br />

responses.<br />

4 Invite others to comment or build upon the responses given, and let students know that as this is<br />

a discussion group, they don’t need to raise hands to talk.<br />

5 At the end of each meeting, guide the group in negotiating how much of the text they will read<br />

for the next meeting, and distribute new role cards.<br />

On the final meeting, the group works together to decide on a way to present their text to the<br />

whole class. For example, act out a short section, design an advertisement or make a poster. They<br />

must not give away the story, or else the text cannot be used by other groups. As students develop<br />

greater control of the book club, your role should change to that of rotating observer. Move away<br />

from the group to allow students greater independence, but check on them regularly.<br />

Note: While book clubs are an instructional approach for teaching reading, they are not intended<br />

to replace other instructional approaches. Read aloud reading, shared reading and guided reading<br />

should still occur. The book club should complement and support a balanced reading program.<br />


<strong>All</strong> the<br />

Rubrics and<br />

Resources<br />

<strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong><br />


Rubric<br />

BLM 1<br />

Assessment Rubric: Predict<br />

Student name: Class:<br />

@ Developing Date @ Practising Date @ Mastery Date<br />

Uses title and images to predict<br />

general theme, including simple<br />

sequence of two or three ideas<br />

Predicts on more than one element<br />

from text<br />

Makes predictions that include<br />

contextual words and/or pictures<br />

Makes predictions that often make<br />

sense<br />

Explains predictions in simple terms<br />

Confirms/rejects predictions when<br />

prompted<br />

Predicts general theme, including<br />

sequence of several ideas<br />

Adds details using contextual<br />

words and/or pictures<br />

Makes predictions that are usually<br />

possible<br />

Explains predictions using cited<br />

examples from prior knowledge<br />

and experiences<br />

Predicts text still to be read<br />

Confirms/rejects predictions<br />

Modifies predictions when<br />

prompted<br />

Predicts general theme or idea,<br />

including probable sequence<br />

Adds details extending from, but<br />

linking to, contextual words and/or<br />

visual supports<br />

Explains predictions using prior<br />

knowledge examples linking to<br />

self, others and other texts read or<br />

viewed<br />

Makes ongoing predictions during<br />

reading<br />

Predicts ending for imaginary texts<br />

Justifies predictions using logic and<br />

reasoning<br />

Independently checks and modifies<br />

predictions during reading<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Rubric<br />

BLM 2<br />

Assessment Rubric: Connect<br />

Student name: Class:<br />

@ Developing Date @ Practising Date @ Mastery Date<br />

Makes some relevant connections<br />

to overall topic and specific text<br />

Consistently makes connections to<br />

own experiences<br />

Generally makes connections to:<br />

@ other texts and/or<br />

@ knowledge of world<br />

Explains relevance of connections<br />

in simple terms<br />

Uses connections to build surface<br />

level understanding of text, eg<br />

Adult: How does remembering<br />

how it feels to be thirsty help you<br />

to understand this better?<br />

Student: His mouth feels dry.<br />

Makes relevant connections to<br />

overall topic and specific text<br />

Often connects to:<br />

@ self<br />

@ other texts<br />

@ knowledge of world<br />

Infers how connections build<br />

understanding of text<br />

Uses connections to infer, eg<br />

Adult: How does remembering<br />

how it feels to be thirsty help you<br />

to understand this better?<br />

Student: His mouth would be dry<br />

and it might be hard to talk.<br />

Makes relevant connections to<br />

overall topic, text type and specific<br />

text<br />

Consistently makes connections to:<br />

@ self<br />

@ other texts<br />

@ knowledge of world<br />

Uses connections to deepen<br />

understanding of text, eg<br />

Adult: How does recalling the<br />

feeling of thirst help you to<br />

understand this better?<br />

Student: When your mouth is dry,<br />

you can’t speak clearly. His mouth<br />

is dry and that’s making it hard for<br />

the rescue workers to understand<br />

what he’s saying. Some of his<br />

words are slurred and sound like<br />

other words.<br />

Explains how specific connections<br />

made deepen understanding of<br />

texts<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Rubric<br />

BLM 3<br />

Assessment Rubric: Infer<br />

Student name: Class:<br />

@ Developing Date @ Practising Date @ Mastery Date<br />

Sometimes infers meanings of<br />

words, phrases and sentences with<br />

accuracy<br />

Infers obvious character feelings<br />

and actions in imaginary texts<br />

Provides simple reasons to support<br />

thinking<br />

Understands cause and effect and<br />

infers possible consequence or<br />

outcome<br />

Infers alternative solution or<br />

outcome to that stated or implied<br />

Understands some texts have<br />

implied or hidden meanings or<br />

messages, eg moral, advertisement<br />

Adds to ideas in text<br />

Often infers meanings of words,<br />

phrases and sentences with<br />

accuracy<br />

Uses contextual information to<br />

infer character feelings and actions<br />

in imaginary texts<br />

Provides logical reasons to support<br />

thinking<br />

Knows meanings may be implied<br />

or suggested<br />

Understands cause and effect and<br />

explains probable consequence or<br />

outcome<br />

Infers alternative solutions or<br />

outcomes on texts with multiple<br />

complications<br />

Infers author’s message<br />

Supports author’s message by<br />

adding to ideas in text<br />

Infers meanings of words, phrases<br />

and sentences with accuracy<br />

Cites evidence in text which<br />

supports thinking<br />

Identifies ideas implied or<br />

suggested<br />

Infers and explains outcomes/<br />

consequences in complex texts<br />

Infers alternative outcomes on<br />

texts with multiple complications<br />

and different points of view<br />

Infers author’s message and<br />

purpose<br />

Makes inferences about hidden<br />

meanings in texts<br />

Enhances or strengthens author’s<br />

message by adding to ideas<br />

Understands texts have hidden<br />

meanings<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Rubric<br />

BLM 4<br />

Assessment Rubric: Question<br />

Student name: Class:<br />

@ Developing Date @ Practising Date @ Mastery Date<br />

Asks specific questions before<br />

reading/viewing and relating to:<br />

Asks questions before reading/<br />

viewing that show:<br />

Asks questions before reading/<br />

viewing that show:<br />

@ title and images<br />

@ specific context of text<br />

Asks questions during or after<br />

reading/viewing to:<br />

@ clarify unfamiliar words, phrases,<br />

sentences or ideas<br />

@ determine how and why things<br />

happen<br />

@ understand characters’ attitudes,<br />

feelings or actions<br />

@ understand why particular<br />

ideas or information might be<br />

important<br />

@ understand messages implied or<br />

suggested<br />

@ focus on topic or theme of text<br />

@ interest in topic or theme<br />

@ understanding of similar text<br />

types<br />

@ knowledge of topic<br />

Asks questions during and after<br />

reading/viewing to:<br />

@ clarify unfamiliar words, phrases,<br />

sentences or ideas<br />

@ clarify literal/inferential/<br />

evaluative understandings of<br />

general theme or topic<br />

@ gather more information on<br />

topic<br />

@ show interest in author’s<br />

perspective<br />

@ determine moral or implied<br />

message<br />

@ specific focus on the topic or<br />

theme and questions relating to<br />

particular way text is presented<br />

@ broader interest in general topic<br />

or theme<br />

@ broad knowledge of similar text<br />

types<br />

@ knowledge about theme or topic<br />

@ an ability to build on responses<br />

of others<br />

Asks questions during and after<br />

reading/viewing to:<br />

@ clarify inferential and evaluative<br />

understandings<br />

@ determine whether text is<br />

accurate<br />

@ identify overall purpose of text<br />

@ identify motive(s) of author/<br />

speaker and persuasive elements<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Rubric<br />

