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For My Love<br />

Thanks to all who contributed to CE<br />

Magazine. Have an article you would like<br />

contribute? You can mail it to:<br />

CE, P.O. Box 8619<br />

Michigan City In 46360<br />

Or E-Mail it to<br />

computerease@juno.com<br />

CE Magazine® is part of OtherSide<br />

Ministries © all rights reserved<br />

Founder & Chief Editor<br />

Peter Nadal<br />

Editor<br />

Pamela Kennoy<br />

Our Writers<br />

Rodrigo Esperanza / Nomar Shaw<br />

Diane G / Big Poppa<br />

Outside Sour<strong>ce</strong>s On This Month <strong>issue</strong><br />

Vol 5 February 2022 <strong>issue</strong> 2<br />

5 Hey Pete!<br />


12 Biz Cards board!! Hey its free<br />

13 10 romantic ideas for<br />

Valentine’s Day at home<br />

14 10 tips to enhan<strong>ce</strong> your<br />

relationship on Valentine’s Day<br />

without spending a dime<br />

17 Microsoft to repla<strong>ce</strong> legacy Edge<br />

in April with Chromium-based<br />

version<br />

20 How to Change the Google Assistant’s<br />

Voi<strong>ce</strong><br />

26 The Legend of St. Valentine<br />


Thanks to all who contributed to CE<br />

Magazine. Have an article you would like<br />

contribute? You can mail it to:<br />

CE, P.O. Box 8619<br />

Michigan City In 46360<br />

Or E-Mail it to<br />

computerease@juno.com<br />

CE Magazine® is part of OtherSide<br />

Ministries © all rights reserved<br />

Founder & Chief Editor<br />

Peter Nadal<br />

Editor<br />

Pamela Kennoy<br />

Our Writers<br />

Rodrigo Esperanza / Nomar Shaw<br />

Diane G / Big Poppa<br />

Vol 6 February <strong>2023</strong> <strong>issue</strong> 2<br />

5 Hey Pete!<br />


12 Biz Cards board!! Hey its free<br />

13 10 romantic ideas for<br />

Valentine’s Day at home<br />



20 How to Change the Google Assistant’s<br />

Voi<strong>ce</strong><br />

26 The Legend of St. Valentine<br />

Outside Sour<strong>ce</strong>s On This Month <strong>issue</strong><br />

CE Magazine® is part of OtherSide Ministries © all rights reserved<br />

Michigan City Indiana<br />

Vol 5 February <strong>2023</strong> <strong>issue</strong> 2<br />

Front Cover: Valentine design by<br />

Peter Nadal<br />

Original Computer-Ease logo ©<br />



Welcome to Pete’s Desk and if this is your 1 st time reading CE Magazine we welcome<br />

you aboard. We here at CE Magazine comb the internet for those great articles that<br />

remain in obscurity. We find them and bring them back to the light on<strong>ce</strong> more for you,<br />

our readers; hen<strong>ce</strong> we do your searching for you.<br />

This last Tuesday the 14 th was Valentine’s Day and CE Magazine has dedicated<br />

February <strong>issue</strong> (most of it) to such a romantic day. From Rodrigo Esperanza, our<br />

romantic staff writer, to other writers who give some very romantic evening advise.<br />

On page 11 is CE MAGAZINE LINKS TABLET By Nomar Shaw and it has a<br />

treasure trove of links on valentines, take a look, I did!<br />

We are taking ads and if you are interested drop us an email at:<br />

computerease@juno.com or mail us at CE, P.O. Box 8619, Michigan City In 46360<br />

and will will send you a flyer of pri<strong>ce</strong>s and sizes available.<br />