BLM 5<br />

Assessment Rubric: Visualise<br />

Student name: Class:<br />

@ Developing Date @ Practising Date @ Mastery Date<br />

Uses words and pictures to<br />

construct mental image<br />

Identifies change in mood or<br />

feeling through words, music,<br />

noise, eg He froze<br />

Imagines a range of stereotypes<br />

and infers additional sensory<br />

information to that stated<br />

Locates words/groups of words<br />

that create sensory images<br />

Explains why imagining helps to<br />

understand texts<br />

Explains how characters, places,<br />

events or things in imaginary texts<br />

might look, sound, feel, taste or<br />

smell<br />

Understands author’s use of<br />

sensory images to build reader<br />

understandings<br />

Identifies words that ‘show’, as<br />

opposed to ‘tell’<br />

Adapts images as more information<br />

is provided<br />

Explains how sensory images help<br />

readers to recall and understand<br />

elements from texts<br />

Constructs detailed images from<br />

text<br />

Recalls and adds to sensory<br />

information stated<br />

Explains why authors use sensory<br />

images<br />

Adapts mental images during<br />

reading<br />

Explains the importance of<br />

visualising<br />

Understands that some mental<br />

pictures are more important than<br />

others<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Rubric<br />

BLM 6<br />

Assessment Rubric: Determine main idea<br />

Student name: Class:<br />

@ Developing Date @ Practising Date @ Mastery Date<br />

Sequences a series of events in<br />

order<br />

Recalls at least three events in<br />

correct sequence when retelling<br />

imaginary texts<br />

Recalls general theme of nonliterary<br />

texts and adds details and<br />

topic words<br />

Looks for answers in text<br />

Knows approximate part of text to<br />

find specific information<br />

Recalls a series of events in order<br />

and adds some additional details<br />

and vocabulary from text when<br />

retelling<br />

Knows that main ideas are<br />

developed through plot, characters<br />

and setting<br />

Matches some supporting details<br />

to main ideas<br />

Knows where answers are located<br />

in text<br />

Identifies cause and effect<br />

Identifies that language is used<br />

to shape characters and events<br />

in imaginary texts in positive and<br />

negative ways<br />

Sequences events in logical<br />

order and makes predictions and<br />

inferences about events<br />

Recalls all main ideas in order and<br />

provides high level of detail using<br />

context words when retelling<br />

Matches supporting details to<br />

correct main idea<br />

Quickly locates answers in text<br />

Skims or scans unfamiliar texts<br />

when searching for details<br />

Identifies cause and effect and uses<br />

evidence from text to verify<br />

Clearly and concisely explains ideas<br />

from text<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Rubric<br />

BLM 7<br />

Assessment Rubric: Synthesise<br />

Student name: Class:<br />

@ Developing Date @ Practising Date @ Mastery Date<br />

Activates prior knowledge before<br />

reading<br />

Uses cues like title, image and<br />

blurb to build knowledge before<br />

reading<br />

Integrates visual supports with text<br />

to enhance understandings<br />

Shows deeper understanding of<br />

text/topic after reading/viewing<br />

May change thinking after<br />

reading/viewing<br />

Demonstrates new learning after<br />

reading/viewing<br />

Links prior knowledge to<br />

before, during and after reading<br />

discussions<br />

Makes connections to text<br />

Uses visual supports to understand<br />

concepts in text<br />

Explains how text features support<br />

readers/viewers to make meaning<br />

from texts<br />

Thinks about what has been read/<br />

viewed<br />

Integrates prior knowledge and<br />

connections to self, other texts and<br />

world, before, during and after<br />

reading/viewing<br />

Navigates between running text<br />

and text features to confirm, clarify<br />

and check understandings<br />

Demonstrates deeper<br />

understanding of texts after<br />

reading/viewing by integrating:<br />

@ prior knowledge<br />

@ a full range of text features,<br />

including visual supports<br />

@ running words<br />

Reflects about text and own<br />

understandings during and after<br />

reading<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Rubric<br />

BLM 8<br />

Assessment Rubric: Self-monitor<br />

Student name: Class:<br />

@ Developing Date @ Practising Date @ Mastery Date<br />

Stops when meaning is lost<br />

Pauses to think<br />

Uses pictures and other support<br />

information (diagrams, glossary,<br />

etc) to confirm, check or search<br />

further<br />

Pays closer attention when rereading<br />

to confirm or check, eg<br />

may slow down, pause, check<br />

pictures, focus on other words<br />

Solves unknown words by looking<br />

at letters, and pronounces word in<br />

different ways until it makes sense<br />

Reads ahead<br />

Strategises when meaning is<br />

unclear by:<br />

@ slowing reading down to pay<br />

closer attention<br />

@ re-reading sections of text to<br />

check for word accuracy<br />

@ examining unfamiliar words<br />

more closely<br />

@ using meanings of base words<br />

@ searching for clues left by author<br />

@ checking glossary or dictionary<br />

@ reading ahead<br />

@ returning to prior knowledge<br />

to align text to personal<br />

experiences, other texts or<br />

things happening in the world<br />

Strategises when meaning is<br />

unclear by:<br />

@ slowing down or speeding up<br />

reading<br />

@ re-reading slowly<br />

@ checking punctuation has been<br />

read correctly<br />

@ checking pronunciation<br />

@ reviewing inferences made<br />

@ using morphemic and<br />

etymological knowledge<br />

@ checking glossary or dictionary<br />

@ reading ahead<br />

@ skimming or scanning text for<br />

key words<br />

@ thinking from another<br />

perspective<br />

@ using knowledge of other texts,<br />

situations or topics<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Mini-Poster<br />

BLM 9<br />

Predict<br />

What might this be about?<br />

What could happen next?<br />

How could this end?<br />

What do I expect to learn?<br />

Are my predictions possible<br />

and probable?<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Predict<br />

22<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Mini-Poster<br />

BLM 10<br />

Connect<br />

@ I make connections to:<br />

– things that I’ve experienced<br />

– things that I’ve read about<br />

or viewed<br />

– things that have happened<br />

in my world<br />

@ I think:<br />

How does my connection help<br />

me to understand the text<br />

better?<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Connect<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Mini-Poster<br />

BLM 11<br />

Infer<br />

What is the author<br />

saying and what do<br />

I think about it?<br />

What<br />

conclusions<br />

can I<br />

draw?<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Infer<br />

24<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Mini-Poster<br />

BLM 12<br />

Question<br />

I ask questions as I read in<br />

order to:<br />

@ find an answer I need<br />

@ clarify my understandings<br />

@ try to learn more.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Question<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Mini-Poster<br />

BLM 13<br />

Visualise<br />

I make mental pictures as I read.<br />

<strong>To</strong> help me understand the text<br />

I imagine what I see, hear,<br />

smell, taste and feel.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Visualise<br />

26<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Mini-Poster<br />

BLM 14<br />

Find the<br />

Main Ideas<br />

@ I can locate the<br />

main ideas.<br />

@ I can identify the<br />

supporting details.<br />

@ I can summarise<br />

what I have read.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Determine main idea<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Mini-Poster<br />

BLM 15<br />

Synthesise<br />

I learn more each time<br />

I read by combining:<br />

@ my prior knowledge<br />

@ visual supports from<br />

the text<br />

@ the running words.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Synthesise<br />

28<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Mini-Poster<br />

BLM 16<br />

I monitor the text to<br />

confirm that it makes sense.<br />

@ Should I read it again?<br />

@ Should I skim or scan?<br />

@ Should I slow down?<br />

@ Should I pause to think?<br />

@ Should I think about this<br />

in a different way?<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Self-monitor<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Book Club Roles<br />

BLM 17<br />

✄<br />

Predictor<br />

Connector<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to predict what could happen<br />

next.<br />

Use what you know of the characters<br />

and events to help you.<br />

I predict<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to make connections from this<br />

text to other things.<br />

Think about whether the text connects to:<br />

@ your own life<br />

@ other things you have read<br />

@ things that have happened in your<br />

school or neighbourhood<br />

@ things that have happened in other<br />

cities, or other parts of the country<br />

or world<br />

@ things in the news<br />

@ things you have seen on television or<br />

the internet<br />

My connections are<br />

30<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Book Club Roles<br />

BLM 18<br />

✄<br />

Investigator<br />

Bookworm<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to find words or groups of<br />

words that are difficult to understand.<br />

Clue: A word is difficult if you find its<br />

meaning hard to explain to someone<br />

else.<br />

Word or words<br />

Meaning<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to find one or two short<br />

sections to read aloud to the group.<br />

These might be:<br />

@ interesting parts<br />

@ funny parts<br />

@ scary parts<br />

@ well-crafted sentences<br />

@ parts that flow well<br />

Page<br />

Word or words<br />

Paragraph number<br />

I chose this part because<br />

Meaning<br />

Word or words<br />

Page<br />

Meaning<br />

Paragraph number<br />

I chose this part because<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Book Club Roles<br />

BLM 19<br />

✄<br />

Creator<br />

Illustrator<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to get creative! Make<br />

something relevant to the text.<br />

Explain your creation.<br />

I have created<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to draw or sketch something<br />

from the text. <strong>You</strong> may add labels,<br />

captions or speech bubbles to your<br />

illustration.<br />

Explain your illustration.<br />

I have drawn/sketched<br />

It is relevant to my reading because<br />

My illustration shows<br />

32<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Book Club Roles<br />

BLM 20<br />

✄<br />

Analyst<br />

Summariser<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to think about how this text<br />

is told.<br />

Think about:<br />

@ bias or prejudice<br />

@ the point of view that is shown<br />

@ points of view that are left out<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to sum up what happened in<br />

this section of the text.<br />

Hint: Imagine you are writing the blurb<br />

to describe the main events. Aim for<br />

between two and four sentences.<br />

My summary<br />

@ any judgements that are made<br />

@ hidden meanings<br />

@ the author’s purpose<br />

My observations<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Book Club Roles<br />

BLM 21<br />

✄<br />

Interviewer<br />

Director<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to get some discussion going.<br />

Think of three open-ended questions or<br />

statements.<br />

How else could . . . ?<br />

Why might . . . ?<br />

Are there other ways to . . . ?<br />

How would you feel about . . . ?<br />

How did you feel about . . . ?<br />

I’m wondering why . . .<br />

<strong>You</strong>r job is to direct the group.<br />

Begin by welcoming people to your<br />

group. Then:<br />

@ invite each person to share<br />

@ thank each person for sharing<br />

@ invite others to comment.<br />

Ask your group to decide how much will<br />

be read/viewed for the next session.<br />

Conclude by thanking your group.<br />

Let’s discuss what/how/why . . .<br />

Discussion Starter 1<br />

Discussion Starter 2<br />

Discussion Starter 3<br />

Thank you for<br />

sharing your ideas<br />

with our group.<br />

34<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

<strong>All</strong> the<br />

Lesson<br />

Banks and<br />

Text<br />

Models<br />

<strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong><br />


Lesson Bank<br />

Preparing for Cyclones and Wild Storms<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> focus<br />