Thank you for reading CE Magazine® and do follow us on Computer-Ease on<br />

Fa<strong>ce</strong>book<br />

Pete<br />


A<br />

Valentine painting from lil Picasso!<br />

You are here: Home / early learning / Valentine’s Day Handprint Art for Early Learners<br />

craft, early learning, holiday, Valentine's Day<br />

Valentine’s Day Handprint Art for Early Learners<br />

February 4, 2019<br />

Here’s a super simple, but super fun, early learning activity for your toddlers and<br />

preschoolers. I’ve been making these with my son sin<strong>ce</strong> birth and it’s been a fun<br />

progression watching him take on more of the project himself each time.<br />

First, you’ll need a finger painted background to use for the cut out hearts. For easy<br />

cleanup, I use washable acrylic paint sealed in a Ziploc bag. Carter likes to help me<br />

dot the paint on the card stock and then I seal it in a bag.<br />

After that, I let him get<br />

busy squishing the paint<br />

around.<br />


Sometimes things get<br />

pretty creative.<br />


As soon as he’s finished, I open the Ziploc bag and tear it down both sides to gently<br />

separate the card stock from the bag. You’ll want to do this before the paint is dry<br />

so that the card stock doesn’t stick to the bag and tear.<br />


This part alone is pretty enough to hang on the refrigerator, but we cut them into<br />

hearts to complete our Valentine’s Day art.<br />

Then we made<br />

handprint stamps using<br />

washable ink pads. You<br />

can also do this part<br />

with paint, but I prefer<br />

the look of stamps<br />

because they keep more<br />

of the fine details. Ink<br />

is also less messy.<br />


Finally, attach the cutout hearts with a glue dots so it looks like the hands are<br />

holding the heart. These make such a great keepsake and gift for parents,<br />

grandparents, or other caregivers!<br />

If you need to grab a printable that’s ready to go, I’ve uploaded this one to my shop.<br />

Print it as many times as you need.<br />


Looking for other handprint and footprint craft ideas? Visit our family blog for<br />

many more.<br />

by Christi Fultz<br />

About Christi Fultz<br />

wife • mom • teacher • writer • tech obsessed • sometime crafter<br />

• beach lover | Empowering entrepreneurs through branding &<br />

website design<br />

View all posts by Christi Fultz<br />



By Nomar Shaw<br />

And finally … for the adults!<br />

https://nontoygifts.com/handprint-valentine-craftskids/<br />

https://www.craftymorning.com/valentines-dayhandprint-craft-card-ideas/<br />

https://www.hellowonderful.co/post/love-handprintart/<br />

https://fun-a-day.com/valentine-handprint-craft-hearttree/<br />

https://fun-a-day.com/valentine-handprint-craft-hearttree/<br />

https://www.pillarboxblue.com/valentine-craft-ideas-foradults/<br />


erworld | Feb 8, 2021 1:46 pm PST<br />

10 romantic ideas for Valentine’s Day at home<br />


February 12, 2018 — Written by Gina DeMillo Wagner<br />

Share this article<br />

This is part 1 of our 4 part #LoveWhereYouLive series. We’ve dedicated this<br />

Valentine’s season to a pla<strong>ce</strong> close to our hearts: the home.<br />

You know the saying: Home is where the heart is. So why go anywhere else for<br />

Valentine’s Day? While others scramble for dinner reservations and book expensive<br />

getaways, you can relax and enjoy a romantic night in the comfort of your own<br />

home.<br />

Here are 10 creative ways you can turn your home into a romantic sanctuary and<br />

<strong>ce</strong>lebrate your love:<br />

1. Cook a romantic dinner<br />

Most of us have a favorite dish from our favorite restaurant — the one we crave<br />

time and time again. Have you ever tried to recreate that dish at home? With a little<br />

internet research, you can often replicate fancy restaurant meals at home. If you’re<br />

not sure where to start, try one of these restaurant-quality recipes from Taste of<br />

Home.<br />


2. Create a Spa experien<strong>ce</strong> at home<br />

Not everyone has the time or money to spend a day at a fancy spa. But you can<br />

pamper yourself and your partner by creating your own spa at home. Light some<br />

aromatherapy candles, draw a bubble bath or take turns giving each other a back<br />

massage. For do-it-yourself recipes for bath bombs, hair conditioners, mud masks<br />

and more, check out this helpful article from Babble.<br />

3. Turn your living room into a ballroom<br />

When’s the last time you and your sweetheart went dancing? Move aside the living<br />

room furniture to create some spa<strong>ce</strong>, cue up some music and dan<strong>ce</strong> the night away.<br />

You can learn traditional ballroom dan<strong>ce</strong> moves like the Tango or Salsa with online<br />

courses such as LearntoDan<strong>ce</strong>.com. Or just freestyle it with your favorite music.<br />

4. Cuddle up and watch a movie<br />

There’s no better excuse than Valentine’s Day to snuggle under a blanket and watch<br />

a romantic movie. Lifehack made a list of the 23 most romantic flicks for<br />

Valentine’s Day — and some of their choi<strong>ce</strong>s may surprise you! Or, for something<br />

more personal, you could snuggle and watch home movies or look through old<br />

photo albums.<br />

5. Surprise your partner with a backyard picnic<br />

There’s something romantic about a picnic for two. If you live in a mild climate,<br />

create a backyard picnic and stargaze with your sweetheart.<br />

Lay out a quilt or blanket and feast on a variety of portable foods, such as these<br />

suggestions from Food Network. If the weather outside is frightful, you can host a<br />

picnic indoors by candlelight or by the firepla<strong>ce</strong>. Lay out a blanket and pillows to<br />

make it cozier.<br />


6. Channel your inner pastry chef<br />

Nothing is sweeter than preparing a fancy dessert with your partner. Elevate your<br />

baking skills with one of these heart-shaped dessert recipes from Taste of Home. Or<br />

create a simple, romantic dessert such as chocolate-dipped strawberries paired with<br />

champagne. Just dip fresh strawberries into melted chocolate (semisweet chocolate<br />

chips melted in the microwave work great) and pla<strong>ce</strong> them in the refrigerator to<br />

harden for an hour before serving.<br />

7. Play games<br />

Being playful and having fun isn’t just for children. Research shows that adults<br />

benefit from games too. They’re a sour<strong>ce</strong> of relaxation, and they build your<br />

problem-solving skills, which can help strengthen your relationship. On Valentine’s<br />

Day, dust off your favorite board games, grab a deck of cards or play a round of<br />

Truth or Dare with your partner. For more on the benefits of playing games, check<br />

out this article at Help Guide.<br />

8. Take a trip around the world — without leaving home<br />

Perhaps you’ve been dreaming about a romantic wine tour in Italy or a relaxing trip<br />

to a far-away beach. Bring those adventures right to your doorstep by organizing a<br />

themed date night at home. If Italy is your dream, you could use these tips from<br />

Tuscany Tonight to host an Italian wine tasting party. Likewise, if you’re longing<br />

for summer weather and sandy beaches, you can bring some vacation rituals into<br />

your home using ideas from Houzz.<br />

9. Create a scavenger hunt around the house<br />

Write a series of clues to guide your partner on a fun scavenger hunt around the<br />

house, leading to a surprise at the end such as a romantic meal or gift. Each clue,<br />

whether it’s a riddle or photo, should lead to the next. Pinterest offers several ideas<br />

for adult scavenger hunts and creative clues.<br />

10. Create art together<br />

Tap into your creative side and make some artwork together as a couple. You could<br />

create a collage of photographs of each other, write a poem together or gather some<br />

paints and a canvas and paint a romantic image like these from Pinterest. No matter<br />

what you create, display it as a reminder of your love for one another.<br />

Of course, these ideas also work for date nights at home, not just on Valentine’s<br />