@ Question<br />

@ Synthesise<br />

@ Self-monitor<br />

Mini-lesson 1:<br />

Self-monitoring<br />

Before reading, activate prior knowledge and<br />

experience by asking students to recall what they<br />

know about wild storms, cyclones or hurricanes.<br />

Ask them whether they do anything special at their<br />

house to prepare for big storms, for example put<br />

away bikes, balls and yard equipment, or put tape<br />

onto windows. Explain that in areas where cyclones<br />

and wild storms are common, people make more<br />

thorough and careful preparations because damage<br />

to property and life can occur.<br />

Distribute BLM 22 and BLM 30. Explain that BLM 30<br />

is a fact sheet. The purpose of the fact sheet is to<br />

support thinking about the text. Read the instructions<br />

on the fact sheet and explain the two columns. Tell<br />

students they are going to read the text twice. The<br />

first time they will simply read the entire text, then<br />

they will re-read the text and complete the fact sheet.<br />

After reading, invite students to explain connections<br />

they have made to and from this text. Invite<br />

students to discuss elements from the text that need<br />

clarification.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

What did you learn?<br />

What connections did you make which helped you<br />

to understand this text better?<br />

Is there anything on your fact sheet that you need<br />

clarified or would like to discuss?<br />

How do you prepare for cyclones or wild storms?<br />

Mini-lesson 2: Synthesising<br />

Explain that it is important to link what we are<br />

reading to what we already know. Sometimes new<br />

information fits nicely with what we know and it all<br />

makes perfect sense. But sometimes it doesn’t fit,<br />

or align, very well with our existing knowledge, and<br />

when this happens we need to question two things:<br />

the accuracy of our prior knowledge and the accuracy<br />

of the text.<br />

Distribute BLM 31 and guide students to think about<br />

how well the information from the text aligns with<br />

their current thinking. For example, ‘Does it make<br />

sense to you that you should repair the roof and<br />

guttering before a cyclone or wild storm? Why?’<br />

Have students re-read the text, and then reflect on<br />

information from the text and how well it aligns or<br />

does not align with their prior knowledge. Record<br />

the answers on BLM 30 and facilitate small group or<br />

partnered discussion to engage all of the students in<br />

focused talk.<br />

Follow Up<br />

Questioning<br />

Tell students that they should aim to learn<br />

something new from each reading or viewing<br />

episode. We can use what we read and view<br />

to inspire us to learn more. Searching for more<br />

information about topics helps us to learn more<br />

about our world, which in turn builds our skills<br />

as learners as well as readers. Asking questions is<br />

an important part of reading. Encourage students<br />

to deepen their understanding of the text by<br />

thinking:<br />

I wonder why . . .?<br />

What would happen if . . .?<br />

Does this mean . . .?<br />

How else could . . .?<br />

Why did . . .?<br />

Use Task Card 1 to prompt students to further<br />

their thinking and to view learning as a lifelong<br />

activity.<br />

Evaluative thinking<br />

Discuss the purpose of texts like that on BLM 22.<br />

Explain that authors write texts for a particular<br />

purpose and for a particular audience. The author<br />

has written this text to help people stay safe<br />

and look after their property and belongings.<br />

Distribute Task Card 2 and use it to prompt<br />

students to think critically and strategically about<br />

crafting texts.<br />


Name<br />

Date<br />

Text Model<br />

BLM 22<br />

Preparing for Cyclones and Wild Storms<br />

Every year between November and April, coastal areas of<br />

Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory<br />

are at risk of being hit by cyclones. A cyclone is a violent<br />

storm accompanied by winds of more than 90 km/h, which<br />

rotate around a calm centre.<br />

Cyclones can be very dangerous. Strong winds can cause extensive damage to<br />

property and blow debris about. Flooding rains can also accompany cyclones,<br />

causing further damage and increasing the risk of drowning. It is important that<br />

residents in these coastal areas prepare for the cyclone season.<br />

<strong>You</strong> can prepare your property or home by:<br />

@ repairing the roof and guttering, if necessary<br />

@ fitting windows with shutters or metal screens<br />

@ securing loose items in yards<br />

@ cleaning up debris that could be blown around<br />

@ trimming trees near your house.<br />

<strong>You</strong> can also be prepared with supplies by:<br />

@ organising an emergency first aid kit<br />

@ replacing batteries in torches and radios<br />

@ keeping candles, matches, medications, sturdy gloves, important documents,<br />

emergency phone numbers and spare batteries in waterproof bags<br />

@ buying stocks of water and non-perishable food<br />

@ filling buckets with water in case your water supply is lost<br />

@ withdrawing cash to cover essential items like food, water<br />

and fuel, in case local automatic teller machines (ATMs)<br />

cannot be accessed.<br />

What to do when a cyclone hits<br />

@ Turn off the electricity.<br />

@ Listen to radio updates.<br />

@ Wait in the strongest room of the house (usually a small room) and seek<br />

shelter under a mattress or sturdy table.<br />

@ Remain indoors until you are notified of safe conditions outside.<br />

Being prepared for cyclones or violent storms helps to<br />

minimise damage to your property and helps you to stay safe.<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Lesson Bank<br />

Virtual Cafe<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> focus<br />

@ Determine main idea<br />

@ Synthesise<br />

@ Self-monitor<br />

Mini-lesson 1: Understanding<br />

Text Types<br />

Before reading, activate prior knowledge by asking<br />

students to share what they know about the internet.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

Who uses the internet at home?<br />

What websites do you visit?<br />

What are some of the different things you can click<br />

on?<br />

What is the difference between a website and a web<br />

page?<br />

What types of things do you find on a web page?<br />

What is a link?<br />

How do you know which links you should follow?<br />

Distribute BLM 23. Before reading, ask students what<br />

they notice about this text. Discuss the features of<br />

this web page. Ask students to predict what a virtual<br />

cafe might be. Have students read the text.<br />

After reading, distribute BLM 32 and have students<br />

discuss their responses to this task with a friend<br />

before recording their answers. Invite students to<br />

share their responses. Guide the discussion to clarify<br />

understandings.<br />

Follow Up<br />

Fact or opinion<br />

Explain that the information on some texts<br />

reads as if it is true or accurate, but it may be<br />

advertising or an opinion or assumption made by<br />

the author(s). Explain that a fact is something that<br />

is true and undisputed, and an opinion is what<br />

someone thinks or believes. For example, Babies<br />

cry when they are hungry is a fact, and Babies are<br />

cute is an opinion.<br />

Provide a selection of texts and ask students<br />

to use these to locate facts and opinions. Tell<br />

students to record their thinking on BLM 33.<br />

Constructing texts<br />

Explain that a web page is a particular type of text.<br />

Web pages have consistent design features and<br />

these make it easier for readers, or users, to use and<br />

understand them. Ask students whether they know<br />

the names of any special parts of a web page, for<br />

example ‘hyperlink’.<br />

Revisit the text and discuss the features of this<br />

text type. The following is a guide to the general<br />

features of websites.<br />

@ hyperlink—a selectable object (word/group of<br />

words/sentence/image/button) on a web page<br />

that takes a user to another location<br />

@ menu—a system of consistently styled links to<br />

navigate the site<br />

@ banner—branding that is usually horizontal<br />

and at the top of the page (and usually contains a<br />

logo)<br />

@ footer—a horizontal strip that signifies the<br />

bottom of the page and may contain links<br />

@ side bar—a vertical column that usually<br />

contains secondary navigation or content related<br />

to the topic of the page<br />

Distribute Task Card 3 and use it to guide<br />

students to apply their knowledge of this text<br />

type.<br />

Critical thinking<br />

Explain that all texts are constructed for a reason.<br />

The purpose may be to entertain, persuade or<br />

inform. Ask students to revisit the text and make<br />

inferences about the author’s purpose. Ask students<br />

whether this text has been constructed to persuade<br />

them to do something. Revisit the text and invite<br />

students to use it to support this discussion.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

Which words tell you that this is advertising?<br />

What other clues are there that this is an<br />

advertisement?<br />

Who is the intended audience?<br />

What incentive is offered? Why might an<br />

incentive be offered?<br />

Think about other web pages you have seen.<br />

Discuss what you think about the use of colour<br />

and design elements.<br />

Distribute Task Card 4 and use it to prompt<br />

students to examine websites more critically.<br />


Name<br />

Date<br />

Text Model<br />

BLM 23<br />

Virtual Cafe - Homepage<br />

http://www.virtualcafe.com.au<br />

File Edit View Favourites <strong>To</strong>ols Help<br />

Virtual Cafe - Homepage<br />

Page<br />

<strong>To</strong>ols<br />

Virtual Cafe<br />

Would you like to dine at the world’s most famous restaurants? Want to try<br />

new and exotic meals prepared by the world’s best chefs? How about eating<br />

guilt free, without the worry of calories? Read on to find out how.<br />

Virtual Cafe is a new concept in weight control and lifestyle. At Virtual Cafe<br />

you can enjoy delectable meals, desserts and drinks without taking in any<br />

calories. For only $30 per person, you can visit 5-star restaurants anywhere in<br />

the world, and choose from hundreds of delicious dishes.<br />

It’s not just about the meal, but the whole experience. <strong>You</strong>’ll receive silver<br />

service, and our maître d’ and chef will ensure that your dining experience<br />

surpasses any you could imagine.<br />

<strong>All</strong> you need is a computer. We’ll provide the rest. We have no joining fee,<br />

and we’ll send you a new menu each week. For a limited time, new members<br />

can enjoy a free test meal at one of our top five restaurants. That’s how<br />

confident we are that you’ll be back, time after time. <strong>To</strong> take advantage of<br />

this special offer, click here.<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Lesson Bank<br />