Day. So keep them handy year-round to <strong>ce</strong>lebrate the person you love the most in<br />

the pla<strong>ce</strong> you love the most.<br />


What romantic plans do you have to <strong>ce</strong>lebrate this day with your Valentine? Follow<br />

us on Fa<strong>ce</strong>book, Twitter or Instagram!<br />

Related articles:<br />

o<br />

o<br />

o<br />

This Valentine’s Day, #LoveWhereYouLive<br />

5 tips to show your home some love<br />

10 ways to keep your emotions in check when it’s time to sell your home<br />

Celebrations Events & Parties Holidays & Occasions Valentine's Day<br />


Fun Valentine’s Day Things for Couples to Do at Home<br />

By Jenn Kropf February 8, <strong>2023</strong><br />

With three young kiddos, my husband and have to do date night at home more often<br />

than not. So, I’ve been wondering…<br />

How can I <strong>ce</strong>lebrate Valentine’s Day at home with my husband?<br />

Are you in need of at home Valentine’s Day ideas too?<br />

Here are easy ways to have fun together without leaving your comfy abode.<br />


1. Start With Breakfast in Bed<br />

First, begin the special day with a simple breakfast together in bed! (This isn’t a lot<br />

of work unless you want it to be.)<br />

Buy muffins, indulgent coffee, and/or mimosa ingredients ahead of time, and get up<br />

a few minutes early to enjoy them together while the kids are still sleeping or<br />

otherwise occupied.<br />

2. Do a Chocolate Tasting<br />

What’s your favorite chocolate? Do you know?<br />

For a special Valentine’s Day treat, buy three different kinds of fancy chocolate and<br />

do some taste testing together. Perhaps there’s a variety or brand you find that’s<br />

better than the others.<br />

To go in-depth check out this chocolate tasting for couples at Datingdivas.com.<br />

3. Liven Up Your Conversation<br />

Time to get the conversation going! Get creative with specific questions for<br />

couples or play this Valentine’s Day Trivia Questions Game. They are simple<br />

ways to talk about things outside of your normal routine!<br />

These would you rather questions are for couples also work great >><br />


5. Have a Romantic Picnic<br />

Picnics are the BEST cheap yet romantic date. Take your picnic delicacies on a<br />

blanket outside or on the floor in your living room next to the fire.<br />

Here are fun picnic food ideas:<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

fancy olives<br />

gourmet cheeses<br />

salami or prosciutto<br />

a pie<strong>ce</strong> of bakery cheesecake, cake, or cupcake<br />

fresh fruit<br />

sli<strong>ce</strong>d peppers or cucumbers that dip in guacamole<br />

quality crackers or a fresh loaf of bread with butter<br />

bottle of wine<br />

chocolates<br />

4. Get or Make a Pizza<br />

Short on time or energy? There’s no shame in picking up a pizza! Most pla<strong>ce</strong>s even<br />

have one in the shape of a heart for the holiday.<br />


6. Swap Massages<br />

Next, enjoy a little relaxing love on this fine day. Swap shoulder rubs, then enjoy a<br />

bubble bath (together or apart), candles, and chocolates by the tub. A foot massager<br />

works well too.<br />

*Having a warm set of towels ready to go when you’re done is a ni<strong>ce</strong> added<br />

touch.<br />

7. Eat Mood Inducing Foods<br />

Want to really spi<strong>ce</strong> things up?!<br />

Serve up a dinner of foods that get the motor running…<br />

Here are some aphrodisiac foods backed by scien<strong>ce</strong>, according to healthline.com:<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

pistachio nuts<br />

fenugreek<br />

red ginseng<br />

saffron<br />

It turns out that the foods we associate with getting in the mood (chocolate and<br />

oysters) don’t have a ton of scientific eviden<strong>ce</strong> to back them up. Yet, serving them<br />

may give you a ni<strong>ce</strong> pla<strong>ce</strong>bo effect anyway!<br />

8. Dan<strong>ce</strong> in the Kitchen<br />


Next, turn up your favorite music and take your partner’s hand. Enjoy a slow dan<strong>ce</strong><br />

together or take it up a notch and get your boogie on. Either way, you’ll be enjoying<br />

yourself!<br />

9. Go Somewhere (Kind of)<br />

For this unique way to make Valentine’s Day special, there are two options.<br />