Fright<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> focus<br />

@ Connect<br />

@ Visualise<br />

@ Determine main idea<br />

Mini-lesson 1: Visualising<br />

Before reading, activate prior knowledge by asking<br />

students how they feel when they see<br />

a scary show or movie. Distribute BLM 24 and discuss<br />

the way this text looks. Have students read the text.<br />

Tell students to take note of the author’s word choice<br />

and the text’s rhythm as they read. After reading,<br />

discuss the text.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

What is this text about?<br />

What has happened to the character in this poem?<br />

Can you relate to this experience? Invite students to<br />

share their connections to this text.<br />

What did you notice about the way this text sounds?<br />

What did you notice about the vocabulary chosen?<br />

Aside from a scary film or show, what else might<br />

prompt these feelings and actions? Prompt students<br />

to elaborate.<br />

Explain to students that imagining an event actually<br />

happening, or imagining ourselves in the situation,<br />

helps us to make deeper connections to a text and<br />

gain deeper insights or understandings about what<br />

characters are experiencing and feeling.<br />

Distribute BLM 34 and tell students to listen to the<br />

text as you read it aloud. Tell students to imagine the<br />

event occurring as they listen. After reading, have<br />

students sketch a scene from the text, adding as<br />

much detail as possible. Prompt students to explain<br />

to a friend why visualising is important when reading.<br />

Ask them what sorts of texts are easier to visualise.<br />

Follow Up<br />

Key concepts<br />

Explain that key concepts are the general ideas<br />

presented in a text. Discuss the key concepts from<br />

books or films students know. List them on a board<br />

or chart. Prompt students to notice more than<br />

one concept within each text. Support students to<br />

explain the key concepts clearly and concisely.<br />

Tell students to re-read the text and take note<br />

of the key concepts. Distribute BLM 35 and tell<br />

students to show two key concepts, and then to<br />

explain them in their own words. Have students<br />

relate each key concept to a personal experience.<br />

When complete, have students work in pairs to<br />

share their ideas with another student.<br />

Making connections to other texts and to<br />

the world<br />

Tell students that when reading or viewing, it is<br />

important to make connections to other texts they<br />

know and things that are happening in their school,<br />

neighbourhood, city or world. These connections<br />

can help them to better understand the text they<br />

are reading or viewing. Distribute Task Card 5 and<br />

use it to deepen understandings of connecting to<br />

other texts and to the world.<br />

Connecting to self<br />

Explain to students that if they have seen a scary<br />

film or show, it is easier to make connections to a<br />

text like this.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

In what way could these connections deepen your<br />

understandings of this text?<br />

Invite students to share their experiences, and<br />

prompt them to explain their feelings. Support<br />

them to choose words that help others to visualise,<br />

or imagine, the experience.<br />

Some people are like this character and behave<br />

bravely when they are frightened.<br />

Do you know anyone like this?<br />

Are you like this?<br />

Discuss how this connection could build deeper<br />

understandings. Distribute Task Card 6 and use it<br />

to promote connections to self.<br />


Name<br />

Fright<br />

Date<br />

Saw the film<br />

Scary, grim<br />

Knuckles white, courage thin.<br />

Now it’s home<br />

Off I go<br />

Everything moving extra slow.<br />

Wind whistling here<br />

Shadows there<br />

Trees are blowing<br />

Everywhere.<br />

Getting closer<br />

Getting near<br />

Gaining on me<br />

Freeze with fear.<br />

Turn to face it<br />

Paralysed<br />

Know there’s terror in my eyes.<br />

Start to run<br />

Home ahead<br />

Through the door<br />

Into bed.<br />

Hiding<br />

Trembling<br />

Feel the buzz<br />

In comes Mum<br />

“How was it, Love?”<br />

“Can’t talk now,<br />

I’m tired,<br />

Go!”<br />

Don’t want to let my terror show.<br />

Angela Ehmer<br />

Text Model<br />

BLM 24<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Lesson Bank<br />

Almost Swallowed by a Shark<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> focus<br />

@ Predict<br />

@ Question<br />

@ Synthesise<br />

Mini-lesson 1: Synthesising<br />

Before reading, activate prior knowledge by asking<br />

students what they know about shark attacks.<br />

Prompt students to explain their thinking.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

Do shark attacks happen in shallow or deeper water?<br />

Who is usually attacked?<br />

Are shark attacks usually fatal?<br />

What makes shark attacks so dangerous?<br />

Tell students that it is important to think about<br />

what we know about a topic before reading. This<br />

knowledge acts like an anchor. The more anchors<br />

we have, the easier it is to make sense of new<br />

information because we have something that we can<br />

attach it to.<br />

Distribute BLM 25. Discuss the title and invite<br />

students to infer what this text will be about. Ask<br />

students whether they think this person survived the<br />

attack. Explain that this text is based on actual events.<br />

Distribute BLM 36 and explain that the task is<br />

designed to prompt thinking before, during and after<br />

reading. Have students complete the Before reading<br />

section and make predictions about this text. Prompt<br />

students to notice the words in bold text. Read and<br />

discuss the meanings of these words prior to reading.<br />

Ask students to read the text and complete the<br />

During reading section as they read. After reading,<br />

invite students to share their responses to this text.<br />

Conclude by guiding students to reflect and evaluate<br />

their learning by completing the After reading section<br />

of the task. Have students share their responses.<br />

Follow Up<br />

Clarifying<br />

Distribute BLM 37 and explain that talking about<br />

what has been read or viewed is a valuable way to<br />

build better understandings. Ask students if they<br />

have ever seen a movie or show that had parts<br />

that were difficult to understand. How does it<br />

help to talk about these parts with someone else<br />

who also saw the movie or show? Explain that<br />

discussing things that we read about or view is<br />

a way to use other people’s understandings and<br />

perceptions to help us clarify our own thinking.<br />

Have students identify three parts of the text they<br />

would like to discuss, and record their reason(s) for<br />

choosing these sections. Break students into small<br />

discussion groups to discuss the sections identified.<br />

Gather the group and support students to reflect<br />

about how talking helped to promote, reinforce or<br />

extend understandings of this text.<br />

Connecting to self<br />

Tell students that there are many ways to show a<br />

connection to a text. Some artists draw inspiration<br />

from what they experience, read and view, or<br />

from feelings that different experiences evoke. Tell<br />

students to consider images, feelings, sensations<br />

or thoughts that can be shown through a creative<br />

response. Distribute Task Card 7 and use it to prompt<br />

students for a creative connection to this text.<br />

Evaluative thinking<br />

Explain that this event was a big news story when<br />

it happened. There were many segments on<br />

the news and in newspapers around the world<br />

reporting this event. Examine news articles on<br />

various topics to revisit the generic structure.<br />

Discuss and demonstrate the crafting of a news<br />

article and invite students to search online<br />

for specific articles about this event to gather<br />

additional information. Distribute Task Card 8<br />

and use it to follow-up this demonstration and<br />

construct a text around the main ideas from BLM 25.<br />


Name<br />

Date<br />

Text Model<br />

BLM 25<br />

Almost Swallowed by a Shark<br />

chisel: a tool that is<br />

squared and flattened<br />

at the end<br />

abalone: a mollusc<br />

that is popular with<br />

shellfish eaters<br />

lead-weight vest:<br />

a vest that spreads<br />

extra weight across a<br />

diver’s body, helping<br />

him or her to stay<br />

down in the water<br />

Experts believe that shark attacks against<br />

humans are often a case of mistaken identity.<br />

Most attacks are not fatal. Attacks by great<br />

white sharks, however, are usually deadly<br />

because of the size of these creatures and<br />

the force of the animal’s bite.<br />

In 2007, Eric Nerhus encountered a great<br />

white shark and survived. Eric’s encounter<br />

may be remembered as one of the greatest<br />

tales of survival involving a wild animal and a<br />

human.<br />

Eric, an Australian abalone diver, was diving<br />

near the town of Eden in New South Wales.<br />

He was about 20 feet down in the weedy,<br />

murky waters of the Pacific Ocean when a<br />

great white shark appeared from nowhere<br />

and clamped its teeth down on Eric’s head<br />

and shoulders.<br />

Eric’s face mask was smashed and his nose<br />

broken. Unable to see from the blood pouring<br />

from his wounds, Eric swung his arms about,<br />

clubbing the shark with the only weapon he<br />

had — a chisel used to break the abalone<br />

shells. The shark released its grip and Eric<br />

attempted to swim to safety, but the ordeal<br />

was not over yet.<br />

The shark returned and clenched its jaws<br />

around Eric’s torso. Fortunately, he was<br />

wearing a lead-weight vest which prevented<br />

fatal injuries to his soft flesh. As the shark<br />

tightened its grip and began to shake, Eric<br />

knew that quick action was required if he was<br />

to survive this final stage of a shark attack.<br />

Again using his chisel, Eric stabbed the<br />

shark in the head, and as it released him he<br />

frantically swam to the surface. Other divers<br />

could see the severity of his injuries. Eric<br />

was conscious and alert. In addition to his<br />

facial injuries, he suffered lacerations to all<br />

sides of his torso and chest.<br />

Eric was extremely lucky to have survived<br />

this attack. Had he not been wearing his<br />

lead-weight vest and carrying his chisel, this<br />

attack would most likely have been fatal.<br />

Eric is the first professional abalone diver to<br />

survive an attack by a white pointer.<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Lesson Bank<br />