<br />

Create a theme in your home from a pla<strong>ce</strong> you’ve been or would like to go.<br />

For example, Houzz.com shows us how to bring the beach to our home.<br />

Then, enjoy the food and culture associated with that pla<strong>ce</strong>.<br />

OR<br />

<br />

Plan out a future vacation together. Maybe it’s a getaway you want to do with<br />

just the two of you. Or perhaps it’s a family vacation that will create lasting<br />

memories. Whatever it is, spend the evening hatching out your plan.<br />

10. Sneak Out<br />

Perhaps you need to branch out and do something spontaneous.<br />

On<strong>ce</strong> the kids go to bed, bundle up and sneak outside to drink champagne in the<br />

snow. After you get a little chilly, warm up together by the fire.<br />

*If you’re feeling in a rut, check out these small ideas to get out of your comfort<br />

zone and do one with your partner!<br />


11. Cook a Romantic Dinner<br />

A fancy dinner by candlelight is always a fun treat! So, break out the good food and<br />

wine!<br />

If you have kids and you’d love for this to be special for you and your partner, put<br />

them to bed early, or give a little extra tv time. Then, enjoy the food and great<br />

company.<br />

12. Take a Personality Test<br />

Confession: we were a wee bit obsessed with the Enneagram personality chart for a<br />

while.<br />

But really, how cool is it to have a tool that helps you learn about yourself and your<br />

significant other?! The truth is, it’s very difficult to see ourselves clearly. So, spend<br />

time learning about the two of you.<br />

Take an Enneagram test HERE.<br />

13. Make Dessert Together<br />

Perhaps a fancy dinner is too much work! Instead, stick with dessert. Bake beautiful<br />

sugar cookies or a sweet heart-shaped cake to enjoy together at the end of the night.<br />

14. Create a Dinner Bar<br />

Another easy dinner option is to turn your dinner into a ―bar.‖ Make a nacho bar or<br />

baked potato bar and have fun putting creative toppings on your dinner.<br />


15. Have a Living Room Campout<br />

While this is one of our favorite family ideas in the winter, it also makes a great<br />

date! When the kids go to bed, make s’mores in the oven and enjoy them with wine<br />

and a film together. Or get creative with your own blanket fort.<br />

Here’s a great list of romantic movies and cute challenges for couples to help you<br />

connect!<br />

16. Try Game Night<br />

Dust off those games! Then, mix up a Valentine’s cocktail, break out the snacks,<br />

and channel your inner playfulness for a night of board games, cards, or video<br />

games.<br />

*Double bonus: challenge your partner to a game of strip poker or sexy Truth or<br />

Dare.<br />

17. Get Out Old Stuff<br />

One holiday, my husband and I pulled out old cards and gifts we’d given each other<br />

when dating. Not only was this free, but it was a bit emotional and kept us engaged<br />

for hours.<br />


18. Write Your Bucket List<br />

Next, have you ever thought of what you want to do with your one precious life?<br />

Of course, all of those dreams affect your partner! So, get out a pen (or your<br />

computer) and dream together!<br />

Check out these vision boards for couples, these fun bucket list ideas for<br />

couples, or this five year plan idea if you need a guide.<br />

An Added Touch to Make Valentine’s Day Special<br />

The ideas above make for great stay-at-home dates. Now, let’s find a few extra<br />

ideas to make Valentine’s Day special for both of you.<br />


19. Leave Love Notes or Gifts<br />

Kids aren’t the only ones that enjoy notes of love and appreciation (get free love notes for them HERE).<br />

Adults like it too!<br />

So, pull out a few post-its and write something specific that you appreciate about your partner. The gesture<br />

won’t go unnoti<strong>ce</strong>d.<br />

Then, go to this link: A Fun list of creative little love gifts for more ideas!<br />

20. Hold Hands<br />

Easy, right? But as the busyness of life gets in the way, often we forget to do this. Bring it back on this day and<br />

be intentional about grabbing your partner’s hand at least on<strong>ce</strong>.<br />