The Missing Ticket<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> focus<br />

@ Predict<br />

@ Determine main idea<br />

Mini-lesson 1: Confirming and<br />

Rejecting Predictions<br />

Before reading, explain that making predictions<br />

before you read helps you to make sense of the text<br />

as you read. This is why it is helpful to read the blurb,<br />

or synopsis, on the back cover of the book. The blurb<br />

helps readers to understand what is happening and to<br />

solve things when they don’t make sense. Distribute<br />

BLM 26 and BLM 38 and tell students that this is<br />

a mystery story. Invite students to share what they<br />

know about mystery stories. Ask students to think<br />

about what the text may be about and to record their<br />

predictions and reasoning on the table.<br />

After reading, discuss the text.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

What was the mystery in this text?<br />

Can you explain the story’s plot? Where is it set?<br />

What did you learn about the main characters?<br />

How accurate were your predictions about this text?<br />

Discuss your predictions with a friend.<br />

On a board or chart, write these sentence starters.<br />

My prediction was confirmed by/when . . .<br />

My prediction was rejected by/when . . .<br />

Have students choose the appropriate sentence<br />

starter, and then explain to a partner the factors<br />

confirming or rejecting their prediction. Have students<br />

record their thinking on the table.<br />

Follow Up<br />

Character analysis<br />

Explain that authors give their fictional characters<br />

specific qualities that shape the way readers<br />

view them. The author carefully chooses words,<br />

situations and actions that present a character in a<br />

particular way. Ask students to suggest the names<br />

of likeable characters from books. List these on<br />

a board or chart. Ask students to name different<br />

qualities describing these characters. List these<br />

on the board. Repeat for characters that students<br />

dislike.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

What is a stereotype?<br />

Why might authors craft characters<br />

that appear to be stereotyped?<br />

How does stereotyping help readers to see<br />

characters in a certain way?<br />

Guide students to understand that stereotyping<br />

enables a reader or viewer to predict most<br />

outcomes. For example, they know that despite<br />

the many battles Spider-man has, he will be<br />

victorious in the end. Ask students to suggest<br />

characters they know that are stereotyped.<br />

Most characters we read about are not<br />

stereotyped. The Missing Ticket is real-life fiction.<br />

In real-life fiction, authors construct characters<br />

that the audience can relate to. They then create<br />

situations that could occur in real life.<br />

Distribute BLM 39 and ask students to discuss the<br />

character of Sam with a friend. Tell students to<br />

re-read the text and locate evidence which<br />

supports their thinking. Share the responses in a<br />

whole class discussion.<br />

Text deconstruction<br />

Tell students that a story like this can be taken<br />

apart to reveal the author’s original plan. The<br />

author will have thought about the:<br />

@ title<br />

@ plot<br />

@ setting<br />

@ characters and their qualities<br />

@ problem<br />

@ solution<br />

Guide students to deconstruct a different (known)<br />

class text and then use Task Card 9 to provide<br />

independent practice.<br />

Sequencing<br />

Ask students what a storyboard is. Explain that a<br />

storyboard is a sequence of sketches, sometimes<br />

with captions or notes attached, that outlines the<br />

sequence of events in a story, movie or show.<br />

Distribute Task Card 10 and use it to support<br />

students to use a storyboard to scaffold their<br />

understanding of the main ideas from this text.<br />


Name<br />

Date<br />

Text Model<br />

BLM 26<br />

The Missing Ticket<br />

Sam and Gillian raced through the<br />

turnstile, eager to get to the roller-coaster.<br />

“It’s got to be there!” panted Sam as<br />

they approached the Big Dipper.<br />

“Which seat were you in?”<br />

“Right at the back,” responded Sam.<br />

“How do you even know you still had it at<br />

the roller-coaster?”<br />

“The guy operating the ride talked to<br />

me about the concert. He tried to get a<br />

ticket too, but they were sold out. Poor<br />

guy’s a diehard fan like me.”<br />

Sam and Gillian arrived at the Big Dipper<br />

just as the operator arrived at the<br />

platform. “Sorry kids, this one won’t start<br />

until eleven. Try the Tall Terror if you<br />

want some thrill action.”<br />

“Actually we’re looking for something we<br />

left behind yesterday,” Gillian said.<br />

“I don’t like your chances. This baby flies.<br />

Not much survives until the next ride, let<br />

alone the next day.”<br />

“Do you mind if we check anyway?” Sam<br />

asked hopefully.<br />

“Go ahead, but I’ll need to come with<br />

you. It’s a safety issue for the park.”<br />

They moved quickly to the back carriage.<br />

There was no sign of the concert ticket.<br />

Sam’s disappointment was clear.<br />

“What is it you’ve lost?” asked the ride<br />

operator.<br />

“My ticket to the Junkyard Dogs concert<br />

tonight,” Sam mumbled sadly. Sam had<br />

saved every dollar he’d earned at his job<br />

at the grocery store to buy that ticket.<br />

“Did you say Junkyard Dogs?” the<br />

operator asked thoughtfully.<br />

“Yeah, they’re my favourite band.”<br />

“Wait here,” said the operator. “I’ll just<br />

check something.”<br />

With a gleam in his eye, the operator<br />

returned a few minutes later. He told Sam<br />

and Gillian that he’d just spoken to the<br />

ride operator who had been working the<br />

day before. “This guy’s got a history of<br />

being light-fingered and it’s not the first<br />

time he hasn’t handed in property left at<br />

the ride. He mentioned the Junkyard Dogs<br />

concert to me the other day, which is<br />

what helped me put two and two together<br />

with your missing ticket. I’ve persuaded<br />

him to come good with your ticket if he<br />

wants to keep his job. He’ll be here in a<br />

few minutes with your ticket and his tail<br />

between his legs. <strong>You</strong> have the right to<br />

report him to park management.”<br />

Sam felt a mix of<br />

delight and relief.<br />

He couldn’t wipe<br />

the smile from his face<br />

for the rest of the<br />

afternoon. And to<br />

top it off, the Junkyard<br />

Dogs concert was the<br />

best night of his life.<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Lesson Bank<br />

Landmines<br />

46<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> focus<br />

@ Question<br />

@ Determine main idea<br />

@ Synthesise<br />

Mini-lesson 1: Cause and<br />

Effect: Retrieval Chart<br />

Before reading, activate prior knowledge by asking<br />

students what they know about landmines. Prompt<br />

students to share their understandings. Probe for<br />

deeper understandings and to promote inferential<br />

thinking.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

How does a landmine work?<br />

What is the purpose of a landmine?<br />

In what sorts of places are landmines used?<br />

Distribute BLM 27. Discuss the illustration and ask<br />

students to infer how the landmine is activated. Read<br />

the text.<br />

After reading, distribute BLM 40 and explain that this<br />

is called a retrieval chart. Tell students that a retrieval<br />

chart is used to organise thinking and sort ideas.<br />

Discuss the text and complete the retrieval chart,<br />

using information from the text and inferences from<br />

the students. Ask students to share their opinions<br />

about landmines. Prompt students to explain their<br />

thinking.<br />

Follow Up<br />

Note taking<br />

Explain that each paragraph of a text usually has<br />

a main idea which is supported by other facts<br />

relating to it. Ask the students to re-read the<br />

first paragraph and identify the main or most<br />

important idea (ie what a landmine is). Then<br />

ask students to work with a friend to count the<br />

number of supporting facts, or smaller details,<br />

which provide more information about the main<br />

idea. Invite them to share their findings, and have<br />

them record these on BLM 41.<br />

<strong>To</strong> provide a higher level of scaffolding, work<br />

through the remaining two paragraphs in the<br />

same way. <strong>To</strong> provide less scaffolding, have<br />

students work alone or with a friend to complete<br />

the remaining paragraphs. Discuss what they<br />

have written.<br />

Clarifying<br />

Explain that it is important to think about things<br />

we don’t understand (or need clarified), and<br />

things we have more questions about as a result<br />

of the reading we have done. Tell students that<br />

good readers ask themselves questions about<br />

things in their reading. They build knowledge<br />

from the text, but are also inspired and interested<br />

to learn more because of the text.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

What have you learned from your reading?<br />

What do you need to clarify, or talk more about,<br />

in<br />

order to understand this text better?<br />

As a result of your reading, what are you still<br />

wondering about or wanting to learn more<br />

about?<br />

Distribute Task Card 11 and use it to prompt<br />

students to reflect about texts read, and to use<br />

questioning strategies to deepen understandings<br />

during and after reading.<br />

Critical thinking<br />

Explain that all texts are constructed for a reason.<br />

The purpose may be to entertain, persuade or<br />

inform. Ask students to revisit the text and make<br />

inferences about the author’s purpose. Encourage<br />

students to explain their thinking. Explain<br />

that some texts are written to inform and to<br />

encourage readers to think or act in a certain way.<br />

Ask students whether they have opinions about<br />

the use of landmines.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

Do you think landmines should be used? Why?/<br />

Why not?<br />

Has reading this text shaped your thinking about<br />

landmines? How?<br />

Does this text make you want to do something<br />

about this?<br />

(Explain that doing something may be any of the<br />

following: telling others; taking social action, for<br />

example contacting a newspaper or writing to a<br />

politician; reading more about the topic).<br />

Use Task Card 12 to prompt students to view<br />

texts more critically.