21. Toast to Your Relationship<br />

The two of you are still going strong, and that’s something to <strong>ce</strong>lebrate! So, get out that champagne and toast<br />

your hard work and commitment.<br />

22. Get a Fun Bedroom Game<br />

Most parents of kids are tired. But we all need to shake up the routine on<strong>ce</strong> in a while. So, make it easy by<br />

purchasing a small bedroom game that helps you spi<strong>ce</strong> things up.<br />


23. Hide Hershey’s Kisses<br />

Here’s a cheap, yet super EASY at-home Valentine’s Day idea! Give your partner a<br />

jar of Hershey’s kisses or hide them around their stuff. Everyone appreciates a little<br />

chocolate!<br />

24. Write 10 Things<br />

Finally, write ten things you love about your partner. Use this free reasons why I<br />

love you printable or make it into a card or booklet and suddenly you have a free<br />

but meaningful way to say I love you.<br />

Find more ideas with 131 Ways to Say I Love You (without saying the words)<br />

To Consider With At-Home Valentine’s Day Ideas<br />

These at-home Valentine’s Day ideas can be used for any holiday, anniversary, or<br />

even just a regular date night at home!<br />

What are your favorite Valentine’s Day ideas at home?<br />

More posts for couples and family…<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Creative Date Night Gift Ideas – these easy gift baskets make memories!<br />

20 Festive Holiday Traditions For Couples – do you have traditions just for you and<br />

your partner?<br />

12 Months of Fun Holiday Date Ideas – Unique dates for special events!<br />

The Best Valentine’s Day Ideas for your family – try one today!<br />


Other awesome Healthy Happy Impactful posts…<br />

60+ Useful, Meaningful, and Creative Non-Toy Gifts For Kids<br />

Stay at Home Ideas For Valentine’s Day That Will Rock Your World<br />

Disclaimer<br />

Healthy Happy Impactful is a participant in the Amazon Servi<strong>ce</strong>s LLC Associates Program, an affiliate<br />

advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to<br />

www.amazon.com.<br />

All content on Healthy Happy Impactful is for educational and informational purposes only. It is not intended to<br />

be a substitute for professional advi<strong>ce</strong>, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advi<strong>ce</strong> of your specific<br />

qualified providers.<br />

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© <strong>2023</strong> Healthy Happy Impactful<br />

Note: Click on MORE<br />


From The staff of CE Magazine<br />


The Legend of St. Valentine<br />

Saint Valentine, who according to some sour<strong>ce</strong>s is actually two distinct historical characters<br />

who were said to have healed a child while imprisoned and executed by decapitation.<br />

Fototeca Gilardi/Getty Images<br />

The history of Valentine’s Day—and the story of its patron saint—is<br />

shrouded in mystery. We do know that February has long been <strong>ce</strong>lebrated<br />

as a month of roman<strong>ce</strong>, and that St. Valentine’s Day, as we know it today,<br />

contains vestiges of both Christian and ancient Roman tradition. But who<br />

was Saint Valentine, and how did he become associated with this ancient<br />

rite?<br />

READ MORE: Who Was the Real St. Valentine?<br />

The Catholic Church recognizes at least three different saints named<br />

Valentine or Valentinus, all of whom were martyred. One legend contends<br />

that Valentine was a priest who served during the third <strong>ce</strong>ntury in Rome.<br />