Name<br />

Date<br />

Text Model<br />

BLM 27<br />

A landmine is an explosive device<br />

hidden in the ground and used<br />

during wartime. When pressure is<br />

applied to a landmine, it explodes<br />

violently, killing or maiming the<br />

victims. Landmines are usually<br />

placed just under the ground and in<br />

places where people walk.<br />

<strong>To</strong>day many landmines remain<br />

planted in the earth, despite the fact<br />

that the wars might be over. Their<br />

proximity to homes and villages<br />

poses a threat to people in these<br />

communities. Approximately every<br />

22 minutes a landmine is triggered<br />

somewhere in the world.<br />

It is estimated that between 60 and<br />

70 million landmines are currently<br />

Landmines<br />

active across more than 70 countries.<br />

More than a third of victims are<br />

children under the age of 15.<br />

The use of landmines is controversial<br />

because of the danger that remains<br />

long after conflicts are over. Land is<br />

deemed impassable and unusable<br />

for many decades.<br />

Humanitarian organisations consider<br />

landmines to be one of the most<br />

serious problems that exist today.<br />

More than one-third of the world’s<br />

countries are affected by landmines.<br />

A total of 158 countries have signed<br />

an agreement to ban their use.<br />

Thirty-seven countries have not<br />

agreed to the ban.<br />

Pressure plate<br />

Fuse body<br />

Indicator arrow<br />

shows mine is<br />

armed<br />

Soil<br />

A landmine buried in the soil<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Lesson Bank<br />

Gruesome Rhymes. Jack and Jill<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> focus<br />

@ Connect<br />

@ Infer<br />

@ Question<br />

Mini-lesson 1: Evaluative<br />

Thinking: PMI<br />

Before reading, activate prior knowledge by asking<br />

students to recall some nursery rhymes. Ask students<br />

what they know about the origins of nursery rhymes.<br />

Explain that there are many theories, or beliefs,<br />

about how these texts came about. Some theories<br />

suggest the rhymes were about significant events that<br />

happened at different times in history.<br />

Distribute BLM 28 and ask students to fold the<br />

page so that the rhyme is visible but the history is<br />

hidden. Ask students to work with a friend to read<br />

and discuss the rhyme, ‘Jack and Jill’, and to make<br />

inferences about its original meaning. Invite students<br />

to share their inferences. Unfold the sheet to show<br />

the remaining text. Discuss the meaning of the<br />

bold words. Have students read the remaining text.<br />

Remind them to read the meanings of the bold words<br />

again if needed.<br />

After reading, discuss this theory about the rhyme.<br />

Invite students to offer opinions about whether they<br />

agree or disagree. Ask them to infer ways of verifying<br />

or disputing this theory.<br />

Distribute BLM 42 and ask students to evaluate their<br />

thinking about this text. Invite them to share their<br />

responses.<br />

Mini-lesson 2: Making<br />

Connections<br />

Tell students that when reading or viewing, it<br />

is important to connect our prior knowledge<br />

and experiences, knowledge of other texts and<br />

knowledge of the world, to and from the text we<br />

are reading or viewing. Making connections helps to<br />

build deeper understandings of the text. Distribute<br />

BLM 43 and have students make connections to and<br />

from the text before and after re-reading.<br />

After reading, guide students to reflect on the<br />

connections they have made. Model this process<br />

by writing connections on a board or chart and<br />

modelling the thinking process: Is my connection<br />

relevant? How does my connection help me to<br />

understand this text better?<br />

For example:<br />

@ Connection to self: I know lots of nursery rhymes.<br />

This connection is relevant to the topic, but it does<br />

not help me to understand the text better.<br />

@ Connection to world: I’ve heard about a king called<br />

Henry. I think he gave an order to cut off the queen’s<br />

head. They used a guillotine.<br />

This connection is relevant to the topic because it was<br />

hundreds of years ago, like the history of this rhyme,<br />

and they used a guillotine. It helps me to know that<br />

beheadings actually happened and kings and queens<br />

could be beheaded.<br />

Ask students to re-read their connections and ask<br />

themselves the following: Are my connections<br />

relevant to the topic? How does my connection help<br />

me to understand this text better?<br />

Follow Up<br />

Investigating<br />

Have students work in pairs and use Task Card<br />

13 to extend their knowledge of the text type,<br />

and to investigate the origins of other rhymes. Tell<br />

students to check more than one source when<br />

researching to help them form an opinion about<br />

whether the history, or theory, is accurate or<br />

inaccurate. Invite students to share their findings<br />

and discuss their opinions.<br />

Questioning<br />

Explain that proficient readers ask themselves<br />

questions before, during and after reading. They<br />

know when they need clarification and they<br />

wonder more about what they are reading.<br />

Use Task Card 14 to prompt for questioning<br />

strategies.<br />


Name<br />

Date<br />

Text Model<br />

BLM 28<br />

Gruesome Rhymes. Jack and Jill<br />

Jack and Jill went up the hill<br />

<strong>To</strong> fetch a pail of water<br />

Jack fell down and broke his crown<br />

And Jill came tumbling after.<br />

Up Jack got, and home did trot<br />

As fast as he could caper<br />

Went to bed and bound his head<br />

With vinegar and brown paper.<br />

People have different ideas about the history of the first verse<br />

of this popular children’s rhyme. One theory is that it was based<br />

on real events that occurred in France in 1793. The character,<br />

Jack, relates to King Louis XVI, and Jill, to his wife, Queen Marie<br />

Antoinette. The theory suggests that the rhyme tells the gruesome<br />

story of the beheading of the King and Queen during a violent<br />

period known as the ‘Reign of Terror’.<br />

Those sentenced to death ascended a flight of stairs to a<br />

stage upon which sat a machine called a guillotine. The<br />

victims took turns kneeling, with their necks placed across the<br />

section of the guillotine on which the blade would land when<br />

released.<br />

The executioner’s job was to prepare King Louis XVI and<br />

Queen Marie Antoinette for beheading, shackle their wrists<br />

and release the blade which would sever the head cleanly<br />

from the body. The stage provided a clearer view for<br />

onlookers watching the grisly event.<br />

Many who believe this explanation of the events in<br />

the rhyme think that the original rhyme had only<br />

one verse. A second was later added to provide<br />

a more cheerful ending for young children.<br />

What do you think?<br />

behead: to decapitate<br />

or cut off somebody’s<br />

head<br />

guillotine: a machine<br />

with a sharp, heavy<br />

blade which slides<br />

vertically<br />

ascend: to go up<br />

theory: idea or way<br />

of thinking<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Lesson Bank<br />