When Emperor Claudius II decided that single men made better soldiers<br />

than those with wives and families, he outlawed marriage for young men.<br />


Valentine, realizing the injusti<strong>ce</strong> of the decree, defied Claudius and<br />

continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret. When<br />

Valentine’s actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to<br />

death. Still others insist that it was Saint Valentine of Terni, a bishop, who<br />

was the true namesake of the holiday. He, too, was beheaded by Claudius<br />

II outside Rome.<br />

Other stories suggest that Valentine may have been killed for attempting<br />

to help Christians escape harsh Roman prisons, where they were often<br />

beaten and tortured. According to one legend, an imprisoned Valentine<br />

actually sent the first ―valentine‖ greeting himself after he fell in love with<br />

a young girl—possibly his jailor’s daughter—who visited him during his<br />

confinement. Before his death, it is alleged that he wrote her a letter<br />

signed ―From your Valentine,‖ an expression that is still in use today.<br />

Although the truth behind the Valentine legends is murky, the stories all<br />

emphasize his appeal as a sympathetic, heroic and—most importantly—<br />

romantic figure. By the Middle Ages, perhaps thanks to this reputation,<br />

Valentine would become one of the most popular saints in England and<br />

Fran<strong>ce</strong>.<br />

Origins of Valentine’s Day: A Pagan Festival in February<br />

February to commemorate the anniversary of Valentine’s death or<br />

burial—which probably occurred around A.D. 270—others claim that the<br />

Christian church may have decided to pla<strong>ce</strong> St. Valentine’s feast day in<br />

the middle of February in an effort to ―Christianize‖ the pagan <strong>ce</strong>lebration<br />

of Lupercalia. Celebrated at the ides of February, or February 15,<br />

Lupercalia was a fertility festival dedicated to Faunus, the Roman god of<br />

agriculture, as well as to the Roman founders Romulus and Remus.<br />

READ MORE: 6 Surprising Facts About St. Valentine<br />

To begin the festival, members of the Luperci, an order of Roman priests,<br />

would gather at a sacred cave where the infants Romulus and Remus, the<br />

founders of Rome, were believed to have been cared for by a she-wolf or<br />

lupa. The priests would sacrifi<strong>ce</strong> a goat, for fertility, and a dog, for<br />

purification. They would then strip the goat’s hide into strips, dip them<br />

into the sacrificial blood and take to the streets, gently slapping both<br />


women and crop fields with the goat hide. Far from being fearful, Roman<br />

women welcomed the touch of the hides because it was believed to make<br />

them more fertile in the coming year. Later in the day, according to<br />

legend, all the young women in the city would pla<strong>ce</strong> their names in a big<br />

urn. The city’s bachelors would each choose a name and become paired<br />

for the year with his chosen woman. These matches often ended in<br />

marriage.<br />

Valentine’s Day: A Day of Roman<strong>ce</strong><br />

A<br />

Victorian valentine depicting cupids. K.J. Historical/Corbis/Getty Images<br />

Lupercalia survived the initial rise of Christianity but was outlawed—as it<br />

was deemed ―un-Christian‖—at the end of the 5th <strong>ce</strong>ntury, when Pope<br />

Gelasius declared February 14 St. Valentine’s Day. It was not until much<br />

later, however, that the day became definitively associated with love.<br />

During the Middle Ages, it was commonly believed in Fran<strong>ce</strong> and<br />

England that February 14 was the beginning of birds’ mating season,<br />

which added to the idea that the middle of Valentine’s Day should be a<br />

day for roman<strong>ce</strong>. The English poet Geoffrey Chau<strong>ce</strong>r was the first to<br />

record St. Valentine’s Day as a day of romantic <strong>ce</strong>lebration in his 1375<br />

poem ―Parliament of Foules,‖ writing, ――For this was sent on Seynt<br />

Valentyne’s day / Whan every foul cometh ther to choose his mate.‖<br />


Valentine greetings were popular as far back as the Middle Ages, though<br />

written Valentine’s didn’t begin to appear until after 1400. The oldest<br />

known valentine still in existen<strong>ce</strong> today was a poem written in 1415 by<br />

Charles, Duke of Orleans, to his wife while he was imprisoned in the<br />

Tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt. (The<br />

greeting is now part of the manuscript collection of the British Library in<br />

London, England.) Several years later, it is believed that King Henry V<br />

hired a writer named John Lydgate to compose a valentine note to<br />

Catherine of Valois.<br />

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