The Greatest Eruption of <strong>All</strong> Time<br />

50<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> focus<br />

@ Infer<br />

@ Visualise<br />

@ Synthesise<br />

Mini-lesson 1: Advanced<br />

KWL<br />

Before reading, activate prior knowledge by asking<br />

students what they know about volcanoes. Prompt<br />

for vocabulary that will assist when reading the text.<br />

Distribute BLM 44 and explain the KWLSE. Ask<br />

students to record responses in the K and W sections<br />

of the table.<br />

Distribute BLM 29 and ask students to read the<br />

interesting facts to gather more topic knowledge<br />

before reading the body of the text. Discuss the facts<br />

and invite comments. Have students read the text.<br />

After reading, invite students to share what they<br />

have learned from the text and probe for higher level<br />

thinking. Remind students to revisit the text to check.<br />

Guide students to connect with the text by using<br />

multi-sensory information to imagine the event.<br />

Prompt guide<br />

How long ago did Mt Vesuvius erupt?<br />

What happened as a result of the eruption?<br />

The locals had lived their whole lives near the<br />

volcano. Why were they unprepared for the<br />

eruption?<br />

Describe the scene before Mt Vesuvius erupted<br />

Describe the scene during the eruption.<br />

Re-read paragraph 4. How could the author know<br />

this occurred? How does this description help you<br />

to understand and relate to what happened?<br />

Can you imagine what the eruption looked like?<br />

Imagine the smell. What do you expect it would<br />

be like? How do you think you would feel? What<br />

would you be thinking? How important do you<br />

think it would be to you to locate your loved ones?<br />

Have students return to the KWLSE and complete<br />

the remaining sections. Invite students to share their<br />

responses with a peer and then come together as a<br />

large group to discuss the key ideas in this text.<br />

Mini-lesson 2: Cause and<br />

Effect<br />

Discuss the terms ‘cause’ and ‘effect’. Explain that<br />

one thing can cause another thing to happen. Show<br />

some examples of cause and effect on a board or<br />

chart. The table below may help.<br />

Cause<br />

heavy rain<br />

strong winds<br />

lightning strikes<br />

Have students re-read the text and look for examples<br />

of cause and effect. Tell them to discuss their findings<br />

with a friend. Distribute BLM 45 and have students<br />

record as many examples as they can find. When<br />

finished, ask students to use a different coloured pen<br />

to record cause and effect examples that they can<br />

infer from their reading. Explain to students that they<br />

will need to use the information stated in the text<br />

and think more about it. The table below offers a few<br />

examples.<br />

Cause<br />

ash raining down<br />

sounds of the<br />

eruption<br />

blast of ash and gas<br />

Effect<br />

flooding<br />

Invite students to share their inferences and prompt<br />

them to give reasons to support their thinking.<br />

Follow Up<br />

damage to trees and<br />

property<br />

fallen trees, damage to<br />

property<br />

Effect<br />

animals died<br />

birds were frightened<br />

and flew away<br />

bodies burned, skin<br />

melting<br />

Investigating<br />

Use Task Card 15 to extend students’ knowledge<br />

of this topic. Remind them to gather information<br />

from more than one source to verify its accuracy.<br />

<strong>You</strong> may opt to have students focus on a particular<br />

comprehension task, for example compare/<br />

contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution, KWL.<br />

Evaluative thinking<br />

Tell students that when reading or viewing, we<br />

form opinions about a text. Use Task Card 16 to<br />

build understandings of different points of view<br />

and opinions of this text.

Name<br />

Date<br />

Text Model<br />

BLM 29<br />

The Greatest Eruption of <strong>All</strong> Time<br />

In the year 79, Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupted<br />

violently, burying the Roman city of Pompeii and<br />

claiming more than 2000 lives. An account of the<br />

eruption was discovered in letters written by a young<br />

Roman.<br />

Mt Vesuvius lay dormant for 800 years and residents<br />

of the surrounding cities were unaware of the danger<br />

the volcano posed. Vesuvius had come to resemble<br />

any other mountain with lush vegetation and an<br />

abundance of wildlife. There was little obvious<br />

evidence to suggest its treacherous past.<br />

In the early afternoon of 24 August, locals noticed a<br />

large cloud above the mountains, but were unable to<br />

identify which mountain the cloud was rising from.<br />

Parts of the cloud were white and other parts were<br />

blotchy and dirty. Residents were curious about the<br />

mysterious cloud.<br />

As the cloud approached Pompeii, it became dense<br />

and black. Ash began to rain down like snow, and<br />

some residents fled the city. Darkness engulfed<br />

Pompeii. Shrieks, yells and cries filled the air. Parents<br />

and children called for each other, unable to see,<br />

trying to recognise voices. Others prayed, huddled<br />

together, terrified.<br />

A loaf of bread, almost 2000<br />

years old, was found inside<br />

a baker’s oven in the buried<br />

city of Pompeii.<br />

Most victims of Mt Vesuvius<br />

were thought to have died<br />

from suffocation.<br />

Among the victims frozen in<br />

their final pose was a guard<br />

dog, still chained to its post.<br />

Mt Vesuvius last<br />

erupted in 1631.<br />

Those caught in the town or hiding in their homes<br />

became victims of a sudden, powerful blast of ash<br />

and gas which set around their bodies like plaster<br />

casts. They would be found hundreds of years later<br />

frozen in the exact position in which they lay or hid<br />

in their final terrifying moments.<br />

After the eruption of Vesuvius, Pompeii remained<br />

buried. The first large-scale archaeological excavation<br />

of the city began in 1860 and continues today.<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


<strong>All</strong> the<br />

Worksheets<br />

and<br />

Task Cards<br />

<strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong><br />


Name<br />

Date<br />

Fact Sheet<br />

Worksheet<br />

BLM 30<br />

During reading, record facts (words, phrases, ideas and/or diagrams) which are<br />

important for you to understand this text. Explain the relevance of each entry.<br />

Facts from the text<br />

@ Words<br />

@ Phrases<br />

@ Ideas<br />

@ Diagrams<br />

Relevance<br />

@ Connection (This reminds me of . . .)<br />

@ Clarify (I don’t understand . . .)<br />

@ Question (I’m wondering . . .)<br />

@ ‘Aha!’ moment (I understand! So<br />

that’s why . . .)<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Connect, Question, Synthesise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 31 Name Date<br />

Reading Reflection<br />

Great readers think about how new information aligns with what they<br />

already know.<br />

Identify three things from the text and explain how they fit with what<br />

you know. Discuss with a friend.<br />

Idea from the text<br />

How this aligns/does not align with<br />

what I know<br />

It is also important to reflect on the new knowledge you have gained.<br />

Identify three things that you didn’t know before.<br />

Things I learned from my reading<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Synthesise<br />

54<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Worksheet<br />

Name Date BLM 32<br />

Understanding Text Types<br />

Proficient readers use what they know about different text types to<br />

help them to better understand what they are reading or viewing.<br />

Use what you know about text types to fill in the panels below.<br />

Text type<br />

Intended audience<br />

Purpose of this text<br />

Main ideas<br />

Features of this text type<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Determine main idea, Synthesise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 33<br />

Name<br />

Fact<br />

Date<br />

or Opinion<br />

A fact is true information. An opinion is one person’s view or belief. An opinion can be disputed.<br />

Read the text and record the facts and opinions on the T-Chart.<br />

Facts<br />

Opinions<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Infer, Synthesise<br />

56<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Name<br />

Date<br />

Visualising<br />

Worksheet<br />

BLM 34<br />

Imagine a scene from this text. Sketch it below.<br />

Add labels, captions or speech balloons to add meaning.<br />

Explain why it is important to imagine, or visualise, during reading.<br />

In your opinion, what makes some texts easier to visualise than others?<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Infer, Visualise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 35<br />

Name<br />

Key Concepts<br />

Date<br />

The key concepts are the general ideas or themes.<br />

Find two key concepts in the text and record your thinking below.<br />

Key Concept 1<br />

Put this concept in your own words.<br />

Make a personal connection to this concept.<br />

Key Concept 2<br />

Put this concept in your own words.<br />

Make a personal connection to this concept.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Connect, Determine main idea<br />

58<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Name<br />

Date<br />

Worksheet<br />

BLM 36<br />

Thinking About Thinking<br />

Great readers think before reading. They think during reading. They think after reading.<br />

Before reading<br />

I predict<br />

I wonder<br />

I expect to learn<br />

During reading<br />

I noticed<br />

I didn’t know<br />

I can relate to<br />

After reading<br />

I’m interested in<br />

I learned<br />

I feel<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Predict, Infer, Synthesise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 37<br />

Name<br />

Date<br />

Talking Points<br />

Talking is an important way to build understandings.<br />

During reading, find three parts of this text that you<br />

would like to talk about.<br />

I’d like to talk about<br />

My reason for wanting<br />

to talk about this<br />

How did talking help me<br />

to understand this better?<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Question, Synthesise, Self-monitor<br />

60<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Name<br />

Date<br />

Worksheet<br />

BLM 38<br />

Predict and Confirm<br />

Before reading<br />

Use the title and any other general clues to predict what the text may be about.<br />

My prediction<br />

Reasons for my prediction<br />

After reading<br />

It’s time to confirm or reject your prediction and think about how your experiences help you to<br />

better understand this text.<br />

Confirm or reject? What was the text about?<br />

Prior knowledge and experiences that help me to understand this text<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Predict, Self-monitor<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 39<br />

Name<br />

Date<br />

Supporting My Thinking<br />

What kind of person is the main character? Describe two qualities,<br />

for example fun, adventurous or evil.<br />

Find evidence from the text to support your thinking.<br />

Quality 1<br />

Evidence in text that supports my thinking<br />

Quality 2<br />

Evidence in text that supports my thinking<br />

How is this character like or unlike you?<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Infer, Self-monitor<br />

62<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Name<br />

Retrieval Chart<br />

Date<br />

Worksheet<br />

BLM 40<br />

A retrieval chart is one way to organise your thinking.<br />

Complete a retrieval chart to show the cause and effects of<br />

two things from your reading, and then add possible solutions.<br />

Cause Effect (problem) Solution<br />

Rate how you feel about what you’ve learned. Use this scale and mark it with a tick.<br />

Very unhappy<br />

Very happy<br />

Give reasons for your rating.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Infer, Determine main idea, Synthesise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 41<br />

Name<br />

Date<br />

Note Taking<br />

Find the important ideas and supporting facts from your reading.<br />

Important Idea/Picture<br />

Supporting Facts<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Determine main idea<br />

64<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Name<br />

Date<br />

Worksheet<br />

BLM 42<br />

Plus<br />

Minus<br />

PMI<br />

Intriguing<br />

How do you feel about this text? Complete the PMI and give reasons to explain your thinking.<br />

Plus<br />

Reason<br />

Minus<br />

Reason<br />

Intriguing<br />

Reason<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Synthesise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 43<br />

Name<br />

Date<br />

Making Connections<br />

Great readers make connections to and from the text to themselves, other texts and their world.<br />

Make three connections and discuss them with your friends.<br />

Text:<br />

Connection to something that has happened to me<br />

Connection to other texts I’ve read or viewed<br />

Connection to things that have happened or are happening in my world<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Connect<br />

66<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

KWhat I already know<br />

LWhat I have learned<br />

EWhat else did I learn?<br />

Name<br />

Date<br />

Advanced KWL<br />

Worksheet<br />

BLM 44<br />

Before reading, record what you know and what you’d like to know about<br />

this topic. After reading, record what you have learned, where you could<br />

search for more information, and what else you learned.<br />

WWhat I would like to<br />

know<br />

SWhere I can search<br />

for more<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Question, Synthesise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 45<br />

Name<br />

Cause and Effect<br />

Date<br />

One thing can cause another thing to happen.<br />

Think about cause and effect as you read.<br />

Record the causes and effects of things you read in the text.<br />

Cause<br />

Effect<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Infer, Determine main idea, Synthesise<br />

68<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Name<br />

Date<br />

Clarifying<br />

Worksheet<br />

BLM 46<br />

As you read a book, record the words you don’t understand. Record what you think the words<br />

mean. (Hint: Read the text again.) Then find out and record what they actually mean.<br />

Tricky word I think it means . . . It actually means . . .<br />

?<br />

?<br />

?<br />

?<br />

Ways to decode tricky words<br />

?<br />

?<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Question, Self-monitor<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 47<br />

Name<br />

Fact Finder<br />

Date<br />

Read a nonfiction book. What did you know before you read it?<br />

What did you learn? How has your thinking changed?<br />

Title:<br />

I already knew<br />

I learned<br />

Reflection<br />

Choose two things that you knew before and explain how your thinking about them has<br />

changed as a result of your reading.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Synthesise<br />

70<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

Name<br />

Date<br />

Worksheet<br />

BLM 48<br />

Read a book<br />

and record your<br />

responses.<br />

Title<br />

Reflection<br />

I learned<br />

Something that appealed to me was<br />

Reason<br />

This book reminds me of<br />

Reason<br />

I would recommend this book to<br />

because<br />

I wouldn’t recommend this book to<br />

because<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Connect, Synthesise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


Worksheet<br />

BLM 49 xx<br />

Name<br />

Date<br />

<strong>All</strong> in your mind<br />

Read a book. What could you imagine? Choose three parts of the book to show this.<br />

Describe what you see/hear/feel/smell/taste.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Visualise<br />

72<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 1<br />

Fact Finder<br />

Find a text which appeals to you.<br />

Facts I learned from<br />

this text.<br />

Questions I could answer<br />

by thinking about what I<br />

have read.<br />

Facts I learned from<br />

researching further.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Infer, Question, Synthesise<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 2<br />

Know <strong>You</strong>r Audience<br />

Find a text which describes something interesting.<br />

How could you present this message to an audience of<br />

your age?<br />

Find the most important information<br />

and present it in a way that grabs<br />

your audience’s attention.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Determine main idea<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 3<br />

Web Designer<br />

Design a web page about<br />

something you know a lot<br />

about. Look at some other<br />

web pages to get some<br />

clues about the features<br />

you should include.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Visualise, Synthesise<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 4<br />

Read Beyond the Lines!<br />

There is a lot to look at on a website. Sometimes<br />

you need to look carefully to determine the author’s<br />

purpose.<br />

Find five websites that are designed to sell a product<br />

or service.<br />

Find five websites that are designed to inform the<br />

reader, but not sell them anything.<br />

How many of these websites ask you for your contact<br />

details?<br />

Tell your classmates about your findings.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Infer, Synthesise<br />

74 <strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 5<br />

Making Connections<br />

Find a text which appeals to you.<br />

Prepare a PowerPoint or other presentation to<br />

show how the text reminds you of:<br />

@ other texts you know<br />

@ things happening in your school,<br />

neighbourhood, city or world.<br />

Add photographs or images<br />

to enhance your presentation.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Connect<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 6<br />

My Life in Pictures<br />

Collect a series of texts which remind<br />

you of your own experiences. <strong>You</strong> can<br />

add photographs and captions to your<br />

collection of texts to show important<br />

events in your life.<br />

When you present your collection,<br />

explain the way each text connects to<br />

your life.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Connect<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 7<br />

Get Creative!<br />

Create something to illustrate an<br />

interesting point from a text you<br />

have read.<br />

Be ready to explain<br />

your creation to others.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Visualise<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 8<br />

Newsflash!<br />

Write a newspaper article about an<br />

event. Search for a suitable image<br />

to add.<br />

Publish the article on your class blog<br />

or print it out the way it would look<br />

in a newspaper.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Determine main idea, Synthesise<br />

76 <strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 9<br />

Dissect it!<br />

Take a story apart to help you to<br />

understand it. Use these headings.<br />

Construct your own story idea using these<br />

headings. Write a summary to share with<br />

your class.<br />

Title<br />

Plot (What is it about?)<br />

Setting (Where does it happen?)<br />

Characters<br />

Qualities of characters<br />

Problem<br />

Solution<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Determine main idea<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 10<br />

Imagine you are making a movie of a<br />

story you have read. Make a storyboard<br />

to show what happens in the story.<br />

When you have finished, present your<br />

storyboard to the class. Explain how you<br />

will shoot the scenes for each part of<br />

your storyboard.<br />

Movie Maker<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Visualise, Determine main idea, Synthesise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 11<br />

Make a Note!<br />

As you read, use sticky notes to record any questions<br />

or comments you have about a topic.<br />

Re-read the text.<br />

After reading, check your questions<br />

and disregard any that you have<br />

clarified by re-reading.<br />

Search for more information about the<br />

topic to clarify any remaining questions.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Question, Self-monitor<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 12<br />

Protectors against Prejudice<br />

Choose a friend to work with you.<br />

<strong>To</strong>gether, your job is to protect<br />

against prejudice. Review some texts<br />

you have studied and determine<br />

whether the author is trying to:<br />

@ shape the way you think<br />

@ prompt you to take some kind<br />

of action.<br />

Present your findings to the group.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Infer, Question, Synthesise<br />

78 <strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 13<br />

Research an historical text.<br />

Investigate the origins of this text<br />

and share your opinions about<br />

whether you agree or disagree<br />

with what you have read.<br />

Find an artist’s portrayal to match<br />

this text or make your own to<br />

share with the group.<br />

Agree or Disagree?<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Question, Self-monitor<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 14<br />

What do you think?<br />

Great readers reflect or think about the text<br />

after reading.<br />

Choose two prompts below and share your<br />

reflections.<br />

I realised . . .<br />

I wonder why . . .<br />

I don’t really understand . . .<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Question, Synthesise<br />

<strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3<br />


<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 15<br />

Check <strong>You</strong>r Sources<br />

Research a topic which interests you.<br />

Check your sources to make sure your<br />

information is accurate.<br />

Prepare a brief report.<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Question, Self-monitor<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Task Card 16<br />

Opinions Matter!<br />

Choose a text which the class has studied.<br />

Interview others to gather their opinions of<br />

the text. Find out what they liked, disliked<br />

and found interesting.<br />

Present a quick summary.<br />

Post your opinions on a message board.<br />

Our general feeling about . . . was . . .<br />

We liked . . . because . . .<br />

We disliked . . . because . . .<br />

These are the parts we found<br />

interesting . . .<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Focus: Synthesise<br />

80 <strong>All</strong> <strong>You</strong> <strong>Need</strong> to <strong>Teach</strong> <strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages <strong>10+</strong> © Angela Ehmer/Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 978 1 4202 7254 3

<strong>All</strong> the tools a smart<br />

teacher needs!<br />

<strong>All</strong> you need to teach . . . <strong>Comprehension</strong> provides all the resources and support<br />

you need in the classroom to explicitly teach comprehension strategies.<br />

<strong>Teach</strong>ing Tips — all the background information you need<br />

Assessment Rubrics — one list of levelled criteria for each<br />

comprehension strategy<br />

Mini Posters — one for each comprehension strategy for classroom display<br />

Book Club Role Cards — designed specifically for students at this level<br />

Lesson Banks and Text Models — focusing on specific<br />

comprehension strategies<br />

Worksheets and Task Cards — to accompany the lesson banks, or to<br />

use flexibly in your own lessons<br />


<strong>Comprehension</strong> strategies taught:<br />

• Predict<br />

• Connect<br />

• Infer<br />

• Question<br />

• Visualise<br />

• Determine Main Idea<br />

• Synthesise<br />

• Self-monitor<br />

Also available:<br />

<strong>All</strong> you need to teach . . .<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages 5–8<br />

<strong>Comprehension</strong> Ages 8–10<br />

Other titles in this series:<br />

<strong>All</strong> you need to teach . . .<br />

• Drama<br />

• Critical Thinking, Humour<br />

and Text<br />

• Nonfiction Text Types<br />

• Information Literacy<br />

• Calculators<br />

• Problem Solving<br />


Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!